WorldWideScience

Sample records for converging migration routes

  1. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition.

  2. BGP Converges to stable solution in Interdomain routing

    CERN Document Server

    Nazer., G Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) handles the task of establishing routes between the Autonomous Systems (ASes) that make up the Internet. It is known that it is possible for a group of ASes to define local BGP policies that lead to global BGP protocol oscillations. We close a long standing open question by showing that, for any network, if two stable routing outcomes exist then persistent BGP route oscillations are possible. This is the first non-trivial necessary condition for BGP safety. It shows that BGP safety must always come at the price of severe restrictions on ASes' expressiveness in their choice of routing policies. The technical tools used in our proof may be helpful in the detection of potential route oscillations and their debugging. We also address the question of how long it takes BGP to converge to a stable routing outcome. We analyze a formal measure of the convergence time of BGP for the policy class defined by Gao and Rexford, which is said to accurately depict the business structure under...

  3. Book received: Crossing cultures: conflict, migration and convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edited by Professor Jaynie Anderson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossing cultures: conflict, migration and convergence [The Proceedings of the 32nd International Congress of the History of Art. Edited by Professor Jaynie Anderson.] Contains information, table of contents and introductory essay by Jaynie Anderson 'Playing between the Lines: The Melbourne Experience of Crossing Cultures'.

  4. A general route diversity model for convergent terrestrial microwave links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Kevin S.; Usman, Isa S.; Watson, Robert J.

    2006-06-01

    This research examines route diversity as a fade mitigation technique in the presence of rain for convergent, terrestrial, microwave links. A general model is derived which predicts the joint distribution of rain attenuation on arbitrary pairs of convergent microwave links, directly from the link parameters. It is assumed that pairs of links have joint rain attenuation distributions that are bilognormally distributed. Four of the five distribution parameters can be estimated from International Telecommunication Union recommendation models. A maximum likelihood estimation method was used in a previous paper to estimate the fifth parameter, that is, the covariance or correlation. In this paper an empirical model is reported, linking the correlation of log rain fade with the geometry and radio parameters of the pair of links. From these distributions, the advantage due to route diversity may be calculated for arbitrary fade margins. Furthermore, the predicted diversity statistics vary smoothly and yield plausible extrapolations into low-probability scenarios. Diversity improvement is calculated for a set of example link scenarios.

  5. Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  6. Dynamic Equilibrium Assignment Convergence by En-route Flow Smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    An essential feature in many dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) models used for planning purposes is to compute the (dynamic) equilibrium assignment, where travellers follow user-optimal routes, leading to minimal experienced route travel times. To compute these time-varying route flows in the equilib

  7. Many routes leading to Rome: Potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, S; Ens, B.J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Migrants, such as birds or representatives of other taxa, usually make use of several stopover sites to cover the distance between their site of origin and destination. Potentially, multiple routes exist, but often little is known about the causes and consequences of alternative migration routes. Apart from their geographical distribution, the suitability of potential sites might play an important role in the animals' decisions for a particular itinerary. We used an optimal-migration model to...

  8. Walkable Route Perceptions and Physical Features: Converging Evidence for En Route Walking Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Amburgey, Jonathan W.; Szalay, Caitlin

    2007-01-01

    Guided walks near a light rail stop in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined using a 2 (gender) x 3 (route walkability: low-mixed-, or high-walkability features) design. Trained raters confirmed that more walkable segments had more traffic, environmental, and social safety; pleasing aesthetics; natural features; pedestrian amenities; and…

  9. Many routes leading to Rome: Potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, S.; Ens, B.J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Migrants, such as birds or representatives of other taxa, usually make use of several stopover sites to cover the distance between their site of origin and destination. Potentially, multiple routes exist, but often little is known about the causes and consequences of alternative migration routes. Ap

  10. Many routes lead to Rome: potential causes for the multi-route migration system of Red Knots, Calidris canutus Islandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Silke; Ens, Bruno J; Klaassen, Marcel

    2010-06-01

    Migrants, such as birds or representatives of other taxa, usually make use of several stopover sites to cover the distance between their site of origin and destination. Potentially, multiple routes exist, but often little is known about the causes and consequences of alternative migration routes. Apart from their geographical distribution, the suitability of potential sites might play an important role in the animals' decisions for a particular itinerary. We used an optimal-migration model to test three nonmutually exclusive hypotheses leading to variations in the spring migration routes of a subspecies of Red Knot, Calidris canutus islandica, which migrates from wintering grounds in Western Europe to breeding grounds in Greenland and the Canadian Arctic: the breeding location hypothesis, the energy budget hypothesis, and the predation risk hypothesis. Varying only breeding location, the model predicted that birds breeding in the Canadian Arctic and on West Greenland stop over on Iceland, whereas birds breeding in East and Northeast Greenland migrate via northern Norway, a prediction that is supported by empirical findings. Energy budgets on stopover sites had a strong influence on the choice of route and staging times. Varying foraging-intensity and mass-dependent predation risk prompted the birds to use less risky sites, if possible. The effect of simultaneous changes in the energy budget and predation risk strongly depended on the site where these occurred. Our findings provide potential explanations for the observations that C. canutus islandica uses a diverse array of migration routes. Scrutinizing the three alternative driving forces for the choice of migratory routes awaits further, specific data collection in rapidly developing fields of research (e.g., predation risk assessment, GPS tracking). Generally, the type of modeling presented here may not only highlight alternative explanations, but also direct follow-up empirical research.

  11. Height convergence and internal migration in mid-twentieth-century Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Donatella; Bussini, Odoardo

    2014-01-01

    Height convergence across Italian regions during the second half of the twentieth century is a widely recognized fact. However, it has been suggested that this process was partly affected by the massive migratory flow of people from southern to northern Italy in the 1950s and 1960s, which greatly slowed the height growth rate in the receiving regions, since immigrants were on average shorter than the receiving northern population. The main aims of this study were to estimate the speed of height convergence of Italian military conscripts in the second half of the twentieth century, and to estimate the contribution of internal migration from the south to the north of Italy to height convergence. We hypothesized that migrants from southern Italy reduced height levels among northerners relative to what they would have been without considering migration. We used cohort data on Italian conscripts born in 1951 and 1980. Results indicate that internal migration may explain from 24 to 32.7 percent of height convergence, meaning that ignoring migration flows yields an overestimation of the height changes for conscripts living in the south of Italy.

  12. [FY 2014 progress report]: Determining Critical Wintering Sites & Migration Routes for Juvenile Red Knots

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This FY2014 progress report documents project activity for determining critical wintering sites and migration routes for juvenile red knots. Project goals, expected...

  13. Population decline is linked to migration route in the Common Cuckoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Chris M; Thorup, Kasper; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Atkinson, Philip W

    2016-07-19

    Migratory species are in rapid decline globally. Although most mortality in long-distance migrant birds is thought to occur during migration, evidence of conditions on migration affecting breeding population sizes has been completely lacking. We addressed this by tracking 42 male Common Cuckoos from the rapidly declining UK population during 56 autumn migrations in 2011-14. Uniquely, the birds use two distinct routes to reach the same wintering grounds, allowing assessment of survival during migration independently of origin and destination. Mortality up to completion of the Sahara crossing (the major ecological barrier encountered in both routes) is higher for birds using the shorter route. The proportion of birds using this route strongly correlates with population decline across nine local breeding populations. Knowledge of variability in migratory behaviour and performance linked to robust population change data may therefore be necessary to understand population declines of migratory species and efficiently target conservation resources.

  14. Route optimisation and solving Zermelo’s navigation problem during long distance migration in cross flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hays, Graeme C.; Christensen, Asbjørn; Fossette, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    not follow the optimum (Zermelo's) route. Even though adult marine turtles regularly complete incredible long-distance migrations, these vertebrates primarily rely on course corrections when entering neritic waters during the final stages of migration. Our work introduces a new perspective in the analysis...

  15. S1pr2/Gα13 signaling regulates the migration of endocardial precursors by controlling endoderm convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huaping; Ye, Ding; Sepich, Diane; Lin, Fang

    2016-06-15

    Formation of the heart tube requires synchronized migration of endocardial and myocardial precursors. Our previous studies indicated that in S1pr2/Gα13-deficient embryos, impaired endoderm convergence disrupted the medial migration of myocardial precursors, resulting in the formation of two myocardial populations. Here we show that endoderm convergence also regulates endocardial migration. In embryos defective for S1pr2/Gα13 signaling, endocardial precursors failed to migrate towards the midline, and the presumptive endocardium surrounded the bilaterally-located myocardial cells rather than being encompassed by them. In vivo imaging of control embryos revealed that, like their myocardial counterparts, endocardial precursors migrated with the converging endoderm, though from a more anterior point, then moved from the dorsal to the ventral side of the endoderm (subduction), and finally migrated posteriorly towards myocardial precursors, ultimately forming the inner layer of the heart tube. In embryos defective for endoderm convergence due to an S1pr2/Gα13 deficiency, both the medial migration and the subduction of endocardial precursors were impaired, and their posterior migration towards the myocardial precursors was premature. This placed them medial to the myocardial populations, physically blocking the medial migration of the myocardial precursors. Furthermore, contact between the endocardial and myocardial precursor populations disrupted the epithelial architecture of the myocardial precursors, and thus their medial migration; in embryos depleted of endocardial cells, the myocardial migration defect was partially rescued. Our data indicate that endoderm convergence regulates the medial migration of endocardial precursors, and that premature association of the endocardial and myocardial populations contributes to myocardial migration defects observed in S1pr2/Gα13-deficient embryos. The demonstration that endoderm convergence regulates the synchronized

  16. Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gienapp, P.; Candolin, Ulrika; Wong, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines how human-induced environmental changes affect migration. It explores how such changes affect conditions along the migration route, as well as the cues that are used in the timing of migration such as the celestial bodies and the planet's magnetic field. It emphasizes the effec

  17. Tracking Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with GPS Satellite Transmitters Along Their Migration Route Through Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Ki-Sup; Kim, Seol-Hee; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Jeong, Jipseol; Wang, Seung-Jun; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Yu, Seung-do; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Mo, In-Pil

    2016-05-01

    In this study, Global Positioning System satellite transmitters were attached to three mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in South Korea to track their migration routes, stopover sites, breeding sites, and migration patterns. We successfully tracked only one mallard (no. 108917) from November 15, 2011, to November 29, 2013, and determined separate migration routes in two cases of spring migration and one case of fall migration. The mallard repeatedly migrated to the same final destination, even though the travel path varied. We identified six stopover sites: Hunhe River, Liaohe River, Yinma River, Yalu River, Songjeon Bay, and Dahuofang Reservoir in China and South Korea. The wintering sites of two migration cases were discovered to be identical (Gokgyo River in Asan, South Korea). The terminal sites, which were presumed to be breeding grounds, were the same in both cases (Hinggan League in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China). On the basis of the migration routes identified in this study, we suggest that future efforts to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) should not only include avian influenza surveillance but also implement flyway-based strategies, with regard to all countries affected by potential HPAI outbreaks.

  18. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN...

  19. Global spectrum of copy number variations reveals genome organizational plasticity and proposes new migration routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerappa, Avinash M; Vishweswaraiah, Sangeetha; Lingaiah, Kusuma; Murthy, Megha; Suresh, Raviraj V; Manjegowda, Dinesh S; Ramachandra, Nallur B

    2015-01-01

    Global spectrum of CNVs is required to catalog variations to provide a high-resolution on the dynamics of genome-organization and human migration. In this study, we performed genome-wide genotyping using high-resolution arrays and identified 44,109 CNVs from 1,715 genomes across 12 populations. The study unraveled the force of independent evolutionary dynamics on genome-organizational plasticity across populations. We demonstrated the use of CNV tool to study human migration and identified a second major settlement establishing new migration routes in addition to existing ones.

  20. Convergent extension: using collective cell migration and cell intercalation to shape embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masazumi; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2012-11-01

    Body axis elongation represents a common and fundamental morphogenetic process in development. A key mechanism triggering body axis elongation without additional growth is convergent extension (CE), whereby a tissue undergoes simultaneous narrowing and extension. Both collective cell migration and cell intercalation are thought to drive CE and are used to different degrees in various species as they elongate their body axis. Here, we provide an overview of CE as a general strategy for body axis elongation and discuss conserved and divergent mechanisms underlying CE among different species.

  1. China's First Satellite Tracking of Migration Route of Black-necked Cranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with colleagues at home and abroad, CAS scientists launched China's first ever satellite tracking project on Black-necked Cranes in late February at the National Dashanbao Black-necked Crane Natural Reserve in southwest China's Yunnan Province. Its objective is to understand the migration route of the crane's eastern population so as to better protect this rare species.

  2. Building the giant planet cores by convergent migration of pebble-accreting embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrenko, Ondrej; Broz, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    An explanation of the accretion buildup of giant planet cores on rather short (~Myr) time scales remains a long-standing challenge for scenarios of planetary system formation. One of the recently proposed processes that can take part during this evolutionary stage is the convergent Type I migration of Earth-sized embryos towards the zero-torque radius, occurring at an opacity transition within the dusty-gaseous protoplanetary disk (e.g. Pierens et al. 2013). Inconveniently, simulations show that such groups of embryos do not merge easily because they often get locked in mutual mean-motion resonances and consequently form an inward-migrating convoy.We revise this possibility of merging embryos while taking into account their ongoing growth by pebble accretion. Our aim is to check whether the rapid changes of masses combined with the migration of embryos through the feeding zone can break the resonant chain and allow for the giant planet core formation.The environment of the protoplanetary disk is modeled with the 2D FARGO code (Masset 2000), which we modified in order to perform non-isothermal hydrodynamic simulations, assuming flux-limited radiative diffusion (Levermore & Pomraning 1981). The embedded massive bodies are evolved simultaneously in 3D using the hybrid Wisdom-Holman/Gauss-Radau integrator from the Rebound package (Rein & Spiegel 2015). A semi-analytic method is used to evolve the masses of embryos by pebble accretion (e.g. Levison et al. 2015).

  3. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main conclusions which can be drawn from the discussions on Future Communication Systems and lessons on Unpredictable Future of Wireless Communication Systems. Future systems beyond the third generation are already under discussions in international bodies, such as ITU, WW...... and R&D programmes worldwide. The incoming era is characterized by the convergence of networks and access technology and the divergence of applications. Future mobile communication systems should bring something more than only faster data or wireless internet access....

  4. Interplay of plate convergence and arc migration in the central Mediterranean (Sicily and Calabria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2016-04-01

    Key components in the current geodynamic setting of the central Mediterranean are continuous, slow Africa-Eurasia plate convergence (~5 mm/yr) and arc migration. This combination encompasses roll-back, tearing and detachment of slabs, and leads to back-arc opening and orogeny. Since ~30 Ma the Apennnines-Calabrian and Gibraltar subduction zones have shaped the western-central Mediterranean region. Lithospheric tearing near slab edges and the accompanying surface expressions (STEP faults) are key in explaining surface dynamics as observed in geologic, geophysical and geodetic data. In the central Mediterranean, both the narrow Calabrian subduction zone and the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front show convergence, with a transfer (shear) zone connecting the distinct SW edge of the former with the less distinct, eastern limit of the latter (similar, albeit on a smaller scale, to the situation in New Zealand with oppositely verging subduction zones and the Alpine fault as the transfer shear zone). The ~NNW-SSE oriented transfer zone (Aeolian-Sisifo-Tindari(-Ionian) fault system) shows transtensive-to-strike slip motion. Recent seismicity, geological data and GPS vectors in the central Mediterranean indicate that the region can be subdivided into several distinct domains, both on- and offshore, delineated by deformation zones and faults. However, there is discussion about the (relative) importance of some of these faults on the lithospheric scale. We focus on finding the best-fitting assembly of faults for the transfer zone connecting subduction beneath Calabria and convergence north of Sicily in the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front. This includes determining whether the Alfeo-Etna fault, Malta Escarpment and/or Ionian fault, which have all been suggested to represent the STEP fault of the Calabrian subduction zone, are key in describing the observed deformation patterns. We first focus on the present-day. We use geodynamic models to reproduce observed GPS

  5. Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos I: Convergence of Embryos in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N C; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    According to the core-accretion scenario, planets form in protostellar disks through the condensation of dust, coagulation of planetesimals, and emergence of protoplanetary embryos. At a few AU in a minimum mass nebula, embryos' growth is quenched by dynamical isolation due to the depletion of planetesimals in their feeding zone. However, embryos with masses ($M_p$) in the range of a few Earth masses ($M_\\oplus$) migrate toward a transition radius between the inner viscously heated and outer irradiated regions of their natal disk. Their limiting isolation mass increases with the planetesimals surface density. When $M_p > 10 M_\\oplus$, embryos efficiently accrete gas and evolve into cores of gas giants. We use numerical simulation to show that, despite streamline interference, convergent embryos essentially retain the strength of non-interacting embryos' Lindblad and corotation torque by their natal disks. In disks with modest surface density (or equivalently accretion rates), embryos capture each other in the...

  6. Glacial refugia and migration routes of the Neotropical genus Trizeuxis (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kolanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of the monotypic genus Trizeuxis make this taxon almost impossible to recognize in fossil material and hereby difficult object of historical geographic studies. To estimate the distribution of potential refugia during the last glacial maximum and migration routes for Trizeuxis the ecological niche modeling was performed. The potential niche modeling was done using maximum entropy method implemented in Maxent application based on the species presence-only observations. As input data climatic variables and the digital elevation model were used. Two models of suitable glacial habitats distribution were prepared – for the studied species and for its host. The compiled map of the suitable habitats distribution of T. falcata and P. guajava during the last glacial maximum (LGM indicate two possible refugia for the studied orchid genus. The first one was located in the Madre de Dios region and the other one in the Mosquito Coast. The models suggest the existence of two migration routes of Trizeuxis species. The results indicate that the ecological niche modeling (ENM is a useful tool for analyzing not only the possible past distribution of the species, but may be also applied to determine the migration routes of the organisms not found in the fossil material.

  7. HUMAN MIGRATION, DIVERSITY AND DISEASE ASSOCIATION: A CONVERGENT ROLE OF ESTABLISHED AND EMERGING DNA MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohhraj eGuha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the gradual development of intelligence, human got curious to know his origin and evolutionary background. Historical statements and anthropological findings were his primary tool for solving the puzzles of his own origin, until came the golden era of molecular markers which took no time to prove it’s excellence in unveiling answers to the questions regarding the migration pattern of human across different geographical regions. As a bonus these markers proved very much beneficial in solving criminal offences and in understanding the etiology of many dreaded diseases and to design their prevention. In this review, we have aimed to throw light on some of the promising molecular markers which are very much in application now-a-days for not only understanding the evolutionary background and ancient migratory routes of humans but also in the field of forensics and human health.

  8. Variability in Migration Routes Influences Early Marine Survival of Juvenile Salmon Smolts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan B Furey

    Full Text Available Variability in animal migratory behavior is expected to influence fitness, but few empirical examples demonstrating this relationship exist. The initial marine phase in the migration of juvenile salmon smolts has been identified as a potentially critical life history stage to overall population productivity, yet how fine-scale migration routes may influence survival are unknown. Large-scale acoustic telemetry studies have estimated survival rates of outmigrant Pacific salmon smolts through the Strait of Georgia (SOG along the British Columbian coastline to the Pacific Ocean, but these data have not been used to identify and characterize fine-scale movements. Data collected on over 850 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts detected at an array in the Strait of Georgia in 2004-2008 and 2010-2013 were analyzed to characterize migration routes and link movements to subsequent survival at an array 250 km further along the marine migration pathway. Both species exhibited disproportionate use of the most eastern route in the Strait of Georgia (Malaspina Strait. While many smolts moved across the northern Strait of Georgia acoustic array with no indication of long-term milling or large-scale east-to-west movements, large proportions (20-40% of sockeye and 30-50% of steelhead exhibited a different behavior, apparently moving in a westward or counterclockwise pattern. Variability in migratory behavior for both species was linked to subsequent survival through the Strait of Georgia. Survival for both species was influenced by initial east-to-west location, and sockeye were further influenced by migration timing and duration of time spent near the northern Strait of Georgia array. Westward movements result in a net transport of smolts from Malaspina Strait to the Strait of Georgia, particularly for steelhead. Counterclockwise movements may be due to the currents in this area during the time of outmigration, and the

  9. Possible migration routes into South America deduced from mitochondrial DNA studies in Colombian Amerindian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyeux, Genoveva; Rodas, Clemencia; Gelvez, Nancy; Carter, Dee

    2002-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA haplotype studies have been useful in unraveling the origins of Native Americans. Such studies are based on restriction site and intergenic deletion/insertion polymorphisms, which define four main haplotype groups common to Asian and American populations. Several studies have characterized these lineages in North, Central, and South American Amerindian, as well as Na Dene and Aleutian populations. Siberian, Central Asian, and Southeast Asian populations have also been analyzed, in the hope of fully depicting the route(s) of migration between Asia and America. Colombia, a key route of migration between North and South America, has until now not been studied. To resolve the current lack of information about Colombian Amerindian populations, we have investigated the presence of the founder haplogroups in 25 different ethnic groups from all over the country. The present research is part of an interdisciplinary program, Expedición Humana, fostered by the Universidad Javeriana and Dr. J. E. Bernal V. The results show the presence of the four founder A-D Amerindian lineages, with varied distributions in the different populations, as well as the presence of other haplotypes in frequencies ranging from 3% to 26%. These include some unique or private polymorphisms, and also indicate the probable presence of other Asian and a few non-Amerindian lineages. A spatial structure is apparent for haplogroups A and D, and to a lesser extent for haplogroup C. While haplogroup A and D frequencies in Colombian populations from the northwestern side of the Andes resemble those seen in Central American Amerindians more than those seen in South American populations, their frequencies on the southeastern side more closely resemble the bulk of South American frequencies so far reported, raising the question as to whether they reflect more than one migration route into South America. High frequencies of the B lineage are also characteristic of some populations. Our

  10. Migration routes and strategies in a highly aerial migrant, the common swift Apus apus, revealed by light-level geolocators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Åkesson

    Full Text Available The tracking of small avian migrants has only recently become possible by the use of small light-level geolocators, allowing the reconstruction of whole migration routes, as well as timing and speed of migration and identification of wintering areas. Such information is crucial for evaluating theories about migration strategies and pinpointing critical areas for migrants of potential conservation value. Here we report data about migration in the common swift, a highly aerial and long-distance migrating species for which only limited information based on ringing recoveries about migration routes and wintering areas is available. Six individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle from Sweden to Africa and back. The autumn migration followed a similar route in all individuals, with an initial southward movement through Europe followed by a more southwest-bound course through Western Sahara to Sub-Saharan stopovers, before a south-eastward approach to the final wintering areas in the Congo basin. After approximately six months at wintering sites, which shifted in three of the individuals, spring migration commenced in late April towards a restricted stopover area in West Africa in all but one individual that migrated directly towards north from the wintering area. The first part of spring migration involved a crossing of the Gulf of Guinea in those individuals that visited West Africa. Spring migration was generally wind assisted within Africa, while through Europe variable or head winds were encountered. The average detour at about 50% could be explained by the existence of key feeding sites and wind patterns. The common swift adopts a mixed fly-and-forage strategy, facilitated by its favourable aerodynamic design allowing for efficient use of fuel. This strategy allowed swifts to reach average migration speeds well above 300 km/day in spring, which is higher than possible for similar sized passerines. This study

  11. Migration routes and stopover sites of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia between the Carpathian Basin and wintering areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigniczki Csaba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the migration routes of the Central European Spoonbill population is important for their conservation. Here we analysed movements of 3186 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbills marked with colour rings in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Croatia and Serbia between 2003 and 2015, and a satellite tagged individual, which was equipped in Italy in 2013, and later moved to the Carpathian Basin. Migration routes of these Spoonbills predominantly followed the Adriatic Flyway, however, some birds were also found to both east and west from this flyway. We identified 59 stopover sites, 55 of which were located along the Adriatic Flyway. Colourringed juveniles (1cy, on average, spent 4.0±0.9 (SE days on the stopover sites along the Adriatic Flyway during autumn migration, while non-juveniles (> 1cy spent 2.6±1.0 (SE days during autumn and 2.1±0.4 (SE days during spring migration there. These durations were not significantly different. Duration of stops of the satellite tracked individual was between 7 and 15 days during autumn and between 1 and 12 days during spring migration. Our results indicate the existence of two alternative routes of the Adriatic Flyway between the Carpathian Basin and the wintering areas in southern Italy and the central part of coastal North-Africa. The North-Adriatic Flyway includes stopover sites in north-eastern Italy at the river mouth of River Isonzo, Lagunes of Venice and wetlands around River Po. The South Adriatic Flyway leads through the Balkan Peninsula, with stopover sites at the karst lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mouth of the river Neretva (Croatia, Ulcinj Salinas (Montenegro and wetlands in Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy. This hypothesis was also supported by the migration of the satellite tagged individual, the paths of which was described here in detail. The average coordinates of spring and autumn stopover sites were located at different parts of the flyway: it was in south-western Italy during autumn

  12. Flexible reaction norms to environmental variables along the migration route and the significance of stopover duration for total speed of migration in a songbird migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaljohann, Heiko; Lisovski, Simeon; Bairlein, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the consequences of continuing anthropogenic changes in the environment for migratory behaviours such as phenology remains a major challenge. Predictions remain particularly difficult, because our knowledge is based on studies from single-snapshot observations at specific stopover sites along birds' migration routes. However, a general understanding on how birds react to prevailing environmental conditions, e.g. their 'phenotypic reaction norm', throughout the annual cycle and along their entire migration routes is required to fully understand how migratory birds respond to rapid environmental change. Here, we provide direct evidence that northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) from a breeding population in Alaska adjusted their probability to resume migration as well as the distance covered per night, i.e. travel speed, to large-scale environmental conditions experienced along their 15,000 km migratory route on both northwards and southwards migrations. These adjustments were found to be flexible in space and time. At the beginning of autumn migration, northern wheatears showed high departure probabilities and high travel speeds at low surface air temperatures, while far away from Alaska both traits decreased with increasing air temperatures. In spring, northern wheatears increasingly exploited flow assistance with season, which is likely a behavioural adjustment to speed up migration by increasing the distance travelled per night. Furthermore, the variation in total stopover duration but not in travel speed had a significant effect on the total speed of migration, indicating the prime importance of total stopover duration in the overall phenology of bird migration. Northern wheatears from Alaska provide evidence that the phenotypic reaction norm to a set of environmental conditions cannot be generalized to universal and persistent behavioural reaction pattern across entire migratory pathways. This highlights the importance of full annual-cycle studies

  13. 基于GLOBS网络的三网融合路由优化研究%Research on rout optimization of network convergence based on GLOBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星元; 赵志鹏; 施明智

    2011-01-01

    In this paer,GLOBS technique and network structure was introduced, key techniques in rout optimization were analyzed, and rout improvement scheme on "rout layer and all optical transmission" double layer network structure of network convergence was discussed. The characteristic that controller and data distributed and which key techniques of mapping rout, showed rout, flow engineering, QoS rout selected decided that GLOBS fit for new structure of network convergence.%介绍了GLOBS技术及其网络结构,分析了其与路由优化相关的关键技术,讨论了三网融合后“路由层+全光传输层”双层网络结构的路由优化方案.GLOBS网络控制与数据分开传送的特点以及偏射路由、显式路由、流量工程、QoS路由选择等关键技术决定了其适用于构建新型三网融合网络.

  14. Distinctive and selective route of PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ/RhoA-Rac1 signaling in osteoclastic cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Mi Yeong; Lee, Kyunghee; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-12-05

    Cell migration during specialized stages of osteoclast precursors, mononuclear preosteoclasts, and multinucleated mature osteoclasts remain uncertain. M-CSF- and osteopontin-induced osteoclastic cell migration was inhibited by function-blocking monoclonal antibodies specific to the integrin αv and β3 subunits, suggesting that integrin αvβ3 mediates migratory signaling induced by M-CSF and osteopontin. M-CSF and osteopontin stimulation was shown to regulate two branched signaling processes, PI3K/PKCα/RhoA axis and PI3K/PKCδ/Rac1 axis. Interestingly, inactivation of RhoA or Rac1 blocked preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration but not osteoclast precursor migration in a transwell-based cell migration assay. Moreover, the inhibitory effect on preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration induced by Rac1 inactivation was more effective than that by RhoA inactivation. Collectively, our findings suggest that osteoclast precursor migration depends on PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ signaling mediated via integrin αvβ3 bypassing RhoA and Rac1, whereas preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration relies on PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ/RhoA-Rac1 axis signaling mediated via integrin αvβ3 with increased dependency on PKCδ/Rac1 signaling route as differentiation progresses.

  15. Topoisomerase IIIalpha and Bloom's helicase can resolve a mobile double Holliday junction substrate through convergent branch migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Jody L; Wu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Tao-Shih

    2006-07-25

    It has long been suspected that a double Holliday junction (dHJ) could be resolved by a topoisomerase partnered with a helicase by convergent branch migration of the HJs. Genetic analysis of yeast TOP3 and SGS1 has lent considerable evidence to the notion that the protein products of these genes are involved in just such a process, although biochemical analysis of the metabolism of a dHJ has been hindered by the lack of a substrate that adequately replicates the endogenous structure. We have synthesized a dHJ substrate that recapitulates many of the features of an endogenous dHJ and represents a much earlier intermediate in the resolution pathway. Here, we show that Drosophila topoisomerase IIIalpha (Topo IIIalpha) and Blm (a homolog of Sgs1) are capable of resolving this substrate to non-cross-over products and that this activity is stimulated by replication protein A (RPA). We investigated the ability of other Drosophila topoisomerases to perform this reaction in concert with Blm and RPA and discovered that this resolution activity is unique to Topo IIIalpha. Examination of the mechanism of resolution reveals that Topo IIIalpha, Blm, and RPA resolve this substrate by convergent migration of the two HJs toward each other, collapsing the dHJ. This mechanism stands in contrast to classic resolvase activities that use a structure-specific endonuclease to cleave the HJs.

  16. Topoisomerase IIIα and Bloom’s helicase can resolve a mobile double Holliday junction substrate through convergent branch migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Jody L.; Wu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Tao-shih

    2006-01-01

    It has long been suspected that a double Holliday junction (dHJ) could be resolved by a topoisomerase partnered with a helicase by convergent branch migration of the HJs. Genetic analysis of yeast TOP3 and SGS1 has lent considerable evidence to the notion that the protein products of these genes are involved in just such a process, although biochemical analysis of the metabolism of a dHJ has been hindered by the lack of a substrate that adequately replicates the endogenous structure. We have synthesized a dHJ substrate that recapitulates many of the features of an endogenous dHJ and represents a much earlier intermediate in the resolution pathway. Here, we show that Drosophila topoisomerase IIIα (Topo IIIα) and Blm (a homolog of Sgs1) are capable of resolving this substrate to non-cross-over products and that this activity is stimulated by replication protein A (RPA). We investigated the ability of other Drosophila topoisomerases to perform this reaction in concert with Blm and RPA and discovered that this resolution activity is unique to Topo IIIα. Examination of the mechanism of resolution reveals that Topo IIIα, Blm, and RPA resolve this substrate by convergent migration of the two HJs toward each other, collapsing the dHJ. This mechanism stands in contrast to classic resolvase activities that use a structure-specific endonuclease to cleave the HJs. PMID:16849422

  17. Orientation and autumn migration routes of juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers at a staging site in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönroos, Johanna; Muheim, Rachel; Akesson, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Arctic waders are well known for their impressive long-distance migrations between their high northerly breeding grounds and wintering areas in the Southern hemisphere. Performing such long migrations requires precise orientation mechanisms. We conducted orientation cage experiments with juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers (Calidris acuminata) to investigate what cues they rely on when departing from Alaska on their long autumn migration flights across the Pacific Ocean to Australasia, and which possible migration routes they could use. Experiments were performed under natural clear skies, total overcast conditions and in manipulated magnetic fields at a staging site in Alaska. Under clear skies the juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers oriented towards SSE, which coincides well with reported sun compass directions from their breeding grounds in Siberia towards Alaska and could reflect their true migratory direction towards Australasia assuming that they change direction towards SW somewhere along the route. Under overcast skies the sandpipers showed a mean direction towards SW which would lead them to Australasia, if they followed a sun compass route. However, because of unfavourable weather conditions (headwinds) associated with overcast conditions, these south-westerly directions could also reflect local movements. The juvenile sharp-tailed sandpipers responded clearly to the manipulated magnetic field under overcast skies, suggesting the use of a magnetic compass for selecting their courses.

  18. Feminization of Migration Routes and Integration Aspects in Trieste Area and Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Richter Malabotta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian society is going through deep structural demographic and cultural changes whereby its emigration pattern has been reversed to the extent that the country is now experiencing intensive immigration. Pre-supposing the two basic characteristics of the migration routes which have become visible in the last decade – namely feminization and internal diversification of universal migrant, this article has tried to show the market typology (a characteristic not only of Italy but other Mediterranean countries of the EU which contributes to the gender differentiation of the foreigners' work, paying special attention to the position of an immigrant woman in the integration process into the native community. In that context, the analysis is directed towards the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region and the town of Trieste which have proved themselves to be unique in their acceptance of newcomers, among whom the most numerous being the ex-Yugoslavian (mainly Serbian population. Issues which have been touched include the recent history of dynamic Italian-Yugoslav relationships, the importance of the border, the daily cross-border migration mostly performed by the female workforce and the multiculturalism of Trieste as a border town. The so-called stable migration going through “family unification” has also been observed, a process responsible for the constant rise in the numbers of immigrant women and their underage children. In the way of their harmonic integration into the new society stand numerous obstacles: the language barrier, prejudice, the social invisibility of foreign women, their domestication, professional disqualification and coerced collective identity enforced by national or monoethnic associations. In school – an institution that forms a relationship with the foreign students’ mothers – attempts are being made to break free from this state of social invisibility. Similarly, in multicultural associations and societies, immigrant women

  19. Ascl1 promotes tangential migration and confines migratory routes by induction of Ephb2 in the telencephalon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Hsuan; Tsai, Jin-Wu; Chen, Jia-Long; Yang, Wan-Shan; Chang, Pei-Ching; Cheng, Pei-Lin; Turner, David L.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2017-01-01

    During development, cortical interneurons generated from the ventral telencephalon migrate tangentially into the dorsal telencephalon. Although Achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1 (Ascl1) plays important roles in the developing telencephalon, whether Ascl1 regulates tangential migration remains unclear. Here, we found that Ascl1 promoted tangential migration along the ventricular zone/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ) and intermediate zone (IZ) of the dorsal telencephalon. Distal-less homeobox 2 (Dlx2) acted downstream of Ascl1 in promoting tangential migration along the VZ/SVZ but not IZ. We further identified Eph receptor B2 (Ephb2) as a direct target of Ascl1. Knockdown of EphB2 disrupted the separation of the VZ/SVZ and IZ migratory routes. Ephrin-A5, a ligand of EphB2, was sufficient to repel both Ascl1-expressing cells in vitro and tangentially migrating cortical interneurons in vivo. Together, our results demonstrate that Ascl1 induces expression of Dlx2 and Ephb2 to maintain distinct tangential migratory routes in the dorsal telencephalon. PMID:28276447

  20. Use of electrical tomography methods to determinate the extension and main migration routes of uncontrolled landfill leachates in fractured areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, Ismael, E-mail: iscaferr@gmail.com [Department of Petrology, Geochemistry and Geological Prospectio, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08030 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, 501 East High Street, 45056 Oxford, OH (United States); Mahjoub, Himi [Department of Petrology, Geochemistry and Geological Prospectio, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08030 Barcelona (Spain); Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquées d' Al Hoceima (ENSAH), University Mohammed Premier, Ajdir, Al Hoceima (Morocco); Lovera, Raul [Department of Petrology, Geochemistry and Geological Prospectio, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08030 Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, Jesús, E-mail: jfernandezc@aragon.es [Department of Agriculture, Ranching and Environment, Diputación General de Aragon (DGA), Plaza de San Pedro Nolasco, 7, 50071 Zaragoza (Spain); Casas, Albert [Department of Petrology, Geochemistry and Geological Prospectio, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08030 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    This study focuses on the uses of the electrical tomography and its relationship with hydrochemical data in order to characterize contaminated groundwater flows in fractured aquifers. The studied area is contaminated with different hazardous substances like lyndanes, organochlorinated compounds and benzenes coming from the old non-controlled Sardas landfill. The enormous volumes of wastes filling the landfill have generated a convoluted mixture of leachates. Due to the lack of a landfill liner, the leachates have migrated through the fractured Eocene marls towards the Gallego River. The striking correlation between high concentrations of polluted groundwater and low electrical resistivity of the subsurface (< 8 Ω·m) allows defining the principal contaminant migration route thanks to the distribution of these conductive anomalies. This mapping verifies that there is intense tectonical–structural control of the leachate migration, because the deep migration presents the same direction as the geological axis fold. - Highlights: • The outcrop topographic reconstruction is done using cores and aerial photographs. • Hydrochemical and geophysical data allow defining two leachate migration paths. • Conductive anomalies in ERT are linked to high contaminant concentration. • The distribution of conductive anomalies defines the fractured basement migration. • The plume direction reflects important tectonic control in the migration process.

  1. Bio-Imitation of Mexican Migration Routes to the USA with Slime Mould on 3D Terrains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Adamatzky; Genaro J Martinez

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium ofPhysarum polycephalum (P.polycephalum) is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye.It shows sophisticated behavioural traits in foraging for nutrients and developing an optimal transport network of protoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients.When placed in an environment with distributed sources of nutrients the cell ‘computes’ an optimal graph spanning the nutrients by growing a network of protoplasmic tubes.P.polycephalum imitates development of man-made transport networks of a country when configuration of nutrients represents major urban areas.We employed this feature of the slime mould to imitate mexican migration to USA.The Mexican migration to USA is the World's largest migration system.We bio-physically imitated the migration using slime mould P.polycephalum.In laboratory experiments with 3D Nylon terrains of USA we imitated development of migratory routes from Mexico-USA border to ten urban areas with high concentration of Mexican migrants.From results of laboratory experiments we extracted topologies of migratory routes,and high-lighted a role of elevations in shaping the human movement networks.

  2. Forecasting spring from afar? Timing of migration and predictability of phenology along different migration routes of an avian herbivore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Bauer, S.; De Boer, R.; Griffin, L.; Cabot, D.; Exo, K-M.; Van der Jeugd, H.P.; Nolet, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    1.Herbivorous birds are hypothesized to migrate in spring along a seasonal gradient of plant profitability towards their breeding grounds (green wave hypothesis). For Arctic-breeding species in particular, following highly profitable food is important, so that they can replenish resources along the

  3. Repeatability of individual migration routes, wintering sites, and timing in a long-distance migrant bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Rien E; Bauer, Silke; Schaub, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Migratory birds are often faithful to wintering (nonbreeding) sites, and also migration timing is usually remarkably consistent, that is, highly repeatable. Spatiotemporal repeatability can be of advantage for multiple reasons, including familiarity with local resources and predators as well as avoiding the costs of finding a new place, for example, nesting grounds. However, when the environment is variable in space and time, variable site selection and timing might be more rewarding. To date, studies on spatial and temporal repeatability in short-lived long-distance migrants are scarce, most notably of first-time and subsequent migrations. Here, we investigated repeatability in autumn migration directions, wintering sites, and annual migration timing in Hoopoes (Upupa epops), a long-distance migrant, using repeated tracks of adult and first-time migrants. Even though autumn migration directions were mostly the same, individual wintering sites often changed from year to year with distances between wintering sites exceeding 1,000 km. The timing of migration was repeatable within an individual during autumn, but not during spring migration. We suggest that Hoopoes respond to variable environmental conditions such as north-south shifts in rainfall during winter and differing onset of the food availability during spring migration.

  4. Migration routes and staging areas of trans-Saharan Turtle Doves appraised from light-level geolocators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Eraud

    Full Text Available The identification of migration routes, wintering grounds and stopover sites are crucial issues for the understanding of the Palearctic-African bird migration system as well as for the development of relevant conservation strategies for trans-Saharan migrants. Using miniaturized light-level geolocators we report a comprehensive and detailed year round track of a granivorous trans-Saharan migrant, the European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur. From five recovered loggers, our data provide new insights on migratory journeys and winter destinations of Turtle Doves originating from a breeding population in Western France. Data confirm that Turtle Doves wintered in West Africa. The main wintering area encompassed Western Mali, the Inner Delta Niger and the Malian/Mauritanian border. Some individuals also extended their wintering ranges over North Guinea, North-West of Burkina Faso and the Ivory-Coast. Our results reveal that all individuals did not spend the winter period at a single location; some of them experienced a clear eastward shift of several hundred kilometres. We also found evidence for a loop migration pattern, with a post-breeding migration flyway lying west of the spring route. Finally, we found that on their way back to breeding grounds Turtle Doves needed to refuel after crossing the Sahara desert. Contrary to previous suggestions, our data reveal that birds used stopover sites for several weeks, presumably in Morocco and North Algeria. This later finding is a crucial issue for future conservation strategies because environmental conditions on these staging areas might play a pivotal role in population dynamics of this declining species.

  5. Timing and route of migration of mature female blue crabs in a tidal estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, David B; Millstein, Erika; Plaia, Gayle

    2015-05-01

    Information on migration patterns is critical to using no-take migratory corridors and marine reserves to protect the spawning stock of commercially exploited species. Both active and passive acoustic tracking methods quantified movement of commercially and ecologically important blue crabs in the White Oak River estuary, NC, USA. We targeted post-mating female crabs migrating down-estuary to oceanic spawning grounds. Crabs travelled approximately 14.1 km mainly in deeper channels and over 12-26 days from mating areas to spawning grounds. No crabs were detected migrating down-estuary in the autumn and only 30% were detected migrating down-estuary in spring. None of the crabs detected near spawning grounds were detected or recaptured back up-estuary, suggesting that they either (i) do not return to the estuary after a one to two week period in the spawning area or (ii) were captured by fishermen. The results from this study demonstrate that (1) acoustic transmitters coupled with passive acoustic receivers provided reliable and valuable data on migration patterns of mature female blue crabs and (2) mature female blue crabs are capable of migrating primarily within deep channels to spawning grounds shortly after insemination.

  6. Hybrid self organizing migrating algorithm - Scatter search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman; Jasek, Roman; Bialic-Davendra, Magdalena

    2012-11-01

    One of the new emerging application strategies for optimization is the hybridization of existing metaheuristics. The research combines the unique paradigms of solution space sampling of SOMA and memory retention capabilities of Scatter Search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem. The new hybrid heuristic is tested on the Taillard sets and obtains good results.

  7. Avian migrants adjust migration in response to environmental conditions en route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Thorup, Kasper; Rainio, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The onset of migration in birds is assumed to be primarily under endogenous control in long-distance migrants. Recently, climate changes appear to have been driving a rapid change in breeding area arrival. However, little is known about the climatic factors affecting migratory birds during...

  8. Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) larvae: developmental stages, migration route and morphological changes in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Sávio; Silveira, Andrea Kill; Vieira, Flávio Dias; Traversa, Donato

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the morphological modifications occurring during the larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), along with the reactions caused by parasitism and the migration route of the nematodes inside the flies. Houseflies were reared on faeces of a H. muscae-infected horse, then dissected and processed by histology. The experimental part of the study was performed in 1996 in the Parasitological Experimental Station W.O. Neitz, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Three different larval stages of H. muscae were recovered, measured and described. The encapsulation of larval nematodes was found in the third larval instar (L3) of M. domestica and cryptocephalic pupa. The mature capsules were observed in dipteran L3, pupae and mainly adults. In 1day-old or more M. domestica adults an active rupturing of capsules by H. muscae L3 and the migration to the head through the circulatory system and insect hemocoel were observed. Infective H. muscae L3s remained exclusively in the head of adult 5days-old or more M. domestica.

  9. Astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone in the skin of birds: a chromatic convergence of two metabolic routes with different precursors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael; Guzmán Bernardo, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa Carmen; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids are organic pigments involved in several important physiological functions and may serve as indicators of individual quality in animals. These pigments are only obtained by animals from the diet, but they can be later transformed into other carotenoids by specific enzymatic reactions. The diet of farm-reared and probably wild red-legged partridges ( Alectoris rufa) is mainly based on cereals that contain high levels of lutein and zeaxanthin. These two carotenoids are also predominant in internal tissues and blood of red-legged partridges. However, in their integuments, astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone (the last one identified in this work) are mainly present in their free form and esterified with fatty acids. According to available literature about carotenoid metabolism in animals, we propose that astaxanthin ( λ max = 478 nm) and papilioerythrinone ( λ max = 452-478 nm) are the result of a chromatic convergence of the transformation of dietary zeaxanthin and lutein, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained in this work provide the first identification by liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer system of papilioerythrinone ( m/z 581.3989 [M + H]+) in the skin (i.e., not feathers) of a vertebrate. Astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone are very close in terms of chemical structure and coloration, and the combination of these two keto-carotenoids is responsible for the red color of the ornaments in red-legged partridges.

  10. The Threat of Convergence of Terror Groups with Transnational Criminal Organizations in Order to Utilize Existing Smuggling Routes and Techniques to Aid in the Covert Entry of Operatives into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    THE THREAT OF CONVERGENCE OF TERROR GROUPS WITH TRANSNATIONAL CRIMINAL ORGANIZATIONS IN ORDER TO UTILIZE EXISTING SMUGGLING ROUTES AND......contraband into the United States since its existence. Terror groups have explicitly stated their intent to target the citizens, infrastructure, and

  11. Ancient migration routes of Austronesian-speaking populations in oceanic Southeast Asia and Melanesia might mimic the spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma%Ancient migration routes of Austronesian-speaking populations in oceanic Southeast Asiaeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Trejaut; Chien-Liang Lee; Ju-Chen Yen; Jun-Hun Loo; Marie Lin

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) are inherited uni-parentally from mother to daughter or from father to son respectively. Their polymorphism has initially been studied throughout populations of the world to demonstrate the "Out of Africa" hypothesis. Here, to correlate the distribution of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in different populations of insular Asia, we analyze the mtDNA information (lineages) obtained from genotyping of the hyper variable region (HVS Ⅰ & Ⅱ) among 1400 individuals from island Southeast Asia (ISEA), Taiwan and Fujian and supplemented with the analysis of relevant coding region polymorphisms. Uneages that best represented a clade (a branch of the genetic tree) in the phylogeny were further analyzed using complete genomic mtDNA sequencing. Finally, these complete mtDNA sequences were used to construct a most parsimonious tree which now constitutes the most up-to-date mtDNA dataset available on ISEA and Taiwan. This analysis has exposed new insights of the evolutionary history of insular Asia and has strong implications in assessing possible correlations with linguistic, archaeology, demography and the NPC distribution in populations within these regions. To obtain a more objective and balanced genetic point of view, slowly evolving biallelic Y single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) was also analyzed. As in the first step above, the technique was first applied to determine affinities (macro analysis) between populations of insular Asia. Secondly, sixteen Y short tandem repeats (Y-STR) were used as they allow deeper insight (micro analysis) into the relationship between individuals of a same region. Together, mtDNA and NRY allowed a better definition of the relational, demographic, cultural and genetic components that constitute the make up of the present day peoples of ISEA. Outstanding findings were obtained on the routes of migration that occurred along with the spread of NPC during the settlement of

  12. Neural tube closure in Xenopus laevis involves medial migration, directed protrusive activity, cell intercalation and convergent extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, L A; Keller, R E

    1999-10-01

    We have characterized the cell movements and prospective cell identities as neural folds fuse during neural tube formation in Xenopus laevis. A newly developed whole-mount, two-color fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization method, visualized with confocal microscopy, shows that the dorsal neural tube gene xpax3 and the neural-crest-specific gene xslug are expressed far lateral to the medial site of neural fold fusion and that expression moves medially after fusion. To determine whether cell movements or dynamic changes in gene expression are responsible, we used low-light videomicroscopy followed by fluorescent in situ and confocal microscopy. These methods revealed that populations of prospective neural crest and dorsal neural tube cells near the lateral margin of the neural plate at the start of neurulation move to the dorsal midline using distinctive forms of motility. Before fold fusion, superficial neural cells apically contract, roll the neural plate into a trough and appear to pull the superficial epidermal cell sheet medially. After neural fold fusion, lateral deep neural cells move medially by radially intercalating between other neural cells using two types of motility. The neural crest cells migrate as individual cells toward the dorsal midline using medially directed monopolar protrusions. These movements combine the two lateral populations of neural crest into a single medial population that form the roof of the neural tube. The remaining cells of the dorsal neural tube extend protrusions both medially and laterally bringing about radial intercalation of deep and superficial cells to form a single-cell-layered, pseudostratified neural tube. While ours is the first description of medially directed cell migration during neural fold fusion and re-establishment of the neural tube, these complex cell behaviors may be involved during cavitation of the zebrafish neural keel and secondary neurulation in the posterior axis of chicken and mouse.

  13. Partitioning of oblique convergence in the Northern Andes subduction zone: Migration history and the present-day boundary of the North Andean Sliver in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.; Nocquet, J. M.; Jaillard, E.; Mothes, P.; Jarrín, P.; Segovia, M.; Rolandone, F.; Cisneros, D.

    2016-05-01

    Along the Ecuadorian margin, oblique subduction induces deformation of the overriding continental plate. For the last 15 Ma, both exhumation and tectonic history of Ecuador suggest that the northeastward motion of the North Andean Sliver (NAS) was accompanied by an eastward migration of its eastern boundary and successive progressively narrowing restraining bends. Here we present geologic data, earthquake epicenters, focal mechanisms, GPS results, and a revised active fault map consistent with this new kinematic model. All data sets concur to demonstrate that active continental deformation is presently localized along a single major fault system, connecting fault segments from the Gulf of Guayaquil to the eastern Andean Cordillera. Although secondary faults are recognized within the Cordillera, they accommodate a negligible fraction of relative motion compared to the main fault system. The eastern limit is then concentrated rather than distributed as first proposed, marking a sharp boundary between the NAS, the Inca sliver, and the Subandean domain overthrusting the South American craton. The NAS limit follows a northeast striking right-lateral transpressional strike-slip system from the Gulf of Guayaquil (Isla Puná) to the Andean Cordillera and with the north-south striking transpressive faults along the eastern Andes. Eastward migration of the restraining belt since the Pliocene, abandonment of the sutures and reactivation of north-south striking ancient fault zones lead to the final development of a major tectonic boundary south and east of the NAS, favoring its extrusion as a continental sliver, accommodating the oblique convergence of the Nazca oceanic plate toward South America.

  14. Demonstration of the route of embryo migration in retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy using contrast-enhanced computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Changhu; Li, Xueli; Zhao, Bin; Du, Yinglin; Xu, Shifeng

    2014-03-01

    Retroperitoneal abdominal pregnancy is exceptionally rare. An unusual retroperitoneal pregnancy has a high risk of severe bleeding. Abdominal ultrasonography and whole abdominal computerized tomography scanning should be performed for the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. A case of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy located very close to large retroperitoneal blood vessels and treated with resection is presented. Many unusual features of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy were highlighted as providing further evidence in support of the main proposed embryo migration mechanism via lymphatic vessels.

  15. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits: timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds in Western Europe, Limosa limosa limosa, has declined precipitously over the past few decades. Despite significant efforts to identify the root causes of this decline, much remains unclear. To better understand the migratory timing, use of stopover and nonbreeding sites, and the potential impact of breeding success on these parameters, we attached 15 Argos satellite transmitters and 10 geolocation tracking devices to adult godwits nearing completion of incubation at breeding sites in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands during the spring of 2009. We successfully tracked 16 adult godwits for their entire southward migration and two others for part of it. Three migration patterns and four regions of use were apparent. Most godwits left their breeding sites and proceeded south directly to stopover sites in the Mediterranean — e.g. Spain, Portugal, and Morocco — before flying on to non-breeding sites in West Africa. Other individuals spent the entire nonbreeding season in the Mediterranean. A third pattern included a few individuals that flew nonstop from their Dutch breeding sites to nonbreeding sites in West Africa. Tracking data from this study will be immediately useful for conservation efforts focused on preserving the dispersed network of sites used by godwits during their southward migration.

  16. Ancient and recent admixture layers in Sicily and Southern Italy trace multiple migration routes along the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Pagani, Luca; Sazzini, Marco; De Fanti, Sara; Quagliariello, Andrea; Gnecchi Ruscone, Guido Alberto; Guichard, Etienne; Ciani, Graziella; Bortolini, Eugenio; Barbieri, Chiara; Cilli, Elisabetta; Petrilli, Rosalba; Mikerezi, Ilia; Sineo, Luca; Vilar, Miguel; Wells, Spencer; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide

    2017-05-16

    The Mediterranean shores stretching between Sicily, Southern Italy and the Southern Balkans witnessed a long series of migration processes and cultural exchanges. Accordingly, present-day population diversity is composed by multiple genetic layers, which make the deciphering of different ancestral and historical contributes particularly challenging. We address this issue by genotyping 511 samples from 23 populations of Sicily, Southern Italy, Greece and Albania with the Illumina GenoChip Array, also including new samples from Albanian- and Greek-speaking ethno-linguistic minorities of Southern Italy. Our results reveal a shared Mediterranean genetic continuity, extending from Sicily to Cyprus, where Southern Italian populations appear genetically closer to Greek-speaking islands than to continental Greece. Besides a predominant Neolithic background, we identify traces of Post-Neolithic Levantine- and Caucasus-related ancestries, compatible with maritime Bronze-Age migrations. We argue that these results may have important implications in the cultural history of Europe, such as in the diffusion of some Indo-European languages. Instead, recent historical expansions from North-Eastern Europe account for the observed differentiation of present-day continental Southern Balkan groups. Patterns of IBD-sharing directly reconnect Albanian-speaking Arbereshe with a recent Balkan-source origin, while Greek-speaking communities of Southern Italy cluster with their Italian-speaking neighbours suggesting a long-term history of presence in Southern Italy.

  17. Fish Species in a Changing World: The Route and Timing of Species Migration between Tropical and Temperate Ecosystems in Eastern Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaluddin Halirin Kaimuddin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of tropical species has been reported in Atlantic-European waters with increasing frequency in recent years. Unfortunately, the history of their migrations is not well understood. In this study, we examined the routes and timing of fish migrations in several ecosystems of the East Atlantic Ocean, combining several publicly available and unpublicized datasets on species occurrences. The species studied were those noted as exotic or rare outside their previous known area of distribution. We used sea surface temperature (SST data obtained from 30 years of satellite observation to define three distinct time periods. Within these periods, temperature trends were studied in six ecosystems: the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, the South European Atlantic Waters, the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Current and the Guinea Current. We also incorporated bathymetry data to describe the distribution of species. Measurement across a relatively large spatial extent was made possible by incorporating the capabilities of GIS.While SST increased consistently over time in all of the ecosystems observed, the change in number of species differed among ecosystems. The number of species in the middle regions, such as the South European Atlantic Shelf and the Western Mediterranean Sea, tended to increase over time. These regions received numbers of species from the lower or the upper latitudes according to season. Of all of the species observed in the recent period, 7 species from the Canary Current tended to be found in the Western Mediterranean Sea, and 6 species from these two regions extended their distributions to the South European Atlantic Shelf. Twelve species from the Canary Current moved seasonally to the Guinea Current. In the northern regions, 13 species moved seasonally in the North Sea and the Celtic Seas, and 12 of these species reached the South European Atlantic Shelf.This study presents a picture of routes and timing of species migration at the

  18. Evolutionary Dynamics of Pandemic Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ST398 and Its International Spread via Routes of Human Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Paul R.; Sullivan, Sean B.; Knox, Justin R.; Khiabanian, Hossein; Rabadan, Raul; Davies, Peter R.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Lowy, Franklin D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC). Pig ST398 strains contained a large region of recombination representing imports from multiple sequence types (STs). Phylogeographic analyses supported the spread of ST398-MSSA along local cultural and migratory links between parts of the Caribbean, North America, and France, respectively. Applying pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distances as a measure of genetic relatedness between isolates, we observed that ST398 not only clustered in households but also frequently extended across local social networks. Isolates collected from environmental surfaces reflected the full diversity of colonizing individuals, highlighting their potentially critical role as reservoirs for transmission and diversification. Strikingly, we observed high within-host SNP variability compared to our previous studies on the dominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone USA300. Our data indicate that the dynamics of colonization, persistence, and transmission differ substantially between USA300-MRSA and ST398-MSSA. Taken together, our study reveals local and international routes of transmission for a major MSSA clone, indicating key impacts of recombination and mutation on genetic diversification and highlighting important ecological differences from epidemic USA300. Our study demonstrates extensive local and international routes of transmission for a major MSSA clone despite the lack of substantial

  19. The Regional Salmon Outmigration Study--survival and migration routing of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the winter of 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.; Brewer, Scott J.; Adams, Noah S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Blake, Aaron R.; Burau, Jon R.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) emigrating from natal tributaries of the Sacramento River may use a number of migration routes to navigate the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereafter called “the Delta”), each of which may influence their probability of surviving. We applied a mark-recapture model to data from acoustically tagged juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon that migrated through the Delta during the winter of 2008–09 to estimate route entrainment, survival, and migration times through the Delta. A tag-life study was conducted to determine the potential for premature tag failure. Tag failure began after 12 days and continued until the 45th day. Travel times of tagged fish exceeded minimum tag-failure times, indicating that survival estimates obtained from this study were negatively biased due to tag failure prior to fish exiting the Delta. Survival estimates were not adjusted and represent the joint probability of tag survival and fish survival. However, relative comparisons of survival among Chinook salmon choosing different routes appeared to be robust to tag failure, and migration-routing parameters were unaffected by tag failure. Migration-routing patterns were consistent among release groups. The Sacramento River was the primary migration route for all release groups except one. The percentage of fish entering the Sacramento River ranged from 33 to 55 percent. Sutter and Steamboat Sloughs were the secondary migration route for 9 of the 10 releases. The percentage of fish migrating through this route ranged from 10 to 35 percent. Entrainment into the interior Delta ranged from 15 to 33 percent. The Delta Cross Channel gates were open for 7 of the 10 releases. Entrainment into the interior Delta through the cross channel ranged from 1 to 27 percent. We estimated route-specific survival for 10 release groups that were released between November 14, 2008, and January 19, 2009. Population-level survival through the Delta

  20. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Jin, Li; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.

  1. Convergence Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from convergence insufficiency? Symptoms of convergence insufficiency include diplopia (double vision) and headaches when reading. Many patients ... another time or simply watched for symptoms of diplopia or headaches with near work. A patient who ...

  2. Ab-initio primitive cell parameters from single convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns: a converse route to the identification of microcrystals with electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Y

    1992-04-01

    A new method for the ab initio derivation of Buerger-reduced primitive cell parameters from coordinate measurements of spots on single convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is described, which does not involve trial-and-error. The pattern can be taken along any zone axis, and misorientations of the crystallite by as much as a few degrees are taken into account without loss of accuracy. This derivation of cell parameters by least-squares analysis of the measurements has been automated in a program called NRCBED. Present accuracy is about 1% on lengths and 2 degrees on angles, but could be significantly improved by modelling projector lens aberrations, or by using a microscope without a projector lens. With present technology, it is possible to obtain a CBED pattern and a semi-quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis simultaneously from a single microcrystal a few hundred Angströms across. It becomes therefore possible to identify the material of the crystal on a single CBED pattern: a cell parameter database for known compounds is searched with the primitive cell parameters obtained in the above way, and with a mask describing the EDX results qualitatively. Feasibility is demonstrated on a crystallite of CeO2 500 Angströms across. With this new approach, trial-and-error should disappear from the solution of other long-standing problems: interpretation of X-ray powder patterns for new compounds in the presence of impurity lines, or in the case of multiple phases should become straight-forward.

  3. Trans-equatorial migration routes, staging sites and wintering areas of a high-Arctic avian predator: the long-tailed Skua (Stercorarius longicaudus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Gilg

    Full Text Available The Long-tailed Skua, a small (<300 g Arctic-breeding predator and seabird, is a functionally very important component of the Arctic vertebrate communities in summer, but little is known about its migration and winter distribution. We used light-level geolocators to track the annual movements of eight adult birds breeding in north-east Greenland (n = 3 and Svalbard (n = 5. All birds wintered in the Southern Hemisphere (mean arrival-departure dates on wintering grounds: 24 October-21 March: five along the south-west coast of Africa (0-40°S, 0-15°E, in the productive Benguela upwelling, and three further south (30-40°S, 0-50°E, in an area extending into the south-west Indian Ocean. Different migratory routes and rates of travel were documented during post-breeding (345 km d(-1 in late August-early September and spring migrations (235 km d(-1 in late April when most birds used a more westerly flyway. Among the different staging areas, a large region off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland appears to be the most important. It was used in autumn by all but one of the tracked birds (from a few days to three weeks and in spring by five out of eight birds (from one to more than six weeks. Two other staging sites, off the Iberian coast and near the Azores, were used by two birds in spring for five to six weeks. Over one year, individuals travelled between 43,900 and 54,200 km (36,600-45,700 when excluding staging periods and went as far as 10,500-13,700 km (mean 12,800 km from their breeding sites. This study has revealed important marine areas in both the south and north Atlantic Ocean. Sustainable management of these ocean basins will benefit Long-tailed Skuas as well as other trans-equatorial migrants from the Arctic.

  4. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  5. A road in the middle of one of the last wild reindeer migration routes in Norway: crossing behaviour and threats to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Panzacchi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of roads and associated infrastructure has interrupted several traditional migrations of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Norway. The population in the Setesdal Austhei wild reindeer area still migrates from winter to calving grounds by semi-annually crossing a cabin-lined road through a narrow corridor, in which further anthropogenic development is planned. To understand if and how infrastructure affected reindeer migration patterns we studied the movements of 10 female reindeer equipped with GPS collars between 2002 and 2010. First, we identified the start and end of the migration period, and then we compared trajectory parameters (net displacement, step length and turning angles recorded during migration with those recorded in proximity of the road. The analysis of the net displacement indicated that during spring migration reindeer moved at a constant pace towards the calving ground covering a net linear distance of 25 km in 40 days. In the middle of migration, reindeer changed travel direction and roamed parallel to the road for ca. 5 days without approaching further, possibly searching for an undisturbed place and time to cross. Reindeer finally crossed the road before daylight with highly directed movements, increasing their travel speed up to the highest values recorded during migration (4 km/3 hrs vs. 0.5 km/3 hrs. After crossing, reindeer moved quickly toward their calving ground covering the remaining 25 km net distance in less than a week. Migration patterns were markedly affected by disturbance during spring, as the road crossings occurred in the period characterized by the high traffic volume and intense human activities related to Easter holidays; during autumn, on the contrary, the hampering effect of the road was minimal. The results suggest that the current disturbance associated to the road hampers spring migration and might delay the arrival to the calving ground. The planned construction of a

  6. From Africa via Europe to South America: migrational route of a species-rich genus of Neotropical lowland rain forest trees (Guatteria, Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, R.H.J.; Maas, J.W.; Couvreur, T.L.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than by vicariance. In general, three routes have been documented for the dispersal of taxa onto the South American contin

  7. Convergent chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradas, Marc; Pumir, Alain; Huber, Greg; Wilkinson, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Chaos is widely understood as being a consequence of sensitive dependence upon initial conditions. This is the result of an instability in phase space, which separates trajectories exponentially. Here, we demonstrate that this criterion should be refined. Despite their overall intrinsic instability, trajectories may be very strongly convergent in phase space over extremely long periods, as revealed by our investigation of a simple chaotic system (a realistic model for small bodies in a turbulent flow). We establish that this strong convergence is a multi-facetted phenomenon, in which the clustering is intense, widespread and balanced by lacunarity of other regions. Power laws, indicative of scale-free features, characterize the distribution of particles in the system. We use large-deviation and extreme-value statistics to explain the effect. Our results show that the interpretation of the ‘butterfly effect’ needs to be carefully qualified. We argue that the combination of mixing and clustering processes makes our specific model relevant to understanding the evolution of simple organisms. Lastly, this notion of convergent chaos, which implies the existence of conditions for which uncertainties are unexpectedly small, may also be relevant to the valuation of insurance and futures contracts.

  8. Assessment of Mitigation Systems on Vapor Intrusion: Temporal Trends, Attenuation Factors, and Contaminant Migration Routes under Mitigated and Non-mitigated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of subsurface vapors, including radon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in soil gas from the subsurface to indoor air. Vapor intrusion happens because there are pressure and concentration differentials between indoor air and soil gas. Indoor ...

  9. Trans-Equatorial Migration Routes, Staging Sites and Wintering Areas of a High-Arctic Avian Predator: The Long-tailed Skua (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilg, O.; Moe, B.; Hanssen, S.A.; Schmidt, N.M.; Sittler, B.; Hansen, J.; Reneerkens, J.; Sabard, B.; Chastel, O.; Moreau, J.; Phillips, R.A.; Oudman, T.; Biersma, E.M.; Fenstad, A.A.; Lang, J.; Bollache, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Long-tailed Skua, a small (<300 g) Arctic-breeding predator and seabird, is a functionally very important component of the Arctic vertebrate communities in summer, but little is known about its migration and winter distribution. We used light-level geolocators to track the annual movements of ei

  10. Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161473.html Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide Scientists recommend keeping ... birds can spread bird flu worldwide and monitoring migration routes could provide early warning of outbreaks, researchers ...

  11. REDUCING BURST PACKET LOSS THROUGH ROUTE-FREE FORWARDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hailong; Guo Yunfei; Cheng Dongnian; Zhang Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that today's inter-domain routing protocol,Border Gateway Protocol (BGP),converges slowly during network failures. Due to the distribution nature of Internet routing decisions and the rate-limiting timer Minimum Route Advertisement Interval (MRAI) of BGP,unavoidable convergence latency is introduced in reaction to network changes. During the period of convergence temporarily routing table inconsistencies cause short-term routing blackholes and loops which result in widespread temporary burst packet loss. In this paper,we present ROute-Free Forwarding (ROFF) - a novel technique for packet delivering continuously during periods of convergence. With slightly modifications on IP packet header and BGP,route loops and blackholes can be avoided. Our preliminary evaluation demonstrates that ROFF succeeds in reducing the number of Autonomous Systems (ASes) which experience burst packet loss and the duration of packet loss.

  12. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  13. Adaptive swarm-based routing in communication networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇; 赵光宙; 苏凡军; 历小润

    2004-01-01

    Swarm intelligence inspired by the social behavior of ants boasts a number of attractive features, including adaptation, robustness and distributed, decentralized nature, which are well suited for routing in modern communication networks. This paper describes an adaptive swarm-based routing algorithm that increases convergence speed, reduces routing instabilities and oscillations by using a novel variation of reinforcement learning and a technique called momentum.Experiment on the dynamic network showed that adaptive swarm-based routing learns the optimum routing in terms of convergence speed and average packet latency.

  14. Adaptive swarm-based routing in communication networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇; 赵光宙; 苏凡军; 历小润

    2004-01-01

    Swarm intelligence inspired by the social behavior of ants boasts a number of attractive features,including adaptation,robustness and distributed,decentralized nature,which are well suited for routing in modern communication networks.This paper describes an adaptive swarm-based routing algorithm that increases convergence speed,reduces routing instabilities and oscillations by using a novel variation of reinforcement learning and a technique called momentum.Experiment on the dynamic network showed that adaptive swarm-based routing learns the optimum routing in terms of convergence speed and average packet latency.

  15. Strong path convergence from Loewner driving convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2010-01-01

    We show that, under mild assumptions on the limiting curve, a sequence of simple chordal planar curves converges uniformly whenever certain Loewner driving functions converge. We extend this result to random curves. The random version applies in particular to random lattice paths that have chordal SLE as a scaling limit, with kappa less than 8 (non-space-filling). Existing SLE convergence proofs often begin by showing that the Loewner driving functions of these paths (viewed from infinity) converge to Brownian motion. Unfortunately, this is not sufficient, and additional arguments are required to complete the proofs. We show that driving function convergence is sufficient if it can be established for both parametrization directions and a generic target.

  16. There is poverty convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Klasen, Stephan; Wacker, Konstantin M.

    2016-01-01

    Martin Ravallion ("Why Don't We See Poverty Convergence?" American Economic Review, 102(1): 504-23; 2012) presents evidence against the existence of convergence in global poverty rates despite convergence in household mean income levels and the close linkage between income growth and poverty reduction. We show that this finding is driven by a specification that demands more than simple convergence in poverty headcount rates and assumes a growth elasticity of poverty reduction, which is well-k...

  17. Convergence S-compactifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Losert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Properties of continuous actions on convergence spaces are investigated. The primary focus is the characterization as to when a continuous action on a convergence space can be continuously extended to an action on a compactification of the convergence space. The largest and smallest such compactifications are studied.

  18. Multicast Routing Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; CAI Gui

    2005-01-01

    A new multicast routing algorithm based on the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed. The coding pattern based on the number of routing paths is used. A fitness function that is computed easily and makes algorithm quickly convergent is proposed. A new approach that defines the HGA's parameters is provided. The simulation shows that the approach can increase largely the convergent ratio, and the fitting values of the parameters of this algorithm are different from that of the original algorithms. The optimal mutation probability of HGA equals 0.50 in HGA in the experiment, but that equals 0.07 in SGA. It has been concluded that the population size has a significant influence on the HGA's convergent ratio when it's mutation probability is bigger. The algorithm with a small population size has a high average convergent rate. The population size has little influence on HGA with the lower mutation probability.

  19. Return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelch, G

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the findings of the growing literature on return migration. Topics covered include typologies of return migrants, reasons for return, adaptation and readjustment of returnees, and the impact of return migration on the migrants' home societies. The focus of the study is on international return migration, migration to Northern Europe and northeastern North America, and return migration to the southern and eastern fringes of Europe and the Caribbean

  20. Converged Registries Solution (CRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Converged Registries platform is a hardware and software architecture designed to host individual patient registries and eliminate duplicative development effort...

  1. Convergence Time Evaluation of Algorithms in MANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Annapurna P; Chunhaviriyakul, Krittaya

    2009-01-01

    Since the advent of wireless communication, the need for mobile ad hoc networks has been growing exponentially. This has opened up a Pandoras Box of algorithms for dealing with mobile ad hoc networks, or MANETs, as they are generally referred to. Most attempts made at evaluating these algorithms so far have focused on parameters such as throughput, packet delivery ratio, overhead etc. An analysis of the convergence times of these algorithms is still an open issue. The work carried out fills this gap by evaluating the algorithms on the basis of convergence time. Algorithms for MANETs can be classified into three categories: reactive, proactive, and hybrid protocols. In this project, we compare the convergence times of representative algorithms in each category, namely Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) reactive, Destination Sequence Distance Vector protocol (DSDV) proactive, and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) hybrid. The algorithm performances are compared by simulating them in ns2. Tcl is us...

  2. Core Backbone Convergence Mechanisms and Microloops Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelali Ala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study approaches that can be used to minimise the convergence time, we also make a focus on microloops phenomenon, analysis and means to mitigate them. The convergence time reflects the time required by a network to react to a failure of a link or a router failure itself. When all nodes (routers have updated their respective routing and forwarding databases, we can say the network has converged. This study will help in building real-time and resilient network infrastructure, the goal is to make any evenement in the core network, as transparent as possible to any sensitive and real-time flows. This study is also, a deepening of earlier works presented in [10] and [11].

  3. Convergence of DFP algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚湘

    1995-01-01

    The DFP method is one of the most famous numerical algorithms for unconstrained optimization. For uniformly convex objective functions convergence properties of the DFP method are studied. Several conditions that can ensure the global convergence of the DFP method are given.

  4. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

  5. Convergence of Fuzzy Set Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yu-hu

    2002-01-01

    There are more than one mode of convergence with respect to the fuzzy set sequences. In this paper,common six modes of convergence and their relationships are discussed. These six modes are convergence in uniform metric D, convergence in separable metric Dp or D*p, 1 ≤ p <∞, convergence in level set, strong convergence in level set and weak convergence. Suitable counterexamples are given. The necessary and sufficient conditions of convergence in uniform metric D are described. Some comme nts on the convergence of LRfuzzy number sequences are represented.

  6. Context Aware Routing Management Architecture for Airborne Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Distance Vector Protocol The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Protocol ( AODV ) is a MANET protocol with quick convergence that creates routes on demand...that are loop free. AODV requires very low processing and memory overhead when compared to other MANET routing protocols while delivering excellent...Figure 2.2: Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Protocol – Node A requests routing information for node G. The AODV algorithm does not require bootstrapping

  7. Nonaccommodative convergence excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Noorden, G K; Avilla, C W

    1986-01-15

    Nonaccommodative convergence excess is a condition in which a patient has orthotropia or a small-angle esophoria or esotropia at distance and a large-angle esotropia at near, not significantly reduced by the addition of spherical plus lenses. The AC/A ratio, determined with the gradient method, is normal or subnormal. Tonic convergence is suspected of causing the convergence excess in these patients. Nonaccommodative convergence excess must be distinguished from esotropia with a high AC/A ratio and from hypoaccommodative esotropia. In 24 patients treated with recession of both medial recti muscles with and without posterior fixation or by posterior fixation alone, the mean correction of esotropia was 7.4 prism diopters at distance and 17 prism diopters at near.

  8. Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project uses short-duration activities to establish early-stage concept and technology feasibility for high-potential...

  9. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  10. Subsequential Convergence Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dik Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a sequence of real numbers and let be any regular limitable method. We prove that, under some assumptions, if a sequence or its generator sequence generated regularly by a sequence in a class of sequences is a subsequential convergence condition for , then for any integer , the repeated arithmetic means of , , generated regularly by a sequence in the class , is also a subsequential convergence condition for .

  11. IT-BT convergence technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  12. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  13. Lateralization of route continuation and route order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Ham, Ineke J M; Van Den Hoven, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Navigation is a complex cognitive ability and its structure is still poorly understood. Memory for route continuation and route order are hypothesized to be at least partially separate components of navigation ability. In the current experiment, participants studied a route in virtual reality. The d

  14. Flexible navigation response in common cuckoos Cuculus canorus displaced experimentally during migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Blas, Julio; Wikelski, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    Migrating birds follow innate species-specific migration programs capable of guiding them along complex spatio-temporal routes, which may include several separate staging areas. Indeed, migration routes of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus show little variation between individuals; yet, satellite tr...

  15. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.

    2004-06-01

    overlay maps of effort to try and remove any induced artefacts in the data. Differences in timing or the route of migration has often been studies separately. Lokki and Saurola (Lokki & Saurola, 2004 develop an omnibus procedure to test if the migration timing and/or route differ among two populations of birds (e.g. males vs females. It uses a randomization test to calibrate the test statistic. However, it makes the key assumptions about equal recovery effort in time and space so that the method may be most applicable to comparison among species with similar migration timing and movement to keep differential sighting/recovery rates from affecting the result. Of course, it is in these cases where it is most difficulty to separate the groups which will require substantial samples to have good performance. Thorup and Rahbek (Thorup & Rahbek, 2004 provide a framework for accounting for unequal spatial recovery probability investigating the geometric influence of ocean and sea on observed migratory patterns. Taking the data set of Pied Flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca ringed as nestlings in Scandinavia and recovered en route on their initial migration and using a model based on the clock–and–compass innate navigation hypothesis they are showing that geometric constraints explain quite a bit of the variation in ring–recoveries. The model also shows that ring recovery patterns do reflect the migratory patterns, and that they are suitable for an analysis of the concentration of the migratory route which is important for the general use of ringing data in studies of migration. This is important for the general use of ringing data in studies of migration and dispersal. The new approach has also implications for understanding the migratory orientation program. The compiled papers highlight some novel ideas of how to analyse band recoveries to investigate migration routes and migration behaviour as well as dispersal patterns among birds and dolphins. Multistate modeling appears

  16. Converging towards the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, R. W.

    1997-05-01

    The likelihood of convergence in the electric power industry in Canada and the United Sates was examined, and the impact of such a development with respect to electricity and natural gas was explored. Based on developments to date, convergence between gas and electric utilities was considered an inevitable step towards the ultimate consolidation of the energy industry as a whole. Characteristics shared by gas and electric utilities were described, and likely developments leading to convergence of the two industries were reviewed. According to this author the competition between the opposing utilities will lead to price wars, loss leaders and other marketing strategies. Prices will be set by supply and demand principles. While users will be able to select customized, money-saving energy solutions, for suppliers, the new utility market will be a Darwinian battle royale, where only the most viable will survive. The end result will be a larger market dominated by a few super players.

  17. On the Fuzzy Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.

  18. Convergence of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along...... with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...

  19. Health professionals' migration: the Portuguese case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Gonçalves, Catia

    2010-01-01

    Migration of health professionals has been an important issue on the agenda of governments in recent years. The European Union directive on the recognition of professional qualifications coupled with labour shortages in the health sector has led to a growing mobility of physicians from both European countries and non-European Economic Area (EEA) countries. This study takes a deeper look at these migration phenomena in the Portuguese case. A significantly convergent dual pattern of migration is shown to emerge, in which the growth of intra-European migration has broadly continued to coexist with the maintenance of traditional overseas immigration channels.

  20. The convergence of chaotic integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, O; Bauer, Oliver; Mainieri, Ronnie

    1995-01-01

    We review the convergence of chaotic integrals computed by Monte Carlo simulation, the trace method, dynamical zeta function, and Fredholm determinant on a simple one-dimensional example: the parabola repeller. There is a dramatic difference in convergence between these approaches. The convergence of the Monte Carlo method follows an inverse power law, whereas the trace method and dynamical zeta function converge exponentially, and the Fredholm determinant converges faster than any exponential.

  1. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    be that the objects routed have an availability time window and a delivery time window or that locations on the path have a service time window. When routing moving transportation objects such as vehicles and vessels schedules are made in connection with the routing. Such schedules represent the time for the presence...... to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...... of a connection between two locations. This could be an urban bus schedule where busses are routed and this routing creates a bus schedule which the passengers between locations use. In this thesis various routing and scheduling problems will be presented. The topics covered will be routing from an origin...

  2. The Convergence Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…

  3. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  4. Convergence of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina

    2008-01-01

    with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...

  5. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  6. Language Convergence Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim); J.M. Fernandes; R. Lämmel (Ralf); J.M.W. Visser (Joost); J. Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe process of grammar convergence involves grammar extraction and transformation for structural equivalence and contains a range of technical challenges. These need to be addressed in order for the method to deliver useful results. The paper describes a DSL and the infrastructure behind

  7. Convergence of Arnoldi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevanlinna, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).

  8. The Convergence Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…

  9. Tracing The Largest Seasonal Migration on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Mao, Wenli; Hu, Zhigang; Gu, Li

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that over 3.6 billion passengers are travelling during the Chinese Spring Festival travel season. They leave their working cities and return their hometowns to enjoy annual family time, and back to cities after the holiday. In this study, with the massive location-based data collected from millions of smartphone users, we propose a novel method to trace the migration flow and explore the migration patterns of Chinese people. From the temporal perspective, we explore the migration trend over time during a 34-days period, about half a month before and after the Spring Festival. From the spatial perspective, the migration directions and routes are estimated and quantified, and the migration flow is visualized. The spatial range of influence of developed regions could be reflected with the destinations of migration, the migration destinations and originations have obvious characteristic of geographical proximity.

  10. Immigrant gender convergence in education and on the labor market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veenman (Justus); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractImmigration tends to have a mitigating effect on the socioeconomic gender gap among immigrants. To explain this finding, we propose a gender convergence hypothesis that states that migration to a modern ‘open’ society offers women the opportunity to improve their position relative to tha

  11. Motorized Migrations: the Future or Mere Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Clegg, K.R.; Duff, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In 15 experiments from 1993-2002, we led cranes, geese, or swans on their first southward migration with either ultralight aircraft or vehicles on the ground. These experiments reveal that large birds can be readily trained to follow and most will return north (and south) in subsequent migrations unassisted. These techniques can now be used to teach birds new (or forgotten) migration paths. Although we are constantly improving our training techniques, we now have an operational program that can be broadly applied to those species where juveniles learn migration routes from their parents.

  12. Visualizing Internet routing changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Mohit; Massey, Dan; Zhang, Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Today's Internet provides a global data delivery service to millions of end users and routing protocols play a critical role in this service. It is important to be able to identify and diagnose any problems occurring in Internet routing. However, the Internet's sheer size makes this task difficult. One cannot easily extract out the most important or relevant routing information from the large amounts of data collected from multiple routers. To tackle this problem, we have developed Link-Rank, a tool to visualize Internet routing changes at the global scale. Link-Rank weighs links in a topological graph by the number of routes carried over each link and visually captures changes in link weights in the form of a topological graph with adjustable size. Using Link-Rank, network operators can easily observe important routing changes from massive amounts of routing data, discover otherwise unnoticed routing problems, understand the impact of topological events, and infer root causes of observed routing changes.

  13. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  14. Summable series and convergence factors

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Charles N

    1938-01-01

    Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that

  15. The Convergent Learning Space:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering

    2013-01-01

    is described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources......This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress......, trajectories of participation etc. calls for new action and new pedagogies by teachers in order to secure alignment between students’ worlds and expectations and aims and plans of the teacher. Action research methods are being used to define and test the constituents and variables of the convergent learning...

  16. Subsequential Convergence Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Çanak

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Let (un be a sequence of real numbers and let L be any (C,1 regular limitable method. We prove that, under some assumptions, if a sequence (un or its generator sequence (Vn(0(Δu generated regularly by a sequence in a class 𝒜 of sequences is a subsequential convergence condition for L, then for any integer m≥1, the mth repeated arithmetic means of (Vn(0(Δu, (Vn(m(Δu, generated regularly by a sequence in the class 𝒜(m, is also a subsequential convergence condition for L.

  17. Convergence Reflects Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Competition has been playing a dominant role among telecommunication equipment manufacturers. In 2006, however, merger overwhelmed competition. In the tide of converging, a large number of equipment manufacturers were involved in mergers. At the same time, telecommunication equipment manufacturers, the most innovative community in the world, drive 3G technology fast in line with its technical roadmap. In addition, Chinese equipment manufacturers cut a figure in world-class telecommunication markets, whic...

  18. IT Convergence and Security 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kyung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.

  19. [Internal migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  20. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  1. Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…

  2. Routing on Metacyclic Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Xiao

    2002-01-01

    Wu, Lakshmivarahan and Dhall[5] recently described a deterministic, distributed routing scheme for some special classes of metacyclic graphs. However they have no proof of correctness that the scheme is a shortest path routing algorithm. In the note we give a suboptimal, deterministic routing algorithm.

  3. Intraosseous (IO) route .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All drugs and fluids given via intravenous route were safely given through IO route with superior to ... was used widely during the Korean War, In 1950-1960. Intravenous ... In this article a brief review and analysis of cases managed by IO route ...

  4. IMS based WLAN/3G convergence and advanced mobility features

    OpenAIRE

    MANI, Mehdi; Crespi, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we define new strategies for WLAN 802.11 and 3G convergence based on the service delivery infra-structure proposed by IMS. These strategies are beyond the 3GPP solutions for WLAN access to the IMS. Our main aim from this convergence is to introduce new services such as session mobility/splitting and intelligent call routing between these two access technologies. To this end, we extend the IMS policy based admission control architecture and adapt it to the different characteris...

  5. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...

  6. Medialogy - convergence and transdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    for changes in society, developments in taste etc.  However, it certainly seems fair to say, that available technology makes a great difference to the development of any art form or practice. With the up rise of new educations such as Medialogy, new aspects of convergence and different forms...... of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is a pre-requisite for both researchers and students. In this talk we will demonstrate our approach through concrete examples of student productions and projects. We will also display the pedagogical method (problem based learning), that enables students to bridge gaps...... between art and science....

  7. Maritime route of colonization of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C.; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  8. Deterministic nanoassembly: Neutral or plasma route?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.; Keidar, M.; Xu, S.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that, owing to selective delivery of ionic and neutral building blocks directly from the ionized gas phase and via surface migration, plasma environments offer a better deal of deterministic synthesis of ordered nanoassemblies compared to thermal chemical vapor deposition. The results of hybrid Monte Carlo (gas phase) and adatom self-organization (surface) simulation suggest that higher aspect ratios and better size and pattern uniformity of carbon nanotip microemitters can be achieved via the plasma route.

  9. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research.

  10. Ant Colony Algorithm for Solving QoS Routing Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-juan; WANG Liang-jun; WANG Ru-chuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the state transition rule, the local updating rule and the global updating rule of ant colony algorithm, we propose an improved ant colony algorithm of the least-cost quality of service (QoS) unicast routing. The algorithm is used for solving the routing problem with delay, delay jitter, bandwidth, and packet loss-constrained. In the simulation, about 52.33% ants find the successful QoS routing , and converge to the best. It is proved that the algorithm is efficient and effective.

  11. FastRoute: An Efficient and High-Quality Global Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern large-scale circuit designs have created great demand for fast and high-quality global routing algorithms to resolve the routing congestion at the global level. Rip-up and reroute scheme has been employed by the majority of academic and industrial global routers today, which iteratively resolve the congestion by recreating the routing path based on current congestion. This method is proved to be the most practical routing framework. However, the traditional iterative maze routing technique converges very slowly and easily gets stuck at local optimal solutions. In this work, we propose a very efficient and high-quality global router—FastRoute. FastRoute integrates several novel techniques: fast congestion-driven via-aware Steiner tree construction, 3-bend routing, virtual capacity adjustment, multisource multi-sink maze routing, and spiral layer assignment. These techniques not only address the routing congestion measured at the edges of global routing grids but also minimize the total wirelength and via usage, which is critical for subsequent detailed routing, yield, and manufacturability. Experimental results show that FastRoute is highly effective and efficient to solve ISPD07 and ISPD08 global routing benchmark suites. The results outperform recently published academic global routers in both routability and runtime. In particular, for ISPD07 and ISPD08 global routing benchmarks, FastRoute generates 12 congestion-free solutions out of 16 benchmarks with a speed significantly faster than other routers.

  12. On the Convergence of Biogeography-Based Optimization for Binary Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogeography-based optimization (BBO is an evolutionary algorithm inspired by biogeography, which is the study of the migration of species between habitats. A finite Markov chain model of BBO for binary problems was derived in earlier work, and some significant theoretical results were obtained. This paper analyzes the convergence properties of BBO on binary problems based on the previously derived BBO Markov chain model. Analysis reveals that BBO with only migration and mutation never converges to the global optimum. However, BBO with elitism, which maintains the best candidate in the population from one generation to the next, converges to the global optimum. In spite of previously published differences between genetic algorithms (GAs and BBO, this paper shows that the convergence properties of BBO are similar to those of the canonical GA. In addition, the convergence rate estimate of BBO with elitism is obtained in this paper and is confirmed by simulations for some simple representative problems.

  13. Convergence as Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2016-01-01

    . The article is based on participant observation of the Blockupy event and interviews with a group of Danish activists who also participated. The article constructs sociospatial narrative that unfolds through three different scales of organization: the Blockupy coalition, the participating formal and informal...... organizations, and the activist subject. This narrative explicates the mode of organization as a ‘convergence space’ (cf. Routledge, 2003), with different ‘roots’ and ‘routes’ of organization (cf. Davies, 2012). Thus, through an analysis of the modes of organization constituting this mass protest event......, this article restates the relevance of the concept of organization, which have recently been ignored or understated in favour of master-narratives of networks or the dichotomy of horizontalism and verticality. It concludes by posing a set of questions for further discussion among both activists...

  14. Homology, convergence and parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2016-01-05

    Homology is a relation of correspondence between parts of parts of larger wholes. It is used when tracking objects of interest through space and time and in the context of explanatory historical narratives. Homologues can be traced through a genealogical nexus back to a common ancestral precursor. Homology being a transitive relation, homologues remain homologous however much they may come to differ. Analogy is a relationship of correspondence between parts of members of classes having no relationship of common ancestry. Although homology is often treated as an alternative to convergence, the latter is not a kind of correspondence: rather, it is one of a class of processes that also includes divergence and parallelism. These often give rise to misleading appearances (homoplasies). Parallelism can be particularly hard to detect, especially when not accompanied by divergences in some parts of the body. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  16. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON'S HAWKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochert, Michael N; Fuller, Mark R; Schueck, Linda S; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    From 1995-1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson's Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson's Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 - 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson's Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km(2) austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson's Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers.

  17. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    In today’s globalized society, transport contributes to our daily life in many different ways. The production of the parts for a shelf ready product may take place on several continents and our travel between home and work, vacation travel and business trips has increased in distance the last......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...

  18. The Convergence in Spatial Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir P. Kulagin; Victor Y. Tsvetkov; Maiya V. Maksimova

    2013-01-01

    The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher ed...

  19. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  20. Route Availabililty Planning Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT) is a weather-assimilated decision support tool (DST) that supports the development and execution of departure management...

  1. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  2. Coarse-Grained Parallel Genetic Algorithm to solve the Shortest Path Routing problem using Genetic operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.PURUSHOTHAM REDDY

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In computer networks the routing is based on shortest path routing algorithms. Based on its advantages, an alternative method is used known as Genetic Algorithm based routing algorithm, which is highly scalable and insensitive to variations in network topology. Here we propose a coarse-grained parallel genetic algorithm to solve the shortest path routing problem with the primary goal of computation time reduction along with the use of migration scheme. This algorithm is developed and implemented on an MPI cluster. The effects of migration and its performance is studied in this paper.

  3. Metabolic constraints on long-distance migration in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The flight range of migrating birds depends crucially on the amount of fuel stored by the bird prior to migration or taken up en route at stop-over sites. However, an increase in body mass is associated with an increase in energetic costs, counteracting the benefit of fuel stores. Water imbalance, o

  4. Population specific migration patterns of a Palearctic-Afrotropical songbird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Tøttrup, Anders P.; Thorup, Kasper

    understanding of entire species migration systems is thus still limited. In this project we analyse the spatio-temporal migration schedule of Red-backed Shrikes, Lanius collurio, using tracking data from individuals originating from geographically distinct breeding populations (Scandinavia, the Netherlands......, Spain and Greece). This will enable us to examine how consistent staging areas and migration routes are being utilised among individuals and populations in time and space throughout the annual migration cycle. If migration has evolved through dispersal of individuals across the Palearctic region from...

  5. DRO: domain-based route optimization scheme for nested mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ming-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The network mobility (NEMO basic support protocol is designed to support NEMO management, and to ensure communication continuity between nodes in mobile networks. However, in nested mobile networks, NEMO suffers from the pinball routing problem, which results in long packet transmission delays. To solve the problem, we propose a domain-based route optimization (DRO scheme that incorporates a domain-based network architecture and ad hoc routing protocols for route optimization. DRO also improves the intra-domain handoff performance, reduces the convergence time during route optimization, and avoids the out-of-sequence packet problem. A detailed performance analysis and simulations were conducted to evaluate the scheme. The results demonstrate that DRO outperforms existing mechanisms in terms of packet transmission delay (i.e., better route-optimization, intra-domain handoff latency, convergence time, and packet tunneling overhead.

  6. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  7. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  8. Bosnia: Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Pavičić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a reprint of a very informative review of migrations in Bosnia published almost 60 years ago. The author first notes that the [Slavic] population that first settled Bosnia spoke variants of the ikavian-ţakavian dialect spoken also in neighbouring parts of Croatia (although the interrogative ča itself was not common. From the 13th century the jekavian-štokavian dialect expanded from the Southeast, from areas in modern Montenegro. This change was greatly due to immigration of Vlachs, who had adopted jekavian-štokavian. Although earlier Vlach immigrants had adopted the indigenous ikavian idiom, as well as associating themselves with Catholicism or with the Patarene Bosnian Church, later arrivals spoke jekavian-štokavian and adhered to Eastern Orthodoxy. In the 14th century the former group, living on both sides of the Neretva valley and in the Dinaric range, expanded to areas of Croatia, whereas the Eastern Vlachs had already established themselves on the left bank of the Drina river. By 1450 all Vlachs in Bosnia spoke jekavian-štokavian. In the 15–16th centuries the Ottomans favoured the settlement of Vlachs in Bosnia. The Vlachs served in Ottoman military structures, provided transportation services and were useful in the integration of conquered western and northwestern lands. In general, the establishment of Ottoman rule in Bosnia induced major changes in the population and in migration flows. The author divides this history into three periods. The first lasted from the initial Ottoman conquests to the wars of 1683–1699. At its start in the 15th century almost all Patarenes adopted Islam, especially in areas where the Bosnian Church was strong, but also in areas where Catholicism dominated, where some Catholics embraced Islam. Conversions of Catholics to Islam intensified in the 16th century and throughout the 17th, to a different degree in various regions: a in Central Bosnia conversion was almost total, b along the Sava

  9. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givnish, Thomas J

    2010-01-14

    Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  10. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  11. Notes on Some Convergences in Riesz Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-jie; AI Fu-ju

    2007-01-01

    An equivalent description of u-uniform convergence is presented first. Then the relations among the order convergence,u-uniform convergence and norm convergence of sequences are discussed in Riesz spaces. An equivalence of the three convergences is brought forward; namely, {fn} is a u-uniform Cauchy sequence. Finally the relations among the three convergences of sequences am also extended to the relations among the convergences of nets in Riesz spaces.

  12. An experimental analysis on OSPF-TE convergence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Kitayama, K.; Cugini, F.; Paolucci, F.; Giorgetti, A.; Valcarenghi, L.; Castoldi, P.

    2008-11-01

    Open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol is commonly used as an interior gateway protocol (IGP) in MPLS and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) networks to determine the topology over which label-switched paths (LSPs) can be established. Traffic-engineering extensions (network states such as link bandwidth information, available wavelengths, signal quality, etc) have been recently enabled in OSPF (henceforth, called OSPF-TE) to support shortest path first (SPF) tree calculation upon different purposes, thus possibly achieving optimal path computation and helping improve resource utilization efficiency. Adding these features into routing phase can exploit the OSPF robustness, and no additional network component is required to manage the traffic-engineering information. However, this traffic-engineering enhancement also complicates OSPF behavior. Since network states change frequently upon the dynamic trafficengineered LSP setup and release, the network is easily driven from a stable state to unstable operating regimes. In this paper, we focus on studying the OSPF-TE stability in terms of convergence time. Convergence time is referred to the time spent by the network to go back to steady states upon any network state change. An external observation method (based on black-box method) is employed to estimate the convergence time. Several experimental test-beds are developed to emulate dynamic LSP setup/release, re-routing upon single-link failure. The experimental results show that with OSPF-TE the network requires more time to converge compared to the conventional OSPF protocol without TE extension. Especially, in case of wavelength-routed optical network (WRON), introducing per wavelength availability and wavelength continuity constraint to OSPF-TE suffers severe convergence time and a large number of advertised link state advertisements (LSAs). Our study implies that long convergence time and large number of LSAs flooded in the network might cause scalability problems in OSPF

  13. Stochastic Engine Convergence Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R

    2001-12-11

    ;'burn-in'' period. The MCMC process begins at a particular state, which is selected at random or by design, according to the wish of the user of the engine. After the burn-in period, the chain has essentially forgotten where it started. Moreover, the sample x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (T{sub 0}+1)},... can be used for most purposes as a random sample from f, even though the x{sup (T{sub 0}+t)}, because of Markovian dependency, are not independent. For example, averages involving x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (t{sub 0}+1)},... may have an approximate normal distribution. The purpose of this note is to discuss the monitoring techniques currently in place in the stochastic engine software that addresses the issues of burn-in, stationarity, and normality. They are loosely termed ''convergence diagnostics'', in reference to the underlying Markov chains, which converge asymptotically to the desired posterior distribution.

  14. The Convergence of Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim

    Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.

  15. CONVERGENCE OF TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Siriram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is a catalyst for competitive advantage. However, it is how technology is used that leads to a firm’s improved performance. In this article, an investigative framework is constructed to understand better what strategically drives new technology adoption. The strategic drivers include technology and business strategy alignment, better technology planning and selection of new technologies, the effects on a firm’s culture and climate, links to a firm’s organisational and environmental evolution, and benefits through convergence and collaboration. Using an investigative framework, it is shown how the strategic drivers link to improve a firm’s performance, producing competitive advantage. The investigative framework is tested using structural equation modelling. Various hypotheses are formed, and recommendations for further research are made.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie is ‘n katalisator vir mededingende voordeel. Dit is egter hoe tegnologie aangewend word wat aanleiding gee tot ‘n onderneming se verbeterde prestasie. In hierdie artikel word ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk gekonstrueer om insig te kry in dit wat die aanvaarding van nuwe tegnologie strategies dryf. Die strategiese dryfvere sluit in die belyning van tegnologie en ondernemingstrategie, beter tegnologiebeplanning en seleksie van nuwe tegnologieë, die effek op ‘n onderneming se kultuur en klimaat, koppeling na ‘n onderneming se organisatoriese en omgewingsevolusie, en voordele verkry deur konvergensie en samewerking. Deur ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk te gebruik, word daar getoon dat die strategiese dryfvere koppel om ‘n onderneming se prestasie te verbeter en sodoende ‘n mededingende voordeel te skep. Die raamwerk word getoets en hipoteses geformuleer waarna aanbevelings oor verdere navorsing aan die hand gedoen word.

  16. Biodistribution of radiolabelled human dendritic cells injected by various routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quillien, Veronique [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Unite de Therapie Cellulaire, Rennes (France); Moisan, Annick; Carsin, Andre; Lesimple, Thierry; Lefeuvre, Claudia; Bertho, Nicolas; Devillers, Anne; Toujas, Louis [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Rennes (France); Adamski, Henri [CHU, Service de Dermatologie, Rennes (France); Leberre, Claudine [Etablissement Francais du Sang (EFS), Rennes (France)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of mature dendritic cells (DCs) injected by various routes, during a cell therapy protocol. In the context of a vaccine therapy protocol for melanoma, DCs matured with Ribomunyl and interferon-gamma were labelled with{sup 111}In-oxine and injected into eight patients along various routes: afferent lymphatic vessel (IL) (4 times), lymph node (IN) (5 times) and intradermally (ID) (6 times). Scintigraphic investigations showed that the IL route allowed localisation of 80% of injected radioactivity in eight to ten nodes. In three cases of IN injection, the entire radioactivity stagnated in the injected nodes, while in two cases, migration to adjacent nodes was observed. This migration was detected rapidly after injection, as with IL injections, suggesting that passive transport occurred along the physiological lymphatic pathways. In two of the six ID injections, 1-2% of injected radioactivity reached a proximal lymph node. Migration was detectable in the first hour, but increased considerably after 24 h, suggesting an active migration mechanism. In both of the aforementioned cases, DCs were strongly CCR7-positive, but this feature was not a sufficient condition for effective migration. In comparison with DCs matured with TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-6 and PGE2, our DCs showed a weaker in vitro migratory response to CCL21, despite comparable CCR7 expression, and higher allostimulatory and TH1 polarisation capacities. The IL route allowed reproducible administration of specified numbers of DCs. The IN route sometimes yielded fairly similar results, but not reproducibly. Lastly, we showed that DCs matured without PGE2 that have in vitro TH1 polarisation capacities can migrate to lymph nodes after ID injection. (orig.)

  17. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  18. A New Route Maintenance in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructureless, self-organizable, multi hop packet switched network. A number of routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed in recent years. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is one of the most popular routing protocol for ad hoc networks. This paper presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Our proposed route maintenance significantly increases the efficiency of the protocol at the time of route failures.

  19. Least-squares Gaussian beam migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Maolin; Huang, Jianping; Liao, Wenyuan; Jiang, Fuyou

    2017-02-01

    A theory of least-squares Gaussian beam migration (LSGBM) is presented to optimally estimate a subsurface reflectivity. In the iterative inversion scheme, a Gaussian beam (GB) propagator is used as the kernel of linearized forward modeling (demigration) and its adjoint (migration). Born approximation based GB demigration relies on the calculation of Green’s function by a Gaussian-beam summation for the downward and upward wavefields. The adjoint operator of GB demigration accounts for GB prestack depth migration under the cross-correlation imaging condition, where seismic traces are processed one by one for each shot. A numerical test on the point diffractors model suggests that GB demigration can successfully simulate primary scattered data, while migration (adjoint) can yield a corresponding image. The GB demigration/migration algorithms are used for the least-squares migration scheme to deblur conventional migrated images. The proposed LSGBM is illustrated with two synthetic data for a four-layer model and the Marmousi2 model. Numerical results show that LSGBM, compared to migration (adjoint) with GBs, produces images with more balanced amplitude, higher resolution and even fewer artifacts. Additionally, the LSGBM shows a robust convergence rate.

  20. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. IP Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco Pinto, Armando

    2002-03-01

    Uyless Black is a widely known expert in computer networks and data communications. He is author of more than ten books in the communication technologies field, which puts him in a good position to address this topic. In IP Routing Protocols he starts by providing the background and concepts required for understanding TCP/IP technology. This is done clearly and assumes little prior knowledge of the area. As might be expected, he emphasizes the IP route discovery problem. Later he details several routing protocols.

  2. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  3. The Convergence in Spatial Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Kulagin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.

  4. PGBR Protocol for Cloud Routing Implementation in NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Tushar Kailas Mendhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current internet infrastructure is fronting a number of boundaries that is not suitable to meet the growing number of services and users. In particular, one aspect that requires enhancement is routing, where original routing concepts were designed for static traffic patterns with minimal variations and supporting mainly low through put traffic (e.g. Data. As the number of users as well as services supporting the user grows, the current routing mechanisms will not be feasible. In this paper we present a gradient based distributed routing technique that is based on discovering routes through a gradient field created in the topology. The gradient calculation is based on weighted sum of a number of components, which modifies the gradient field as the network load changes. An improved version of a fully distributed routing protocol that is applicable for cloud computing infrastructure, also an implementation of the PGBR routing protocol within the ns-3 simulator. Broadband convergence networks can offer a solution for multiple service classes through integrated heterogeneous networks. However, to prepare this for the future variability in traffic demand, a dynamic routing protocol that boosts scalability, QoS awareness, and easy roadmap to deployment if necessary. The implementation using ns-3 simulator can ensure this capability.

  5. Modelling larval transport in a axial convergence front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, P.

    2010-12-01

    Marine larvae exhibit different vertical swimming behaviours, synchronised by factors such as tidal currents and daylight, in order to aid retention near the parent populations and hence promote production, avoid predation, or to stimulate digestion. This paper explores two types of larval migration in an estuarine axial convergent front which is an important circulatory mechanism in many coastal regions where larvae are concentrated. A parallelised, three-dimensional, ocean model was applied to an idealised estuarine channel which was parameterised from observations of an axial convergent front which occurs in the Conwy Estuary, U.K. (Nunes and Simpson, 1985). The model successfully simulates the bilateral cross-sectional recirculation of an axial convergent front, which has been attributed to lateral density gradients established by the interaction of the lateral shear of the longitudinal currents with the axial salinity gradients. On the flood tide, there is surface axial convergence whereas on the ebb tide, there is (weaker) surface divergence. Further simulations with increased/decreased tidal velocities and with stronger/weaker axial salinity gradients are planned so that the effects of a changing climate on the secondary flow can be understood. Three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking Models (PTMs) have been developed which use the simulated velocity fields to track larvae in the estuarine channel. The PTMs take into account the vertical migrations of two shellfish species that are commonly found in the Conwy Estuary: (i) tidal migration of the common shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and (ii), diel (daily) migration of the Great scallop (Pecten maximus). These migration behaviours are perhaps the most widespread amongst shellfish larvae and have been compared with passive (drifting) particles in order to assess their relative importance in terms of larval transport. Preliminary results suggest that the net along-estuary dispersal over a typical larval

  6. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  7. Integrated route analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1981-01-01

    The integrated route analysis provides a data base for the second phase of the Arctic Pilot Project, the selection of a shipping corridor over which LNG icebreaking carriers will transport liquified...

  8. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  9. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  10. Dynamical Convergence Trajectory in Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ning; ZHANG Yun-Jun; OUYANG Qi; GENG Zhi

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is well known that topology and dynamics are two major aspects to determine the function of a network. We study one of the dynamic properties of a network: trajectory convergence, i.e. how a system converges to its steady state. Using numerical and analytical methods, we show that in a logical-like dynamical model, the occurrence of convergent trajectory in a network depends mainly on the type of the fixed point and the ratio between activation and inhibition links. We analytically proof that this property is induced by the competition between two types of state transition structures in phase space: tree-like transition structure and star-like transition structure. We show that the biological networks, such as the cell cycle network in budding yeast, prefers the tree-like transition structures and suggest that this type of convergence trajectories may be universal.

  11. Spaces of Ideal Convergent Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mursaleen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we introduce some sequence spaces using ideal convergence and Musielak-Orlicz function ℳ=Mk. We also examine some topological properties of the resulting sequence spaces.

  12. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuQing; LI LiNa

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved.A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  13. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  14. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  15. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2008-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently solve VRP instances with more than 50-100 customers in reasonable time, which is generally a sma...

  16. Periodic Convergences: Dance and Computers

    OpenAIRE

    deLahunta, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Published in German and English, this chapter is one of deLahunta's major outputs to emerge from a group of related research outputs, concerning "dance and technology". In it he explores the history of the convergence between dance and computers from the 1960s to the 1990s, arguing that this convergence has been periodic, involving particular artists at particular times, rather than producing a genre of work (as others have speculated). As the mainstream of contemporary dance evolved alongsid...

  17. EU Migration Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinschmidt, Harald

    2004-01-01

    I shall confine myself in this paper to international migration as migration across international borders.I do so despite the fact that,still today,international migration accounts only for a small share of migration at large.Likewise,I shall deal widh voluntary migration and shall thus exclude,deportation ...

  18. Dynamic Routing Algorithm for Increasing Robustness in Satellite Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-ni; ZHANG Da-kun

    2008-01-01

    In low earth orbit(LEO)and medium earth orbit(MEO)satellite networks,the network topology changes rapidly because of the high relative speed movement of satellites.When some inter-satellite links (ISLs)fail,they can not be repaired in a short time.In order to increase the robustness for LEO/MEO satellite networks,an effective dynamic routing algorithm is proposed.All the routes to a certain node are found by constructing a destination oriented acyclic directed graph(DOADG)with the node as the destination.In this algorithm,multiple routes are provided,loop-free is guaranteed,and as long as the DOADG maintains,it is not necessary to reroute even if some ISLs fail.Simulation results show that comparing to the conventional routing algorithms,it is more efficient and reliable,costs less transmission overhead and converges faster.

  19. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distribution is proposed in this paper. Taboo search is a metaheuristic search method to perform local search used for logistic optimization. The taboo search is employed to accelerate convergence and the aspiration criterion is combined with the heuristics algorithm to solve routing optimization. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that the optimal routing in the logistic distribution can be quickly obtained by the taboo search algorithm

  20. Multicast Routing Problem Using Tree-Based Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sardarpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of QoS multicast routing is to find a multicast tree with the least expense/cost which would meet the limitations such as band width, delay and loss rate. This is a NP-Complete problem. To solve the problem of multicast routing, the entire routes from the source node to every destination node are often recognized. Then the routes are integrated and changed into a single multicast tree. But they are slow and complicated methods. The present paper introduces a new tree-based optimization method to overcome such weaknesses. The recommended method directly optimizes the multicast tree. Therefore a tree-based typology including several spanning trees is created which combines the trees two by two. For this purpose, the Cuckoo Algorithm is used which is proved to be well converged and makes quick calculations. The simulation conducted on different types of network typologies proved that it is a practical and influential algorithm.

  1. Measure theory of statistical convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG LiXin; LIN GuoChen; LAN YongYi; LIU Hui

    2008-01-01

    The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.

  2. Measure theory of statistical convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra A of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set S of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on A forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.

  3. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    experiments with real vehicle trajectory data and an existing online navigation service. It is found that the availability of information about previous trips enables better prediction of route travel time and makes it possible to provide the users with more popular routes than does a conventional navigation...... of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...

  4. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

  5. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varyi...

  6. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  7. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  8. A NEW GENETIC SIMULATED ANNEALING ALGORITHM FOR FLOOD ROUTING MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Ling; WANG Cheng; JIANG Tie-bing

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach, the Genetic Simulated Annealing (GSA), was proposed for optimizing the parameters in the Muskingum routing model. By integrating the simulated annealing method into the genetic algorithm, the hybrid method could avoid some troubles of traditional methods, such as arduous trial-and-error procedure, premature convergence in genetic algorithm and search blindness in simulated annealing. The principle and implementing procedure of this algorithm were described. Numerical experiments show that the GSA can adjust the optimization population, prevent premature convergence and seek the global optimal result.Applications to the Nanyunhe River and Qingjiang River show that the proposed approach is of higher forecast accuracy and practicability.

  9. Routing Physarum with electrical flow/current

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Adamatzky, Andrew; Mills, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium stage of Physarum polycephalum behaves as a distributed dynamical pattern formation mechanism who's foraging and migration is influenced by local stimuli from a wide range of attractants and repellents. Complex protoplasmic tube network structures are formed as a result, which serve as efficient `circuits' by which nutrients are distributed to all parts of the organism. We investigate whether this `bottom-up' circuit routing method may be harnessed in a controllable manner as a possible alternative to conventional template-based circuit design. We interfaced the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum to the planar surface of the spatially represented computing device, (Mills' Extended Analog Computer, or EAC), implemented as a sheet of analog computing material whose behaviour is input and read by a regular 5x5 array of electrodes. We presented a pattern of current distribution to the array and found that we were able to select the directional migration of the plasmodium growth front by exploiting pla...

  10. Internationalization and migration pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultalahti, O

    1994-01-01

    The author first develops the concept of migration pressure, which is defined as the growth in the number of people wishing to migrate and the barriers preventing them from so doing. Both macro- and micro-level factors affecting migration pressure are identified. Historical trends in migration pressure in Finland are then discussed. The author then applies this concept to the analysis of current Finnish migration trends. The primary focus is on international migration.

  11. Mediterranean Migrations: Regionalisms Versus Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baldwin-Eduards

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the claim of globalisation as a cause ofimmigration into Southern Europe and, on an empirical basis, identifies regionalisation as being the primary issue, along with networked migratory patterns. However, the changing patterns of immigration do present challenges to both state and society. It is argued here that recent policy responses in Portugal, Italy and Spain have been inconsistent and irrational – reflecting more the ‘securitisation’ of migration than European reality. Earlier policy innovations are identified, by country and date: most of these have now been abandoned. It is suggested that all of Southern Europe has converged onto a statist, restrictionist model of immigration control that was formerly held only by Greece. The principal characteristics of this model are outlined, along with a migration flowchart and indicative data for migrant flows and sub-flows in Italy and Spain. In the final section, I try to show that the needs of the economy cannot be predicted, immigration cannot becontrolled in the manner currently being enforced across Southern Europe, and attempts to do so will damage rather than improve economic productivity and growth. The concept of an accomodating immigration policy is advanced, whereby the state tries to manage the needs of both employers and potential migrants. Six guidelines for policy development are suggested – most of which have alreadybeen successfully carried out in the European Union. These are the following: migration in order to find a job; circular cross-border migration; EU level negotiation of readmission agreements; the need for a variety of migration-for-employment schemes; legal residence should not depend upon continuity of employment; and discreet legalisation will still be needed in Southern Europe.

  12. Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.

  13. Location-routing problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporte, G.

    1987-01-01

    Location-routing problems involve simultaneously locating a number of facilities among candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. This paper presents a survey of such problems. It includes some applications and examples of location-routing problems, a description of the main heuristics that have been developed for such problems, and reviews of various formulations and algorithms used in solving these problems. A more detailed review is given of exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, three-index vehicle flow formulations, and two-index vehicle flow formulations and algorithms for symmetrical and non-symmetrical problems. It is concluded that location-routing problem research is a fast-growing area, with most developments occurring over the past few years; however, research is relatively fragmented, often addresses problems which are too specific and contains several voids which have yet to be filled. A number of promising research areas are identified. 137 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  15. 不同移植途径对大鼠骨髓干细胞迁移至肝脏及分化的影响%Study on migration and differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells to hepatocytes under three different routes of transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿莹; 韩明子; 洪钰; 金世柱; 孙立影

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the migration and differentiation of rat bone rnarmw stem cells to liver under three different routes of transplantation.Methods Intragastric administration was taken to 30 SD rats with CCl4-AAF by which the acute hepatic injured models were made.Bone marrow mononuclear cells which were lsolated from bone marrow with lymphocyte separating medium were labeled by PKH26.The rats were divided into 3 groups.The rats in portal vein-transDlanted group anesthetized were autotransplanted with 0.4 ml bone marrow stem cells suspension via portal vein.The rats in tail vein-transplanted group were autotransplanted with 0.4 ml bone marrow stam cells suspenslon via tail vein.The central sections were made on the abdomen of the rats in hepatic artery-transplanted group to expose the hepatic artery.The distal end of the gastroduodenal arterv was ligated and the blood flow of the common hepatic artery was cut by clamp 0.4 ml bone marrow stem cells suspension was injected In front of ligation of the gastroduodenal artery.Two weeks after transPlantion,the liver tissues were taken from the rats of every group and cut into frozen sections.The immunohistochemistry staining by fluorescein isothiocyanate was done to the sections for detection of the PKH26-labeled cells and the expression of albumin and CK18.Results Red fluorescence of PKH26 in the sections of every group was observed.The number of PKH26-labeled cells in the liver of portal vein-transplanted group,tail vein-transplanted group and hepatic artery-transplanted group was(58.0±2.67),(57.8±3.04)and(58.3±3.52)respectively.There was no significant difference between the groups(P>0.05).The sections in every group expressed albumin and CK18(green fluorescence).The cells expressing red and green fluorescence at the same time were observed under fluorescence microscope(the yellow fluorescence=red fluorescence+the green fluorescence).Conclusion Under injured liver status,bone marrow stem cells of three groups

  16. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  17. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  18. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Starks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.

  19. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vrtanoski, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  20. Are China and Europe converging?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bastianin; Andrea; Cattanceo; Cristina; Markandya; Anil

    2009-01-01

    This analysis aims at giving a flavour of what is happening between the European and Chinese markets with reference to selected energy indicators and economic variables. More precisely the analysis is concerned with the convergence between European countries (EU15 + Norway) and China in terms of both per capita GDP and "sustainability indicators". The variables we refer to as "sustainability indicators" are two: energy intensity (EI) and carbon intensity (CI). The paths of such variables will be investigated both looking at the economy as a whole and by analysing what is happening in three sectors of economic activity, namely industry, agriculture and services. It finds strong evidence of convergence in energy intensity and carbon intensity between the EU and China, with rates fast enough to achieve 90% convergence in a matter of two decades.

  1. Converging Information and Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øst, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    This Ph.D.-project investigates the process of convergence between television and computers. Identifying three “promises of convergence”: interoperability, quality and interactivity, the project examines the key properties of the computer and television sectors, which have had - or are expected...... in the future to have - significant importance to the process and consequences of the convergence. The project focuses on the appliances, i.e. the TV sets, the computers and their peripheral equipment. It also takes into account the infrastructure and signals, which contain and deliver the information...... and communication, as well as the nature of the content and the usage scenarios of consumers....

  2. Statistical convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability

    OpenAIRE

    Pratulananda Das; Sanjoy Ghosal; Sumit Som

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ideas of different types of convergence of a sequence of random variables in probability, namely, statistical convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability, strong $p$-Ces$\\grave{\\mbox{a}}$ro summability of order $\\alpha$ in probability, lacunary statistical convergence or $S_{\\theta}$-convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability, ${N_{\\theta}}$-convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability have been introduced and their certain basic properties have been studied.

  3. Control of convergent yolk syncytial layer nuclear movement in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lara; Stühmer, Jan; Bois, Justin S; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Lecaudey, Virginie; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2009-04-01

    Nuclear movements play an essential role in metazoan development. Although the intracellular transport mechanisms underlying nuclear movements have been studied in detail, relatively little is known about signals from surrounding cells and tissues controlling these movements. Here, we show that, in gastrulating zebrafish embryos, convergence movements of nuclei within the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) are guided by mesoderm and endoderm progenitors migrating along the surface of the yolk towards the dorsal side of the developing gastrula. Progenitor cells direct the convergence movements of internal yolk syncytial nuclei (iYSN) by modulating cortical flow within the YSL in which the iYSN are entrained. The effect of mesoderm and endoderm progenitors on the convergence movement of iYSN depends on the expression of E-cadherin, indicating that adhesive contact between the cells and the YSL is required for the mesendoderm-modulated YSL cortical flow mediating nuclear convergence. In summary, our data reveal a crucial function for cortical flow in the coordination of syncytial nuclear movements with surrounding cells and tissues during zebrafish gastrulation.

  4. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  5. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  6. Vehicle Routing Problem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonči Carić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.

  7. Reliable Internet Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    reconfigurations. Proposals that optimize OSPF or IS-IS link weights with failures in mind, such as [34] and [72], must rely on shortest path IGP routing...tolerant layer 2 data center network fabric. In Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pages 39–50, 2009. [72] A. Nucci, S. Bhattacharyya, N. Taft, and C. Diot. IGP link

  8. Fast emergency paths schema to overcome transient link failures in ospf routing

    CERN Document Server

    Barreto, Fernando; Nacamura, Luiz; 10.5121/ijcnc.2012.4202

    2012-01-01

    A reliable network infrastructure must be able to sustain traffic flows, even when a failure occurs and changes the network topology. During the occurrence of a failure, routing protocols, like OSPF, take from hundreds of milliseconds to various seconds in order to converge. During this convergence period, packets might traverse a longer path or even a loop. An even worse transient behaviour is that packets are dropped even though destinations are reachable. In this context, this paper describes a proactive fast rerouting approach, named Fast Emergency Paths Schema (FEP-S), to overcome problems originating from transient link failures in OSPF routing. Extensive experiments were done using several network topologies with different dimensionality degrees. Results show that the recovery paths, obtained by FEPS, are shorter than those from other rerouting approaches and can improve the network reliability by reducing the packet loss rate during the routing protocols convergence caused by a failure.

  9. Postnatal Migration of Cerebellar Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Ludovic; Bénard, Magalie; Lebon, Alexis; Komuro, Yutaro; Schapman, Damien; Vaudry, Hubert; Vaudry, David; Komuro, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer, and the internal granular layer). During the first two postnatal weeks, saltatory movements, transient stop phases, cell-cell interaction/contact, and degradation of the extracellular matrix mark out the route of cerebellar interneurons, notably granule cells and basket/stellate cells, to their final location. In addition, cortical-layer specific regulatory factors such as neuropeptides (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin) or proteins (tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) have been shown to inhibit or stimulate the migratory process of interneurons. These factors show further complexity because somatostatin, PACAP, or tPA have opposite or no effect on interneuron migration depending on which layer or cell type they act upon. External factors originating from environmental conditions (light stimuli, pollutants), nutrients or drug of abuse (alcohol) also alter normal cell migration, leading to cerebellar disorders. PMID:28587295

  10. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starks, Michael John

    2014-01-01

    abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps a

  11. Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...

  12. System Convergence in Transport Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.

    2010-01-01

    -of-successive-averages (MSA) have been proposed. Convergence of the MSA under fairly weak regularity conditions was shown in Robbins and Monro (1951). The iteration between demand and assignment ? the external equilibrium ? are in many models either decoupled or follow a very simple iteration pattern. However, as demand...

  13. Convergence of a Catalan Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.

  14. Converge, Version 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi Tadj

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intended for college teachers/students, Converge presents a feature that may interest all scientists: it allows an easy export of graphic files to most known word processors, specifically to the ℙ, Version 2.1, a powerful WYSIWYG mathematical word processor.

  15. Exponential convergence rate in entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Fa Chen

    2007-01-01

    The exponential convergence rate in entropy is studied for symmetric forms, with a specia! attention to the Markov chain with a state space having two points only. Some upper and lower bounds of the rate are obtained and five examples with precise or qualitatively exact estimates are presented.

  16. Convergence analysis of cautious control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanxia; GUO Lei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis on stability and convergence of the cautious control, which has advantages over the traditional certainty equivalence adaptive control, since it takes the parameter estimation error into account in the design,and is also one-step-ahead optimal in the mean square sense under Gaussian assumptions.

  17. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and h

  18. Financial Development and Convergence Clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Basturk (Nalan); R. Paap (Richard); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the economic development process, measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), for a large panel of countries. We propose a methodology that identifies groups of countries (convergence clubs) that show similar GDP structures, while allowing for changes in club membersh

  19. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starks, Michael John

    2014-01-01

    abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps

  20. Governing Global Migration

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the global regulative function of migration politics. Its main aim is to rethink migration politics through an engagement with the Foucauldian governmentality perspective, which focuses on the relation between government and thought. A secondary aim is to use this perspective to explore the global description of migration and migration politics which is emerging with the currently evolving global governance of migration. Doing so, it wishes to contribute both to the study ...

  1. Fertility, Migration, and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Consider migration to a higher income region as a human capital investment in which parents bear migration costs and children share returns. Migrants from a population with heterogeneous intergenerational discount rates will be self-selected on intergenerational altruism. Thus, immigrants may be self-selected on fertility. Soviet Jews who migrate to Israel despite high migration costs have significantly more children than members of the same birth cohort who migrate later when costs are low. ...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF RIP-V1 AND OSPF-V2 PROTOCOL WITH CONSIDERATION OF CONVERGENCE CRITERIA AND SENDING PROTOCOLS TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jelodar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Routing Protocols are underlying principles in networks like internet, transport and mobile. Routing Protocols include a series of rules and algorithms that consider routing metric and select the best way for sending healthy data packets from origin to destination. Dynamic routing protocol compatible to topology has a changeable state. RIP and OSPF are dynamic routing protocol that we consider criteria like convergence and sending protocols traffic assessment RIP first version and OSPF second version. By the test we have done on OPNET stimulation we understood that the OSPF protocol was more efficient than RIP protocol.

  3. Growth and convergence in a two-region model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funke, Michael; Strulik, Holger

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact and implications of Korean unification by setting up a two-region endogenous growth model. The numerical solutions are based on the formal analytical model, and have been calibrated so that they reflect the observed features of the North and South Korean economies....... The numerical solutions provide evidence about the speed of convergence and the large amount of interregional transfers that are required to make the North Korean economy economically viable. We also model the impact of foreign aid, migration and borrowing abroad for the transition process...

  4. Heading south or north: novel insights on European silver eel Anguilla anguilla migration in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; Verhelst, Pieterjan; Verhelst, Pieterjan; Deneudt, K.; Goethals, Peter; Moens, Tom; Nagelkerke, Leopold A.J.; Nolting, Carsten; Reubens, Jan; Schollema, Peter Paul; Winter, Hendrik V.; Mouton, Ans

    2016-01-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla L. is a critically endangered fish species that migrates from coastal and freshwater habitats to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. However, the exact migration routes and destination of European eel are still unknown. We are the first to observe southward migrating sil

  5. Charge migration in dicationic electrophiles and its application to the synthesis of aza-polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Kindelin, Patrick J; Klumpp, Douglas A

    2006-03-16

    [reaction: see text] Superacid-promoted reactions of dicationic electrophiles have been studied, and the positive charge centers are found to migrate apart in a predictable manner. Using isotopic labeling the charge migration is found in one system to occur through successive deprotonation-reprotonation steps. The charge migration chemistry is the basis for new general synthetic route to aza-polycyclic aromatic compounds.

  6. Route Repetition and Route Retracing: Effects of Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Malte Wiener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing, the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shifts from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  7. INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELLING APPROACH TO THERMAL REFUGE USE BY MIGRATING ADULT SALMON AND STEELHEAD: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diadromous fish populations in the Pacific Northwest face challenges along their migratory routes from declining habitat quality, harvest, and barriers to longitudinal connectivity. Changes in river temperature regimes are producing an additional challenge for upstream migrating ...

  8. INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELLING APPROACH TO THERMAL REFUGE USE BY MIGRATING ADULT SALMON AND STEELHEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diadromous fish populations in the Pacific Northwest face challenges along their migratory routes from declining habitat quality, harvest, and barriers to longitudinal connectivity. Changes in river temperature regimes are producing an additional challenge for upstream migrating ...

  9. Timing of migration of red salmon along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Various tagging experiments have indicated generally the migration rates and routes of red salmon as they approach Bristol Bay and its spawning tributaries.

  10. Multi-constraint quality of service routing algorithm for dynamic topology networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive multi-QoS routing algorithm called AMQRA is proposed for dynamic topology networks,such as satellite networks and Ad-hoc networks.The AMQRA is a distributed and mobile-agents-based routing algorithm,which combines ant quantity system (AQS) with ant colony optimization (ACO) that is used in AntNet routing algorithm.In dynamic topology networks,the AMQRA achieves timely optimization for concave metric QoS constraint and fast convergence.The proposed routing algorithm is simulated in Iridium satellite constellation on OPNET.The results show that AMQRA not only outperforms the AntNet in convergence rate in dynamic topology networks but also can optimize concave metric QoS constraint and reasonably allot bandwidth to the load to avoid networks congestion.

  11. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    ) method and then develop a novel on-demand routing system named Cross Entropy Accelerated Ant Routing System (CEAARS) for regular constellation LEO satellite networks. By implementing simulations on an Iridium-like satellite network, we compare the proposed CEAARS algorithm with the two approaches to adaptive routing protocols on the Internet: distance-vector (DV) and link-state (LS), as well as with the original Cross Entropy Ant Routing System (CEARS). DV algorithms are based on distributed Bellman Ford algorithm, and LS algorithms are implementation of Dijkstras single source shortest path. The results show that CEAARS not only remarkably improves the convergence speed of achieving optimal or suboptimal paths, but also reduces the number of overhead ants (management packets).

  12. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  13. Timescale bias in measuring river migration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, M.; Belmont, P.; Notebaert, B.

    2016-12-01

    River channel migration plays an important role in sediment routing, water quality, riverine ecology, and infrastructure risk assessment. Migration rates may change in time and space due to systematic changes in hydrology, sediment supply, vegetation, and/or human land and water management actions. The ability to make detailed measurements of lateral migration over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales has been enhanced from increased availability of historical landscape-scale aerial photography and high-resolution topography (HRT). Despite a surge in the use of historical and contemporary aerial photograph sequences in conjunction with evolving methods to analyze such data for channel change, we found no research considering the biases that may be introduced as a function of the temporal scales of measurement. Unsteady processes (e.g.; sedimentation, channel migration, width changes) exhibit extreme discontinuities over time and space, resulting in distortion when measurements are averaged over longer temporal scales, referred to as `Sadler effects' (Sadler, 1981; Gardner et al., 1987). Using 12 sets of aerial photographs for the Root River (Minnesota), we measure lateral migration over space (110 km) and time (1937-2013) assess whether bias arises from different measurement scales and whether rates shift systematically with increased discharge over time. Results indicate that measurement-scale biases indeed arise from the time elapsed between measurements. We parsed the study reach into three distinct reaches and examine if/how recent increases in river discharge translate into changes in migration rate.

  14. Wnt5a uses CD146 as a receptor to regulate cell motility and convergent extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhongde; Zhang, Chunxia; Tu, Tao; Sun, Min; Liu, Dan; Lu, Di; Feng, Jing; Yang, Dongling; Liu, Feng; Yan, Xiyun

    2013-12-01

    Dysregulation of Wnt signalling leads to developmental defects and diseases. Non-canonical Wnt signalling via planar cell polarity proteins regulates cell migration and convergent extension; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we report that Wnt5a uses CD146 as a receptor to regulate cell migration and zebrafish embryonic convergent extension. CD146 binds to Wnt5a with the high affinity required for Wnt5a-induced activation of Dishevelled (Dvl) and c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK). The interaction between CD146 and Dvl2 is enhanced on Wnt5a treatment. Mutation of the Dvl2-binding region impairs its ability to activate JNK, promote cell migration and facilitate the formation of cell protrusions. Knockdown of Dvls impairs CD146-induced cell migration. Interestingly, CD146 inhibits canonical Wnt signalling by promoting β-catenin degradation. Our results suggest a model in which CD146 acts as a functional Wnt5a receptor in regulating cell migration and convergent extension, turning off the canonical Wnt signalling branch.

  15. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    with the emergence of remote service provision, such as supervision and control of decentralized heating facilities and wind based electrical power production. The reliability issue is addressed from a structural viewpoint, where the concept of Structural QoS (SQoS) is defined to support reliability modelling...... in communication infrastructures. A graph theoretical approach is presented as an approach to reliability management in complex communication infrastructures. Real life examples are provided and specific problems are presented and discussed. Wireless technologies are discussed as a complement, providing not only...

  16. convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Kolev

    2003-01-01

    placing n labeled balls into N labeled cells. We study the asymptotic behavior of the number of empty cells when (n,N belongs to the “right” and “left” domain of attraction. An application to the estimation of characteristics of agreement among a set of raters which independently classify subjects into one of two categories is also indicated. The case when a large number of raters acts following the zero-inflated binomial law with small probability for positive diagnosis is treated using the zero-inflated Poisson approximation.

  17. Quantifying convergence in the sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lumbreras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional epistemological models classify knowledge into separate disciplines with different objects of study and specific techniques, with some frameworks even proposing hierarchies (such as Comte’s. According to thinkers such as John Holland or Teilhard de Chardin, the advancement of science involves the convergence of disciplines. This proposed convergence can be studied in a number of ways, such as how works impact research outside a specific area (citation networks or how authors collaborate with other researchers in different fields (collaboration networks. While these studies are delivering significant new insights, they cannot easily show the convergence of different topics within a body of knowledge. This paper attempts to address this question in a quantitative manner, searching for evidence that supports the idea of convergence in the content of the sciences themselves (that is, whether the sciences are dealing with increasingly the same topics. We use Latent Dirichlet Analysis (LDA, a technique that is able to analyze texts and estimate the relative contributions of the topics that were used to generate them. We apply this tool to the corpus of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI working papers, which spans research on Complexity Science from 1989 to 2015. We then analyze the relatedness of the different research areas, the rise and demise of these sub-disciplines over time and, more broadly, the convergence of the research body as a whole. Combining the topic structure obtained from the collected publication history of the SFI community with techniques to infer hierarchy and clustering, we reconstruct a picture of a dynamic community which experiences trends, periodically recurring topics, and shifts in the closeness of scholarship over time. We find that there is support for convergence, and that the application of quantitative methods such as LDA to the study of knowledge can provide valuable insights that can help

  18. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  19. Asymptotic traveling wave solution for a credit rating migration problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin; Wu, Yuan; Hu, Bei

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an asymptotic traveling wave solution of a free boundary model for pricing a corporate bond with credit rating migration risk is studied. This is the first study to associate the asymptotic traveling wave solution to the credit rating migration problem. The pricing problem with credit rating migration risk is modeled by a free boundary problem. The existence, uniqueness and regularity of the solution are obtained. Under some condition, we proved that the solution of our credit rating problem is convergent to a traveling wave solution, which has an explicit form. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented.

  20. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated tr

  1. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Tom J; Ramirez, Jorge A; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Brücher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  2. Globalising Chinese Migration: New Spaces, New Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Nyíri

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews new trends in international migration from the People’s Republic of China in the last decade, focusing on two aspects: 1 The geographic expansion and merger of formerly distinct translocal migration flows into a global migration system. It includes the opening up of new migration spaces in Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia; increased mobility between destination countries; and increased interchange between different social strata of migrants, from students to illegal workers; 2 A shift in what the social and cultural meaning of migration is to the migrant, to non-migrants, and to elites, which can be described as “upgrading the migrant” (Wang,1998. Various discourses of migration have converged into a highly success-oriented discourse, which reduces the relevance of social background and path of migration. The People’s Republic of China imbues this discourse with tropes of patriotism and development. Concerning the first aspect, the paper problematises the distinction of flows of legal and illegal migrants, students, tourists, and workers, and calls for a holistic approach in studying the configuration of current migration from the PRC. Concerning the second aspect, the paper questions the persistent theory that the PRC as an entity supports emigration, and points out the conflicting interests of various levels and organisations within the state apparatus. At the same time, it recognises that the PRC, like other states, is currently enjoying a honeymoon with state-sanctioned transnationalism, in which migrants are often being more engaged into nation-building and enfranchised as political citizens than are rural non-migrants.

  3. Proliferating Connections and Communicating Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylish Wood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the work of Niklas Luhmann to explore what pressure the concept of convergence exerts over how we communicate about the changing expressive practices of digital games following the emergence of digital technologies. My claim will be that in its current form, convergence privileges either the human users of technological platforms, or the combination of aesthetic conventions from different media what connects is either the user or the aesthetic code. While neither of these two positions would be likely to deny a reliance on the interplay between humans and technologies, such an interplay is taken for granted rather than explored. By using Luhmann’s version of systems theory, I argue that we can more effectively grasp the interplay of human and technological participants by understanding their combined roles in changing expressive practices.

  4. Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric

    How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).

  5. Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Sunagar, Kartik; Arbuckle, Kevin; Wüster, Wolfgang; Lo, Nathan; O’Meally, Denis; Beckmann, Christa; King, Glenn F.; Deplazes, Evelyne; Madsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The question about whether evolution is unpredictable and stochastic or intermittently constrained along predictable pathways is the subject of a fundamental debate in biology, in which understanding convergent evolution plays a central role. At the molecular level, documented examples of convergence are rare and limited to occurring within specific taxonomic groups. Here we provide evidence of constrained convergent molecular evolution across the metazoan tree of life. We show that resistance to toxic cardiac glycosides produced by plants and bufonid toads is mediated by similar molecular changes to the sodium-potassium-pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) in insects, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. In toad-feeding reptiles, resistance is conferred by two point mutations that have evolved convergently on four occasions, whereas evidence of a molecular reversal back to the susceptible state in varanid lizards migrating to toad-free areas suggests that toxin resistance is maladaptive in the absence of selection. Importantly, resistance in all taxa is mediated by replacements of 2 of the 12 amino acids comprising the Na+/K+-ATPase H1–H2 extracellular domain that constitutes a core part of the cardiac glycoside binding site. We provide mechanistic insight into the basis of resistance by showing that these alterations perturb the interaction between the cardiac glycoside bufalin and the Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, similar selection pressures have resulted in convergent evolution of the same molecular solution across the breadth of the animal kingdom, demonstrating how a scarcity of possible solutions to a selective challenge can lead to highly predictable evolutionary responses. PMID:26372961

  6. Effective local dynamic routing strategy for air route networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wenjun; Zhao Lingxi

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of air transportation, network service ability has attracted a lot of attention in academe. Aiming to improve the throughput of the air route network (ARN), we propose an effective local dynamic routing strategy in this paper. Several factors, such as the rout-ing distance, the geographical distance and the real-time local traffic, are taken into consideration. When the ARN is in the normal free-flow state, the proposed strategy can recover the shortest path routing (SPR) strategy. When the ARN undergoes congestion, the proposed strategy changes the paths of flights based on the real-time local traffic information. The throughput of the Chinese air route network (CARN) is evaluated. Results confirm that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the throughput of CARN. Meanwhile, the increase in the average flying distance and time is tiny. Results also indicate the importance of the distance related factors in a routing strategy designed for the ARN.

  7. Optimality Functions and Lopsided Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    Problems involving functions defined in terms of integrals or optimization problems (as the maxi - mization in Example 3), functions defined on infinite...optimization methods in finite time. The key technical challenge associate with the above scheme is to establish ( weak ) consistency. In the next...Theorem 4.3. In view of this result, it is clear that ( weak ) consistency will be ensured by epi-convergence of the approximating objective functions and

  8. ACCOUNTING CONVERGENCE ON ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLBAN ONCIOIU IONICA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available If normalization accounting is the process of harmonizing the presentation of financial statements, accounting methods and terminology, accounting convergence is the process by which accounting standards are developed in a way that is able to lead to the same fact or purpose, by highlighting the similarity of national - regional - international. This paper put in light the importance of the normalization and harmonization process, what its done in and what we have to do for that in Romania.

  9. Return migration to Italy and labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, C

    1983-01-01

    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  10. Surface meshing with curvature convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Convergences and divergences in mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdel Omran's 1971 theory of "Epidemiologic Transition" was the first attempt to account for the extraordinary advances in health care made in industrialized countries since the 18th century. In the framework of the Demographic Transition, it implied a general convergence of life expectancies toward a limit imposed by the new epidemiological features of modern societies. However, important failures, occurred in the past decades (mainly the health crisis in Eastern Europe and AIDS in Africa, seem to have stopped that process of convergence. In fact such failures do not really contradict the theory. The latter is much more ruined by the unexpected dramatic improvement in the field of cardiovascular disease experienced since the seventies, which results in a new step of a more general process. On the basis of the broader concept of "Health Transition" initiated by Julio Frenk et al., the present paper tries to rethink the full process in term of divergence/convergence sequences inferred by successive major changes in health technologies and strategies.

  12. CONVERGENCE THEOREMS FOR THE AOR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 王广彬

    2002-01-01

    Practical sufficient conditions for the convergence of the AOR method and a practical sufficient condition for H-matrices are studied. The obtained convergence conditions suited to matrices which need not to be diagonally dominant.

  13. User Configurations and Convergence in Consumer Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    Convergence has been a technical fix motivated by the digital developments in media technologies.......Convergence has been a technical fix motivated by the digital developments in media technologies....

  14. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  15. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  16. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří

    2016-02-12

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  17. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  18. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  19. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  20. Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.

  1. TAUBERIAN THEOREMS FOR WEAK ALMOST CONVERGENT FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Kuang Kuo

    2011-01-01

    The almost convergent function which was introduced by Raimi [6] and dis- cussed by Ho [4], Das and Nanda [2, 3], is the continuous analogue of almost convergent sequences (see [5]). In this paper, we establish the Tauberian conditions and the Cauchy criteria for weak almost convergent functions on R2+.

  2. Behaviour of stocked and naturally recruited European eels during migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Håkan; Sjöberg, Niklas; Lagenfelt, Ingvar

    2014-01-01

    behaviour could be monitored by acoustic tagging, in addition to using archival and satellite tags to track the subsequent marine migration. In the second year, the eels were released on the open coast and only their marine migration was investigated. Eels were tracked more than 2000 km along a route that...... undertook a series of tagging experiments using satellite tags, data storage tags and acoustic tags to test the hypothesis that eels translocated 1200 km from the UK to Sweden differed in their ability to migrate compared to naturally recruited eels. Eels to be tagged were caught in two locations: one...

  3. Migration and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  4. More Myths of Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Linda; Lerner, Gail

    1986-01-01

    Challenges "myths" about women and migration, including (1) the causes of migration are economic, not racism; (2) migrant women receive support from feminist groups and trade unions; (3) transnational corporations are positive forces in developing nations; (4) migration today has little impact on family life; and (5) most migrants cluster in…

  5. Migration and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Søren

    We live in an age of migration and more and more authors have migrant backgrounds. Migration and Literature offers a thorough and thought provoking examination of the thematic and formal role of migration in four contemporary and canonized novelists, Günter Grass, Milan Kundera, Salman Rushdie...

  6. Storage and flood routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  7. Behavioural risk factors in two generations of non-Western migrants: do trends converge towards the host population?

    OpenAIRE

    Hosper, K.; Nierkens, V.; Nicolaou, M; Stronks, K

    2007-01-01

    Migrant mortality does not conform to a single pattern of convergence towards prevalence rates in the host population. To understand better how migrant mortality develops, it is necessary to further investigate how the underlying behavioural determinants change following migration. We studied whether the prevalence of behavioural risk factors over two generations of Turkish and Moroccan migrants converge towards the prevalence rates in the Dutch population. From a random sample from the popul...

  8. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  9. Optimal migration energetics of humpback whales and the implications of disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Janelle E; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Hipsey, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Whales migrate long distances and reproduce on a finite store of energy. Budgeting the use of this limited energy reserve is an important factor to ensure survival over the period of migration and to maximize reproductive investment. For some whales, migration routes are closely associated with coastal areas, exposing animals to high levels of human activity. It is currently unclear how various forms of human activity may disturb whales during migration, how this might impact their energy balance and how this could translate into long-term demographic changes. Here, we develop a theoretical bioenergetic model for migrating humpback whales to investigate the optimal migration strategy that minimizes energy use. The average migration velocity was an important driver of the total energy used by a whale, and an optimal velocity of 1.1 m s(-1) was determined. This optimal velocity is comparable to documented observed migration speeds, suggesting that whales migrate at a speed that conserves energy. Furthermore, the amount of resting time during migration was influenced by both transport costs and feeding rates. We simulated hypothetical disturbances to the optimal migration strategy in two ways, by altering average velocity to represent changes in behavioural activity and by increasing total travelled distance to represent displacement along the migration route. In both cases, disturbance increased overall energy use, with implications for the growth potential of calves.

  10. Live Migration Downtime Analysis of a VNF Guest for a Proposed Optical FMC Network Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Autenrieth, A.; Pachnicke, S.

    2016-01-01

    migration over a dedicated connection yielded zero downtime and met a benchmark delay. The following scenario, where the ongoing connection is re-routed on a different optical path, shows the successful completion of the migration with an increase in delay of 2.4 seconds (22% higher than the benchmark...

  11. WLCI researchers employ new approaches to help managers conserve deer migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leslie A.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, moose, and bighorn sheep are iconic animals of the American West. These hooved animals, known as ungulates, commonly travel 30–60 miles between seasonal ranges. These migrations between winter and summer ranges are vital for survival and reproduction. As habitat fragmentation continues, the conservation of ungulate migration routes has received considerable attention in the West and across the globe. For example, it is estimated that many ungulate migration routes in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem have already been lost. The traditional migration routes of Wyoming ungulates are threatened by unprecedented levels of energy development and by increasing levels of rural ranchette development (including fences, structures, and roads). In the past, migration corridors have been mapped based primarily on the expert opinions of state game managers, but long-term conservation of Wyoming's ungulate migration routes requires a better understanding of migration ecology and more sophisticated management tools. Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) researchers investigated the migration of a large mule deer herd across the Dad and Wild Horse winter ranges in southwest Wyoming, where 2,000 gas wells and 1,609 kilometers of pipelines and roads have been proposed for development.

  12. Satellite tracking of two Montagu's Harriers (Circus pygargus) : Dual pathways during autumn migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Koks, Ben J.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Dijkstra, Cor; Bairlein, Franz

    2007-01-01

    Autumn migration routes of two Dutch female Montagu's Harriers (Circus pygargus) were documented for the first time using satellite telemetry. Both migrated to their African wintering area-one via the Straits of Gibraltar through the Mediterranean and the other via Italy/Tunisia. The rate of travel

  13. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  14. Stent migration during transcatheter management of coarctation of aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Bhava R J; Srinivasan, Muthusamy

    2012-02-15

    A 13-year-old girl underwent endovascular stent placement for coarctation of aorta. The fully expanded stent migrated to ascending aorta which could be stabilized, recrimped, and repositioned with a 20-mm goose neck snare. Postdilatation was performed from the left brachial route resulting in a good outcome.

  15. A Monarch Butterfly Optimization for the Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP is a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP in which customers appear dynamically. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total travel distance. In this paper, we propose a monarch butterfly optimization (MBO algorithm to solve DVRPs, utilizing a greedy strategy. Both migration operation and the butterfly adjusting operator only accept the offspring of butterfly individuals that have better fitness than their parents. To improve performance, a later perturbation procedure is implemented, to maintain a balance between global diversification and local intensification. The computational results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the existing approaches in the literature for average performance by at least 9.38%. In addition, 12 new best solutions were found. This shows that this proposed technique consistently produces high-quality solutions and outperforms other published heuristics for the DVRP.

  16. Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Friedman, S. T.

    2016-01-26

    © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. Journal of Evolutionary Biology

  17. Weak* convergence of operator means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Alexandr V [Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-31

    For a linear operator U with ||U'n||{<=}const on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T{sub {alpha}} corresponding to the adjoint operator U* of U in the W*O-topology of the space EndX*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in EndX*, which is the kernel of the operator, where {Gamma}{sub 0}={l_brace}U{sub n}*, n{>=}0{r_brace}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T{sub {alpha}} weakly* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C({Omega}) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation {phi} of a metrizable compactum {Omega} we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and {Gamma}={Gamma}-bar{sub 0}, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade ({phi},{Omega}). In particular, if cardL=1, then a) for any {omega} element of {Omega} the closure of the trajectory {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}{omega}, n{>=}0{r_brace} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction ({phi},m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the W*O-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T{sub n} element of EndX* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E({phi},{Omega}) contains elements obtained from the 'basis' family of transformations {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}, n{>=}0{r_brace} of the compact set {Omega} by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.

  18. Hidden haemosporidian infections in Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) staging in Northwest Europe en route from Africa to Arctic Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, Luisa; Pardal, Sara; Morais, Joana; Antunes, Sandra; Ramos, Jaime A.; Perez-Tris, Javier; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    In their African freshwater wintering habitats, shorebirds show a high prevalence of blood parasites, whereas no parasites are detected elsewhere along the migration route. We looked at two genera of haemosporidian parasites, Haemoproteus and Plasmodium, in the long-distance migrating Ruff (Philomac

  19. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Route width. (a) Routes and route segments over Federal airways, foreign airways, or advisory routes have a width equal to the designated width of those airways or advisory routes. Whenever the... clearance. (2) Minimum en route altitudes. (3) Ground and airborne navigation aids. (4) Air traffic density...

  20. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  1. SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.

  2. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Koussis; K. Mazi; S. Lykoudis; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing...

  3. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    migratory insectivores, common swift and common cuckoo. All species breed in North Europe and winter in sub-Saharan Africa, but estimating their spatiotemporal non-breeding distributions from observations is complicated by the occurrence of similar local African species. We used geolocators to track...... the annual migrations of nightjars and swifts and compared these with satellite tracking of cuckoo migration. Results: Individuals of the three species migrated to wintering grounds centered in Central Africa, except some common swifts that remained in West Africa, crossing or circumventing the Sahara along...... different routes in spring and fall. Overall, all species showed similar regional and seasonal use of several stopover areas during migration. Among the three species, European nightjars and common cuckoos showed the most similar spatiotemporal migration patterns. The nightjars wintered in SW Central Africa...

  4. Privacy-Preserving Interdomain Routing at Internet Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asharov Gilad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP computes routes between the organizational networks that make up today’s Internet. Unfortunately, BGP suffers from deficiencies, including slow convergence, security problems, a lack of innovation, and the leakage of sensitive information about domains’ routing preferences. To overcome some of these problems, we revisit the idea of centralizing and using secure multi-party computation (MPC for interdomain routing which was proposed by Gupta et al. (ACM HotNets’12. We implement two algorithms for interdomain routing with state-of-the-art MPC protocols. On an empirically derived dataset that approximates the topology of today’s Internet (55 809 nodes, our protocols take as little as 6 s of topology-independent precomputation and only 3 s of online time. We show, moreover, that when our MPC approach is applied at country/region-level scale, runtimes can be as low as 0.17 s online time and 0.20 s pre-computation time. Our results motivate the MPC approach for interdomain routing and furthermore demonstrate that current MPC techniques are capable of efficiently tackling real-world problems at a large scale.

  5. Pointwise convergence of Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Arias de Reyna, Juan

    2002-01-01

    This book contains a detailed exposition of Carleson-Hunt theorem following the proof of Carleson: to this day this is the only one giving better bounds. It points out the motivation of every step in the proof. Thus the Carleson-Hunt theorem becomes accessible to any analyst.The book also contains the first detailed exposition of the fine results of Hunt, Sjölin, Soria, etc on the convergence of Fourier Series. Its final chapters present original material. With both Fefferman's proof and the recent one of Lacey and Thiele in print, it becomes more important than ever to understand and compare these two related proofs with that of Carleson and Hunt. These alternative proofs do not yield all the results of the Carleson-Hunt proof. The intention of this monograph is to make Carleson's proof accessible to a wider audience, and to explain its consequences for the pointwise convergence of Fourier series for functions in spaces near $äcal Lü^1$, filling a well-known gap in the literature.

  6. A pilgrim's progress: Seeking meaning in primordial germ cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú, Andrea V; Laird, Diana J

    2017-07-18

    Comparative studies of primordial germ cell (PGC) development across organisms in many phyla reveal surprising diversity in the route of migration, timing and underlying molecular mechanisms, suggesting that the process of migration itself is conserved. However, beyond the perfunctory transport of cellular precursors to their later arising home of the gonads, does PGC migration serve a function? Here we propose that the process of migration plays an additional role in quality control, by eliminating PGCs incapable of completing migration as well as through mechanisms that favor PGCs capable of responding appropriately to migration cues. Focusing on PGCs in mice, we explore evidence for a selective capacity of migration, considering the tandem regulation of proliferation and migration, cell-intrinsic and extrinsic control, the potential for tumors derived from failed PGC migrants, the potential mechanisms by which migratory PGCs vary in their cellular behaviors, and corresponding effects on development. We discuss the implications of a selective role of PGC migration for in vitro gametogenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  8. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  9. A Primer of Multicast Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Whereas unicast routing determines a path from one source node to one destination node, multicast routing determines a path from one source to many destinations, or from many sources to many destinations. We survey multicast routing methods for when the set of destinations is static, and for when it is dynamic. While most of the methods we review are tree based, some non-tree methods are also discussed. We survey results on the shape of multicast trees, delay constrained multicast routing, aggregation of multicast traffic, inter-domain multicast, and multicast virtual private networks. We focu

  10. Alternative routes of insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnankutty, Ranjith K; Mathew, Aju; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2009-10-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  11. Narrow-front loop migration in a population of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Tøttrup, Anders P; Vardanis, Yannis; Howey, Paul W; Thorup, Kasper; Wikelski, Martin; Alerstam, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Narrow migration corridors known in diurnal, social migrants such as raptors, storks and geese are thought to be caused by topographical leading line effects in combination with learning detailed routes across generations. Here, we document narrow-front migration in a nocturnal, solitary migrant, the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, using satellite telemetry. We tracked the migration of adult cuckoos from the breeding grounds in southern Scandinavia (n = 8), to wintering sites in south-western Central Africa (n = 6) and back to the breeding grounds (n = 3). Migration patterns were very complex; in addition to the breeding and wintering sites, six different stopover sites were identified during the 16,000 km annual route that formed a large-scale clockwise loop. Despite this complexity, individuals showed surprisingly similar migration patterns, with very little variation between routes. We compared observed tracks with simulated routes based on vector orientation (with and without effects of barriers on orientation and survival). Observed distances between routes were often significantly smaller than expected if the routes were established on the basis of an innate vector orientation programme. Average distance between individuals in eastern Sahel after having migrated more than 5,000 km for example, was merely 164 km. This implies that more sophisticated inherent guiding mechanisms, possibly involving elements of intermediate goal area navigation or more elaborate external cues, are necessary to explain the complex narrow-front migration pattern observed for the cuckoos in this study.

  12. Narrow-front loop migration in a population of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Willemoes

    Full Text Available Narrow migration corridors known in diurnal, social migrants such as raptors, storks and geese are thought to be caused by topographical leading line effects in combination with learning detailed routes across generations. Here, we document narrow-front migration in a nocturnal, solitary migrant, the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, using satellite telemetry. We tracked the migration of adult cuckoos from the breeding grounds in southern Scandinavia (n = 8, to wintering sites in south-western Central Africa (n = 6 and back to the breeding grounds (n = 3. Migration patterns were very complex; in addition to the breeding and wintering sites, six different stopover sites were identified during the 16,000 km annual route that formed a large-scale clockwise loop. Despite this complexity, individuals showed surprisingly similar migration patterns, with very little variation between routes. We compared observed tracks with simulated routes based on vector orientation (with and without effects of barriers on orientation and survival. Observed distances between routes were often significantly smaller than expected if the routes were established on the basis of an innate vector orientation programme. Average distance between individuals in eastern Sahel after having migrated more than 5,000 km for example, was merely 164 km. This implies that more sophisticated inherent guiding mechanisms, possibly involving elements of intermediate goal area navigation or more elaborate external cues, are necessary to explain the complex narrow-front migration pattern observed for the cuckoos in this study.

  13. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  14. Refugee and Forced Migration Studies Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Vibeke

    the research, instruction, whether tradition, hybrid or online, and policy practice in the field of refugee and forced migration studies. The Roundtable will feature the principal collaborators of the ORTT & PF who will outline how they have utilize this new open source website in their research and courses...... developments in communications technologies and the Internet and the proliferation of websites such as the CARFMS – Online Research and Teaching Tool and Practitioners Forum (ORTT & PF) and the Refugee Research Network (RRN), as examples, have contributed to the accessibility of information, knowledge...... and the convergence of expertise amongst practitioners has transformed the nature of both research, teaching and policy-making in the field of refugee and forced migration studies. The amassing of concentrations of detailed information sources on the Internet or “the cloud” has created new modes and methods...

  15. Route Elimination Heuristic for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Csiszár

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a route elimination (RE algorithm for thevehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The problem has two objectives, oneof them is the minimal number of routes the other is the minimal cost. To cope with theseobjectives effectively two-phase solutions are often suggested in the relevant literature. Inthe first phase the main focus is the route elimination, in the second one it is the costreduction. The algorithm described here is a part of a complete VRPWT study. The methodwas developed by studying the graph behaviour during the route elimination. For thispurpose a model -called “Magic Bricks” was developed. The computation results on theSolomon problem set show that the developed algorithm is competitive with the best ones.

  16. An OSPF based UMTS/WLAN Radio over Fiber Convergence Network for Enhanced Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shankar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless community these days debate frequently about convergence (next generation network, a wireless system that is likely to appear after the successful deployment of the current third-generation (3G systems. Towards convergence of various wireless networks, the integration of universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS and wireless local area network (WLAN plays a major role. Enhancing quality of service (QoS in an UMTS/WLAN convergence network is an important issue. This paper proposes radio over fiber (RoF based UMTS/WLAN convergence network using open shortest path first (OSPF protocol for enhanced QoS. In this paper, RoF based convergence network is analysed using routing information protocol (RIP, intermediate system-intermediate system (IS-IS protocol and OSPF protocol, using optimised network engineering tool (OPNET. The simulation results show that the proposed OSPF based convergence network outperforms in QoS compared to existing, RIP and IS-IS based approach.

  17. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  18. Mosaic Convergence of Rodent Dentitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Vincent; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. Conclusion/Significance The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible pathways. Because convergent

  19. Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lazzari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible

  20. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Zisholtz, E.; Hilton, H.

    2010-01-01

    The I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium is a major educational and teaching resource for South Carolina State University, K-12 schools, other universities and the community of Orangeburg and well beyond. The concept of creating a museum with a planetarium on the campus of SC State was ahead of its time. Today scholars are writing about the unity of creative disciplines. Through its integration of the arts, humanities and sciences, the Stanback, the only art museum with a planetarium at any of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one of the few in the nation, stands in the forefront of modern thinking. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science, opening at the I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium in February 2010, will feature the works of Mildred Thompson (1936-2003), a prominent African American artist who worked in the media of painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and photography. Thompson’s artwork shows the strong influences of her interest in physics, astronomy, and metaphysics as well as music and spiritualism. “My work in the visual arts is, and has always been, a continuous search for understanding. It is an expression of purpose and reflects a personal interpretation of the Universe.” Cosmic Convergence will explore the meeting of Art and Science through Mildred Thompson's work and the scientific basis of that work. The paintings and sculptures of the exhibit will be combined with astronomical images showing both the reality and interpretation of the surrounding Universe. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.

  1. Vadose zone flow convergence test suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-05

    Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.

  2. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  3. Many Faces of Migrations

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Antić Gaber; Marko Krevs

    2013-01-01

    Temporary or permanent, local or international, voluntary or forced, legal or illegal, registered or unregistered migrations of individuals, whole communities or individual groups are an important factor in constructing and modifying (modern) societies. The extent of international migrations is truly immense. At the time of the preparation of this publication more than 200 million people have been involved in migrations in a single year according to the United Nations. Furthermore, three time...

  4. Union Dissolution and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Thomas; Mulder, Clara H.; Thomas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND While there is a limited body of research regarding residential mobility and migration following union dissolution, there is a particular dearth of studies that go into detail about the factors that shape how union dissolution may result in long-distance migration. OBJECTIVE This research isolates and identifies the processes that influence inter-state migration in the period immediately following the dissolution of a marital union. METHODS Multilevel logit models of the probabilit...

  5. Malaysia and forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysi...

  6. A FAST CONVERGENT METHOD OF ITERATED REGULARIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaowei; Wu Chuansheng; Wu Di

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fast convergent method of iterated regularization based on the idea of Landweber iterated regularization, and a method for a-posteriori choice by the Morozov discrepancy principle and the optimum asymptotic convergence order of the regularized solution is obtained. Numerical test shows that the method of iterated regu-larization can quicken the convergence speed and reduce the calculation burden efficiently.

  7. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF HENSTOCK INTEGRABLE SEQUENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuisaDiPiazza

    1994-01-01

    Some relationships between pointwise and weak convergence of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions are studied, In particular it is provided an example of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions whose pointwise limit is different from the weak one. By introducing an asymptotic version of the Henstock equiintegrability notion it is given a necessary and sufficient condition in order that a pointwisely convergent sequence of Henstock integrable functions is weakly convergent to its pointwise limit.

  8. Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A; Herbener, E S

    1993-01-01

    This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both variable- and person-centered analyses. The longitudinal evidence does not support the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time. Spouse correlations most likely reflect initial assortment at marriage and not the convergence of phenotypes.

  9. Route-external and route-internal landmarks in route descriptions : Effects of route length and map design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, Hans; Maes, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Landmarks are basic ingredients in route descriptions. They often mark choice points: locations where travellers choose from different options how to continue the route. This study focuses on one of the loose ends in the taxonomy of landmarks. In a memory-based production experiment in which respond

  10. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  11. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  12. An enzymatic route to selenazolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehnke, Jesko; Morawitz, Falk; Bent, Andrew F; Houssen, Wael E; Shirran, Sally L; Fuszard, Matthew A; Smellie, Iain A; Botting, Catherine H; Smith, Margaret C M; Jaspars, Marcel; Naismith, James H

    2013-03-18

    Ringing the changes: Selenazolines have applications in medicinal chemistry, but their synthesis is challenging. We report a new convenient and less toxic route to these heterocycles that starts from commercially available selenocysteine. The new route depends on a heterocyclase enzyme that creates oxazolines and thiazolines from serines/threonines and cysteines.

  13. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  14. Hardware Routing Lookup with SDRAMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a routing lookup architecture, SDIR(SDRAM based Direct Index Routing). With pipeline and interleaving access technique, SDIR can provide scalable lookup speed from 16.7 MPPS(megapacket per second) to 133 MPPS with SDRAM running at 133MHz frequency.

  15. Migration and Its Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vasile Ivanoff

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Migration, as a social phenomenon, has an especially complex character and can be analyzed from the point of view of the state which is the source of the migration as well as from the point of view of the state which is the destination of the migration. Its causes are especially complex but the economic ones are determinant and are fundamentally different of the causes which determine the population to seek refuge in case of armed conflict. The effects of the migration are equally c...

  16. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  17. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  18. Tracking from the tropics reveals behaviour of juvenile songbirds on their first spring migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A McKinnon

    Full Text Available Juvenile songbirds on spring migration travel from tropical wintering sites to temperate breeding destinations thousands of kilometres away with no prior experience to guide them. We provide a first glimpse at the migration timing, routes, and stopover behaviour of juvenile wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina on their inaugural spring migration by using miniaturized archival geolocators to track them from Central America to the U.S. and Canada. We found significant differences between the timing of juvenile migration and that of more experienced adults: juveniles not only departed later from tropical wintering sites relative to adults, they also became progressively later as they moved northward. The increasing delay was driven by more frequent short stops by juveniles along their migration route, particularly in the U.S. as they got closer to breeding sites. Surprisingly, juveniles were just as likely as adults to cross the Gulf of Mexico, an open-water crossing of 800-1000 km, and migration route at the Gulf was not significantly different for juveniles relative to adults. To determine if the later departure of juveniles was related to poor body condition in winter relative to adults, we examined percent lean body mass, fat scores, and pectoral muscle scores of juvenile versus adult birds at a wintering site in Belize. We found no age-related differences in body condition. Later migration timing of juveniles relative to adults could be an adaptive strategy (as opposed to condition-dependent to avoid the high costs of fast migration and competition for breeding territories with experienced and larger adults. We did find significant differences in wing size between adults and juveniles, which could contribute to lower flight efficiency of juveniles and thus slower overall migration speed. We provide the first step toward understanding the "black box" of juvenile songbird migration by documenting their migration timing and en route performance.

  19. Controlled stochastic networks in heavy traffic: Convergence of value functions

    CERN Document Server

    Budhiraja, Amarjit; 10.1214/11-AAP784

    2012-01-01

    Scheduling control problems for a family of unitary networks under heavy traffic with general interarrival and service times, probabilistic routing and an infinite horizon discounted linear holding cost are studied. Diffusion control problems, that have been proposed as approximate models for the study of these critically loaded controlled stochastic networks, can be regarded as formal scaling limits of such stochastic systems. However, to date, a rigorous limit theory that justifies the use of such approximations for a general family of controlled networks has been lacking. It is shown that, under broad conditions, the value function of the suitably scaled network control problem converges to that of the associated diffusion control problem. This scaling limit result, in addition to giving a precise mathematical basis for the above approximation approach, suggests a general strategy for constructing near optimal controls for the physical stochastic networks by solving the associated diffusion control problem...

  20. Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.

  1. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  2. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  3. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have found only limited empirical evidence of welfare state convergence. Moreover, although there are good theoretical reasons both for and against welfare state convergence, there are virtually no studies that have explicitly tested the assumed effects. We argue that the concept....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...... welfare state structures. © The Author(s) 2011....

  4. Stochastic Vehicle Routing with Recourse

    CERN Document Server

    Goertz, Inge Li; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage optimization problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand instantiations, a recourse route is computed -- but costs here become more expensive by a factor lambda. We present an O(log^2 n log(n lambda))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular orienteering, called knapsack rank-function orienteering. We also give a better approximation ratio for knapsack rank-function orienteering than what follows from prior work. Finally, we provide a Unique Games Conjecture based omega(1) hardness of approximation for StochVRP, even on star-like metrics on which our algorithm achieves a logarithmic approximation.

  5. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand...... instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...... orienteering, called knapsack rank-function orienteering. We also give a better approximation ratio for knapsack rank-function orienteering than what follows from prior work. Finally, we provide a Unique Games Conjecture based ω(1) hardness of approximation for StochVRP, even on star-like metrics on which our...

  6. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righton, David; Westerberg, Håkan; Feunteun, Eric; Økland, Finn; Gargan, Patrick; Amilhat, Elsa; Metcalfe, Julian; Lobon-Cervia, Javier; Sjöberg, Niklas; Simon, Janek; Acou, Anthony; Vedor, Marisa; Walker, Alan; Trancart, Thomas; Brämick, Uwe; Aarestrup, Kim

    2016-10-01

    The spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to the Sargasso Sea is one of the greatest animal migrations. However, the duration and route of the migration remain uncertain. Using fishery data from 20 rivers across Europe, we show that most eels begin their oceanic migration between August and December. We used electronic tagging techniques to map the oceanic migration from eels released from four regions in Europe. Of 707 eels tagged, we received 206 data sets. Many migrations ended soon after release because of predation events, but we were able to reconstruct in detail the migration routes of >80 eels. The route extended from western mainland Europe to the Azores region, more than 5000 km toward the Sargasso Sea. All eels exhibited diel vertical migrations, moving from deeper water during the day into shallower water at night. The range of migration speeds was 3 to 47 km day(-1). Using data from larval surveys in the Sargasso Sea, we show that spawning likely begins in December and peaks in February. Synthesizing these results, we show that the timing of autumn escapement and the rate of migration are inconsistent with the century-long held assumption that eels spawn as a single reproductive cohort in the springtime following their escapement. Instead, we suggest that European eels adopt a mixed migratory strategy, with some individuals able to achieve a rapid migration, whereas others arrive only in time for the following spawning season. Our results have consequences for eel management.

  7. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Approved routes and route segments over U.S. Federal airways or foreign airways (and advisory... designated width of those airways or routes. Whenever the Administrator finds it necessary to determine the width of other approved routes, he considers the following: (1) Terrain clearance. (2) Minimum en route...

  8. Quality of Service Routing Strategy Using Supervised Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhaoxia; SUN Yugeng; WANG Zhiyong; SHEN Huayu

    2007-01-01

    A supervised genetic algorithm (SGA) is proposed to solve the quality of service (QoS)routing problems in computer networks. The supervised rules of intelligent concept are introduced into genetic algorithms (GAs) to solve the constraint optimization problem. One of the main characteristics of SGA is its searching space can be limited in feasible regions rather than infeasible regions. The superiority of SGA to other GAs lies in that some supervised search rules in which the information comes from the problems are incorporated into SGA. The simulation results show that SGA improves the ability of searching an optimum solution and accelerates the convergent process up to 20 times.

  9. Polynomial time algorithm for hop-constrained QoS routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shekhar; Saxena, Anil K.

    2003-08-01

    The basis of a QoS-based routing algorithm is a dynamic network dependent cost function that is used to find the optimal or at least a feasible route across the network. However, all QoS-based routing algorithms suffer from a major drawback. The cost function at the core of the algorithms identifies segments of the network where resources are ample and exploits them to the benefit of connections that would otherwise cross a congested portion of the network. Thus, the algorithms consume more resources than Minimum Hop routing would do when the network traffic is non-stationary and heavy. QoS-based routing, thus, wastes resources and performs poorly compared with Minimum Hop routing in the event of congestion. The crux of the discussion is that whatever is gained at low or medium network loads, is offset at high network loads. What is required is a resilient algorithm that either allows the migration of a QoS-based routing algorithm to a Minimum Hop algorithm at high loads or an algorithm that merges Minimum Hop and QoS characteristics. The study opts for the latter approach and proposes and exhibits a hop constrained QoS routing algorithm that outperforms traditional QoS routing algorithms during simulation. This routing technique is based on an approximation algorithm that solves the hop constrained routing problem. The algorithm is derived from a dynamic programming FPAS scheme and finds the shortest walk for a single source destination pair in a graph with restricted number of hops when all the edge costs are non-negative. Simulated results demonstrate that routing technique based on the algorithm is robust to changes in the traffic pattern and consistently outperforms other QoS based routing techniques under heavy load conditions.

  10. Variable detours in long-distance migration across ecological barriers and their relation to habitat availability at ground

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Steffen; Emmenegger, Tamara; Lisovski, Simeon; Amrhein, Valentin; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Liechti, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Migration detours, the spatial deviation from the shortest route, are a widespread phenomenon in migratory species, especially if barriers must be crossed. Moving longer distances causes additional efforts in energy and time, and to be adaptive, this should be counterbalanced by favorable condition en route. We compared migration patterns of nightingales that travelled along different flyways from their European breeding sites to the African nonbreeding sites. We tested for deviations from sh...

  11. Model Migration Schedules

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    This report draws on the fundamental regularity exhibited by age profiles of migration all over the world to develop a system of hypothetical model schedules that can be used in multiregional population analyses carried out in countries that lack adequate migration data.

  12. Migrating Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  13. Migration, klima og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which...

  14. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for

  15. Migrating Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  16. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  17. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu

    2017-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration, using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  18. Samtidskunst og migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...

  19. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for a

  20. One year of migration data for a western yellow-billed cuckoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechrist, Juddson D.; Paxton, Eben H.; Ahlers, Darrell D.; Doster, Robert H.; Ryan, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, we studied the migration of the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo by capturing 13 breeding birds on the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, and attaching a 1.5-g Mk 14-S British Antarctic Survey geolocator to each bird. In 2010, we recaptured one of the cuckoos, enabling us to download its geolocation data. The cuckoo had flown approximately 9500 km during its southward migration, traveling through Central America to winter in portions of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. The spring migration route differed somewhat from the fall route, with the cuckoo bypassing Central America to migrate through the Caribbean. Additionally, it moved between New Mexico and Mexico at the end of summer in 2009 and again in 2010 before being recaptured at its breeding site. Our results, albeit from one individual, hint at a dynamic migration strategy and have broad implications for the ecology and conservation of the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo, a species of conservation concern.

  1. Optimization of Multiple Vehicle Routing Problems using Approximation Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Nallusamy, R; Dhanalaksmi, R; Parthiban, P

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with generating of an optimized route for multiple Vehicle routing Problems (mVRP). We used a methodology of clustering the given cities depending upon the number of vehicles and each cluster is allotted to a vehicle. k- Means clustering algorithm has been used for easy clustering of the cities. In this way the mVRP has been converted into VRP which is simple in computation compared to mVRP. After clustering, an optimized route is generated for each vehicle in its allotted cluster. Once the clustering had been done and after the cities were allocated to the various vehicles, each cluster/tour was taken as an individual Vehicle Routing problem and the steps of Genetic Algorithm were applied to the cluster and iterated to obtain the most optimal value of the distance after convergence takes place. After the application of the various heuristic techniques, it was found that the Genetic algorithm gave a better result and a more optimal tour for mVRPs in short computational time than other Algorit...

  2. Optimization of Multiple Vehicle Routing Problems Using Approximation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nallusamy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with generating of an optimized route for multiple Vehicle routing Problems (mVRP. We used a methodology of clustering the given cities depending upon the number of vehicles and eachcluster is allotted to a vehicle. k- Means clustering algorithm has been used for easy clustering of the cities. In this way the mVRP has been converted into VRP which is simple in computation compared to mVRP. After clustering, an optimized route is generated for each vehicle in its allotted cluster. Once the clustering had been done and after the cities were allocated to the various vehicles, each cluster/tour was taken as an individual Vehicle Routing problem and the steps of Genetic Algorithm were applied to the cluster and iterated to obtain the most optimal value of the distance after convergence takes place. After the application of the variousheuristic techniques, it was found that the Genetic algorithm gave a better result and a more optimal tour for mVRPs in short computational time than other Algorithms due to the extensive search and constructive nature of the algorithm.

  3. QoS multicast routing algorithm based on GA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腊元; 李春林

    2004-01-01

    The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints in networks with uncertain parameters is discussed, and a network model that is suitable to research such QoS multicast routing problem is described. The QMRGA,a multicast routing policy for Internet, mobile network or other high-performance networks is mainly presented, which is based on the genetic algorithm(GA), and can provide QoS-sensitive paths in a scalable and flexible way in the network environment with uncertain parameters. The QMRGA can also optimize the network resources such as bandwidth and delay, and can converge to the optimal or near-optimal solution within few iterations, even for the network environment with uncertain parameters. The incremental rate of computational cost can be close to a polynomial and is less than exponential rate. The performance measures of the QMRGA are evaluated by using simulations. The results show that QMRGA provides an available approach to QoS multicast routing in network environment with uncertain parameters.

  4. World Migration Degree Global migration flows in directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Porat, Idan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze the global flow of migrants from 206 source countries to 145 destination countries (2006-2010) and focus on the differences in the migration network pattern between destination and source counters as represented by its degree and weight distribution. Degree represents the connectivity of a country to the global migration network, and plays an important role in defining migration processes and characteristics. Global analysis of migration degree distribution offers a strong potential contribution to understanding of migration as a global phenomenon. In regard to immigration, we found that it is possible to classify destination countries into three classes: global migration hubs with high connectivity and high migration rate; local migration hubs with low connectivity and high migration rate; and local migration hubs with opposite strategy of high connectivity and low migration rate. The different migration strategies of destination countries are emerging from similar and homogenies p...

  5. Trafficking and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Florian; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2009-07-01

    The migration of single cells and epithelial sheets is of great importance for gastrulation and organ formation in developing embryos and, if misregulated, can have dire consequences e.g. during cancer metastasis. A keystone of cell migration is the regulation of adhesive contacts, which are dynamically assembled and disassembled via endocytosis. Here, we discuss some of the basic concepts about the function of endocytic trafficking during cell migration: transport of integrins from the cell rear to the leading edge in fibroblasts; confinement of signalling to the front of single cells by endocytic transport of growth factors; regulation of movement coherence in multicellular sheets by cadherin turnover; and shaping of extracellular chemokine gradients. Taken together, endocytosis enables migrating cells and tissues to dynamically modulate their adhesion and signalling, allowing them to efficiently migrate through their extracellular environment.

  6. Migration of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  7. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  8. Sustainable Load-Balancing Scheme for Inter-Sensor Convergence Processing of Routing Cooperation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in Information Technology (IT have sparked the creation of numerous and diverse types of devices and services. Manual data collection measurement methods have been automated through the use of various wireless or wired sensors. Single sensor devices are included in smart devices such as smartphones. Data transmission is critical for big data collected from sensor nodes, such as Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSNs, where sensors move dynamically according to sensor mobility, or Fixed Sensor Nodes (FSNs, where sensor locations are decided by the users. False data transfer processing of big data results in topology lifespan reduction and data transfer delays. Hence, a variety of simulators and diverse load-balancing algorithms have been developed as protocol verification tools for topology lifespan maximization and effective data transfer processing. However, those previously developed simulators have limited functions, such as an event function for a specific sensor or a battery consumption rate test for sensor deployment. Moreover, since the previous load-balancing algorithms consider only the general traffic distribution and the number of connected nodes without considering the current topology condition, the sustainable load-balancing technique that takes into account the battery consumption rate of the dispersed sensor nodes is required. Therefore, this paper proposes the Sustainable Load-balancing Scheme (SLS, which maximizes the overall topology lifespan through effective and sustainable load-balancing of data transfer among the sensors. SLS is capable of maintaining an effective topology as it considers both the battery consumption rate of the sensors and the data transfer delay.

  9. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  10. Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillip Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.

  11. Media and democracy: false convergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C. P. Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the false convergence between the role of the media in promoting democracy and political theories of democracy. With this purpose in mind, we propose critical reflections on arguments that: 1 naturalize the fact that "the news" is a commodity; b focus on the (supposedly public goals of the media, in spite of the reality that their agencies are largely private; c link these agencies to liberal- democratic values. Thus, the text attempts to show both the absence of and need for shields - personified in the theories of weights and counterbalances - against the powers that be, particularly those of the media. We point to the paradox involved in the media's role as intermediary between public and private spheres and question the degree to which the media permit fulfillment of the idea that those have control should be controlled, particularly in a world in which communication has extended its action to the planetary level. We conclude that democracy can only be made effective if democratic controls over the media are exercised; this means the creation of national and international level public information media that would be neither privately nor state owned and managed.

  12. The many roads to parasitism: a tale of convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic organisms account for a large portion of living species. They have arisen on multiple independent occasions in many phyla, and thus encompass a huge biological diversity. This review uses several lines of evidence to argue that this vast diversity can be reduced to a few evolutionary end points that transcend phylogenetic boundaries. These represent peaks in the adaptive landscape reached independently by different lineages undergoing convergent evolution. Among eukaryotic parasites living in or on animals, six basic parasitic strategies are identified based on the number of hosts used per parasite generation, the fitness loss incurred by the host, and the transmission routes used by the parasites. They are parasitoids, parasitic castrators, directly transmitted parasites, trophically transmitted parasites, vector-transmitted parasites and micropredators. These show evidence of convergence in morphology, physiology, reproduction, life cycles and transmission patterns. Parasite-host body size ratios, and the relationship between virulence and intensity of infection, are also associated with the different parasitic strategies, but not consistently so. At the population level, patterns of parasite distribution among hosts are not uniform across all parasitic strategies, but are distinctly different for parasitoids and castrators than for other parasites. To demonstrate that the above six strategies defined for animal parasites are universal, comparisons are made with parasites of plants, in particular, plant-parasitic nematodes and parasitic angiosperms; these are shown to follow the same evolutionary trajectories seen among animal parasites, despite huge physiological and ecological differences between animals and plants. Beyond demonstrating the inevitable convergence of disparate lineages across biological hyperspace towards a limited set of adaptive strategies, this synthesis also provides a unifying framework for the study of parasitism. Copyright

  13. Convergence of electronic bands for high performance bulk thermoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yanzhong; Shi, Xiaoya; LaLonde, Aaron; Wang, Heng; Chen, Lidong; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric generators, which directly convert heat into electricity, have long been relegated to use in space-based or other niche applications, but are now being actively considered for a variety of practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. Although these devices can be very reliable and compact, the thermoelectric materials themselves are relatively inefficient: to facilitate widespread application, it will be desirable to identify or develop materials that have an intensive thermoelectric materials figure of merit, zT, above 1.5 (ref. 1). Many different concepts have been used in the search for new materials with high thermoelectric efficiency, such as the use of nanostructuring to reduce phonon thermal conductivity, which has led to the investigation of a variety of complex material systems. In this vein, it is well known that a high valley degeneracy (typically ≤6 for known thermoelectrics) in the electronic bands is conducive to high zT, and this in turn has stimulated attempts to engineer such degeneracy by adopting low-dimensional nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to direct the convergence of many valleys in a bulk material by tuning the doping and composition. By this route, we achieve a convergence of at least 12 valleys in doped PbTe(1-x)Se(x) alloys, leading to an extraordinary zT value of 1.8 at about 850 kelvin. Band engineering to converge the valence (or conduction) bands to achieve high valley degeneracy should be a general strategy in the search for and improvement of bulk thermoelectric materials, because it simultaneously leads to a high Seebeck coefficient and high electrical conductivity.

  14. The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study

  15. Convergence of a Linear Recursive Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, E. G.; Toh, T. L.; Dong, F. M.; Lee, T. Y.

    2004-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is found for a linear recursive sequence to be convergent, no matter what initial values are given. Its limit is also obtained when the sequence is convergent. Methods from various areas of mathematics are used to obtain the results.

  16. ON A GENERALIZED GAUSS CONVERGENCE CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA BUCUR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we combine the well known Raabe-Duhamel, Kummer, Bertrand . . . criterions of convergence for series with positive terms and we obtain a new one which is more powerful than those cited before. Even the famous Gauss criterion,which was in fact our starting point, is a consequence of this new convergence test.

  17. ON LACUNARY STATISTICAL CONVERGENCE OF ORDER α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hacer SENGUL; Mikail ET

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concept of lacunary statistical convergence of orderαof real number sequences and give some inclusion relations between the sets of lacu-nary statistical convergence of order α and strong Nαθ (p)-summability. Furthermore, some relations between the spaces Nαθ (p) and Sαθ are examined.

  18. Numerical simulation of converging shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Seokjune; Abe, Kanji

    We can achieve the high pressure and high temperature state of gas if the shock wave converges stably. In order to check the stability of the converging shock wave, we introduce two kinds of perturbed initial conditions. The Euler equations of conservation form are integrated by using explicit Non-Muscl TVD finite difference scheme.

  19. CONVERGENCE RATE OFDISTRIBUTIONS OF TRIMMED SUMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIYONGCHENG; CHENGSHIHONG

    1996-01-01

    The authors first derive the normal expansion of the joint density function of two orderstatistics from the uniform distribution and then, using the approximation, establish a wayto estimate the normal convergence rate for trimmed sums. For applications, the convergence rates for the intermediately trimmed sums and heavily trimmed sums are found out.

  20. Convergence of Symmetric Diffusions on Wiener Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Posilicano; T.S.Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,we study the distorted Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes associated with given densities on an abstract Wiener space.We prove that the laws of distorted Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes converge in total variation norm if the densities converge in Sobolev space D 1/2.

  1. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  2. On marriage and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, O

    1988-09-01

    Marriage, migration, and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility, and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly. This paper examines the role of migration in obtaining joint labor market and marriage market equilibrium. When broadly interpreted, marriage and migration share a number of common features. Both involve search and its resolution (pairing of mates in the former and matching of labor and firms in the latter). In both cases, success in finding a partner is sensitive to the availability of partners and to the distribution of their endowments and traits. Almost always, and along with separation and divorce, marriage mandates spatial relocation which may translate into migration. Both involve a movement that is associated with adjustment costs from 1 state into another. The decisions to enter marriage and undertake employment or the decisions to divorce and quit a job depend on exogenous parameters, some of which are determined by the marriage market and the labor market. Since both marriage and divorce take place in the context of broadly defined markets, they may and often are analyzed applying market concepts, theorems, and solutions. Yet the authors could not pinpoint 1 single, systematic attempt that checks through the interactions between marriage and migration, so this paper attempts to rectify this state of research. Essentially, this paper 1) discusses individual decision making pending possible migration prior to or following marriage, 2) examines whether it is easier for a married couple or a single person to migrate, and 3) considers whether marriage dissolution could cause migration when marriage is the only reason that has kept a spouse from moving. This integrated research agenda for both marriage and migration can delineate interesting new implications to examine.

  3. The migration game in habitat network: the case of tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; Krivan, Vlastimil; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    migration in direction of increasing fitness should lead to the ideal free distribution (IFD) which is the evolutionary stable strategy of the habitat selection game. We introduce a migration game which focuses on migrating dynamics leading to the IFD for age-structured populations and in time varying...... habitats, where dispersal is costly. The model predicts migration dynamics between these habitats and the corresponding population distribution. When applied to Atlantic bluefin tunas, it predicts their biomass is located in the spawning areas which have also the largest diversity in the age......-structure. Distant feeding areas are occupied on a seasonal base and often by larger individuals, in agreement with empirical observations. Moreover, we show that only a selected number of migratory routes emerge as those effectively used by tunas...

  4. Migration, Precarization and the Democratic Deficit in Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik; Ålund, Aleksandra; Likic-Brboric, Branka

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to provide a critical understanding of the dual signification of “precarity”. It explores what “precarity” as a concept may potentially offer to studies of the changing contemporary political economy of migration. It discusses shifting trends in global migration and point to tendencies for a possible convergence between “South” and “North”, “East” and “West”. Based on a review of current advances in research, it discusses, with reference to the classical work of Karl Pol...

  5. The feminization of migration from a Philippine perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ribas Mateos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the tendency towards the increase in female migration and uses as a paradigm the example of the migration of Philippine females to Spain. The starting point is the connection between the processes associated with globalization and other numerous changes which have led to the exodus of Philippine women to work as domestic servants in the large cities of the south of Europe. Finally, the various issues which have been used to illustrate this paper converge in an overall vision of this specific situation which is considered as an “icon of domesticity”.

  6. Electric Vehicle Green Routing with Possible En-Route Recharging

    OpenAIRE

    BAOUCHE, Fouad; BILLOT, Romain; Trigui, Rochdi; EL FAOUZI, Nour Eddin

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is constrained mainly by the restricted autonomy, the lack of charging stations, the battery recharge time and recuperation capability (e.g. braking phases or downhill). In this study we aim to develop a green routing tool to encourage the use of EV. To overcome the autonomy limitation we propose a methodology for the EV that includes a charging stations location model, an energy graph construction for EV routing and a resolution scheme for the routin...

  7. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  8. Millimeter Wave Alternate Route Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A0-AI02 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC FIG 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALENT ROUTE STUDT.(U) APR W C ADAMS J J PAN, W C...481-487. 4-7 abm ADAOO0 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION S -ETC F/G 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALTERNATE ROUTE STUDY.(U) APR 81 W C...7-21L’j r AD-A102 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC F/A 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALTERNATE ROUTE STUDY(U) APR 81 W C ADAMS

  9. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shapefile of Transit Routes - Please refer to each resource for active dates of the route information. Routes change over time,

  10. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Koussis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses; therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised. Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  11. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  12. Loop migration in adult marsh harriers Circus aeruginosus, as revealed by satellite telemetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. G. Klaassen, Raymond; Strandberg, Roine; Hake, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    the eastern route. Observed routes did thus not coincide with seasonal variation in habitat availability. However, favourable habitat might be more important during spring migration, when the crossing of the Sahara seems more challenging, and thus habitat availability might play an indirect role...

  13. Plane-wave Least-squares Reverse Time Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2012-11-04

    Least-squares reverse time migration is formulated with a new parameterization, where the migration image of each shot is updated separately and a prestack image is produced with common image gathers. The advantage is that it can offer stable convergence for least-squares migration even when the migration velocity is not completely accurate. To significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase shift encoding is applied to hundreds of shot gathers to produce dozens of planes waves. A regularization term which penalizes the image difference between nearby angles are used to keep the prestack image consistent through all the angles. Numerical tests on a marine dataset is performed to illustrate the advantages of least-squares reverse time migration in the plane-wave domain. Through iterations of least-squares migration, the migration artifacts are reduced and the image resolution is improved. Empirical results suggest that the LSRTM in plane wave domain is an efficient method to improve the image quality and produce common image gathers.

  14. Plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-06-03

    A plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is formulated with a new parameterization, where the migration image of each shot gather is updated separately and an ensemble of prestack images is produced along with common image gathers. The merits of plane-wave prestack LSRTM are the following: (1) plane-wave prestack LSRTM can sometimes offer stable convergence even when the migration velocity has bulk errors of up to 5%; (2) to significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase-shift encoding is applied to hundreds of shot gathers to produce dozens of plane waves. Unlike phase-shift encoding with random time shifts applied to each shot gather, plane-wave encoding can be effectively applied to data with a marine streamer geometry. (3) Plane-wave prestack LSRTM can provide higher-quality images than standard reverse-time migration. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model and a marine field data set are performed to illustrate the benefits of plane-wave LSRTM. Empirical results show that LSRTM in the plane-wave domain, compared to standard reversetime migration, produces images efficiently with fewer artifacts and better spatial resolution. Moreover, the prestack image ensemble accommodates more unknowns to makes it more robust than conventional least-squares migration in the presence of migration velocity errors. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    A new routing scheme, Topological Routing, for large-scale networks is proposed. It allows for efficient routing without large routing tables as known from traditional routing schemes. It presupposes a certain level of order in the networks, known from Structural QoS. The main issues in applying...... Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  16. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    A new routing scheme, Topological Routing, for large-scale networks is proposed. It allows for efficient routing without large routing tables as known from traditional routing schemes. It presupposes a certain level of order in the networks, known from Structural QoS. The main issues in applying...... Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  17. On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Local Routing in Convex Subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Durocher, Stephane; Mondal, Debajyoti;

    2015-01-01

    In various wireless networking settings, node locations determine a network’s topology, allowing the network to be modelled by a geometric graph drawn in the plane. Without any additional information, local geometric routing algorithms can guarantee delivery to the target node only in restricted...... classes of geometric graphs, such as triangulations. In order to guarantee delivery on more general classes of geometric graphs (e.g., convex subdivisions or planar subdivisions), previous local geometric routing algorithms required Θ(logn) state bits to be stored and passed with the message. We present...... the first local geometric routing algorithm using only one state bit to guarantee delivery on convex subdivisions and the first local geometric memoryless routing algorithm that guarantees delivery on edge-augmented monotone subdivisions (including all convex subdivisions) when the algorithm has knowledge...

  19. Route Optimization in Network Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Tareque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NEtwork MObility (NEMO controls mobility of a number of mobile nodes in a comprehensive way using one or more mobile routers. To choose a route optimization scheme, it is very important to have a quantitative comparison of the available route optimization schemes. The focus of this paper is to analyze the degree of Route Optimization (RO, deploy-ability and type of RO supported by each class in general. The comparison shows the differences among the schemes in terms of issues, such as additional header, signaling and memory requirement. We classify the schemes established on the basic method for route optimization, and equal the schemes based on protocol overhead, such as header overhead, amount of signaling, and memory requirements. Lastly the performance of the classes of different schemes has to be estimated under norms such as available bandwidth, topology of the mobile network and mobility type.

  20. Migration without migraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, L.; Burton, A.; Lu, H.X. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate velocity models are a necessity for reliable migration results. Velocity analysis generally involves the use of methods such as normal moveout analysis (NMO), seismic traveltime tomography, or iterative prestack migration. These techniques can be effective, and each has its own advantage or disadvantage. Conventional NMO methods are relatively inexpensive but basically require simplifying assumptions about geology. Tomography is a more general method but requires traveltime interpretation of prestack data. Iterative prestack depth migration is very general but is computationally expensive. In some cases, there is the opportunity to estimate vertical velocities by use of well information. The well information can be used to optimize poststack migrations, thereby eliminating some of the time and expense of iterative prestack migration. The optimized poststack migration procedure defined here computes the velocity model which minimizes the depth differences between seismic images and formation depths at the well by using a least squares inversion method. The optimization methods described in this paper will hopefully produce ``migrations without migraines.``

  1. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  2. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierens, A.

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an underdense trapped region appears near the planet, with an entropy excess compared to the ambient disc. If the viscosity and thermal diffusivity are small enough so that the entropy excess is conserved during migration, the planet then experiences strong corotation torques arising from the material flowing across the planet orbit. During fast migration, we observe that a protoplanet can pass through the zero-torque line predicted by static torques. We also find that fast migration may help in disrupting the mean-motion resonances that are formed by convergent migration of embryos.

  3. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argyriou, A.

    2010-09-01

    Motivation On occasion, flood related questions are posed in the reverse from the conventional sense, e.g.: Which inflow created the flow observed at cross-section X, or the flood profile observed along reach Y? This is a signal identification type problem (hydrologic forensics). A related question concerns the operation of a reservoir, via optimal outflow control, so as to minimise downstream flood damage. Solution of the aforementioned problems requires routing of floods in the upstream direction. This is an inverse problem, and as such it is not well posed. In routing against the wave propagation, small errors in the flow measurements, or rounding errors, are amplified leading to instability, i.e., to spurious, large changes in the response (inflow hydrograph). Therefore, for the reverse solution to be stable it must be constrained by a smoothness condition; this however does not ensure its uniqueness. Storage routing models as approximate diffusion wave models By appropriate choice of their parameter values, storage routing models approximate closely diffusion-wave (DW) behaviour, if dominant flood propagation mode is that of kinematic waves (KW), which is very often true. We solve the flood signal identification problem by reversing the Muskingum routing scheme. The Muskingum routing scheme derives from a first-order accurate FD discretisation of the KW equation yet yields second-order accurate DW solutions by matching the numerical diffusion coefficient of that KW equation solution scheme to the DW equation’s hydraulic diffusion coefficient. Formulation and testing of a reverse routing scheme based on Muskingum routing Theoretical analysis of the reversed Muskingum routing scheme yields nominal grid design rules; however, we study optimal grid design mainly by numerical experimentation. First, we reverse an exact outflow hydrograph (a single-wave solution of the convection-diffusion equation), and then demonstrate the scheme’s ability to reverse

  4. Docile housewives or Empowered Entrepreneurs? : Gender, Fraud and Victimization Risks in the Context of Family-Related Migration in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rushchenko, J.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores how transnational marriage migration processes are viewed and interpreted by foreign spouses from economically weak countries who are currently residing in Germany. It identifies and examines possible risks that migration through the family reunification route could pose f

  5. Narrow-front loop migration in a population of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, as revealed by satellite telemetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Tottrup, Anders P.; Vardanis, Yannis; Howey, Paul W.; Thorup, Kasper; Wikelski, Martin; Alerstam, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Narrow migration corridors known in diurnal, social migrants such as raptors, storks and geese are thought to be caused by topographical leading line effects in combination with learning detailed routes across generations. Here, we document narrow-front migration in a nocturnal, solitary migrant,

  6. Lrp6 is required for convergent extension during Xenopus gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahinci, Emilios; Thorne, Curtis A; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Salic, Adrian; Christian, Kelly M; Lee, Laura A; Coffey, Robert J; Lee, Ethan

    2007-11-01

    Wnt signaling regulates beta-catenin-mediated gene transcription and planar cell polarity (PCP). The Wnt co-receptor, Lrp6, is required for signaling along the beta-catenin arm. We show that Lrp6 downregulation (by morpholino injection) or overexpression in Xenopus embryos disrupts convergent extension, a hallmark feature of Wnt/PCP components. In embryos with decreased Lrp6 levels, cells of the dorsal marginal zone (DMZ), which undergoes extensive cellular rearrangements during gastrulation, exhibit decreased length:width ratios, decreased migration, and increased numbers of transient cytoplasmic protrusions. We show that Lrp6 opposes Wnt11 activity and localizes to the posterior edge of migrating DMZ cells and that Lrp6 downregulation enhances cortical and nuclear localization of Dsh and phospho-JNK, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that Lrp6 inhibits Wnt/PCP signaling. Finally, we identify the region of the Lrp6 protein with Wnt/PCP activity to a stretch of 36 amino acids, distinct from regions required for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. We propose a model in which Lrp6 plays a critical role in the switch from Wnt/PCP to Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

  7. Convergence of Corporate and Information Security

    CERN Document Server

    Syed,; Donahue, Shannon E

    2010-01-01

    As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper reports on how organizations have traditionally managed asset protection, why that is changing and how to establish convergence to optimize security value to the business within an enterprise.

  8. Strategic business transformation through technology convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    -time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses......, and that some dimensions and stages of transformation previously thought to be relevant may not be pertinent for successful business transformations through technology convergence....

  9. Strategic business transformation through technology convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    -time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses......, and that some dimensions and stages of transformation previously thought to be relevant may not be pertinent for successful business transformations through technology convergence....

  10. Global Governance of Migration

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the recently formed global governance of migration, which has got an unprecedented trans-boundary nature due to the impacts og globalization in the post Cold War era. 

  11. Migration og etnicitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2004-01-01

    Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....

  12. Tetraspanins in Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xupin; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of small transmembrane proteins that are expressed in almost all eukaryotic cells. Through interacting with one another and with other membrane and intracellular proteins, tetraspanins regulate a wide range of proteins such as integrins, cell surface receptors, and signaling molecules, and thereby engage in diverse cellular processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to proliferation and differentiation. In particular, tetraspanins modulate the function of proteins involved in all determining factors of cell migration including cell–cell adhesion, cell–ECM adhesion, cytoskeletal protrusion/contraction, and proteolytic ECM remodeling. We herein provide a brief overview of collective in vitro and in vivo studies of tetraspanins to illustrate their regulatory functions in the migration and trafficking of cancer cells, vascular endothelial cells, skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and leukocytes. We also discuss the involvement of tetraspanins in various pathologic and remedial processes that rely on cell migration and their potential value as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26091149

  13. Security-Oriented and Load-Balancing Wireless Data Routing Game in the Integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure Network in Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fulin; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    Ensuring flexible and reliable data routing is indispensable for the integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) networks, we propose a secure-oriented and load-balancing wireless data routing scheme. A novel utility function is designed based on security routing scheme. Then, we model the interactive security-oriented routing strategy among meter data concentrators or smart grid meters as a mixed-strategy network formation game. Finally, such problem results in a stable probabilistic routing scheme with proposed distributed learning algorithm. One contributions is that we studied that different types of applications affect the routing selection strategy and the strategy tendency. Another contributions is that the chosen strategy of our mixed routing can adaptively to converge to a new mixed strategy Nash equilibrium (MSNE) during the learning process in the smart grid.

  14. Astrocytes in Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiang Shan; Gao, Kai; Chai, Rui Chao; Jia, Xi Hua; Luo, Dao Peng; Ge, Guo; Jiang, Yu Wu; Fung, Yin-Wan Wendy; Li, Lina; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon that underlies tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, immune response, and cancer metastasis. Great progresses have been made in research methodologies, with cell migration identified as a highly orchestrated process. Brain is considered the most complex organ in the human body, containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring normal functions of the central nervous system. Astrocytes are mostly quiescent under normal physiological conditions in the adult brain but become migratory after injury. Under most known pathological conditions in the brain, spinal cord and retina, astrocytes are activated and become hypertrophic, hyperplastic, and up-regulating GFAP based on the grades of severity. These three observations are the hallmark in glia scar formation-astrogliosis. The reactivation process is initiated with structural changes involving cell process migration and ended with cell migration. Detailed mechanisms in astrocyte migration have not been studied extensively and remain largely unknown. Here, we therefore attempt to review the mechanisms in migration of astrocytes.

  15. Unexpected dominance of 1 year old parr among migrating salmon and sea trout individuals in the River Siesartis, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Skrupskelis

    2015-12-01

    However, 1 year age parr unexpectedly dominated among salmon juveniles descending towards the Sea in the restocked Siesartis River, which is situated 400 km to the Baltic Sea. The same phenomenon has been observed among migrating sea trout individuals, too. Mass migration of 1 year age salmon and sea trout parr with mean body length ranging from 69 to 150 mm can hardly be explained by density-dependant regulatory mechanisms alone. Possible impact of particularly long distance migration route is also discussed.

  16. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-03-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  17. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-03-03

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  18. Manejo de la migración posterior de los dispositivos intersomáticos colocados por vía posterior (PLIF: análisis bibliográfico Conduta na migração posterior dos dispositivos intersomáticos colocados por via posterior (PLIF: análise da literatura Handling of the later migration of the intersomatic devices placed by later route (PLIF: bibliographical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis Bazán

    2011-01-01

    ção de um dispositivo intersomático anterior. No primeiro caso, associou-se acesso posterior para a retirada do material de osteossíntese. Efetuou-se uma busca na literatura para analisar os dados sobre a retirada de acordo com parâmetros de evidência científica. CONCLUSÕES: Não existem publicações de evidências do tipo 1 ou 2 que marquem diretrizes claras. A presença de fibrose pós-cirúrgica orientaria o acesso anterior na retirada dos dispositivos intersomáticos e, assim, evitaria as lesões do saco dural e o alongamento radicular. A dificuldade da manipulação vascular e o risco de ejaculação retrógrada em pacientes do sexo masculino são parâmetros a considerar ao escolher o acesso posterior. A retirada dos PLIF migrados para posterior que causam sintomatologia dolorosa e/ou deficiência torna essa prática altamente exigente e difícil.OBJECTIVE: With the objective to present the clinical picture of three cases with this complication and analyze methodologically the works present in the bibliography. METHOD: Three operated patients of lumbar column that received a circumferential arthrodesis and presented in postoperative remote a new symptomatology related to the migration of one or of both PLIF. RESULTS: It was made by means of the boarding by retroperitoneal previous route, for discectomy, retirement of migrated material and positioning of a previous intersomatic device. In the first case It was associated a later boarding for the retirement of the osteosynthesis material. A bibliographical search was made to analyze the data on the retirement according to parameters of scientific evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Publications of Evidence type 1 or 2 do not exist that mark clear orders. The presence of post-surgical fibrosis would orient to the boarding by previous route in the retirement of the intersomatic devices and thus to avoid the injuries of the dural coat and the radicular stretching. The difficulty of the vascular handling and the risk of

  19. Analysis of energy efficient routing protocols for implementation of a ubiquitous health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Koo, Sangjun; Ayurzana, Odgeral; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    The innovative Ubiquitous-Health was born through convergence of medical service, with development of up to date information technologies and ubiquitous IT. The U-Health can be applied to a variety of special situations for managing functions of each medical center efficiently. This paper focuses on estimation of various routing protocols for implementation of U-health monitoring system. In order to facilitate wireless communication over the network, a routing protocol on the network layer is used to establish precise and efficient route between sensor nodes so that information acquired from sensors may be delivered in a timely manner. A route establishment should be considered to minimize overhead, data loss and power consumption because wireless networks for U-health are organized by a large number of sensor nodes which are small in size and have limited processing power, memory and battery life. In this paper a overview of wireless sensor network technologies commonly known is described as well as evaluation of three multi hop routing protocols which are flooding, gossiping and modified low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy(LEACH) for use with these networks using TOSSIM simulator. As a result of evaluation the integrated wireless sensor board was developed in particular. The board is embedded device based on AVR128 porting TinyOS. Also it employs bio sensor measures blood pressure, pulse frequency and ZigBee module for wireless communication. This paper accelerates the digital convergence age through continual research and development of technologies related the U-Health.

  20. Regional Labor Markets, Network Externalities and Migration: The Case of German Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years after German reunification, the facts about slow regional convergence have born out the prediction of Barro (1991), except that migration out of East Germany has not slowed down. I document that in particular the 18-29 year old are leaving East Germany, and that the emigration has accelerated in recent years. To understand these patterns, I provide an extension of the standard labor search model by allowing for migration and network externalities. In that theory, two equilibria ...

  1. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  2. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  3. Convergence of Attitudes among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Alice E.; Appel, Victor H.

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether the intersex convergence phenomenon could be applicable to the measured attitudes of collegiate samples. Both sexes seemed to be moving toward a more liberal view on issues related to marriage and the family. (Author)

  4. Cultivate technology convergence for product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J Malcolm

    2006-04-01

    Technologies from diverse scientific disciplines are being combined to drive innovation in medical devices. How technology convergence and innovation could be further stimulated is explored here using developments in imaging and point-of-care devices as examples.

  5. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-09-02

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference.

  6. Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning: Innovations ... using various blended learning media including print, ICTs, electronic platforms, ... Admittedly, the blending of offline and online learning enhances significantly ...

  7. A Convergent Total Synthesis of Methoxatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickson, James B.; Vries, Johannes G. de

    1982-01-01

    We report a convergent total synthesis of the coenzyme methoxatin (1) by linking a pyrrole subunit with an uvitonic acid derivative and oxidative photocyclization to a deoxymethoxatin triester, followed by seven refunctionalization steps to 1.

  8. On Convergence Results for Lipschitz Pseudocontractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the strong convergence for the Ishikawa iteration scheme associated with Lipschitz pseudocontractive mappings in real Banach spaces. Moreover, our technique of proofs is of independent interest.

  9. On Paranorm Zweier -Convergent Sequence Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakeel A. Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the paranorm Zweier -convergent sequence spaces , , and , a sequence of positive real numbers. We study some topological properties, prove the decomposition theorem, and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.

  10. Regional disparities and convergences in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Blížkovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the levels and trends of regional disparity and convergence in the two American macro-regions, NAFTA and MERCOSUR. In the case of NAFTA, 95 micro-regions were analysed (12 in Canada; 32 in Mexico; 51 states in the US. In MERCOSUR, the regions are represented by four countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The analysis covers the period 2000–2008 (or rather 2000 to 2005 for Mexico. The regional disparities were calculated with the Gini coefficient based on nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita PPS. Convergence analysis was done with the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, σ- convergence and β-convergence. The results of regional disparity were as follows. Based on the nominal GDP, it was at high levels in both macro-regions, with a Gini coefficient above 0.55. With the disparities calculated on GDP per capita, the level of regional disparity in both macro-regions was lower at 0.36 in NAFTA and 0.28 in MERCOSUR in 2000. Based on GDP per capita in PPP, the levels were lower than based on the GDP per capita analysis starting at 0.31 in NAFTA and 0.16 in MERCOSUR. The disparities further decreased by half in NAFTA while slightly increasing in MERSCOSUR. The convergence analysis results based on the DRC analysis showed that neither NAFTA nor MERCOSUR regions converged. The speed of divergence varied significantly. The disparities among the richest and poorest regions in GDP per capita increased 6.26 times more than the average GDP per capita in PPP in NAFTA as a whole. It was only 0.52 in MERCOSUR. The ADRC analysis also resulted in divergence trends for both macro-regions but with lower rates. Convergence calculated with the σ- convergence analysis confirmed that both macro-regions diverged. The divergence rate for NAFTA was 1.41% and for MERCOSUR 0.74. Calculated with the β-convergence analysis, the NAFTA region showed a status quo (convergence of 0.01% and a

  11. Qos Failover Routing In Tethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Goswami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstarct Tethering is a concept of sharing of internet of a device with other devices. Its a low-cost short-distance wireless technology which employs the frequency hopping practice in the globally available ISM band to keep away from interference. In the tethering to form a network there is a concept of piconet containing master and slaves. These piconets are connected together to establish a big network called scatternet. There are several aspects on which scatternet working depends like the piconets numbers and bridges the bridge role etc. Already established routes consume much more energy for the maintenance hence instead of this routes can be created on-demand. Thus consumption can be altered and routes flexibility will inclined. Failover is an another concept that I have included. Its about transferring ones control to the other device whenever first device is failed. In this thesis I have proposed a QoS failover routing that will proficiently form the routes with the QoS desires and will prevent the stoppage of transmission if the transmitting node fails. It will pass its control to another node and allow it to transmit instead of it.

  12. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  13. Convergence of random zeros on complex manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernard SHIFFMAN

    2008-01-01

    We show that the zeros of random sequences of Gaussian systems of polynomials of in-creasing degree almost surely converge to the expected limit distribution under very general hypotheses.In particular,the normalized distribution of zeros of systems of m polynomials of degree N,orthonor-malized on a regular compact set K(∪)Cm,almost surely converge to the equilibrium measure on K as N →∞.

  14. Convergence of random zeros on complex manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernard; SHIFFMAN

    2008-01-01

    We show that the zeros of random sequences of Gaussian systems of polynomials of in- creasing degree almost surely converge to the expected limit distribution under very general hypotheses. In particular,the normalized distribution of zeros of systems of m polynomials of degree N,orthonor- malized on a regular compact set K(?)C~m,almost surely converge to the equilibrium measure on K as N→∞.

  15. Least-squares migration of multisource data with a deblurring filter

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Least-squares migration (LSM) has been shown to be able to produce high-quality migration images, but its computational cost is considered to be too high for practical imaging. We have developed a multisource least-squares migration algorithm (MLSM) to increase the computational efficiency by using the blended sources processing technique. To expedite convergence, a multisource deblurring filter is used as a preconditioner to reduce the data residual. This MLSM algorithm is applicable with Kirchhoff migration, wave-equation migration, or reverse time migration, and the gain in computational efficiency depends on the choice of migration method. Numerical results with Kirchhoff LSM on the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model show that an accurate image is obtained by migrating a supergather of 320 phase-encoded shots. When the encoding functions are the same for every iteration, the input/output cost of MLSM is reduced by 320 times. Empirical results show that the crosstalk noise introduced by blended sources is more effectively reduced when the encoding functions are changed at every iteration. The analysis of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) suggests that not too many iterations are needed to enhance the S/N to an acceptable level. Therefore, when implemented with wave-equation migration or reverse time migration methods, the MLSM algorithm can be more efficient than the conventional migration method. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. A survey paper on Ant Colony Optimization Routing algorithm for selecting Multiple Feasible Paths for Packet Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi R Patel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ACO algorithms for datagram networks was given by Di Caro Dorigo, in year 1996. Basic mechanisms in typical ACO routing algorithms is Ant-like agents are proactively generated at the nodes to find/check paths toward assigned destinations Ants move hop-by-hop according to a exploratory routing policy based on the local routing .After reaching their destination, ants retrace their path and update nodes routing information according to the quality of the path. Routing information is statistical estimates of the time-to-go to the destination maintained in pheromone arrays. Data are probabilistically spread over the paths according to their estimated quality as stored in the pheromone variables. AntNet algorithms may cause the network congestion and stagnation as the routing table converges. In this paper we perform a survey on modified AntNet routing algorithm using Multiple Ant-Colony Optimization. Multiple ant colonies with different pheromone updating mechanism have different searching traits. By leveraging this feature, much of work is done by designing a set of adaptive rules to facilitate the collaboration between these colonies. This approach can balance the diversity and convergence of solutions generated by different ant colonies and also overcome the problem of Stagnation.

  17. International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote

  18. Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose three improvements to the EEABR algorithm to further improve its energy efficiency. The improvements to the original EEABR are based on the following: (1 a new scheme to intelligently initialize the routing tables giving priority to neighboring nodes that simultaneously could be the destination, (2 intelligent update of routing tables in case of a node or link failure, and (3 reducing the flooding ability of ants for congestion control. The energy efficiency improvements are significant particularly for dynamic routing environments. Experimental results using the RMASE simulation environment show that the proposed method increases the energy efficiency by up to 9% and 64% in converge-cast and target-tracking scenarios, respectively, over the original EEABR without incurring a significant increase in complexity. The method is also compared and found to also outperform other swarm-based routing protocols such as sensor-driven and cost-aware ant routing (SC and Beesensor.

  19. Welfare state: Convergence: Downward versus upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute, in the theoretical and empirical sense, to better understanding the challenges of the EU welfare regimes and how particular regimes react on them. Despite significant differences among the EU welfare regimes, it is real to expect that they will converge because of the common challenges confronting them. In this paper, using the model of sigma and beta convergence, we are trying to predict the possible direction of convergence in the sense that Europe will go toward to more or less generosity or in other words it will converge downward or upward. The downward convergence means the strengthen competition among existing welfare regimes, in order to maintain and/or attract capital, that could reduce the social spending generosity. On the other hand, the upward convergence above involves the strengthening of coordination among existing welfare regimes according to the values of solidarity and social justice, which characterise not only the most developed EU countries but also the supranational European social model. .

  20. Fixing convergence of Gaussian belief propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bickson, Danny [IBM RESEARCH LAB; Dolev, Danny [HEBREW UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Gaussian belief propagation (GaBP) is an iterative message-passing algorithm for inference in Gaussian graphical models. It is known that when GaBP converges it converges to the correct MAP estimate of the Gaussian random vector and simple sufficient conditions for its convergence have been established. In this paper we develop a double-loop algorithm for forcing convergence of GaBP. Our method computes the correct MAP estimate even in cases where standard GaBP would not have converged. We further extend this construction to compute least-squares solutions of over-constrained linear systems. We believe that our construction has numerous applications, since the GaBP algorithm is linked to solution of linear systems of equations, which is a fundamental problem in computer science and engineering. As a case study, we discuss the linear detection problem. We show that using our new construction, we are able to force convergence of Montanari's linear detection algorithm, in cases where it would originally fail. As a consequence, we are able to increase significantly the number of users that can transmit concurrently.

  1. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  2. Convergence of functional areas in information operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contemporary technology and its rapid rise to a ubiquitous nature are affecting the way in which technology is used. This holds implications for military information operations and information warfare concepts as the previously separate functional areas are increasingly overlapping due to the increased convergence of information technology.Objective: The aim of the article is to illustrate the convergence of the functional areas of information operations through the use of reported examples and descriptive models. Methods: A qualitative review and analysis of practitioner documents, academic publications, and other reports is conducted. The diverse views of this phenomenon are contrasted and discussed. The possible implications of the convergence and possible management techniques are proposed and discussed. Results: There is strong opinion that the domains are not converging, however practice shows that there is an increasing overlap of operational considerations and organisational structure. Conclusion: It is concluded that the domains are not converging, but the operations and management of the information operations functional areas may converge, and this has an impact across all functional areas that needs to be taken into consideration.

  3. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  4. Optimization of OSPF Routing in IP Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Andreas; Fortz, Bernard; Gourdin, Eric; Holmberg, Kaj; Klopfenstein, Olivier; Pióro, Michał; Tomaszewski, Artur; Ümit, Hakan

    The Internet is a huge world-wide packet switching network comprised of more than 13,000 distinct subnetworks, referred to as Autonomous Systems (ASs) autonomous system AS . They all rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) internet protocol IP for transport of packets across the network. And most of them use shortest path routing protocols shortest path routing!protocols , such as OSPF or IS-IS, to control the routing of IP packets routing!of IP packets within an AS. The idea of the routing is extremely simple — every packet is forwarded on IP links along the shortest route between its source and destination nodes of the AS. The AS network administrator can manage the routing of packets in the AS by supplying the so-called administrative weights of IP links, which specify the link lengths that are used by the routing protocols for their shortest path computations. The main advantage of the shortest path routing policy is its simplicity, allowing for little administrative overhead. From the network engineering perspective, however, shortest path routing can pose problems in achieving satisfactory traffic handling efficiency. As all routing paths depend on the same routing metric routing!metric , it is not possible to configure the routing paths for the communication demands between different pairs of nodes explicitly or individually; the routing can be controlled only indirectly and only as a whole by modifying the routing metric. Thus, one of the main tasks when planning such networks is to find administrative link weights that induce a globally efficient traffic routing traffic!routing configuration of an AS. It turns out that this task leads to very difficult mathematical optimization problems. In this chapter, we discuss and describe exact integer programming models and solution approaches as well as practically efficient smart heuristics for such shortest path routing problems shortest path routing!problems .

  5. ACO based routing for MANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Arif, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes. It dynamically forms a temporary network without using any pre existing network infrastructure or centralized administration i.e. with minimal prior planning. All nodes have routing capabilities and forward data packets to other nodes in multi-hop fashion. As the network is dynamic, the network topology continuously experiences alterations during deployment. The biggest challenge in MANETs is to find a path between communicating nodes. The considerations of the MANET environment and the nature of the mobile nodes create further complications which results in the need to develop special routing algorithms to meet these challenges. Swarm intelligence, a bio-inspired technique, which has proven to be very adaptable in other problem domains, has been applied to the MANET routing problem as it forms a good fit to the problem. In ant societies the activities of the individuals are not regulated by any explicit form of centralized control but ar...

  6. Effect of wind, thermal convection, and variation in flight strategies on the daily rhythm and flight paths of migrating raptors at Georgia's Black Sea coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vansteelant, W.M.G.; Verhelst, B.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; van Loon, E.E.; Bildstein, K.L.

    2014-01-01

    Every autumn, large numbers of raptors migrate through geographical convergence zones to avoid crossing large bodies of water. At coastal convergence zones, raptors may aggregate along coastlines because of convective or wind conditions. However, the effect of wind and thermal convection on

  7. Genetic landscape of populations along the Silk Road: admixture and migration patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mezzavilla, Massimo; Vozzi, Diego; Pirastu, Nicola; Girotto, Giorgia; D’Adamo, Pio; Gasparini, Paolo; Colonna, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Background The ancient Silk Road has been a trading route between Europe and Central Asia from the 2nd century BCE to the 15th century CE. While most populations on this route have been characterized, the genetic background of others remains poorly understood, and little is known about past migration patterns. The scientific expedition “Marco Polo” has recently collected genetic and phenotypic data in six regions (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan) along the Sil...

  8. Complete convergence and complete moment convergence for negatively associated sequences of random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the complete convergence and complete moment convergence for negatively associated sequences of random variables with E X = 0 $\\mathbb{E}X=0$ , E exp ( ln α | X | 1 $\\alpha>1$ . As a result, we extend some complete convergence and complete moment convergence theorems for independent random variables to the case of negatively associated random variables without necessarily imposing any extra conditions. Our results generalize corresponding results obtained by Gut and Stadtmüller (Stat. Probab. Lett. 81:1486-1492, 2011 and Qiu and Chen (Stat. Probab. Lett. 91:76-82, 2014.

  9. Genetic based optimization for multicast routing algorithm for MANET

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Rajan; N Shanthi

    2015-12-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is established for a limited period, for special extemporaneous services related to mobile applications. This ad hoc network is set up for a limited period, in environments that change with the application. While in Internet the TCP/IP protocol suite supports a wide range of application, in MANETs protocols are tuned to specific customer/application. Multicasting is emerging as a popular communication format where the same packet is sent to multiple nodes in a network. Routing in multicasting involves maintaining routes and finding new node locations in a group and is NP-complete due to the dynamic nature of the network. In this paper, a Hybrid Genetic Based Optimization for Multicast Routing algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses the best features of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve the solution. Simulations were conducted by varying number of mobile nodes and results compared with Multicast AODV (MAODV) protocol, PSO based and GA based solution. The proposed optimization improves jitter, end to end delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) with faster convergence.

  10. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  11. le programme SET-Routes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Les routes de la science sont plus escarpées pour les femmes Le programme SET-Routes, qui visait à sensibiliser les jeunes filles à l’intérêt des carrières scientifiques, a pris fin en avril. Porté par l’EMBL, l’EMBO et le CERN, il a mis en place un réseau de femmes scientifiques, des ambassadrices qui se sont rendues dans les établissements scolaires européens pour parler de leur parcours scientifique.

  12. New neurons clear the path of astrocytic processes for their rapid migration in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Naoko; Marín, Oscar; Koike, Masato; Hirota, Yuki; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Wu, Jane Y; Lu, Qiang; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Okano, Hideyuki; Rubenstein, John L R; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2010-07-29

    In the long-range neuronal migration of adult mammals, young neurons travel from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb, a long journey (millimeters to centimeters, depending on the species). How can these neurons migrate through the dense meshwork of neuronal and glial processes of the adult brain parenchyma? Previous studies indicate that young neurons achieve this by migrating in chains through astrocytic tunnels. Here, we report that young migrating neurons actively control the formation and maintenance of their own migration route. New neurons secrete the diffusible protein Slit1, whose receptor, Robo, is expressed on astrocytes. We show that the Slit-Robo pathway is required for morphologic and organizational changes in astrocytes that result in the formation and maintenance of the astrocytic tunnels. Through this neuron-glia interaction, the new neurons regulate the formation of the astrocytic meshwork that is needed to enable their rapid and directional migration in adult brain.

  13. Migration = cloning; aliasiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe

    1999-01-01

    In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...... the creation of object surrogates as an abstraction of the abovementioned style of migration. We introduce Øjeblik, a distribution-free subset of Obliq, and provide three different configuration-style semantics, which only differ in the respective aliasing model. We show that two of the semantics, one of which...... matches Obliq’s implementation, render migration unsafe, while our new proposal for a third semantics is provably safe. Our work suggests a straightforward repair of Obliq’s aliasing model such that it allows programs to safely migrate objects....

  14. Biometrics and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Jillyanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address.

  15. Planet Formation with Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, J E

    2006-01-01

    In the core-accretion model, gas-giant planets form solid cores which then accrete gaseous envelopes. Tidal interactions with disk gas cause a core to undergo inward type-I migration in 10^4 to 10^5 years. Cores must form faster than this to survive. Giant planets clear a gap in the disk and undergo inward type-II migration in <10^6 years if observed disk accretion rates apply to the disk as a whole. Type-II migration times exceed typical disk lifetimes if viscous accretion occurs mainly in the surface layers of disks. Low turbulent viscosities near the midplane may allow planetesimals to form by coagulation of dust grains. The radius r of such planetesimals is unknown. If r<0.5 km, the core formation time is shorter than the type-I migration timescale and cores will survive. Migration is substantial in most cases, leading to a wide range of planetary orbits, consistent with the observed variety of extrasolar systems. When r is of order 100m and midplane alpha is of order 3 times 10^-5, giant planets si...

  16. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  17. En fornemmelse for migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria

    Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....

  18. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  19. Analysing immune cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J

    2009-11-01

    The visualization of the dynamic behaviour of and interactions between immune cells using time-lapse video microscopy has an important role in modern immunology. To draw robust conclusions, quantification of such cell migration is required. However, imaging experiments are associated with various artefacts that can affect the estimated positions of the immune cells under analysis, which form the basis of any subsequent analysis. Here, we describe potential artefacts that could affect the interpretation of data sets on immune cell migration. We propose how these errors can be recognized and corrected, and suggest ways to prevent the data analysis itself leading to biased results.

  20. Making Migration Meaningful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    2013-01-01

    . The article focuses on changing patterns of mobility in the Mongolian ‘age of the market’ and its effects on population groups. Internal and international migration has continually risen as individuals and families have moved to places of opportunity. Connections are believed to be maintained during periods...... of absence by migrant family members, as both men and women are culturally permitted to be separate from their families. Migration is understood to contribute to prosperity, and separations contribute to generate growth and hishig (good fortune) for the good of the family. However, such mobility is also...

  1. What's driving migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, H

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  2. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till

    2017-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  3. Migration control: a distance compensation strategy in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-08-01

    Migratory behaviour forms an intrinsic part of the life histories of many organisms but is often a high-risk process. Consequently, varied strategies have evolved to negate such risks, but empirical data relating to their functioning are limited. In this study, we use the model system of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis to demonstrate a key strategy that can shorten migration exposure times in a group of social insects. Colonies of these ants frequently migrate to new nest sites, and due to the nature of their habitat, the distances over which they do so are variable, leading to fluctuating potential costs dependent on migration parameters. We show that colonies of this species facultatively alter the dynamics of a migration and so compensate for the distance over which a given migration occurs. Specifically, they achieve this by modulating the rate of 'tandem running', in which workers teach each other the route to a new nest site. Using this method, colonies are able to engage a larger number of individuals in the migration process when the distance to be traversed is greater, and furthermore, the system appears to be based on perceived encounter rate at the individual level. This form of decentralised control highlights the adaptive nature of a behaviour of ecological importance, and indicates that the key to its robustness lies in the use of simple rules. Additionally, our results suggest that such coordinated group reactions are central to achieving the high levels of ecological success seen in many eusocial organisms.

  4. Naval Battleforce Networks Composite Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    fashion by DHCP), restarts or recontigures the OSPi" daemon, starts advertising the attached subnet in its new wireless subnet, and data transfer starts...Policy Manager. studying extcnsions to PlM or source specific multicast pro,i,,.:als to enable dynamic policy based routing based on DS(’P or other

  5. The routed inventory pooling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Harmen Willem

    2013-01-01

    In supply chains vloeit een groot deel van de kosten voort uit voorraden en transport. Om deze reden wordt veel onderzoek gedaan naar technieken en concepten die de voorraad- en transportkosten helpen te verlagen. Twee populaire onderzoeksgebieden zijn Inventory Routing, waarbij het doel is optimale

  6. Vehicle Routing with Uncertain Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn distribution networks a supplier transports goods from a distribution center to customers by means of vehicles with limited capacity. Drivers will drive routes on which they visit multiple customers to make deliveries. Typically, deliveries are made regularly and a fixed schedule is m

  7. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  8. A route towards immune protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a route towards an immune protective device for islet of Langerhans transplantation. We developed a protocol to use MIN6 β cells aggregates as pseudo-islets to overcome the donor shortage issue (chapter 3). In this thesis we explored two different immune protective strategies; a

  9. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie , S.; Rothkrantz , L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  10. How to choose the route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Choosing the route for nutrition support delivery is one of the main steps in the algorithm of providing successful nutrition to the critically ill, but it is certainly not an easy process. The rationale should be guided not only by principles like physiology and benefit versus harm, but also by individual patient factors like feasibility, contraindications, predicted versus actual tolerance, and (most important) the timing for starting food delivery. Although oral nutrition is the more physiological route for feeding, it is seldom possible or sufficient in critically ill patients. Enteral nutrition, in the form of tube feeding, remains the best option in the absence of absolute contraindications, but many other factors should be taken into account. These include the importance of starting early and trying to achieve target nutrients delivery early, especially in previously undernourished or in most severely ill patients, as well as the gastrointestinal intolerance present in the majority of critically ill patients. Parenteral nutrition is an alternative route for nutrition delivery when the enteral one is impossible or insufficient. The most common complication when choosing this route is overfeeding, which has been associated with increased complications rate. On the other hand, the most common complication of enteral nutrition is underfeeding, which has also been associated with worse outcome and even increased mortality. Combining enteral with supplemental parenteral nutrition is therefore a rational approach for providing early and adequate nutritional support in the most severely ill patients.

  11. Genetic algorithms for route discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Liu, Peixiang; Lainé, Jeremy

    2006-12-01

    Packet routing in networks requires knowledge about available paths, which can be either acquired dynamically while the traffic is being forwarded, or statically (in advance) based on prior information of a network's topology. This paper describes an experimental investigation of path discovery using genetic algorithms (GAs). We start with the quality-of-service (QoS)-driven routing protocol called "cognitive packet network" (CPN), which uses smart packets (SPs) to dynamically select routes in a distributed autonomic manner based on a user's QoS requirements. We extend it by introducing a GA at the source routers, which modifies and filters the paths discovered by the CPN. The GA can combine the paths that were previously discovered to create new untested but valid source-to-destination paths, which are then selected on the basis of their "fitness." We present an implementation of this approach, where the GA runs in background mode so as not to overload the ingress routers. Measurements conducted on a network test bed indicate that when the background-traffic load of the network is light to medium, the GA can result in improved QoS. When the background-traffic load is high, it appears that the use of the GA may be detrimental to the QoS experienced by users as compared to CPN routing because the GA uses less timely state information in its decision making.

  12. Arctic Routes to Fabled Lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spies, Marijke

    1997-01-01

    Four hundred years ago Willem Barents set sail with two ships for the north via the Pole. Apart from this expedition, numerous other attempts were made by Dutch and Flemish mariners to find a northern trade route to China and Cathay. In this book, Marijke Spies relates the story of Olivier Brunel, t

  13. Regional disparities and convergences in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Blížkovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the disparity and convergence between the 10 and 11 countries of ASEAN and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS respectively and the 31 sub-national regions (provinces in China.The regional disparity levels and trends were analysed using the Gini coefficient between the regions (nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita in Purchasing Parity Power, PPP. The convergence analysis was evaluated using the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, and the σ- and b-convergence. The time period covered was 2000–2008 (ASEAN and CIS and 2000–2006 (China.The results show a relatively high regional disparity between the Asian macro-regions of ASEAN and CIS and much lower disparities between the China sub-regions. The disparities were highest if based on the nominal GDP and lower if based on the DGP per capita. The GDP per capita was lower, between 0.30 to 0.4 for the CIS and China, and around 0.7 in ASEAN. The convergence analysis showed mixed results. Based on the DRC analysis, none of the Asian macro-regions converged. All three macro-regions diverged 1.4 to 12.68 times quicker than the average macro-regional GDP per capita grew, ASEAN being at the divergence top and China at the bottom. Based on the ADRC analysis, all macro-regions also proved to diverge. However, the divergence rates were much lower. For macro-regions China and CIS, the divergence was slower than macro-regional growth, thus their divergence was moderate. On the other side, if the macro-region was calculated using the σ-convergence analysis, the converging macro-regions were ASEAN and China, with 2.13% and 0.47% respectively. CIS was diverging at the speed of 1.25% per year. Based on b-convergence, ASEAN and China were converging (1.54% and 1.32%, and a slow divergence trend was registered for CIS, 1.01%.

  14. Noise can speed convergence in Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzke, Brandon; Kosko, Bart

    2011-10-01

    A new theorem shows that noise can speed convergence to equilibrium in discrete finite-state Markov chains. The noise applies to the state density and helps the Markov chain explore improbable regions of the state space. The theorem ensures that a stochastic-resonance noise benefit exists for states that obey a vector-norm inequality. Such noise leads to faster convergence because the noise reduces the norm components. A corollary shows that a noise benefit still occurs if the system states obey an alternate norm inequality. This leads to a noise-benefit algorithm that requires knowledge of the steady state. An alternative blind algorithm uses only past state information to achieve a weaker noise benefit. Simulations illustrate the predicted noise benefits in three well-known Markov models. The first model is a two-parameter Ehrenfest diffusion model that shows how noise benefits can occur in the class of birth-death processes. The second model is a Wright-Fisher model of genotype drift in population genetics. The third model is a chemical reaction network of zeolite crystallization. A fourth simulation shows a convergence rate increase of 64% for states that satisfy the theorem and an increase of 53% for states that satisfy the corollary. A final simulation shows that even suboptimal noise can speed convergence if the noise applies over successive time cycles. Noise benefits tend to be sharpest in Markov models that do not converge quickly and that do not have strong absorbing states.

  15. Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Thézé

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.

  16. KNOWLEDGE-BASED MIGRATION AND MOBILITY: THE ECONOMIC 'GAMBLE' OF THE EASTERN NEIGHBOURHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To what extent can the scientific migration and mobility, and remittances impact the economic development of the donor and recipient states? How significant are they as a resource for the enhancement of the Eastern Partnership? The policy brief provides the results of the quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits of "smart" labour migration in the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries and proposes some policy recommendations to enhance the benefits stemming from knowledge-based migration and mobility flows. We received the proof of mutual causality between human development indicator of donor-state and most significant performance indicators of EaP migration in the EU ("smart mobility". This means that HDI of a donor-state is flexible to the internal situation in the country, and so the positive effect of smart mobility and remittance inflows can be easily absorbed inside the EaP. The same we observed for gross national income of EaP donor-states. However, our approach does not provide the answer: what is exactly the effect or the result. The convergence effect of scientific migration in the EU and the Eastern Partnership region is considered on the ground of the calculative assessment. We considered "fi-convergence" approach, stating that it occurs when the EaP mobility rate grows faster than the EU ones. As for o-convergence, we defined it as a reduction of future rates of variation (inequality, differentiation in the levels of migration of regions (countries. We can conclude that there is the convergence between the EU & EaP in the scientific migration in the years of the EaP initiation, but no results in the process of its fulfilment.

  17. Migration strategies of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, H

    1972-03-24

    Physiological and ecological results from a variety of species are consistent with what seem to be valid general statements concerning insect migration. These are as follows: (i)During migration locomotory functions are enhanced and vegetative functions such as feeding and reproduction are suppressed. (ii) Migration usually occurs prereproductively in the life of the adult insect (the oogenesis-flight syndrome). (iii)Since migrant individuals are usually prereproductive, their reproductive values, and hence colonizing abilities, are at or near maximum. (iv) Migrants usually reside in temporary habitats. (v)Migrants have a high potential for population increase, r, which is also advantageous for colonizers. (vi)Both the physiological and ecological parameters of migration are modifiable by environmental factors (that is, phenotypically modifiable)to suit the prevailing conditions. Taken together, these criteria establish a comprehensive theory and adumbrate the basic strategy for migrant insects. This basic strategy is modified to suit the ecological requirements of individual species. Comparative studies of these modifications are of considerable theoretical and practical interest, the more so since most economically important insects are migrants. No satisfactory general statements can as yet be made with respect to the genotype and migration. Certainly we expect colonizing populiations to possess genotypes favoring a high r, but genotypic variation in r depends on the heritabilities of life table statistics, and such measurements are yet to be made (10, 53). The fact that flight duration can be increased by appropriate selection in Oncopeltus fasciatus, and the demonstration of additive genetic variance for this trait in Lygaeus kalmii, suggest that heritability studies of migratory behavior would also be worth pursuing. Most interesting of course, will be possible genetic correlations between migration and life history parameters. Also, migration often

  18. Routing Protocols to Minimize the Number of Route Disconnections for Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Routing Protocol MAODV [5] is the multicast extension of the well-known Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ...extensions of the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol [4] or the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol [5]. The multi-path routing ...Multi-path Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol [7], an extension of AODV to compute multiple loop-free link- disjoint routes ; (iii) AODV

  19. Weather conditions promote route flexibility during open ocean crossing in a long-distance migratory raptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellone, Ugo; López-López, Pascual; Limiñana, Rubén; Urios, Vicente

    2011-07-01

    Weather conditions are paramount in shaping birds' migratory routes, promoting the evolution of behavioural plasticity and allowing for adaptive decisions on when to depart or stop during migration. Here, we describe and analyze the influence of weather conditions in shaping the sea-crossing stage of the pre-breeding journey made by a long-distance migratory bird, the Eleonora's falcon ( Falco eleonorae), tracked by satellite telemetry from the wintering grounds in the Southern Hemisphere to the breeding sites in the Northern Hemisphere. As far as we know, the data presented here are the first report of repeated oceanic journeys of the same individuals in consecutive years. Our results show inter-annual variability in the routes followed by Eleonora's falcons when crossing the Strait of Mozambique, between Madagascar and eastern continental Africa. Interestingly, our observations illustrate that individuals show high behavioural plasticity and are able to change their migration route from one year to another in response to weather conditions, thus minimising the risk of long ocean crossing by selecting winds blowing towards Africa for departure and changing the routes to avoid low pressure areas en route. Our results suggest that weather conditions can really act as obstacles during migration, and thus, besides ecological barriers, the migratory behaviour of birds could also be shaped by "meteorological barriers". We briefly discuss orientation mechanisms used for navigation. Since environmental conditions during migration could cause carry-over effects, we consider that forecasting how global changes of weather patterns will shape the behaviour of migratory birds is of the utmost importance.

  20. GREEDY NON-DOMINATED SORTING IN GENETIC ALGORITHM-II FOR VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM IN DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle routing problem in distribution (VRPD) is a widely used type of vehicle routing problem (VRP), which has been proved as NP-Hard, and it is usually modeled as single objective optimization problem when modeling. For multi-objective optimization model, most researches consider two objectives. A multi-objective mathematical model for VRP is proposed, which considers the number of vehicles used, the length of route and the time arrived at each client. Genetic algorithm is one of the most widely used algorithms to solve VRP. As a type of genetic algorithm (GA), non-dominated sorting in genetic algorithm-Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ) also suffers from premature convergence and enclosure competition. In order to avoid these kinds of shortage, a greedy NSGA-Ⅱ (GNSGA-Ⅱ) is proposed for VRP problem. Greedy algorithm is implemented in generating the initial population, cross-over and mutation. All these procedures ensure that NSGA-Ⅱ is prevented from premature convergence and refine the performance of NSGA-Ⅱ at each step. In the distribution problem of a distribution center in Michigan, US, the GNSGA-Ⅱ is compared with NSGA-Ⅱ. As a result, the GNSGA-II is the most efficient one and can get the most optimized solution to VRP problem. Also, in GNSGA-II, premature convergence is better avoided and search efficiency has been improved sharply.

  1. Complete Moment Convergence and Mean Convergence for Arrays of Rowwise Extended Negatively Dependent Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors first present a Rosenthal inequality for sequence of extended negatively dependent (END random variables. By means of the Rosenthal inequality, the authors obtain some complete moment convergence and mean convergence results for arrays of rowwise END random variables. The results in this paper extend and improve the corresponding theorems by Hu and Taylor (1997.

  2. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societ

  3. Optimum Route Selection for Vehicle Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of Optimum Route Selection for Vehicle Navigation System (ORSVNS article is to develop a system, which provides information about real time alternate routes to the drivers and also helps in selecting the optimal route among all the alternate routes from an origin to destination. Two types of query systems, special and general, are designed for drivers. Here, the criterion for route selection is introduced using primary and secondary road attributes. The presented methodology helps the drivers in better decision making to choose optimal route using fuzzy logic. For experimental results ORSVNS is tested over 220 km portion of Haryana state in India.

  4. Enhanced migration of seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, P.M. (PPPG/UFBA, Instituto de Geociencias, Rua Gaetano Moura 123, Federacao, 40.210 Salvador, Bahia (BR))

    1990-10-01

    The so-called enhanced migration which uses diffraction tomography as the repair tool for correction of amplitudes (reflection coefficients) of migrated sections is discussed. As with any linearized procedure, diffraction tomography requires knowledge of the initial model. It is suggested that the initial model is taken as the migrated image. It will be demonstrated that diffraction tomography applied to the data residuals improves the amplitudes of the migrated images. Migration is redefined as the reconstruction of the wavefront sets of distributions (reflection interfaces), and the inversion process as tomographic correction of migrated images.

  5. Migration scenarii in extrasolar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crida A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review talk, I present the theory of type I migration of small mass planets, and its latest developments that open the possibility of outward migration in the inner part of a protoplanetary disk. I also review the type II migration of giant planets, and mention the runaway, type III. Then, we focus on the migration of pairs of planets in resonance. The eccentricity of the planets raise, and possibly their mutual inclination as well. Also, the migration rate can be changed, and directed outward if the outer planet is the lighter. Last, we present a synthetic scenario of migration for the giant planets of our Solar System.

  6. Simulating the Oceanic Migration of Silver Japanese Eels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available The oceanic migration of silver Japanese eels starts from their continental growth habitats in East Asia and ends at the spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain. However, the actual migration routes remain unknown. In this study, we examined the possible oceanic migration routes and strategies of silver Japanese eels using a particle tracking method in which virtual eels (v-eels were programmed to move vertically and horizontally in an ocean circulation model (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2, JCOPE2. Four horizontal swimming strategies were tested: random heading, true navigation (readjusted heading, orientation toward the spawning area (fixed heading, and swimming against the Kuroshio. We found that all strategies, except random swimming, allowed v-eels swimming at 0.65 m s-1 to reach the spawning area within eight months after their departure from the south coast of Japan (end of the spawning season. The estimated minimum swimming speed required to reach the area spawning within eight months was 0.1 m s-1 for true navigation, 0.12 m s-1 for constant compass heading, and 0.35 m s-1 for swimming against the Kuroshio. The lowest swimming speed estimated from tracked Japanese eels at sea was 0.03 m.s-1, which would not allow them to reach the spawning area within eight months, through any of the tested orientation strategies. Our numerical experiments also showed that ocean circulation significantly affected the migration of Japanese v-eels. A strong Kuroshio could advect v-eels further eastward. In addition, western Pacific ocean currents accelerated the migration of navigating v-eels. The migration duration was shortened in years with a stronger southward flow, contributed by a stronger recirculation south of Japan, an enhanced subtropical gyre, or a higher southward Kuroshio velocity.

  7. Simulating the Oceanic Migration of Silver Japanese Eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    The oceanic migration of silver Japanese eels starts from their continental growth habitats in East Asia and ends at the spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain. However, the actual migration routes remain unknown. In this study, we examined the possible oceanic migration routes and strategies of silver Japanese eels using a particle tracking method in which virtual eels (v-eels) were programmed to move vertically and horizontally in an ocean circulation model (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2, JCOPE2). Four horizontal swimming strategies were tested: random heading, true navigation (readjusted heading), orientation toward the spawning area (fixed heading), and swimming against the Kuroshio. We found that all strategies, except random swimming, allowed v-eels swimming at 0.65 m s-1 to reach the spawning area within eight months after their departure from the south coast of Japan (end of the spawning season). The estimated minimum swimming speed required to reach the area spawning within eight months was 0.1 m s-1 for true navigation, 0.12 m s-1 for constant compass heading, and 0.35 m s-1 for swimming against the Kuroshio. The lowest swimming speed estimated from tracked Japanese eels at sea was 0.03 m.s-1, which would not allow them to reach the spawning area within eight months, through any of the tested orientation strategies. Our numerical experiments also showed that ocean circulation significantly affected the migration of Japanese v-eels. A strong Kuroshio could advect v-eels further eastward. In addition, western Pacific ocean currents accelerated the migration of navigating v-eels. The migration duration was shortened in years with a stronger southward flow, contributed by a stronger recirculation south of Japan, an enhanced subtropical gyre, or a higher southward Kuroshio velocity.

  8. Regenerating articular tissue by converging technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroni, Lorenzo; Hamann, D.; Paoluzzi, Luca; Pieper, Jeroen; de Wijn, J.R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    Scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering should provide mechanical stability, while offering specific signals for chondral and bone regeneration with a completely interconnected porous network for cell migration, attachment, and proliferation. Composites of polymers and ceramics are often

  9. Regional Convergence in Knowledge-based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fattahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world economies are rapidly moving towards being more Knowledge-based Economy (KBE and supporting the force of knowledge as a vital component of economic growth. This recent acceleration in the transition to Knowledge-based Economy in the world, has affected regional economic performance. In this paper, we surveyed the regional convergence in Knowledge-based Economy for selected Asia and pacific countries. We used a growth model in Barro and Sala-i-Martin framework (1995 for the period of 1995-2009. It includes a panel data set consisting of the annual growth rate of GDP per capita for selected Asia and pacific countries and a group of indicators that define the situation of Knowledge-based Economy in countries. The empirical results indicate that the absolute and the conditional convergence are not rejected for selected countries. The investigation on robustness of the model results confirms the existence of regional convergence for studied countries.

  10. Divergence and Convergence in Education and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Are the educational systems in Europe becoming more similar or more different? This book deals with the issue ofdivergence and convergence in relation to systems, learning environments, and learners in vocational educational training (VET). 18 VET researchers from eight countries contribute...... to the examination of 'divergence and convergence' at three levels: At the national level this volume deals with the following questions: What are the consequences of the European policies that aim at converging the VET systems in Europe? What is the impact of globalization on the national systems? At the level...... of institutions the central issue concerns the relation between learning environments. What is the coherence between school-based education and learning in the work-place, and how can they connect? Finally at the third level of the learners and their identities the focus is on the role of vocational educational...

  11. Convergence of Hybrid Space Mapping Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Søndergaard, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    \\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\$ is convex and \\$f: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^n \\$\\backslash\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m\\$ is smooth. Experience indicates that the combined method maintains the initial efficiency of the space mapping technique. We prove that the global convergence property of the classical technique is also......The space mapping technique is intended for optimization of engineering models which involve very expensive function evaluations. It may be considered a preprocessing method which often provides a very efficient initial phase of an optimization procedure. However, the ultimate rate of convergence...... may be poor, or the method may even fail to converge to a stationary point. We consider a convex combination of the space mapping technique with a classical optimization technique. The function to be optimized has the form \\$H \\$\\backslash\\$circ f\\$ where \\$H: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m \\$\\backslash...

  12. International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.

  13. Convergence of coupled cluster perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, Janus Juul; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of a recently proposed coupled cluster (CC) family of perturbation series [Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)], in which the energetic difference between a parent and a target CC model is expanded in orders of the M{\\o}ller-Plesset (MP) fluctuation potential, is investigated for four prototypical closed-shell systems (Ne, singlet methylene, distorted HF, and the fluoride anion) in standard and augmented basis sets. In these investigations, energy corrections of the various series have been calculated to high orders and their convergence radii determined by probing for possible front- and back-door intruder states. In summary, we conclude how it is primarily the choice of target state, and not the choice of parent state, which ultimately governs the convergence behavior of a given series. For example, restricting the target state to, say, triple or quadruple excitations might remove intruders present in series that target the full configuration interaction (FCI) limit, such as th...

  14. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUCO PAULA – ROXANA,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the process of regional convergence (regarding income wage per capita or on the contrary, the process of regional divergence, between the 42 counties as reference territorial units in Romania, within the period 2005-2014. In the econometric analyze, the models that were developed had the aim to assess the role of macroeconomic determinants on the average net income per capita, exactly the possibility of a more dynamic growth of wages in poorer counties. The results showed a clear trend towards wage convergence, under the impact of multidimensional factors of influence. Our findings confirm the literature on regional convergence, pointing out the importance of economic development level, quality of human capital, technical progress and intensity of innovation activity, improving labor market integration and even a dynamic entrepreneurial activity.

  15. International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Feleaga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.

  16. Convergence of Hybrid Space Mapping Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Søndergaard, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    \\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\$ is convex and \\$f: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^n \\$\\backslash\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m\\$ is smooth. Experience indicates that the combined method maintains the initial efficiency of the space mapping technique. We prove that the global convergence property of the classical technique is also......The space mapping technique is intended for optimization of engineering models which involve very expensive function evaluations. It may be considered a preprocessing method which often provides a very efficient initial phase of an optimization procedure. However, the ultimate rate of convergence...... may be poor, or the method may even fail to converge to a stationary point. We consider a convex combination of the space mapping technique with a classical optimization technique. The function to be optimized has the form \\$H \\$\\backslash\\$circ f\\$ where \\$H: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m \\$\\backslash...

  17. Plurality or convergence in sustainability reporting standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Albu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years an increasing number of companies issued Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR or Sustainability Reports to complement their traditional financial reporting. Companies use various sustainability reporting standards or develop their own reporting frameworks starting from the existing ones. This variation of practices pointed out by empirical research raises questions about the quality and comparability of sustainability reporting, its role in the sustainable development, and also about the suitability of accepting the plurality of reporting frameworks or the need for convergence. This study aims to investigate the issues of plurality and convergence in sustainability reporting standards, by mobilizing the discourses on regulation and the case of a group of companies in the IT industry in order to shed some light on the current challenges in this area. We frame a discussion on the opportunities and pitfalls of convergence in sustainability reporting regulations and contribute to a better understanding of this issue by academics, preparers, users and standard setters

  18. Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C.

    2016-07-01

    Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.

  19. Convergence of Wavelet Expansions in the Orlicz Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Mei TAN

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the convergence in norm and pointwise convergence of wavelet expansion in the Orlicz spaces, and prove that, under certain conditions on the wavelet, the wavelet expansion converges in the Orlicz-norm and also converges almost everywhere.

  20. Practical Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Johny

    2012-01-01

    This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.

  1. Migrating the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The migration of Blaga’s universalist, even centralist poems from Romanian of the first third of the 20th C. into American of the first fifth of the 21st C. illustrates the uses of Pierre Joris’s nomadic methods. My translations of Blaga read well for a teenage audience whose only exposure to lit...

  2. Digitizing migration heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2011-01-01

    Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic...

  3. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  4. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2017-01-01

    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  5. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...

  6. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2017-01-01

    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  7. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  8. Migrating the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The migration of Blaga’s universalist, even centralist poems from Romanian of the first third of the 20th C. into American of the first fifth of the 21st C. illustrates the uses of Pierre Joris’s nomadic methods. My translations of Blaga read well for a teenage audience whose only exposure to lit...

  9. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    2002-01-01

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a d

  10. Specialisation and Convergence in European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Marelli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze specialization and convergence of European countries and regions, within the framework of integration in the EU. This is important not only for long-term real convergence processes, but also for a proper functioning of the monetary union (in the line of research on the OCA's criteria, asymmetry of shocks and synchronization of business cycles. The position of new member states is particularly delicate, also considering the forthcoming adoption of the euro by some of them. As indicated by the EU Treaty, economic growth should be balanced with economic and social cohesion that includes a careful consideration of regional disparities. Our empirical investigation focuses on the regions of EU25, further broken up into other relevant groupings (EU15, EMU, and the new members' EU10 group, over the period from 1980 (or 1990 for EU10 to 2005. This paper considers a rather fine regional disaggregation (NUTS-2 level, counting 250 regions. The analysis of different indices of specialisation point to a prevalent increase of homogeneity of sector structures across European regions, although in some cases (especially in the industrial sector and in some services specialisation has increased. For convergence, a sigma convergence's analysis confirms a reduction of disparities, both at a country and regional level. However, a trade-off between fast national growth and internal distribution has emerged in the early stages of development, as in the case of new members. Moreover, beta convergence has also been established - regarding per capita income, employment and productivity - for almost all territorial aggregates (excluding the new members since 1999. The addition of structural variables, following a beta-conditional approach, indicates a positive role for services and a negative impact of agriculture. Finally, some preliminary results have been obtained by the innovative inclusion of specialisation indices within

  11. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  12. Technical Report: Sleep-Route - Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  13. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-04

    April 30, 2006 DRAFT 9 D. Scope and Outline of the Paper The main focus of the paper is on the analysis of a heuristic algorithm which effectively...CCRP Algorithms In this section, we present a generic description of the Capacity Constrained Route Planner (CCRP). CCRP is a heuristic algorithm which...qualifies to be a candidate algorithm. E. Solution Quality of CCRP Since CCRP is a heuristic algorithm , it does not produce optimal solutions for all

  14. Analytical Analysis of Vehicle Routing and Inventory Routing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The objective of the project is to perform analytical analyses of heuristics for the Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ) and apply the results in models...asymptotic optimal solution value of the VRP with capacity and time window constraints and used it to develop a new and efficient algorithm. (2) Obtained a...characterization of the effectiveness of set partitioning formulations for VRPs . (3) Characterized the worst case behavior of the linear programming

  15. World Migration Degree Global migration flows in directed networks

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze the global flow of migrants from 206 source countries to 145 destination countries (2006-2010) and focus on the differences in the migration network pattern between destination and source counters as represented by its degree and weight distribution. Degree represents the connectivity of a country to the global migration network, and plays an important role in defining migration processes and characteristics. Global analysis of migration degree distribution offers a...

  16. Large Field Cutoffs Make Perturbative Series Converge

    CERN Document Server

    Meurice, Y

    2002-01-01

    For lambda phi^4 problems, convergent perturbative series can be obtained by cutting off the large field configurations. The modified series converge to values exponentially close to the exact ones. For lambda larger than some critical value, the method outperforms Pade approximants and Borel summations. We discuss some aspects of the semi-classical methods used to calculate the modified Feynman rules and estimate the error associated with the procedure. We provide a simple numerical example where the procedure works despite the fact that the Borel sum has singularities on the positive real axis.

  17. Large field cutoffs make perturbative series converge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurice, Yannick

    2002-03-01

    For λφ 4 problems, convergent perturbative series can be obtained by cutting off the large field configurations. The modified series converge to values exponentially close to the exact ones. For λ larger than some critical value, the method outperforms Padé approximants and Borel summations. We discuss some aspects of the semi-classical methods used to calculate the modified Feynman rules and estimate the error associated with the procedure. We provide a simple numerical example where the procedure works despite the fact that the Borel sum has singularities on the positive real axis.

  18. ON CONVERGENCE OF WAVELET PACKET EXPANSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morten Nielsen

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the-Walsh-Fourier expansion of a function from the block space ([0, 1 ) ), 1 <q≤∞, converges pointwise a.e. We prove that the same result is true for the expansion of a function from in certain periodixed smooth periodic non-stationary wavelet packets bases based on the Haar filters. We also consider wavelet packets based on the Shannon filters and show that the expansion of Lp-functions, 1<p<∞, converges in norm and pointwise almost everywhere.

  19. ON THE CONVERGENCE OF COMPLEX SOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to solve the linear algebraic system AX=b in complex domain, where A is a weakly cyclic of index p= 3 matrix (p-cyclic matrix), the convergence properties of SOR are stud ied in the paper. In section 1, we give some definitions. In section 2, the necessary conditions for convergent complex SOR are given moreover the necessary and su fficient conditions in some special situations are also presented. In section 3, we expand the techniques applied by R.S. Varga et al., and it is established that the results of R.S. Varga et. al. are special cases of our work.

  20. Extended Global Convergence Framework for Unconstrained Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)rpád B(U)RMEN; Franc BRATKOVI(C); Janez PUHAN; Iztok FAJFAR; Tadej TUMA

    2004-01-01

    An extension of the global convergence framework for unconstrained derivative-free optimization methods is presented. The extension makes it possible for the framework to include optimization methods with varying cardinality of the ordered direction set. Grid-based search methods are shown to be a special case of the more general extended global convergence framework. Furthermore,the required properties of the sequence of ordered direction sets listed in the definition of grid-based methods are re]axed and simplified by removing the requirement of structural equivalence.