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Sample records for convergent margin magmatism

  1. Convergent plate margin dynamics : New perspectives from structural geology, geophysics and geodynamic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Convergent plate margins occur when two adjoining tectonic plates come together to form either a subduction zone, where at least one of the converging plates is oceanic and plunges beneath the other into the mantle, or a collision zone, where two continents or a continent and a magmatic arc collide.

  2. Geophysical constraints on geodynamic processes at convergent margins: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    convergence rate. (4) Local isostasy is not satisfied at the convergent margins as evidenced by strong free air gravity anomalies of positive and negative signs. However, near-isostatic equilibrium may exist in broad zones of distributed deformation such as Tibet. (5) No systematic patterns are recognized in heat flow data due to strong heterogeneity of measured values which are strongly affected by hydrothermal circulation, magmatic activity, crustal faulting, horizontal heat transfer, and also due to low number of heat flow measurements across many margins. (6) Low upper mantle Vs seismic velocities beneath the convergent margins are restricted to the upper 150 km and may be related to mantle wedge melting which is confined to shallow mantle levels. Artemieva, I.M., Thybo, H., and Shulgin, A., 2015. Geophysical constraints on geodynamic processes at convergent margins: A global perspective. Gondwana Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2015.06.010

  3. The Magmatic Budget of Rifted Margins: is it Related to Inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.; Gillard, M.; Sauter, D.

    2017-12-01

    High quality reflection and refraction seismic surveys show a divergent style of margin architecture often referred to as magma-poor or magma-rich. More detailed studies show, however, that the evolution of these margins can be similar, despite the variable quantity and distribution of magmatism. These observations suggest that simple relations between magmatic and extensional systems are inappropriate to describe the magmatic history of rifted margins. Moreover, the study of magmatic additions indicates that they may occur, prior to, during or after lithospheric breakup. Furthermore, the observation that the magmatic budget may change very abruptly along strike and across the margin is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of plumes or other deep-seated large-scale mantle phenomena only. These overall observations result in questions on how magmatic and tectonic processes are interacting during rifting and lithospheric breakup and on how far the inherited composition and temperature of the decompressing mantle may control the magmatic budget during rifting. In our presentation we will review examples from present-day and fossil rifted margins to discuss their structural and magmatic evolution and whether they are considered as magma-rich or magma-poor. The key questions that we aim to address are: 1) whether decompression melting is the driving force, or rather the consequence of extension, 2) how far the magmatic budget is controlled by inherited mantle composition and temperature, and 3) how important magma storage is during initial stages of rifting. Eventually, we will discuss to what extent the evolution of margins may reflect the interplay between inheritance (innate/"genetic code") and the actual physical processes (acquired/external factors).

  4. The Continental Margin of East Asia: a collage of multiple plates formed by convergence and extension from multiple directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Wang, T.; Ludington, S.; Qiu, Z.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    East Asia is one of the most complex regions in the world. Its margin was divided into 4 parts: Northeast Asia, North China, South China and Southeast Asia. During the Phanerozoic, continental plates of East Asia have interacted successively with a) the Paleo Tethyan Ocean, b) the Tethyan and Paleo Pacific Oceans and c) the Pacific and Indian. In the Early Mesozoic, the Indosinian orogeny is characterized by the convergence and extension within multiple continental plates, whereas the Late Mesozoic Yanshanian orogeny is characterized by both convergence and compression due to oceanic subduction and by widespread extension. We propose this combination as "East Asia Continental Margin type." Except in Northeast Asia, where Jurassic and Cretaeous accretionary complexes are common, most magmatic rocks are the result of reworking of ancient margins of small continental plates; and oceanic island arc basalts and continental margin arc andesites are largely absent. Because South China is adjacent to the western margin of the Pacific Plate, some effects of its westward subduction must be unavoidable, but juvenile arc-related crust has not been identified. The East Asian Continental Margin is characterized by magmatic rocks that are the result of post-convergent tectonics, which differs markedly from the active continental margins of both South and North America. In summary, the chief characteristics of the East Asian Continental Margin are: 1) In Mesozoic, the periphery of multiple blocks experienced magmatism caused by lithospheric delamination and thinning in response to extension punctuated by shorter periods of convergence. 2) The main mechanism of magma generation was the partial melting of crustal rocks, due to underplating by upwelling mafic magma associated with the collapse of orogenic belts and both extension and compression between small continental blocks. 3) During orogeny, mostly high Sr/Y arc-related granitoids formed, whereas during post-orogenic times, A

  5. Asymmetric rifting, breakup and magmatism across conjugate margin pairs: insights from Newfoundland to Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Alexander L.; Welford, J. Kim; Foulger, Gillian R.; McCaffrey, Ken J. W.

    2017-04-01

    Continental extension, subsequent rifting and eventual breakup result in the development of passive margins with transitional crust between extended continental crust and newly created oceanic crust. Globally, passive margins are typically classified as either magma-rich or magma-poor. Despite this simple classification, magma-poor margins like the West Orphan Basin, offshore Newfoundland, do exhibit some evidence of localized magmatism, as magmatism to some extent invariably accompanies all continental breakup. For example, on the Newfoundland margin, a small volcanic province has been interpreted near the termination of the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone, whereas on the conjugate Irish margin within the Rockall Basin, magmatism appears to be more widespread and has been documented both in the north and in the south. The broader region over which volcanism has been identified on the Irish margin is suggestive of magmatic asymmetry across this conjugate margin pair and this may have direct implications for the mechanisms governing the nature of rifting and breakup. Possible causes of the magmatic asymmetry include asymmetric rifting (simple shear), post-breakup thermal anomalies in the mantle, or pre-existing compositional zones in the crust that predispose one of the margins to more melting than its conjugate. A greater understanding of the mechanisms leading to conjugate margin asymmetry will enhance our fundamental understanding of rifting processes and will also reduce hydrocarbon exploration risk by better characterizing the structural and thermal evolution of hydrocarbon bearing basins on magma-poor margins where evidence of localized magmatism exists. Here, the latest results of a conjugate margin study of the Newfoundland-Ireland pair utilizing seismic interpretation integrated with other geological and geophysical datasets are presented. Our analysis has begun to reveal the nature and timing of rift-related magmatism and the degree to which magmatic asymmetry

  6. Magmatic development of the outer Vøring Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Asbjorn; Faleide, Jan Inge; Mjelde, Rolf; Flueh, Ernst; Murai, Yoshio

    2013-04-01

    The Vøring Plateau off mid-Norway is a volcanic passive margin, located north of the East Jan Mayen Fracture Zone (EJMFZ). Large volumes of magmatic rocks were emplaced during Early Eocene margin formation. In 2003, an ocean bottom seismometer survey was acquired on the Vøring and Lofoten margins. One profile crosses from the Vøring Plateau to the Vøring Spur, an oceanic plateau north of the EJMFZ. The P-wave data were modeled by ray-tracing in a 2D velocity model of the crust. The process behind the excess magmatism can be estimated by comparing seismic velocity (VP) with igneous thickness (H). This profile and two other profiles farther north show a positive H-VP correlation, consistent with a hot mantle reservoir of finite extent under the margin at breakup. However, during the first two million years, magma production appears to be augmented by a secondary process. By 51-51.5 Ma melting may be caused by elevated mantle temperature alone. Seismic stratigraphy around the Vøring Spur shows at least two inversion events, with the main episode tentatively in the Upper Miocene, apparently through igneous growth to create the up to 15 km crustal thickness. The H-VP correlation of the spur is low, indicating constant and moderate-degree mantle melting not tied to the breakup magmatism. The admittance function between bathymetry and free-air gravity shows that the high is near local isostatic equilibrium, discounting that compressional flexure at the EJMFZ shaped the high. We also find no evidence for the proposed Early Eocene triple junction in the area.

  7. Magmatic development of the outer Vøring margin from seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Asbjørn; Faleide, Jan Inge; Mjelde, Rolf; Flueh, Ernst; Murai, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    The Vøring Plateau off mid-Norway is a volcanic passive margin, located north of the East Jan Mayen Fracture Zone (EJMFZ). Large volumes of magmatic rocks were emplaced during Early Eocene margin formation. In 2003, an ocean bottom seismometer survey was acquired over the margin. One profile crosses from the Vøring Plateau to the Vøring Spur, a bathymetric high north of the EJMFZ. The P wave data were ray traced into a 2-D crustal velocity model. The velocity structure of the Vøring Spur indicates up to 15 km igneous crustal thickness. Magmatic processes can be estimated by comparing seismic velocity (VP) with igneous thickness (H). This and two other profiles show a positive H-VP correlation at the Vøring Plateau, consistent with elevated mantle temperature at breakup. However, during the first 2 Ma magma production was augmented by a secondary process, possibly small-scale convection. From ˜51.5 Ma excess melting may be caused by elevated mantle temperature alone. Seismic stratigraphy around the Vøring Spur shows that it was created by at least two uplift events, with the main episode close to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Low H-VP correlation of the spur is consistent with renewed igneous growth by constant, moderate-degree mantle melting, not related to the breakup magmatism. The admittance function between bathymetry and free-air gravity shows that the high is near local isostatic equilibrium, precluding that compressional flexure at the EJMFZ uplifted the high. We find a proposed Eocene triple junction model for the margin to be inconsistent with observations.

  8. Geophysical constraints on geodynamical processes at convergent margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins......, at least, one of the plates is oceanic. However, the oldest oceanic plate in the Pacific ocean has the smallest convergence rate. (2) The presence of an oceanic plate is, in general, required for generation of high-magnitude (M>8.0) earthquakes and for generating intermediate and deep seismicity along...... to shallow mantle levels....

  9. Thermal and mechanical modelling of convergent plate margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beukel, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical structure of convergent plate margins will be investigated by means of numerical modelling. In addition, we will discuss the implications of modelling results for geological processes such as metamorphism or the break-up of a plate at a convergent plate

  10. Tectono-Magmatic Evolution of the South Atlantic Continental Margins with Respect to Opening of the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2018-03-01

    The history of the opening of the South Atlantic in Early Cretaceous time is considered. It is shown that the determining role for continental breakup preparation has been played by tectono-magmatic events within the limits of the distal margins that developed above the plume head. The formation of the Rio Grande Rise-Walvis Ridge volcanic system along the trace of the hot spot is considered. The magmatism in the South Atlantic margins, its sources, and changes in composition during the evolution are described. On the basis of petrogeochemical data, the peculiarities of rocks with a continental signature are shown. Based on Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic studies, it is found that the manifestations of magmatism in the proximal margins had features of enriched components related to the EM I and EM II sources, sometimes with certain participation of the HIMU source. Within the limits of the Walvis Ridge, as magmatism expanded to the newly formed oceanic crust, the participation of depleted asthenospheric mantle became larger in the composition of magmas. The role played by the Tristan plume in magma generation is discussed: it is the most considered as the heat source that determined the melting of the ancient enriched lithosphere. The specifics of the tectono-magmatic evolution of the South Atlantic is pointed out: the origination during spreading of a number of hot spots above the periphery of the African superplume. The diachronous character of the opening of the ocean is considered in the context of northward progradation of the breakup line and its connection with the northern branch of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mid-Cretaceous.

  11. Weak Tectono-Magmatic Relationships along an Obliquely Convergent Plate Boundary: Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Acocella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The tectono-magmatic relationships along obliquely convergent plate boundaries, where strain partitioning promotes strike-slip structures along the volcanic arc, are poorly known. Here it is unclear if and, in case, how the strike-slip structures control volcanic processes, distribution and size. To better define the possible tectono-magmatic relationships along strike-slip arcs, we merge available information on the case study of Sumatra (Indonesia with field structural data. The Sumatra arc (entire volcanic belt consists of 48 active volcanoes. Of these, 46% lie within 10 km from the dextral Great Sumatra Fault (GSF, which carries most horizontal displacement on the overriding plate, whereas 27% lie at >20 km from the GSF. Among the volcanoes at <10 km from GSF, 48% show a possible structural relation to the GSF, whereas only 28% show a clear structural relation, lying in pull-aparts or releasing bends; these localized areas of transtension (local extensional zone do not develop magmatic segments. There is no relation between the GSF along-strike slip rate variations and the volcanic productivity. The preferred N30°-N40°E volcano alignment and elongation are subparallel to the convergence vector or to the GSF. The structural field data, collected in the central and southern GSF, show, in addition to the dextral motions along NW-SE to N-S striking faults, also normal motions (extending WNW-ESE or NE-SW, suggesting local reactivations of the GSF. Overall, the collected data suggest a limited tectonic control on arc volcanism. The tectonic control is mostly expressed by the mean depth of the slab surface below the volcanoes (130 ± 20 km and, subordinately, local extension along the GSF. The latter, when WNW-ESE oriented (more common, may be associated with the overall tectonic convergence, as suggested by the structural data; conversely, when NE-SW oriented (less common, the extension may result from co- and post-seismic arc normal extension

  12. Slab break-off triggered lithosphere - asthenosphere interaction at a convergent margin: The Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatism in NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Pandit, Manoj K.; Zhao, Jun-Hong; Chen, Wei-Terry; Zheng, Jian-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) is described as the largest felsic igneous province in India. The linearly distributed Sindreth and Punagarh basins located along eastern margin of this province represent the only site of bimodal volcanism and associated clastic sediments within the MIS. The in-situ zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICPMS reveals that the Sindreth rhyolites were erupted at 769-762 Ma. Basaltic rocks from both the basins show distinct geochemical signatures that suggest an E-MORB source for Punagarh basalts (low Ti/V ratios of 40.9-28.2) and an OIB source (high Ti/V ratios of 285-47.6) for Sindreth basalts. In the absence of any evidence of notable crustal contamination, these features indicate heterogeneous mantle sources for them. The low (La/Yb)CN (9.34-2.10) and Sm/Yb (2.88-1.08) ratios of Punagarh basalts suggest a spinel facies, relatively shallow level mantle source as compared to a deeper source for Sindreth basalts, as suggested by high (La/Yb)CN (7.24-5.24) and Sm/Yb (2.79-2.13) ratios. Decompression melting of an upwelling sub-slab asthenosphere through slab window seems to be the most plausible mechanism to explain the geochemical characteristics. Besides, the associated felsic volcanics show A2-type granite signatures, such as high Y/Nb (5.97-1.55) and Yb/Ta (9.36-2.57) ratios, consistent with magma derived from continental crust that has been through a cycle of continent-continent collision or an island-arc setting. A localized extension within an overall convergent scenario is interpreted for Sindreth and Punagarh volcanics. This general convergent setting is consistent with the previously proposed Andean-type continental margin for NW Indian block, the Seychelles and Madagascar, all of which lay either at the periphery of Rodinia supercontinent or slightly off the Supercontinent.

  13. A Summary of Results From the IPOD Transects Across the Japan, Mariana, and Middle-America Convergent Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Von Huene, R; Uyeda, S

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of convergent margins along the IPOD transects support the concept of ocean floor spreading in back-arc basins and the concept of tectonically accreted sediment at the front of convergent margins. However, not all convergent margins have large accreted complexes, and other less frequently used concepts are required in the interpretations of these convergent margins. If the present rates of plate convergence are accepted, then much sediment that entered the trenches studied is p...

  14. How does continental lithosphere break-apart? A 3D seismic view on the transition from magma-poor rifted margin to magmatic oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, M.; Lescanne, M.; Picazo, S.; Tomasi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, high-quality seismic data and drilling results drastically challenged our ideas about how continents break apart. New models address their observed variability and are presently redefining basics of rifting as well as exploration potential along deepwater rifted margins. Seafloor spreading is even more constrained by decades of scientific exploration along Mid Oceanic Ridges. By contrast, the transition between rifting and drifting remains a debated subject. This lithospheric breakup "event" is geologically recorded along Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT) at the most distal part of margins before indubitable oceanic crust. Often lying along ultra-deepwater margin domains and buried beneath a thick sedimentary pile, high-quality images of these domains are rare but mandatory to get strong insights on the processes responsible for lithospheric break up and what are the consequences for the overlying basins. We intend to answer these questions by studying a world-class 3D seismic survey in a segment of a rifted margin exposed in the Atlantic. Through these data, we can show in details the OCT architecture between a magma-poor hyper-extended margin (with exhumed mantle) and a classical layered oceanic crust. It is characterized by 1- the development of out-of-sequence detachment systems with a landward-dipping geometry and 2- the increasing magmatic additions oceanwards (intrusives and extrusives). Geometry of these faults suggests that they may be decoupled at a mantle brittle-ductile interface what may be an indicator on thermicity. Furthermore, magmatism increases as deformation migrates to the future first indubitable oceanic crust what controls a progressive magmatic crustal thickening below, above and across a tapering rest of margin. As the magmatic budget increases oceanwards, full-rate divergence is less and less accommodated by faulting. Magmatic-sedimentary architectures of OCT is therefore changing from supra-detachment to magmatic

  15. Devonian alkaline magmatic belt along the northern margin of the North China Block: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Zhang, Shuan-Hong; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Jian-Min

    2018-03-01

    Some Devonian magmatic rocks have been identified from the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB) in recent years. However, their petrogenesis and tectonic setting are still highly controversial. Here we present new geochronological, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and whole-rock chemical data on several newly identified and previously reported Devonian alkaline complexes, including mafic-ultramafic rocks (pyroxenites and gabbros), alkaline rocks (syenites, monzonites) and alkaline granites in the northern NCB. We firstly identified some mafic-ultramafic rocks coeval with monzonite and quartz monzonite in the Sandaogou and Wulanhada alkaline intrusions. New zircon U-Pb dating of 16 samples from the Baicaigou, Gaojiacun, Sandaogou, Wulanhada and Chifeng alkaline intrusions combined with previous geochronological results indicate that the Devonian alkaline rocks emplaced during the early-middle Devonian at around 400-380 Ma and constitute an E-W-trending alkaline magmatic belt that extend ca. 900 km long along the northern margin of the NCB. Whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data reveal that the Devonian alkaline rocks were mainly originated from partial melting of a variably enriched lithospheric mantle with different involvement of ancient lower crustal component and fractional crystallization. The Devonian alkaline magmatic belt rocks in the northern NCB are characterized by very weak or no deformations and were most likely related to post-collision extension after arc-continent collision between the Bainaimiao island arc and the northern margin of North China Craton during the latest Silurian. Partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to produce the Devonian alkaline magmatic rocks suggests that the northern North China Craton has an inhomogeneous, variably enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle and was characterized by significant vertical crustal growth during the Devonian period.

  16. A new tectono-magmatic model for the Lofoten/Vesterålen Margin at the outer limit of the Iceland Plume influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Faleide, Jan Inge; Mjelde, Rolf; Flueh, Ernst R.; Murai, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    The Early Eocene continental breakup was magma-rich and formed part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. Extrusive and intrusive magmatism was abundant on the continental side, and a thick oceanic crust was produced up to a few m.y. after breakup. However, the extensive magmatism at the Vøring Plateau off mid-Norway died down rapidly northeastwards towards the Lofoten/Vesterålen Margin. In 2003 an Ocean Bottom Seismometer profile was collected from mainland Norway, across Lofoten, and into the deep ocean. Forward/inverse velocity modeling by raytracing reveals a continental margin transitional between magma-rich and magma-poor rifting. For the first time a distinct lower-crustal body typical for volcanic margins has been identified at this outer margin segment, up to 3.5 km thick and ∼50 km wide. On the other hand, expected extrusive magmatism could not be clearly identified here. Strong reflections earlier interpreted as the top of extensive lavas may at least partly represent high-velocity sediments derived from the shelf, and/or fault surfaces. Early post-breakup oceanic crust is moderately thickened (∼8 km), but is reduced to 6 km after 1 m.y. The adjacent continental crystalline crust is extended down to a minimum of 4.5 km thickness. Early plate spreading rates derived from the Norway Basin and the northern Vøring Plateau were used to calculate synthetic magnetic seafloor anomalies, and compared to our ship magnetic profile. It appears that continental breakup took place at ∼53.1 Ma, ∼1 m.y. later than on the Vøring Plateau, consistent with late strong crustal extension. The low interaction between extension and magmatism indicates that mantle plume material was not present at the Lofoten Margin during initial rifting, and that the observed excess magmatism was created by late lateral transport from a nearby pool of plume material into the lithospheric rift zone at breakup time.

  17. Tectonic implications of Mesozoic magmatism to initiation of Cenozoic basin development within the passive South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hue Anh; Chan, Yu Lu; Yeh, Meng Wan; Lee, Tung Yi

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the classical example of a non-volcanic passive margin situated within three tectonic plates of the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Philippine Sea plate. The development of SCS resulted from interaction of various types of plate boundaries, and complex tectonic assemblage of micro blocks and accretionary prisms. Numerous models were proposed for the formation of SCS, yet none can fully satisfy different aspects of tectonic forces. Temporal and geographical reconstruction of Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatism with the isochrones of major basins was conducted. Our reconstruction indicated the SE margin of Asia had gone through two crustal thinning events. The sites for rifting development are controlled by localized thermal weakening of magmatism. NW-SE extension setting during Late Cretaceous revealed by magmatism distribution and sedimentary basins allow us to allocate the retreated subduction of Pacific plate to the cause of first crustal thinning event. A magmatic gap between 75 and 65 Ma prior to the initiation of first basin rifting suggested a significant modification of geodynamic setting occurred. The Tainan basin, Pearl River Mouth basin, and Liyue basins started to develop since 65 Ma where the youngest Late Cretaceous magmatism concentrated. Sporadic bimodal volcanism between 65 and 40 Ma indicates further continental extension prior to the opening of SCS. The E-W extension of Malay basin and West Natuna began since late Eocene followed by N-S rifting of SCS as Neotethys subducted. The SCS ridge developed between Pearl River Mouth basin and Liyue basin where 40 Ma volcanic activities concentrated. The interaction of two continental stretching events by Pacific followed by Neotethys subduction with localized magmatic thermal weakening is the cause for the non-volcanic nature of SCS.

  18. Origins of saline fluids at convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kastner, Miriam; Egeberg, Per Kr.

    The compositions of pore and venting fluids at convergent margins differ from seawater values, reflecting mixing and diagenesis. Most significantly, the concentration of Cl-, assumed to be a conservative ion, differs from its seawater value. Chloride concentrations could be elevated by four processes, although two, the formation of gas hydrate and ion filtration by clay membranes, are insignificant in forming saline fluids at convergent margins. During the formation of gas hydrate, the resulting Cl--rich fluids, estimated to contain an average excess of ˜140 mM Cl- over seawater value, probably would be flushed from the sediment when the pore fluids vent to seawater. Ion filtration by clay membranes requires compaction pressures typical of >2 km burial depths. Even at these depths, the efficiency of ion filtration will be negligible because (1) fluids will flow through fractures, thereby bypassing clay membranes, (2) concentrations of clay minerals are diluted by other phases, and (3) during burial, smectite converts to illite, which has little capacity for ion filtration. A third process, mixing with subaerially evaporated seawater, elevates Cl- concentrations to 1043 mM in forearc basins along the Peru margin. Evaporation of seawater, however, will be important only in limited geographic regions that are characterized by enclosed basins, arid climates, and permeable sediments. At the New Hebrides and Izu-Bonin margins, Cl- concentrations are elevated to a maximum of 1241 mM. The process responsible for this increase is the alteration of volcanic ash to hydrous clay and zeolite minerals. Mass balance calculations, based on the decrease in δ18O values to -9.5‰ (SMOW), suggest that the Cl- concentrations could increase solely from the formation of smectite in a closed system. The diagenesis of volcanic ash also alters the concentrations of most dissolved species in addition to Cl-. Depending on the volume of this altered fluid, it could influence seawater

  19. Svecofennian orogeny in an evolving convergent margin setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa

    2015-04-01

    The dominant tectonic mode changes from extension to convergence at around 1.9 Ga in Fennoscandian. The lithological record suggests short lived subduction-related magmatic events followed by deformation and low-pressure high temperature metamorphism. At around 1.8 Ga the subduction systems seem to have stabilized implying continuous supply of oceanic lithosphere. The evolution of the convergent margin is recorded in the rock record and crustal architecture of the long lived Svecofennian orogeny (1.9-1.7 Ga). A closer look at the internal structure of the Svecofennian orogen reveals distinct regional differences. The northern and central parts of the Svecofennian orogen that have been formed during the initial accretionary phase - or compilation of the nucleus - have a thick three-layer crust and with thick mafic lower crust (10-30 km) and block-like internal architecture. Reflection profiles (FIRE1-3) image listric structures flattening on crustal scale décollement zones at the upper-middle crust and middle-upper crust boundaries. The crustal architecture together with large volumes of exposed granitoid rocks suggests spreading of the orogen and the development of an orogenic plateau west of the continental convergence boundary. The architecture is reminiscent of a large hot orogen. Within the western and southwestern part of the Svecofennian orogen (BABEL B, 1, 2, 3&4), which have been envisioned to have formed during continuous subduction phase, the crust is thinner (45-50 km) and it is hosting crustal blocks having one to two crustal layers. Layering is poorly developed in crustal blocks that are found S-SW of NE-dipping mantle reflections previously interpreted as paleo-subduction zones. Within these blocks, the crustal scale reflective structures dip NE (prowedge) or form pop-up wedges (uplifted plug) above the paleo-subduction zones. Crustal blocks with well-developed two-layer crust are located NE of the paleo-subduction zone. The architecture can be

  20. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil

  1. Observations at convergent margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Scholl, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    At ocean margins where two plates converge, the oceanic plate sinks or is subducted beneath an upper one topped by a layer of terrestrial crust. This crust is constructed of continental or island arc material. The subduction process either builds juvenile masses of terrestrial crust through arc volcanism or new areas of crust through the piling up of accretionary masses (prisms) of sedimentary deposits and fragments of thicker crustal bodies scraped off the subducting lower plate. At convergent margins, terrestrial material can also bypass the accretionary prism as a result of sediment subduction, and terrestrial matter can be removed from the upper plate by processes of subduction erosion. Sediment subduction occurs where sediment remains attached to the subducting oceanic plate and underthrusts the seaward position of the upper plate's resistive buttress (backstop) of consolidated sediment and rock. Sediment subduction occurs at two types of convergent margins: type 1 margins where accretionary prisms form and type 2 margins where little net accretion takes place. At type 2 margins (???19,000 km in global length), effectively all incoming sediment is subducted beneath the massif of basement or framework rocks forming the landward trench slope. At accreting or type 1 margins, sediment subduction begins at the seaward position of an active buttress of consolidated accretionary material that accumulated in front of a starting or core buttress of framework rocks. Where small-to-mediumsized prisms have formed (???16,300 km), approximately 20% of the incoming sediment is skimmed off a detachment surface or decollement and frontally accreted to the active buttress. The remaining 80% subducts beneath the buttress and may either underplate older parts of the frontal body or bypass the prism entirely and underthrust the leading edge of the margin's rock framework. At margins bordered by large prisms (???8,200 km), roughly 70% of the incoming trench floor section is

  2. Permian-Triassic Tethyan realm reorganization: Implications for the outward Pangea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Nicolas; Jaillard, Etienne; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Braun, Jean

    2018-01-01

    We present a new conceptual model to explain the first order Permian-Triassic evolution of the whole > 30 000 km long Pangea margin facing the Panthalassa ocean. Compilation of available geological, geochemical, geochronogical and paleomagnetic data all along this system allowed us to distinguish three part of the margin: western Laurentia, western Gondwana and eastern Gondwana. These segments record distinct tectonic and magmatic events, which all occur synchronously along the whole margin and correlate well with the main geodynamic events of this period, i.e. subduction of the Paleotethys mid-ocean ridge at 310-280 Ma, opening of the Neotethys at 280-260 Ma, counterclockwise rotation of Pangea at 260-230 Ma and closure of the Paleotethys at 230-220 Ma. Between 260 and 230 Ma, the reorganization of the Tethyan realm triggered the up to 35° rotation of Pangea around an Euler pole located in northernmost South America. This implied both an increase and a decrease of the convergence rate between the margin and the Panthalassa ocean, north and south of the Euler pole, respectively. Thus, the Permian-Triassic Pangean margin was marked: in western Laurentia by marginal sea closure, in western Gondwana by widespread bimodal magmatic and volcanic activity, in eastern Gondwana by transpressive orogenic phase. Therefore, we propose that the Permian-Triassic evolution of the outward margin of Pangea was controlled by the Tethyan realm reorganization.

  3. Arc magmatism as a window to plate kinematics and subduction polarity: Example from the eastern Pontides belt, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Eyuboglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Pontides orogenic belt in the Black Sea region of Turkey offers a critical window to plate kinematics and subduction polarity during the closure of the Paleotethys. Here we provide a brief synthesis on recent information from this belt. We infer a southward subduction for the origin of the Eastern Pontides orogenic belt and its associated late Mesozoic–Cenozoic magmatism based on clear spatial and temporal variations in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic arc magmatism, together with the existence of a prominent south-dipping reverse fault system along the entire southern coast of the Black Sea. Our model is at variance with some recent proposals favoring a northward subduction polarity, and illustrates the importance of arc magmatism in evaluating the geodynamic milieu associated with convergent margin processes.

  4. Long-lasting Cadomian magmatic activity along an active northern Gondwana margin: U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Brunovistulian Domain, eastern Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Žáčková, Eliška; Sláma, Jiří; Konopásek, Jiří; Machek, Matěj; Hanžl, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    Cadomian magmatic complexes of the Brunovistulian Domain crop out at the eastern termination of the Bohemian Massif. However, the age, nature and geotectonic affinity of some of pre-Variscan (meta-)igneous rock complexes from this domain are still unknown. Geochronological and geochemical study of the granitic rocks across the Brunovistulian Domain reveals new information about the timing and nature of this magmatic activity originally situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. Zircon U-Pb data (601 ± 3 Ma, Brno Massif; 634 ± 6 Ma, paraautochtonous core of the Svratka Dome; 568 ± 3 Ma, Bíteš orthogneiss) from the allochtonous Moravicum indicate the prolonged magmatic activity within the Brunovistulian Domain during the Ediacaran. The major- and trace-element and Sr-Nd isotopic signatures show heterogeneous geochemical characteristics of the granitic rocks and suggest a magmatic-arc geotectonic setting. The two-stage Depleted Mantle Nd model ages ( c. 1.3-2.0 Ga) indicate derivation of the granitic rocks from a relatively primitive crustal source, as well as from an ancient and evolved continental crust of the Brunovistulian Domain. These results constrain the magmatic-arc activity to c. 635-570 Ma and provide a further evidence for a long-lived (at least c. 65 Myr) and likely episodic subduction-related magmatism at the northern margin of Gondwana. The presence of granitic intrusions derived from variously mature crustal sources at different times suggests heterogeneous crustal segments to having been involved in the magmatic-arc system during its multistage evolution.

  5. Ductile extension of syn-magmatic lower crusts, with application to volcanic passive margins: the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, Marie; Geoffroy, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Aubourg, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Deep seismic reflection profiles of present-day volcanic passive margins often show a 2-layered lower crust, from top to bottom: an apparently ductile 12 km-thick middle-lower layer (LC1) of strong folded reflectors and a 4 km-thick supra-Moho layer (LC2) of horizontal and parallel reflectors. Those layers appear to be structurally disconnected and to develop at the early stages of margins evolution. A magmatic origin has been suggested by several studies to explain those strong reflectors, favoring mafic sills intrusion hypothesis. Overlying mafic and acidic extrusives (Seaward Dipping Reflectors sequences) are bounded by continentward-dipping detachment faults rooting in, and co-structurated with, the ductile part of the lower crust (LC1). Consequently the syn-rift to post-rift evolution of volcanic passive margins (and passive margins in general) largely depends on the nature and the properties of the lower crust, yet poorly understood. We propose to investigate the properties and rheology of a magma-injected extensional lower crust with a field analogue, the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy). The Ivrea Zone displays a complete back-thrusted section of a Variscan continental lower crust that first underwent gravitational collapse, and then lithospheric extension. This Late Paleozoic extension was apparently associated with the continuous intrusion of a large volume of mafic to acid magma. Both the magma timing and volume, and the structure of the Ivrea lower crust suggest that this section represents an adequate analogue of a syn-magmatic in-extension mafic rift zone which aborted at the end of the Permian. Notably, we may recognize the 2 layers LC1 and LC2. From a number of tectonic observations, we reconstitute the whole tectonic history of the area, focusing on the strain field evolution with time, in connection with mafic magma injection. We compare those results with available data from extensional mafic lower crusts at rifts and margins.

  6. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for deep (15-50 km) slow-slip events at plate convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, An; Xie, Zhoumin; Meng, Lingsen

    2018-06-01

    A key issue in understanding the physics of deep (15-50 km) slow-slip events (D-SSE) at plate convergent margins is how their initially unstable motion becomes stabilized. Here we address this issue by quantifying a rate-strengthening mechanism using a viscoplastic shear-zone model inspired by recent advances in field observations and laboratory experiments. The well-established segmentation of slip modes in the downdip direction of a subduction shear zone allows discretization of an interseismic forearc system into the (1) frontal segment bounded by an interseismically locked megathrust, (2) middle segment bounded by episodically locked and unlocked viscoplastic shear zone, and (3) interior segment that slips freely. The three segments are assumed to be linked laterally by two springs that tighten with time, and the increasing elastic stress due to spring tightening eventually leads to plastic failure and initial viscous shear. This simplification leads to seven key model parameters that dictate a wide range of mechanical behaviors of an idealized convergent margin. Specifically, the viscoplastic rheology requires the initially unstable sliding to be terminated nearly instantaneously at a characteristic velocity, which is followed by stable sliding (i.e., slow-slip). The characteristic velocity, which is on the order of <10-7 m/s for the convergent margins examined in this study, depends on the (1) effective coefficient of friction, (2) thickness, (3) depth, and (4) viscosity of the viscoplastic shear zone. As viscosity decreases exponentially with temperature, our model predicts faster slow-slip rates, shorter slow-slip durations, more frequent slow-slip occurrences, and larger slow-slip magnitudes at warmer convergent margins.

  7. Breakup Style and Magmatic Underplating West of the Lofoten Islands, Norway, Based on OBS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.; Mjelde, R.; Murai, Y.; Flueh, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    The breakup of the Northeast Atlantic in the Early Eocene was magma-rich, forming the major part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). This is seen as extrusive and intrusive magmatism in the continental domain, and as a thicker than normal oceanic crust produced the first few million years after continental breakup. The maximum magma productivity and the duration of excess magmatism varies along the margins of Northwest Europe and East Greenland, to some extent as a function of the distance from the Iceland hotspot. The Vøring Plateau off mid-Norway is the northernmost of the margin segments in northwestern Europe with extensive magmatism. North of the plateau, magmatism dies off towards the Lofoten Margin, marking the northern boundary of the NAIP here. In 2003, as part of the Euromargins Program we collected an Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) profile from mainland Norway, across the Lofoten Islands, and out into the deep ocean. Forward velocity modeling using raytracing reveals a continental margin that shows transitional features between magma-rich and magma-poor rifting. On one hand, we detect an up to 2 km thick and 40-50 km wide magmatic underplate of the outer continent, on the other hand, continental thinning is greater and intrusive magmatism less than farther south. Continental breakup also appears to be somewhat delayed compared to breakup on the Vøring Plateau, consistent with increased extension. This indicates that magmatic diking, believed to quickly lead to continental breakup of volcanic margins and thus to reduce continental thinning, played a much lesser role here than at the plateau. Early post-breakup oceanic crust is up to 8 km thick, less than half of that observed farther south. The most likely interpretation of these observations, is that the source for the excess magmatism of the NAIP was not present at the Lofoten Margin during rifting, and that the excess magmatism actually observed was the result of lateral transport from the

  8. Re-appraisal of the Magma-rich versus Magma-poor Paradigm at Rifted Margins: consequences for breakup processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, J.; Gillard, M.; Manatschal, G.; Nirrengarten, M.; Harkin, C. J.; Epin, M. E.; Sauter, D.; Autin, J.; Kusznir, N. J.; McDermott, K.

    2017-12-01

    Rifted margins are often classified based on their magmatic budget only. Magma-rich margins are commonly considered to have excess decompression melting at lithospheric breakup compared with steady state seafloor spreading while magma-poor margins have suppressed melting. New observations derived from high quality geophysical data sets and drill-hole data have revealed the diversity of rifted margin architecture and variable distribution of magmatism. Recent studies suggest, however, that rifted margins have more complex and polyphase tectono-magmatic evolutions than previously assumed and cannot be characterized based on the observed volume of magma alone. We compare the magmatic budget related to lithospheric breakup along two high-resolution long-offset deep reflection seismic profiles across the SE-Indian (magma-poor) and Uruguayan (magma-rich) rifted margins. Resolving the volume of magmatic additions is difficult. Interpretations are non-unique and several of them appear plausible for each case involving variable magmatic volumes and mechanisms to achieve lithospheric breakup. A supposedly 'magma-poor' rifted margin (SE-India) may show a 'magma-rich' lithospheric breakup whereas a 'magma-rich' rifted margin (Uruguay) does not necessarily show excess magmatism at lithospheric breakup compared with steady-state seafloor spreading. This questions the paradigm that rifted margins can be subdivided in either magma-poor or magma-rich margins. The Uruguayan and other magma-rich rifted margins appear characterized by an early onset of decompression melting relative to crustal breakup. For the converse, where the onset of decompression melting is late compared with the timing of crustal breakup, mantle exhumation can occur (e.g. SE-India). Our work highlights the difficulty in determining a magmatic budget at rifted margins based on seismic reflection data alone, showing the limitations of margin classification based solely on magmatic volumes. The timing of

  9. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lin; Graham, Ian; Yaxley, Gregory; Armstrong, Richard; Giuliani, Gaston; Hoskin, Paul; Nechaev, Victor; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Zircon megacrysts (± gem corundum) appear in basalt fields of Indo-Pacific origin over a 12,000 km zone (ZIP) along West Pacific continental margins. Age-dating, trace element, oxygen and hafnium isotope studies on representative zircons (East Australia-Asia) indicate diverse magmatic sources. The U-Pb (249 to 1 Ma) and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages (65 to 1 Ma) suggest thermal annealing during later basalt transport, with < 1 to 203 Ma gaps between the U-Pb and ZFT ages. Magmatic growth zonation and Zr/Hf ratios (0.01-0.02) suggest alkaline magmatic sources, while Ti—in—zircon thermometry suggests that most zircons crystallized within ranges between 550 and 830 °C. Chondrite-normalised multi-element plots show variable enrichment patterns, mostly without marked Eu depletion, indicating little plagioclase fractionation in source melts. Key elements and ratios matched against zircons from magmatic rocks suggest a range of ultramafic to felsic source melts. Zircon O-isotope ratios (δ18O in the range 4 to 11‰) and initial Hf isotope ratios (ɛHf in the range +2 to +14) encompass ranges for both mantle and crustal melts. Calculated Depleted Mantle (TDM 0.03-0.56 Ga) and Crustal Residence (0.20-1.02 Ga) model ages suggest several mantle events, continental break-ups (Rodinia and Gondwana) and convergent margin collisions left imprints in the zircon source melts. East Australian ZIP sites reflect prolonged intraplate magmatism (~85 Ma), often during times of fast-migrating lithosphere. In contrast, East Asian-Russian ZIP sites reflect later basaltic magmatism (<40 Ma), often linked to episodes of back-arc rifting and spreading, slow-migrating lithosphere and slab subduction.

  10. Initiation of Extension in South China Continental Margin during the Active-Passive Margin Transition: Thermochronological and Kinematic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, X.; Chan, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South China continental margin is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking faults and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from active to passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. Our zircon fission-track data in this region show two episodes of exhumation: The first episode, occurring during 170-120Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115-70Ma, including the Yunkai Terrane and the Nanling Range. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the fact that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred earlier than that of the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in rock types, the heat from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in Nanling may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily than Yunkai. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high lithospheric geothermal gradient, high slab dip angle and low convergence velocity favor the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper continental plate; (2) late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension imply that the Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene red-bed basins in South China could have formed during the late stage of the subduction, accounting for the occurrence of volcanic events in some sedimentary basins. We propose that the rifting started as early as Late Cretaceous, probably before the cessation of subduction process.

  11. A historical overview of Moroccan magmatic events along northwest edge of the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenne, Moha; Souhassou, Mustapha; Arai, Shoji; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane

    2017-03-01

    Located along the northwestern edge of the West African Craton, Morocco exhibits a wide variety of magmatic events from Archean to Quaternary. The oldest magmatic rocks belong to the Archean Reguibat Shield outcrops in the Moroccan Sahara. Paleoproterozoic magmatism, known as the Anti-Atlas granitoids, is related to the Eburnean orogeny and initial cratonization of the WAC. Mesoproterozoic magmatism is represented by a small number of mafic dykes known henceforth as the Taghdout mafic volcanism. Massive Neoproterozoic magmatic activity, related to the Pan-African cycle, consists of rift-related Tonian magmatism associated with the Rodinia breakup, an Early Cryogenian convergent margin event (760-700 Ma), syn-collisional Bou-Azzer magmatism (680-640 Ma), followed by widespread Ediacaran magmatism (620-555 Ma). Each magmatic episode corresponded to a different geodynamic environment and produced different types of magma. Phanerozoic magmatism began with Early Cambrian basaltic (rift?) volcanism, which persisted during the Middle Cambrian, and into the Early Ordovician. This was succeeded by massive Late Devonian and Carboniferous, pre-Variscan tholeiitic and calc-alkaline (Central Morocco) volcanic flows in basins of the Moroccan Meseta. North of the Atlas Paleozoic Transform Zone, the Late Carboniferous Variscan event was accompanied by the emplacement of 330-300 Ma calc-alkaline granitoids in upper crustal shear zones. Post-Variscan alkaline magmatism was associated with the opening of the Permian basins. Mesozoic magmatism began with the huge volumes of magma emplaced around 200 Ma in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) which was associated with the fragmentation of Pangea and the subsequent rifting of Central Atlantic. CAMP volcanism occurs in all structural domains of Morocco, from the Anti-Atlas to the External Rif domain with a peak activity around 199 Ma. A second Mesozoic magmatic event is represented by mafic lava flows and gabbroic intrusions in

  12. States of stress and slip partitioning in a continental scale strike-slip duplex: Tectonic and magmatic implications by means of finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrieta, Pablo Cristián; Hurtado, Daniel E.; Cembrano, José; Stanton-Yonge, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Orogenic belts at oblique convergent subduction margins accommodate deformation in several trench-parallel domains, one of which is the magmatic arc, commonly regarded as taking up the margin-parallel, strike-slip component. However, the stress state and kinematics of volcanic arcs is more complex than usually recognized, involving first- and second-order faults with distinctive slip senses and mutual interaction. These are usually organized into regional scale strike-slip duplexes, associated with both long-term and short-term heterogeneous deformation and magmatic activity. This is the case of the 1100 km-long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System in the Southern Andes, made up of two overlapping margin-parallel master faults joined by several NE-striking second-order faults. We present a finite element model addressing the nature and spatial distribution of stress across and along the volcanic arc in the Southern Andes to understand slip partitioning and the connection between tectonics and magmatism, particularly during the interseismic phase of the subduction earthquake cycle. We correlate the dynamics of the strike-slip duplex with geological, seismic and magma transport evidence documented by previous work, showing consistency between the model and the inferred fault system behavior. Our results show that maximum principal stress orientations are heterogeneously distributed within the continental margin, ranging from 15° to 25° counter-clockwise (with respect to the convergence vector) in the master faults and 10-19° clockwise in the forearc and backarc domains. We calculate the stress tensor ellipticity, indicating simple shearing in the eastern master fault and transpressional stress in the western master fault. Subsidiary faults undergo transtensional-to-extensional stress states. The eastern master fault displays slip rates of 5 to 10 mm/yr, whereas the western and subsidiary faults show slips rates of 1 to 5 mm/yr. Our results endorse that favorably oriented

  13. Re-evaluating Gondwana breakup: Magmatism, movement and microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Gondwana breakup is thought to have initiated in the Early- to Mid-Jurassic between South Africa and East Antarctica. The critical stages of continental extension and magmatism which preceded breakup remain controversial. It is agreed that extensive magmatism struck this region 180 Ma, and that significant extension occurred in the Weddell Sea Rift System (WSRS) and around the Falkland Plateau. However, the timing and volume of magmatism, extent and mechanism of continental extension, and the links with the wider plate circuit are poorly constrained. Jordan et al (Gondwana Research 2017) recently proposed a two-stage model for the formation of the WSRS: initial extension and movement of the Ellsworth Whitmore Mountains microplate along the margin of the East Antarctic continent on a sinistral strike slip fault zone, followed by transtensional extension closer to the continental margin. Here we identify some key questions raised by the two-stage model, and identify regions where these can be tested. Firstly, is the magmatism inferred to have facilitated extension in the WSRS directly linked to the onshore Dufek Intrusion? This question relates to both the uncertainty in the volume of magmatism and potentially the timing of extension, and requires improved resolution of aeromagnetic data in the eastern WSRS. Secondly, did extension in the WSRS terminate against a single strike slip fault zone or into a distributed fault system? By integrating new and existing aeromagnetic data along the margin of East Antarctica we evaluate the possibility of a distributed shear zone penetrating the East Antarctic continent, and identify critical remaining data gaps. Finally we question how extension within the WSRS could fit into the wider plate circuit. By integrating the two-stage model into Gplates reconstructions we identify regions of overlap and areas where tracers of past plate motion could be identified.

  14. Advancing Understanding of Earthquakes by Drilling an Eroding Convergent Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, R.; Vannucchi, P.; Ranero, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    A program of IODP with great societal relevance is sampling and instrumenting the seismogenic zone. The zone generates great earthquakes that trigger tsunamis, and submarine slides thereby endangering coastal communities containing over sixty percent of the earth’s population. To asses and mitigate this endangerment it is urgent to advance understanding of fault dynamics that allows more timely anticipation of hazardous seismicity. Seismogenesis on accreting and eroding convergent plate boundaries apparently differ because of dissimilar materials along the interplate fault. As the history of instrumentally recorded earthquakes expands the difference becomes clearer. The more homogeneous clay, silt and sand subducted at accreting margins is associated with great earthquakes (M 9) whereas the fragmented upper plate rock that can dominate subducted material along an eroding margin plate interface is associated with many tsunamigenic earthquakes (Bilek, 2010). Few areas have been identified where the seismogenic zone can be reached with scientific drilling. In IODP accreting margins are studied on the NanTroSeize drill transect off Japan where the ultimate drilling of the seismogenic interface may occur by the end of IODP. The eroding Costa Rica margin will be studied in CRISP where a drill program will begin in 2011. The Costa Rican geophysical site survey will be complete with acquisition and processing of 3D seismic data in 2011 but the entire drilling will not be accomplished in IODP. It is appropriate that the accreting margin study be accomplished soon considering the indications of a pending great earthquake that will affect a country that has devoted enormous resources to IODP. However, understanding the erosional end-member is scientifically as important to an understanding of fault mechanics. Transoceanic tsunamis affect the entire Pacific rim where most subduction zones are eroding margins. The Costa Rican subduction zone is less complex operationally and

  15. Influence of increasing convergence obliquity and shallow slab geometry onto tectonic deformation and seismogenic behavior along the Northern Lesser Antilles zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Marcaillou, B.; Evain, M.

    2018-06-01

    In subduction zones, the 3D geometry of the plate interface is one of the key parameters that controls margin tectonic deformation, interplate coupling and seismogenic behavior. The North American plate subducts beneath the convex Northern Lesser Antilles margin. This convergent plate boundary, with a northward increasing convergence obliquity, turns into a sinistral strike-slip limit at the northwestern end of the system. This geodynamic context suggests a complex slab geometry, which has never been imaged before. Moreover, the seismic activity and particularly the number of events with thrust focal mechanism compatible with subduction earthquakes, increases northward from the Barbuda-Anguilla segment to the Anguilla-Virgin Islands segment. One of the major questions in this area is thus to analyze the influence of the increasing convergence obliquity and the slab geometry onto tectonic deformation and seismogenic behavior of the subduction zone. Based on wide-angle and multichannel reflection seismic data acquired during the Antithesis cruises (2013-2016), we decipher the deep structure of this subduction zone. Velocity models derived from wide-angle data acquired across the Anegada Passage are consistent with the presence of a crust of oceanic affinity thickened by hotspot magmatism and probably affected by the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene arc magmatism forming the 'Great Arc of the Caribbean'. The slab is shallower beneath the Anguilla-Virgin Islands margin segment than beneath the Anguilla-Barbuda segment which is likely to be directly related to the convex geometry of the upper plate. This shallower slab is located under the forearc where earthquakes and partitioning deformations increase locally. Thus, the shallowing slab might result in local greater interplate coupling and basal friction favoring seismic activity and tectonic partitioning beneath the Virgin Islands platform.

  16. Changes in In Situ Stress Across the Nankai and Cascadia Convergent Margins From Borehole Breakout Measurements During Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, L.; Moore, J. C.; Yamada, Y.; Chang, C.; Tobin, H.; Kinoshita, M.; Gulick, S.; Moore, G.; Iodp Exp. 314/315/316 Science Party, &

    2008-12-01

    Borehole breakouts are commonly observed in borehole images shortly after drilling of continental margin sites. This study aims to compile and compare these results to determine what in situ shallow stress measurements can tell us about the larger scale tectonic regime. Recent Logging While Drilling resistivity images across the Kumano transect of the Nankai subduction zone, during Expedition 314, Stage 1 of the IODP NanTroSEIZE project, add to this dataset. Expedition 314 site data within the prism (C0001, C0004, C0006, including the megasplay fault system which may overlie the seismogenic updip limit) suggest maximum compressive stress (SHmax) is perpendicular to the margin (not parallel to the convergence vector) but is rotated through 90° at the forearc basin site (C0002). These results may point to changes in stress state of the shallow forearc from east to west: compression in the aseismic active prism (with evidence of strain partitioning of oblique convergence); and extension above the updip seismogenic zone suggesting focus of plate coupling at the plate boundary and not in the shallow forearc. Further south, ODP Leg 196 drilled the prism toe (808) with breakouts indicating SHmax parallel to the convergence vector, in contrast to Exp. 314 results. The stress state in the shallow prism at Site 808 may be affected by nearby seamount subduction or may represent differences in strain partitioning. On the Cascadia margin, two drilling legs have collected LWD borehole images (Leg 204 and Exp. 311). Leg 204 drilled 3 sites at hydrate ridge in the C Cascadia outer prism with breakout orientations variable between closely spaced sites. Prism fold axes are parallel to the margin so we might expect SHmax perpendicular to the margin as in Exp. 314. Deviations from this orientation may reflect local and surface effects (Goldberg and Janik, 2006). Exp. 311, N Cascadia, drilled 5 sites across the prism with breakouts in LWD images. Subduction is not oblique here, in

  17. Continental Growth and Recycling in Convergent Orogens with Large Turbidite Fans on Oceanic Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D. Goscombe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Convergent plate margins where large turbidite fans with slivers of oceanic basement are accreted to continents represent important sites of continental crustal growth and recycling. Crust accreted in these settings is dominated by an upper layer of recycled crustal and arc detritus (turbidites underlain by a layer of tectonically imbricated upper oceanic crust and/or thinned continental crust. When oceanic crust is converted to lower continental crust it represents a juvenile addition to the continental growth budget. This two-tiered accreted crust is often the same thickness as average continental crustal and is isostatically balanced near sea level. The Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen of eastern Australia is the archetypical example of a tubidite-dominated accretionary orogeny. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Damaran Orogen of SW Africa is similar to the Lachlan Orogen except that it was incorporated into Gondwana via a continent-continent collision. The Mesozoic Rangitatan Orogen of New Zealand illustrates the transition of convergent margin from a Lachlan-type to more typical accretionary wedge type orogen. The spatial and temporal variations in deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism across these orogens illustrate how large volumes of turbidite and their relict oceanic basement eventually become stable continental crust. The timing of deformation and metamorphism recorded in these rocks reflects the crustal thickening phase, whereas post-tectonic magmatism constrains the timing of chemical maturation and cratonization. Cratonization of continental crust is fostered because turbidites represent fertile sources for felsic magmatism. Recognition of similar orogens in the Proterozoic and Archean is important for the evaluation of crustal growth models, particularly for those based on detrital zircon age patterns, because crustal growth by accretion of upper oceanic crust or mafic underplating does not readily result in the addition of voluminous zircon

  18. Long-lasting Cadomian magmatic activity along an active northern Gondwana margin: U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Brunovistulian Domain, eastern Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soejono, I.; Janoušek, V.; Žáčková, E.; Sláma, Jiří; Konopásek, J.; Machek, Matěj; Hanžl, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2017), s. 2109-2129 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Cadomian magmatic arc * Brunovistulian Domain * Bohemian Massif * Gondwana margin * U–Pb geochronology * geochemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Geology; Volcanology (GFU-E) Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  19. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian & S Angolan margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Horn, B.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure, continent-ocean boundary (COB) location and magmatic type are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian and S Angolan rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been used to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type for the SE Brazilian and S Angolan margins. Gravity inversion has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated on the Iberian margin for profiles IAM9 and ISE-01. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along profile. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the S Angolan ION-GXT CS1-2400 profile has been used to determine OCT structure and COB location. Analysis suggests that exhumed mantle, corresponding to a magma poor margin, is absent beneath the allochthonous salt. The thickness of earliest oceanic crust, derived from gravity and deep seismic reflection data is approximately 7km. The joint inversion predicts crustal basement densities and seismic velocities which are

  20. Development of continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean and successive breakup of the Pangaea-3 supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative tectonic analysis of passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean has been performed. Tectonotypes of both volcanic and nonvolcanic margins are described, and their comparison with other passive Atlantic margins is given. The structural features of margins, peculiarities of magmatism, its sources and reasons for geochemical enrichment of melts are discussed. The important role of melting of the continental lithosphere in the development of magmatism is demonstrated. Enriched EM I and EM II sources are determined for the lower parts of the volcanic section, and a depleted or poorly enriched source is determined for the upper parts of the volcanic section based on isotope data. The conclusions of the paper relate to tectonic settings of the initial occurrence of magmatism and rifting and breakup during the period of opening of the Mesozoic Ocean. It was found out that breakup and magmatism at proximal margins led only to insignificant structural transformations and reduction of the thickness of the ancient continental crust, while very important magmatic events happened later in the distal zone. New growth of magmatic crust at the stage of continental breakup is determined as a typical feature of distal zones of the margins under study. The relationship of development of margins with the impact of deep plumes as the source of magmatic material or a heat source only is discussed. Progradation of the zone of extension and breakup into the areas of cold lithosphere of the Atlantic and the formation of a single tectonomagmatic system of the ocean are under consideration.

  1. The role of magmatic loads and rift jumps in generating seaward dipping reflectors on volcanic rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, W. Roger

    2017-05-01

    The largest volcanic constructs on Earth are the seismically imaged seaward dipping reflector (SDR) units found offshore of many rifted continental margins, including most that border the Atlantic Ocean. Whether their formation requires large magnitude (i.e. 10 s of km) of normal fault slip or results from the deflection of the lithosphere by the weight of volcanic flows is controversial. Though there is evidence for faulting associated with some SDRs, this paper considers the range of structures that can be produced by magmatic and volcanic loading alone. To do this an idealized mechanical model for the construction of rift-related volcanic flow structures is developed. Dikes open as plates move away from the center of a model rift and volcanic flows fill the depression produced by the load caused by dike solidification. The thin elastic plate flexure approximation allows a closed form description of the shape of both the contacts between flows and between the flows and underlying dikes. The model depends on two independent parameters: the flexure parameter, α, and the maximum isostatically supported extrusive layer thickness, w0. For reasonable values of these parameters the model reproduces the observed down-dip thickening of flows and the range of reflector dip angles. A numerical scheme using the analytic results allows simulation of the effect of temporal changes in the locus of magmatic spreading as well as changes in the amount of volcanic infill. Either jumps in the location of the center of diking or periods with no volcanism result in separate units or "packages" of model SDRs, in which the flow-dike contact dips landward, consistent with observations previously attributed only to listric normal fault offset. When jumps in the spreading center are small (i.e. less than α) they result in thicker, narrower volcanic units on one side of a rift compared to those on the other side. This is similar to the asymmetric distributions of volcanic packages seen

  2. Magmatism and deformation during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Derek

    2013-04-01

    The rifting of continents and the transition to seafloor spreading is characterised by extensional faulting and thinning of the lithosphere, and is sometimes accompanied by voluminous intrusive and extrusive magmatism. In order to understand how these processes develop over time to break continents apart, we have traditionally relied on interpreting the geological record at the numerous fully developed, ancient rifted margins around the world. In these settings, however, it is difficult to discriminate between different mechanisms of extension and magmatism because the continent-ocean transition is typically buried beneath thick layers of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and the tectonic and volcanic activity that characterised breakup has long-since ceased. Ongoing continental breakup in the African and Arabian rift systems offers a unique opportunity to address these problems because it exposes several sectors of tectonically active rift sector development spanning the transition from embryonic continental rifting in the south to incipient seafloor spreading in the north. Here I synthesise exciting, multidisciplinary observational and modelling studies using geophysical, geodetic, petrological and numerical techniques that uniquely constrain the distribution, time-scales, and interactions between extension and magmatism during the progressive breakup of the African Plate. This new research has identified the previously unrecognised role of rapid and episodic dike emplacement in accommodating a large proportion of extension during continental rifting. We are now beginning to realise that changes in the dominant mechanism for strain over time (faulting, stretching and magma intrusion) impact dramatically on magmatism and rift morphology. The challenge now is to take what we're learned from East Africa and apply it to the rifted margins whose geological record documents breakup during entire Wilson Cycles.

  3. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan & SE Brazilian margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Horn, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been applied to the S Angolan and SE Brazilian margins to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type. Knowledge of these margin parameters are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan and SE Brazilian rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Gravity anomaly inversion, incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction, has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated for profiles Lusigal 12 and ISE-01 on the Iberian margin. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola deep seismic reflection lines. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along the seismic profiles. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the ION-GXT BS1-575 profile, which crosses the Sao Paulo Plateau and Florianopolis Ridge of the SE Brazilian margin, predict the COB to be located SE of the Florianopolis Ridge. Integrated quantitative analysis shows no evidence for exhumed mantle on this margin profile. The joint inversion technique predicts oceanic crustal thicknesses of between 7 and 8 km thickness with

  4. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  5. Convergent adaptive evolution in marginal environments: unloading transposable elements as a common strategy among mangrove genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Haomin; He, Ziwen; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua

    2018-01-01

    Several clades of mangrove trees independently invade the interface between land and sea at the margin of woody plant distribution. As phenotypic convergence among mangroves is common, the possibility of convergent adaptation in their genomes is quite intriguing. To study this molecular convergence, we sequenced multiple mangrove genomes. In this study, we focused on the evolution of transposable elements (TEs) in relation to the genome size evolution. TEs, generally considered genomic parasites, are the most common components of woody plant genomes. Analyzing the long terminal repeat-retrotransposon (LTR-RT) type of TE, we estimated their death rates by counting solo-LTRs and truncated elements. We found that all lineages of mangroves massively and convergently reduce TE loads in comparison to their nonmangrove relatives; as a consequence, genome size reduction happens independently in all six mangrove lineages; TE load reduction in mangroves can be attributed to the paucity of young elements; the rarity of young LTR-RTs is a consequence of fewer births rather than access death. In conclusion, mangrove genomes employ a convergent strategy of TE load reduction by suppressing element origination in their independent adaptation to a new environment. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Geophysical evidence for the crustal variation and distribution of magmatism along the central coast of Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian Olaf; Jokat, Wilfried

    2017-08-01

    For our understanding of the timing and geometry of the initial Gondwana break-up, still a consistent image of the crustal composition of the conjugated margins of central Mozambique and Antarctica and the location of their continent-ocean boundaries is missing. In this regard, a main objective is the explanation for the source of the different magnetic signature of the conjugate margins. Based on a revised investigation of wide-angle seismic data along two profiles across the Mozambican margin by means of an amplitude modelling, this study presents the crustal composition across and along the continental margin of central Mozambique. Supported by 2D magnetic modelling, the results are compared to the conjugate margin in Antarctica and allow new conclusions about their joined tectonic evolution. An observed crustal diversity between the north-eastern and south-western parts of the central Mozambican margin, testifies to the complex break-up history of this area. Conspicuous is the equal spatial extent of the HVLCB along the margin of 190-215 km. The onset of oceanic crust at the central Mozambican margin is refined to chron M38n.2n (164.1 Ma). Magnetic modelling supports the presence of reversed polarized SDRs in the continent-ocean transition that were mainly emplaced between 168.5 and 166.8 Ma (M42-M40). Inferred SDRs in the Riiser-Larsen Sea might be emplaced sometime between 166.8 and 164.1 Ma (M39-M38), but got overprinted by normal polarized intrusions of a late stage of rift volcanism, causing the opposite magnetic signature of the conjugate margins. The distribution of the magmatic material along the central coast of Mozambique clearly indicates the eastern extension of the north-eastern branch of the Karoo triple rift along the entire margin. The main magmatic phase affecting this area lasted for at least 12 Myr between 169 and 157 Ma, followed by the cease of the magmatism, perhaps due to the relative southwards motion of the magmatic centre.

  7. Syn-collisional felsic magmatism and continental crust growth: A case study from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Xue, Qiqi

    2018-05-01

    The abundant syn-collisional granitoids produced and preserved at the northern Tibetan Plateau margin provide a prime case for studying the felsic magmatism as well as continental crust growth in response to continental collision. Here we present the results from a systematic study of the syn-collisional granitoids and their mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Laohushan (LHS) and Machangshan (MCS) plutons from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Two types of MMEs from the LHS pluton exhibit identical crystallization age ( 430 Ma) and bulk-rock isotopic compositions to their host granitoids, indicating their genetic link. The phase equilibrium constraints and pressure estimates for amphiboles from the LHS pluton together with the whole rock data suggest that the two types of MMEs represent two evolution products of the same hydrous andesitic magmas. In combination with the data on NQOB syn-collisional granitoids elsewhere, we suggest that the syn-collisional granitoids in the NQOB are material evidence of melting of ocean crust and sediment. The remarkable compositional similarity between the LHS granitoids and the model bulk continental crust in terms of major elements, trace elements, and some key element ratios indicates that the syn-collisional magmatism in the NQOB contributes to net continental crust growth, and that the way of continental crust growth in the Phanerozoic through syn-collisional felsic magmatism (production and preservation) is a straightforward process without the need of petrologically and physically complex processes.

  8. Lithospheric delamination in post-collisional setting: Evidence from intrusive magmatism from the North Qilian orogen to southern margin of the Alxa block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqi; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shasha; Xiong, Ziliang; Luo, Biji; Yang, He; Pan, Fabin; Zhou, Xiaochun; Xu, Wangchun; Guo, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Post-collisional granitoids are widespread in the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block and their petrogenesis can provide important insights into the lithospheric processes in a post-collisional setting. This paper carries out an integrated study of U-Pb zircon dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions for five early Paleozoic intrusive plutons from the North Qilian to southern margin of the Alxa block. The geochronological and geochemical results show that their magmatism can be divided into three periods with distinct geochemical features. The early-period intrusive rocks ( 440 Ma) include the Lianhuashan (LHS) and Mengjiadawan (MJDW) granodiorites. Both of them display high Sr/Y ratios (52-91), coupled with low Y and HREE contents, implying that they were derived from partial melting of thickened lower crust, with garnet in the residue. The middle-period intrusive rocks ( 430 Ma), including the MJDW quartz diorites and Yangqiandashan (YQDS) granodiorites, are high-K calc-alkaline with low Sr/Y values. The geochemical and isotopic data suggest that they are generated from partial melting of lower crust without garnet in the residue. The late-period intrusive rocks (414-422 Ma), represented by the Shengrongsi (SRS) and Xinkaigou (XKG) plutons, are A-type or alkali-feldspar granites. They are possibly derived from partial melting of felsic crustal material under lower pressure condition. Our data show decreasing magma crystallization ages from MJDW pluton in the north and LHS pluton in the south to the SRS and XKG plutons in the central part of the study area. We suggest that such spatial and temporal variations of magmatic suites were caused by lithospheric delamination after the collision between the Central Qilian and the Alxa block. A more plausible explanation is that the delamination propagated from the margin part of the thickened lithosphere to inward beneath the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block.

  9. The intertropical convergence zone modulates intense hurricane strikes on the western North Atlantic margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, Peter J; Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Fall, Patricia L; Toomey, Michael R; Albury, Nancy A; Kakuk, Brian

    2016-02-24

    Most Atlantic hurricanes form in the Main Development Region between 9°N to 20°N along the northern edge of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Previous research has suggested that meridional shifts in the ITCZ position on geologic timescales can modulate hurricane activity, but continuous and long-term storm records are needed from multiple sites to assess this hypothesis. Here we present a 3000 year record of intense hurricane strikes in the northern Bahamas (Abaco Island) based on overwash deposits in a coastal sinkhole, which indicates that the ITCZ has likely helped modulate intense hurricane strikes on the western North Atlantic margin on millennial to centennial-scales. The new reconstruction closely matches a previous reconstruction from Puerto Rico, and documents a period of elevated intense hurricane activity on the western North Atlantic margin from 2500 to 1000 years ago when paleo precipitation proxies suggest that the ITCZ occupied a more northern position. Considering that anthropogenic warming is predicted to be focused in the northern hemisphere in the coming century, these results provide a prehistoric analog that an attendant northern ITCZ shift in the future may again return the western North Atlantic margin to an active hurricane interval.

  10. Duration of convergence at the Pacific-Gondwana plate margin: insights from accessory phase petrochronology of the Alpine Schist, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. I.; Cottle, J. M.; Smit, M. A.; Arnush, N. F.

    2016-12-01

    The timing, duration and along-strike synchroneity of metamorphism and anataxis in the Alpine Schist of New Zealand is a matter of considerable debate. Our preliminary data indicate that metamorphism resulting in garnet growth occurred from 97 - 75 Ma, and anatectic melting occurred from 80 - 51 Ma. These events are contemporaneous with rifting of Zealandia from East Gondwana, and Tasman Sea spreading from 83 - 52 Ma. An important implication of these results is that Late Cretaceous convergence along the Zealandia segment of the Pacific-Gondwana plate margin may have persisted much later than previously thought, and that convergence and extension occurred coevally in adjacent areas. This poses the question: for how long did convergence continue along the Pacific-Gondwana plate margin during East Gondwana breakup? To fully decipher the multiple stages of the complex metamorphic history recorded in the Alpine Schist, we combine Lu-Hf garnet geochronology with U-Th/Pb and REE analyses of zircon and monazite. We use the newly developed `single-shot laser ablation split stream' (SS-LASS) analysis method to obtain depth profiles through 5-10 µm metamorphic zircon overgrowths at 100 nm depth resolution to constrain both the timing and petrological context of discrete metamorphic zircon (re-)crystallization events recorded in the Alpine Schist. We also employ high spatial resolution LASS analysis to target rare 5 - 20 µm monazite in thin section to augment garnet and zircon data. Our multi-accessory phase petrochronology approach is capable of resolving discrete short-duration thermal events, strengthening the geological interpretation of `mean' Lu-Hf garnet ages and discerning between an episodic versus a prolonged history of metamorphism. In addition, comparison with geochronology from anatectic pegmatites clarifies the temporal relationship between metamorphism and melting in the Alpine Schist, while providing direct constraints on the timing and duration of

  11. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    analysis is a basic tool in paleogeographic reconstructions when multicyclic sediment dispersal along and across convergent plate margins occur. Such analysis provides the link between faraway factories of detritus and depositional sinks, as well as clues on subduction geometry and the nature of associated growing orogenic belts, and even information on climate, atmospheric circulation and weathering intensity in source regions. REFERENCES Garzanti, E., Limonta, M., Resentini, A., Bandopadhyay, P.C., Najman, Y., Andò, S., Vezzoli, G., 2013. Sediment recycling at convergent plate margins (Indo-Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge). Earth Sci. Rev., 123, 113-132. Speed, C. and Sedlock, R. 2012. Geology and geomorphology of Barbados. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 491, 63 p.

  12. Role of magmatism in continental lithosphere extension: an introduction to tectnophysics special issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wijk, Jolante W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics and evolution of rifts and continental rifted margins have been the subject of intense study and debate for many years and still remain the focus of active investigation. The 2006 AGU Fall Meeting session 'Extensional Processes Leading to the Formation of Basins and Rifted Margins, From Volcanic to Magma-Limited' included several contributions that illustrated recent advances in our understanding of rifting processes, from the early stages of extension to breakup and incipient seafloor spreading. Following this session, we aimed to assemble a multi-disciplinary collection of papers focussing on the architecture, formation and evolution of continental rift zones and rifted margins. This Tectonophysics Special Issue 'Role of magmatism in continental lithosphere extension' comprises 14 papers that present some of the recent insights on rift and rifted margins dynamics, emphasising the role of magmatism in extensional processes. The purpose of this contribution is to introduce these papers.

  13. Lower Crustal Strength Controls on Melting and Serpentinization at Magma-Poor Margins: Potential Implications for the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Elena; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Araújo, Mario; Thoaldo Romeiro, Marco; Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Morgan, Jason P.

    2017-12-01

    Rifted continental margins may present a predominantly magmatic continent-ocean transition (COT), or one characterized by large exposures of serpentinized mantle. In this study we use numerical modeling to show the importance of the lower crustal strength in controlling the amount and onset of melting and serpentinization during rifting. We propose that the relative timing between both events controls the nature of the COT. Numerical experiments for half-extension velocities serpentinized mantle underlain by some magmatic products. In contrast, a weak lower crust promotes margins with a gentle crustal tapering, small faults dipping both ocean- and landward and small syn-rift subsidence. Their COT is predominantly magmatic at any ultra-slow extension velocity and perhaps underlain by some serpentinized mantle. These margins can also be either symmetric or asymmetric. Our models predict that magmatic underplating mostly underlies the wide margin at weak asymmetric conjugates, whereas the wide margin is mainly underlain by serpentinized mantle at strong asymmetric margins. Based on this conceptual template, we propose different natures for the COTs in the South Atlantic.

  14. A Parent Magma for the Nakhla Martian Meteorite: Reconciliation of Estimates from 1-Bar Experiments, Magmatic Inclusions in Olivine, and Magmatic Inclusions in Augite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Goodrich, Cyrena Anne

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the parent magma for the Nakhla (martian) meteorite has been estimated from mineral-melt partitioning and from magmatic inclusions in olivine and in augite. These independent lines of evidence have converged on small range of likely compositions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Convergent margin structure and tectonics of the Java subduction zone (105°E-122°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Barckhausen, U.; Djajadihardja, Y.; Engels, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Hindle, D. A.; Lueschen, E.; Mueller, C.; Planert, L.; Reichert, C. J.; Shulgin, A. A.; Wittwer, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Java margin is the site of oceanic subduction of the Indo-Australian plate underneath the Indonesian archipelago. Data from a suite of geophysical experiments conducted between 1997-2006 using RV SONNE as platform include seismic and seismological studies, potential field measurements and high-resolution seafloor bathymetry mapping. Tomographic inversions provide an image of the ongoing deformation of the forearc and the deep subsurface. We investigate the role of various key mechanisms that shape the first-order features characterizing the present margin architecture. Our results show a high variability in subduction zone processes along the Java margin, ranging from accretionary subduction to erosive processes to zero-budget mass transfer. These variations are closely linked to changes in character of the incoming plate. Off Western Java (105°E -109°E), near-full accretion of the trench sediment fill is associated with a well-developed accretionary prism fronting a 4 km deep forearc basin. The Central Java segment (109°E -115°E) experiences the collision of an oceanic plateau dotted with numerous seamounts, causing large-scale uplift of the forearc, coupled with erosion of the frontal prism and correlated mass wasting processes. Intense deformation of the forearc basin results from thrusting and compressional forces. In the neighbouring segment farther to the east (115°E-119°E), the lack of significant sediment input to the trench supports the notion that recycling of upper plate material in the forearc sustains the massive outer high observed here adjacent to a mature forearc basin. The incoming oceanic plate of the Argo Abyssal plain is devoid of a sediment drape and the original spreading fabric overprinted by bending-related faulting near the trench shape its morphology. The transition zone from the Java margin to the Banda Arc (119°E-122°E) experiences the early stages of continent-island arc collision associated with the convergence of the

  16. Towards an integrated magmatic, structural and metamorphic model for the 1.1-0.9 Ga Sveconorwegian orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagstad, Trond; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Røhr, Torkil S.; Marker, Mogens K.

    2013-04-01

    Orogeny involves magmatic, metamorphic, deformational and erosional processes that are caused by or lead to crustal thickening and the development of high topography. In general, these processes operate along the margins of continental plates, either as a result of subduction of oceanic crust (accretionary) or collision between two or more continental plates (collisional). Many of these processes are common to accretionary and collisional orogeny, and do not uniquely discriminate between the two. With only a fragmented geological record, unravelling the style of orogenesis in ancient orogens may, therefore, be far from straightforward. Adding to the complexity, modern continental margins, e.g., the southern Asian margin, display significant variation in orogenic style along strike, rendering along-strike comparisons and correlations unreliable. The late Mesoproterozoic Sveconorwegian province in SW Baltica is traditionally interpreted as the eastward continuation of the Grenville province in Canada, resulting from collision with Amazonia and forming a central part in the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. We recently proposed that the Sveconorwegian segment of this orogen formed as a result of accretionary processes rather than collision. This hypothesis was based mainly on considerations of the Sveconorwegian magmatic evolution. Here, we show how the metamorphic/structural record supports (or at least may be integrated in) our model as well. The key elements in our accretionary model are: 1) formation of the Sirdal Magmatic Belt (SMB) between 1070 and 1020 Ma, most likely representing a continental arc batholith. Coeval deformation and high-grade metamorphism farther east in the orogen could represent deformation in the retroarc. 2) cessation of SMB magmatism at 1020 Ma followed by UHT conditions at 1010-1005 Ma, with temperatures in excess of 1000°C at 7.5 kbar. Subduction of a spreading ridge at ca. 1020 Ma would result in an end to arc magmatism and

  17. Porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, A.; Yazdi, M.; Mehrpartou, M.; Vosoughi, M.; Younesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mirkuh Ali Mirza Cu-Au porphyry system in East Azerbaijan Province is located on the western part of the Cenozoic Alborz-Azerbaijan volcanic belt. The belt is also an important Cu-Mo-Au metallogenic province in northwestern Iran. The exposed rocks in the study area consist of a volcaniclastic sequence, subvolcanic rocks and intermediate to mafic lava flows of Neogene age. The volcanic rocks show a typical subduction-related magmatic arc geological and geochemical signature, with low concentration of Nb, Ta, and Ti. Mineralization is hosted by Neogene dacitic tuff and porphyritic dacite situated at the intersections of northeast and northwest faults. Field observations, alteration zonation, geochemical haloes and isotopic data of the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex show similarities with typical convergent margin Cu-Au porphyry type deposits. The following features confirm the classic model for Cu-Au porphyry systems: (a) close spatial association with high-K calcalkaline to shoshonitic rock related to post-collision extensional setting (b) low grade Cu (0.57%) (c) stockworks as well as disseminated sulfides (c) zonality of the alteration patterns from intense phyllic at the center to outward weak-phyllic, argillic, and propylitic (d) the presence of a pyritic halo (e) accompanied by sheeted veins and low-sulfidation epithermal gold (f) mineralization spatially associated with intersection of structures, (g) genetically related to diorite porphyry stocks at depth (h) geochemical zonation of (Cu ± Au ± Ag ± Bi) → (Cu + Mo ± Bi ± Au ± Pb ± Zn ± As) → (Au + Mo ± Pb ± Zn) → (As + Ag + Sb + Mn + Ba + Pb + Zn + Hg) → Hg from center to outwards (i) The range of sulfur isotopic values is approximately zero (interpreted to have magmatic source) and similar to other subduction-related porphyry Cu deposits.

  18. The tectonic significance of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain in the SE Brazilian margin: a Paleoproterozoic through Cretaceous saga of a reworked continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain is composed of a Paleoproterozoic basement tectonically interleaved with Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Buzios-Palmital successions. It is in contact with the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Ribeira Orogen along the SE Brazilian coast. The basement was part of at least three continental margins: (a 1.97 Ga; (b 0.59 - 0.53 Ga; (c 0.14 Ga to today. It consists of continental magmatic arc rocks of 1.99 to 1.94 Ga. Zircon cores show a 2.5 - 2.6 Ga inheritance from the ancient margin of the Congo Craton. During the Ediacaran, this domain was thinned and intruded by tholeiitic mafic dykes during the development of an oceanic basin at ca. 0.59 Ma. After the tectonic inversion, these basin deposits reached high P-T metamorphic conditions, by subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, and were later exhumed as nappes over the basement. The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain collided with the arc domain of the Ribeira Orogen at ca. 0.54 Ga. It is not an exotic block, but the eastern transition between this orogen and the Congo Craton. Almost 400 m.y. later, the South Atlantic rift zone followed roughly this suture, not coincidently. It shows how the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain was reactivated as a continental margin in successive extensional and convergent events through geological time.

  19. Initiation of extension in South China continental margin during the active-passive margin transition: kinematic and thermochronological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUO, Xuran; CHAN, Lung

    2015-04-01

    The southern South China Block is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking fault zones and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from an active to a passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. In this study, we used zircon fission-track dating (ZFT) and numerical modeling to examine the timing and kinematics of the active-passive margin transition. Our ZFT results on granitic plutons in the SW Cathaysia Block show two episodes of exhumation of the granitic plutons. The first episode, occurring during 170 Ma - 120 Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115 Ma - 70 Ma. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the observation based on ZFT data that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred at an earlier time than the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in geology between Yunkai and Nanling, the heating from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in the Nanling Range may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high slab dip angle, high geothermal gradient of lithosphere and low convergence velocity favor the subduction process and the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper plate; (2) the late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension has shed light on the geological condition producing the red bed basins during Late Cretaceous

  20. Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic characterization of Mesozoic rocks throughout the northern end of the Peninsular Ranges batholith: Isotopic evidence for the magmatic evolution of oceanic arc–continental margin accretion during the Late Cretaceous of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    contaminated magmatic arc. The Peninsular Ranges batholith magmatic arc was initially an oceanic arc built on Panthalassan lithosphere that eventually evolved into a continental margin magmatic arc collision zone, eventually overriding North American cratonic lithosphere. Our Pb-Sr-Nd data further suggest that the western arc rocks represent a nearshore or inboard oceanic arc, as they exhibit isotopic signatures that are more enriched than typical mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB). Isotopic signatures from the central zone are transitional and indicate that enriched crustal magma sources were becoming involved in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith magmatic plumbing. As the oceanic arc–continental margin collision progressed, a mixture of oceanic mantle and continental magmatic sources transpired. Magmatic production in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith moved eastward and continued to tap enriched crustal magmatic sources. Similar modeling has been previously proposed for two other western margin magmatic arcs, the Sierra Nevada batholith of central California and the Idaho batholith.Calculated initial Nd signatures at ca. 100 Ma for Permian–Jurassic and Proterozoic basement rocks from the nearby San Gabriel Mountains and possible source areas along the southwestern Laurentian margin of southern California, southwestern Arizona, and northern Sonora strongly suggest their involvement with deep crustal magma mixing beneath the eastern zones of the Peninsular Ranges batholith, as well as farther east in continental lithospheric zones.Last, several samples from the allochthonous, easternmost upper-plate zone, which are considerably younger (ca. 84 Ma) than any of the rocks from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith proper, have even more enriched average Sri, 206Pbi, 208Pbi, and εNdisignatures of 0.7079, 19.344, 38.881, and −6.6, respectively, indicative of the most-evolved magma sources in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith and similar to radioisotopic

  1. The Transition from Volcanic to Rift Dominated Crustal Breakup - From the Vøring Plateau to the Lofoten Margin, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.; Mjelde, R.; Flueh, E.; Murai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Vøring Plateau was part of the Northeast Atlantic igneous province (NAIP) during early Cenozoic crustal breakup. Crustal breakup at the Vøring Plateau occurred marginal to the deep Cretaceous basins on the shelf, with less extension of the crust. Intrusive magmatism and oceanic crust up to three times normal thickness caused a period of sub-aerial magmatism around breakup time. The transition to the Lofoten Margin is rapid to a deep-water plain. Still, there is some excess magmatism north of this transition, where early oceanic crustal thickness is reduced to half of that of the Vøring Plateau 150 km away. Our estimates of the earliest seafloor spreading rates using new ship-track magnetic profiles on different margin segments offer a clue to what caused this rapid transition. While crustal breakup occurred within the magnetic polarity C24r in other parts of the NAIP, there is a delayed breakup for the Lofoten/Vesterålen margin. Modeling of the earliest seafloor spreading with geomagnetic reversals, indicate a breakup within C24n.3n (anomaly 24b), approximately 1 m.y. later. Both old wide-angle seismic models (from Ocean Bottom Seismometers) off southern Lofoten and a newly published profile farther north show a strongly extended outer margin. Applying early seafloor half-spreading rates ( 30 mm/y) from other NAIP margin segments for 1 m.y. can account for 30 km extra extension, giving a factor of three crustal thinning, and gives a high strain rate of 3.2 ·10-14. Crustal breakup at the magma-poor Iberian Margin occurred at a low strain rate of 4.4·10-15, allowing the ascending mantle to cool, favoring tectonic extension over magmatism. Similar strain rates are found within the main Ethiopian Rift, but there is much magmatism and crustal separation is dominated by dike injection. Mantle tomography models show an exceptionally low seismic velocity below the area interpreted as an unusually hot upper mantle, which will favor magmatism. The transition from

  2. Polyphase tectono-magmatic and fluid history related to mantle exhumation in an ultra-distal rift domain: example of the fossil Platta domain, SE Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epin, Marie-Eva; Manatschal, Gianreto; Amann, Méderic; Lescanne, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Despite the fact that many studies have investigated mantle exhumation at magma-poor rifted margins, there are still numerous questions concerning the 3D architecture, magmatic, fluid and thermal evolution of these ultra-distal domains that remain unexplained. Indeed, it has been observed in seismic data from ultra-distal magma-poor rifted margins that top basement is heavily structured and complex, however, the processes controlling the morpho-tectonic and magmatic evolution of these domains remain unknown. The aim of this study is to describe the 3D top basement morphology of an exhumed mantle domain, exposed over 200 km2 in the fossil Platta domain in SE Switzerland, and to define the timing and processes controlling its evolution. The examined Platta nappe corresponds to a remnant of the former ultra-distal Adriatic margin of the Alpine Tethys. The rift-structures are relatively well preserved due to the weak Alpine tectonic and metamorphic overprint during the emplacement in the Alpine nappe stack. Detailed mapping of parts of the Platta nappe enabled us to document the top basement architecture of an exhumed mantle domain and to investigate its link to later, rift/oceanic structures, magmatic additions and fluids. Our observations show a polyphase and/or complex: 1) deformation history associated with mantle exhumation along low-angle exhumation faults overprinted by later high-angle normal faults, 2) top basement morphology capped by magmato-sedimentary rocks, 3) tectono-magmatic evolution that includes gabbros, emplaced at deeper levels and subsequently exhumed and overlain by younger extrusive magmatic additions, and 4) fluid history including serpentinization, calcification, hydrothermal vent, rodingitization and spilitization affecting exhumed mantle and associated magmatic rocks. The overall observations provide important information on the temporal and spatial evolution of the tectonic, magmatic and fluid systems controlling the formation of ultra

  3. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  4. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  5. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, L; Burov, E B; Werner, P

    2015-10-07

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle.

  6. Post-rift magmatism in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Zhao, F.; Xia, S.; Sun, J.; Fan, C.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-beam, 2D seismic reflection and borehole data reveal that post-rift magmatism are widespread in the northern margin of South China Sea. A large-scale volcanic complex was identified at water depths of 500 to 3000 m, covering an area of ca. 8000 km2. This volcanic complex includes seamounts, igneous sills, dykes and intruded volcanic bodies. Combining data from exploration wells BY7-1 and BY2 with published seismic stratigraphic data, we can highlight multiple extrusive events from the Early Oligocene to Early Miocene, reflecting progressive continental breakup in the South China Sea. Most intruded magma through the continental crust also uplifted sediments up to the T6 unconformity. Given the evidence in this work that Early Miocene magmatic bodies were developed above or along faults, we suggest that post-rift magmatism in the northern margin of the South China Sea was largely controlled by the faults. Reactivation events in the faults are suggested to have generated preferential vertical pathways for the ascent of magma within a context of progressive continental breakup and thinned continental crust, as the South China Sea was being formed.

  7. Intraplate mafic magmatism: New insights from Africa and N. America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, C. J.; van der Lee, S.; Tepp, G.; Pierre, S.

    2017-12-01

    Plate tectonic concepts consider that continental interiors are stable, with magmatism and strain localized to plate boundaries. We re-evaluate the role of pre-existing and evolving lithospheric heterogeneities in light of perspectives afforded by surface to mantle results from active and ancient rift zones in Africa and N. America. Our process-oriented approach addresses the localization of strain and magmatism and stability of continental plate interiors. In both Africa and N. America, geophysical imaging and xenolith studies reveal that thick, buoyant, and chemically distinct Archaean cratons with deep roots may deflect mantle flow, and localize magmatism and strain over many tectonic cycles. Studies of the Colorado Plateau and East African rift reveal widespread mantle metasomatism, and high levels of magma degassing along faults and at active volcanoes. The volcanoes and magmatic systems show a strong dependence on pre-existing heterogeneities in plate structure. Syntheses of the EarthScope program ishow that lateral density contrasts and migration of volatiles that accumulated during subduction can refertilize mantle lithosphere, and enable volatile-rich magmatism beneath relatively thick continental lithosphere. For example, the passive margin of eastern N. America shows uplift and magmatism long after the onset of seafloor spreading, demonstrating the dynamic nature of coupling between the lithosphere, asthenosphere, and deeper mantle. As demonstrated by the East African Rift, the Mid-Continent Rift, and other active and ancient rift zones, the interiors of continents, including thick, cold Archaean cratons are not immune to mafic magmatism and tectonism. Recent studies in N. America and Africa reveal ca. 1000 km-wide zones of dynamic uplift, low upper mantle velocities, and broadly distributed strain. The distribution of magmatism and volatile release, in combination with geophysical signals, indicates a potentially convective origin for widespread

  8. Lower crustal strength controls on melting and type of oceanization at magma-poor margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, E.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Araujo, M. N.; Thoaldo Romeiro, M.; Andres-Martinez, M.; Morgan, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamical models have been widely used to explain the variability in the architectonical style of conjugate rifted margins as a combination of lithospheric deformation modes, which are strongly influenced by lower crustal strength. We use 2D numerical models to show that the lower crustal strength also plays a key role on the onset and amount of melting and serpentinization during continental rifting. The relative timing between melting and serpentinization onsets controls whether the continent-ocean transition (COT) of margins will be predominantly magmatic or will mainly consist of exhumed and serpentinized mantle. Based on our results for magma-poor continental rifting, we propose a genetic link between margin architecture and COT styles that can be used as an additional tool to help interpret and understand the processes leading to margin formation. Our results show that strong lower crusts and very slow extension velocities (architecture of the magma-poor section of the South Atlantic, we suggest that the COT of the northern sector, Camamu-Gabon basins, is more likely to consist of exhumed mantle with intruded magmatism, while to the South, the Camamu-Kwanza and North Santos-South Kwanza conjugates, may be better characterized by a predominantly magmatic COT.

  9. Semi-adakitic magmatism of the Satkatbong diorite, South Korea: Geochemical implications for post-adakitic magmatism in southeastern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoseong; Woo, Hyeon Dong; Myeong, Bora; Park, Jongkyu; Jang, Yun-Deuk

    2018-04-01

    The Satkatbong diorite (190 Ma) and the older Yeongdeok granite (250 Ma) in the Yeongnam massif, which is part of the southeastern margin of the Eurasian plate, are affected by a subduction system that is associated with the Izanagi and Farallon plates. The Satkatbong diorite is characterized by its abundant mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs), mantle affinity, and intermediate adakitic Sr/Y vs. Y signature, whereas the Yeongdeok granite is distinctly adakitic and felsic and contains few MMEs. These differences in adakitic features might be due to differences in the lithospheric mantle material and/or different mafic MME sources. The results of rare earth element (REE) analyses and newly proposed Sr/La modeling in this study indicate that these two plutons were both generated by slab-mantle mixing and continental assimilation, whereas the Satkatbong diorite was additionally affected by the injection of a mafic source of MMEs, which "diluted" its adakitic chemistry. The young and hot subducting ridge passing toward the northeast due to the oblique subduction of the Izanagi and Farallon plates during the Early Mesozoic could have given rise to slab melting and asthenospheric influence through slab melting regions and a slab window, respectively. This implies that the adakitic Yeongdeok granite produced by slab melting and then the semi-adakitic Satkatbong diorite produced by asthenospheric influence, including other similar adakitic to semi-adakitic magmatism, might have occurred along the areas affected by ridge subduction. We suggest that this sequential magmatism would be applicable for many continental arcs which experienced ridge subduction being one of the mechanisms of adakite to semi-adakite magmatism.

  10. Retrogressive hydration of calc-silicate xenoliths in the eastern Bushveld complex: evidence for late magmatic fluid movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmach, T.; Hatton, C. J.; De Waal, S. A.; Gibson, R. L.

    1995-11-01

    Two calc-silicate xenoliths in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld complex contain mineral assemblages which permit delineation of the metamorphic path followed after incorporation of the xenoliths into the magma. Peak metamorphism in these xenoliths occurred at T=1100-1200°C and P <1.5 kbar. Retrograde metamorphism, probably coinciding with the late magmatic stage, is characterized by the breakdown of akermanite to monticellite and wollastonite at 700°C and the growth of vesuvianite from melilite. The latter implies that water-rich fluids (X CO 2 <0.2) were present and probably circulating through the cooling magmatic pile. In contrast, calc-silicate xenoliths within the lower zones of the Bushveld complex, namely in the Marginal and Critical Zones, also contain melilite, monticellite and additional periclase with only rare development of vesuvianite. This suggests that the Upper Zone cumulate pile was much 'wetter' in the late-magmatic stage than the earlier-formed Critical and Marginal Zone cumulate piles.

  11. From magma-poor Ocean Continent Transitions to steady state oceanic spreading: the balance between tectonic and magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Morgane; Manatschal, Gianreto; Autin, Julia; Decarlis, Alessandro; Sauter, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of magma-poor rifted margins is linked to the development of a transition zone whose basement is neither clearly continental nor oceanic. The development of this Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) is generally associated to the exhumation of serpentinized mantle along one or several detachment faults. That model is supported by numerous observations (IODP wells, dredges, fossil margins) and by numerical modelling. However, if the initiation of detachment faults in a magma-poor setting tends to be better understood by numerous studies in various area, the transition with the first steady state oceanic crust and the associated processes remain enigmatic and poorly studied. Indeed, this latest stage of evolution appears to be extremely gradual and involves strong interactions between tectonic processes and magmatism. Contrary to the proximal part of the exhumed domain where we can observe magmatic activity linked to the exhumation process (exhumation of gabbros, small amount of basalts above the exhumed mantle), in the most distal part the magmatic system appears to be independent and more active. In particular, we can observe large amounts of extrusive material above a previously exhumed and faulted basement (e.g. Alps, Australia-Antarctica margins). It seems that some faults can play the role of feeder systems for the magma in this area. Magmatic underplating is also important, as suggested by basement uplift and anomalously thick crust (e.g. East Indian margin). It results that the transition with the first steady state oceanic crust is marked by the presence of a hybrid basement, composed by exhumed mantle and magmatic material, whose formation is linked to several tectonic and magmatic events. One could argue that this basement is not clearly different from an oceanic basement. However, we consider that true, steady state oceanic crust only exists, if the entire rock association forming the crust is created during a single event, at a localized

  12. A Palaeoproterozoic tectono-magmatic lull as a potential trigger for the supercontinent cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Christopher J.; Murphy, J. Brendan; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Liu, Yebo; Mitchell, Ross N.

    2018-02-01

    The geologic record exhibits periods of active and quiescent geologic processes, including magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization. This apparent episodicity has been ascribed either to bias in the geologic record or fundamental changes in geodynamic processes. An appraisal of the global geologic record from about 2.3 to 2.2 billion years ago demonstrates a Palaeoproterozoic tectono-magmatic lull. During this lull, global-scale continental magmatism (plume and arc magmatism) and orogenic activity decreased. There was also a lack of passive margin sedimentation and relative plate motions were subdued. A global compilation of mafic igneous rocks demonstrates that this episode of magmatic quiescence was terminated about 2.2 billion years ago by a flare-up of juvenile magmatism. This post-lull magmatic flare-up is distinct from earlier such events, in that the material extracted from the mantle during the flare-up yielded significant amounts of continental material that amalgamated to form Nuna — Earth's first hemispheric supercontinent. We posit that the juvenile magmatic flare-up was caused by the release of significant thermal energy that had accumulated over some time. This flux of mantle-derived energy could have provided a mechanism for dramatic growth of continental crust, as well as the increase in relative plate motions required to complete the transition to modern plate tectonics and the supercontinent cycle. These events may also be linked to Palaeoproterozoic atmospheric oxygenation and equilibration of the carbon cycle.

  13. Enforcing Margin Squeeze Ex Post Across Converging Telecommunications Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian; Townsend, John

    , delay profitability or limit their ability to remain or expand on markets. However, traditional market definitions are being challenged by (1) the technological convergence of services and (2) innovative product offerings taking advantage of this convergence. Consumers now routinely purchase a bundle...... and innovation present both theoretical and practical difficulties for assessing “muddled margins” on telecoms markets. New and different enforcement approaches to exclusion will have to be formulated within the Article 102 framework and tested in the Courts. This may even require abstaining from applying...... Article 102 TFEU during material periods of convergence, and confining ex post enforcement activity to sector regulation, even when this is inferior for safeguarding effective competition....

  14. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  15. Seismic structure of the western U.S. mantle and its relation to regional tectonic and magmatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Brandon

    Northwest at 55-50 Ma is suggested to stimulate roll-back of the flat subducting Farallon slab. This change in convergent margin structure is further suggested to drive the short-lived Challis magmatic trend and trigger the southward propagating Eocene-Oligocene transition from the Laramide orogeny to widespread crustal extension and ignimbrite magmatism.

  16. Late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) Extension and Magmatism on the Sonoran Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, P.; MacMillan, I.; Roldan-Quintana, J.

    2003-12-01

    Constraints on the magnitude and character of late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) deformation on the Sonoran margin of the Gulf of California extensional province are key to understanding how and when Baja California was captured by the Pacific plate and how strain was partitioned during the early stages of this transtensional rift system. Our new geologic mapping in southwestern Sonora and 40Ar/39Ar dating of pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic volcanic units indicate that late Miocene deformation and volcanic activity were largely restricted to a NW-trending, 100-120 km wide belt adjacent to the coast. Inboard of this belt, NW-SE extension is mainly older (>15 Ma) and occurred in an intra-arc or back-arc setting. Proto-Gulf deformation within the coastal belt was profoundly transtensional, with NW-striking, dextral strike slip faults operating in concert with N-S and NNE-striking normal and oblique slip faults to produce an inferred NW or NNW tectonic transport direction. The total amount of late Miocene NW directed dextral shear within the coastal belt is still poorly constrained, but may exceed 100 km. The locus of deformation and volcanic activity migrated westward or northwestward within the Sonoran coastal belt. in the eastern portion (Sierra Libre and Sierra El Bacatete) major volcanic activity commenced at ˜13.0 Ma and peaked at 12.0 Ma, and major faulting and tilting is bracketed between 12.0 and 10.6 Ma. Further west in the Sierra El Aguaje/San Carlos region, major volcanic activity commenced at 11.5 Ma and peaked at 10.5 Ma, and most faulting and tilting is bracketed between 10.7 and 9.3 Ma. On the coastal mountains northwest of San Carlos, rift related faulting and tilting continued after 8.5 Ma. Voluminous late Miocene (13-8 Ma) volcanic rocks within the Sonoran coastal belt were erupted from numerous centers (e.g. Sierra Libre, Guaymas, Sierra El Aguaje). These thick volcanic sections are compositionally diverse (basalt to rhyolite, with abundant dacite and

  17. Northeastern Brazilian margin: Regional tectonic evolution based on integrated analysis of seismic reflection and potential field data and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, Olav A.; Tsikalas, Filippos; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2008-10-01

    Integration of regional seismic reflection and potential field data along the northeastern Brazilian margin, complemented by crustal-scale gravity modelling, is used to reveal and illustrate onshore-offshore crustal structure correlation, the character of the continent-ocean boundary, and the relationship of crustal structure to regional variation of potential field anomalies. The study reveals distinct along-margin structural and magmatic changes that are spatially related to a number of conjugate Brazil-West Africa transfer systems, governing the margin segmentation and evolution. Several conceptual tectonic models are invoked to explain the structural evolution of the different margin segments in a conjugate margin context. Furthermore, the constructed transects, the observed and modelled Moho relief, and the potential field anomalies indicate that the Recôncavo, Tucano and Jatobá rift system may reflect a polyphase deformation rifting-mode associated with a complex time-dependent thermal structure of the lithosphere. The constructed transects and available seismic reflection profiles, indicate that the northern part of the study area lacks major breakup-related magmatic activity, suggesting a rifted non-volcanic margin affinity. In contrast, the southern part of the study area is characterized by abrupt crustal thinning and evidence for breakup magmatic activity, suggesting that this region evolved, partially, with a rifted volcanic margin affinity and character.

  18. Geology of the Baskil (Elazığ Area and the Petrology of Baskil Magmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jerf ASUTAY

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area which covers the region around Baskil on Eastern Taurus Range comprises of Keban metamorphics and Baskil magmatics overlain by a Tertiary sedimentary cover. The Keban metamorphics are represented by regional and contact metamorphic rocks in the study area. Calc schist and marble associations are widespread on the regional scale. Between Baskil granite and Keban metamorphics exomorphism and endomorphism zones have been developed. Metasomatic effects are observed in the contact metamorphic rocks which reflect the pyroxene-hornfels facies. The sedimentary sequence begins with Middle Paleocene (Thanetian aged rocks in the study area. The same sequence, however, has been deposited starting in Santonian-Campanian in the surrounding area. The sedimentary rock sequence which is composed of Kuşçular conglomerate, Seske formation, Kırkgeçit formation (Paleocene-Plio-Quaternary are represented by conglomerate, carbonates and flysch kind of sedimentary rocks. Baskil magmatics are an association of plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic rocks. Of this association, Baskil granite contains dioritic, monzonitic and tonalitic kind of magmatic rocks which are mostly observed as transitional. Baskil granite, in the study area, is frequently cut across by basic and acidic dykes which locally intrudes between the granite and the basaltic, andesitic rocks overlying the granite and are transitional with the volcanics. Chemically, Baskil granite is of calc-alkaline type. It is rich in silica and alkaline. Trace element distribution is quite regular. Baskil granite which is determined as of type 'I' is generally rich in hornblende but poor in muscovite and biotite. It shows the features of continental margin magmatism and is an example of systematic differentiation. Considering their features and under the light of plate tectonics concept, Baskil magmatics may be said to be a product of continental margin magmatism. They are, presumably, the products of an

  19. Retrowedge-related Carboniferous units and coeval magmatism in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Santos, Joao O. S.; Dalponte, Marcelo; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neal

    2012-11-01

    The studied Carboniferous units comprise metasedimentary (Guaraco Norte Formation), pyroclastic (Arroyo del Torreón Formation), and sedimentary (Huaraco Formation) rocks that crop out in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina. They form part of the basement of the Neuquén Basin and are mostly coeval with the Late Paleozoic accretionary prism complex of the Coastal Cordillera, south-central Chile. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircon yielded a maximum depositional age of 374 Ma (Upper Devonian) for the Guaraco Norte Formation and 389 Ma for the Arroyo del Torreón Formation. Detrital magmatic zircon from the Guaraco Norte Formation are grouped into two main populations of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian) ages. In the Arroyo del Torreón Formation, zircon populations are also of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian), as well as of Late Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic ages. In both units, there is a conspicuous population of Devonian magmatic zircon grains (from 406 ± 4 Ma to 369 ± 5 Ma), indicative of active magmatism at that time range. The ɛHf values of this population range between -2.84 and -0.7, and the TDM-(Hf) are mostly Mesoproterozoic, suggesting that the primary sources of the Devonian magmatism contained small amounts of Mesoproterozoic recycled crustal components. The chemical composition of the Guaraco Norte Formation corresponds to recycled, mature polycyclic sediment of mature continental provenance, pointing to a passive margin with minor inputs from continental margin magmatic rocks. The chemical signature of the Huaraco Formation indicates that a magmatic arc was the main provenance for sediments of this unit, which is consistent with the occurrence of tuff—mostly in the Arroyo del Torreón Formation and very scarcely in the Huaraco Formation—with a volcanic-arc signature, jointly indicating the occurrence of a Carboniferous active arc magmatism during the deposition of the two units. The Guaraco Norte Formation is interpreted

  20. High resolution 2D numerical models from rift to break-up: Crustal hyper-extension, Margin asymmetry, Sequential faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha; Heine, Christian; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Sobolev, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Numerical modelling is a powerful tool to integrate a multitude of geological and geophysical data while addressing fundamental questions of passive margin formation such as the occurrence of crustal hyper-extension, (a-)symmetries between conjugate margin pairs, and the sometimes significant structural differences between adjacent margin segments. This study utilises knowledge gathered from two key examples of non-magmatic, asymmetric, conjugate margin pairs, i.e. Iberia-New Foundland and Southern Africa-Brazil, where many published seismic lines provide solid knowledge on individual margin geometry. While both margins involve crustal hyper-extension, it is much more pronounced in the South Atlantic. We investigate the evolution of these two margin pairs by carefully constraining our models with detailed plate kinematic history, laboratory-based rheology, and melt fraction evaluation of mantle upwelling. Our experiments are consistent with observed fault patterns, crustal thickness, and basin stratigraphy. We conduct 2D thermomechanical rift models using the finite element code SLIM3D that operates with nonlinear stress- and temperature-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology, with parameters provided by laboratory experiments on major crustal and upper mantle rocks. In our models we also calculate the melt fraction within the upwelling asthenosphere, which allows us to control whether the model indeed corresponds to the non-magmatic margin type or not. Our modelling highlights two processes as fundamental for the formation of hyper-extension and margin asymmetry at non-magmatic margins: (1) Strain hardening in the rift center due to cooling of upwelling mantle material (2) The formation of a weak crustal domain adjacent to the rift center caused by localized viscous strain softening and heat transfer from the mantle. Simultaneous activity of both processes promotes lateral rift migration in a continuous way that generates a wide layer of hyper-extended crust on

  1. A Triassic to Cretaceous Sundaland-Pacific subduction margin in West Sarawak, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Hall, Robert; Galin, Thomson; Forster, Margaret A.; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.

    2017-01-01

    Metamorphic rocks in West Sarawak are poorly exposed and studied. They were previously assumed to be pre-Carboniferous basement but had never been dated. New 40Ar/39Ar ages from white mica in quartz-mica schists reveal metamorphism between c. 216 to 220 Ma. The metamorphic rocks are associated with Triassic acid and basic igneous rocks, which indicate widespread magmatism. New U-Pb dating of zircons from the Jagoi Granodiorite indicates Triassic magmatism at c. 208 Ma and c. 240 Ma. U-Pb dating of zircons from volcaniclastic sediments of the Sadong and Kuching Formations confirms contemporaneous volcanism. The magmatic activity is interpreted to represent a Triassic subduction margin in westernmost West Sarawak with sediments deposited in a forearc basin derived from the magmatic arc at the Sundaland-Pacific margin. West Sarawak and NW Kalimantan are underlain by continental crust that was already part of Sundaland or accreted to Sundaland in the Triassic. One metabasite sample, also previously assumed to be pre-Carboniferous basement, yielded Early Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages. They are interpreted to indicate resumption of subduction which led to deposition of volcaniclastic sediments and widespread magmatism. U-Pb ages from detrital zircons in the Cretaceous Pedawan Formation are similar to those from the Schwaner granites of NW Kalimantan, and the Pedawan Formation is interpreted as part of a Cretaceous forearc basin containing material eroded from a magmatic arc that extended from Vietnam to west Borneo. The youngest U-Pb ages from zircons in a tuff layer from the uppermost part of the Pedawan Formation indicate that volcanic activity continued until c. 86 to 88 Ma when subduction terminated.

  2. A tale of two extinctions : converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Wignall, Paul B.

    The end-Permian (c. 252 Ma) and end-Triassic (c. 201 Ma) mass-extinction events are commonly linked to the emplacement of the large igneous provinces of the Siberia Traps and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively. Accordingly, scenarios for both extinctions are increasingly convergent and

  3. 118-115 Ma magmatism in the Tethyan Himalaya igneous province: Constraints on Early Cretaceous rifting of the northern margin of Greater India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Fan, Wei-Ming; Shi, Ren-Deng; Liu, Xiao-Han; Zhou, Xue-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) is critical to deciphering processes associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Microcontinental calving, the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, is particularly poorly understood. Here we present new insights into these processes from geochronological and geochemical analyses of igneous rocks from the Tethyan Himalaya. Early Cretaceous mafic dikes are widely exposed in the eastern and western Tethyan Himalaya, but no such rocks have been reported from the central Tethyan Himalaya. Here we present an analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic data for bimodal magmatic rocks from the center-east Tethyan Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating yields six weighted-mean concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 118 ± 1.2 to 115 ± 1.3 Ma. Mafic rocks display MORB-like compositions with flat to depleted LREE trends, and positive εNd(t) (+2.76 to +5.39) and εHf(t) (+8.0 to +11.9) values. The negative Nb anomalies and relatively high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.15-0.19) of these rocks are related to variable degrees (up to 10%) of crustal contamination. Geochemical characteristics indicate that mafic rocks were generated by variable degrees (2-20%) of partial melting of spinel lherzolites in shallow depleted mantle. Felsic rocks are enriched in Th and LREE, with negative Nb anomalies and decoupling of Nd (εNd(t) = -13.39 to -12.78) and Hf (εHf(t) = -4.8 to -2.0), suggesting that they were derived mainly from garnet-bearing lower continental crust. The geochemical characteristics of the bimodal magmatic associations are comparable to those of associations that form in a continental rift setting. Results indicate that Early Cretaceous magmatism occurred across the whole Tethyan Himalaya, named here as the "Tethyan Himalaya igneous province". Separation of the Tethyan Himalaya from the Indian craton may have occurred during ongoing Early Cretaceous extension

  4. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima

    2000-01-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863± 97 Ma and e Nd (T) of +4.1 T D M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 ± 77 Ma and e Nd (T) of +2.9. T DM values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 ± 120 Ma and initial e Nd value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  5. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863{+-} 97 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +4.1 T{sub D}M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 {+-} 77 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +2.9. T {sub DM} values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 {+-} 120 Ma and initial e{sub Nd} value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  6. Fluids in Convergent Margins: What do We Know about their Composition, Origin, Role in Diagenesis and Importance for Oceanic Chemical Fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, M.; Elderfield, H.; Martin, J. B.

    1991-05-01

    The nature and origin of fluids in convergent margins can be inferred from geochemical and isotopic studies of the venting and pore fluids, and is attempted here for the Barbados Ridge, Nankai Trough and the convergent margin off Peru. Venting and pore fluids with lower than seawater Cl- concentrations characterize all these margins. Fluids have two types of source: internal and external. The three most important internal sources are: (1) porosity reduction; (2) diagenetic and metamorphic dehydration; and (3) the breakdown of hydrous minerals. Gas hydrate formation and dissociation, authigenesis of hydrous minerals and the alteration of volcanic ash and/or the upper oceanic crust lead to a redistribution of the internal fluids and gases in vertical and lateral directions. The maximum amount of expelled water calculated can be ca. 7 m3 a-1 m-1, which is much less than the tens to more than 100 m3 a-1 m-1 of fluid expulsion which has been observed. The difference between these figures must be attributed to external fluid sources, mainly by transport of meteoric water enhanced by mixing with seawater. The most important diagenetic reactions which modify the fluid compositions, and concurrently the physical and even the thermal properties of the solids through which they flow are: (1) carbonate recrystallization, and more importantly precipitation; (2) bacterial and thermal degradation of organic matter; (3) formation and dissociation of gas hydrates; (4) dehydration and transformation of hydrous minerals, especially of clay minerals and opal-A; and (5) alteration, principally zeolitization and clay mineral formation, of volcanic ash and the upper oceanic crust.

  7. Kinematic evolution of the southwestern Arabian continental margin: implications for the origin of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggenreiter, W.; Hötzl, H.

    The tectonic and magnetic evolution of the Jizan coastal plain (Tihama Asir) in southwest Arabia was dominated by SW-NE lithospheric extension related to the development of the Red Sea Rift. A well-exposed, isotopically-dated succession of magmatic rocks (Jizan Group volcanics, Tihama Asir Magmatic Complex) allows a kinematic analysis for this part of the Arabian Red Sea margin. A mafic dyke swarm and several generations of roughly NW-trending normal faults characterized the continental rift stage from Oligocene to early Miocene time. Major uplift of the Arabian graben shoulder probably began about 14 Ma ago. By this time, extension and magmatism ceased in the Jizan area and were followed by an approximately 10 Ma interval of tectonic and magmatic quiescence. A second phase of extension began in the Pliocene and facilitated a vast outpouring of alkaliolivine basalts on the coastal plain. The geometry of faulting in the Jizan area supports a Wernicke-type simple-shear mechanism of continental rifting for the southern Arabian continental margin of the Red Sea.

  8. Is the Gop rift oceanic? A reevaluation of the Seychelles-India conjugate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huixin; Werner, Philippe; Geoffroy, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies reevaluated the timing and evolution of the breakup process between the Seychelles continental ridge and India, and the relationship between this evolution and mantle melting associated with the Deccan Igneous Province1,2,3. Those studies, mainly based on gravity and seismic refraction surveys, point that the oceanic domain located between the Seychelles and the Laxmi Ridge (here designed as the Carlsberg Basin) is the youngest oceanic domain between India and the Seychelles. To the East of the Laxmi Ridge, the aborted Gop Rift is considered as an older highly magmatic extensional continental system with magmatism, breakup and oceanic spreading being coeval with or even predating the emplacement of the major pulse of the Deccan trapps. This interpretation on the oceanic nature of the Gop Rift conflicts with other extensive surveys based on magnetic and seismic reflection data4 which suggest that the Gop Rift is an extended syn-magmatic continental domain. In our work based (a) on the existing data, (b) on new deep-seismic reflection surveys (already published by Misra5) down to the Moho and underlying mantle and (c) on new concepts on the geometry of volcanic passive margins, we propose a distinct interpretation of the Seychelles-India system. As proposed by former authors6,7, the Indian margin suffered some continental stretching and thinning before the onset of the Deccan traps during the Mesozoic. Thus continental crust thickness cannot be used easily as a proxy of syn-magmatic stretching-thinning processes or even to infer the presence or not of oceanic-type crust based, solely, on crustal thickness. However, some remarkable features appear on some of the deep penetration seismic lines we studied. We illustrate that the whole Seychelles/India system, before the opening of the present-day "Carlsberg Basin" may simply be regarded as a pair of sub-symmetric conjugate volcanic passive margins (VPMs) with inner and outer SDR wedges dipping towards the

  9. Submarine slope failures along the convergent continental margin of the Middle America Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harders, Rieka; Ranero, CéSar R.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2011-06-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of mass wasting processes in the continental slope of a convergent margin of a subduction zone where tectonic processes are dominated by subduction erosion. We have used multibeam bathymetry along ˜1300 km of the Middle America Trench of the Central America Subduction Zone and deep-towed side-scan sonar data. We found abundant evidence of large-scale slope failures that were mostly previously unmapped. The features are classified into a variety of slope failure types, creating an inventory of 147 slope failure structures. Their type distribution and abundance define a segmentation of the continental slope in six sectors. The segmentation in slope stability processes does not appear to be related to slope preconditioning due to changes in physical properties of sediment, presence/absence of gas hydrates, or apparent changes in the hydrogeological system. The segmentation appears to be better explained by changes in slope preconditioning due to variations in tectonic processes. The region is an optimal setting to study how tectonic processes related to variations in intensity of subduction erosion and changes in relief of the underthrusting plate affect mass wasting processes of the continental slope. The largest slope failures occur offshore Costa Rica. There, subducting ridges and seamounts produce failures with up to hundreds of meters high headwalls, with detachment planes that penetrate deep into the continental margin, in some cases reaching the plate boundary. Offshore northern Costa Rica a smooth oceanic seafloor underthrusts the least disturbed continental slope. Offshore Nicaragua, the ocean plate is ornamented with smaller seamounts and horst and graben topography of variable intensity. Here mass wasting structures are numerous and comparatively smaller, but when combined, they affect a large part of the margin segment. Farther north, offshore El Salvador and Guatemala the downgoing plate has no large seamounts but

  10. Marginal Fit of Metal-Ceramic Copings: Effect of Luting Cements and Tooth Preparation Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Juliana Gomes Dos Santos Paes; Guedes, Carlos Gramani; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Trindade, Flávia Zardo; Fonseca, Renata Garcia

    2017-12-22

    To evaluate the effect of the triad finish line design, axial wall convergence angle, and luting cement on the marginal fit of metal copings used in metal-ceramic crowns. Schematic dies and their respective copings were cast in NiCr alloy. The dies exhibited the following finish line/convergence angle combinations: sloping shoulder/6°, sloping shoulder/20°, shoulder/6°, shoulder/20°. Marginal fit was evaluated under a stereomicroscope, before and after cementation. Copings were air-abraded with 50 μm Al 2 O 3 particles and cemented with Cimento de Zinco, RelyX U100, or Panavia F cements (n = 10/group). Data were square-root transformed and analyzed by 3-way factorial random effect model and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Statistical analysis showed significance for the interactions finish line and convergence angle (p marginal discrepancy when compared to the other finish line/convergence angle combinations, which were statistically similar among each other. For both convergence angles and for all luting cements, the marginal discrepancy was significantly higher after cementation. Before and after cementation, 6° provided better marginal fit than 20°. After cementation, Panavia F provided higher marginal discrepancy than Cimento de Zinco. Lower convergence angle combined with shoulder and a low-consistency luting cement is preferable to cement metal copings. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Crustal structure and inferred extension mode in the northern margin of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.; Wu, S.; McIntosh, K. D.; Mi, L.; Spence, G.

    2016-12-01

    Combining multi-channel seismic reflection and satellite gravity data, this study has investigated the crustal structure and magmatic activities of the northern South China Sea (SCS) margin. Results show that a broad continent-ocean transition zone (COT) with more than 140 km wide is characterized by extensive igneous intrusion/extrusion and hyper-extended continental crust in the northeastern SCS margin, a broader COT with 220-265 km wide is characterized by crustal thinning, rift depression, structural highs with igneous rock and perhaps a volcanic zone or a zone of tilted fault blocks at the distal edge in the mid-northern SCS margin, and a narrow COT with 65 km wide bounded seawards by a volcanic buried seamount is characterized by extremely hyper-extended continental crust in the northwestern SCS margin, where the remnant crust with less than 3 km thick is bounded by basin-bounding faults corresponding to an aborted rift below the Xisha Trough with a sub-parallel fossil ridge in the adjacent Northwest Sub-basin. Results from gravity modeling and seismic refraction data show that a high velocity layer (HVL) is present in the outer shelf and slope below extended continental crust in the eastern portion of the northern SCS margin and is thickest (up to 10 km) in the Dongsha Uplift where the HVL gradually thins to east and west below the lower slope and finally terminates at the Manila Trench and Baiyun sag of the Pearl River Mouth Basin. The magmatic intrusions/extrusions and HVL may be related to partial melting caused by decompression of passive, upwelling asthenosphere which resulted primarily in post-rifting underplating and magmatic emplacement or modification of the crust. The northern SCS margin is closer to those of the magma-poor margins than those of volcanic margins, but the aborted rift near the northwestern continental margin shows that there may be no obvious detachment fault like that in the Iberia-Newfoundland type margin. The symmetric aborted

  12. Age and tectonomagmatic setting of the Eocene Çöpler-Kabataş magmatic complex and porphyry-epithermal Au deposit, East Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    İmer, Ali; Richards, Jeremy P.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    The Çöpler epithermal Au deposit and related subeconomic porphyry Cu-Au deposit is hosted by the middle Eocene Çöpler-Kabataş magmatic complex in central eastern Anatolia. The intrusive rocks of the complex were emplaced into Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic metamorphosed sedimentary basement rocks near the northeastern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Block. Igneous biotite from two samples of the magmatic complex yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 43.75 ± 0.26 Ma and 44.19 ± 0.23, whereas igneous hornblende from a third sample yielded a plateau age of 44.13 ± 0.38. These ages closely overlap with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hydrothermal sericite (44.44 ± 0.28 Ma) and biotite (43.84 ± 0.26 Ma), and Re-Os ages from two molybdenite samples (44.6 ± 0.2 and 43.9 ± 0.2 Ma) suggesting a short-lived (history at Çöpler. No suitable minerals were found that could be used to date the epithermal system, but it is inferred to be close in age to the precursor porphyry system. The Çöpler-Kabataş intrusive rocks show I-type calc-alkaline affinities. Their normalized trace element patterns show enrichments in large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements and relative depletions in middle and heavy rare earth elements, resembling magmas generated in convergent margins. However, given its distance from the coeval Eocene Maden-Helete volcanic arc, the complex is interpreted to be formed in a back-arc setting, in response to Paleocene slab roll-back and upper-plate extension. The tectonomagmatic environment of porphyry-epithermal mineralization at Çöpler is comparable to some other isolated back-arc porphyry systems such as Bajo de la Alumbrera (Argentina) or Bingham Canyon (USA).

  13. Magmatic Complexes of the Vetlovaya Marginal Sea Paleobasin (Kamchatka): Composition and Geodynamic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, N. V.; Saveliev, D. P.; Kovalenko, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    This study presents new geochemical and isotope data on igneous rocks of the Vetlovaya marginal sea paleobasin (part of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic margin of the northwestern Pacific). The results show that the rock complexes of this marginal sea basin comprise igneous rocks with geochemical compositions similar to those of normal oceanic tholeiites, enriched transitional tholeiites, and ocean island and back-arc basin basalts. Island-arc tholeiitic basalts are present only rarely. The specific geochemical signatures of these rocks are interpreted as being related to mantle heterogeneity and the geodynamic conditions in the basin.

  14. Tectonic significance of changes in post-subduction Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism in the south east part of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Maţenco, Liviu; Downes, Hilary; Mason, Paul R. D.; Szakács, Alexandru; Pécskay, Zoltán

    2011-04-01

    The south-eastern part of the Carpathian-Pannonian region records the cessation of convergence between the European platform/Moesia and the Tisza-Dacia microplate. Plio-Quaternary magmatic activity in this area, in close proximity to the 'Vrancea zone', shows a shift from normal calc-alkaline to much more diverse compositions (adakite-like calc-alkaline, K-alkalic, mafic Na-alkalic and ultrapotassic), suggesting a significant change in geodynamic processes at approximately 3 Ma. We review the tectonic setting, timing, petrology and geochemistry of the post-collisional volcanism to constrain the role of orogenic building processes such as subduction or collision on melt production and migration. The calc-alkaline volcanism (5.3-3.9 Ma) marks the end of normal subduction-related magmatism along the post-collisional Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita volcanic chain in front of the European convergent plate margin. At ca. 3 Ma in South Harghita magma compositions changed to adakite-like calc-alkaline and continued until recent times (< 0.03 Ma) interrupted at 1.6-1.2 Ma by generation of Na and K-alkalic magmas, signifying changes in the source and melting mechanism. We attribute the changes in magma composition in front of the Moesian platform to two main geodynamic events: (1) slab-pull and steepening with opening of a tear window (adakite-like calc-alkaline magmas) and (2) renewed contraction associated with deep mantle processes such as slab steepening during post-collisional times (Na and K-alkalic magmas). Contemporaneous post-collisional volcanism at the eastern edge of the Pannonian Basin at 2.6-1.3 Ma was dominated by Na-alkalic and ultrapotassic magmas, suggesting a close relationship with thermal asthenospheric doming and strain partitioning related to the Adriatic indentation. Similar timing, magma chamber processes and volume for K-alkalic (shoshonitic) magmas in the South Apuseni Mountains (1.6 Ma) and South Harghita area at a distance of ca. 200 km imply a

  15. Tectonic significance of changes in post-subduction Pliocene–Quaternary magmatism in the south east part of the Carpathian–Pannonian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghedi, I.; Maţenco, L.; Downes, H.; Mason, P.R.D.; Szakács, A.; Pécskay, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The south-eastern part of the Carpathian–Pannonian region records the cessation of convergence between the European platform/Moesia and the Tisza–Dacia microplate. Plio-Quaternary magmatic activity in this area, in close proximity to the ‘Vrancea zone’, shows a shift from normal calc-alkaline to

  16. Petrogenesis of the Mairupt microgranite: A witness of an Uppermost Silurian magmatism in the Rocroi Inlier, Ardenne Allochton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobert, Corentin; Baele, Jean-Marc; Boulvais, Philippe; Poujol, Marc; Decrée, Sophie

    2018-03-01

    Magmatism in the Rocroi inlier (Ardenne Allochton, southeastern Avalonia during eo-Hercynian times) consists of a swarm of bimodal dykes (diabase and/or microgranite) emplaced in Middle to Upper Cambrian siliciclastics (Revin Group). Felsic volcanites interbedded within the Upper Silurian/Lower Devonian transgressive strata on the eastern edge of the inlier were interpreted as belonging to the same magmatic event. This was subsequently invalidated by zircon U-Pb dating of the Mairupt and Grande Commune magmatic rocks, which yielded an Upper Devonian age. Here we report a reevaluation of the age of the Mairupt microgranite based on LA-ICP-MS in situ U-Pb zircon geochronology, which yields a concordant age of 420.5 ± 2.9 Ma (Late Silurian/Early Devonian). This new dating restores the consistency between the different magmatic occurrences in the Rocroi inlier. The geochemical and petrographical data furthermore indicate a major crustal contribution, which fits well within the context of crust thinning of the Ardenne margin (southeastern Avalonia) in the transtensional Rheno-Hercynian back-arc basin.

  17. Late Cambrian magmatic arc activity in peri-Gondwana: geochemical evidence from the Basal Allochthonous Units of NW Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andonaegui, P.; Abati, J.; Díez-Fernández, R.

    2017-07-01

    The North African section of the Gondwana margin was the site of voluminous, arc-related magmatism during the Late Neoproterozoic (Avalonian–Cadomian orogen). The lower (and older) metasedimentary sequence that constitutes the Basal Units of the Allochthonous Complexes of NW Iberia was deposited in that setting. In these units, sedimentation was followed by the intrusion of tonalites and granodiorites in the late Cambrian (ca. 493–489Ma). In the Late Paleozoic, the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia (Variscan orogeny) deformed and metamorphosed the whole ensemble. New whole rock geochemical analysis performed in seven samples of metatonalites and fourteen samples of metagranodiorites are characterized by: i) slight enrichment in incompatible elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U), ii) negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and iii) negative anomalies in Eu. These chemical features are in agreement with a subduction-related setting for the genesis of both types of magma, which is also supported by chemical discrimination using tectonic setting diagrams. Positive anomalies of Pb suggest a crustal component. The new geochemical data reveal that the convergent orogen that ruled the paleogeography of the Gondwana periphery during the Neoproterozoic (Cadomian orogen) remained active bey.

  18. Design of convergent switched systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromsky, A.Y.; Leonov, G.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Gravdahl, J.T.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the problem of rendering hybrid/nonlinear systems into convergent closed-loop systems by means of a feedback law or switching rules. We illustrate our approach to this problem by means of two examples: the anti-windup design for a marginally stable system with input

  19. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    convergent plate margins (subduction zones). This workshop brought together a diverse group of scientists with a broad range of scientific experience and interests. A particular strength was the involvement of both early-career scientists, who will initiate and carry out these new research programs, and more senior researchers with many years of experience in scientific drilling and active tectonics research. Each of the themes and questions outlined above has direct benefits to society, including improving hazard assessment, direct monitoring of active systems for early warning, renewable and non-renewable resource and energy exploitation, and predicting the environmental impacts of natural hazards, emphasizing the central role that scientific drilling will play in future scientific and societal developments.

  20. SHRIMP zircon dating of granitoids from Myanmar: constraints on the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley, M.E.; Pickard, A.L.; Zaw, K.; University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Situated south of the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayas, Myanmar occupies a key position in the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. However, there is almost no modern geochronology for this region. In this contribution we present new SHRIMP zircon dates for granitoids from the Shan Scarp (Mogok Metamorphic Belt), Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Region in the Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago and Central Valley (Western Myanmar) regions of Myanmar. The oldest ages obtained were from Jurassic granitoids, gneisses and amphibolites interlayered with marbles that were metamorphosed and deformed during the Eocene-Oligiocene and Miocene in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt. The occurrence of mid-Jurassic metamorphosed igneous rocks in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt is similar to that in the Hunza Karakoram and confirms interpretations that the southern margin of Asia became an Andean-type convergent margin at that time. Ages between 120 and 80 Ma for l-type granitoids intruding the Mogok Metamorphic Belt, Myeik Archipelago and Western Myanmar confirm that an up to 200km wide mid Cretaceous magmatic belt extended along the Eurasian margin from Tibet to Sumatra. Fractionated l-Type granitoids, that locally host Sn-W mineralisation, were emplaced in the Myeik Archipelago (and adjacent Thailand) in the latest Cretaceous to Early Eocene (80 to 50 Ma). These granitoids formed a wide convergent margin magmatic belt as the Indian plate rapidly approached Eurasia. Deformation and high-grade metamorphism occurred in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt during the Eocene-Oligiocene as the collision between India and Eurasia initiated crustal thickening prior to extrusion, or rotation, of Indochina and northward movement of Western Myanmar. Arc magmatism continued in Western Myanmar with emplacement of granitoids in the Central Valley. Deformation, extensional uplift and further granitoid magmatism occurred in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt during the Early Miocene northward movement of Western Myanmar

  1. Oblique convergence and the lobate mountain belts of western Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Saad S. B.; Davis, Dan M.

    1997-01-01

    The thin-skinned structures of the Pakistani convergent margin have formed as a consequence of the relative motion between India and Eurasia. Most of the resultant motion is being accommodated along or near the current edge of the Eurasian plate: the southwest-northeast striking Chaman fault zone. It has been observed at oblique margins that the total plate motion is resolved into a component parallel to the margin, accommodated through strike-slip faulting, and a component normal to the margin taken up as contraction. However, the orientations of structures along the Pakistani convergent margin in and around the Sulaiman lobe and Sulaiman Range cannot be explained simply by resolving the plate motion vector into components normal and parallel to the plate boundary. Our modeling suggests that the complex juxtaposition of strike-slip faults with thrust faults of various orientations can be explained by the presence of a block centered upon the Katawaz basin that translates along the southwest-northeast structural barrier of the Chaman fault zone, moving with respect to both Eurasia and India. As this relatively rigid block moves northeastward relative to Asia, it causes deformation of the sedimentary cover and is responsible for much of the structural complexity in the Pakistani foreland. Our simple model explains several first-order features of this oblique margin, such as the eastward-facing Sulaiman Range, the strike-slip Kingri fault (located between the Sulaiman lobe and Sulaiman Range), and the reentrant at Sibi. This leads us to conclude that very complex structural and geometric relationships at oblique convergent plate boundaries can result from the accommodation of strain with simple initial geometric constraints.

  2. Biomechanical Effect of Margin Convergence Techniques: Quantitative Assessment of Supraspinatus Muscle Stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Hatta

    Full Text Available Although the margin convergence (MC technique has been recognized as an option for rotator cuff repair, little is known about the biomechanical effect on repaired rotator cuff muscle, especially after supplemented footprint repair. The purpose of this study was to assess the passive stiffness changes of the supraspinatus (SSP muscle after MC techniques using shear wave elastography (SWE. A 30 × 40-mm U-shaped rotator cuff tear was created in 8 cadaveric shoulders. Each specimen was repaired with 6 types of MC technique (1-, 2-, 3-suture MC with/without footprint repair, in a random order at 30° glenohumeral abduction. Passive stiffness of four anatomical regions in the SSP muscle was measured based on an established SWE method. Data were obtained from the SSP muscle at 0° abduction under 8 different conditions: intact (before making a tear, torn, and postoperative conditions with 6 techniques. MC techniques using 1-, or 2-suture combined with footprint repair showed significantly higher stiffness values than the intact condition. Passive stiffness of the SSP muscle was highest after a 1-suture MC with footprint repair for all regions when compared among all repair procedures. There was no significant difference between the intact condition and a 3-suture MC with footprint repair. MC techniques with single stitch and subsequent footprint repair may have adverse effects on muscle properties and tensile loading on repair, increasing the risk of retear of repairs. Adding more MC stitches could reverse these adverse effects.

  3. Rigid Basement and the Evolution of the Pakistani Convergent Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, S. S.; Davis, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    In Pakistan, along the western edge of the Indian-Eurasian collision there are a series of fold-and-thrust belts that have highly variable strikes and shortening directions with respect to the local relative plate motion. Much of the complexity in the deformation of this margin can easily be explained by the shape, location, and long-term motion of a fragment of relatively rigid oceanic lithosphere that is believed to underlie the Katawaz Basin. In particular, the deformation that has formed the Sulaiman Range and Lobe is a direct consequence of the Katawaz Basin's over all higher strength. The presence of deformed sedimentary strata in the basin comparable to those presently found in the Indus delta are indicative of the basins long-term motion parallel to the Chaman fault zone. In Pakistan, the transition in the strike and shortening directions occurs over a short distance compared to the width of the fold-belts and the length of the margin. We present a series of analog models along with detailed quantitative analysis that we compare to the observed deformation as indicated by both geologic and geophysical data. By quantitatively distinguishing the style and magnitude of deformation in each of a variety of analog experiments we are able to evaluate the viability of various alternative models that have been proposed for fold- belt formation and evolution of the Pakistani margin, including our favored model. The model that best fits the geological and geophysical evidence suggests that the complexity of the Pakistani margin is a result of the long- term northeastward migration of the Katawaz basin along the curving trend of the Chaman fault zone. The vertically integrated mechanical strength of the Katawaz basin allows it to act as a strong 'backstop' that has relative motion to both stable India and stable Eurasia. This northeastward motion and the resulting clockwise rotation of the Katawaz 'block' during the margin's development can explain the location and

  4. Late Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic pulses in the Uliastai continental margin linked to slab rollback: Implications for evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hui; Wang, Qingfei; Tao, Jixiong; Santosh, M.; Ma, Tengfei; Zhao, Rui

    2018-05-01

    The Paleo Asian Ocean underwent a protracted closure history during Late Paleozoic. Here we investigate the magmatic evolution during this process based on a detailed study in the Baiyinwula region along the Uliastai continental margin. The major rock types in this area are Late Carboniferous-Early Permian volcanic sequences and coeval intrusions. We identified four stages of magmatic evolution based on the diverse assemblages and their precise isotopic ages. The first stage is represented by andesites with a zircon 206Pb/238U age of ca. 326 ± 12 Ma. These rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline, and possess high Na2O/K2O ratios in the range of 1.23 to 2.45. They also display enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), with markedly positive zircon εHf (t) varying from 8.1 to 15.6.The geochemical features of these andesites are similar to those of typical arc volcanic rocks. The second stage includes granodiorites emplaced at 318.6 + 1.8 Ma. The rocks are high-K calc-alkaline with A/CNK values ranging from 0.95 to 1.06, and show enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. They show geochemical affinities to adakites, with high Sr and low Y and Yb contents, indicating magma derivation from thickened lower crust. Zircon grains from these rocks display positive initial εHf (t) values ranging from 11.1 to 14.6 with corresponding two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 394-622 Ma. The third stage consists of syenogranite together with a volcanic suite ranging in composition from rhyolite todacite, which formed during 303.4 ± 1.2 to 285.1 ± 2.2 Ma. They possess elevated silica and alkali contents, high FeOt/MgO and Ga/Al ratios, low Al2O3, MgO and CaO contents, and high Rb, Y, Nb, Ce, Zr, Y, and Ga contents, strong negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies, showing I- to A-type granitic affinities. Zircons in these rocks show elevated Hf isotopic compositions (εHf (t) = 9.9 to 14.6) with TDM2

  5. Record of Permian-Early Triassic continental arc magmatism in the western margin of the Jiamusi Block, NE China: petrogenesis and implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wenchun; Dong, Yu; Bi, Junhui; Wang, Zhihui; Ji, Zheng; Yang, H.; Ge, W. C.; Dong, Y.; Bi, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Ji, Z.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemical data for the Permian to Early Triassic granitoids from the western margin of the Jiamusi Block (WJB), NE China. The intermediate to felsic (SiO2 = 59.67-74.04 wt%) granitoids belong to calc-alkaline series and are characterized by enrichments in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements with pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, revealing typical continental magmatic arc geochemical signatures. The zircon U-Pb determinations on the granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite and quartz diorite samples yielded ages between ca. 275-245 Ma, which, together with the published coeval intrusive rocks, indicates that Permian to Early Triassic continental arc magmatism occurred extensively in the WJB. The low and mainly negative zircon ɛ Hf( t) values between -7.6 and +1.6 and the zircon Hf model ages of 1.2-1.8 Ga, which are significantly older than their crystallization ages, suggest that they were mainly derived from reworking of ancient crustal materials with a limited input of juvenile components. The geochemical systematics and petrogenetic considerations indicate that the studied granitoids were generated from a zone of melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization, i.e., a MASHed zone at the base of Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic continental crust, where large portions of igneous rocks and minor clay-poor sediments involved in the source region. In combination with regional geological data, we argue that the Jiamusi Block was unlikely the rifted segment of the Songliao Block and two possible geodynamical models were proposed to interpret the formation of the ca. 275-245 Ma granitoids in the WJB. In the context of Permian global plate reconstruction, we suggest that Paleo-Pacific plate subduction was initiated in the Permian to Early Triassic beneath the Jiamusi Block, and even whole eastern NE China.

  6. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous episodic development of the Bangong Meso-Tethyan subduction: Evidence from elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of arc magmatic rocks, Gaize region, central Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Zhi-Wu; Yang, Wen-Guang; Zhu, Li-Dong; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yao; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Kai-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The Bangong Meso-Tethys plays a critical role in the development of the Tethyan realm and the initial elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. However, its precise subduction polarity, and history still remain unclear. In this study, we synthesize a report for the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous two-phase magmatic rocks in the Gaize region at the southern margin of the Qiangtang block located in central Tibet. These rocks formed during the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous (161-142 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (128-106 Ma), peaking at 146 Ma and 118 Ma, respectively. The presence of inherited zircons indicates that an Archean component exists in sediments in the shallow Qiangtang crust, and has a complex tectonomagmatic history. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data show that the two-phase magmatic rocks exhibit characteristics of arc magmatism, which are rich in large-ion incompatible elements (LIIEs), but are strongly depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs). The Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous magmatic rocks mixed and mingled among mantle-derived mafic magmas, subduction-related sediments, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, formed by a northward and steep subduction of the Bangong Meso-Tethys ocean crust. The magmatic gap at 142-128 Ma marks a flat subduction of the Meso-Tethys. The Early Cretaceous magmatism experienced a magma MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization) process among mantle-derived mafic magmas, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, as a result of the Meso-Tethys oceanic slab roll-back, which triggered simultaneous back-arc rifting along the southern Qiangtang block margin.

  7. Crustal inheritance and arc magmatism: Magnetotelluric constraints from the Washington Cascades on top-down control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, P.; Peacock, J.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Schultz, A.; Hill, G.

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, arc volcanism occurs along relatively narrow magmatic arcs, the locations of which are considered to mark the onset of dehydration reactions within the subducting slab. This `bottom-up' approach, in which the location of arc volcanism reflects where fluids and melt are generated, explains first-order differences in trench-to-arc distance and is consistent with known variations in the thermal structure and geometry of subducting slabs. At a finer scale, arc segmentation, magmatic gaps, and anomalous forearc and backarc magmatism are also frequently interpreted in terms of variations in slab geometry, composition, or thermal structure.The role of inherited crustal structure in controlling faulting and deformation is well documented; less well examined is the role of crustal structure in controlling magmatism. While the source distribution of melt and subduction fluids is critical to determining the location of arc magmatism, we argue that crustal structure provides `top-down' control on patterns or seismicity and deformation as well as the channeling and ascent of arc magmas. We present evidence within the Washington Cascades based upon correlation between a new three-dimensional resistivity model, potential-field data, seismicity, and Quaternary volcanism. We image a mid-Tertiary batholith, intruded within an Eocene crustal suture zone, and extending throughout much of the crustal column. This and neighboring plutons are interpreted to channel crustal fluids and melt along their margins within steeply dipping zones of marine to transitional metasedimentary rock. Mount St. Helens is interpreted to be fed by fluids and melt generated further east at greater slab depths, migrating laterally (underplating?) beneath the Spirit Lake batholith, and ascending through metasedimentary rocks within the brittle crust. At a regional scale, we argue that this concealed suture zone controls present-day deformation and seismicity as well as the distribution of forearc

  8. Pre-Himalayan tectono-magmatic imprints in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) constrained by 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Subhrangsu K.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mandal, Nibir; Bose, Santanu; Pande, Kanchan

    2017-09-01

    The Lower Lesser Himalayan Sequence (L-LHS) in Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) displays intensely deformed, low-grade meta-sedimentary rocks, frequently intervened by granite intrusives of varied scales. The principal motivation of our present study is to constrain the timing of this granitic event. Using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, we dated muscovite from pegmatites emplaced along the earliest fabric in the low grade Daling phyllite, and obtained ∼1850 Ma Ar-Ar muscovite cooling age, which is broadly coeval with crystallization ages of Lingtse granite protolith (e.g., 1800-1850 Ma U-Pb zircon ages) reported from the L-LHS. We present here field observations to show the imprints (tectonic fabrics) of multiple ductile deformation episodes in the LHS terrain. The earliest penetrative fabric, axial planar to N-S trending reclined folds, suggest a regional tectonic event in the DSH prior to the active phase of Indo-Asia collision. Based on the age of granitic bodies and their structural correlation with the earliest fabric, we propose that the L-LHS as a distinct convergent tectono-magmatic belt, delineating the northern margin of Indian craton in the framework of the ∼1850 Ma Columbia supercontinent assembly.

  9. Multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity and epithermal mineralization in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field and their relations to magmatic activity, volcanism and regional extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Jackson, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of middle Miocene age and underlying pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks host widely distributed zones of hydrothermal alteration and epithermal precious metal, fluorite and mercury deposits within and peripheral to major volcanic and intrusive centers of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF) in southern Nevada, near the southwestern margin of the Great Basin of the western United States. Radiometric ages indicate that episodes of hydrothermal activity mainly coincided with and closely followed major magmatic pulses during the development of the field and together spanned more than 4.5 m.y. Rocks of the SWNVF consist largely of rhyolitic ash-flow sheets and intercalated silicic lava domes, flows and near-vent pyroclastic deposits erupted between 15.2 and 10 Ma from vent areas in the vicinity of the Timber Mountain calderas, and between about 9.5 and 7 Ma from the outlying Black Mountain and Stonewall Mountain centers. Three magmatic stages can be recognized: the main magmatic stage, Mountain magmatic stage (11.7 to 10.0 Ma), and the late magmatic stage (9.4 to 7.5 Ma)

  10. Variable sources for Cretaceous to recent HIMU and HIMU-like intraplate magmatism in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Quinten; Waight, Tod Earle; Scott, James

    2017-01-01

    –100Ma) calc-alkaline lamprophyres are compositionally similar to the preceding arc-magmatism (206Pb/204Pb(i)=18.6, 207Pb/204Pb(i)=15.62, 208Pb/204Pb(i)=38.6, 87Sr/86Sr(i)=0.7063–0.7074, εNd(i)=−2.1 −+0.1 and εHf(i)=−0.2 −+2.3) and are interpreted as melts originating from subduction-modified lithosphere....... Alkaline dikes erupted on the inboard Gondwana margin shortly after cessation of subduction (92–84Ma) have heterogeneous isotopic properties: 206Pb/204Pb(i)=18.7 to 19.4, 207Pb/204Pb(i)=15.60 to 15.65, 208Pb/204Pb(i)=38.6 to 39.4, 87Sr/86Sr(i)=0.7031 to 0.7068, εNd(i)=+4.5 to +8.0 and εHf(i)=+5.1 to +8...... from the complex local subduction history. A coeval episode of alkaline magmatism (mainly 98–82Ma) occurred outboard of Gondwana’s former active margin and on the Hikurangi oceanic plateau (accreted to Zealandia in the Early Cretaceous) with compositions closer to true HIMU (206Pb/204Pb(i)≈20.5, 207Pb...

  11. Magmatic tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ( 3 H) of deep origin ( 2 O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable 3 H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics

  12. Geochemical fingerprinting of ∼2.5 Ga forearc-arc-backarc related magmatic suites in the Bastar Craton, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Deepanker; Kumar, Sirish; Vind, Aditya Kumar; Zehra, Fatima; Kumar, Harshavardhan; Pophare, Anil M.

    2018-05-01

    The Pitepani volcanic suite of the Dongargarh Supergroup, central India comprises of a calc-alkaline suite and a tholeiitic suite, respectively. The rare earth element (REE) patterns, mantle normalized plots and relict clinopyroxene chemistry of the Pitepani calc-alkaline suite are akin to high-Mg andesites (HMA) and reveal remarkable similarity to the Cenozoic Setouchi HMA from Japan. The Pitepani HMAs are geochemically correlated with similar rocks in the Kotri-Dongargarh mobile belt (KDMB) and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton. The rationale behind lithogeochemical correlations are that sanukitic HMAs represent fore-arc volcanism over a very limited period of time, under abnormally high temperature conditions and are excellent regional and tectonic time markers. Furthermore, the tholeiitic suites that are temporally and spatially associated with the HMAs in the KDMB and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton are classified into: (a) a continental back-arc suite that are depleted in incompatible elements, and (b) a continental arc suite that are more depleted in incompatible elements, respectively. The HMA suite, the continental back-arc and continental arc suites are lithogeochemically correlated in the KDMB and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton. The three geochemically distinct Neoarchaean magmatic suites are temporally and spatially related to each other and to an active continental margin. The identification of three active continental margin magmatic suites for the first time, provides a robust conceptual framework to unravel the Neoarchaean geodynamic evolution of the Bastar Craton. We propose an active continental margin along the Neoarchaen KDMB with eastward subduction coupled with slab roll back or preferably, ridge-subduction along the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) to account for the three distinct magmatic suites and the Neoarchean geodynamic evolution of the Bastar Craton.

  13. A new model for the development of the active Afar volcanic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pik, Raphaël; Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic passive margins, that represent more than the three quarters of continental margins worldwide, are privileged witnesses of the lithospheric extension processes thatform new oceanic basins. They are characterized by voluminous amounts of underplated, intruded and extruded magmas, under the form of massive lavas prisms (seaward-dipping reflectors, or SDR) during the course of thinning and stretching of the lithosphere, that eventually form the ocean-continent transition. The origin and mechanisms of formation of these objects are still largely debated today. We have focussed our attention in the last few years on the Afar volcanic province which represents an active analogue of such volcanic margins. We explored the structural and temporal relationships that exist between the development of the major thinning and stretching structures and the magmatic production in Central Afar. Conjugate precise fieldwork analysis along with lavas geochronology allowed us to revisit the timing and style of the rift formation, since the early syn-rift period of time in the W-Afar marginal area to present days. Extension is primarily accommodated over a wide area at the surface since the very initial periods of extension (~ 25 Ma) following the emplacement of Oligocene CFBs. We propose in our reconstruction of central Afar margin history that extension has been associated with important volumes of underplated mafic material that compensate crustal thinning. This has been facilitated by major crustal-scale detachments that help localize the thinning and underplating at depth. In line with this 'magmatic wide-rift' mode of extension, we demonstrate that episodic extension steps alternate with more protracted magmatic phases. The production of syn-rift massive flood basalts (~ 4 Ma) occurs after early thinning of both the crust and the lithosphere, which suggests that SDR formation, is controlled by previous tectonic event. We determined how the melting regime evolved in

  14. Magmatic and non-magmatic history of the Tyrrhenain backarc Basin: new constraints from geophysical and geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Manel; Sallares, Valenti; Ranero, Cesar R.; Zitellini, Nevio; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    other authors as oceanic crust. In this case, converted S-waves were used to derive the overall Vp/Vs and Poissońs ratio, as well as S-wave velocity of the basement. The results show values in agreement with serpentinized peridotite, rather than gabbro/diabase, in agreement with our first observation that the mantle is exhumed beneath this particular area of the basin. Then, we used P-wave velocity models to quantify the amount of hydration, which appears to present a depth distribution similar to Continent-Ocean Transition zones at magma-poor rifted margins. These results, together with basement sampling information of MOR-type and intraplate magmatism in the area, suggests that the late stage of mantle exhumation was accompanied or soon followed by the emplacement of MOR-type basalts forming low ridges that preceded intraplate volcanism responsible for the formation of large volcanos in the area. The results presented here demonstrates that the Tyrrhenian Basin has a complex 3D structure within the Mediterranean realm that deserves further exploration of its formation processes by means of numerical modelling.

  15. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    In this study, I use surface velocities derived from GPS geodesy, elastic half-space dislocation models, and modeled Coulomb stress changes to investigate deformation in the over-riding plate at obliquely convergent margins at the leading and trailing edges of the Caribbean plate. The two principal study areas are western Nicaragua, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, and the northern Lesser Antilles, where the North American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. In Nicaragua, plate convergence is rapid at 84 mm yr1 with a small angle of obliquity of 10° along a slightly concave portion of the Middle America Trench. GPS velocities for the period from 2000 to 2004 from sites located in the Nicaraguan forearc confirmed forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜14 mm yr1 in close agreement with the value predicted by DeMets (2001). These results are presented here in Chapter 3 and were reported in Geophysical Research Letters (Turner et al., 2007). GPS observations made on sites located in the interior and on the eastern coast of Nicaragua during the same time period were combined with new data from eastern Honduras to help better constrain estimates of rigid Caribbean plate motion (DeMets et al., 2007). Slip approaching the plate convergence rate along the Nicaraguan and El Salvadoran sections of the Middle America Trench was quantitatively demonstrated by finite element modeling of this section of the plate interface using GPS velocities from our Nicaraguan network together with velocities from El Salvador and Honduras as model constraints (Correa-Mora, 2009). The MW 6.9 earthquake that ruptured the seismogenic zone offshore Nicaragua on October 9, 2004 resulted in coseismic displacements and post-seismic motion at GPS sites in the central part of the Nicaraguan forearc that currently prevent extension of interseismic time-series in this region. An elastic half-space dislocation model was used to estimate coseismic displacements at these

  16. Magmatism at different crustal levels in the ancient North Cascades magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, E. K.; Bowring, S. A.; Miller, R. B.; Miller, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of magma ascent and emplacement inferred from study of intrusive complexes have long been the subject of intense debate. Current models favor incremental construction based on integration of field, geochemical, geochronologic, and modeling studies. Much of this work has been focused on a single crustal level. However, study of magmatism throughout the crust is critical for understanding how magma ascends through and intrudes surrounding crustal material. Here, we present new geochronologic and geochemical work from intrusive complexes emplaced at a range of crustal depths in the Cretaceous North Cascades magmatic arc. These complexes were intruded between 92 and 87 Ma at depths of at ≤5 -10 km, ~20 km, and ~25 km during this time. U-Pb CA-TIMS geochronology in zircon can resolve Jack-Entiat intrusive complex, a highly elongate amalgamation of intrusions recording two episodes of magmatism between~92-88 Ma and ~80-77 Ma. Each of these complexes provides a window into crustal processes that occur at different depths. Our data suggest assembly of the Black Peak intrusive complex occurred via a series of small (0.5-2 km2) magmatic increments from ~92 Ma to ~87 Ma. Field relations and zircon trace element geochemistry indicate each of these increments were emplaced and crystallized as closed systems-we find no evidence for mixing between magmas in the complex. However, zircon inheritance becomes more common in younger intrusions, indicating assimilation of older plutonic material, possibly during magma production or transport. The Seven-Fingered Jack intrusive complex, emplaced around 15-20 km, preserves a much more discontinuous record of intrusion than the Black Peak. Our data indicate major magmatism in the complex occurred between ~92.1-91.1 Ma. Inheritance in the Seven-Fingered Jack is common, particularly along contacts between intrusions. The Tenpeak intrusive complex, assembled between ~92 Ma and 89 Ma, represents one of the deepest exhumed

  17. Granitoid emplacement during syn-convergent transtension: An example from the Huamenlou pluton in North Qinling, central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Huamenlou pluton, is an elongated granite intrusion with high aspect ratio, emplaced within the southern margin of the North Qinling (central China. Here we investigate this pluton through multiple techniques including the fabric study, microstructural observation and zircon geochronology. Our zircon U–Pb data confirm that the granite crystallized at ca. 462 Ma which is consistent with the ages of other linear plutons in North Qinling. Microstructural observations of the Huamenlou granites illustrate that the pluton has undergone superimposed deformation during its emplacement, from magmatic to high-temperature solid state conditions. The internal fabric obtained by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS and shape preferred orientation (SPO show similar results. The fabrics are relatively concordant and generally vary from NE–SW to NEE–SWW which are roughly oblique to the trend of the pluton elongation and the regional structures. Meanwhile, scalar parameters reflect two completely different strain regimes for the pluton and its host rocks, i.e., the fabrics within host rocks are mainly oblate while the central part of the intrusion displays mainly prolate fabrics. It is inferred that the structural pattern recorded in this pluton was caused by local dextral transtension in consequence of oblique convergence between the South and North China Blocks. We propose that the local transtension in convergence setting probably evolved from vertical extrusion tectonics that provided room for the magma emplacement and imparted prolate fabrics in the Huamenlou pluton.

  18. From Rodinia to Gondwana : supercontinent evolution in the Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodge, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains provide a cryptic but important record of Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic supercontinent history, including Rodinian assembly, Rodinian breakup, transition from a drifting to subducting margin, and active plate-margin activity during Gondwanan assembly. A linkage between Laurentia and East Antarctica as part of Neoproterozoic Rodinia is plausible, based on isotopic data from rare exposures of crystalline basement in the Transantarctic Mountains. However, testing of paleogeographic details is difficult because the crustal structure of the East Antarctic shield is poorly known along much of its perimeter and because we lack well-dated Proterozoic paleomagnetic poles. The timing of Rodinian breakup is poorly constrained globally, yet local mafic magmatism of 800-650 Ma age provides the best evidence in the Transantarctic Mountains for Late Neoproterozoic crustal extension and possible rifting. Still uncertain are the position of the rift margin, the geometry of rifting, the extent of crustal thinning, the extent of rift-margin sedimentation, the location of possible transform offset, and the influence of these structural patterns on later orogenesis. A transformation from drifting to active subducting mode is inferred for the Late Neoproterozoic, but the nature and specific timing of this event are unknown. The Vendian-Early Paleozoic Ross Orogen reflects convergent-margin activity associated temporally, if not causally, with the consolidation of Gondwana. Inception of a convergent Gondwana margin is signalled by the earliest Ross granitoids at c. 560 Ma and may be reflected in early structural inversion of craton-margin sedimentary succession. Protracted Ross tectonism between 560 and 480 Ma involved episodic deformation, calc-alkaline magmatism, and syn-orogenic deposition of arc-derived detritus in a sinistral-transpressive, continental-margin arc setting. Sedimentary provenance in siliciclastic rocks appears to have shifted by late

  19. The Kinematics of Central American Fore-Arc Motion in Nicaragua: Geodetic, Geophysical and Geologic Study of Magma-Tectonic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Saballos, A.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    A long-standing paradigm in plate tectonics is that oblique convergence results in strain partitioning and the formation of migrating fore-arc terranes accommodated on margin-parallel strike-slip faults within or in close proximity to active volcanic arcs (e.g., the Sumatran fault). Some convergent margins, however, are segmented by margin-normal faults and margin-parallel shear is accommodated by motion on these faults and by vertical axis block rotation. Furthermore, geologic and geophysical observations of active and extinct margins where strain partitioning has occurred, indicate the emplacement of magmas within the shear zones or extensional step-overs. Characterizing the mechanism of accommodation is important for understanding short-term (decadal) seismogenesis, and long-term (millions of years) fore-arc migration, and the formation of continental lithosphere. We investigate the geometry and kinematics of Quaternary faulting and magmatism along the Nicaraguan convergent margin, where historical upper crustal earthquakes have been located on margin-normal, strike-slip faults within the fore arc and arc. Using new GPS time series, other geophysical and geologic data, we: 1) determine the location of the maximum gradient in forearc motion; 2) estimate displacement rates on margin-normal faults; and 3) constrain the geometric moment rate for the fault system. We find that: 1) forearc motion is 11 mm a-1; 2) deformation is accommodated within the active volcanic arc; and 3) that margin-normal faults can have rates of 10 mm a-1 in agreement with geologic estimates from paleoseismology. The minimum geometric moment rate for the margin-normal fault system is 2.62x107 m3 yr-1, whereas the geometric moment rate for historical (1931-2006) earthquakes is 1.01x107 m3/yr. The discrepancy between fore-arc migration and historical seismicity may be due to aseismic accommodation of fore-arc motion by magmatic intrusion along north-trending volcanic alignments within the

  20. Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or ‘jumped’ eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the

  1. Biodiversity and agro-ecology in field margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, B; Reheul, D; Nijs, I; Milbau, A

    2005-01-01

    This multidisciplinary study investigates agro-ecological functions (nature conservation, agriculture, environment) and implications of newly created, mown sown and unsown field margin strips installed on ex-arable land to increase biodiversity. From conservational concern, the development of species rich field margin strips was not strongly affected by the installed type of margin strip since species diversity converged over time, whether strips were sown or not. Convergence between unsown and sown margin strips occurred also in terms of species composition: unsown and sown strips became similar over time. Mowing without removal of cuttings significantly reduced species richness, yielded more grassy margin strips and delayed similarity in species composition between sown and unsown margin strips. Species richness on the longer term was not significantly affected by light regime nor by disturbance despite significant temporary effects shortly after the disturbance event. On the contrary vegetation composition in terms of importance of functional groups changed after disturbance: the share of spontaneous species within functional groups increased resulting in higher similarity between the sown and unsown vegetation. Furthermore risk of invasion was highest in the disturbed unsown community on the unshaded side of a tree lane. A positive effect of botanical diversity on insect number and diversity was found. However the effects of botanical diversity on insect number was mediated by light regime. At high light availability differences between plant communities were more pronounced compared to low light availablilty. The abundance of some insect families was dependent on the vegetation composition. Furthermore light availability significantly influenced insect diversity as well as the spatial distribution of families. From agricultural concern, installing margin strips by sowing a species mixture and a mowing regime with removal of cuttings are good practices to

  2. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  3. Measurement of the convergence angle in teeth prepared for single crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NokarS

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Retention, resistance and marginal integrity mostly depend on tooth preparation. An appropriate convergence angle fulfil this purpose, to high extent. In this study, a new method was used to measure the convergence angle of the teeth prepared for single crowns in Genera! practitioners" offices in Tehran. In order to do this. 325 dyes, prepared by General dentists in Tehran, were collected from 10 laboratories. All dyes wore trimmed at the area below the finishing line and then were scanned (Genius Color page- FIR 6 buccoiingualiy and mesiodistaily. Convergence angle of dyes were also measured with Adobe Photoshop (5.0 software. Data were analyzed by variance analysis test and 1- student bv the help of SPSS software. Results showed that the average convergence angle ranged from 16.18+8.34 to 35.1 8~10.38 which belonged to maxillary canine and mandibular molars, respectively, and the measured convergence angle is more than the ideal value of 10-16 degrees. Dyes of the madibular molars were ma"illar" convergent. These conclusions are helpful for professors, dentistry students and dentists, and arc an indicative of the practice quality of General practitioners in Tehran. Due to the fact that a convergence angle, more than the allowed limitation, endangers retention, resistance and marginal integrity of the restoration, paying attention to the principles of tooth preparation and proper application of instruments and dental cements, can progress fwed restorations quality.

  4. Deep structure of the continental margin and basin off Greater Kabylia, Algeria - New insights from wide-angle seismic data modeling and multichannel seismic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïdi, Chafik; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdel Karim; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Bracene, Rabah; Galve, Audrey; Bounif, Abdallah; Schenini, Laure; Hamai, Lamine; Schnurle, Philippe; Djellit, Hamou; Sage, Françoise; Charvis, Philippe; Déverchère, Jacques

    2018-03-01

    During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey aimed at investigating the deep structure of the Algerian margin and basin, two coincident wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles were acquired in central Algeria, offshore Greater Kabylia, together with gravimetric, bathymetric and magnetic data. This 260 km-long offshore-onshore profile spans the Balearic basin, the central Algerian margin and the Greater Kabylia block up to the southward limit of the internal zones onshore. Results are obtained from modeling and interpretation of the combined data sets. The Algerian basin offshore Greater Kabylia is floored by a thin oceanic crust ( 4 km) with P-wave velocities ranging between 5.2 and 6.8 km/s. In the northern Hannibal High region, the atypical 3-layer crustal structure is interpreted as volcanic products stacked over a thin crust similar to that bordering the margin and related to Miocene post-accretion volcanism. These results support a two-step back-arc opening of the west-Algerian basin, comprising oceanic crust accretion during the first southward stage, and a magmatic and probably tectonic reworking of this young oceanic basement during the second, westward, opening phase. The structure of the central Algerian margin is that of a narrow ( 70 km), magma-poor rifted margin, with a wider zone of distal thinned continental crust than on the other margin segments. There is no evidence for mantle exhumation in the sharp ocean-continent transition, but transcurrent movements during the second opening phase may have changed its initial geometry. The Plio-Quaternary inversion of the margin related to ongoing convergence between Africa and Eurasia is expressed by a blind thrust system under the margin rising toward the surface at the slope toe, and by an isostatic disequilibrium resulting from opposite flexures of two plates decoupled at the continental slope. This disequilibrium is likely responsible for the peculiar asymmetrical shape of the crustal neck that may thus

  5. Oceanic magmatic evolution during ocean opening under influence of mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Melanholina, Elena; Belyatsky, Boris; Krymsky, Robert; Migdisova, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    Petrology, geochemistry and geophysics as well as numerical simulation of spreading processes in plume impact environments on examples of Atlantic Ocean Iceland and the Central Atlantic plumes and Kerguelen plume in the Indian Ocean reveal: - under interaction of large plume and continental landmass the plume can contribute to splitting off individual lithosphere blocks, and their subsequent movement into the emergent ocean. At the same time enriched plume components often have geochemical characteristics of the intact continental lithosphere by early plume exposure. This is typical for trap magmatism in Antarctica, and for magmatism of North and Central Atlantic margins; - in the course of the geodynamic reconstruction under the whole region of the South Atlantic was formed (not in one step) metasomatized enriched sub-oceanic mantle with pyroxenite mantle geochemical characteristics and isotopic composition of enriched HIMU and EM-2 sources. That is typical for most of the islands in the West Antarctic. This mantle through spreading axes jumping involved in different proportions in the melting under the influence of higher-temperature rising asthenospheric lherzolite mantle; - CAP activity was brief enough (200 ± 2 Ma), but Karoo-Maud plume worked for a longer time and continued from 180 to 170 Ma ago in the main phase. Plume impact within Antarctica distributed to the South and to the East, leading to the formation of extended igneous provinces along the Transantarctic Mountains and along the east coast (Queen Maud Land province and Schirmacher Oasis). Moreover, this plume activity may be continued later on, after about 40 million years cessation, as Kerguelen plume within the newly-formed Indian Ocean, significantly affects the nature of the rift magmatism; - a large extended uplift in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean - Southeastern Indian Ridge (SEIR) was formed on the ancient spreading Wharton ridge near active Kerguelen plume. The strongest plume

  6. Permian-Triassic thermal anomaly of the active margin of South America as a result of plate kinematics reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Nicolas; Jaillard, Etienne; Guillot, Stéphane; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Braun, Jean

    2013-04-01

    From Permian to Triassic times, tectonic plate reorganization provoked Pangaea breakup, counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana, closing of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean and opening of the Neo-Tethys oceanic realm. Meanwhile, the switch from arc volcanism to widespread S-type magmatism along the western South American active margin around 275-265 Ma is symptomatic of the onset of a large-scale Permian-Triassic thermal anomaly (PTTA)affecting the whole margin. Here we report metamorphic and U-Pb geochronological results from the El Oro metamorphic complex in the forearc zone of southwestern Ecuador, which recorded the last step, at 230-225 Ma, of the PTTA. The change in the drift direction of Gondwana from north to east at ca. 270 Ma was related to plate reorganization and provoked the verticalization of the subducted Panthalassa slab. As the slab verticalized, strong heat advection produced a high heat flow beneath the active margin inducing the development of a huge thermal anomaly responsible for the PTTA, which lasted 30 Ma. This voluminous magmatic activity culminated at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and may have contributed to the degradation of life conditions on the Earth surface.

  7. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of geothermal gradients of >30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on

  8. Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-01-01

    synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  9. Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Convergence feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this

  10. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  11. New 40Ar-39Ar dating of Lower Cretaceous basalts at the southern front of the Central High Atlas, Morocco: insights on late Mesozoic tectonics, sedimentation and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratti, G.; Benvenuti, M.; Santo, A. P.; Laurenzi, M. A.; Braschi, E.; Tommasini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is based upon a stratigraphic and structural revision of a Middle Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous mostly continental succession exposed between Boumalne Dades and Tinghir (Southern Morocco), and aims at reconstructing the relation among sedimentary, tectonic and magmatic processes that affected a portion of the Central High Atlas domains. Basalts interbedded in the continental deposits have been sampled in the two studied sites for petrographic, geochemical and radiogenic isotope analyses. The results of this study provide: (1) a robust support to the local stratigraphic revision and to a regional lithostratigraphic correlation based on new 40Ar-39Ar ages (ca. 120 Ma) of the intervening basalts; (2) clues for reconstructing the relation between magma emplacement in a structural setting characterized by syn-depositional crustal shortening pre-dating the convergent tectonic inversion of the Atlasic rifted basins; (3) a new and intriguing scenario indicating that the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Central High Atlas could represent the first signal of the present-day Canary Islands mantle plume impinging, flattening, and delaminating the base of the Moroccan continental lithosphere since the Jurassic, and successively dragged passively by the Africa plate motion to NE. The tectono-sedimentary and magmatic events discussed in this paper are preliminarily extended from their local scale into a peculiar geodynamic setting of a continental plate margin flanked by the opening and spreading Central Atlantic and NW Tethys oceans. It is suggested that during the late Mesozoic this setting created an unprecedented condition of intraplate stress for concurrent crustal shortening, related mountain uplift, and thinning of continental lithosphere.

  12. Cretaceous magmatism in North-Eastern India and Gondwanaland ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    jsray

    Cretaceous magmatism of NEI: Major Objectives. • Age and duration of Sylhet Traps and its connection to Kerguelene hotspot and Gondwanaland breakup? • Age of carbonatite magmatism associated with the traps? • Relationship of basaltic-carbonatite magmatism with. Aptian (~116 Ma) Mass Extinction event? • Nature of ...

  13. Polyphase Rifting and Breakup of the Central Mozambique Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkans, Andrew; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Castilla, Raymi

    2017-04-01

    The breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent resulted in the formation of the Central Mozambique passive margin as Africa and Antarctica were separated during the mid-Jurassic period. The identification of magnetic anomalies in the Mozambique Basin and Riiser Larsen Sea means that post-oceanisation plate kinematics are well-constrained. Unresolved questions remain, however, regarding the initial fit, continental breakup process, and the first relative movements of Africa and Antarctica. This study uses high quality multi-channel seismic reflection profiles in an effort to identify the major crustal domains in the Angoche and Beira regions of the Central Mozambique margin. This work is part of the integrated pluri-disciplinary PAMELA project*. Our results show that the Central Mozambique passive margin is characterised by intense but localised magmatic activity, evidenced by the existence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) in the Angoche region, as well as magmatic sills and volcanoclastic material which mark the Beira High. The Angoche region is defined by a faulted upper-continental crust, with the possible exhumation of lower crustal material forming an extended ocean-continent transition (OCT). The profiles studied across the Beira high reveal an offshore continental fragment, which is overlain by a pre-rift sedimentary unit likely to belong to the Karoo Group. Faulting of the crust and overlying sedimentary unit reveals that the Beira High has recorded several phases of deformation. The combination of our seismic interpretation with existing geophysical and geological results have allowed us to propose a breakup model which supports the idea that the Central Mozambique margin was affected by polyphase rifting. The analysis of both along-dip and along-strike profiles shows that the Beira High initially experienced extension in a direction approximately parallel to the Mozambique coastline onshore of the Beira High. Our results suggest that the Beira High results

  14. Marginal Consistency: Upper-Bounding Partition Functions over Commutative Semirings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Tomás

    2015-07-01

    Many inference tasks in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence lead to partition functions in which addition and multiplication are abstract binary operations forming a commutative semiring. By generalizing max-sum diffusion (one of convergent message passing algorithms for approximate MAP inference in graphical models), we propose an iterative algorithm to upper bound such partition functions over commutative semirings. The iteration of the algorithm is remarkably simple: change any two factors of the partition function such that their product remains the same and their overlapping marginals become equal. In many commutative semirings, repeating this iteration for different pairs of factors converges to a fixed point when the overlapping marginals of every pair of factors coincide. We call this state marginal consistency. During that, an upper bound on the partition function monotonically decreases. This abstract algorithm unifies several existing algorithms, including max-sum diffusion and basic constraint propagation (or local consistency) algorithms in constraint programming. We further construct a hierarchy of marginal consistencies of increasingly higher levels and show than any such level can be enforced by adding identity factors of higher arity (order). Finally, we discuss instances of the framework for several semirings, including the distributive lattice and the max-sum and sum-product semirings.

  15. Isotopic signature of Madeira basaltic magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogarko, L.N.; Karpenko, S.F.; Bibikova, E.V.; Mato, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical composition of the basalts of Madeira Island is studied. To assess the isotopic sources of magmatism the Pb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Th-Pb systems were investigated in a number of basalts. It is shown that the island's rocks are characterized by the mostly deplet sources in relation to Pb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr - 0.70282-0.70292, 143 Nd/ 144 Nd - 0.52303-0.51314). Isotopic composition of lead testifies that the magmatism reservoir is some enriched. It is concluded that the magmatism of Madeira Island is a new example of world ocean island's volcanism [ru

  16. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  17. Efficient cooling of rocky planets by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Diogo L.; Rozel, Antoine B.; Gerya, Taras; Tackley, Paul J.

    2018-05-01

    The Earth is in a plate tectonics regime with high surface heat flow concentrated at constructive plate boundaries. Other terrestrial bodies that lack plate tectonics are thought to lose their internal heat by conduction through their lids and volcanism: hotter planets (Io and Venus) show widespread volcanism whereas colder ones (modern Mars and Mercury) are less volcanically active. However, studies of terrestrial magmatic processes show that less than 20% of melt volcanically erupts, with most melt intruding into the crust. Signatures of large magmatic intrusions are also found on other planets. Yet, the influence of intrusive magmatism on planetary cooling remains unclear. Here we use numerical magmatic-thermo-mechanical models to simulate global mantle convection in a planetary interior. In our simulations, warm intrusive magmatism acts to thin the lithosphere, leading to sustained recycling of overlying crustal material and cooling of the mantle. In contrast, volcanic eruptions lead to a thick lithosphere that insulates the upper mantle and prevents efficient cooling. We find that heat loss due to intrusive magmatism can be particularly efficient compared to volcanic eruptions if the partitioning of heat-producing radioactive elements into the melt phase is weak. We conclude that the mode of magmatism experienced by rocky bodies determines the thermal and compositional evolution of their interior.

  18. Foreland sedimentary record of Andean mountain building during advancing and retreating subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brian K.

    2016-04-01

    As in many ocean-continent (Andean-type) convergent margins, the South American foreland has long-lived (>50-100 Myr) sedimentary records spanning not only protracted crustal shortening, but also periods of neutral to extensional stress conditions. A regional synthesis of Andean basin histories is complemented by new results from the Mesozoic Neuquén basin system and succeeding Cenozoic foreland system of west-central Argentina (34-36°S) showing (1) a Late Cretaceous shift from backarc extension to retroarc contraction and (2) an anomalous mid-Cenozoic (~40-20 Ma) phase of sustained nondeposition. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results from Jurassic through Neogene clastic deposits constrain exhumation of the evolving Andean magmatic arc, retroarc thrust belt, foreland basement uplifts, and distal eastern craton. Abrupt changes in sediment provenance and distal-to-proximal depositional conditions can be reconciled with a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of extension, post-extensional thermal subsidence, punctuated tectonic inversion involving thick- and thin-skinned shortening, alternating phases of erosion and rapid accumulation, and overlapping igneous activity. U-Pb age distributions define the depositional ages of several Cenozoic stratigraphic units and reveal a major late middle Eocene-earliest Miocene (~40-20 Ma) hiatus in the Malargüe foreland basin. This boundary marks an abrupt shift in depositional conditions and sediment sources, from Paleocene-middle Eocene distal fluviolacustrine deposition of sediments from far western volcanic sources (Andean magmatic arc) and subordinate eastern cratonic basement (Permian-Triassic Choiyoi igneous complex) to Miocene-Quaternary proximal fluvial and alluvial-fan deposition of sediments recycled from emerging western sources (Malargüe fold-thrust belt) of Mesozoic basin fill originally derived from basement and magmatic arc sources. Neogene eastward advance of the fold-thrust belt involved thick

  19. Multiple magmatism in an evolving suprasubduction zone mantle wedge: The case of the composite mafic-ultramafic complex of Gaositai, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, T.; Tang, Li; Teng, Xueming

    2017-07-01

    The suprasubduction zone mantle wedge of active convergent margins is impregnated by melts and fluids leading to the formation of a variety of magmatic and metasomatic rock suites. Here we investigate a composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion at Gaositai, in the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The hornblende gabbro-serpentinite-dunite-pyroxenite-gabbro-diorite suite surrounded by hornblendites of this complex has long been considered to represent an "Alaskan-type" zoned pluton. We present petrologic, mineral chemical, geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf data from the various rock types from Gaositai including hornblende gabbro, serpentinite, dunite, pyroxenite, diorite and the basement hornblendite which reveal the case of multiple melt generation and melt-peridotite interaction. Our new mineral chemical data from the mafic-ultramafic suite exclude an "Alaskan-type" affinity, and the bulk geochemical features are consistent with subduction-related magmatism with enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, and Ba) and LREE (La and Ce), and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and HREE. Zircon U-Pb geochronology reveals that the hornblendites surrounding the Gaositai complex are nearly 2 billion years older than the intrusive complex and yield early Paleoproterozoic emplacement ages (2433-2460 Ma), followed by late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism (1897 Ma). The serpentinites trace the history of a long-lived and replenished ancient sub-continental lithospheric mantle with the oldest zircon population dated as 2479 Ma and 1896 Ma, closely corresponding with the ages obtained from the basement rock, followed by Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic zircon growth. The oldest member in the Gaositai composite intrusion is the dunite that yields emplacement age of 755 Ma, followed by pyroxenite formed through the interaction of slab melt and wedge mantle peridotite at 401 Ma. All the rock suites also carry multiple population of younger zircons ranging in age from Paleozoic to

  20. The role of changing geodynamics in the progressive contamination of Late Cretaceous to Late Miocene arc magmas in the southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rosemary E.; Kirstein, Linda A.; Kasemann, Simone A.; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Poma, Stella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Hinton, Richard; EIMF

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic and geodynamic setting of the southern Central Andean convergent margin changed significantly between the Late Cretaceous and the Late Miocene, influencing magmatic activity and its geochemical composition. Here we investigate how these changes, which include changing slab-dip angle and convergence angles and rates, have influenced the contamination of the arc magmas with crustal material. Whole rock geochemical data for a suite of Late Cretaceous to Late Miocene arc rocks from the Pampean flat-slab segment (29-31 °S) of the southern Central Andes is presented alongside petrographic observations and high resolution age dating. In-situ U-Pb dating of magmatic zircon, combined with Ar-Ar dating of plagioclase, has led to an improved regional stratigraphy and provides an accurate temporal constraint for the geochemical data. A generally higher content of incompatible trace elements (e.g. Nb/Zr ratios from 0.019 to 0.083 and Nb/Yb from 1.5 to 16.4) is observed between the Late Cretaceous ( 72 Ma), when the southern Central Andean margin is suggested to have been in extension, and the Miocene when the thickness of the continental crust increased and the angle of the subducting Nazca plate shallowed. Trace and rare earth element compositions obtained for the Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene arc magmatic rocks from the Principal Cordillera of Chile, combined with a lack of zircon inheritance, suggest limited assimilation of the overlying continental crust by arc magmas derived from the mantle wedge. A general increase in incompatible, fluid-mobile/immobile (e.g., Ba/Nb) and fluid-immobile/immobile (e.g., Nb/Zr) trace element ratios is attributed to the influence of the subducting slab on the melt source region and/or the influx of asthenospheric mantle. The Late Oligocene ( 26 Ma) to Early Miocene ( 17 Ma), and Late Miocene ( 6 Ma) arc magmatic rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera show evidence for the bulk assimilation of the Permian-Triassic (P

  1. Magmatically Greedy Reararc Volcanoes of the N. Tofua Segment of the Tonga Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.; Arculus, R. J.; Lupton, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanism along the northernmost Tofua Arc is enigmatic because edifices of the arc's volcanic front are mostly, magmatically relatively anemic, despite the very high convergence rate of the Pacific Plate with this section of Tonga Arc. However, just westward of the arc front, in terrain generally thought of as part of the adjacent NE Lau Backarc Basin, lie a series of very active volcanoes and volcanic features, including the large submarine caldera Niuatahi (aka volcano 'O'), a large composite dacite lava flow terrain not obviously associated with any particular volcanic edifice, and the Mata volcano group, a series of 9 small elongate volcanoes in an extensional basin at the extreme NE corner of the Lau Basin. These three volcanic terrains do not sit on arc-perpendicular cross chains. Collectively, these volcanic features appear to be receiving a large proportion of the magma flux from the sub-Tonga/Lau mantle wedge, in effect 'stealing' this magma flux from the arc front. A second occurrence of such magma 'capture' from the arc front occurs in an area just to the south, on southernmost portion of the Fonualei Spreading Center. Erupted compositions at these 'magmatically greedy' volcanoes are consistent with high slab-derived fluid input into the wedge (particularly trace element abundances and volatile contents, e.g., see Lupton abstract this session). It is unclear how long-lived a feature this is, but the very presence of such hyperactive and areally-dispersed volcanism behind the arc front implies these volcanoes are not in fact part of any focused spreading/rifting in the Lau Backarc Basin, and should be thought of as 'reararc volcanoes'. Possible tectonic factors contributing to this unusually productive reararc environment are the high rate of convergence, the cold slab, the highly disorganized extension in the adjacent backarc, and the tear in the subducting plate just north of the Tofua Arc.

  2. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as ‘cratonization’, is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons.

  3. Latitudinal variation rate of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity in the active Chilean convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Enrique G.; Venegas, Patricio; Laroze, David

    2018-03-01

    We present a different view of secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, through the variations in the threshold rigidity known as the variation rate of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (VRc). As the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (Rc) lets us differentiate between charged particle trajectories arriving at the Earth and the Earth's magnetic field, we used the VRc to look for internal variations in the latter, close to the 70° south meridian. Due to the fact that the empirical data of total magnetic field BF and vertical magnetic field Bz obtained at Putre (OP) and Los Cerrillos (OLC) stations are consistent with the displacement of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly (SAMA), we detected that the VRc does not fully correlate to SAMA in central Chile. Besides, the lower section of VRc seems to correlate perfectly with important geological features, like the flat slab in the active Chilean convergent margin. Based on this, we next focused our attention on the empirical variations of the vertical component of the magnetic field Bz, recorded in OP prior to the Maule earthquake in 2010, which occurred in the middle of the Chilean flat slab. We found a jump in Bz values and main frequencies from 3.510 to 5.860 µHz, in the second derivative of Bz, which corresponds to similar magnetic behavior found by other research groups, but at lower frequency ranges. Then, we extended this analysis to other relevant subduction seismic events, like Sumatra in 2004 and Tohoku in 2011, using data from the Guam station. Similar records and the main frequencies before each event were found. Thus, these results seem to show that magnetic anomalies recorded on different timescales, as VRc (decades) and Bz (days), may correlate with some geological events, as the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC).

  4. Crustal structure of the rifted volcanic margins and uplifted plateau of Western Yemen from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Tiberi, Christel; Leroy, Sylvie; Stuart, Graham W.; Keir, Derek; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Basuyau, Clémence

    2013-06-01

    We analyse P-wave receiver functions across the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea continental margins in Western Yemen to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure and the bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the role of magmatism, faulting and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We analyse teleseismic data from 21 stations forming the temporary Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory (YOCMAL) network together with GFZ and Yemeni permanent stations. Analysis of computed receiver functions shows that (1) the thickness of unextended crust on the Yemen plateau is ˜35 km; (2) this thins to ˜22 km in coastal areas and reaches less than 14 km on the Red Sea coast, where presence of a high-velocity lower crust is evident. The average Vp/Vs ratio for the western Yemen Plateau is 1.79, increasing to ˜1.92 near the Red Sea coast and decreasing to 1.68 for those stations located on or near the granitic rocks. Thinning of the crust, and by inference extension, occurs over a ˜130-km-wide transition zone from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts to the edges of the Yemen plateau. Thinning of continental crust is particularly localized in a <30-km-wide zone near the coastline, spatially co-incident with addition of magmatic underplate to the lower crust, above which on the surface we observe the presence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) and thickened Oligo-Miocene syn-rift basaltic flows. Our results strongly suggest the presence of high-velocity mafic intrusions in the lower crust, which are likely either synrift magmatic intrusion into continental lower crust or alternatively depleted upper mantle underplated to the base of the crust during the eruption of the SDRs. Our results also point towards a regional breakup history in which the onset of rifting was synchronous along the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea volcanic margins followed by a second phase of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  5. Gondwana subduction-modified mantle domain prevents magmatic seafloor generation in the Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Nakamura, K.; Senda, R.; Suzuki, K.; Kumagai, H.; Sato, H.; Sato, T.; Shibuya, T.; Minoguchi, K.; Okino, K.

    2013-12-01

    The creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges is essential to understanding the genesis of oceanic plate and the evolution of the Earth. Detailed bathymetric measurements coupled with dense sample recovery at mid-ocean ridge revealed a wide range of variations in the ridge and seafloor morphologies, which cannot be simply explained by a spreading rate, but also by ridge geometry, mantle compositions and thermal structure (Dick et al., 2003 Nature; Cannat et al. 2006 Geology). It is now widely accepted that very limited magmatic activity with tectonic stretching generates oceanic core complex and/or smooth seafloor surface in the slow to ultraslow-spreading ridges, where serpentinized peridotite and gabbros are expected to be exposed associated with detachment faults (Cann et al., 1997 Nature; Cannat et al., 2006), although magmatism might be an essential role for the formation of oceanic core complexes (Buck et al., 2005 Nature; Tucholke et al 2008 JGR). A rising question is why magmatic activity is sometimes prevented during the oceanic plate formation. Ancient melting domain, that are too refractory to melt even in adiabatically upwelling to the shallow upper mantle, might cause the amagmatic spreading ridges (Harvey et al., 2006 EPSL, Liu et al.,2008 Nature). Its origin and effect on seafloor generations are, however, not well understood yet. We report an oceanic hill as an example of an ancient subduction-modified mantle domain, probably formed at continental margin of the Gondwanaland~Pangea supercontinent, existing beneath the Central Indian Ridge. This domain is the most likely to have prevented magmatic seafloor generation, resulting in creation of very deep oceanic valley and serpentine diaper (now the studied oceanic hill) at the present Central Indian ridge.

  6. The geochemical evolution of syncollisional magmatism and the implications for significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization (Gangdese, Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinsheng; Yang, Zhusen; Hou, Zengqian; Liu, Yingchao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhao, Miao; Ma, Wang

    2017-09-01

    In addition to well-known subduction processes, the collision of two continents also generates abundant ore deposits, as in the case of the Tibetan Plateau, which is the youngest and most spectacular collisional belt on Earth. During the building history of the Gangdese magmatic belt, several magmatic flare-up events developed, however, significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization dominantly accompanied the magmatism during the syncollisional period ( 65-41 Ma). Based on integrated geochemical and isotopic data, we provide insights into the genesis and evolution of syncollisional magmas, and their implications for significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of most syncollisional igneous rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7034-0.7123; εNd(t) = - 9.0 to + 1.8) indicate a mixing origin between mantle-derived basaltic magmas and ancient crustal melts, and fractional crystallization is a fundamental mechanism by which syncollisional magmas evolve towards intermediate to silicic compositions. Most lead-zinc mineralization-related plutons are high silica (76.14% wt.% SiO2 on average), high oxygen fugacity (average ΔFMQ + 2.5) granites with highly evolved chemical signatures [average Eun/Eun* = 0.33, high Rb/Sr (average = 3.9)], and they represent the final products from primary magmas. Due to the contribution of ancient crustal melts to the genesis of mineralization-related parent magmas, the spatial distribution of Pb-Zn deposits within the northern Gangdese magmatic belt is controlled by the lithospheric architecture. In compressional environments, magmas have low evacuation efficiency and long magma chamber lifespan, which is favorable for basaltic parents evolved to high silica granites through sufficient fractional crystallization. This scenario contributes to our understanding of the significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization that occurred in the syncollisional period.

  7. On the non-convergence of energy intensities: evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sevi, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates convergence of energy intensities for a group of 97 countries in the period 1971-2003. Convergence is tested using a recent method proposed by Pesaran (2007) [M.H. Pesaran. A pair- wise approach to testing for output and growth convergence. Journal of Econometrics 138, 312-355.] based on the stochastic convergence criterion. Main advantages of this method are that results do not depend on a benchmark against which convergence is assessed, and that it is more robust. Applications of several unit-root tests as well as a stationarity test uniformly reject the global convergence hypothesis. Locally, for Middle- East, OECD and Europe sub-groups, non-convergence is less strongly rejected. The introduction of possible structural breaks in the analysis only marginally provides more support to the convergence hypothesis. (authors)

  8. Structural controls on the emission of magmatic carbon dioxide gas, Long Valley Caldera, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucic, Gregor; Stix, John; Wing, Boswell

    2015-04-01

    We present a degassing study of Long Valley Caldera that explores the structural controls upon emissions of magmatic carbon dioxide gas. A total of 223 soil gas samples were collected and analyzed for stable carbon isotopes using a field-portable cavity ring-down spectrometer. This novel technique is flexible, accurate, and provides sampling feedback on a daily basis. Sampling sites included major and minor volcanic centers, regional throughgoing faults, caldera-related structures, zones of elevated seismicity, and zones of past and present hydrothermal activity. The classification of soil gases based on their δ13C and CO2 values reveals a mixing relationship among three end-members: atmospheric, biogenic, and magmatic. Signatures dominated by biogenic contributions (~4 vol %, -24‰) are found on the caldera floor, the interior of the resurgent dome, and areas associated with the Hilton Creek and Hartley Springs fault systems. With the introduction of the magmatic component (~100 vol %, -4.5‰), samples acquire mixing and hydrothermal signatures and are spatially associated with the central caldera and Mammoth Mountain. In particular, they are concentrated along the southern margin of the resurgent dome where the interplay between resurgence-related reverse faulting and a bend in the regional fault system has created a highly permeable fracture network, suitable for the formation of shallow hydrothermal systems. This contrasts with the south moat, where despite elevated seismicity, a thick sedimentary cover has formed an impermeable cap, inhibiting the ascent of fluids and gases to the surface.

  9. The inception of a Paleotethyan magmatic arc in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compilation of recent U-Pb (zircon ages of late Carboniferous–early Permian (LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths from Iberia, together with a petrogenetic interpretation of magma generation based on comparisons with Mesozoic and Tertiary Cordilleran batholiths and experimental melts. Zircon U-Pb ages distributed over the range ca. 315–280 Ma, indicate a linkage between calc-alkaline magmatism, Iberian orocline generation and Paleotethys subduction. It is also shown that Iberian LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths present unequivocal subduction-related features comparable with typical Cordilleran batholiths of the Pacific Americas active margin, although geochemical features were partially obscured by local modifications of magmas at the level of emplacement by country rock assimilation. When and how LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths formed in Iberia is then discussed, and a new and somewhat controversial interpretation for their sources and tectonic setting (plume-assisted relamination is suggested. The batholiths are proposed to have formed during the subduction of the Paleotethys oceanic plate (Pangaea self-subduction and, consequently, they are unrelated to Variscan collision. The origin of the Iberian batholiths is related to the Eurasian active margin and probably represents the inception of a Paleotethyan arc in the core of Pangaea.

  10. Orogenic inheritance and continental breakup: Wilson Cycle-control on rift and passive margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, C.; Petersen, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Rifts often develop along suture zones between previously collided continents, as part of the Wilson cycle. The North Atlantic is such an example, formed where Pangaea broke apart along Caledonian and Variscan sutures. Dipping upper mantle structures in E. Greenland and Scotland, have been interpreted as fossil subduction zones and the seismic signature indicates the presence of eclogite and serpentinite. We speculate that this orogenic material may impose a rheological control upon post-orogenic extension and we use thermo-mechanical modelling to explore such effects. Our model includes the following features: 1) Crustal thickness anomalies, 2) Eclogitised mafic crust emplaced in the mantle lithosphere, and 3) Hydrated mantle peridotite (serpentinite) formed in a pre-rift subduction setting. Our models indicate that the inherited structures control the location and the structural and magmatic evolution of the rift. Rifting of thin initial crust allows for relatively large amounts of serpentinite to be preserved within the uppermost mantle. This facilitates rapid continental breakup and serpentinite exhumation. Magmatism does not occur before continental breakup. Rifts in thicker crust preserve little or no serpentinite and thinning is more focused in the mantle lithosphere, rather than in the crust. Continental breakup is therefore preceded by magmatism. This implies that pre-rift orogenic properties may determine whether magma-poor or magma-rich conjugate margins are formed. Our models show that inherited orogenic eclogite and serpentinite are deformed and partially emplaced either as dipping structures within the lithospheric mantle or at the base of the thinned continental crust. The former is consistent with dipping sub-Moho reflectors often observed in passive margins. The latter provides an alternative interpretation of `lower crustal bodies' which are often regarded as igneous bodies. An additional implication of our models is that serpentinite, often

  11. Magmatism in the brazilian sedimentary basins and the petroleum geology; Magmatismo nas bacias sedimentares brasileiras e sua influencia na geologia do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomaz Filho, Antonio; Antonioli, Luzia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia]. E-mails: antoniothomaz@globo.com; antonioli@novanet.com.br; Mizusaki, Ana Maria Pimentel [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: ana.mizusaki@ufrgs.br

    2008-06-15

    In the recent years, the researches on the magmatic events that occurred in the Brazilian sedimentary basins had shown the importance of these episodes for the hydrocarbons exploration. The generation (heating), migration (structural and petrographic alterations), accumulation (basalt fractures) and migrations barriers (sills and dykes) of the hydrocarbons, produced for these rocks, are cited in the marginal and intra continental Brazilian basins. The magmatism produce the temperature increase in the sedimentary basin, around its intrusion, and this propitiate the maturation of the organic matter contained in the hydrocarbons generating rocks of the basin. At the same time, has been verified that the contacts dykes/sedimentary rocks can represent important ways for the hydrocarbons migrations. Recent studies have shown that the magmatism, in its extrusive manifestations, can be analyzed in view of the possibility of having acted as effective hydrocarbon seals and, in consequence, making possible the accumulation of hydrocarbons generated in the underlying sediments. The magmatism of predominantly basic to intermediary character is generated in the asthenosphere, that is, below the lithosphere. The dykes that had introduced in the basement of our sedimentary basins are good heat conductors and we can expect the geothermal gradients increase in the overlapped sedimentary deposits. The more detailed study of the magmatic processes in the Brazilian sedimentary basins must lead to new forms of hydrocarbons exploration in our sedimentary basins, also in those basins where the traditional exploration activities have not occasioned the waited expected successes. (author)

  12. Mesozoic to Cenozoic magmatic history of the Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, James B.; Scoggin, Shane H.; Kapp, Paul; Carrapa, Barbara; Ducea, Mihai N.; Worthington, James; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo

    2018-01-01

    New geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data for Mesozoic to Cenozoic igneous rocks and detrital minerals from the Pamir Mountains help to distinguish major regional magmatic episodes and constrain the tectonic evolution of the Pamir orogenic system. After final accretion of the Central and South Pamir terranes during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, the Pamir was largely amagmatic until the emplacement of the intermediate (SiO2 > 60 wt.%), calc-alkaline, and isotopically evolved (-13 to -5 zircon εHf(t)) South Pamir batholith between 120-100 Ma, which is the most volumetrically significant magmatic complex in the Pamir and includes a high flux magmatic event at ∼105 Ma. The South Pamir batholith is interpreted as the northern (inboard) equivalent of the Cretaceous Karakoram batholith and the along-strike equivalent of an Early Cretaceous magmatic belt in the northern Lhasa terrane in Tibet. The northern Lhasa terrane is characterized by a similar high-flux event at ∼110 Ma. Migration of continental arc magmatism into the South Pamir terrane during the mid-Cretaceous is interpreted to reflect northward directed, low-angle to flat-slab subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Late Cretaceous magmatism (80-70 Ma) in the Pamir is scarce, but concentrated in the Central and northern South Pamir terranes where it is comparatively more mafic (SiO2 roll-back of the Neotethyan oceanic slab, which is consistent with similarly aged extension-related magmatism in the Karakoram terrane and Kohistan. There is an additional pulse of magmatism in the Pamir at 42-36 Ma that is geographically restricted (∼150 km diameter ellipsoidal area) and referred to as the Vanj magmatic complex. The Vanj complex comprises metaluminous, high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic monzonite, syenite, and granite that is adakitic (La/YbN = 13 to 57) with low Mg# (35-41). The Vanj complex displays a range of SiO2 (54-75 wt.%) and isotopic compositions (-7 to -3 εNd(i), 0.706 to

  13. Petrological, geochemical, isotopic, and geochronological constraints for the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism in SW Gondwana (27-32°LS): an example of geodynamic switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Juan A.; Alasino, Pablo H.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Morales Cámera, Matías M.; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2018-04-01

    We report a study integrating 13 new U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon ages and Hf-isotope data from dated magmatic zircons together with complete petrological and whole-rock geochemistry data for the dated granitic rocks. Sample selection was strongly based on knowledge reported in previous investigations. Latest Devonian-Early Carboniferous granite samples were collected along a transect of 900 km, from the inner continental region (present-day Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) to the magmatic arc (now Western Sierras Pampeanas and Frontal Cordillera). Based on these data together with ca. 100 published whole-rock geochemical analyses we conclude that Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism at this latitude represents continuous activity (ranging from 322 to 379 Ma) on the pre-Andean margin of SW Gondwana, although important whole-rock and isotopic compositional variations occurred through time and space. Combined whole-rock chemistry and isotope data reveal that peraluminous A-type magmatism started in the intracontinental region during the Late Devonian, with subsequent development of synchronous Carboniferous peraluminous and metaluminous A-type magmatism in the retro-arc region and calc-alkaline magmatism in the western paleomargin. We envisage that magmatic evolution was mainly controlled by episodic fluctuations in the angle of subduction of the oceanic plate (between flat-slab and normal subduction), supporting a geodynamic switching model. Subduction fluctuations were relatively fast (ca. 7 Ma) during the Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous, and the complete magmatic switch-off and switch-on process lasted for 57 Ma. Hf T DM values of zircon (igneous and inherited) from some Carboniferous peraluminous A-type granites in the retro-arc suggest that Gondwana continental lithosphere formed during previous orogenies was partly the source of the Devonian-Carboniferous granitic magmas, thus precluding the generation of the parental magmas from exotic terranes.

  14. Convergent tectonics and coastal upwelling: a history of the Peru continental margin ( Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Suess, E.; Emeis, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Late in 1986, scientists on the ODP drillship JOIDES Resolution confirmed that the upper slope of the Peruvian margin consists of continental crust whereas the lower slope comprises an accretionary complex. An intricate history of horizontal and vertical movements can be detected, and the locations of ancient centers of upwelling appear to have varied, partly due to tectonic movements of the margin. In this review of Leg 112, the 3 scientific leaders on this cruise discuss their results. -from Journal Editor

  15. Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses near the northern margin of the Natal structural and metamorphic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogings, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses occur within three granitoid complexes at Ngoye, Bull's Run and Wangu, near the northern margin of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. A wide range of rock types is present, from nepheline syenite gneisses through to peralkaline granite gneisses, with minor carbonatite and monzodiorite gneiss intrusive phases noted within two of the bodies. It is suggested that the three alkaline gneiss occurences so far mapped constitute the remnants of a metamorphosed alkaline magmatic province, and that such magmatism occured either in a post-collisional or anorogenic post-D1, pre-D2 tectonic setting. The three complexes are described with respect to mineralogy and chemistry, followed by a brief overview of the possible tectonic setting at the time of their intrusion. 1 tab., 3 refs

  16. Structure and tectonics of western continental margin of India: Implication for geologic hazards

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.

    characteristics of Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI) are closely related to the tectonic history of the Indian subcontinent, its break up during continental rifting, magmatic and sedimentary history, northward movement of India and finally collision... Continental Flood Basalt (DCFB) province on the western and central Indian (Duncan. 1990) as well as continental flood basalt on the Praslin Island in the Seychelles microcontinent (Devey and Stephens, 1991). The DCFB is the largest known continental flood...

  17. Evolution of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Cordilleran arc magmatism in NW Mexico: a review from updated geochronological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Moreno, M.; Iriondo, A.; Perez-Segura, E.; Noguez-Alcantara, B.

    2007-05-01

    During most of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, the locus of subduction related arc magmatism in northwestern Mexico was relatively mobile, probably due to changes in the mechanical conditions of the Farallon-North America plate convergence. The older Mesozoic events recognized in this region occurred in the Late Triassic and Jurassic, but the associated rocks are poorly preserved. However, a belt of Late Cretaceous through Paleogene magmatic rocks is well exposed along Baja California, Sonora and Sinaloa. Since the late 70's, it was noted that during the Early Cretaceous the igneous activity along this belt remained relatively static in the westernmost part, but migrated eastward in the Late Cretaceous, penetrating more than 1000 km into the continent. The arc magmatism reached western Sonora at about 90 Ma, and then it started to move faster inland, presumably due to flattening of the subducted oceanic slab. Recent U-Pb zircon data revealed unexpected old ages (89-95 Ma) near the eastern edge of Sonora, which are difficult to explain on the basis of the classic tectonic interpretations. A model based on two synchronic sites for magma emplacement may explain the age overlapping observed along the belt; however, a profound re-evaluation a proper geodynamic scenario to support this model is required. Even if restoration of the large Neogene crustal extension is made, particularly for central and northern Sonora, the relatively flat-subduction regime commonly accepted for the Laramide event appears unable to explain the anomalously broad expression of the magmatic belt in northwestern Mexico. An alternative model based on two synchronic sites of magma emplacement, as suggested by the new age data, may better explain the large volume of igneous rocks produced during this time in Sonora and most of Chihuahua. This mechanism may differ southwards in Sinaloa, where the magmatic belt becomes considerably narrower. Moreover, the possible existence of two spatially distinct sites

  18. Effective strength of incoming sediments and its implications for plate boundary propagation: Nankai and Costa Rica as type examples of accreting vs. erosive convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Achim

    2013-11-01

    The location of the seaward tip of a subduction thrust controls material transfer at convergent plate margins, and hence global mass balances. At approximately half of those margins, the material of the subducting plate is completely underthrust so that no accretion or even subduction erosion takes place. Along the remaining margins, material is scraped off the subducting plate and added to the upper plate by frontal accretion. We here examine the physical properties of subducting sediments off Costa Rica and Nankai, type examples for an erosional and an accretionary margin, to investigate which parameters control the level where the frontal thrust cuts into the incoming sediment pile. A series of rotary-shear experiments to measure the frictional strength of the various lithologies entering the two subduction zones were carried out. Results include the following findings: (1) At Costa Rica, clay-rich strata at the top of the incoming succession have the lowest strength (μres = 0.19) while underlying calcareous ooze, chalk and diatomite are strong (up to μres = 0.43; μpeak = 0.56). Hence the entire sediment package is underthrust. (2) Off Japan, clay-rich deposits within the lower Shikoku Basin inventory are weakest (μres = 0.13-0.19) and favour the frontal proto-thrust to migrate into one particular horizon between sandy, competent turbidites below and ash-bearing mud above. (3) Taking in situ data and earlier geotechnical testing into account, it is suggested that mineralogical composition rather than pore-pressure defines the position of the frontal thrust, which locates in the weakest, clay mineral-rich (up to 85 wt.%) materials. (4) Smectite, the dominant clay mineral phase at either margin, shows rate strengthening and stable sliding in the frontal 50 km of the subduction thrust (0.0001-0.1 mm/s, 0.5-25 MPa effective normal stress). (5) Progressive illitization of smectite cannot explain seismogenesis, because illite-rich samples also show velocity

  19. Devonian magmatism in the Timan Range, Arctic Russia - subduction, post-orogenic extension, or rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, V.; Scarrow, J. H.; Silva, I. G. Nobre; Cambeses, A.

    2016-11-01

    Devonian mafic magmatism of the northern East European Craton (EEC) has been variously linked to Uralian subduction, post-orogenic extension associated with Caledonian collision, and rifting. New elemental and isotopic analyses of Devonian basalts from the Timan Range and Kanin Peninsula, Russia, in the northern EEC constrain magma genesis, mantle source(s) and the tectonic process(es) associated with this Devonian volcanism to a rift-related context. Two compositional groups of low-K2O tholeiitic basalts are recognized. On the basis of Th concentrations, LREE concentrations, and (LREE/HREE)N, the data suggest two distinct magma batches. Incompatible trace elements ratios (e.g., Th/Yb, Nb/Th, Nb/La) together with Nd and Pb isotopes indicate involvement of an NMORB to EMORB 'transitional' mantle component mixed with variable amounts of a continental component. The magmas were derived from a source that developed high (U,Th)/Pb, U/Th and Sm/Nd over time. The geochemistry of Timan-Kanin basalts supports the hypothesis that the genesis of Devonian basaltic magmatism in the region resulted from local melting of transitional mantle and lower crust during rifting of a mainly non-volcanic continental rifted margin.

  20. An overview on the origin of post-collisional Miocene magmatism in the Kabylies (northern Algeria): Evidence for crustal stacking, delamination and slab detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Gilles; Abbassene, Fatiha; Maury, René C.; Déverchère, Jacques; Bellon, Hervé; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bosch, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Miocene (17-11 Ma) magmatic activity in the Kabylies emplaced K-rich (and minor medium-K) calc-alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks in five zones, delineating a ∼450 km long EW trending strip located along the northern coast of Algeria, between Annaba and Algiers. Their most likely source is the Kabylian subcontinental lithospheric mantle previously metasomatized during the Paleogene subduction of the Tethys oceanic lithosphere. Our preferred tectono-magmatic model involves a Tethyan slab detachment combined with African mantle delamination and crustal stacking, leading to the superimposition of the African continental crust over the Kabylian metasomatized lithospheric mantle. At ca. 17 Ma, the asthenospheric upwelling arising from lithospheric delamination and Tethyan slab tear triggered the thermal erosion of the latter mantle, inducing its partial melting. The corresponding mafic medium-K calc-alkaline magmas interacted with the African basement units during their ascent, generating intermediate to felsic K-rich calc-alkaline melts that display a characteristic trace element and isotopic crustal signature. Later on, slab tears propagated eastward and westward, promoting slab rollback perpendicular to plate convergence and inducing the emplacement of magmatic rocks of decreasing ages from central-eastern Algeria towards Tunisia and Morocco.

  1. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Active margins are important sites of new continental crust formation by magmatic processes related to the subduction of oceanic plates. We investigate these phenomena using a three-dimensional coupled petrological-geochemical-thermomechanical numerical model, which combines a finite-difference flow solver with a non-diffusive marker-in-cell technique for advection (I3ELVIS code, Gerya and Yuen, PEPI,2007). The model includes mantle flow associated with the subducting plate, water release from the slab, fluid propagation that triggers partial melting at the slab surface, melt extraction and the resulting volcanic crustal growth at the surface. The model also accounts for variations in physical properties (mainly density and viscosity) of both fluids and rocks as a function of local conditions in temperature, pressure, deformation, nature of the rocks, and chemical exchanges. Our results show different patterns of crustal growth and surface topography, which are comparable to nature, during subduction at active continental margins. Often, two trench-parallel lines of magmatic activity, which reflect two maxima of melt production atop the slab, are formed on the surface. The melt extraction rate controls the patterns of new crust at different ages. Moving free water reflects the path of fluids, and the velocity of free water shows the trend of two parallel lines of magmatic activity. The formation of new crust in particular time intervals is distributed in finger-like shapes, corresponding to finger-like and ridge-like cold plumes developed atop the subducting slabs (Zhu et al., G-cubed,2009; PEPI,2011). Most of the new crust is basaltic, formed from peridotitic mantle. Granitic crust extracted from melted sediment and upper crust forms in a line closer to the trench, and its distribution reflects the finger-like cold plumes. Dacitic crust extracted from the melted lower crust forms in a line farther away from the trench, and its distribution is anticorrelated with

  2. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete volcanic sequences restored in the Coastal Range of Taiwan are key archives for better understanding the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc. This paper reports (1 new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data of fourteen volcanic samples from different sequences of four major volcanoes in the Coastal Range, (2 Hf isotopic data of dated magmatic and detrital zircons from two offshore volcanic islands, Lutao and Lanyu. These data indicate that the arc magmatism in the Coastal Range started at ~15 Ma, most active at ~9 Ma, and ceased at ~4.2 Ma. Magmatic zircons from the arc rocks show a significant variation in Hf isotopic composition, with εHf(T values varying from +24.9 to +4.8. As pointed out by our previous studies, old continental zircons that show Cathaysian-type ages and Hf isotope features are common in samples from the Yuemei, Chimei, and Lanyu volcanoes, supporting the notion for the influence of the existence of an accreted micro-continent or continental fragment plays a role in the petrogenesis. Such inherited zircons are not observed in the Chengkuang’ao and Tuluanshan volcanoes and uncommon in Lutao, implying the discontinuity or a limited extent of the accreted continental fragment. The εHf(T values are high and positive from ~15 - 8 Ma (+25 to +15; ±5ε-unit variation, and became lower from ~6 to 4.2 Ma (+20 to +8; ±6ε units and the lowest from ~1.3 Ma (+19 to +5; ±7ε units. Such a temporal variation in zircon Hf isotopic ratios can be also identified in whole-rock Hf and Nd isotopic compositions, which decrease from ~6 Ma when the Northern Luzon Arc may have started colliding with the Eurasian continental margin.

  3. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of the Permian volcanic rocks in the northern margin of the Alxa Block (the Shalazhashan Belt) and comparisons with the nearby regions: Implications for a Permian rift setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guanzhong; Wang, Hua; Liu, Entao; Huang, Chuanyan; Zhao, Jianxin; Song, Guangzeng; Liang, Chao

    2018-04-01

    The petrogenesis of the Permian magmatic rocks in the Shalazhashan Belt is helpful for us to understand the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in the northern margin of the Alxa Block. The Permian volcanic rocks in the Shalazhashan Belt include basalts, trachyandesites and trachydacites. Our study shows that two basalt samples have negative εNd(t) values (-5.4 to -1.5) and higher radiogenic Pb values, which are relevant to the ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle. One basalt sample has positive εNd(t) value (+10) representing mafic juvenile crust and is derived from depleted asthenosphere. The trachyandesites are dated at 284 ± 3 Ma with εNd(t) = +2.7 to +8.0; ISr = 0.7052 to 0.7057, and they are generated by different degrees of mixing between mafic magmas and crustal melts. The trachydacites have high εNd(t) values and slightly higher ISr contents, suggesting the derivation from juvenile sources with crustal contamination. The isotopic comparisons of the Permian magmatic rocks of the Shalazhashan Belt, the Nuru-Langshan Belt (representing the northern margin of the Alxa Block), the Solonker Belt (Mandula area) and the northern margin of the North China Craton (Bayan Obo area) indicate that the radiogenic isotopic compositions have an increasingly evolved trend from the south (the northern margins of the Alxa Block and the North China Craton) to the north (the Shalazhashan Belt and the Solonker Belt). Three end-member components are involved to generate the Permian magmatic rocks: the ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle, the mafic juvenile crust or newly underplated mafic rocks that were originated from depleted asthenosphere, and the ancient crust. The rocks correlative with the mafic juvenile crust or newly underplated mafic rocks are predominantly distributed along the Shalazhashan Belt and the Solonker Belt, and the rocks derived from ancient, enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle are mainly distributed along

  4. Magmatic sulphides in Quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgatou, Ariadni; Chiaradia, Massimo; Rezeau, Hervé; Wälle, Markus

    2018-01-01

    New petrographic and geochemical data on magmatic sulphide inclusions (MSIs) are presented and discussed for 15 Quaternary volcanic centers of the Ecuadorian frontal, main and back volcanic arc. MSIs occur mostly in Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite and/or magnetite-ilmenite pair) and to a lesser extent in silicate minerals (amphibole, plagioclase, and pyroxene). MSIs are present in all volcanic centers ranging in composition from basalt to dacite (SiO2 = 50-67 wt.%), indicating that sulphide saturation occurs at various stages of magmatic evolution and independently from the volcano location along the volcanic arc. MSIs also occur in dioritic, gabbroic and hornblenditic magmatic enclaves of the volcanic rocks. MSIs display variable sizes (1-30 μm) and shapes (globular, ellipsoidal, angular, irregular) and occur mostly as polymineralic inclusions composed of Fe-rich and Cu-poor (pyrrhotite) and Cu-rich (mostly chalcopyrite) phases. Aerial sulphide relative abundances range from 0.3 to 7 ppm in volcanic host rocks and from 13 to 24 ppm in magmatic enclaves. Electron microprobe analyses of MSIs indicate maximum metal contents of Cu = 65.7 wt.%, Fe = 65.2 wt.%, Ni = 10.1 wt.% for those hosted in the volcanic rocks and of Cu = 57.7 wt.%, Fe = 60.9 wt.%, Ni = 5.1 wt.%, for those hosted in magmatic enclaves. Relationships of the sulphide chemistry to the host whole rock chemistry show that with magmatic differentiation (e.g., increasing SiO2) the Cu and Ni content of sulphides decrease whereas the Fe and S contents increase. The opposite behavior is observed with the increase of Cu in the whole rock, because the latter is anti-correlated with the SiO2 whole rock content. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of MSIs returned maximum values of PGEs and noble metals of Pd = 30 ppm, Rh = 8.1 ppm, Ag = 92.8 ppm and Au = 0.6 ppm and Pd = 43 ppm, Rh = 22.6 ppm, Ag = 89 ppm and Au = 1 ppm for those hosted in volcanic rocks and magmatic enclaves, respectively. These PGE contents display a

  5. Studying media at The Margins: learning from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article, informed by ethnographic research on media at the margins, proposes a shift in perspective at several different levels: 1 instead of focusing on individual technologies, our research should examine how grassroots communicators operating at the margins exist in a media ecology that offers different potentialities in each historical situation; 2 instead of trying to determine if the media technologies used at the margin are old or new, digital or not digital, we need to explore how embedded community communicators detect local information or communication needs and use available technologies to address these needs; 3 our research on media at the margins should shed light on how grassroots communicators re-invent, hybridize, converge, and bridge technologies from one platform to another. In sum, understanding media at the margins is about embracing complexity, maintaining the notion of media ecologies, and understanding how grassroots communicators, deeply embedded in local contexts, wedge media technologies into everyday life.

  6. The Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic passive margin Lajeado Group and Apiaí Gabbro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.C. Campanha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lajeado Group in the Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil, corresponds to an open-sea carbonate platform, comprised of seven overlapping siliciclastic and carbonatic formations, intruded in its upper portion by the Apiaí Gabbro. These rocks have a Neoproterozoic tectonometamorphic overprint related to arc magmatism and the Brasiliano collisional orogeny. Geochronological constraints are given by new U-Pb SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS data for Lajeado Group detrital zircons and for magmatic zircons from the Apiaí Gabbro. The youngest detrital zircons in the Lajeado Group are 1400–1200 Ma, and constrain its maximum age of deposition to be <1200 Ma, whereas the 877 ± 8 Ma age for magmatic zircons in the Apiaí Gabbro give the minimum age. Detritus source areas are mainly Paleoproterozoic (2200–1800 Ma with some Archean and Mesoproterozoic contribution (1500–1200 Ma, with distal or tectonic stable cratonic character. The Lajeado Group should be a Stenian–Tonian carbonate platform passive margin of a continent at this time, namely the Columbia/Nuna or the Rodinia. The Apiaí Gabbro displays similar age to other intrusive basic rocks in the Lajeado and Itaiacoca groups and represents tholeiitic MORB-like magmatism that we relate to the initial break-up of a Mesoproterozoic continent and the formation of the Brasiliano oceans.

  7. Post-rift deformation of the Red Sea Arabian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Davide; Schettino, Antonio; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the Oligocene, the Red Sea rift nucleated within the composite Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield. After about 30 Ma-long history of continental lithosphere thinning and magmatism, the first pulse of oceanic spreading occurred at around 4.6 Ma at the triple junction of Africa, Arabia, and Danakil plate boundaries and propagated southward separating Danakil and Arabia plates. Ocean floor spreading between Arabia and Africa started later, at about 3 Ma and propagated northward (Schettino et al., 2016). Nowadays the northern part of the Red Sea is characterised by isolated oceanic deeps or a thinned continental lithosphere. Here we investigate the deformation of thinned continental margins that develops as a consequence of the continental lithosphere break-up induced by the progressive oceanisation. This deformation consists of a system of transcurrent and reverse faults that accommodate the anelastic relaxation of the extended margins. Inversion and shortening tectonics along the rifted margins as a consequence of the formation of a new segment of ocean ridge was already documented in the Atlantic margin of North America (e.g. Schlische et al. 2003). We present preliminary structural data obtained along the north-central portion of the Arabian rifted margin of the Red Sea. We explored NE-SW trending lineaments within the Arabian margin that are the inland continuation of transform boundaries between segments of the oceanic ridge. We found brittle fault zones whose kinematics is consistent with a post-rift inversion. Along the southernmost transcurrent fault (Ad Damm fault) of the central portion of the Red Sea we found evidence of dextral movement. Along the northernmost transcurrent fault, which intersects the Harrat Lunayyir, structures indicate dextral movement. At the inland termination of this fault the evidence of dextral movement are weaker and NW-SE trending reverse faults outcrop. Between these two faults we found other dextral transcurrent

  8. Life and death of the resurrection plate: Evidence for its existence and subduction in the northeastern Pacific in Paleocene-Eocene time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, P.J.; Bradley, D.C.; Wells, R.E.; Miller, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Range just after 50 Ma, related to slab-window magmatism, (5) birth of the Queen Charlotte transform margin at ca. 50 Ma, (6) extensional exhumation of high-grade metamorphic terranes and development of core complexes in British Columbia, Idaho, and Washington, and extensional collapse of the Cordilleran foreland fold-and-thrust belt in Alberta, Montana, and Idaho after 50 Ma related to initiation of the transform margin, (7) enigmatic 53-45 Ma magmatism associated with extension from Montana to the Yukon Territory as related to slab breakup and the formation of a slab window, (8) right-lateral margin-parallel strike-slip faulting in southern and western Alaska during Late Cretaceous and Paleocene time, which cannot be explained by Farallon convergence vectors, and (9) simultaneous changes in Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Kula plate motions concurrent with demise of the Kula-Resurrection Ridge.

  9. Sediment underthrusting within a continental magmatic arc: Coast Mountains batholith, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David M.; MacLeod, Douglas R.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Gehrels, George E.; Jonathan Patchett, P.

    2017-10-01

    Though continental magmatic arcs are factories for new continental crust, a significant proportion of continental arc magmas are recycled from supracrustal material. To evaluate the relative contributions of retroarc underthrusting and trench side partial sediment subduction for introducing supracrustal rocks to the middle and lower crust of continental magmatic arcs, we present results from the deeply exposed country rocks of the Coast Mountains batholith of western British Columbia. Prior work demonstrates that these rocks underwent widespread partial melting that contributed to the Coast Mountains batholith. We utilize U-Pb zircon geochronology, Sm-Nd thermochronology, and field-based studies to document the protoliths and early burial history of amphibolite and granulite-facies metasedimentary rocks in the Central Gneiss Complex. U-Pb detrital zircon data from the structurally highest sample localities yielded 190 Ma unimodal age peaks and suggest that retroarc rocks of the Stikine terrane constitute a substantial portion of the Central Gneiss Complex. These supracrustal rocks underwent thrust-related burial and metamorphism at >25 km depths prior to 80 Ma. These rocks may also be underlain at the deepest exposed structural levels by Upper Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks, which may have been emplaced as a result of trench side underplating or intraarc burial. These results further our understanding of the mechanisms of material transport within the continental lithosphere along Cordilleran subduction margins.

  10. Constraints on the source of Cu in a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system, Brothers volcano, Kermadec island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Manuel; Haase, Karsten M.; Klemd, Reiner; Smith, Daniel J.; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Bach, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    Most magmatic-hydrothermal Cu deposits are genetically linked to arc magmas. However, most continental or oceanic arc magmas are barren, and hence new methods have to be developed to distinguish between barren and mineralised arc systems. Source composition, melting conditions, the timing of S saturation and an initial chalcophile element-enrichment represent important parameters that control the potential of a subduction setting to host an economically valuable deposit. Brothers volcano in the Kermadec island arc is one of the best-studied examples of arc-related submarine magmatic-hydrothermal activity. This study, for the first time, compares the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Brothers seafloor massive sulphides and the associated dacitic to rhyolitic lavas that host the hydrothermal system. Incompatible trace element ratios, such as La/Sm and Ce/Pb, indicate that the basaltic melts from L'Esperance volcano may represent a parental analogue to the more evolved Brothers lavas. Copper-rich magmatic sulphides (Cu > 2 wt%) identified in fresh volcanic glass and phenocryst phases, such as clinopyroxene, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxide suggest that the surrounding lavas that host the Brothers hydrothermal system represent a potential Cu source for the sulphide ores at the seafloor. Thermodynamic calculations reveal that the Brothers melts reached volatile saturation during their evolution. Melt inclusion data and the occurrence of sulphides along vesicle margins indicate that an exsolving volatile phase extracted Cu from the silicate melt and probably contributed it to the overlying hydrothermal system. Hence, the formation of the Cu-rich seafloor massive sulphides (up to 35.6 wt%) is probably due to the contribution of Cu from a bimodal source including wall rock leaching and magmatic degassing, in a mineralisation style that is hybrid between Cyprus-type volcanic-hosted massive sulphide and subaerial epithermal-porphyry deposits.

  11. Imaging the magmatic system of Mono Basin, California with magnetotellurics in three--dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Jared R.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Ponce, David A.

    2015-01-01

    A three–dimensional (3D) electrical resistivity model of Mono Basin in eastern California unveils a complex subsurface filled with zones of partial melt, fluid–filled fracture networks, cold plutons, and regional faults. In 2013, 62 broadband magnetotelluric (MT) stations were collected in an array around southeastern Mono Basin from which a 3D electrical resistivity model was created with a resolvable depth of 35 km. Multiple robust electrical resistivity features were found that correlate with existing geophysical observations. The most robust features are two 300 ± 50 km3 near-vertical conductive bodies (3–10 Ω·m) that underlie the southeast and north-eastern margin of Mono Craters below 10 km depth. These features are interpreted as magmatic crystal–melt mush zones of 15 ± 5% interstitial melt surrounded by hydrothermal fluids and are likely sources for Holocene eruptions. Two conductive east–dipping structures appear to connect each magma source region to the surface. A conductive arc–like structure (resistivity (200 Ω·m) suggestive of a cooled connection. A third, less constrained conductive feature (4–10 Ω·m) 15 km deep extending to 35 km is located west of Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada escarpment, and is coincident with a zone of sporadic, long–period earthquakes that are characteristic of a fluid-filled (magmatic or metamorphic) fracture network. A resistive feature (103–105 Ω·m) located under Aeolian Buttes contains a deep root down to 25 km. The eastern edge of this resistor appears to structurally control the arcuate shape of Mono Craters. These observations have been combined to form a new conceptual model of the magmatic system beneath Mono Craters to a depth of 30 km.

  12. Monte Carlo source convergence and the Whitesides problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    The issue of fission source convergence in Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations is of interest because of the potential consequences of erroneous criticality safety calculations. In this work, the authors compare two different techniques to improve the source convergence behavior of standard Monte Carlo calculations applied to challenging source convergence problems. The first method, super-history powering, attempts to avoid discarding important fission sites between generations by delaying stochastic sampling of the fission site bank until after several generations of multiplication. The second method, stratified sampling of the fission site bank, explicitly keeps the important sites even if conventional sampling would have eliminated them. The test problems are variants of Whitesides' Criticality of the World problem in which the fission site phase space was intentionally undersampled in order to induce marginally intolerable variability in local fission site populations. Three variants of the problem were studied, each with a different degree of coupling between fissionable pieces. Both the superhistory powering method and the stratified sampling method were shown to improve convergence behavior, although stratified sampling is more robust for the extreme case of no coupling. Neither algorithm completely eliminates the loss of the most important fissionable piece, and if coupling is absent, the lost piece cannot be recovered unless its sites from earlier generations have been retained. Finally, criteria for measuring source convergence reliability are proposed and applied to the test problems

  13. Modulation of magmatic processes by CO2 flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Sheldrake, Tom E.; Blundy, Jon

    2018-06-01

    Magmatic systems are the engines driving volcanic eruptions and the source of fluids responsible for the formation of porphyry-type ore deposits. Sudden variations of pressure, temperature and volume in magmatic systems can produce unrest, which may culminate in a volcanic eruption and/or the abrupt release of ore-forming fluids. Such variations of the conditions within magmatic systems are commonly ascribed to the injection of new magma from depth. However, as magmas fractionating at depth or rising to the upper crust release CO2-rich fluids, the interaction between carbonic fluids and H2O-rich magmas stored in the upper crust (CO2 flushing), must also be a common process affecting the evolution of subvolcanic magma reservoirs. Here, we investigate the effect of gas injection on the stability and chemical evolution of magmatic systems. We calculate the chemical and physical evolution of magmas subjected to CO2-flushing using rhyolite-MELTS. We compare the calculations with a set of melt inclusion data for Mt. St. Helens, Merapi, Etna, and Stromboli volcanoes. We provide an approach that can be used to distinguish between melt inclusions trapped during CO2 flushing, magma ascent and decompression, or those affected by post-entrapment H2O-loss. Our results show that CO2 flushing is a widespread process in both felsic and mafic magmatic systems. Depending upon initial magma crystallinity and duration of CO2 input, flushing can either lead to volcanic eruption or fluid release. We suggest that CO2 flushing is a fundamental process modulating the behaviour and chemical evolution of crustal magmatic systems.

  14. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizuka, O; Hickey-Vargas, R; Arculus, RJ; Yogodzinski, GM; Savov, IP; Kusano, Y; McCarthy, A; Brandl, PA; Sudo, M

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu–Bonin–Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of “forearc basalt”. Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedit...

  15. Continental crust melting induced by subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean: Insight from the Latest Devonian granitic magmatism in the southern Yili Block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wan, Bo; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping

    2018-03-01

    The Tianshan belt of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt was generated by Paleozoic multi-stage subduction and final closure of several extinct oceans, including the South Tianshan Ocean between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim blocks. However, the subduction initiation and polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean remain issues of highly debated. This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes, as well as zircon Hf isotopic data of the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous granitic rocks in the Wusun Mountain of the Yili Paleozoic convergent margin, which, together with the spatial-temporal distributions of regional magmatic rocks, are applied to elucidate their petrogenesis and tectonic linkage to the northward subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean. Our zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that these granites were emplaced at the time interval of 362.0 ± 1.2-360.3 ± 1.9 Ma, suggesting a marked partial melting event of the continental crust in the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous. These granites, based on their mineral compositions and textures, can be categorized as monzogranites and K-feldspar granites. Geochemically, both monzogranites and K-feldspar granites have characters of I-type granites with high K2O contents (4.64-4.83 wt.%), and the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, while the monzogranites have features of unfractionated I-type granites. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic modeling results suggest that ca. 20-40% mantle-derived magmas may be involved in magma mixing with continental crust partial melts to generate the parental magmas of the granites. The mantle-derived basaltic magmas was inferred not only to be a major component of magma mixture but also as an important heat source to fuse the continental crust in an extensional setting, which is evidenced by the high zircon saturation temperatures (713-727 °C and 760-782 °C) of the studied granites. The Latest Devonian to

  16. The magmatism and metamorphism at the Malayer area, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, V.; Valizadeh, M. V.; Esmaeily, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Malayer area is located in the NW-SE aligned Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, western Iran and consists mainly of Mesozoic schists so-called Hamadan Phyllites, Jurassic to Tertiary intrusive rocks and related contact metamorphic aureoles, aplites and pegmatites. The Sanandj-Sirjan Zone is produced by oblique collisional event between Arabian plate and Central Iran microcontinent. Highest level of regional metamorphism in the area is greenschist facies and injection of felsic magmas is caused contact metamorphism. Magmatism is consist of a general northwest trend large felsic to intermediate intrusive bodies. The main trend of structural features i.e. faults, fractures and other structural features is NW-SE. The Malayer granitoid complex is ellipsoid in shape and has NW-SE foliation especially at the corners of the intrusions. Petrography of the magmatic rocks revealed recrystallization of quartz and feldspars, bending of biotite, and aligment of minerals paralle to the main trend of magmatic and metamorphic country rocks. These indicated that intrusion of felsic magma is coincide to the regional metamorphism and is syn-tectoinc. Non-extensive contact metamorphism aureoles and rareness of pegmatite and aplite in the area are interpreted as injection of felsic magmas into the high-strain metamorphic zone. The regional metamorphic rocks mainly consist of meta-sandstone, slate, phyllite, schist. These gray to dark metasedimentary rocks are consist of quartz, muscovite, turmaline, epidote, biotite and chlorite. Sheeted minerals form extended schistosity and study of porphyroblast-matrix relationships shows that injection of granitic magma into the country rocks is syn to post-tectonic. Syn-tectonic indicating porphyroblast growth synchronous with the development of the external fabric. The thermal contact area of the granite can be observed in the contact margin of granite and regional metamorphic rocks, where it produced hornfelses, andalusit-garnet schists and

  17. Deformation patterns and seismic hazard along the eastern Sunda margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Djajadihardja, Yusuf; Flueh, Ernst R.; Hindle, David; Klaeschen, Dirk; Mueller, Christian; Planert, Lars; Reichert, Christian; Shulgin, Alexey; Wittwer, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The eastern Sunda margin offshore Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumba is the site of oceanic subduction of the Indo-Australian plate underneath the Indonesian archipelago. Data from a suite of geophysical experiments conducted between 1997-2006 using RV SONNE as platform include seismic and seismological studies, potential field measurements and high-resolution seafloor bathymetry mapping. Tomographic inversions provide an image of the ongoing deformation of the forearc and the deep subsurface. We investigate the role of various key mechanisms that shape the first-order features characterizing the present margin architecture. Our contribution evaluates the differences in architecture and evolution along the Java forearc from a marine perspective to better understand the variation in tectonic styles and segmentation of the convergent margin, including its seismic risk potential.

  18. Exsolution lamellae in volcanic pyroxene; Single phenocryst thermometry for long-lived magmatic reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Made, R.; Herrin, J. S.; Tay, Y. Y.; Costa Rodriguez, F.

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the relevant timescales of thermal and chemical evolution of magma below the active volcanoes can help us to better anticipate volcanic eruptions and their likely precursor signals. In recent years, several lines of thermochronological inquiry have converged on a realization that, within many volcanic systems, magmas experience prolonged periods of relatively low-temperature storage prior to eruption during short duration transient events. This prolonged storage at low magmatic temperatures can result in series of solid state phase transformations within minerals, producing a petrologic record of their thermal history. In this example, we observed pigeonite exsolution lamellae in augite phenocrysts from the 2011 eruption of Cordon Caulle volcano, Chile. The small size of these features ( 70nm width and bear exsolution textures and apply this knowledge to understanding the thermal conditions of magma storage in long-lived volcanic reservoirs.

  19. Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Real Convergence, Steps from Adherence to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Busu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic model Solow-Swan shows that the marginal rates of capital, technology and labor force, with positive values, have the capacity to stimulate the economic growth of the emergent economies, as in the case of Romania, for the 2005-2014 period, facilitating the determination of specific correlations between macroeconomic indicators to analyze the convergence towards the average European Union (EU. The economic theory, highlighted in particular by the Solow-Swan model, was applied in the current paper, to determine the potential of real convergence. Moreover, the statistics for the period 2005-2014 facilitated the analysis of the growth and recession factors specific to economies of Central and Eastern Europe and placed Romania amongst the EU countries with emergent economies and potential of economic growth. The European Commission’s reports regarding the macroeconomic imbalance procedure draw attention on the same indicators presented in the article to address proper recommendations and support corrective measures. Making a step from nominal to real convergence, the latter derives naturally from the need to recoup the gaps in comparison with developed economies amongst countries of the Euro Area.

  1. Constraining lithospheric removal and asthenospheric input to melts in Central Asia: A geochemical study of Triassic to Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the Gobi Altai (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, Thomas C.; Barry, Tiffany L.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kempton, Pamela D.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout northeast China, eastern and southern Mongolia, and eastern Russia there is widespread Mesozoic intracontinental magmatism. Extensive studies on the Chinese magmatic rocks have suggested lithospheric mantle removal was a driver of the magmatism. The timing, distribution and potential diachroneity of such lithospheric mantle removal remains poorly constrained. Here, we examine successions of Mesozoic lavas and shallow intrusive volcanic plugs from the Gobi Altai in southern Mongolia that appear to be unrelated to regional, relatively small-scale deformation; at the time of magmatism, the area was 200 km from any active margin, or, after its Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous closure, from the suture of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. 40Ar/39Ar radiometric age data place magmatic events in the Gobi Altai between 220 to 99.2 Ma. This succession overlaps Chinese successions and therefore provides an opportunity to constrain whether Mesozoic lithosphere removal may provide an explanation for the magmatism here too, and if so, when. We show that Triassic to Lower Cretaceous lavas in the Gobi Altai (from Dulaan Bogd, Noyon Uul, Bulgantiin Uul, Jaran Bogd and Tsagaan Tsav) are all light rare-earth element (LREE) and large-ion lithophile element (LILE)-enriched, with negative Nb and Ta anomalies (Nb/La and Ta/La ≤ 1). Geochemical data suggest that these lavas formed by low degrees of partial melting of a metasomatised lithospheric mantle that may have been modified by melts derived from recycled rutile-bearing eclogite. A gradual reduction in the involvement of garnet in the source of these lavas points towards a shallowing of the depth of melting after 125 Ma. By contrast, geochemical and isotope data from the youngest magmatic rocks in the area - 107-99 Ma old volcanic plugs from Tsost Magmatic Field - have OIB-like trace element patterns and are interpreted to have formed by low degrees of partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source. These rocks did

  2. Early Miocene rapid exhumation in southern Tibet: Insights from P-T-t-D-magmatism path of Yardoi dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of Gneiss domes within orogenic belts poses challenges because domes can form in a variety of geodynamic settings and by multiple doming mechanisms. For the North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), it is debated whether they formed during shortening, extension or collapse of the plateau, and what is the spatial and temporal relationship of magmatism, metamorphism and deformation. This study investigates the Yardoi dome in southern Tibet using field mapping, petrography, phase equilibria modelling and new monazite ages. The resulting P-T-time-deformation-magmatism path for the first time reveals the spatial and temporal relationship of metamorphism, deformation and magmatism in the Yardoi dome: a) the dome mantle recorded prograde loading to kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphic conditions of 650 ± 30 °C and 9 ± 1 kbar (M2) in the Early Miocene (18-17 Ma); b) the main top-to-the-north deformation fabric (D2) formed syn- to post-peak-metamorphism; c) the emplacement of leucorgranites related to doming is syn-metamorphism at 19-17 Ma. The link between the detachment shear zone in the Yardoi dome and the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) is confirmed. By comparing with orogen-scale tectonic processes in the Himalaya, we suggest that north-south extension in a convergent geodynamic setting during Early Miocene accounts for formation of the Yardoi dome. In a wider tectonic context, the Early Miocene rapid exhumation of deep crustal rocks was contemporaneous with the rapid uplift of southern Tibet and the Himalayan orogen.

  3. Magmatic versus tectonic influence in the Eolian arc: the case of Vulcano and Lipari islands revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Joel; Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; Vezzoli, Luigina Maria; De Rosa, Rosanna; Acocella, Valerio; Catalano, Stefano; Romagnoli, Gino

    2014-05-01

    The prevalent influence of magma versus tectonics for the edification and the evolution of volcanic zones is matter of debate. Here we focus on Vulcano and Lipari, two active volcanic islands located in the central sector of the Eolian arc (North of Sicily). Both systems are influenced by regional tectonics and affected by historical magmatic events taking place along a NS oriented structure, connecting both islands. We revisit and implement previous structural studies performed during the 1980's considering several new geophysical, geochemical and geodynamical findings. Four extensive structural campaigns have been performed on both islands and along the shorelines in 2012-2013 covering about 80% of the possible accessible outcrops. We collected ~500 measurements (e.g. faults, fractures and dikes) at 40 sites. Overall, most of the observed structures are oriented N-S and NNW-SSE, confirming previous studies, however, almost all features are strikingly dominated by an EW-oriented extensive regime, which is a novelty. These findings are supported by kinematic indicators and suggest a predominant dip-slip component (pitch from 80 and 130°) with alternating left and right kinematics. Marginal faulting in most recent formations have been observed, suggesting that the deformation may occur preferentially during transient deformation related to periods of magmatic activity, instead of resulting from continuous regional tectonic processes. Overall, fault and dike planes are characterized by a dominant eastward immersion, suggesting an asymmetric graben-like structure of the entire area. This may be explained by the presence of a topographic gradient connecting both islands to the deep Gioia basin to the East, leading to a preferential ample gravitational collapse. Finally, we propose a model in which the stress field rotates northward. It transits from a pure right lateral strike-slip regime along the Tindari fault zone (tectonic-dominant) to an extensive regime

  4. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  5. Frequency domain performance analysis of marginally stable LTI systems with saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromski, A.Y.; Rooda, J.E.; Leonov, G.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromsky, A.; Fradkov, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the frequency domain performance analysis of a marginally stable linear time-invariant (LTI) system with saturation in the feedback loop. We present two methods, both based on the notion of convergent systems, that allow to evaluate the performance of this type of systems in

  6. Geothermal appearances in connection with the neo-tectonics and magmatism at the territory of the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsovski, Milan; Stojanov, Risto

    1995-01-01

    The region of the Republic of Macedonia, as a part of the Alpine orogenic zone in late Alpine period was included by intensive neotectonic destructive movements, which is reflected on the high seismic activity in all the geo tectonic units: Serbo Macedonian massif. the Vardar zone, the Pelagonian massif and the West Macedonian zone, but of different intensity. The thermal and hydrothermal springs in Macedonia are connected to the activations of lineal neo tectonic fault structure with the Vardar immeridional direction of extension, as well as with the recently formed dislocations with vertical extension (in a form of orthogonal system) in the marginal parts of the depressions with positive morpho structures. According to the recent studies of the tectonic-magmatic factors, as well as the known thermal and thermo mineral springs in Macedonia, the most potential areas are the east boundary pails of the Vardar zone with the S. M. massif (the Rodopian mass) and the inner parts of the Vardar zone, particularly the marginal parts of the depressions, in the West Macedonia, the marginal parts of the Polog valley and the area of Debar. (Original)

  7. The Threat of Unexamined Secondary Data: A Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nichole M.; Mayorga, Oscar J.

    2018-01-01

    This article uses a critical race theory framework to conceptualize a Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods (CRTCMM) in education. CRTCMM is a methodology that challenges normative educational research practices by acknowledging that racism permeates educational institutions and marginalizes Communities of Color. The focus of this…

  8. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong

    2015-12-01

    The basic tectonic framework of continental East Asia was produced by a series of nearly contemporaneous orogenic events in the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Commonly, the Late Mesozoic orogenic processes were characterized by continent-continent collision, large-scale thrusting, strike-slip faulting and intense crustal shortening, crustal thickening, regional anatexis and metamorphism, followed by large-scale lithospheric extension, rifting and magmatism. To better understand the geological processes, this paper reviews and synthesizes existing multi-disciplinary geologic data related to sedimentation, tectonics, magmatism, metamorphism and geochemistry, and proposes a two-stage tectono-thermal evolutionary history of East Asia during the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (ca. 170-120 Ma). In the first stage, three orogenic belts along the continental margins were formed coevally at ca. 170-135 Ma, i.e., the north Mongol-Okhotsk orogen, the east paleo-Pacific coastal orogen, and the west Bangong-Nujiang orogen. Tectonism related to the coastal orogen caused extensive intracontinental folding and thrusting that resulted in a depositional hiatus in the Late Jurassic, as well as crustal anatexis that generated syn-kinematic granites, adakites and migmatites. The lithosphere of the East Asian continent was thickened, reaching a maximum during the latest Jurassic or the earliest Cretaceous. In the second stage (ca. 135-120 Ma), delamination of the thickened lithosphere resulted in a remarkable (>120 km) lithospheric thinning and the development of mantle-derived magmatism, mineralization, metamorphic core complexes and rift basins. The Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous subduction of oceanic plates (paleo-Pacific, meso-Tethys, and Mongol-Okhotsk) and continent-continent collision (e.g. Lhasa and Qiangtang) along the East Asian continental margins produced broad coastal and intracontinental orogens. These significant tectonic activities, marked by

  9. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the occidental terrane and the Paraiba do Sul Klippe within the Neoproterozoic Ribeira orogenic Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Claudia Sayao; Duarte, Beatriz Paschoal; Heilbron, Monica; Ragatky, Diana

    2000-01-01

    The occidental Terrane is envisaged as the eastern/southeastern reworked margin of the Sao Francisco/Rio de la Plata plate associated with and E-trending subduction under the Congo plate. The Paraiba do Sul Klippe is part of the Oriental Terrane, envisaged as a portion of the Congo plate. A collisional-stage resulted in intense westward deformation of the Occidental Terrane under intermediate pressure metamorphism (syn-D1+D2 events). A late-collisional stage resulted in subvertical folding and steep shear zones (D3 event). Both stages were associated with voluminous crustal-derived granites. U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology as well as geochemical and structural data point to three magmatic episodes: a syn-collisional stage 1; a syn-collisional stage 2; and a late-collisional stage. This paper presents a magmatic evolutionary model for this crustal segment of the Ribeira orogenic belt based on new geological data of Brasiliano granites and data available in the literature. (author)

  10. New Zircon U-Pb Age Constrain of the Origin of Devil's River Uplift (SW Texas) and Insights into the Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic Evolution of the Southern Margin of Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Dickerson, P. W.; Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Devils River Uplift (DRU) in SW Texas records the evolution of the southern Laurentian margin from Grenvillian orogenesis and assembly of Rodinia, to its fragmentation by rifting, and to the amalgamation of Pangaea. It was cored by a well (Shell No. 1 Stewart), penetrating Precambrian gneisses and Cambrian metasediments and sandstones. New zircon LA-ICP-MS data from a total of 10 samples elucidate the crystallization and depositional ages, as well as the detrital provenance, of Precambrian and Cambrian rocks from the DRU. Zircons from five Precambrian crystalline basement samples (6000-9693') yield uniform U-Pb crystallization ages of 1230 Ma that are similar to ages for young gneisses of the Valley Spring Domain (Llano uplift) in central Texas, where they mark the cessation of arc magmatism within the Grenville orogenic belt. The 1230 Ma igneous basement is overlain by L.-M. Cambrian metasedimentary rocks ( 4000-6000') with maximum depositional ages of 533-545 Ma. Detrital zircons from Cambrian strata are dominated by a 1070-1080 Ma population, likely derived from basement units exposed in Texas (Llano uplift, Franklin Mts.), with minor contributions from local 1230 Ma Precambrian basement and the 1380-1500 Ma Granite Rhyolite Province. The L.-M. Cambrian interval is dominated (>80%) by Neoproterozoic detrital magmatic zircons with two major distinct age clusters at 570-700 Ma and 780-820 Ma, supporting a two-stage Rodinia rift model and providing strong evidence for major Cryogenian-Eocambrian intraplate magmatism along the southern margin of Rodinia. Moreover, detrital zircon signatures for L.-M. and U. Cambrian strata strongly correlate with those from the Cuyania terrane of W. Argentina - notably the W. Sierras Pampeanas (Sa. Pie de Palo, Sa. de Maz): 1230 Ma from metasandstones (PdP); 1081-1038 Ma from metasiliciclastics (PdP, SdM); Cryogenian-Eocambrian [774 & 570 Ma] plutons (SdM, PdP). In summary, these new zircon U-Pb data from DRU in SW Texas show

  11. Tomographically-imaged subducted slabs and magmatic history of Caribbean and Pacific subduction beneath Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Olaya, R.; Mann, P.; Vargas, C. A.; Koulakov, I.

    2013-12-01

    We define the length and geometry of eastward and southeastward-subducting slabs beneath northwestern South America in Colombia using ~100,000 earthquake events recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from 1993 to 2012. Methods include: hypocenter relocation, compilation of focal mechanisms, and P and S wave tomographic calculations performed using LOTOS and Seisan. The margins of Colombia include four distinct subduction zones based on slab dip: 1) in northern Colombia, 12-16-km-thick oceanic crust subducts at a modern GPS rate of 20 mm/yr in a direction of 110 degrees at a shallow angle of 8 degrees; as a result of its low dip, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks are present 400 km from the frontal thrust; magmatic arc migration to the east records 800 km of subduction since 58 Ma ago (Paleocene) with shallow subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau starting ~24-33 Ma (Miocene); at depths of 90-150 km, the slab exhibits a negative velocity anomaly we associate with pervasive fracturing; 2) in the central Colombia-Panama area, we define an area of 30-km-thick crust of the Panama arc colliding/subducting at a modern 30/mm in a direction of 95 degrees; the length of this slab shows subduction/collision initiated after 20 Ma (Middle Miocene); we call this feature the Panama indenter since it has produced a V-shaped indentation of the Colombian margin and responsible for widespread crustal deformation and topographic uplift in Colombia; an incipient subduction area is forming near the Panama border with intermediate earthquakes at an eastward dip of 70 degrees to depths of ~150 km; this zone is not visible on tomographic images; 3) a 250-km-wide zone of Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate flanking the Panama indenter subducts at a rate of 25 mm/yr in a direction of 55 degrees and at a normal dip of 40 degrees; the length of this slab suggests subduction began at ~5 Ma; 4) the Caldas tear defines a major dip change to the south where a 35 degrees

  12. Whose interests and under whose control?: Interest convergence in science-focused school-community collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deb

    2018-03-01

    In this dialogue with Monica Ridgeway and Randy Yerrick's Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, I engage the critical race theory (CRT) tenet of interest convergence. I first expand Derrick Bell's (1980) initial statement of interest convergence with subsequent scholarly work in this area. I then explore ways CRT in general and interest convergence specifically have been applied in the field of education. Using this framing, I examine how interest convergence may be shed new insights into Monica Ridgeway and Randy Yerrick's study. For example, the tenet of interest convergence is used to frame why it was beneficial for the White artist, Jacob, and the Achievement Scholars to collaborate in the service-learning mural. Then the idea of interest divergence is brought into explore the ways in which Jacob benefitted from his participation in the service learning project while the Achievement Scholars were left with an unfinished project which they had to problem solve. To conclude, I provide future directions for the application of interest convergence and divergence to issues facing science education.

  13. Uranium metallogeny, magmatism and structure in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Granite magmatism and the associated uranium metallogeny in southeast China are considered in relation to a plate tectonic model previously developed for Jiangxi Province which envisages the suturing of three separate continental fault blocks or plates which are thought to have existed as separate continental microplates until the Permian, namely the Sino-Korean, Yangtze and South China Plates. In Jiangxi Province, most of the granitic magmas, including those considered in the paper to be associated with U ore deposits, can be shown to be systematically distributed in relation to the postulated destructive plate margins which are thought to have existed along all the plate boundaries between the continental microplates. The granitic intrusions in Jiangxi range from those more proximal to the inferred location of the subduction zone in a modified Andean type model, such as porphyries of Cu, Cu-Mo and W-Cu type, to more distal granites of U-W-Sn-F-Nb-REE type. They range in age from Indosinian to Yanshanian (but mainly the latter) and are intruded in tensional settings along major lithospheric fracture zones, with sinistral strike slip, many of which continued to move both during and after granite emplacement. These U, W, Sn, F, Nb and REE rich metalliferous granites, which all intruded post-tectonically long after the principal metamorphic events, which are Jinningian (Late Proterozoic on the Yangtze Plate) and Caledonian (South China Plate), and the younger suturing events, are considered in the study to be essentially of juvenile magmatic rather than crustal origin. Such a tectonic model helps to account for the well developed and structurally zoned metallogeny of southeast China and the genesis of the Southeast China Uranium Province. Selected examples of U ore deposits which occur within the Southeast China Uranium Province are considered in order to develop the basis for a genetic model for U which would be more generally applicable to this region and possibly

  14. Investigating Magmatic Processes in the Lower Levels of Mantle-derived Magmatic Systems: The Age & Emplacement of the Kunene Anorthosite Complex (SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B.; Bybee, G. M.; Owen-Smith, T.; Lehmann, J.; Brower, A. M.; Ashwal, L. D.; Hill, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of mantle-derived magmatic systems has shifted from a notion of upper crustal, melt-dominated magma chambers that feed short-lived volcanic eruptions, to a view of more long-lived trans-crustal, mush-dominated systems. Proterozoic massif-type anorthosite systems are voluminous, plagioclase-dominated plutonic suites with ubiquitous intermediate compositions (An 50 ± 10) that represent mantle-derived magmas initially ponded at Moho depths and crystallized polybarically until emplacement at mid-crustal levels. Thus, these systems provide unique insight into magma storage and processing in the lower reaches of the magma mush column, where such interpretation has previously relied on cumulate xenoliths in lavas, geophysical data and experimental/numerical modeling. We present new CA-ID-TIMS ages and a series of detailed field observations from the largest Proterozoic anorthosite massif on Earth, the Kunene Anorthosite Complex (KAC) of SW Angola. Field structures indicate that (i) the bulk of the material was emplaced in the form of crystal mushes, as both plutons and sheet-like intrusions; (ii) prolonged magmatism led to cumulate disaggregation (block structure development) and remobilization, producing considerable textural heterogeneity; (iii) crystal-rich magmatic flow induced localized recrystallization and the development of protoclastic (mortar) textures; and (iv) late residual melts were able to migrate locally prior to complete solidification. Dating of pegmatitic pods entrained from cumulate zones at the base of the crust (1500 ± 13 Ma) and their host anorthosites (1375-1438 Ma) reveals time periods in the range of 60-120 Myr between the earliest products of the system and the final mushes emplaced at higher crustal levels. Therefore, the KAC represents a complex, mushy magmatic system that developed over a long period of time. Not only do these observations help in refining our understanding of Proterozoic anorthosite petrogenesis, they

  15. Spatial coincidence and similar geochemistry of Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene magmatism in the Andes of northern Chile: evidence from the MMH porphyry type Cu-Mo deposit, Chuquicamata District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentilli, Marcos; Maksaev, Victor; Boric, Ricardo; Wilson, Jessica

    2018-04-01

    The MMH porphyry type copper-molybdenum deposit in northern Chile is the newest mine in the Chuquicamata District, one of largest copper concentrations on Earth. Mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyry intrusions are hosted by essentially barren Triassic granodiorites. Despite a century of exploitation, geologists still have problems in the mine distinguishing the Triassic granodiorite from the most important ore-carrying Eocene porphyries in the district. To resolve the problem, internally consistent high-quality geochemical analyses of the Triassic and Tertiary intrusives were carried out: explaining the confusion, they show that the rock units in question are nearly identical in composition and thus respond equally to hydrothermal alteration. In detail, the only difference in terms of chemical composition is that the main Eocene-Oligocene porphyries carry relatively less Fe and Ni. Unexpectedly, the mineralized Eocene-Oligocene porphyries have consistently less U and Th than other Tertiary intrusions in the district, a characteristic that may be valuable in exploration. The supergiant copper-molybdenum deposits in the Central Andes were formed within a narrow interval between 45 and 31 Ma, close to 7% of the 200 My duration of "Andean" magmatism, which resulted from subduction of oceanic lithosphere under South America since the Jurassic. Although recent work has shown that subduction was active on the margin since Paleozoic times, pre-Andean (pre-Jurassic) "Gondwanan" magmatism is often described as being very different, having involved crustal melting and the generation of massive peraluminous rhyolites and granites. This study shows that the indistinguishable Late Triassic and Eocene-Oligocene intrusions occupy the same narrow NS geographic belt in northern Chile. If it is accepted that magma character may determine the potential to generate economic Cu-Mo deposits, then Late Triassic volcano-plutonic centres in the same location in the South American margin

  16. In Spaces of Marginalization: Dispossession, Incorporation, and Resistance in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Z. Kaup

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarship conceptualizing primitive accumulation as an ongoing process in global capitalism has noted the difficulties faced in bringing struggles against exploitation and dispossession together. While some scholars suggest that an 'organic link" exists between these conflicts. they have yet to clearly specify the conditions and mechanisms through which such a link can form. Examining cases in Bolivia at the turn of the twenty-first century. I argue that struggles against exploitation and dispossession do not merely converge when facing a common oppressor. but also as the changing forms and geographies of exploitation and dispossession bring people together in more proximate locations. I illustrate that the changing means through which Bolivia was incorporated into the global economy enhanced levels of marginalization and subsequently resulted in patterns of migration that led to a convergence of peasant and proletarian struggles. As both segments of Bolivian society were excluded from the country's major economic sectors. they migrated to the places where they thought they could best satisfy their livelihood needs. But as people continually struggled to meet these needs, these places became spaces of marginalization, and eventually, spaces of resistance.

  17. Beating the Heat: Magmatism in the Low-Temperature Thermochronologic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.; Reiners, P. W.; Braun, J.; Karlstrom, L.; Morriss, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The low-temperature thermochronology community was quick to recognize upper-crustal complexities in the geotherm that reflect landscape evolution, but the complex effects of crustal magmatism on thermochronometers can be difficult to independently document and remain underexplored. Because magmatism is common in many regions central to our understanding of tectonics, this is a significant gap in our ability to robustly interpret rock cooling. Here, we use several different numerical approaches to examine how local and regional crustal magmatism affects cooling age patterns and present examples from the western US that demonstrate the importance—and utility—of considering these effects. We modified the finite-element code Pecube to calculate how thermochronometers document the emplacement of simple hot bodies at different crustal levels. Results demonstrate the potential for mid-crustal plutons, emplaced at 10-15 km depth, to reset cooling ages in the overlying rocks at partial-retention depths at the time of magmatism. Permo-Triassic sandstones from the Colorado Plateau's Canyonlands region have apatite cooling ages that exemplify the resulting ambiguity: Oligocene rock cooling can be attributed to either 1 km of erosion or relaxation of a geothermal gradient transiently doubled by mid-crustal magmatism. Despite these complexities, there are compelling reasons to target rocks with magmatic histories. Shallowly emplaced plutons can usefully reset cooling ages in country rocks with protracted near-surface histories, as we have demonstrated in the Colorado Plateau's Henry Mountains. Cooling age patterns are also useful for quantifying magmatic processes themselves. In an ongoing project, we use the pattern of thermochronometer resetting around individual dikes that fed the Columbia River flood basalts, which are exposed in the Wallowa Mountains, to identify long-lived feeder dikes and model their thermal aureoles to further constrain eruptive dynamics. The pattern

  18. Some problems of geologic relations between the Amazon craton and east margins fold belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.F.M. de

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with some geologic problems related to the limits between the Amazon craton and the fold belts developed at its margins during the Precambrian. These limits are diversified but clearly recognized. To the north, the Araguaia-Tocantins fold belt, of presumed Middle Proterozoic age, is separated from the cratonic block by a deep marginal fracture zone permeated by mafic and ultramafic rocks. The geologic, magmatic and aeromagnetic characteristics of this zone point out the presence of deep faults, supposed to be of Middle Proterozoic age. The southern Paraguay fold belt constitutes and accurated zone of linear structures supposed to be of Late Proterozoic development. Despite the great increase of knowledge during the last ten years many tectonic, stratigraphic and geochronologic problems remain unsolved. The aim of this paper is to point out some of these problems and suggest specific studies to solve them. (author)

  19. Impact of Magmatism on the Geodynamic Evolution of Southern Georgia on the Example of the Lesser Caucasus Artvin-Bolnisi Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadradze, Nino; Adamia, Shota; Zakariadze, Guram; Beridze, Tamara; Khutsishvili, Sophio

    2017-04-01

    The Georgian region occupies the central part of the collisional zone between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian continents and is actually a collage of lithospheric fragments of the Tethyan Ocean and its northern and southern continental margins. Magmatic evolution is an important event in the formation and development of the geological structure of Southern Georgia, where several reliably dated volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary formations are established. The region represents a modern analogue of continental collision zone, where subduction-related volcanic activity lasted from Paleozoic to the end of Paleogene. After the period of dormancy in the Early-Middle Miocene starting from the Late Miocene and as far as the end of the Pleistocene, primarily subaerial volcanic eruptions followed by formation of volcanic highlands and plateaus occurred in the reigon. The Upper Miocene to Holocene volcanic rocks are related to the transverse Van-Transcaucasian uplift and belong to post-collisional calc- alkaline basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite series. A system of island arc and intra-arc rift basins (Artvin-Bolnisi and Achara-Trialeti) have been interpreted as characteristic of the pre-collisional stage of the region development, while syn- post-collisional geodynamic events have been attributed to intracontinental stage. Outcrops of the postcollisional magmatic rocks are exposed along the boundaries of the major tectonic units of the region. The Artvin-Bolnisi unit forms the northwestern part of the Lesser Caucasus and represents an island arc domain of so called the Somkheto-Karabakh Island Arc or Baiburt-Garabagh-Kapan belt. It was formed mainly during the Jurassic-Eocene time interval on the southern margin of the Eurasian plate by nort-dipping subduction of the Neotethys Ocean and subsequent collision to the Anatolia-Iranian continental plate. The Artvin-Bolnisi unit, including the Bolnisi district, was developing as a relatively uplifted island arc-type unit

  20. Arachania, A neo proterozoic magmatic arc and its fragments in south America and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Bossi, J.; Frimmel, H.

    2010-01-01

    The name Arachania has been recently proposed for the block that comprises the Cuchilla Dionisio-Pelotas, Marmora, Tygerberg and correlative terranes at both sides of the south Atlantic, which is considered a fragment of the Kalahari Craton that a later stage (660-550 Ma) evolved into an active margin. The block played a key role in the amalgamation of southwestern Gondwana, which has been only recently recognized. Arachania is composed of three different lithotectonic elements: (1) a high-grade metamorphic basement of Namaquan age with evidence of older, Eburnean components that crop out mainly in southern Uruguay; (2) a voluminous calc alkaline granitic batholith s mostly within the 660-550 Ma age range, representing the roots of a Neo proterozoic magmatic arc; and (3) deep-water, turbiditic, Ediacaran sedimentary successions marking the eastern border of Arachania, often associated with mafic to ultramafic rocks

  1. Early Permian intrusions of the Alai range: Understanding tectonic settings of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the South Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, D.; Wilde, S. A.; Seltmann, R.; Romer, R. L.; Biske, Yu. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data as well as the results of single grain U-Pb zircon dating for ten granitoid and alkaline intrusions of the Alai segment of Kyrgyz South Tien Shan (STS). The intrusions comprise four geochemically contrasting series or suites, including (1) I-type and (2) shoshonitic granitoids, (3) peraluminous granitoids including S-type leucogranites and (4) alkaline rocks and carbonatites, closely associated in space. New geochronological data indicate that these diverse magmatic series of the Alai segment formed in a post-collisional setting. Five single grain U-Pb zircon ages in the range 287-281 Ma, in combination with published ages, define the main post-collisional magmatic pulse at 290-280 Ma, which is similar to ages of post-collisional intrusions elsewhere in the STS. An age of 287 ± 4 Ma, obtained for peraluminous graniodiorite of the Liayliak massif, emplaced in amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Zeravshan-Alai block, is indistinguishable from ca. 290 Ma age of peraluminous granitoids emplaced coevally with Barrovian-type metamorphism in the Garm block, located ca. 40 km south-west of the research area. The Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of the studied intrusions are consistent with the reworking of crustal material with 1.6-1.1 Ga average crustal residence times, indicating the formation of the Alai segment on a continental basement with Mesoproterozoic or older crust. The pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the Alai segment, characterized by emplacement of I-type and shoshoninitic granitoids in combination with coeval Barrovian-type metamorphism, is markedly different from the pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the adjacent Kokshaal segment of the STS with predominant A-type granitoids that formed on a former passive margin of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that during the middle-late Carboniferous the Alai segment probably comprised a microcontinent with Precambrian basement located between

  2. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  3. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  4. The Designated Convergence Rate Problems of Consensus or Flocking of Double-Integrator Agents With General Nonequal Velocity and Position Couplings: Further Results and Patterns of Convergence Rate Contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers the designated convergence rate (DCR) (or the designated convergence margin) problems of consensus or flocking of coupled double-integrator agents. The DCR problems are more valuable for systems design than just convergence or stability conditions. The system setting in this paper is general, i.e., the velocity coupling and position coupling (VCPC) between agents, respectively, are set to be general and nonequal (up to rescaling), together with distinct damping and stiffness gains for the VCPC, respectively. This paper has two primary contributions on consensus: 1) further necessary and sufficient conditions are established to guarantee the DCR problems of the system, which have enriched the previous results and 2) the patterns of the convergence rate contours for the DCR are characterized, in terms of the damping and stiffness gains, which are closely related to the characteristics of the spectra of the two Laplacian matrices of the VCPC. Additionally, this paper has a contribution on matrix theory, i.e., the sufficient conditions for the simultaneous upper-triangularization of two independent Laplacian matrices, particularly from an easily verifiable topological perspective on the corresponding digraphs of these Laplacian matrices.

  5. Convergence accommodation to convergence CA/C ratio: convergence versus divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joshua M; Firth, Alison Y

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio during divergence with base-in (BI) prisms is of a similar or different magnitude to that measured during convergence with base-out (BO) prisms. Eighteen participants with normal binocular single vision were recruited. The participants viewed a pseudo-Gaussian target, which consisted of a light emitting diode (LED) behind a diffusing screen at 40 cm. After 5 minutes of dark adaptation, the refractive status of the eye was measured without any prism using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor. The participant held the selected prism (5Δ or 10Δ BO or BI, counterbalanced) in front of their right eye and obtained a single, fused image of the target while refractive measures were taken with each. A 30-second rest period was given between measurements. The mean age of the participants was 20.6±3.22 years. The mean CA/C ratios for the 5Δ BO, 10Δ BO, 5Δ BI, and 10Δ BI were 0.108 (±0.074) D/Δ, 0.110 (±0.056) D/Δ, 0.100 (±0.090) D/Δ, and 0.089 (±0.055) D/Δ, respectively. A 2-factor repeated measures ANOVA found that the CA/C ratio did not significantly change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence (p=0.649). Change in accommodation induced by manipulating vergence is similar whether convergence or divergence are induced. The CA/C ratio did not show any change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence.

  6. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shervais; J. Evans; V. Toy; J. Kirkpatrick; A. Clarke; J. Eichelberger

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park C...

  7. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.

    2016-02-01

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  8. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2016-01-23

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  9. Active Magmatic Underplating in Western Eger Rift, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Bräuer, Karin; Vavryčuk, Václav; Tomek, Čestmír.; Kämpf, Horst

    2017-12-01

    The Eger Rift is an active element of the European Cenozoic Rift System associated with intense Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanism and system of sedimentary basins. The intracontinental Cheb Basin at its western part displays geodynamic activity with fluid emanations, persistent seismicity, Cenozoic volcanism, and neotectonic crustal movements at the intersections of major intraplate faults. In this paper, we study detailed geometry of the crust/mantle boundary and its possible origin in the western Eger Rift. We review existing seismic and seismological studies, provide new interpretation of the reflection profile 9HR, and supplement it by new results from local seismicity. We identify significant lateral variations of the high-velocity lower crust and relate them to the distribution and chemical status of mantle-derived fluids and to xenolith studies from corresponding depths. New interpretation based on combined seismic and isotope study points to a local-scale magmatic emplacement at the base of the continental crust within a new rift environment. This concept of magmatic underplating is supported by detecting two types of the lower crust: a high-velocity lower crust with pronounced reflectivity and a high-velocity reflection-free lower crust. The character of the underplated material enables to differentiate timing and tectonic setting of two episodes with different times of origin of underplating events. The lower crust with high reflectivity evidences magmatic underplating west of the Eger Rift of the Late Variscan age. The reflection-free lower crust together with a strong reflector at its top at depths of 28-30 km forms a magma body indicating magmatic underplating of the late Cenozoic (middle and upper Miocene) to recent. Spatial and temporal relations to recent geodynamic processes suggest active magmatic underplating in the intracontinental setting.

  10. An Andean-type retro-arc foreland system beneath northwest South China revealed by SINOPROBE profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Dong, Shuwen; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhao, Guochun; Johnston, Stephen T.; Zhang, Yueqiao; Xin, Yujia

    2018-05-01

    In the Mesozoic, South China was situated along the convergent margin between the Asian and Pacific plates, providing an excellent laboratory to understand the interactions between deformation, sedimentation and magmatism in a retroarc environment. The crustal architecture of northwest South China is displayed along the ∼600-km-long SINOPROBE deep seismic reflection profiles and reveals from east to west: (1) highly folded and truncated reflectors in the upper crust of the Yangtze Fold Zone, which correspond to thin- and thick-skinned thrust systems, and document large-scale intraplate structural imbrication and shortening; (2) a crustal-scale flat-ramp-flat structure, termed the Main Yangtze decollement, which forms a weak, viscous layer to accommodate strain decoupling and material transport in the thin- and thick-skinned systems; and (3) nearly flat-lying reflectors in the Sichuan Basin, which support interpretation of the basin as a weakly deformed depocentre. The Yangtze Fold Zone and the Sichuan Basin represent a retro-arc foreland basin system that is >800 km away from the continental-margin magmatic arc. We suggest that tectonic processes across the arc and retro-arc systems, including arc magma flare-up, basin sedimentation, retroarc thrust propagation, lithosphere underthrusting, root foundering, and extension-related magmatism were interrelated and governed mass transfer. Age data and geological relations link the tectonic processes to evolving geodynamics of the subducting Paleo-Pacific plate.

  11. Petrology, chronology and sequence of vein systems: Systematic magmatic and hydrothermal history of a major intracontinental shear zone, Canadian Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; McFarlane, Chris R. M.; Sangster, Chris; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Boucher, Brandon

    2018-04-01

    Intra-continental shear zones developed during continental collision may experience prolonged magmatism and mineralization. The Cobequid Shear Zone formed part of a NE-SW-trending, orogen-parallel shear system in the late Devonian-early Carboniferous, where syn-tectonic granite-gabbro plutons and volcanic rocks 4 km thick were progressively deformed. In late Carboniferous to Permian, Alleghanian collision of Africa with Laurentia formed the E-W trending Minas Fault Zone, reactivating parts of the Cobequid Shear Zone. The 50 Ma history of hydrothermal mineralization following pluton emplacement is difficult to resolve from field relationships of veins, but SEM study of thin sections provides clear detail on the sequence of mineralization. The general paragenesis is: albite ± quartz ± chlorite ± monazite → biotite → calcite, allanite, pyrite → Fe-carbonates, Fe-oxides, minor sulfides, calcite and synchysite. Chronology was determined from literature reports and new U-Pb LA-ICPMS dating of monazite and allanite in veins. Vein mineralization was closely linked to magmatic events. Vein emplacement occurred preferentially during fault movement recognised from basin-margin inversion, as a result of fractures opening in the damage zone of master faults. The sequence of mineralization, from ca. 355 Ma riebeckite and albite veins to ca. 327 (-305?) Ma siderite-magnetite and sulfide mineralization, resembles Precambrian iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) systems in the literature. The abundant magmatic Na, halogens and CO2 in veins and some magmatic bodies, characteristic of IOCG systems, were derived from the deeply subducted Rheic Ocean slab with little terrigenous sediment. Regional extension of the Magdalen Basin caused asthenospheric upwelling and melting of the previously metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Crustal scale strike-slip faulting facilitated the rise of magmas, resulting in high heat flow driving an active hydrothermal system. Table S2

  12. Episodic normal faulting and magmatism during the syn-spreading stage of the Baiyun sag in Pearl River Mouth Basin: response to the multi-phase seafloor spreading of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Mei, Lianfu; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jinyun; Liu, Minghui; Cheng, Zijie; Guo, Fengtai

    2018-03-01

    Considerable post-breakup extensional deformation is recorded in the continental margins of the South China Sea (SCS). To recognize the nature and origin of the significant deformation during the syn-spreading stage (32-15.5 Ma) in the SCS, we comprehensively analyzed the geometry and kinematics of the faults and contemporaneous magmas in the Baiyun sag, northern margin of the SCS, using high-resolution regional three-dimensional seismic data. The kinematic analyses indicate that the faults in the Baiyun sag are recently formed following the onset of seafloor spreading in the SCS. The faults exhibit multiple episodes of growth history, with three active episodes, 32-29, 23.8-21 and 18.5-16.5 Ma, separated by periods of inactivity. Four volcanic groups comprising 98 volcanic mounds have been identified and described, located separately in the northwestern, the central, the southeastern and the northern slope areas. The occurrence of multiple palaeo-seafloors, complemented by the biostratigraphic and K-Ar dating data, reveals multiple extrusive events of the syn-spreading magmas in the Baiyun sag, with three active periods of 23.8-21, 18.5-17.5 and 17.5-16.5 Ma. This study confirms that the normal faulting has a shared genetic origin with the contemporaneous magmatism during the syn-spreading stage in the deep-offshore Baiyun sag, northern margin of the SCS. The episodic fault growth and magmatic extrusive events reveal that the Baiyun sag has undergone at least three episodic tectonic events during the syn-spreading stage, which evolved in response to the multi-stage seafloor spreading of the SCS.

  13. Japan-U. S. seminar on magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L. (U. S. Geological Survey, CA (United States)); Hedenquist, J. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)); Kesler, S. (University of Michigan, MI (United States)); Izawa, E. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-08-31

    A multidisciplinary Seminar on Magmatic Contributions to Hydrothermal Systems'' was held at Ebino and Kagoshima at Kyushu, November, 1991. The principal purpose of the Ebino/Kagoshima Seminar was to bring together a small group of individuals which have been conducting active research on magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems. The Seminar focussed on the porphyry and epithermal ore environments because of the potential to relate these environments to active volcanic and geothermal systems. Disciplines included valcanology, volcanic gas geochemistry, water geochemistry, isotope geochemistry, geochemical modeling, experimental geochemistry, igneous petrology, geothermal geology, economic geology, fluid-inclusion study, geophysics, and physical modeling. This paper summarizes the outline and significance of the Seminar. It was pointed out that understanding magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems would require augmented experimental investigations, numerical modeling, field studies, and drilling.

  14. Quantifying Arabia-Eurasia convergence accommodated in the Greater Caucasus by paleomagnetic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Rezaeian, M.; Gürer, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pastor-Galán, D.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2018-01-01

    Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate forming the Greater Caucasus orogen and the Iranian plateau, and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin forming the East Anatolian plateau and the Zagros. To quantify how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated in the Greater Caucasus region, we here provide new paleomagnetic results from 97 volcanic sites (∼500 samples) in the Talysh Mountains of NW Iran, that show ∼15° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia since the Eocene. We apply a first-order kinematic restoration of the northward convex orocline that formed to the south of the Greater Caucasus, integrating our new data with previously published constraints on rotations of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus. This suggests that north of the Talysh ∼120 km of convergence must have been accommodated. North of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus this is significantly more: 200-280 km. Our reconstruction independently confirms previous Caucasus convergence estimates. Moreover, we show for the first time a sharp contrast of convergence between the Lesser Caucasus and the Talysh. This implies that the ancient Paleozoic-Mesozoic transform plate boundary, preserved between the Iranian and East-Anatolian plateaus, was likely reactivated as a right-lateral transform fault since late Eocene time.

  15. Multiplier convergent series and uniform convergence of mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 14 April 2011; revised 17 November 2012. Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the frame property of complex sequence sets and study the uniform convergence of nonlinear mapping series in β-dual of spaces consisting of multiplier convergent series. Keywords. Multiplier convergent series; mapping series. 1.

  16. Post-magmatic tectonic deformation of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc system: initial results of IODP Expedition 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Walter; Ferré, Eric C.; Robertson, Alastair; Avery, Aaron; Christeson, Gail L.; Morgan, Sally; Kutterorf, Steffen; Sager, William W.; Carvallo, Claire; Shervais, John; Party IODP Expedition 352, Scientific

    2015-04-01

    IODP Expedition 352 was designed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Bonin forearc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Site survey seismic data, combined with borehole data, indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer IBM fore arc is mainly post-magmatic. Post-magmatic extension resulted in the formation of asymmetric sedimentary basins such as, for example, the half-grabens at sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442 located on the upper trench slope. Along their eastern margins these basins are bounded by west-dipping normal faults. Sedimentation was mainly syn-tectonic. The lowermost sequence of the sedimentary units was tilted eastward by ~20°. These tilted bedding planes were subsequently covered by sub-horizontally deposited sedimentary beds. Based on biostratigraphic constraints, the minimum age of the oldest sediments is ~ 35 Ma; the timing of the sedimentary unconformities lies between ~ 27 and 32 Ma. At sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441, located on the outer forearc, post-magmatic deformation resulted mainly in strike-slip faults possibly bounding the sedimentary basins. The sedimentary units within these basins were not significantly affected by post-sedimentary tectonic tilting. Biostratigraphic ages indicate that the minimum age of the basement-cover contact lies between ~29.5 and 32 Ma. Overall, the post-magmatic tectonic structures observed during Expedition 352 reveal a multiphase tectonic evolution of the outer IBM fore arc. At sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442, shear with dominant reverse to oblique reverse displacement was localized along distinct subhorizontal cataclastic shear zones as well as steeply dipping slickensides and shear fractures. These structures, forming within a contractional tectonic regime, were either re-activated as or cross-cut by normal-faults as well as strike-slip faults. Extension was also accommodated by steeply dipping to subvertical mineralized veins and

  17. Comparison of hydrothermal activity between the Adriatic and the Red Sea rift margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip; Incerpi, Nicolò; Birkle, Peter; Lacsamana, Elizabeth; Manatschal, Gianreto; Agar, Susan; Zhang, Shuo; Borsato, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Detailed field studies, and access to high-quality seismic reflection and refraction data have led to an improved understanding of the architecture and evolution of magma poor and magma rich margins. Associated with the spatial-temporal evolution of the rift, it is evident that there are evolving, extensive, fluid-rock interactions due to the infiltration of fluids within the sediment, basement and lithospheric mantle. Key questions therefore arise: What are the different fluid-rock reactions that can be typed to different geodynamic stages of the rift evolution? What are their compositions and how do they interact with their environment (basement, sediments, evaporites, hydrosphere, and magmatism)? What are the implications for the evolution of the margin rheology, thermal structure, depositional environments/organic matter maturity, and reservoir quality? The Adriatic paleo-rifted margin is preserved in both SE Switzerland and northern Italy. The field exposures provide a unique opportunity to study the fluid flow history of a hyperextended magma poor extensional margin. Analysis of breccias, cement veins and replacement minerals reveal that the margin records a complex, long-lasting history of dolomitization, calcification and silicification during the Jurassic rifting. The Red Sea by contrast is a young rifted margin. It differs from the paleo-Adriatic margin by several characteristics: volcanism is more evident, and syn-tectonic sediments, including evaporites (halite and anhydrite) are thicker. Several core and fluid samples are available from both onshore and offshore wells, which reveal rift-related hydrothermal alteration. In addition, we find evidence for the presence of an extreme dynamic hydraulic system with infiltration of surface water into sub-salt units during Late Pleistocene. In this study we present results from petrographic and geochemical analysis of basement and sedimentary rocks from Adriatic field-derived samples and core/subsurface fluid

  18. Understanding the Yellowstone magmatic system using 3D geodynamic inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B. J. P.; Reuber, G. S.; Popov, A.; Baumann, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellowstone magmatic system is one of the largest magmatic systems on Earth. Recent seismic tomography suggest that two distinct magma chambers exist: a shallow, presumably felsic chamber and a deeper much larger, partially molten, chamber above the Moho. Why melt stalls at different depth levels above the Yellowstone plume, whereas dikes cross-cut the whole lithosphere in the nearby Snake River Plane is unclear. Partly this is caused by our incomplete understanding of lithospheric scale melt ascent processes from the upper mantle to the shallow crust, which requires better constraints on the mechanics and material properties of the lithosphere.Here, we employ lithospheric-scale 2D and 3D geodynamic models adapted to Yellowstone to better understand magmatic processes in active arcs. The models have a number of (uncertain) input parameters such as the temperature and viscosity structure of the lithosphere, geometry and melt fraction of the magmatic system, while the melt content and rock densities are obtained by consistent thermodynamic modelling of whole rock data of the Yellowstone stratigraphy. As all of these parameters affect the dynamics of the lithosphere, we use the simulations to derive testable model predictions such as gravity anomalies, surface deformation rates and lithospheric stresses and compare them with observations. We incorporated it within an inversion method and perform 3D geodynamic inverse models of the Yellowstone magmatic system. An adjoint based method is used to derive the key model parameters and the factors that affect the stress field around the Yellowstone plume, locations of enhanced diking and melt accumulations. Results suggest that the plume and the magma chambers are connected with each other and that magma chamber overpressure is required to explain the surface displacement in phases of high activity above the Yellowstone magmatic system.

  19. The Interplay Between Saline Fluid Flow and Dynamic Permeability in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits document the interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability. Numerical simulations of multi-phase flow of variably miscible, compressible H20-NaCl fluids in concert with a dynamic permeability model can reproduce characteristics of porphyry copper and epithermal gold systems. This dynamic permeability model incorporates depth-dependent permeability profiles characteristic for tectonically active crust as well as pressure- and temperature-dependent relationships describing hydraulic fracturing and the transition from brittle to ductile rock behavior. In response to focused expulsion of magmatic fluids from a crystallizing upper crustal magma chamber, the hydrothermal system self-organizes into a hydrological divide, separating an inner part dominated by ascending magmatic fluids under near-lithostatic pressures from a surrounding outer part dominated by convection of colder meteoric fluids under near-hydrostatic pressures. This hydrological divide also provides a mechanism to transport magmatic salt through the crust, and prevents the hydrothermal system to become "clogged" by precipitation of solid halite due to depressurization of saline, high-temperature magmatic fluids. The same physical processes at similar permeability ranges, crustal depths and flow rates are relevant for a number of active systems, including geothermal resources and excess degassing at volcanos. The simulations further suggest that the described mechanism can separate the base of free convection in high-enthalpy geothermal systems from the magma chamber as a driving heat source by several kilometers in the vertical direction in tectonic settings with hydrous magmatism. This hydrology would be in contrast to settings with anhydrous magmatism, where the base of the geothermal systems may be closer to the magma chamber.

  20. Devonian to Early Carboniferous magmatic alkaline activity in the Tafilalt Province, Eastearn Morocco: An Eovariscan episode in the Gondwana margin, north of the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouclet, André; El Hadi, Hassan; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Benharref, Mohammed; Fekkak, Abdelilah

    2017-05-01

    To the eastern edge of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, the Tafilalt Province is the repository of a Lower Palaeozoic platform and basin sedimentation constrained by a W-E and NW-SE fault network. During the mid-late Devonian, an extensional tectonic activity, demonstrated by sharp changes in sediment thickness and development of syn-sedimentary faults, was contemporaneous with a significant magmatic activity. A great number of doleritic dykes, sills, and laccoliths intruded sedimentary Silurian to Lower Visean strata. The intrusions were linked to sub-water volcanic activities with spilitic lava flows and pyroclastites during two main pulses in the Famennian-Tournaisian and in the Early Visean. The rocks consist of basaltic dolerites, lamprophyric dolerites and analcite-bearing camptonites, sharing a sodic alkaline magma composition. The magma derived from low partial melting degree of the metasome layer of the lithospheric subcontinental mantle, below the spinel-garnet transition zone. This Tafilalt tectono-magmatic activity was coeval with the Eovariscan phase in the Moroccan Meseta, which was responsible for the opening of Western Meseta basins and their transitional to alkaline volcanic activities in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous time.

  1. Tectonic evolution of a part of the Tethyside orogenic collage: The Kargi Massif, northern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Okan

    1990-02-01

    The central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment, one of the major tectonic units in Turkey, provides critical data for evaluating the Cimmeride and Alpide evolution of the Mediterranean Tethysides. Tectonic events that affected the central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment since the end of the Paleozoic, generated east-west trending belts with the event of every episode redeforming and partly obliterating the structures of previous episodes. This evolution may be conveniently described in terms of three major episodes: (1) Two different realms of pre-Dogger oceanic rocks are present in the area. The northern realm coincided with main branch of Paleo-Tethys that was being actively destroyed by south dipping subduction. The southern realm, the Karakaya ocean, a back arc basin related to this subduction, began opening by rifting of a retroarc carbonate platform during the Permo-Triassic. To the west a continental domain with sparse magmatism seperated the two oceanic areas. Toward the east the two oceans become united by the wedging out of the continental domain. These two pre-Dogger oceans closed during the Lias, and their remnants were emplaced between the southern margin of Laurasia and the fragments of the Cimmerian continent. (2) The second episode partly overlapped the first with rifting south of the Cimmerian continent fragment during the Lias. This rifting was followed by a transgression which covered the ruins of the Cimmeride orogenic belt by the Malm. This rifting concurrently led to the development of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys and a south facing Atlantic-type continental margin. A southerly thickening sedimentary prism developed on this margin during the Lias to early Cretaceous interval. (3) The floor of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys began to be consumed along the north dipping subduction zone beneath the previosly constructed continental margin. This convergent margin generated a magmatic arc to the north and to the south a subduction

  2. Passive margins getting squeezed in the mantle convection vice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Becker, Thorsten W.; Pedoja, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Passive margins often exhibit uplift, exhumation and tectonic inversion. We speculate that the compression in the lithosphere gradually increased during the Cenozoic. In the same time, the many mountain belts at active margins that accompany this event seem readily witness this increase. However, how that compression increase affects passive margins remains unclear. In order to address this issue, we design a 2D viscous numerical model wherein a lithospheric plate rests above a weaker mantle. It is driven by a mantle conveyor belt, alternatively excited by a lateral downwelling on one side, an upwelling on the other side, or both simultaneously. The lateral edges of the plate are either free or fixed, representing the cases of free convergence, and collision or slab anchoring, respectively. This distinction changes the upper boundary condition for mantle circulation and, as a consequence, the stress field. Our results show that between these two regimes, the flow pattern transiently evolves from a free-slip convection mode towards a no-slip boundary condition above the upper mantle. In the second case, the lithosphere is highly stressed horizontally and deforms. For an equivalent bulk driving force, compression increases drastically at passive margins provided that upwellings are active. Conversely, if downwellings alone are activated, compression occurs at short distances from the trench and extension prevails elsewhere. These results are supported by Earth-like 3D spherical models that reveal the same pattern, where active upwellings are required to excite passive margins compression. These results support the idea that compression at passive margins, is the response to the underlying mantle flow, that is increasingly resisted by the Cenozoic collisions.

  3. History of the Magmatic Feeding System of the Campi Flegrei Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, G.; Civetta, L.; Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; di Renzo, V.; di Vito, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The definition of the magmatic feeding system of active volcanoes, in terms of composition, time-scale of crystallization, relation between composition of the erupted magma and structural position of vents, magma chamber processes and architecture, is of extreme importance for the hazard evaluation. The studies that are carried out for the definition of the magmatic systems include detailed mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic analyses (Sr, Nd, Pb). The Campi Flegrei caldera magmatic structure is characterized by deep and shallow magma chambers. In the deep reservoir (20-10 km depth) mantle derived magmas differentiate and are contaminated with continental crust. In the shallow reservoirs isotopically distinct magmas further differentiate, mix and mingle before the eruptions. These processes generated isotopically distinct components that were variably involved along different structures of the Campi Flegrei caldera during time. At Campi Flegrei caldera the relation between the structural position of the eruptive vent, for the last 14 ka of activity, and the isotopic composition of the emitted magma allow us to reconstruct the architecture of the magmatic feeding system and to infer the chemical and isotopic composition, and the magma chamber location and processes, of the future eruption, according to the position of the vent

  4. Influence of margin segmentation and anomalous volcanism upon the break-up of the Hatton Bank rifted margin, west of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G. M.; Parson, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Hatton Bank margin, flanking the Iceland Basin is a widely cited example of a volcanic rifted margin. Prior to this study insights into the break-up history of the margin have been limited to profiles in the north and south, yet whilst valuable, the along margin tectono-magmatic variability has not been revealed. Over 5660 line km of high quality reflection seismic profiles with supplementary multibeam bathymetry were collected to support the UK's claim to Hatton region under the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Integration of this new data with existing profiles, allowed the margin to be divided into three segments, each of which are flanked by oceanic crust with a smooth upper surface and internal dipping reflectors. The southernmost segment is characterised by a series of inner and outer seaward dipping reflector (SDR) packages, which are separated by an outer high feature. The outer SDR are truncated by Endymion Spur, a chain of steep sided, late stage volcanic cones linked with necks. The central sector has no inner SDR package and is characterised by the presence of a highly intruded continental block, the Hatton Bank Block (HBB). The northern sector is adjacent to Lousy Bank, with a wider region of SDR recognised than to the south and a high amount of volcanic cones imaged. The variations in the distribution of the SDR's along the margin, the presence of the HBB and Endymion Spur all suggest that the break-up process was not uniform alongstrike. The division of the margin into three sectors reveals that structural segmentation played an important role in producing the variations along the margin. Break- up initiated in the south and progressed north producing the SDR packages witnessed, when the HBB was encountered the focus of break-up moved seaward of the block. The northern sector was closer to the Iceland Hotspot and hence a greater amount of volcanism is encountered. The smooth oceanic basement also indicates a high thermal flux

  5. Variability of orogenic magmatism during Mediterranean-style continental collisions : A numerical modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrić, N.; Vogt, K.; Matenco, L.; Cvetković, V.; Cloetingh, S.; Gerya, T.

    The relationship between magma generation and the tectonic evolution of orogens during subduction and subsequent collision requires self-consistent numerical modelling approaches predicting volumes and compositions of the produced magmatic rocks. Here, we use a 2D magmatic-thermomechanical numerical

  6. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V

    2016-01-01

    -slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic

  7. Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry and tectonics during subduction and rifting in Sierra Santa Ursula, Sonora, Northwestern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora-Klepeis, G.

    2000-01-01

    The western margin of North America was affected by a convergent plate boundary from the Cretaceous through the Early Tertiary. Volcanic rocks produced by subduction-related arc magmatism in northwestern Mexico are concentrated in two northwest-trending belts subparallel to the continental margin. One of these is the Sierra Madre Occidental, where mid-Tertiary magmatism consisted mostly of calc-alkaline rhyolitic ignimbrite and minor andesite produced between ∼ 46 and 28 Ma (McDowell et al., 1990). The second (younger) northwest-trending belt is located along the eastern margin of the Baja California Peninsula and in the Gulf of California region of mainland Mexico. This belt is composed mostly of andesite, but includes some basalt and dacite whose ages range from about 24 to 11 Ma (Hausback, 1984). A transition to rifting began after a mid-Tertiary cessation of subduction, eventually creating the Gulf of California extensional province. Four markedly different magma types comprising mainly tholeiitic and alkalic rocks and minor calc-alkaline and peralkaline rocks were erupted throughout the last 13 Ma and record the history of rifting of the Gulf of California (Sawlan, 1991). The aim of the present paper is to distinguish the nature of the 24-8.5 Ma magmatism emplaced on the eastern side of the Gulf of California in the state of Sonora, by the use of stratigraphic, geochemical and isotopic data. Preliminary Sr and Nd results show that three groups of magmas are present in the area suggesting a heterogeneous source. This can be interpreted as the result of magmas being erupted at different stages of subduction and rifting during the tectonic evolution of this part on North America

  8. Red-Sea rift magmatism near Al Lith, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    A newly recognized Tertiary dike complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain record early stages of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting. Intrusive and stratigraphic relationships, and new potassium-argon dating indicate episodic magmatism from about 30 Ma to the present. Additional stratigraphic and radiometric evidence suggests that limited rift-related magmatism may have began as early as about 50 Ma ago. An early phase of crustal extension in the region was accompanied by faulting and graben formation and by dike-swarm intrusion. The style of extension and intrusion changed approximately 20 Ma ago. Localized volcanism and sheeted dike injection ceased and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dikes. This change may mark the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea.

  9. Early Palaeozoic orogenesis along the Indian margin of Gondwana: Tectonic response to Gondwana assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Peter A.; Johnson, Michael R. W.; Nemchin, Alexander A.

    2007-03-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from a peralkaline S-type Lesser Himalayan granite from the Kathmandu region, Nepal indicate an age of emplacement of 475 Ma. The granites along with metasedimentary xenoliths show a similar signature of inherited detrital zircon ages ranging from Archaean to early Palaeozoic with prominent late Mesoproterozoic (Grenvillian) and Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) age peaks and have a maximum age of 500 Ma based on the youngest detrital grains. Deformation structures in xenoliths are truncated by the granite and along with the granites are assigned to a Cambro-Ordovician orogenic event, herein termed the Bhimphedian Orogeny that can be traced across the Himalaya from Pakistan to the eastern Himalaya and possibly extends west into Afghanistan. We interpret the orogeny as being related to Andean-type orogenic activity on the northern margin of the Indian continent, following Gondwana assembly. The magmatic arc was associated with andesitic and basaltic volcanism and was active from c. 530 to 490 Ma. The arc activity overlaps with, and is succeeded by, regional deformation, crustal melting and S-type granite emplacement that extended to 470 Ma. Orogenic activity was driven by coupling across the plate margin either during on-going subduction or through accretion of microcontinental ribbons, possibly represented by the Lhasa and Qiangtang blocks. It represents the termination of an orogenic cycle, termed the North Indian Orogen that commenced with Neoproterozoic rifting and passive margin development and terminated with the Bhimphedian Orogeny. This was succeeded by a return to passive margin setting along the northern Indian margin of Gondwana which continued until the Cenozoic Himalayan Orogeny.

  10. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, Luigina; Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; De Rosa, Rosanna; Acocella, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  11. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  12. Comparison of the distribution of large magmatic centers on Earth, Venus, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanism is widely distributed over the surfaces of the major terrestrial planets: Venus, Earth, and Mars. Anomalous centers of magmatic activity occur on each planet and are characterized by evidence for unusual concentrations of volcanic centers, long-lived activity, unusual rates of effusion, extreme size of volcanic complexes, compositionally unusual magmatism, and evidence for complex geological development. The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics and distribution of these magmatic anomalies on Earth, Venus, and Mars in order to assess these characteristics as they may relate to global characteristics and evolution of the terrestrial planets.

  13. Geochemical modeling of magmatic gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gambardella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2 was successfully used to model scrubbing of magmatic gas by pure water at 0.1 MPa, in the liquid and liquid-plus-gas regions. Some post-calculations were necessary to account for gas separation effects. In these post-calculations, redox potential was considered to be fixed by precipitation of crystalline a-sulfur, a ubiquitous and precocious process. As geochemical modeling is constrained by conservation of enthalpy upon water-gas mixing, the enthalpies of the gas species of interest were reviewed, adopting as reference state the liquid phase at the triple point. Our results confirm that significant emissions of highly acidic gas species (SO2(g, HCl(g, and HF(g are prevented by scrubbing, until dry conditions are established, at least locally. Nevertheless important outgassing of HCl(g can take place from acid, HCl-rich brines. Moreover, these findings support the rule of thumb which is generally used to distinguish SO2-, HCl-, and HF-bearing magmatic gases from SO2-, HCl-, and HF-free hydrothermal gases.

  14. The Magmatic Plumbing System of the Campi Flegrei Caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, C.; Ilenia, A.; Massimo, D.; Valeria, D.; Mauro, D.; Giovanni, O.

    2006-12-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera is a nested and resurgent structure generated by at least two major collapses. Large sectors of the structural boundary of both calderas resulted from partial reactivation of pre-existing faults generated by regional tectonism. Its magmatic system is still active with the last eruption occurring in 1538 A.D. (Monte Nuovo), widespread fumaroles and hot springs activity, and the unrest episodes in the last 35 years, with a maximum net uplift of about 3.5 m in the Pozzuoli area. The definition of the history of the magmatic feeding system of this caldera, in terms of composition, time- scale and depth of crystallization, relation between composition of the erupted magma and structural position of the vent, and magma chamber processes, is of extreme importance for a better understanding of the dynamic conditions of the present day magma chamber and for evaluating of the extent to which the behavior of the magmatic system can be predicted. The Campi Flegrei caldera magmatic plumbing system is characterized by deep and shallow reservoirs. Campi Flegrei magmas originated in a subduction modified mantle source, stagnate at mid crustal level (20- 10 km depth), where they differentiated and are contaminated with the continental crust. From the "deep reservoir" shoshonitic to latitic magmas rise towards the surface along the NE aligned regional fault reactivated during the caldera collapse, whereas trachytic magmas rise mostly along faults and fractures bordering the resurgent block and the southern part of the Campi Flegrei caldera. Repeated arrival of trachytic to phonolitic magmas form shallow reservoirs at 4-3 km depth, in which differentiation and mixing processes occur before and during the eruption.

  15. Failed magmatic eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, S.C.; Newhall, C.; Roman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    When a volcano becomes restless, a primary question is whether the unrest will lead to an eruption. Here we recognize four possible outcomes of a magmatic intrusion: "deep intrusion", "shallow intrusion", "sluggish/viscous magmatic eruption", and "rapid, often explosive magmatic eruption". We define "failed eruptions" as instances in which magma reaches but does not pass the "shallow intrusion" stage, i. e., when magma gets close to, but does not reach, the surface. Competing factors act to promote or hinder the eventual eruption of a magma intrusion. Fresh intrusion from depth, high magma gas content, rapid ascent rates that leave little time for enroute degassing, opening of pathways, and sudden decompression near the surface all act to promote eruption, whereas decreased magma supply from depth, slow ascent, significant enroute degassing and associated increases in viscosity, and impingement on structural barriers all act to hinder eruption. All of these factors interact in complex ways with variable results, but often cause magma to stall at some depth before reaching the surface. Although certain precursory phenomena, such as rapidly escalating seismic swarms or rates of degassing or deformation, are good indicators that an eruption is likely, such phenomena have also been observed in association with intrusions that have ultimately failed to erupt. A perpetual difficulty with quantifying the probability of eruption is a lack of data, particularly on instances of failed eruptions. This difficulty is being addressed in part through the WOVOdat database. Papers in this volume will be an additional resource for scientists grappling with the issue of whether or not an episode of unrest will lead to a magmatic eruption.

  16. Cenozoic deformation from the Yakutat-North American collision to the eastern margin of the Northern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkelmann, E.

    2017-12-01

    The western margin of the Northern Cordillera of North America is dominated by transform motion of the Yakutat microplate along the Fairweather fault system. In southeast Alaska the transform boundary changes to convergence and the oblique collision of the buoyant Yakutat microplate formed the St. Elias Mountains. One of the outstanding questions in understanding the St. Elias orogeny is how stress from the plate boundary has been transferred inboard and distributed strain in the North American plate. The timing, amount, and spatial pattern of deformation and rock exhumation have been studied using multiple thermochronology methods. Together the data reveal that Late Cenozoic deformation inboard of the Fairweather Fault and the colliding Yakutat plate corner at the St. Elias syntaxis was spatially very limited, resulting in rock exhumation within a cooling associated with Cordilleran deformation, and Paleocene-Eocene cooling due to spreading-ridge subduction. In contrast, the region west of the St. Elias syntaxis is dominated by convergence, which resulted in significant Cenozoic deformation in southeastern and southern Alaska. In the St. Elias orogen itself, most of the Late Cenozoic deformation and exhumation occurs within the Yakutat microplate and its Cenozoic sedimentary cover that composes the fold-thrust belt. The efficient interaction between tectonic uplift and glacial erosion resulted in rapid exhumation (>1 km/Myr) and extreme rates (4 km/Myr) that are localized at the syntaxis region and have shifted southward over the past 10 Myr. Far-field deformation reaches more than 500 km to the northwest of the convergent margin and caused mountain building in south-central Alaska. Deformation to the northeast is unclear. New thermochronology data from the eastern margin of the Northern Canadian Cordillera (Northwest Territory) reveal exhumation during the Oligocene to early Miocene. At this time, transform motion was already dominating the plate margin in the

  17. ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION SIGMA AND BETA CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begu Liviu-Stelian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Real convergence study began with the development of neoclassical models of growth and especially with the passage of econometric applications of these models. In this paper we present applications of indicators and patterns of convergence on the example of European Union member countries and some current economic impact assessments on European convergence process. This analysis is based on the estimated a- and b convergence and on Markov chains. The study deals with the economic convergence of the European countries and especially the convergence of the EU countries, including Romania. In the end of the study presents several economic scenarios for a faster and easier exit from the current crisis in Romania.

  18. Correlation between margin fit and microleakage in complete crowns cemented with three luting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Orlato Rossetti

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Microleakage can be related to margin misfit. Also, traditional microleakage techniques are time-consuming. This study evaluated the existence of correlation between in vitro margin fit and a new microleakage technique for complete crowns cemented with 3 different luting agents. Thirty human premolars were prepared for full-coverage crowns with a convergence angle of 6 degrees, chamfer margin of 1.2 mm circumferentially, and occlusal reduction of 1.5 mm. Ni-Cr cast crowns were cemented with either zinc phosphate (ZP (S.S. White, resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI (Rely X Luting Cement or a resin-based luting agent (RC (Enforce. Margin fit (seating discrepancy and margin gap was evaluated according to criteria in the literature under microscope with 0.001 mm accuracy. After thermal cycling, crowns were longitudinally sectioned and microleakage scores at tooth-cement interface were obtained and recorded at ×100 magnification. Margin fit parameters were compared with the one-way ANOVA test and microleakage scores with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (alpha=0.05. Correlation between margin fit and microleakage was analyzed with the Spearman's test (alpha=0.05. Seating discrepancy and marginal gap values ranged from 81.82 µm to 137.22 µm (p=0.117, and from 75.42 µm to 78.49 µm (p=0.940, respectively. Marginal microleakage scores were ZP=3.02, RMGI=0.35 and RC=0.12 (p0.05. Conclusion: Margin fit parameters and microleakage showed no strong correlations; cast crowns cemented with RMGI and RC had lower microleakage scores than ZP cement.

  19. The Agendas of Distance Teaching Universities: Moving from the Margins to the Center Stage of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    Examined from a comparative perspective the extent to which the agendas of distance teaching universities have moved from the margins to the center stage of higher education. Demonstrates that the boundaries between distance and campus universities are blurring and converging, and that future relations between them will be marked by competition…

  20. Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.

  1. Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C.

    2016-01-01

    Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.

  2. History of the magmatic feeding system of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, L.; Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; di Renzo, V.; di Vito, M. A.; Orsi, G.

    2007-05-01

    The definition of the magmatic feeding system of active volcanoes in terms of architecture, composition, crystallization time-scale, relationships between composition of the erupted magmas and structural position of the vents, and magma processes, is of paramount importance for volcanic hazards evaluation. Investigations aimed at defining the Campi Flegeri magmatic system, include detailed mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic analyses (Sr, Nd, Pb, Th,U). The magmatic feeding system of the Campi Flegrei caldera is characterized by deep and shallow magma reservoirs. In the deep reservoirs (20-10 km depth) mantle- derived magmas differentiated and were contaminated by continental crust. In the shallow reservoirs isotopically distinct magmas, further differentiated, contaminated, and mixed and mingled before eruptions. These processes generated isotopically distinct components, variably interacting with the different structural elements of the Campi Flegrei caldera through time. The relationships between the structural position of the eruption vents, during the last 15 ka of activity, and the isotopic composition of the magmas erupted at the Campi Flegrei caldera allow us to reconstruct the architecture of the magmatic feeding system and to infer the chemical and isotopic composition of the magma feeding a future eruption, according to vent position.

  3. Tectonic Mechanism for the Mid-Cretaceous - Early Paleogene Intraplate Magmatism from the Gulf of Mexico to Northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Murphy, M. A.; Snow, J. E.; van Wijk, J.; Cannon, J. M.; Parsons, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic mechanisms have remained controversial for a number of intraplate igneous suites of mid-Cretaceous - early Paleogene age across North America. They span the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), through Arkansas and Kansas in the US, to Saskatchewan and Northwestern Territories in Canada, resembling a belt that is located 1000+ km inboard from, and aligned sub-parallel to, the western margin of North America. The northern GoM magmatism is characterized by lamproites, carbonatites, nephelinites, with other alkaline rocks, whereas the rest igneous provinces are dominated by kimberlites. Their geochemical signatures, in general, point to a sub-lithospheric mantle origin. Hypotheses that explain the tectonic origin of these magmatic rocks include: (1) hotspots and mantle plumes, (2) edge-driven convection, (3) lithospheric reactivation, and (4) low-angle subduction. Evaluation based on our integration of published geological and geophysical data shows that contradictions exist in each model between observations and predictions. To explain this plate-scale phenomenon, we propose that the Farallon slab may have stagnated within or around the mantle transition zone during the Early Cretaceous, with its leading edge reaching ca. 1600 km inland beneath the North American plate. Dehydration and decarbonation of the slab produces sporadic, dense, low-degree partial melts at the mantle transition zone depths. As the slab descends into the lower mantle, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are induced at slab edges, causing passive upwelling that brings alkali-rich carbonate silicate melts to the base of the overriding plate. Subsequently, the North American lithosphere with varying thicknesses, discontinuities, and compositions interacts with the rising partial melts, generating a spectrum of igneous rocks. Fragments of the once-stagnated slab may still be detectable in the lower mantle beneath eastern US in seismic tomography models. This study highlights a profound plate

  4. Geomorphology and Neogene tectonic evolution of the Palomares continental margin (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de la Peña, Laura; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Muñoz, Araceli; Acosta, Juan; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; R. Ranero, César; Uchupi, Elazar

    2016-10-01

    The Palomares continental margin is located in the southeastern part of Spain. The margin main structure was formed during Miocene times, and it is currently part of the wide deformation zone characterizing the region between the Iberian and African plates, where no well-defined plate boundary occurs. The convergence between these two plates is here accommodated by several structures, including the left lateral strike-slip Palomares Fault. The region is characterized by sparse, low to moderate magnitude (Mw shallow instrumental earthquakes, although large historical events have also occurred. To understand the recent tectonic history of the margin we analyze new high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and re-processed three multichannel seismic reflection profiles crossing the main structures. The analysis of seafloor morphology and associated subsurface structure provides new insights of the active tectonic features of the area. In contrast to other segments of the southeastern Iberian margin, the Palomares margin contains numerous large and comparatively closely spaced canyons with heads that reach near the coast. The margin relief is also characterized by the presence of three prominent igneous submarine ridges that include the Aguilas, Abubacer and Maimonides highs. Erosive processes evidenced by a number of scars, slope failures, gullies and canyon incisions shape the present-day relief of the Palomares margin. Seismic images reveal the deep structure distinguishing between Miocene structures related to the formation of the margin and currently active features, some of which may reactivate inherited structures. The structure of the margin started with an extensional phase accompanied by volcanic accretion during the Serravallian, followed by a compressional pulse that started during the Latemost Tortonian. Nowadays, tectonic activity offshore is subdued and limited to few, minor faults, in comparison with the activity recorded onshore. The deep Algero

  5. Field and geochemical constraints on the relationship between the Apoteri basalts (northern Brazil, southwestern Guyana) and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Viter M.; Santos, João Orestes S.; Ronchi, Luiz H.; Hartmann, Léo A.; Bicudo, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    In northern Brazil, Roraima state and southwestern Guyana, basalt flows characterized by inflated pahoehoe structure occur along the margins of the Tacutu Rift Valley, dykes intrude the Paleoproterozoic basement close to the boundary of the rift system with concordant, NE-trend. The dykes and flows belong to Apoteri magmatism. New field, geochemical data (major, trace and rare-earth elements) and chemical stratigraphy of the Apoteri magmatism indicate petrographic and chemical homogeneity characteristic of continental tholeiitic basalts. The basalt flows of Morro Redondo and Nova Olinda sites show two distinct chemical groups: a) the lower flows with intermediate TiO2 content (ITi group) ranging from 1.09 to 1.41 wt%, MgO (5.64-6.46 wt%) and Ni (43-53 ppm) contents; and b) the upper flows with lower TiO2 content (LTi group) = 0.75 to 0.78 wt%, higher MgO = 7.95-8.85 wt% and Ni = 105-115 ppm. The two magma types share many characteristics in high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE), but in detail significant differences exist in REE ratios, e.g. (La/Yb)N of ∼4.0 for ITi and 3.2 for LTi and this may be explained by fractional crystallization. The chemical compositions of the Apoteri dykes are similar the ITi group analyses, suggesting that they have the same origin. The La/Ba versus La/Nb diagram is indicative of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and LILE/HFSE fractionation in the mantle source, and the data favor a dominant subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) component in the origin of the Apoteri flows and dykes. These data show consistent similar chemical characteristics and correspond to other tholeiitic flows from the large Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), especially eastern USA.

  6. IT-BT convergence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  7. Geochronology and Geochemistry of a Late Cretaceous Granitoid Suite, Santa Rosa Range, Nevada: Linking Arc Magmatism in Northwestern Nevada to the Sierra Nevada Batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K.; Stuck, R.; Hart, W. K.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the Mesozoic, an arc-trench system dominated the western margin of North America. One of the principal records of this system’s evolution is a discontinuous alignment of deeply eroded batholiths, which represent the once-active roots of ancient volcanic systems. Although these batholiths extend from Alaska to Mexico, there is a prominent (~500 km) gap located in present-day Nevada that contains scattered plutons that are hypothesized to be similar in age and origin to the larger batholiths. The current understanding of these isolated plutons, however, remains limited to regional isotopic studies aimed at identifying major crustal boundaries and structural studies focused on emplacement mechanisms. Therefore, detailed petrogenetic studies of the plutons exposed within the Santa Rosa Range (SRR) of NW Nevada will better characterize magmatism in this region, placing them within a regional context that explores the hypothesized links between the intrusions of NW Nevada to the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB). A compilation of published geochronology from this region shows that plutons in the SRR are broadly coeval with the Cathedral Range Intrusive Epoch (~95-83 Ma) and the Shaver Sequence (~118-105 Ma) of the SNB. Preliminary Rb-Sr geochronology from the Granite Peak stock reveals a previously unrecognized period of magmatism (ca. 85.0 Ma) in this region. Therefore, ongoing work will more completely characterize the timing of magmatic pulses in this region and their relationships to the SNB. Preliminary petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic observations suggest that two distinct compositional/textural groups exist: the Santa Rosa/ Andorno group (SRA) and Granite Peak/ Sawtooth group (GPS). The chemical and isotopic variations between the two groups suggest that they were not consanguineous. Whereas the SRA group is generally more mafic (64-72 wt% SiO2) and metaluminous, the GPS group is more felsic (72- 76 wt% SiO2) and peraluminous. This observation is

  8. Triassic arc-derived detritus in the Triassic Karakaya accretionary complex was not derived from either the S Eurasian margin (Istanbul terrane) or the N Gondwana margin (Taurides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Gerdes, Axel; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    We present new U-Pb zircon source age data for Upper Triassic sandstones of the Istanbul Terrane (S Eurasian margin) and also for Triassic sandstones of the Taurides (N Gondwana margin). The main aim is to detect and quantify the contribution of Triassic magmatism as detritus to either of these crustal blocks. This follows the recent discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Triassic sandstones of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex (Ustaömer et al. 2013; this meeting). Carboniferous (Variscan) zircon grains also form a significant detrital population, plus several more minor populations. Six sandstone samples were studied, two from the İstanbul Terrane (Bakırlıkıran Formation of the Kocaeli Triassic Basin) and four from the Tauride Autochthon (latest Triassic Üzümdere Formation and Mid-Triassic Kasımlar Formations; Beyşehir region). Detrital zircon grains were dated by the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method at Goethe University, Frankfurt. Our results do not reveal Triassic detritus in the Üzümdere Formation. The U-Pb age of the analysed zircon grains ranges from 267 Ma to 3.2 Ga. A small fraction of Palaeozoic zircons are Permian (267 to 296 Ma), whereas the remainder are Early Palaeozoic. Ordovician grains (4%) form two age clusters, one at ca. 450 Ma and the other at ca. 474 Ma. Cambrian-aged grains dominate the zircon population, while the second largest population is Ediacaran (576 to 642 Ma). Smaller populations occur at 909-997 Ma, 827-839 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.6 Ga. The sandstones of the Kasımlar Formation have similar zircon age cluster to those of the somewhat younger Üzümdere Formation, ranging from 239 Ma to 2.9 Ga. A few grains gave Anisian ages. Cambrian zircon grains are less pronounced than in the Kasımlar Formation compared to the Üzümdere Formation. The detrital zircon record of Tauride sandstones, therefore, not indicates significant contribution

  9. Seismic tomographic constraints on plate-tectonic reconstructions of Nazca subduction under South America since late Cretaceous (˜80 Ma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. W.; Wu, J.; Suppe, J.

    2017-12-01

    Global seismic tomography has provided new and increasingly higher resolution constraints on subducted lithospheric remnants in terms of their position, depth, and volumes. In this study we aim to link tomographic slab anomalies in the mantle under South America to Andean geology using methods to unfold (i.e. structurally restore) slabs back to earth surface and input them to globally consistent plate reconstructions (Wu et al., 2016). The Andean margin of South America has long been interpreted as a classic example of a continuous subduction system since early Jurassic or later. However, significant gaps in Andean plate tectonic reconstructions exist due to missing or incomplete geology from extensive Nazca-South America plate convergence (i.e. >5000 km since 80 Ma). We mapped and unfolded the Nazca slab from global seismic tomography to produce a quantitative plate reconstruction of the Andes back to the late Cretaceous 80 Ma. Our plate model predicts the latest phase of Nazca subduction began in the late Cretaceous subduction after a 100 to 80 Ma plate reorganization, which is supported by Andean geology that indicates a margin-wide compressional event at the mid-late Cretaceous (Tunik et al., 2010). Our Andean plate tectonic reconstructions predict the Andean margin experienced periods of strike-slip/transtensional and even divergent plate tectonics between 80 to 55 Ma. This prediction is roughly consistent with the arc magmatism from northern Chile between 20 to 36°S that resumed at 80 Ma after a magmatic gap. Our model indicates the Andean margin only became fully convergent after 55 Ma. We provide additional constraints on pre-subduction Nazca plate paleogeography by extracting P-wave velocity perturbations within our mapped slab surfaces following Wu et al. (2016). We identified localized slow anomalies within our mapped Nazca slab that apparently show the size and position of the subducted Nazca ridge, Carnegie ridge and the hypothesized Inca plateau

  10. Continental transform margins : state of art and future milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Transform faults were defined 45 years ago as ‘a new class of fault' (Wilson, 1965), and transform margins were consequently individualized as a new class of continental margins. While transform margins represent 20 to 25 % of the total length of continent-ocean transitions, they were poorly studied, especially when compared with the amount of data, interpretations, models and conceptual progress accumulated on divergent or convergent continental margins. The best studied examples of transform margins are located in the northern part of Norway, south of South Africa, in the gulf of California and on both sides of the Equatorial Atlantic. Here is located the Côte d'Ivoire - Ghana margin, where the more complete data set was acquired, based on numerous geological and geophysical cruises, including ODP Leg 159. The first models that encompassed the structure and evolution of transform margins were mainly driven by plate kinematic reconstructions, and evidenced the diachronic end of tectonic activity and the non-cylindrical character of these margins, with a decreasing strike-slip deformation from the convex to the concave divergent-transform intersections. Further thermo-mechanical models were more specifically designed to explain the vertical displacements along transform margins, and especially the occurrence of high-standing marginal ridges. These thermo-mechanical models involved either heat transfer from oceanic to continental lithospheres across the transform faults or tectonically- or gravity-driven mass transfer in the upper crust. These models were far from fully fit observations, and were frequently dedicated to specific example, and not easily generalizable. Future work on transform continental margins may be expected to fill some scientific gaps, and the definition of working directions can benefit from the studies dedicated to other types of margins. At regional scale the structural and sedimentological variability of transform continental margins has

  11. Discovery of a Triassic magmatic arc source for the Permo-Triassic Karakaya subduction complex, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Ustaömer, Timur; Gerdes, Axel; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Zulauf, Gernold

    2014-05-01

    The Permo-Triassic Karakaya Complex is well explained by northward subduction of Palaeotethys but until now no corresponding magmatic arc has been identified in the region. With the aim of determining the compositions and ages of the source units, ten sandstone samples were collected from the mappably distinct Ortaoba, Hodul, Kendirli and Orhanlar Units. Zircon grains were extracted from these sandstones and >1300 were dated by the U-Pb method and subsequently analysed for the Lu-Hf isotopic compositions by LA-MC-ICPMS at Goethe University, Frankfurt. The U-Pb-Hf isotope systematics are indicative of two different sediment provenances. The first, represented by the Ortaoba, Hodul and Kendirli Units, is dominated by igneous rocks of Triassic (250-220 Ma), Early Carboniferous-Early Permian (290-340 Ma) and Early to Mid-Devonian (385-400 Ma) ages. The second provenance, represented by the Orhanlar Unit, is indicative of derivation from a peri-Gondwanan terrane. In case of the first provenance, the Devonian and Carboniferous source rocks exibit intermediate eHf(t) values (-11 to -3), consistent with the formation at a continental margin where juvenile mantle-derived magmas mixed with (recycled) old crust having Palaeoproterozoic Hf model ages. In contrast, the Triassic arc magma exhibits higher eHf(t) values (-6 to +6), consistent with the mixing of juvenile mantle-derived melts with (recycled) old crust perhaps somewhat rejuvanated during the Cadomian period. We have therefore identified a Triassic magmatic arc as predicted by the interpretation of the Karakaya Complex as an accretionary complex related to northward subduction (Carboniferous and Devonian granites are already well documented in NW Turkey). Possible explanations for the lack of any outcrop of the source magmatic arc are that it was later subducted or the Karakaya Complex was displaced laterally from its source arc (both post 220 Ma). Strike-slip displacement (driven by oblique subduction?) can also

  12. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bittleston, Leonora Sophia; Pierce, Naomi E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Pringle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent inter...

  13. Petrography and geochemistry of the Javaherdasht basalts (east of Guilan Province): The investigation of the role of crystal fractionation and crustal contamination in the magmatic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghnazar, Sh.; Malakotian, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Javaherdasht Basalts show compositional range from olivine basalts to quartz basaltic andesites. Petrographic studies indicate that the differentiation of clinopyroxene and olivine minerals has main role for lithologic variety of the basalts. The corrosion golf, crenated margins and lack of the same colour in the clinopyroxene phenochrysts margins with matrix Pyroxene grains express a nonequilibrium and are petrographic features for crustal contamination of the basalts.The positive correlation Ca O,Ca O/Al 2 O 3 and Cr with Mg and Ca O/Al 2 O 3 with Sc and the negative correlation Al 2 O 3 with Mg are geochemical characters for the differentiation of clinopyroxene and olivine in the magmatic evolution of the area.The high ratios of Ba/Zr and Pb/Nd and law ratio of Ce/Pb and positive correlation of SiO 2 and Rb with 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and negative correlation of Nd-Sr isotopes display the contamination of these basalts with continental crust.

  14. Modulation of magmatic processes by carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, L.; Sheldrake, T. E.; Blundy, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile solubility in magmas increases with pressure, although the solubility of CO2 is much lower than that of H2O. Consequently, magmas rising from depth release CO2-rich fluids, which inevitably interact with H2O-poor magmas in the upper crust (CO2-flushing). CO2-flushing triggers the exsolution of H2O-rich fluids, leading to an increase of volume and magma crystallisation. While the analyses of eruptive products demonstrates that this process operates in virtually all magmatic system, its impact on magmatic and volcanic processes has not been quantified. Here we show that depending on the initial magma crystallinity, and the depth of magma storage, CO2-flushing can lead to volcanic eruptions or promote conditions that favour the impulsive release of mineralising fluids. Our calculations show that the interaction between a few hundred ppm of carbonic fluids, and crystal-poor magmas stored at shallow depths, produces rapid pressurisation that can potentially lead to an eruption. Further addition of CO2 increases magma compressibility and crystallinity, reducing the potential for volcanic activity, promoting the formation of ore deposits. Increasing the depth of fluid-magma interaction dampens the impact of CO2-flushing on the pressurisation of a magma reservoir. CO2-flushing may result in surface inflation and increases in surface CO2 fluxes, which are commonly considered signs of an impending eruption, but may not necessarily result in eruption depending on the initial crystallnity and depth of the magmatic reservoir. We propose that CO2-flushing is a powerful agent modulating the pressurisation of magma reservoirs and the release of mineralising fluids from upper crustal magma reservoirs.

  15. Decreasing Magmatic Footprints of Individual Volcanos in a Waning Basaltic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A> Valentine; F.V. Perry

    2006-06-06

    The distribution and characteristics of individual basaltic volcanoes in the waning Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field provide insight into the changing physical nature of magmatism and the controls on volcano location. During Pliocene-Pleistocene times the volumes of individual volcanoes have decreased by more than one order of magnitude, as have fissure lengths and inferred lava effusion rates. Eruptions evolved from Hawaiian-style eruptions with extensive lavas to eruptions characterized by small pulses of lava and Strombolian to violent Strombolian mechanisms. These trends indicate progressively decreasing partial melting and length scales, or magmatic footprints, of mantle source zones for individual volcanoes. The location of each volcano is determined by the location of its magmatic footprint at depth, and only by shallow structural and topographic features that are within that footprint. The locations of future volcanoes in a waning system are less likely to be determined by large-scale topography or structures than were older, larger volume volcanoes.

  16. Upper Carboniferous retroarc volcanism with submarine and subaerial facies at the western Gondwana margin of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukharsky, M.; Kleiman, L.; Etcheverría, M.; Quenardelle, S.; Bercowski, F.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Carboniferous times a continental magmatic arc developed at the western margin of Gondwana in South America, as several marine sedimentary basins were formed at the same time in the retroarc region. North of 33°S, at Cordón Agua del Jagüel, Precordillera of Mendoza, Argentina, a volcanic sequence crops out which was emplaced in a submarine environment with some subaerial exposures, and it is intercalated in marine sediments of Agua del Jagüel Formation, which fills of one of these retroarc basins. This paper presents, for the first time, a facies analyses together with geochemical and isotopic data of this volcanic suite, suggesting its deposition in an ensialic retroarc marine basin. The volcanic succession comprises debris flows with either sedimentary or volcanic fragments, base surge, resedimented massive and laminated dacitic-andesitic hyaloclastite, pillow lava, basic hyaloclastite and dacitic-andesitic lavas and hyaloclastite facies. Its composition is bimodal, either basaltic or dacitic-andesitic. The geochemistry data indicate a subalkaline, low K calk-alkaline and metaluminous affinity. The geochemistry of the basalts points to an origin of the magmas from a depleted mantle source with some crustal contamination. Conversely, the geochemistry of the dacites-andesites shows an important participation of both crustal components and subduction related fluids. A different magmatic source for the basalts than for the dacites-andesites is also supported by Sr and Nd isotopic initial ratios and Nd model ages. The characteristics of this magmatic suite suggest its emplacement in an extensional setting probably associated with the presence of a steepened subduction zone at this latitude during Upper Carboniferous times.

  17. Tibetan Magmatism Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, James B.; Kapp, Paul

    2017-11-01

    A database containing previously published geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data on Mesozoic to Quaternary igneous rocks in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system are presented. The database is intended to serve as a repository for new and existing igneous rock data and is publicly accessible through a web-based platform that includes an interactive map and data table interface with search, filtering, and download options. To illustrate the utility of the database, the age, location, and ɛHft composition of magmatism from the central Gangdese batholith in the southern Lhasa terrane are compared. The data identify three high-flux events, which peak at 93, 50, and 15 Ma. They are characterized by inboard arc migration and a temporal and spatial shift to more evolved isotopic compositions.

  18. Seismic investigations of the Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere in two unique convergent margin settings: The Carpathians, Romania, and U.S. Cordillera, Idaho-Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Adrian Christian

    Proposed mechanisms for the unusual seismicity ~100 km southeast of the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the Eastern Carpathians in Romania have included tearing and rollback of a subducted slab of oceanic lithosphere and gravitational instability and delamination of continental lithosphere. We examined the upper mantle fabrics using shear wave splitting of SK(K)S phases recorded at four broadband seismic stations in the Transylvanian Basin. Our results indicate a regional NW-SE splitting trend, with measurements that reflect an abrupt change from this regional flow field in the vicinity of the Vrancea body to a NE-SW trend that is consistent with redirection of mantle flow. Crustal thickness measurements show 28-30 km in the western part of the Transylvanian Basin, 34-39 km at the contact with the Eastern Carpathians, and 40-45 km further east. These results, along with previous estimates, constrain the locus of the inferred Miocene suture between the southeastern-most portion of the Tisza-Dacia terrane and the East European Platform. The second convergent margin system represented here is in the North American Cordillera in Idaho and Oregon, where subduction and accretion of exotic terranes have modified the western margin of North America. We used teleseismic receiver functions from 85 broadband stations to analyze the geometry of the Salmon River suture zone, the western Idaho shear zone, and the Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. Results show a clear break in crustal thickness from ~28 km beneath the accreted terranes to 36 km east of the surface expression of the WISZ. A strong mid-crustal converter at ~20 km depth is consistent with tectonic wedging during accretion of the Blue Mountains terranes. An eastern Moho offset of ~6 km is consistent with the Archean Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. We used deep converted phases generated beneath the study area to image the mantle transition zone. We observe a continuous high amplitude P410s

  19. On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita C.; Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  20. On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Observational Constraints on the Identification of Shallow Lunar Magmatism: Insights from Floor-Fractured Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, L. M.; Head, J. W., III; Neumann, G. A.; Wilson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Floor-fractured craters are a class of lunar crater hypothesized to form in response to the emplacement of a shallow magmatic intrusion beneath the crater floor. The emplacement of a shallow magmatic body should result in a positive Bouguer anomaly relative to unaltered complex craters, a signal which is observed for the average Bouguer anomaly interior to the crater walls. We observe the Bouguer anomaly of floor-fractured craters on an individual basis using the unfiltered Bouguer gravity solution from GRAIL and also a degree 100-600 band-filtered Bouguer gravity solution. The low-magnitude of anomalies arising from shallow magmatic intrusions makes identification using unfiltered Bouguer gravity solutions inconclusive. The observed anomalies in the degree 100-600 Bouguer gravity solution are spatially heterogeneous, although there is spatial correlation between volcanic surface morphologies and positive Bouguer anomalies. We interpret these observations to mean that the spatial heterogeneity observed in the Bouguer signal is the result of variable degrees of magmatic degassing within the intrusions.

  2. Network Convergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.

  3. Pluton emplacement and magmatic arc construction: A model from the Patagonian batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Robert; Nelson, Eric; Weaver, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    A model of batholithic construction in Andean arcs and its applicability to possibly similar environments in the past is described. Age and compositional data from the Patagonian batholith of southern Chile show a long history of magmatism in any given area (total age range is 15 to 157 Ma), but different regions appear to have different magmatic starting ages. Furthermore, mafic rocks seem to be the oldest components of any given region. An assembly line model involving semicontinuous magmatism and uplift was outlined, which has implications for other terranes: uplift rates will be proportional to observed ranges in age, and total uplift will be proportional to the age of the oldest pluton in any given area. It is suggested that misleading results would be obtained if only small areas of similar terranes in the Archean were available for study.

  4. Continental extension, magmatism and elevation; formal relations and rules of thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenbruch, A.H.; Morgan, P.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate simplified relations between elevation and the extensional, magmatic and thermal processes that influence lithosphere buoyancy, we assume that the lithosphere floats on an asthenosphere of uniform density and has no flexural strength. A simple graph relating elevation to lithosphere density and thickness provides an overview of expectable conditions around the earth and a simple test for consistancy of continental and oceanic lithosphere models. The mass-balance relations yield simple general rules for estimating elevation changes caused by various tectonic, magmatic and thermal processes without referring to detailed models. The rules are general because they depend principally on buoyancy, which under our assumptions is specified by elevation, a known quantity; they do not generally require a knowledge of lithosphere thickness and density. The elevation of an extended terrain contains important information on its tectonic and magmatic history. In the Great Basin where Cenozoic extension is estimated to be 100%, the present high mean elevation ( ~ 1.75 km) probably requires substantial low-density magmatic contributions to the extending lithosphere. The elevation cannot be reasonably explained solely as the buoyant residue of a very high initial terrane, or of a lithosphere that was initially very thick and subsequently delaminated and heated. Even models with a high initial elevation typically call for 10 km or so of accumulated magmatic material of near-crustal density. To understand the evolution of the Great Basin, it is important to determine whether such intruded material is present; some could replenish the stretching crust by underplating and crustal intrusion and some might reside in the upper mantle. The elevation maintained or approached by an intruded extending lithosphere depends on the ratio B of how fast magma is supplied from the asthenosphere ( b km/Ma) to how fast the lithosphere spreads the magma out by extension (?? Ma-1). For a

  5. ALPINE MAGMATIC-METALLOGENIC FORMATIONS OF THE NORTHWESTERN AND CENTRAL DINARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Pamić

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented basic geological, petrologieca1, geochemi-cal and mineral deposit data for five main magmatic-metallogenic formations of the northwestern and central Dinarides: (lThe Permo Triassic rifting related andesite-diorite formations; (2 The Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous accretionary (ophiolite formations; (3 The Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene subduction related basalt-rhyohite formations; (4 The Paleogene collisional granite formations, and (5 The Oligo-cene-Neogene postsubduction andesite formations. All these magmatic-metallogenic formations originated in different geotectonic settings during the Alpine evolution of the Dinaridic parts of thc Tethys and the postorogenic evolution of the Paratethys and the Pannonian Basin, respectively.

  6. Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măruşter Ştefan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.

  7. Magmatic activity stages of the El'brus volcanic center (Great Caucasus): isotope geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, I.V.; Lebedev, V.A.; Bubnov, S.N.; Arakelyants, M.M.; Gol'tsman, Yu.V.

    2001-01-01

    The age of volcanites in the Elbrus volcanic center was determined by the methods of K-Ar- and Rb-Sr-dating to ascertain stages of magmatic activity in the area. The data obtained suggest existence of at least two stages of magmatic activity: Middle Neopleistocene (225-180 thous. years) and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene ( [ru

  8. Quantifying strain partitioning between magmatic and amagmatic portions of the Afar triple junction of Ethiopia and Djibouti through use of contemporary and late Quaternary extension rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polun, S. G.; Hickcox, K.; Tesfaye, S.; Gomez, F. G.

    2016-12-01

    The central Afar rift in Ethiopia and Djibouti is a zone of accommodation between the onshore propagations of the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea oceanic spreading centers forming part of the Afar triple junction that divides the Arabia, Nubia, and Somalia plates. While extension in the onshore magmatic propagators is accommodated through magmatism and associated faulting, extension in the central Afar is accommodated solely by large and small faults. The contributions of these major faults to the overall strain budget can be well characterized, but smaller faults are more difficult to quantify. Sparse GPS data covering the region constrain the total extension budget across the diffuse triple junction zone. Late Quaternary slip rates for major faults in Hanle, Dobe, Guma, and Immino grabens were estimated using the quantitative analysis of faulted landforms. This forms a nearly complete transect from the onshore propagation of the Red Sea rift in Tendaho graben and the onshore propagation of the Gulf of Aden rift at Manda Inakir. Field surveying was accomplished using a combination of electronic distance measurer profiling and low altitude aerial surveying. Age constraints are provided from the Holocene lacustrine history or through terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating of the faulted geomorphic surface. Along this transect, late Quaternary slip rates of major faults appear to accommodate 25% of the total horizontal stretching rate between the southern margin of Tendaho graben and the Red Sea coast, as determined from published GPS velocities. This constrains the proportion of total extension between Nubia and Arabia that is accommodated through major faulting in the central Afar, compared to the magmatism and associated faulting of the magmatic propagators elsewhere in the triple junction. Along the transect, individual fault slip rates decrease from the southeast to the northwest, suggesting a `Crank-Arm' model may be more applicable to explain the regional

  9. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the post-paleozoic magmatism from eastern Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P; Gasparon, M; Gomes, C.B; Antonini, P

    2001-01-01

    The Parana Angola-Namibia igneous province (PAN) is characterized by Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites and tholeiitic dyke swarms associated with alkaline rocks of Early and Late Cretaceous ages, respectively, and with scarce post-Mesozoic magmatic rocks (Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1997; 1999; Marques et al., 1999). The Eastern Paraguay, at the westernmost side of the Parana Basin, is of special interest because: (1) it is located between two main cratonic blocks, i.e. the southernmost tip of the Amazon Craton, and the northermost exposure of the Rio de La Plata Craton; (2) it was the site of repeated Na-K-alkaline magmatism since Late-Permian-Triassic times (i.e.: 250-240 Ma, Na-alkaline; c. 145 Ma, K-alkaline; 128-126 Ma, K-alkaline; 120-90 Ma, Na-alkaline; 61-33 Ma, Na-alkaline; cf. Comin-Chiaramonti and Gomes, 1996; Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1999), and of Early Cretaceous tholeiitic magmatism, both low- and high-Ti variants, L-Ti and H-Ti, respectively (133-131 Ma; cf. Marzoli et al., 1999); (3) the younger sodic magmatic rocks are closely associated in space to the potassic analogues (Comin- Chiaramonti et al., 1999). The paper aims discussing the most important Sr- Nd-Pb isotope features of the alkaline and tholeiitic magmas from Eastern Paraguay in comparison with the PAN analogues (au)

  10. Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.

  11. The Seismicity of Two Hyperextended Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2013-04-01

    A seismic belt marks the outermost edge of Scandinavia's proximal margin, inboard of and roughly parallel to the Taper Break. A similar near- to onshore seismic belt runs along its inner edge, roughly parallel to and outboard of the asymmetric, seaward-facing escarpment. The belts converge at both the northern and southern ends of Scandinavia, where crustal taper is sharp and the proximal margin is narrow. Very few seismic events have been recorded on the intervening, gently-tapering Trøndelag Platform. Norway's distribution of seismicity is systematically ordered with respect to 1) the structural templates of high-beta extension that shaped the thinning gradient during Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous time, and 2) the topographically resurgent Cretaceous-Cenozoic "accommodation phase" family of escarpments that approximate the innermost limit of crustal thinning [See Redfield and Osmundsen (2012) for diagrams, definitions, discussion, and supporting citations.] Landwards from the belt of earthquake epicenters that mark the Taper Break the crust consistently thickens, and large fault arrays tend to sole out at mid crustal levels. Towards the sea the crystalline continental crust is hyperextended, pervasively faulted, and generally very thin. Also, faulting and serpentinization may have affected the uppermost parts of the distal margin's lithospheric mantle. Such contrasting structural conditions may generate a contrasting stiffness: for a given stress, more strain can be accommodated in the distal margin than in the less faulted proximal margin. By way of comparison, inboard of the Taper Break on the gently-tapered Trøndelag Platform, faulting was not penetrative. There, similar structural conditions prevail and proximal margin seismicity is negligible. Because stress concentration can occur where material properties undergo significant contrast, the necking zone may constitute a natural localization point for post-thinning phase earthquakes. In Scandinavia

  12. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, Leonora S; Pierce, Naomi E; Ellison, Aaron M; Pringle, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent interactions in a comparative context is likely to facilitate prediction of the ecological roles of organisms (including microbes) in multispecies interactions and selective pressures acting in poorly understood or newly discovered multispecies systems. We illustrate the concept of convergent interactions with examples: vertebrates and their gut bacteria; ectomycorrhizae; insect-fungal-bacterial interactions; pitcher-plant food webs; and ants and ant-plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magmatic formations in the Okhotsk--Chukotka volcanogenic belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, A.P.

    1976-05-01

    The relationship between the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt of Northeast USSR and the stage of evolution of magnetism and tectonic development of the region are examined. Recognizing the associations of effusive and intrusive rocks that are typical of the southern part of the volcanogenic belt and that are joined together by some characteristic features, a basic plan is presented for examination of the problem of magnetic formations. On the basis of the distinctive characteristics of epigeosynclinal tectonic development of the territory and the sequence of formation of the magmatic rocks within it, three main groups: volcanic, coleanoplutonic, and plutonic, can be distinguished; and a general scheme of development of these types in space and time within the volcanogenic belt can be developed. According to this scheme, four main stages can be recognized in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt. This scheme of classification takes into consideration the factor of the structural development of this tectonomagmatic element.

  14. U-Pb baddeleyite ages and geochemistry of dolerite dykes in the Bas Drâa Inlier of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco: Newly identified 1380 Ma event in the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bahat, Abdelhakim; Ikenne, Moha; Söderlund, Ulf; Cousens, Brian; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Ernst, Richard; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; El Janati, M'hamed; Hafid, Ahmid

    2013-08-01

    In the Bas-Drâa Inlier (Anti-Atlas, Morocco), the Paleoproterozoic basement which is cut by the Ediacaran Taourgha granite is also crosscut by numerous dykes of a variety of trends, mostly of uncertain age. Two doleritic dykes are dated by the ID-TIMS U-Pb method on baddeleyite and yield emplacement ages of 1381 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 0.84) and 1384 ± 6 Ma (MSWD = 1.4) determined for a N135°E and a N40°E trending dyke, respectively. These dates represent the first geochronological evidence of a Mesoproterozoic magmatic event in the Anti-Atlas. This magmatic event falls in the previously considered ca 1.7-1.0 Ga (Mesoproterozoic) gap in geological activity in the Anti-Atlas. The poorly dated Taghdout and Taarotihate sequences could represent remnants of the ca. 1380 Ma magmatism and rift-related sedimentation. The Mesoproterozoic sedimentary succession of the Atar Group in the Taoudeni basin (Mauritania) could also represent a good candidate for rift-related sedimentation but it postdates the 1380 Ma magmatic event by 270 Ma. The dated 1380 Ma dykes are transitional to mildly alkaline basalts, not unlike some Hawaiian lavas. However, these dykes have a distinct negative Nb anomaly (a common features in many Large Igneous Provinces, LIPs), and this requires interaction with the lithosphere. This interaction may have occurred at the level of the lithospheric mantle or the crust. These newly dated 1380 Ma dykes may converge to the north, speculatively suggesting a magmatic center (associated with a 1380 Ma mantle plume?) along the northern margin, and possibly linked to rifting and possible breakup on that margin, and also to a regional uplift that largely removed the evidence of a 1380 Ma cover sequence. Contemporaneous 1380-1390 Ma magmatism is reported elsewhere on other crustal blocks, and that in northeastern Laurentia (northern Greenland), northern Siberia (Anabar shield), and Baltica (southern Urals) can be reconstructed with that of the Bas Drâa Inlier (Anti

  15. Low Convergence path to Fusion I: Ignition physics and high margin design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvig, Kim; Schmitt, M. J.; McCall, G. H.; Betti, R.; Foula, D. H.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    A new class of inertial fusion capsules is presented that combines multi-shell targets with laser direct drive at low intensity (280 TW/cm2) to achieve robust ignition. These Revolver targets consist of three concentric metal shells, enclosing a volume of 10s of µg of liquid deuterium-tritium fuel. The inner shell pusher, nominally of gold, is compressed to over 2000 g/cc, effectively trapping the radiation and enabling ignition at low temperature (2.5 keV) and relatively low implosion velocity (20 cm/micro-sec) at a fuel convergence of 9. Ignition is designed to occur well ``upstream'' from stagnation, with implosion velocity at 90% of maximum, so that any deceleration phase mix will occur only after ignition. Mix, in all its non-predictable manifestations, will effect net yield in a Revolver target - but not the achievement of ignition and robust burn. Simplicity of the physics is the dominant principle. There is no high gain requirement. These basic physics elements can be combined into a simple analytic model that generates a complete target design specification given the fuel mass and the kinetic energy needed in the middle (drive) shell (of order 80 kJ). This research supported by the US DOE/NNSA, performed in part at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. IT Convergence and Security 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kyung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.

  17. Characteristics of mesozoic magmatic rocks in western Zhejiang and their relation with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiazhi

    2000-01-01

    The author summarizes characteristics of Mesozoic (Yangshanian Period) acid-intermediate volcanics, sub-volcanics and basic intrusive from aspects of formation time of rock series, petrogenic sequence, chemical composition, rock -controlling factors and petrogenic environments. It is suggested that these rocks were originated from different source areas of crust and mantle. Based on the time-space relation between different types uranium deposits and magmatic rocks, the author proposes that: the earlier stage (Earlier Cretaceous) U-hematite ores were originated from acid volcanic magmatism of crustal source, but the later stage (Late Cretaceous) pitchblende-polymetallic sulfide and pitchblende-purple fluorite rich ores were derived from basic magmatism of mantle source. Finally, the author proposes prospecting criteria of the above two types of uranium deposits

  18. Les granitoïdes néoprotérozoïques de Khzama, Anti-Atlas central, Maroc: marqueurs de l'évolution d'un magmatisme d'arc à un magmatisme alcalineNeoproterozoic granitoids from Khzama, central Anti-Atlas, Morocco: evolution markers from arc magmatism to alkaline magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khanchaoui, T.; Lahmam, M.; El-Boukhari, A.; El-Beraaouz, H.

    2001-05-01

    Petrological study and zircon typology provide important information that is related to the classification and genesis of Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Khzama area (northeast Siroua). The Pan-African granitoids show a transition from island-arc magmatism to alkaline magmatism. A space and time zonation of magmatism from the north to the south is evident. Early Pan-African granitoids were generated from various magma sources through different petrogenetic mechanisms. The first association corresponds to the low-K calc-alkaline plutons of Ait Nebdas, the second one correponds to high-K calc-alkaline post-collisional granites (Tamassirte-Tiferatine and Ifouachguel). Finally, shoshonitic magmatism (Irhiri) ends the magmatic evolution of the region. Thus, the late Pan-African granitic plutonism began with calc-alkaline associations and ended with K-alkaline magmatism in a transtensional setting, heralding the onset of the Moroccan Palæozoic cycle.

  19. Media Convergence: the Culture Dimensions of Thinking%Media Convergence:the Culture Dimensions of Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Diao; Lan Ju

    2017-01-01

    In the process of meida Convergence,many researchers paid excessive attention to media technology,industry and management,and ignored the culture dimensions of media convergence.Therefore,to transcend media convergence technology,industrial thinking and more to the particularity attach importance to cultural media,it is a right way to achieve media convergence.But in the context of China's culture,media convergence should value the cultural uniqueness and the imbalance of the realistic problems,to reach innovation and breakthrough.

  20. Almost convergence of triple sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan Esi; M.Necdet Catalbas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and study the concepts of almost convergence and almost Cauchy for triple sequences. Weshow that the set of almost convergent triple sequences of 0's and 1's is of the first category and also almost everytriple sequence of 0's and 1's is not almost convergent.Keywords: almost convergence, P-convergent, triple sequence.

  1. Geochronological and sedimentological evidences of Panyangshan foreland basin for tectonic control on the Late Paleozoic plate marginal orogenic belt along the northern margin of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; He, Yingfu; Wang, Guosheng; Wu, Chen; Liu, Changfeng; Yao, Guang; Xu, Wentao; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Dai, Pengfei

    2017-08-01

    There is a wide support that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift on the northern margin of the North China Craton has undergone an uplifting history. However, when and how did the uplift occurred keeps controversial. Extensive field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological and geophysical investigations on the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift, which suggested that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift was an uplifted region since the Early Precambrian or range from Late Carboniferous-Early Jurassic. The geochemical characteristics of the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic intrusive rocks indicated that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift was an Andean-type continental margin that is the extensional tectonic setting. To address the spatial and temporal development of the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift, we have carried out provenance analysis of Permian sedimentary rocks which collected from the Panyangshan basin along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The QFL diagram revealed a dissected arc-recycled orogenic tectonic setting. Moreover, the framework grains are abundant with feldspar (36-50%), indicating the short transport distance and unstable tectonic setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb analysis ascertained possible provenance information: the Precambrian basement ( 2490 and 1840 Ma) and continental arc magmatic action ( 279 and 295 Ma) along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The projection in rose diagrams of the mean palaeocurrent direction, revealing the SSW and SSE palaeoflow direction, also shows the provenance of the Panyangshan basin sources mainly from the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift. The andesite overlying the Naobaogou Formation has yielded U-Pb age of 277.3 ± 1.4 Ma. The additional dioritic porphyry dike intruded the Naobaogou and Laowopu Formations, which has an emplacement age of 236 ± 1 Ma. The above data identify that the basin formed ranges from Early Permian to Middle Triassic (277-236 Ma). Accordingly, the Inner Mongolia

  2. Time evolution of a rifted continental arc: Integrated ID-TIMS and LA-ICPMS study of magmatic zircons from the Eastern Srednogorie, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, S.; von Quadt, A.; Heinrich, C. A.; Peytcheva, I.; Marchev, P.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern Srednogorie in Bulgaria is the widest segment of an extensive magmatic arc that formed by convergence of Africa and Europe during Mesozoic to Tertiary times. Northward subduction of the Tethys Ocean beneath Europe in the Late Cretaceous gave rise to a broad range of basaltic to more evolved magmas with locally associated Cu-Au mineralization along this arc. We used U-Pb geochronology of single zircons to constrain the temporal evolution of the Upper Cretaceous magmatism and the age of basement rocks through which the magmas were emplaced in this arc segment. High precision isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) was combined with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) for spatial resolution within single zircon grains. Three tectono-magmatic regions are distinguished from north to south within Eastern Srednogorie: East Balkan, Yambol-Burgas and Strandzha. Late Cretaceous magmatic activity started at ~ 92 Ma in the northernmost East Balkan region, based on stratigraphic evidence and limited geochronology, with the emplacement of minor shallow intrusions and volcanic rocks onto pre-Cretaceous basement. In the southernmost Strandzha region, magmatism was initiated at ~ 86 Ma with emplacement of gabbroic to dioritic intrusions and related dikes into metamorphic basement rocks that have previously been overprinted by Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous metamorphism. The Yambol-Burgas region is an extensional basin between the East Balkan and the Strandzha regions, which broadens and deepens toward the Black Sea further east and is filled with a thick pile of marine sediments and submarine extrusive volcanic rocks accompanied by coeval intrusions. This dominantly mafic magmatism in the intermediate Yambol-Burgas region commenced at ~ 81 Ma and produced large volumes of potassium-rich magma until ~ 78 Ma. These shoshonitic to ultrapotassic basaltic to intermediate magmas formed by differentiation of ankaramitic (high

  3. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate

  4. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  5. Remote detection of magmatic water in Bullialdus crater on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Rachel L.; Cahill, John; Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, David

    2013-01-01

    Once considered dry compared with Earth, laboratory analyses of igneous components of lunar samples have suggested that the Moon’s interior is not entirely anhydrous. Water and hydroxyl have also been detected from orbit on the lunar surface, but these have been attributed to nonindigenous sources, such as interactions with the solar wind. Magmatic lunar volatiles—evidence for water indigenous to the lunar interior—have not previously been detected remotely. Here we analyse spectroscopic data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and report that the central peak of Bullialdus Crater is significantly enhanced in hydroxyl relative to its surroundings. We suggest that the strong and localized hydroxyl absorption features are inconsistent with a surficial origin. Instead, they are consistent with hydroxyl bound to magmatic minerals that were excavated from depth by the impact that formed Bullialdus Crater. Furthermore, estimates of thorium concentration in the central peak using data from the Lunar Prospector orbiter indicate an enhancement in incompatible elements, in contrast to the compositions of water-bearing lunar samples. We suggest that the hydroxyl-bearing material was excavated from a magmatic source that is distinct from that of samples analysed thus far.

  6. Mantle dynamics and Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China: Insight from teleseismic tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Zhao, Dapeng; Lü, Qingtian; Li, Hongyi; Li, Xinfu

    2015-11-01

    Both the rich mineralization in the Lower Yangtze Block (LYB) and the post-collisional mafic rocks in the Dabie Orogen (DBO) are closely related to the Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China. Various geodynamic models have been proposed for explaining the mechanism of the Cretaceous magmatism, but these models are controversial and even contradictory with each other, especially on the mechanism of adakites. A unified geodynamic model is required for explaining the magmatism in east-central China, in particular, the spatial and temporal correlations of magmatic activity in the DBO and that in the LYB. For this purpose, we apply teleseismic tomography to study P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth beneath east-central China. A modified multiple-channel cross-correlation method is used to collect 28,805 high-quality P-wave arrival-time data from seismograms of distant earthquakes recorded by permanent seismic stations and our temporary stations in the study region. To remove the influence of crustal heterogeneity on the mantle tomography, we used the CRUST1.0 model to correct the teleseismic relative residuals. Our tomography revealed distinct high-velocity (high-V) anomalies beneath the DBO and two flanks of the LYB, and low-velocity (low-V) anomalies above the high-V zones. Combining our tomographic images with previous geological, geochemical and geophysical results, we infer that these high-V and low-V anomalies reflect the detached lithosphere and upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively, which are associated with the Late Mesozoic dynamic process and the Cretaceous magmatism. We propose a double-slab subduction model that a ridge subduction yielded the adakitic rocks in the LYB during 150-135 Ma and the subsequent Pacific Plate subduction played a crucial role in not only the formation of igneous rocks in the LYB but also remelting of the subducted South China Block beneath the DBO during 135-101 Ma.

  7. Marginal Contribution-Based Distributed Subchannel Allocation in Small Cell Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shashi; Kittipiyakul, Somsak; Lim, Yuto; Tan, Yasuo

    2018-05-10

    The paper presents a game theoretic solution for distributed subchannel allocation problem in small cell networks (SCNs) analyzed under the physical interference model. The objective is to find a distributed solution that maximizes the welfare of the SCNs, defined as the total system capacity. Although the problem can be addressed through best-response (BR) dynamics, the existence of a steady-state solution, i.e., a pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE), cannot be guaranteed. Potential games (PGs) ensure convergence to a pure strategy NE when players rationally play according to some specified learning rules. However, such a performance guarantee comes at the expense of complete knowledge of the SCNs. To overcome such requirements, properties of PGs are exploited for scalable implementations, where we utilize the concept of marginal contribution (MC) as a tool to design learning rules of players’ utility and propose the marginal contribution-based best-response (MCBR) algorithm of low computational complexity for the distributed subchannel allocation problem. Finally, we validate and evaluate the proposed scheme through simulations for various performance metrics.

  8. Marginal Contribution-Based Distributed Subchannel Allocation in Small Cell Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a game theoretic solution for distributed subchannel allocation problem in small cell networks (SCNs analyzed under the physical interference model. The objective is to find a distributed solution that maximizes the welfare of the SCNs, defined as the total system capacity. Although the problem can be addressed through best-response (BR dynamics, the existence of a steady-state solution, i.e., a pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE, cannot be guaranteed. Potential games (PGs ensure convergence to a pure strategy NE when players rationally play according to some specified learning rules. However, such a performance guarantee comes at the expense of complete knowledge of the SCNs. To overcome such requirements, properties of PGs are exploited for scalable implementations, where we utilize the concept of marginal contribution (MC as a tool to design learning rules of players’ utility and propose the marginal contribution-based best-response (MCBR algorithm of low computational complexity for the distributed subchannel allocation problem. Finally, we validate and evaluate the proposed scheme through simulations for various performance metrics.

  9. Summable series and convergence factors

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Charles N

    1938-01-01

    Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that

  10. Magmatic-dominated fluid evolution in the Jurassic Nambija gold skarn deposits (southeastern Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Jean; Fontboté, Lluís; Chiaradia, Massimo; Markowski, Agnès; Schmidt, Susanne; Vennemann, Torsten

    2009-05-01

    The Jurassic (approximately 145 Ma) Nambija oxidized gold skarns are hosted by the Triassic volcanosedimentary Piuntza unit in the sub-Andean zone of southeastern Ecuador. The skarns consist dominantly of granditic garnet (Ad20-98) with subordinate pyroxene (Di46-92Hd17-42Jo0-19) and epidote and are spatially associated with porphyritic quartz-diorite to granodiorite intrusions. Endoskarn is developed at the intrusion margins and grades inwards into a potassic alteration zone. Exoskarn has an outer K- and Na-enriched zone in the volcanosedimentary unit. Gold mineralization is associated with the weakly developed retrograde alteration of the exoskarn and occurs mainly in sulfide-poor vugs and milky quartz veins and veinlets in association with hematite. Fluid inclusion data for the main part of the prograde stage indicate the coexistence of high-temperature (500°C to >600°C), high-salinity (up to 65 wt.% eq. NaCl), and moderate- to low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids interpreted to have been trapped at pressures around 100-120 MPa, corresponding to about 4-km depth. Lower-temperature (510-300°C) and moderate- to low-salinity (23-2 wt.% eq. NaCl) aqueous fluids are recorded in garnet and epidote of the end of the prograde stage. The microthermometric data (Th from 513°C to 318°C and salinity from 1.0 to 23 wt.% eq. NaCl) and δ18O values between 6.2‰ and 11.5‰ for gold-bearing milky quartz from the retrograde stage suggest that the ore-forming fluid was dominantly magmatic. Pressures during the early retrograde stage were in the range of 50-100 MPa, in line with the evidence for CO2 effervescence and probable local boiling. The dominance of magmatic low-saline to moderately saline oxidizing fluids during the retrograde stage is consistent with the depth of the skarn system, which could have delayed the ingression of external fluids until relatively low temperatures were reached. The resulting low water-to-rock ratios explain the weak retrograde alteration

  11. Evolution of the earliest mantle caused by the magmatism-mantle upwelling feedback: Implications for the Moon and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    The two most important agents that cause mantle evolution are magmatism and mantle convection. My earlier 2D numerical models of a coupled magmatism-mantle convection system show that these two agents strongly couple each other, when the Rayleigh number Ra is sufficiently high: magmatism induced by a mantle upwelling flow boosts the upwelling flow itself. The mantle convection enhanced by this positive feedback (the magmatism-mantle upwelling, or MMU, feedback) causes vigorous magmatism and, at the same time, strongly stirs the mantle. I explored how the MMU feedback influences the evolution of the earliest mantle that contains the magma ocean, based on a numerical model where the mantle is hot and its topmost 1/3 is partially molten at the beginning of the calculation: The evolution drastically changes its style, as Ra exceeds the threshold for onset of the MMU feedback, around 107. At Ra 107, however, the mantle remains compositionally more homogeneous in spite of the widespread magmatism, and the deep mantle remains hotter than the shallow mantle, because of the strong convective stirring caused by the feedback. The threshold value suggests that the mantle of a planet larger than Mars evolves in a way substantially different from that in the Moon does. Indeed, in my earlier models, magmatism makes the early mantle compositionally stratified in the Moon, but the effects of strong convective stirring overwhelms that of magmatism to keep the mantle compositionally rather homogeneous in Venus and the Earth. The MMU feedback is likely to be a key to understanding why vestiges of the magma ocean are so scarce in the Earth.

  12. D/N and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O in magmatic waters and gases of the Great Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyailov, I A; Vetshtein, V E; Nikitina, L P; Artemchuk, V G [AN SSSR, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii. Inst. Vulkanologii; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov)

    1981-01-01

    Isotope content of magmatic gases and their condensates (magmatic waters) is studied on the basis of the Great Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka. The phenomenon of regular increase of deuterium content in magmatic water and protium content in gases is found out. It is supposed that this fact is conditioned by isotope fractionation during phase transitions in liquid-steam-gas system in the process of the formation of magmatic hearth and gas release from magma during eruption.

  13. The Maule, 2010, earthquake - geophysical and kinematic observations of the South American margin prior to the earthquake (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, O.; Haberland, C. A.; Moreno, M.; Melnick, D.; Tilmann, F.; Tipteq Research Groups

    2010-12-01

    Accumulation of deformation at convergent plate margins is recently identified to be highly discontinuous and transient in nature: silent slip events, non-volcanic tremors, afterslip, fault coupling and complex response patterns of the upper plate during a single event as well as across several seismic cycles have all been observed in various settings and combinations. Segments of convergent plate margins with high recurrence rates and at different stages of the rupture cycle like the Chilean margin offer an exceptional opportunity to study these features and their interaction resolving behaviour during the seismic cycle and over repeated cycles. A past (TIPTEQ) and several active international initiatives (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile; IPOC-network.org) address these goals with research groups from IPG Paris, Seismological Survey of Chile, Free University Berlin, Potsdam University, Hamburg University, IFM-GEOMAR Kiel, GFZ Potsdam, and Caltech (USA) employing an integrated plate boundary observatory and associated projects. Results from these studies allow us to define the preseismic state - with respect to the Maule eartghquake - of the margin system at the south Central Chilean convergent margin. Here, two major seismic events have occurred in adjoining segments (Valdivia 1960, Mw = 9.5; Maule 2010, Mw = 8.8) yielding observations from critical time windows of the seismic cycle in the same region. Seismic imaging and seismological data have allowed us to relocate major rupture hypocentres and to locate the geometry and properties of the seismogenic zone. The reflection seismic data exhibit well defined changes of reflectivity and Vp/Vs ratio along the plate interface that can be correlated with different parts of the coupling zone and its hanging wall as well as with changes during the seismic cycle. Observations suggest an important role of the hydraulic system, and of lateral variation of locking degree on subsequent rupture and aftershock

  14. Evidence for triple-junction rifting focussed on local magmatic centres along Parga Chasma, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, J. R.; Ernst, R. E.; Samson, C.

    2018-05-01

    Parga Chasma is a discontinuous rift system marking the southern boundary of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) region on Venus. Along a 1500 km section of Parga Chasma, detailed mapping of Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar images has revealed 5 coronae, 11 local rift zones distinct from a regional extension pattern, and 47 graben-fissure systems with radiating (28), linear (12) and circumferential (7) geometries. The magmatic centres of these graben-fissure systems typically coincide with coronae or large volcanoes, although a few lack any central magmatic or tectonic feature (i.e. are cryptic). Some of the magmatic centres are interpreted as the foci of triple-junction rifting that form the 11 local rift zones. Cross-cutting relationships between graben-fissure systems and local rift faults reveal synchronous formation, implying a genetic association. Additionally, cross-cutting relationships show that local rifting events postdate the regional extension along Parga Chasma, further indicating multiple stages of rifting. Evidence for multiple centres of younger magmatism and local rifting against a background of regional extension provides an explanation for the discontinuous morphology of Parga Chasma. Examination of the Atlantic Rift System (prior to ocean opening) on Earth provides an analogue to the rift morphologies observed on Venus.

  15. Magmatic Diversity of the Wehrlitic Intrusions in the Oceanic Lower Crust of the Northern Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, R.; Adachi, Y.; Miyashita, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite extends along the east coast of Oman, and is the world's largest and best-preserved slice of obducted oceanic lithosphere. The magmatic history of this ophiolite is complex and is generally regarded as having occurred in three stages (MOR magmatism, subduction magmatism and intraplate magmatism). Wehrlitic intrusions constitute an important element of oceanic lower crust of the ophiolite, and numerous intrusions cut gabbro units in the northern Salahi block of this ophiolite. In this study area, we identified two different types of wehrlitic intrusions. One type of the intrusions mainly consists of dunite, plagioclase (Pl) wehrlite and mela-olivine (Ol) gabbro, in which the crystallization sequence is Ol followed by the contemporaneous crystallization of Pl and clinopyroxene (Cpx). This type is called "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions and has similar mineral compositions to host gabbros (Adachi and Miyashita 2003; Kaneko et al. 2014). Another type of the intrusions is a single intrusion that crops out in an area 250 m × 150 m along Wadi Salahi. This intrusion consists of Pl-free "true" wehrlite, in which the crystallization sequence is Ol and then Cpx. The forsterite contents (Fo%) of Ol from the "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions and "true" wehrlitic intrusions have ranges of 90.8-87.0 (NiO = 0.36-0.13 wt%) and 84.7 (NiO = 0.31 wt%), respectively. Cr numbers (Cr#) of Cr-spinel from the "true" wehrlitic intrusions show higher Cr# value of 0.85 than those of the "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions (0.48-0.64). But the former is characterized by very high Fe3+ values (YFe3+ = 0.49-0.68). Kaneko et al. (2014) showed that the "ordinary" ubiquitous type has similar features to MOR magmatism and the depleted type in the Fizh block (Adachi and Miyashita 2003) links to subduction magmatism. These types are distinguished by their mineral chemistries (TiO2 and Na2O contents of Cpx). The TiO2 and Na2O contents of Cpx from the "true" wehrlitic intrusions have 0

  16. Convergence analysis of household expenditures using the absolute β-convergence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Domazet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the convergence of household expenditures, in terms of a possible usage of the standardized, rather than consumer-tailored marketing, mainly on a regional level. Objectives: The main goal of this research is to study the existence of consumption expenditure convergence in the EU-27 countries, in the period between 2000 and 2007. Methods/Approach: The analysis used the absolute β-convergence method, in order to investigate the existence of a negative correlation between the growth over time in the overall consumption expenditure in EU member- countries for each individual product and service category and the initial expenditure level. Results: According to the obtained results, in the period between 2000 and 2007, the EU-27 countries reached a high level of consumer expenditure convergence, which provides a basis for developing a regional concept of the standardized international marketing for these countries’ markets. Conclusions: The results provide an empirical contribution to claims on consumer convergence in the countries included into economic integrations. Also, the obtained results can be used to create a basis for defining and applying the regional marketing concept for companies focusing on the EU-27 countries’ market.

  17. Tok-Algoma magmatic complex of the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain in the Central Asian fold belt: Age and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, A. B.; Larin, A. M.; Salnikova, E. B.; Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Anisimova, I. V.; Tolmacheva, E. V.

    2012-05-01

    According to the results of U-Pb geochronological investigations, the hornblende subalkali diorite rocks making up the Tok-Algoma Complex in the eastern part of the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain of the Central Asian fold belt were formed in the Middle Jurassic rather than in the Middle Archean as was suggested previously. Thus, the age of the regional amphibolite facies metamorphism manifested itself in the Ust'-Gilyui rock sequence of the Stanovoi Complex and that superimposed on granitoids of the Tok-Algoma Complex is Mesozoic rather than Early Precambrian. The geochemical features of the Tok-Algoma granitoids are indicative of the fact that they were formed in the geodynamic setting of the active continental margin or a mature island arc. Hence, it is possible to suggest that the subduction processes along the southern boundary between the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain and the Mongolian-Okhotsk ocean basin in the Middle Jurassic resulted in the formation of a magmatic belt of over 500 km in length.

  18. Magma flow recorded by magmatic and magnetic fabrics in a shallow granitic pluton: La Gloria Pluton, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payacán, I. J.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the dynamics of a small, shallow, silicic magma reservoir, magmatic and magnetic (AMS) fabrics are compared in samples obtained from La Gloria Pluton (LGP), a 10 Ma granitic intrusion located in southern Andes. The magnetic fabric of LGP, mainly given by magnetite, is characterized by oblate shapes. Magnetic lineations have a NW trend with subhorizontal dip, following the main pluton elongation, while magnetic foliation planes have dips varying gradually from vertical at the walls to subhorizontal toward the center and the roof of the pluton. On the basis of numerical simulations, magnetic fabric was interpreted to represent the shear record induced by magmatic convection along solidification fronts as the reservoir reached its rheological locking point. Magmatic fabric (mineral orientation) was determined on 12 samples along the pluton. Three mutually orthogonal thin sections were produced for each sample, perpendicular to the AMS tensor axes. Size and orientation of individual crystals were obtained by image analysis. A 2-D tensor for two mineral groups (plagioclase and amphibole+biotitie) was defined in each mineral plane projecting the crystal lengths on the main crystal orientation (given by Bingham statistics). A 3-D magmatic fabric tensor was obtained. In order to compare the magmatic and magnetic fabrics, magmatic anisotropy parameters were defined similar to the AMS tensors. Magmatic fabric and anisotropy parameter values vary depending on the location inside the pluton: (1) Samples located at the borders exhibit vertical foliations and lineations with a NW trend, similar to the magnetic fabric tensors and higher anisotropy values for plagioclase than amphibole+biotite,; (2) samples located at the center of the LGP commonly present subvertical foliations/lineations, which differ from the magnetic fabric, and higher magmatic anisotropy degree values for amphibole+biotite than plagioclase. Based on numerical simulations of the fluid

  19. A reworked Lake Zone margin: Chronological and geochemical constraints from the Ordovician arc-related basement of the Hovd Zone (western Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Buriánek, David; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Svojtka, Martin; Čáp, Pavel; Erban, Vojtěch; Ganpurev, Nyamtsetseg

    2017-12-01

    (Hovd Zone) with the neighbouring Togtokhinshil Complex (Lake Zone) suggest that both magmatic complexes originally belonged to the same magmatic arc, related to the Palaeo-Asian subduction system. The geodynamic cause of the later, within-plate magmatic pulse is unclear, but was probably still related to the effects of retreating subduction (slab window/ocean ridge subduction or back-arc lithosphere thinning). The Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex was subsequently separated from the western margin of the Lake Zone and imbricated into the Hovd Zone mélange. It is proposed that the Lake/Hovd zones boundary in the study area represents a younger deformation zone rather than a true terrane boundary/suture. This could be a general feature of the suture zones within this part of the CAOB.

  20. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.

  1. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.

  2. Universality, marginal operators, and limit cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazek, Stanislaw D.; Wilson, Kenneth G.

    2004-01-01

    The universality of renormalization-group limit-cycle behavior is illustrated with a simple discrete Hamiltonian model. A nonperturbative renormalization-group equation for the model is soluble analytically at criticality and exhibits one marginal operator (made necessary by the limit cycle) and an infinite set of irrelevant operators. Relevant operators are absent. The model exhibits an infinite series of bound-state energy eigenvalues. This infinite series approaches an exact geometric series as the eigenvalues approach zero--also a consequence of the limit cycle. Wegner's eigenvalues for irrelevant operators are calculated generically for all choices of parameters in the model. We show that Wegner's eigenvalues are independent of location on the limit cycle, in contrast with Wegner's operators themselves, which vary depending on their location on the limit cycle. An example is then used to illustrate numerically how one can tune the initial Hamiltonian to eliminate the first two irrelevant operators. After tuning, the Hamiltonian's bound-state eigenvalues converge much more quickly than otherwise to an exact geometric series

  3. Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts

  4. Magmatic gases in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal ore deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graney, J.; Kesler, S. (University of Michigan, MI (United States))

    1992-08-31

    In this study, magmatic gases in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal ore deposits have been analyzed. The gas composition of fluid inclusions from a wide range of extinct hydrothermal systems as represented by different ore deposit types was determined using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Most samples used for analysis consisted of transparent quartz, although barite, jasperoid, opal, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite were also analyzed. H2O was the dominant volatile component in fluid inclusions, and composed 95-99 mole percent of the inclusion fluid. CO2 comprised most of the remaining volatile component and the other gases were generally present in amounts smaller than 0.1 mole percent. Analysis from porphyry and acid-sulfate deposits, in which magmatic gas contributions are considered to be largest, plotted closest to the fumarolic gas compositions. These inclusion fluid volatile component comparisons have shown that there are systematic differences in inclusion fluids from different hydrothermal systems. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Effect of Margin Designs on the Marginal Adaptation of Zirconia Copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Syed Rashid; Al Ajmi, Mohammed Ginan; Al Dhafyan, Mohammed; Jomah, Abdulrehman; Abualsaud, Haytham; Almashali, Mazen

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of Shoulder versus Chamfer margin design on the marginal adaptation of zirconia (Zr) copings. 40 extracted molar teeth were mounted in resin and prepared for zirconia crowns with two margin preparation designs (20=Shoulder and 20=Chamfer). The copings were manufactured by Cercon® (DeguDent GmbH, Germany) using the CAD/CAM system for each tooth. They were tried on each tooth, cemented, thermocycled, re-embedded in resin and were subsequently cross sectioned centrally into two equal mesial and distal halves. They were examined under electron microscope at 200 X magnification and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points in micrometers (µm). The o verall mean marginal gap for the two groups was found to be 206.98+42.78µm with Shoulder margin design (Marginal Gap=199.50+40.72µm) having better adaptation compared to Chamfer (Marginal Gap=214.46+44.85µm). The independent-samples t-test showed a statistically non-significant difference (p=.113) between the means of marginal gap for Shoulder and Chamfer margin designs and the measurements were recorded at 5 predetermined points for the two groups. The Chamfer margin design appeared to offer the same adaptation results as the Shoulder margin design.

  6. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Mumbai tholeiites and Panvel flexure: intense 62.5 Ma onshore-offshore Deccan magmatism during India-Laxmi Ridge-Seychelles breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Kanchan; Yatheesh, Vadakkeyakath; Sheth, Hetu

    2017-08-01

    Mumbai, located on the western Indian continental margin, exposes Danian-age Deccan magmatic units of diverse compositions, dipping seaward due to the Panvel flexure. The Ghatkopar-Powai tholeiitic sequence contains seaward-dipping (thus pre-flexure) flows and subvertical (thus post-flexure) dykes. We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 62.4 ± 0.7 and 62.4 ± 0.3 Ma (2σ) on two flows, and 62.2 ± 0.3, 62.8 ± 0.3 and 61.8 ± 0.2 Ma on three dykes, showing that this sequence is much younger than the main 66-65 Ma Deccan sequence in the Western Ghats escarpment. The mutually indistinguishable ages of the Ghatkopar-Powai tholeiites overlap with available 40Ar/39Ar ages of 62.6 ± 0.6 and 62.9 ± 0.2 Ma for the seaward-dipping Dongri rhyolite flow and 62.2 ± 0.6 Ma for the Saki Naka trachyte intrusion, both from the uppermost Mumbai stratigraphy. The weighted mean of these eight 40Ar/39Ar ages is 62.4 ± 0.1 Ma (2 SEM), relative to an MMhb-1 monitor age of 523.1 ± 2.6 Ma (2σ), and indicates essentially contemporaneous volcanism, intrusion and tectonic flexure. This age also coincides with the rift-to-drift transition of the Seychelles and Laxmi Ridge-India breakup and the emplacement of the Raman-Panikkar-Wadia seamount chain in the axial part of the Laxmi Basin. Pre-rift magmatism is seen in the 64.55 Ma Jogeshwari basalt in Mumbai and 63.5-63.0 Ma intrusions in the Seychelles. Post-rift magmatism is seen in the 60.8-60.9 Ma Manori trachyte and Gilbert Hill basalt intrusions in Mumbai and 60-61 Ma syenitic intrusions in the Seychelles. The Mumbai area thus preserves the pre-, syn- and post-rift onshore tectonomagmatic record of the breakup between the Seychelles and the Laxmi Ridge-India. Voluminous submarine volcanism forming the Raman, Panikkar and Wadia seamounts in the Laxmi Basin represents the offshore syn-rift magmatism.

  7. Observational constraints on the identification of shallow lunar magmatism : insights from floor-fractured craters

    OpenAIRE

    Jozwiak, Lauren; Head, James; Neumann, G. A.; Wilson, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    Floor-fractured craters are a class of lunar crater hypothesized to form in response to the emplacement of a shallow magmatic intrusion beneath the crater floor. The emplacement of a shallow magmatic body should result in a positive Bouguer anomaly relative to unaltered complex craters, a signal which is observed for the average Bouguer anomaly interior to the crater walls. We observe the Bouguer anomaly of floor-fractured craters on an individual basis using the unfiltered Bouguer gravity so...

  8. The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study

  9. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium strongly incompatible behaviour in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behaviour, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth which crystallized uraninite appeared at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: peralkaline, high-K metaluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous ones and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass in their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Peralkaline granites or syenites represent the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction at the present economic conditions and make them unfavourable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic peralkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals [U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides] become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be also a

  10. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Converges More Convexly on Normal Smaller Optic Nerve Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung In; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-08-01

    To investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) configuration in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area according to disc size and to determine whether it explains cup discrepancy among eyes with different disc sizes. Horizontal and vertical RNFL curvature and mean thickness were measured using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph) in 63 normal subjects grouped by disc size. Average and quadrant RNFL thickness, disc size, average cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and convergence angle at the optic disc were also measured using Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography. The relationships between disc size and RNFL curvature, thickness, angle at optic disc, and CDR were evaluated. RNFL curvature and convergence angle reflects convexity "on" and "into" the optic disc, respectively. CDR was smaller for small discs and was positively correlated with disc size (Poptic disc were positively correlated with disc size (POptic disc area was negatively correlated with mean RNFL thickness at the optic disc margin measured by HRT (P=0.002), but not in the peripapillary area by optical coherence tomography. Using imaging techniques, we demonstrated that the shape of the RNFLs converging "on" and entering "into" the optic disc was more convex for small optic discs compared with large discs. A low CDR for small discs could be mediated by these RNFL profiles at the ONH, which may guide the clinical evaluation of glaucomatous ONH damage.

  11. Formation of heterogeneous magmatic series beneath North Santorini, South Aegean island arc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, John C; Jensen, E.S.; Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    magma formation beneath North Santorini throughout its 500 ka history is attributed to variable transfer of sedimentary components - either terrigenous or pelagic, as bulk sediments or high-temperature partial melts rather than fluids or low-temperature partial melts - from a rupture zone...... in the subducted slab to the overlying mantle. The three main magmatic series followed independent paths of assimilation of upper crustal materials during fractional crystallization. Assimilation was more pronounced at the basaltic stage. The long-lived histories of the three main magmatic series imply repetitive...... melting of isolated mantle regions, ascent of magmas through independent feeder systems, and their residence in separate crustal magma chambers....

  12. Possible genetic link between I-type granite and orogenic gold deposits in Egypt (metamorphic-magmatic interaction?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The orogenic gold deposits are a distinctive type of deposits that revealed unique temporal and spatial association with an orogeny. Where, the system of gold veins and related ore minerals was confined to hydrothermal solutions formed during compressional to transpressional deformation processes at convergent plate margins in accretionary and collisional orogens, with the respect to ongoing deep-crustal, subduction-related thermal processes. In Egypt, most of vein-type and dyke-type gold mineralization are restricted to granitic rocks or at least near of granitic intrusion that seems to have had an important influence on gold mineralization. Shear zone-related, mesothermal gold deposits of Fatira and Gidami mines in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt are found within granitic bodies or at the contact between granites and metavolcanic rocks. The hosting-granitic rocks in Fatira and Gidami areas are mainly of granodioritic composition (I-Type granite) which is related to calc-alkaline magmatic series. However, Fatira granitoids were developed within island arc tectonic settings related to mature island arc system (Late-orogenic stage), at relatively low temperature (around 660° C) and medium pressure between (5 - 10 Kbar). On the other hand, Gidami granitoids were developed during the collision stage in continental arc regime related to active continental margin (Syn-orogeny), which were crystallized at relatively high temperature (700-720° C) and low pressure (around 0.1 Kbar). The ore mineralogy includes pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, covellite, ilmenite, goethite ± pyrrhotite ± pentlandite ± galena ± molybdenite. Native gold is detected only in Gidami mineralization as small inclusions within pyrite and goethite or as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides). In Fatira deposits, it is detected only by microprobe analysis within the crystal lattice of pyrite and jarosite. Fluid inclusions study for the mineralized

  13. Crustal structure of Tolfa domes complex (northern Latium - Italy) inferred from receiver functions analysis: an interplay between tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, M.; Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Chiarabba, C.; de Rita, D.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Tolfa-Cerite volcanic district developed along the Tyrrhenian passive margin of central Italy, as part of magmatic processes started during the middle Pliocene. In this area the uncertainties on the deep crustal structures and the definition of the intrusive bodies geometry are focal issues that still need to be addressed. After the onset of the spreading of the Tyrrhenian sea during the Late Miocene, the emplacement of the intrusive bodies of the Tolfa complex (TDC), in a general back-arc geodynamical regime, generally occurred in a low stretching rate, in correspondence of the junctions between major lithospheric discontinuities. Normal faults, located at the edge of Mio-Pliocene basins, were used as preferential pathways for the rising of magmatic masses from the mantle to the surface. We used teleseismic recordings at the TOLF and MAON broad band station of the INGV seismic network (located between the Argentario promontory and Tolfa-Ceriti dome complexes -TDC-) to image the principal seismic velocity discontinuities by receiver function analysis (RF's). Together with RF’s velocity models of the area computed using the teleseismic events recorded by a temporary network of eight stations deployed around the TDC, we achieve a general crustal model of this area. The geometry of the seismic network has been defined to focus on the crustal structure beneath the TDC, trying to define the main velocity changes attributable to the intrusive bodies, the calcareous basal complex, the deep metamorphic basement, the lower crust and the Moho. The analysis of these data show the Moho at a depth of 23 km in the TDC area and 20 km in the Argentario area. Crustal models also show an unexpected velocity decrease between 12 and 18 km, consistent with a slight dropdown of the Vp/Vs ratio, imputable to a regional mid-crustal shear zone inherited from the previous alpine orogenesis, re-activated in extensional tectonic by the early opening phases of the Tyrrhenian sea. Above

  14. The Aegean/Cycladic and the Basin and Range Extensional Provinces - A Tectonic and Geochronologic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Aegean/Cycladic region (AC) and the Basin and Range Province (B&R) are two of the most famous Cenozoic extensional provinces and have greatly influenced our thinking about syn-convergent back-arc extension, core complex formation, syn-extensional magmatism, and kinematic transitions. They share numerous tectonic and structural similarities, such as a syn-convergent setting, previous contractional deformation, and core complex formation, but fundamental geological ambiguities remain, mainly centering around timing. The B&R affected a previously contractional belt (Sevier) and voluminous continental magmatic arc that created a pre-extensional orogenic highland. Extension was long-lived and complex, driven by both gravitational collapse and temporally distinct kinematic boundary condition changes. The B&R was also affected by massive, largely pre-extensional regional magmatic flare-ups that modified both the thermal and crustal composition. As the B&R occupies an elevated interior plateau, syn-extensional basin deposits are exclusively continental in character. In contrast, the AC is a classic marine back-arc extensional province that affected an active subduction margin with numerous accreted oceanic and continental ribbons, exhuming an early Cenozoic HP-LT subduction complex. Exhumation of the HP-LT complex, however, was accommodated both by vertical extrusion and crustal extension. Late Cenozoic extensional faulting was contemporaneous with S-ward sweeping arc magmatism and affected by little to no kinematic changes. As both the AC and B&R experienced contractional deformation during K-Cz subduction and J-K shortening, respectively, it is critical to differentiate between contractional and extensional structures and fabrics. The lack of temporal constraints hampers the reconstructions of pre-extensional structural anatomies and extensional strain magnitudes or even the attribution of structures to specific geodynamic settings. Novel methodologies in

  15. Ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter for linear time-dependent PDEs with noisy boundary conditions: Application to heat transfer in building walls

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco

    2017-11-26

    In this work, we present the ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter (EnMKF), a sequential algorithm analogous to our previously proposed approach [1,2], for estimating the state and parameters of linear parabolic partial differential equations in initial-boundary value problems when the boundary data are noisy. We apply EnMKF to infer the thermal properties of building walls and to estimate the corresponding heat flux from real and synthetic data. Compared with a modified Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that is not marginalized, EnMKF reduces the bias error, avoids the collapse of the ensemble without needing to add inflation, and converges to the mean field posterior using $50\\\\%$ or less of the ensemble size required by EnKF. According to our results, the marginalization technique in EnMKF is key to performance improvement with smaller ensembles at any fixed time.

  16. The composition and structure of volcanic rifted continental margins in the North Atlantic: Further insight from shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jennifer D.; White, Robert S.; Christie, Philip A. F.

    2011-07-01

    Imaging challenges caused by highly attenuative flood basalt sequences have resulted in the understanding of volcanic rifted continental margins lagging behind that of non-volcanic rifted and convergent margins. Massive volcanism occurred during break-up at 70% of the passive margins bordering the Atlantic Ocean, the causes and dynamics of which are still debated. This paper shows results from traveltime tomography of compressional and converted shear wave arrivals recorded on 170 four-component ocean bottom seismometers along two North Atlantic continental margin profiles. This traveltime tomography was performed using two different approaches. The first, a flexible layer-based parameterisation, enables the quality control of traveltime picks and investigation of the crustal structure. The second, with a regularised grid-based parameterisation, requires correction of converted shear wave traveltimes to effective symmetric raypaths and allows exploration of the model space via Monte Carlo analyses. The velocity models indicate high lower-crustal velocities and sharp transitions in both velocity and Vp/Vs ratios across the continent-ocean transition. The velocities are consistent with established mixing trends between felsic continental crust and high magnesium mafic rock on both margins. Interpretation of the high quality seismic reflection profile on the Faroes margin confirms that this mixing is through crustal intrusion. Converted shear wave data also provide constraints on the sub-basalt lithology on the Faroes margin, which is interpreted as a pre-break-up Mesozoic to Paleocene sedimentary system intruded by sills.

  17. The physical hydrology of magmatic-hydrothermal systems: High-resolution 18O records of magmatic-meteoric water interaction from the Yankee Lode tin deposit (Mole Granite, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits are important economic Cu, Au, Mo and Sn resources (Sillitoe, 2010, Kesler, 1994). The ore formation is a result of superimposed enrichment processes and metals can precipitate due to fluid-rock interaction and/or temperature drop caused by convection or mixing with meteoric fluid (Heinrich and Candela 2014). Microthermometry and LA-ICP MS trace element analyses of fluid inclusions of a well-characterized quartz sample from the Yankee Lode quartz-cassiterite vein deposit (Mole Granite, Australia) suggest that tin precipitation was driven by dilution of hot magmatic water by meteoric fluids (Audétat et al.1998). High resolution in situ oxygen isotope measurements of quartz have the potential to detect changing fluid sources during the evolution of a hydrothermal system. We analyzed the euhedral growth zones of this previously well-studied quartz sample. Growth temperatures are provided by Audétat et al. (1998) and Audétat (1999). Calculated δ 18O values of the quartz- and/or cassiterite-precipitating fluid show significant variability through the zoned crystal. The first and second quartz generations (Q1 and Q2) were precipitated from a fluid of magmatic isotopic composition with δ 18O values of ˜ 8 - 10 ‰. δ 18O values of Q3- and tourmaline-precipitating fluids show a transition from magmatic δ 18O values of ˜ 8 ‰ to ˜ -5 ‰. The outermost quartz-chlorite-muscovite zone was precipitated from a fluid with a significant meteoric water component reflected by very light δ 18O values of about -15 ‰ which is consistent with values found by previous studies (Sun and Eadington, 1987) using conventional O-isotope analysis of veins in the distal halo of the granite intrusion. Intense incursion of meteoric water during Q3 precipitation (light δ 18O values) agrees with the main ore formation event, though the first occurrence of cassiterite is linked to Q2 precipitating fluid with magmatic-like isotope signature. This

  18. The geophysical character of southern Alaska - Implications for crustal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2007-01-01

    The southern Alaska continental margin has undergone a long and complicated history of plate convergence, subduction, accretion, and margin-parallel displacements. The crustal character of this continental margin is discernible through combined analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data with key constraints from previous seismic interpretation. Regional magnetic data are particularly useful in defining broad geophysical domains. One of these domains, the south Alaska magnetic high, is the focus of this study. It is an intense and continuous magnetic high up to 200 km wide and ∼1500 km long extending from the Canadian border in the Wrangell Mountains west and southwest through Cook Inlet to the Bering Sea shelf. Crustal thickness beneath the south Alaska magnetic high is commonly 40–50 km. Gravity analysis indicates that the south Alaska magnetic high crust is dense. The south Alaska magnetic high spatially coincides with the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes. The thick, dense, and magnetic character of this domain requires significant amounts of mafic rocks at intermediate to deep crustal levels. In Wrangellia these mafic rocks are likely to have been emplaced during Middle and (or) Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone volcanism. In the Peninsular terrane, the most extensive period of mafic magmatism now known was associated with the Early Jurassic Talkeetna Formation volcanic arc. Thus the thick, dense, and magnetic character of the south Alaska magnetic high crust apparently developed as the response to mafic magmatism in both extensional (Wrangellia) and subduction-related arc (Peninsular terrane) settings. The south Alaska magnetic high is therefore a composite crustal feature. At least in Wrangellia, the crust was probably of average thickness (30 km) or greater prior to Triassic mafic magmatism. Up to 20 km (40%) of its present thickness may be due to the addition of Triassic mafic magmas. Throughout the south Alaska magnetic high, significant crustal growth

  19. Geodynamic setting of mesozoic magmatism and its relationship to uranium metallogenesis in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peirong

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern China, magmatism was developed quite intensely in Mesozoic forming a large quantity of rare and nonferrous metal deposits. The Indosinian orogenic movement ( Early Mesozoic) and the Yanshanian movement (Late Mesozoic) provided the dynamic force for magmatism and metallogenesis in this region. The intra-plate extension was induced by the Indosinian orogenic movement in South China continent under a regionally compressional framework to form Indosinian granites. The Yanshanian movement was a post-orogenic geologic event in relation to the Indosinian orogeny, and characterized by intense lithosphere breaking-up, resulting in large scale magmatic activities and a great amount of mineral resources was formed. The Indosinian granites overprinted by the Yanshanian tectono-magma event were closely related to uranium metallogenesis and were likely a kind of uranium source rock. Therefore, research on the distribution pattern of Indosinian granitoids and factors favorable to uranium ore-formation should be enhanced during prospecting in southern China. (author)

  20. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  1. Magmatic tempo of Earth's youngest exposed plutons as revealed by detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Spencer, Christopher J; Danišík, Martin; Hoiland, Carl W

    2017-09-29

    Plutons are formed by protracted crystallization of magma bodies several kilometers deep within the crust. The temporal frequency (i.e. episodicity or 'tempo') of pluton formation is often poorly constrained as timescales of pluton formation are largely variable and may be difficult to resolve by traditional dating methods. The Hida Mountain Range of central Japan hosts the youngest exposed plutons on Earth and provides a unique opportunity to assess the temporal and spatial characteristics of pluton emplacement at high temporal resolution. Here we apply U-Pb geochronology to zircon from the Quaternary Kurobegawa Granite and Takidani Granodiorite in the Hida Mountain Range, and from modern river sediments whose fluvial catchments include these plutons in order to reconstruct their formation. The U-Pb data demonstrate that the Kurobegawa pluton experienced two magmatic pulses at ~2.3 Ma and ~0.9 Ma; whereas, to the south, the Takidani pluton experienced only one magmatic pulse at ~1.6 Ma. These data imply that each of these magmatic systems were both spatially and temporally distinct. The apparent ~0.7 Myr age gap between each of the three magmatic pulses potentially constrains the recharge duration of a single pluton within a larger arc plutonic complex.

  2. Physical processes of magmatism and effects on the potential repository: Synthesis of technical work through Fiscal Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    This chapter summarizes data collection and model calculations through FY 95 under Study Plan 8.3.1.8.1.2 Physical Processes of Magmatism and Effects on the Potential Repository. The focus of this study plan is to gather information that ultimately constrains the consequences of small-volume, basaltic magmatic activity at or near a potential repository. This is then combined with event probability estimates, described elsewhere in this synthesis report, to yield a magmatic risk assessment. Tere are two basic classes of effects of magmatisms that are considered here: (1) Eruptive effects, whereby rising magma intersects a potential repository, entrains radioactive waste, and erupts it onto the earth`s surface. (2) Subsurface effects, which includes a wide range of processes such as hydrothermal flow, alteration of mineral assemblages in the potential repository system, and alteration of hydrologic flow properties of the rocks surrounding a potential repository.

  3. Physical processes of magmatism and effects on the potential repository: Synthesis of technical work through Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter summarizes data collection and model calculations through FY 95 under Study Plan 8.3.1.8.1.2 Physical Processes of Magmatism and Effects on the Potential Repository. The focus of this study plan is to gather information that ultimately constrains the consequences of small-volume, basaltic magmatic activity at or near a potential repository. This is then combined with event probability estimates, described elsewhere in this synthesis report, to yield a magmatic risk assessment. Tere are two basic classes of effects of magmatisms that are considered here: (1) Eruptive effects, whereby rising magma intersects a potential repository, entrains radioactive waste, and erupts it onto the earth's surface. (2) Subsurface effects, which includes a wide range of processes such as hydrothermal flow, alteration of mineral assemblages in the potential repository system, and alteration of hydrologic flow properties of the rocks surrounding a potential repository

  4. The 2012-2014 eruptive cycle of Copahue Volcano, Southern Andes. Magmatic-Hydrothermal system interaction and manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sergio; Alarcón, Alex; Basualto, Daniel; Bengoa, Cintia; Bertín, Daniel; Cardona, Carlos; Córdova, Maria; Franco, Luis; Gil, Fernando; Hernandez, Erasmo; Lara, Luis; Lazo, Jonathan; Mardones, Cristian; Medina, Roxana; Peña, Paola; Quijada, Jonathan; San Martín, Juan; Valderrama, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    Copahue Volcano (COPV), in Southern Andes of Chile, is an andesitic-basaltic stratovolcano, which is located on the western margin of Caviahue Caldera. The COPV have a NE-trending fissure with 9 aligned vents, being El Agrio the main currently active vent, with ca. 400 m in diameter. The COPV is placed into an extensive hydrothermal system which has modulated its recent 2012-2014 eruptive activity, with small phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptions and isolated weak strombolian episodes and formation of crater lakes inside the main crater. Since 2012, the Southern Andes Volcano Observatory (OVDAS) carried out the real-time monitoring with seismic broadband stations, GPS, infrasound sensors and webcams. In this work, we report pre, sin, and post-eruptive seismic activity of the last two main eruptions (Dec, 2012 and Oct, 2014) both with different seismic precursors and superficial activity, showing the second one a particularly appearance of seismic quiescence episodes preceding explosive activity, as an indicator of interaction between magmatic-hydrothermal systems. The first episode, in late 2012, was characterized by a low frequency (0.3-0.4 Hz and 1.0-1.5 Hz) continuous tremor which increased gradually from background noise level amplitude to values of reduced displacement (DR), close to 50 cm2 at the peak of the eruption, reaching an eruptive column of ~1.5 km height. After few months of recording low energy seismicity, a sequence of low frequency, repetitive and low energy seismic events arose, with a frequency of occurrence up to 300 events/hour. Also, the VLP earthquakes were added to the record probably associated with magma intrusion into a deep magmatic chamber during all stages of eruptive process, joined to the record of VT seismicity during the same period, which is located throughout the Caviahue Caldera area. Both kind of seismic patterns were again recorded in October 2014, being the precursor of the new eruptive cycle at this time as well as the

  5. Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation 2 (PICA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meade, F.C.; Troll, V.R.; Ellam, R.M.; Freda, C.; Font Morales, L.; Donaldson, C.H.; Klonowska, I.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous

  6. Convergence of Nelson diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Antonio, G.; Posilicano, A.

    1991-01-01

    Let ψ t , ψ t n , n≥1, be solutions of Schroedinger equations with potentials form-bounded by -1/2 Δ and initial data in H 1 (R d ). Let P, P n , n≥1, be the probability measures on the path space Ω=C(R + , R d ) given by the corresponding Nelson diffusions. We show that if {ψ t n } n≥1 converges to ψ t in H 2 (R d ), uniformly in t over compact intervals, then {P n } n≥1 converges to P in total variation. Moreover, if the potentials are in the Kato class K d , we show that the above result follows from H 1 -convergence of initial data, and K d -convergence of potentials. (orig.)

  7. CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE IN EUROPEAN UNION: EVIDENCE FOR BETA CONVERGENCE AMONG NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sorina Mihuț

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Convergence may be considered a central issue of the current economic literature, and not only, concentrating upon income distribution within different economies, but also focusing on different aspects of polarity and inequality that characterize especially the emerging economies. Testing convergence within economies may serve as a useful instrument for the validation of the economic growth models. While convergence was considered a defining element of the neoclassical growth models, the majority of the new endogenous growth models argue in favour of divergence across different economies. Testing convergence among European Union is even more challenging due to the high degree of heterogeneity that characterizes these economies. The recent accessions with ten new countries in 2004 and with another two in 2007 were considered only the first step towards assuring a sustainable convergence and finally adopting a common currency-the euro. A series of empirical studies concentrated upon testing convergence among EU, using as benchmark the real convergence quantified by the level of GDP/capita as an indicator for the living standards of every economy. The most popular approach rely on Beta and Sigma convergence, the first one being and indicator of the GDP/capita dispersion between different economies, and the later one being an estimator of the reverse relationship between GDP/capita and its initial level. The main purpose of this paper is to test Beta converge among the new EU member states, in order to obtained more information about the fact whether the poor countries are trying to catch-up with the more developed one. Also Beta convergence indicator embodies useful information about conditional and un-conditional convergence, two leading hypothesis within the neoclassical and endogenous growth models. For Beta convergence hypothesis to be valid it should be taken into consideration a ”catch-up” mechanism over a longer period of time

  8. Timing and thermochemical constraints on multi-element mineralisation at the Nori/RA Cu-Mo-U prospect, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootes, Luke; Goff, Steve; Jackson, Valerie A.; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Creaser, Robert A.; Samson, Iain M.; Evensen, Norman; Corriveau, Louise; Mumin, A. Hamid

    2010-08-01

    The timing of Cu-Mo-U mineralisation at the Nori/RA prospect in the Paleoproterozoic Great Bear magmatic zone has been investigated using Re-Os molybdenite and 40Ar-39Ar biotite geochronology. The Re-Os molybdenite ages presented are the first robust sulphide mineralisation ages derived from the Great Bear magmatic zone. Cu-Mo-U mineralisation is hosted in early to syn-deformational hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz and K-feldspar or more commonly tourmaline-biotite-quartz-K-feldspar, with associated wall-rock alteration assemblages being predominantly biotite. Sulphide and oxide minerals consist of chalcopyrite, molybdenite and uraninite with lesser pyrite and magnetite. Elevated light rare earth elements and tungsten concentrations associated with the Cu-Mo-U mineralisation have also been reported at the prospect by previous workers. Molybdenite and uraninite occur intimately in dravitic tourmaline growth zones and at grain margins, attesting to their syngenetic nature (with respect to hydrothermal veining). Two molybdenite separates yield Re-Os model ages of 1,874.4 ± 8.7 (2 σ) and 1,872.4 ± 8.8 Ma (2 σ) with a weighted average model age of 1,873.4 ± 6.1 Ma (2 σ). Laser step heating of biotite from the marginal alteration of the wall-rock adjacent to the veins yields a 40Ar-39Ar maximum cooling age of 1,875 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 3.8; 2 σ), indistinguishable from the Re-Os molybdenite model age and a previously dated ‘syn-tectonic’ aplitic dyke in the region. Dravitic tourmaline hosts abundant primary liquid-vapour-solid-bearing fluid inclusions. Analytical results indicate liquid-vapour homogenisation at >260°C constraining the minimum temperature of mineralisation. The solids, which are possibly trapped, did not homogenise with the liquid-vapour by 400°C. Salinities in the inclusions are variable. Raman spectra identify that at least some of the solids are calcite and anhydrite. Raman spectra also confirm the vapour phases contain some CO2; whereas

  9. On the Hydrogranular Dynamics of Magmatic Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, M. Z.; Bergantz, G. W.; Schleicher, J.; Burgisser, A.

    2016-12-01

    Magmatic processes are generally governed by multi-phase interactions of silicate liquid, crystals, and bubbles. However, the modes of dissipation and the manner that stress is transmitted are poorly understood. We use a model of a simple but widely applicable gravity current as a means to exemplify the hydrogranular dynamics in crystal-rich magmas. Viscous and lubrication forces are of special interest because they have a dual role in dispersal and mixing in a crystal-rich gravity current. For example, lubrication forces provide an initial apparent yield strength by inducing a negative pore pressure as crystals move apart. However, once the gravity current is underway, lubrication forces reduce the dissipation due to collision and frictional contact.The gravity current is initiated by a combination of toppling and sliding along a well-defined granular fault. This produces three distinct regimes: a quasi-static base, an overlying particle hump that translates in a quasi-plastic fashion by grain-passing and rolling until the angle of repose is reached, and a viscous particle current. The current initially forms a leading vortex at the head, but the loss of crystals by sedimentation-assisted granular capture by an upward growing particle front drains energy from the flow. The vortex is soon abandoned, but persists in the reservoir as a fossil feature of orphaned crystals in a smear of previous intercumulate fluid. The kinetic energy of the most active crystals decays in a dual fashion, initially linearly, then parabolically with a near symmetrical increase and loss of kinetic energy.There is very little entrainment and mixing between intercumulate and reservoir fluids from magmatic gravity currents. Only a thin seam of reservoir melt is captured by the base of the flow as it descends across the floor. Hence magmatic gravity currents, while producing modest amounts of crystal sorting, are not effective agents of mixing as lubrication and viscous forces inhibit

  10. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  11. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  12. Along-Axis Structure and Crustal Construction Processes of Spreading Segments in Iceland: Implications for Magmatic Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, D. L.; Karson, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Magmatic rift systems are composed of discrete spreading segments defined by morphologic, structural, and volcanic features that vary systematically along strike. In Iceland, structural features mapped in the glaciated and exhumed Miocene age upper crust correlate with analogous features in the seismically and volcanically active neovolcanic zone. Integrating information from both the active rift zones and ancient crust provides a three-dimensional perspective of crustal structure and the volcanic and tectonic processes that construct crust along spreading segments. Crustal exposures in the Skagi region of northern Iceland reveal significant along-strike variations in geologic structure. The upper crust at exhumed magmatic centers (segment centers) is characterized by a variety of intrusive rocks, high-temperature hydrothermal alteration, and geologic evidence for kilometer-scale subsidence. In contrast, the upper crust along segment limbs, which extend along strike from magmatic centers, is characterized by thick sections of gently dipping lava flows, cut by varying proportions of subvertical dikes. This structure implies relatively minor upper crustal subsidence and lateral dike intrusion. The differing modes of subsidence beneath segment centers and segment limbs require along-axis mass redistribution in the underlying upper, middle, and lower crust during crustal construction. This along-axis material transport is accomplished through lateral dike intrusion in the upper crust and by along-axis flow of magmatic to high-temperature solid-state gabbroic material in the middle and lower crust. These processes, inferred from outcrop evidence in Skagi, are consistent with processes inferred to be important during active rifting in Iceland and at analogous magmatic oceanic and continental rifts.

  13. Hot subduction: Magmatism along the Hunter Ridge, SW Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, A.J.; Verbeeten, A.; Danyushevsky, L.V.; Sigurdsson, I.A.; Maillet, P.; Monzier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hunter 'fracture zone' is generally regarded as a transform plate boundary linking the oppositely dipping Tongan and Vanuatu subduction systems. Dredging along the Hunter Ridge and sampling of its northernmost extent, exposed as the island of Kadavu in Fiji, has yielded a diversity of magmatic suites, including arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites, high-Mg lavas with some affinities to boninites and some affinities to adakites, and true adakitic lavas associated with remarkable low-Fe, high-Na basalts with 8-16 ppm Nb (herein high-Nb basalts). Lavas which show clear evidence of slab melt involvement in their petrogenesis occur at either end of the Hunter Ridge, whereas the arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites appear to be restricted to the south central part of the ridge. Mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data for each of these suites are summarized, and a tectono-magmatic model for their genesis and distribution is suggested. Trace element features and radiogenic isotope data for the Hunter Ridge lavas indicate compositions analogue to Pacific MORB-like mantle

  14. Magmatic constraints on localization of natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1580–1570 Ma old Vehmaa rapakivi granite batholith was studied with the aim to define the geological constraints for localization of natural stone deposits in the batholith. The batholith comprises four roughly concentric granite intrusions from the margin inwards: pyterlite, coarse-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite and two types of medium-grained porphyritic rapakivi granite. Also porphyry aplite and even-grained rapakivi granite occur. The batholith has intruded as a succession of pulses of subhorizontal sheet-like intrusions conceivably through repeated cauldron subsidence. Natural stone quarries are confined only to certain intrusions within the batholith. We show that the medium-grained porphyritic granite body in the centre of the batholith comprises two almost identical but different intrusions, with only slightly different appearances: the inner (IG and the outer (OG granite. The quarries are confined to the outer intrusion which has an appearance more attractive to the market than that of the inner intrusion. The localization of the natural stone deposits in the Vehmaa batholith is a result of the magmatic history of the batholith, producing intrusions of different appearances with different commercial potential.

  15. Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Dharma Rao

    2012-01-01

    of garnet compositions in the domains where some melt was retained. The post-peak evolution is constrained by a succession of melt-present reactions that occur at p < 10 kbar, inferred from micro-structural relations among various minerals. After high-temperature decompression from the metamorphic peak, the p–T path followed a near isobaric cooling stage to T < 900 °C. The UHT rocks investigated in this study occur within a continental collision suture which witnessed prolonged subduction–accretion history prior to the final collision. We correlate the extreme metamorphism and the stabilization of UHT mineral assemblages to heat and volatile input from an upwelled asthenosphere during subduction–collision tectonics in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin.

  16. The evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system over the past 630 kyr: Insights from the crystal record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelten, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field in northwestern Wyoming is one of the world's largest, active silicic volcanic centers, and has produced three caldera-forming "super eruptions" over the past 2.1 Myr. As a result, the petrologic evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system has been the focus of numerous studies over the past 60 years. Early studies at Yellowstone focused on characterizing whole-rock chemical and isotopic variations observed in magmas erupted over Yellowstone's lifetime. While these have provided important insights into the source of Yellowstone magmas and the processes controlling their compositional evolution though time, whole-rock studies are limited in their ability to identify the mechanisms and timescales of rhyolite generation. In contrast, much of the recent work at Yellowstone has focused on applying micro-analytical techniques to characterize the age and composition of phenocrysts hosted in Yellowstone rhyolites. These studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the magmatic system at Yellowstone and have provided crucial new insights into the mechanisms and timescales of rhyolite generation. In particular, recent work has focused on applying micro-analytical techniques to study the age and origin of the [1] three caldera-forming eruptions that produced the Huckleberry Ridge, Mesa Falls, Lava Creek tuffs and [2] post-Lava Creek tuff intracaldera rhyolites that compose the Plateau Rhyolite. As a result, a wealth of crystal-chemical data now exists for rhyolites erupted throughout Yellowstone's 2.1 Myr history. These data provide a unique opportunity to create a detailed reconstruction of Yellowstone's magmatic system through time. In this contribution, I integrate available age, chemical, and isotopic data for phenocrysts hosted in Yellowstone rhyolites to construct a model for the evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system from the caldera-forming eruption of the Lava Creek tuff at ca. 0.63 Ma to the present day. In particular

  17. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN, such as m......Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN...... with the emergence of remote service provision, such as supervision and control of decentralized heating facilities and wind based electrical power production. The reliability issue is addressed from a structural viewpoint, where the concept of Structural QoS (SQoS) is defined to support reliability modelling...

  18. High salinity volatile phases in magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J. J.; Mungall, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    The role of "deuteric" fluids (exsolved magmatic volatile phases) in the development of Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group element) deposits in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems is poorly understood. Although considerable field evidence demonstrates unambiguously that fluids modified most large primary Ni-Cu-PGE concentrations, models which hypothesize that fluids alone were largely responsible for the economic concentration of the base and precious metals are not widely accepted. Determination of the trace element composition of magmatic volatile phases in such ore-forming systems can offer considerable insight into the origin of potentially mineralizing fluids in such igneous environments. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis allows researchers to confirm the original metal budget of magmatic volatile phases and quantify the behavior of trace ore metals in the fluid phase in the absence of well-constrained theoretical or experimental predictions of ore metal solubility. In this study, we present new evidence from major deposits (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Stillwater Complex, Montana, U.S.A.) that compositionally distinct magmatic brines and halide melt phases were exsolved from crystallizing residual silicate melt and trapped within high-T fluid conduits now comprised of evolved rock compositions (albite-quartz graphic granite, orthoclase-quartz granophyre). Petrographic evidence demonstrates that brines and halide melts coexisted with immiscible carbonic phases at the time of entrapment (light aliphatic hydrocarbons, CO2). Brine and halide melt inclusions are rich in Na, Fe, Mn, K, Pb, Zn, Ba, Sr, Al and Cl, and homogenize by either halite dissolution at high T ( ˜450-700° C) or by melting of the salt phase (700-800° C). LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions demonstrate that high salinity volatile phases contained abundant base metals (Cu, Fe, Sn, Bi) and precious metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag) at the time of entrapment. Notably, precious metal concentrations in the inclusions

  19. Multiscale magmatic cyclicity, duration of pluton construction, and the paradoxical relationship between tectonism and plutonism in continental arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Horsman, Eric; Habert, Guillaume; Morgan, Sven; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Law, Richard; Tikoff, Basil

    2011-03-01

    The close relationship between crustal magmatism, an expression of heat dissipation, and tectonics, an expression of stress dissipation, leads to the question of their mutual relationships. Indeed, the low viscosity of magmas and the large viscosity contrast between magmas and surrounding rocks favor strain localization in magmas, and then possible "magmatic" initiation of structures at a wide range of scales. However, new data about 3-d pluton shape and duration of pluton construction perturb this simple geological image, and indicate some independence between magmatism and tectonics. In some cases we observe a direct genetic link and strong arguments for physical interactions between magmas and tectonics. In other cases, we observe an absence of these interactions and it is unclear how magma transfer and emplacement are related to lithospheric-plate dynamics. A simple explanation of this complexity follows directly from the pulsed, incremental assembly of plutons and its spatial and temporal characteristics. The size of each pluton is related to a magmatic pulsation at a particular time scale, and each of these coupled time/space scales is related to a specific process: in small plutons, we can observe the incremental process, the building block of plutons; in larger plutons, the incremental process is lost, and the pulsation, which consists of a cycle of injections at different timescales, must be related to the composition and thermal regime of the source region, itself driving magmatic processes (melting, segregation, and transfer) that interact with tectonic boundary conditions. The dynamics of pulsed magmatism observed in plutonic systems is then a proxy for deep lithospheric and magmatic processes. From our data and a review of published work, we find a positive corelation between volume and duration of pluton construction. The larger a pluton, the longer its construction time. Large/fast or small/slow plutons have not been identified to date. One

  20. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The strongly incompatible behaviour of uranium in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behavior, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth, which crystallized uraninite, dated at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: per-alkaline, high-K met-aluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass of their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Per-alkaline granites or syenites are associated with the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction under the present economic conditions and make them unfavorable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic per-alkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals (U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides) become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be

  1. Matthew and marginality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis C. Duling

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores marginality theory as it was first proposed in  the social sciences, that is related to persons caught between two competing cultures (Park; Stonequist, and, then, as it was developed in sociology as related to the poor (Germani and in anthropology as it was related to involuntary marginality and voluntary marginality (Victor Turner. It then examines a (normative scheme' in antiquity that creates involuntary marginality at the macrosocial level, namely, Lenski's social stratification model in an agrarian society, and indicates how Matthean language might fit with a sample inventory  of socioreligious roles. Next, it examines some (normative schemes' in  antiquity for voluntary margi-nality at the microsocial level, namely, groups, and examines how the Matthean gospel would fit based on indications of factions and leaders. The article ,shows that the author of the Gospel of Matthew has an ideology of (voluntary marginality', but his gospel includes some hope for (involuntary  marginals' in  the  real world, though it is somewhat tempered. It also suggests that the writer of the Gospel is a (marginal man', especially in the sense defined by the early theorists (Park; Stone-quist.

  2. Origin of fumarolic fluids from Tupungatito Volcano (Central Chile): interplay between magmatic, hydrothermal, and shallow meteoric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Oscar; Tassi, Franco; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Vaselli, Orlando; Aguilera, Felipe; Reich, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Tupungatito is a poorly known volcano located about 100 km eastward of Santiago (Chile) in the northernmost sector of the South Volcanic Zone. This 5,682 m high volcano shows intense fumarolic activity. It hosts three crater lakes within the northwestern portion of the summit area. Chemical compositions of fumarolic gases and isotopic signatures of noble gases (3He/4He and 40Ar/36Ar are up to 6.09 Ra and 461, respectively), and steam (δ18O and δD) suggest that they are produced by mixing of fluids from a magmatic source rich in acidic gas compounds (SO2, HCl, and HF), and meteoric water. The magmatic-hydrothermal fluids are affected by steam condensation that controls the outlet fumarolic temperatures (contamination from the subducting slab, (2) the sedimentary basement, and (3) limited contribution from crustal sediments. Gas geothermometry based on the kinetically rapid H2-CO equilibria indicates equilibrium temperatures 200 °C and redox conditions are consistent with those inferred by the presence of the SO2-H2S redox pair, typical of fluids that have attained equilibrium in magmatic environment. A comprehensive conceptual geochemical model describing the circulation pattern of the Tupungatito hydrothermal-magmatic fluids is proposed. It includes fluid source regions and re-equilibration processes affecting the different gas species due to changing chemical-physical conditions as the magmatic-hydrothermal fluids rise up toward the surface.

  3. Australian provenance for Upper Permian to Cretaceous rocks forming accretionary complexes on the New Zealand sector of the Gondwana land margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, A.L.; Barley, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    U-Pb (SHRIMP) detrital zircon age patterns are reported for 12 samples of Permian to Cretaceous turbiditic quartzo-feldspathic sandstone from the Torlesse and Waipapa suspect terranes of New Zealand. Their major Permian to Triassic, and minor Early Palaeozoic and Mesoproterozoic, age components indicate that most sediment was probably derived from the Carboniferous to Triassic New England Orogen in northeastern Australia. Rapid deposition of voluminous Torlesse/Waipapa turbidite fans during the Late Permian to Late Triassic appears to have been directly linked to uplift and exhumation of the magmatically active orogen during the 265-230 Ma Hunter-Bowen event. This period of cordilleran-type orogeny allowed transport of large volumes of quartzo-feldspathic sediment across the convergent Gondwana land margin. Post-Triassic depocentres also received (recycled?) sediment from the relict orogen as well as from Jurassic and Cretaceous volcanic provinces now offshore from southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. The detailed provenance-age fingerprints provided by the detrital zircon data are also consistent with progressive southward derivation of sediment: from northeastern Queensland during the Permian, southeastern Queensland during the Triassic, and northeastern New South Wales - Lord Howe Rise - Norfolk Ridge during the Jurassic to Cretaceous. Although the dextral sense of displacement is consistent with the tectonic regime during this period, detailed characterisation of source terranes at this scale is hindered by the scarcity of published zircon age data for igneous and sedimentary rocks in Queensland and northern New South Wales. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic age components cannot be adequately matched with likely source terranes in the Australian-Antarctic Precambrian craton, and it is possible they originated in the Proterozoic cores of the Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks of southeast China. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  4. Trouble Upstairs: Reconstructing Permian-Triassic Climate during Siberian Traps Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Neely, R. R., III; Lamarque, J. F.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Mills, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The eruption of large igneous provinces can transfer significant masses of volatiles from Earth's interior to the atmosphere. What are the consequences of this degassing for habitability and extinction? In this presentation, we consider this question in the context of Siberian Traps magmatism, which has been shown to overlap within geochronologic uncertainty with catastrophic deterioration of Permian-Triassic marine and terrestrial ecosystems. To investigate the impacts of endogenic gases on climate, atmospheric chemistry, and ocean circulation, we conducted a series of numerical experiments with a comprehensive global model for the Permian-Triassic. Our simulations predict the intensity and distribution of acid rain and ozone depletion, with implications for terrestrial biota. We further explore feedbacks between sulfur emissions, transient cooling, and shifts in ocean circulation. We suggest that Siberian Traps magmatism may have triggered several distinct kill mechanisms in the oceans and on land, contributing to a complex combined pattern of environmental stress and latest Permian ecological failure.

  5. Subduction history of the Paleo-Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian continent: Evidence from Mesozoic igneous rocks and accretionary complex in NE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mesozoic magmatisms in NE China can be subdivided into seven stages, i.e., Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, Late Jurassic, early Early Cretaceous, late Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous. Late Triassic magmatisms consist of calc-alkaline igneous rocks in the Erguna Massif, and bimodal igneous rocks in eastern margin of Eurasian continent. The former reveals southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate, the latter reveals an extensional environment (Xu et al., 2013). Early Jurassic magmatisms are composed of calc-alkaline igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent and the Erguna Massif, revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate and southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate (Tang et al., 2015), respectively. Middle Jurassic magmatism only occur in the Great Xing'an Range and the northern margin of the NCC, and consists of adakitic rocks that formed in crustal thickening, reflecting the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean (Li et al., 2015). Late Jurassic and early Early Cretaceous magmatisms only occur to the west of the Songliao Basin, and consist of trackyandesite and A-type of rhyolites, revealing an extensional environment related to delamination of thickened crust. The late Early Cretaceous magmatisms are widespread in NE China, and consist of calc-alkaline volcanics in eastern margin and bimodal volcanics in intracontinent, revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate. Late Cretaceous magmatisms mainly occur to the east of the Songliao Basin, and consist of calc-alkaline volcanics in eastern margin and alkaline basalts in intracontinent (Xu et al., 2013), revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate. The Heilongjiang complex with Early Jurassic deformation, together with Jurassic Khabarovsk complex in Russia Far East and Mino-Tamba complex in Japan, reveal Early Jurassic accretionary history. Additionally, the Raohe complex with the age of ca. 169 Ma was

  6. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum: The Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penniston-Dorland, S.; Stern, R. J.; Edwards, B. R.; Kincaid, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate fundamental results from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. Three Subduction Factory (SubFac) mini-lessons were developed as part of this project. These include hands-on examinations of data sets representing 3 key components of the subduction zone system: 1) Heat transfer in the subducted slab; 2) Metamorphic processes happening at the plate interface; and 3) Typical magmatic products of arc systems above subduction zones. Module 1: "Slab Temperatures Control Melting in Subduction Zones, What Controls Slab Temperature?" allows students to work in groups using beads rolling down slopes as an analog for the mathematics of heat flow. Using this hands-on, exploration-based approach, students develop an intuition for the mathematics of heatflow and learn about heat conduction and advection in the subduction zone environment. Module 2: "Subduction zone metamorphism" introduces students to the metamorphic rocks that form as the subducted slab descends and the mineral reactions that characterize subduction-related metamorphism. This module includes a suite of metamorphic rocks available for instructors to use in a lab, and exercises in which students compare pressure-temperature estimates obtained from metamorphic rocks to predictions from thermal models. Module 3: "Central American Arc Volcanoes, Petrology and Geochemistry" introduces students to basic concepts in igneous petrology using the Central American volcanic arc, a MARGINS Subduction Factory focus site, as an example. The module relates data from two different volcanoes - basaltic Cerro Negro (Nicaragua) and andesitic Ilopango (El Salvador) including hand sample observations and major element geochemistry - to explore processes of mantle and crustal melting and differentiation in arc volcanism.

  7. Similar and Contrasting Response of Rifting and Transtension in the Gulf of California and Walker Lane to Preceding Arc Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C. D.; Faulds, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) and Walker Lane (WL) have undergone strikingly similar development with strike- slip faulting following initial extension. They differ significantly in the amount of Pacific-North American plate motion taken up by each: essentially all relative motion in the GC and ~25% in the WL. In both areas, ancestral arc magmatism preceded and probably focused deformation, perhaps because heating and/or hydration weakened the lithosphere. However, differences in migration of the Rivera (RTJ) and Mendocino triple junctions (MTJ) related to differences in the orientation of plate boundaries determined how strike-slip faulting developed. Abrupt southward jumps in the RTJ led to abrupt cessation of magmatism over arc lengths of as much as 1000 km and initiation of east-northeast extension within the future GC. The best known jump was at ~13 Ma, but an earlier jump occurred at ~18 Ma. Arc magmatism has been best documented in Baja California, Sonora, and Nayarit, although Baja constituted the most-trenchward fringe of the ancestral arc. New and published data indicate that Sinaloa underwent a similar history of arc magmatism. The greatest volume of the arc immediately preceding RTJ jumps was probably in mainland Mexico. Arc magmatism shut off following these jumps, extension began in the future GC, and strike-slip faulting either followed or accompanied extension in the GC. In contrast, the MTJ migrated progressively northward. New and published data indicate magmatism generally shut off coincident with this retreat, but distinct nodes or zones of magmatism, presumably unrelated to subduction, persisted or initiated after arc activity ceased. We have suggested that the WL has grown progressively northward, following the retreating arc, and that the northern WL is its youngest part. However, the timing of initiation of strike-slip faulting in most of the WL is poorly known and controversial. Testing our hypothesis requires determining initiation and

  8. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno

    2008-07-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  9. Petrogenesis of postcollisional magmatism at Scheelite Dome, Yukon, Canada: Evidence for a lithospheric mantle source for magmas associated with intrusion-related gold systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, John L.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    are attributes of the ancient North American cratonic margin that appear to be essential prerequisites to this style of postcollisional magmatism and associated gold-rich fluid exsolution. This type of magmatic hydrothermal activity occurs in a very specific tectonic setting that typically sets intrusion-related gold deposits apart from orogenic gold deposits, which are synorogenic in timing and have no consistent direct relationship to such diverse and contemporaneous lithospheric mantle-derived magmas, although they too are commonly sited adjacent to lithospheric boundaries.

  10. Convergence from divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Ovidiu; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2018-01-01

    We show how to convert divergent series, which typically occur in many applications in physics, into rapidly convergent inverse factorial series. This can be interpreted physically as a novel resummation of perturbative series. Being convergent, these new series allow rigorous extrapolation from an asymptotic region with a large parameter, to the opposite region where the parameter is small. We illustrate the method with various physical examples, and discuss how these convergent series relate to standard methods such as Borel summation, and also how they incorporate the physical Stokes phenomenon. We comment on the relation of these results to Dyson’s physical argument for the divergence of perturbation theory. This approach also leads naturally to a wide class of relations between bosonic and fermionic partition functions, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac determinants.

  11. Basement control of alkalic flood rhyolite magmatism of the Davis Mountains volcanic field, Trans-Pecos Texas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Don F.; White, John C.; Ren, Minghua; Barnes, Melanie

    2017-11-01

    Voluminous silicic lava flows, erupted 37.4 Ma from widespread centers within the Davis Mountains Volcanic Field (DMVF), covered approximately 10,000 km2 with an initial volume as great as 1000 km3. Lava flows form three major stratigraphic units: the Star Mountain Rhyolite (minimum 220 km3) of the eastern Davis Mountains and adjacent Barilla Mountains, the Crossen Formation ( 75 km3) of the southern Davis Mountains, and the Bracks Rhyolite ( 75 km3) of the Rim Rock region west of the Davis Mountains proper. Similar extensive rhyolite lava also occurs in slightly younger units (Adobe Canyon Rhyolite, 125 km3, 37.1 Ma), Sheep Pasture Formation ( 125 km3, 36 Ma) and, less voluminously, in the Paisano central volcano ( 36.9 Ma) and younger units in the Davis Mountains. Individual lava flows from these units formed fields as extensive as 55 km and 300-m-thick. Flood rhyolite lavas of the Davis Mountains are marginally peralkaline quartz trachyte to low-silica rhyolite. Phenocrysts include alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene, FeTi oxides, and apatite, and, rarely, fayalite, as well as zircon in less peralkaline units. Many Star Mountain flows may be assigned to one of four geochemical groupings. Temperatures were moderately high, ranging from 911 to 860 °C in quartz trachyte and low silica rhyolite. We suggest that flood rhyolite magma evolved from trachyte magma by filter pressing processes, and trachyte from mafic magma in deeper seated plutons. The Davis Mountains segment of Trans-Pecos Texas overlies Grenville basement and is separated from the older Southern Granite and Rhyolite Province to the north by the Grenville Front, and from the younger Coahuila terrane to the south by the Ouachita Front. We suggest that basement structure strongly influenced the timing and nature of Trans-Pecos magmatism, probably in varying degrees of impeding the ascent of mantle-derived mafic magmas, which were produced by upwelling of asthenospheric mantle above the foundered Farallon slab

  12. Density by Moduli and Lacunary Statistical Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have introduced and studied a new concept of f-lacunary statistical convergence, where f is an unbounded modulus. It is shown that, under certain conditions on a modulus f, the concepts of lacunary strong convergence with respect to a modulus f and f-lacunary statistical convergence are equivalent on bounded sequences. We further characterize those θ for which Sθf=Sf, where Sθf and Sf denote the sets of all f-lacunary statistically convergent sequences and f-statistically convergent sequences, respectively. A general description of inclusion between two arbitrary lacunary methods of f-statistical convergence is given. Finally, we give an Sθf-analog of the Cauchy criterion for convergence and a Tauberian theorem for Sθf-convergence is also proved.

  13. Geochemical characteristics of Antarctic magmatism connected with Karoo-Maud and Kerguelen mantle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Krymsky, Robert; Belyatsky, Boris; Antonov, Anton; Migdisova, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    Emplacement (130-115 m.y. ago) of dikes and sills of alkaline-ultrabasic composition within Jetty oasis (East Antarctica) is suggested as a later appearance of plume magmatism within the East-Antarctic Shield [Andronikov et al., 1993, 2001; Laiba et al., 1987]. This region is located opposite Kerguelen Islands and possibly could be properly connected with activity of the Kerguelen-plume [Foley et al., 2001, 2006]. Jurassic-Cretaceous dykes, stocks and sills of alkaline-ultrabasic rocks, relatively close to kimberlite-type, are exposed within Jetty oasis and on the southern shore of the Raddock Lake. This alkaline-ultrabasic magmatism has appeared to be connected with the main Mesozoic stage of the evolution of the Lambert and Amery glaciers riftogenic structure [Kurinin et al., 1980, 1988]. The alkaline-ultrabasic dikes and sills within Jetty oasis cut the rocks of the Beaver complex, Permo-Triassic terrigeneous successions of the Amery complex, and late Paleozoic low-alkaline basic dikes as well. Dashed chain of 6 stock bodies spread out on 15 km along the eastern shore of the Beaver Lake, marked their allocation with submeridianal zone of the deep cracks, boarded of the eastern side of the Beaver Lake trough. At the same time, new data upon Quaternary magmatism of the mountain Gaussberg has confirmed the unique features of ultra-potassium alkaline magmatism (up to 14-17% K2O) formed under exclusively continental conditions [Murphy et al., 2002]. Volcanic cone is located at the continuation of Gaussberg rift zone which is possibly a part of Lambert fracture zone. Its formation is connected with the early stages of Gondwana development, perhaps, reactivated in different Precambrian events and according to numerous data is a single rift zone which is traced Indian inland (Indrani graben, [Golynsky, 2011]). The time of lamproitic magmas eruption is estimated at 56000±5000 yeas ago [Tingey et al., 1983]. Earlier it had been shown the Mesozoic (about 170 Ma) basaltic

  14. Pre-eruptive magmatic processes re-timed using a non-isothermal approach to magma chamber dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Chiara Maria; Bugatti, Giuseppe; Braschi, Eleonora; Tommasini, Simone

    2016-10-05

    Constraining the timescales of pre-eruptive magmatic processes in active volcanic systems is paramount to understand magma chamber dynamics and the triggers for volcanic eruptions. Temporal information of magmatic processes is locked within the chemical zoning profiles of crystals but can be accessed by means of elemental diffusion chronometry. Mineral compositional zoning testifies to the occurrence of substantial temperature differences within magma chambers, which often bias the estimated timescales in the case of multi-stage zoned minerals. Here we propose a new Non-Isothermal Diffusion Incremental Step model to take into account the non-isothermal nature of pre-eruptive processes, deconstructing the main core-rim diffusion profiles of multi-zoned crystals into different isothermal steps. The Non-Isothermal Diffusion Incremental Step model represents a significant improvement in the reconstruction of crystal lifetime histories. Unravelling stepwise timescales at contrasting temperatures provides a novel approach to constraining pre-eruptive magmatic processes and greatly increases our understanding of magma chamber dynamics.

  15. Paleozoic–Mesozoic Porphyry Cu(Mo and Mo(Cu Deposits within the Southern Margin of the Siberian Craton: Geochemistry, Geochronology, and Petrogenesis (a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita N. Berzina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The southern margin of the Siberian craton hosts numerous Cu(Mo and Mo(Cu porphyry deposits. This review provides the first comprehensive set of geological characteristics, geochronological data, petrochemistry, and Sr–Nd isotopic data of representative porphyry Cu(Mo and Mo(Cu deposits within the southern margin of the Siberian craton and discusses the igneous processes that controlled the evolution of these magmatic systems related to mineralization. Geochronological data show that these porphyry deposits have an eastward-younging trend evolving from the Early Paleozoic to Middle Mesozoic. The western part of the area (Altay-Sayan segment hosts porphyry Cu and Mo–Cu deposits that generally formed in the Early Paleozoic time, whereas porphyry Cu–Mo deposits in the central part (Northern Mongolia formed in the Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic. The geodynamic setting of the region during these mineralizing events is consistent with Early Paleozoic subduction of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate with the continuous accretion of oceanic components to the Siberian continent and Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic subduction of the west gulf of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean under the Siberian continent. The eastern part of the study area (Eastern Transbaikalia hosts molybdenum-dominated Mo and Mo–Cu porphyry deposits that formed in the Jurassic. The regional geodynamic setting during this mineralizing process is related to the collision of the Siberian and North China–Mongolia continents during the closure of the central part of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean in the Jurassic. Available isotopic data show that the magmas related to porphyritic Cu–Mo and Mo–Cu mineralization during the Early Paleozoic and Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic were mainly derived from mantle materials. The generation of fertile melts, related to porphyritic Mo and Mo–Cu mineralization during the Jurassic involved variable amounts of metasomatized mantle source component, the

  16. Petrogenesis of the late Early Cretaceous granodiorite - Quartz diorite from eastern Guangdong, SE China: Implications for tectono-magmatic evolution and porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lihui; Mao, Jingwen; Liu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Comprehensive petrological, zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O isotopes, whole rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes data are presented for the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province, Southeast (SE) China, with an aim to constrain the petrogenesis, tectono-magmatic evolution and evaluate the implication for porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. The Xinwei intrusion is composed of granodiorite and quartz diorite, whilst the Sanrao intrusion consists of granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages show that both intrusions were emplaced at ca. 106-102 Ma. All rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline in composition, and they are characterized by LREEs enrichment, depletion in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and strongly fractionated LREEs to HREEs. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7055 to 0.7059, and εNd(t) values range from -3.9 to -3.0. Together with the relatively high εHf(t) values (-3.2 to 3.3) and low δ18O values (4.9‰ to 6.6‰), these data suggest that the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions were derived from a mixed source: including the mantle-derived mafic magmas and lower continental crustal magmas. Fractional crystallization played an important role in the magmatic evolution of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions. The elemental and isotopic compositions of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions, as well as the high water content and oxidation state of their parental magmas, are similar to those of the ore-bearing granodiorites of the Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the Fujian Province, neighbouring east to the Guangdong Province, indicating that the late Early Cretaceous granodioritic intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province may also have Cu-Au-Mo mineralization potential. The late Early Cretaceous magmatic event is firstly reported in eastern Guangdong, and represents a positive response of large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, triggered by the changing subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific plate from oblique subduction to

  17. Pangea: Geochronological correlation of successive environmental and strati-tectonic phases in Europe and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veevers, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A robust geochronology based on U-Pb zircon ages in Australia (n = 158) and Europe (n = 376) provides a rigorous test of (1) the model of a climatic-tectonic cycle of a single continent (Pangea) and ocean (Panthalassa) with an icehouse climate alternating with many continents and oceans with a greenhouse climate, and (2) the idea of coeval (320 to 300 Ma) right-lateral shear events in Eastern Australia and Europe followed by earliest Permian (~ 300 Ma) extension. During Pangean assembly, stress from the oblique collision of Laurussia and Gondwanaland bent the oroclines in Iberia, drove the intense shortening in Central Australia and terminal megakinking in the Lachlan orogen, and possibly drove the bending of oroclines in Eastern Australia. Extension I (~ 300 Ma, Carboniferous/Permian) followed the first outburst of self-induced (monsoonal) heat from the newly assembled Pangea, and generated fresh accommodation space for globally synchronous sedimentary successions, including the glacial base and succeeding coals of the Gondwana facies. Extension was relieved by sags on (isotropic) cratons and rifts on (anisotropic) fold belts with voluminous volcanics. In Europe, the Variscan orogen was cut into right-lateral magmatic rifts and the craton sagged to accumulate magmatic basins; likewise, the convergent margin of Eastern Australia was cut into a long magmatic rift and the cratonic foreland covered by the Gondwana facies. The end-Permian (251 Ma) sea-level drawdown, climate warming, and severe biotic extinction, with no obvious tectonic cause, were responsible for the Early-Middle Triassic coal gap. A second outburst of heat drove Extension II (235 Ma, Carnian, Late Triassic), expressed as rifts and sags that accumulated a second set of coal-bearing strata. At this time of its largest extent, Pangea underwent incipient breakup by rifting of the Atlantic Margins of North America, Morocco, and Western Europe that developed into 190 Ma drifting.

  18. Vadose zone flow convergence test suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-05

    Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.

  19. Morphological convergence in ‘river dolphin’ skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Page

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the ‘river dolphins’. The four dolphin genera that make up the ‘river dolphins’ (Inia geoffrensis, Pontoporia blainvillei, Platanista gangetica and Lipotes vexillifer do not represent a single monophyletic group, despite being very similar in morphology. This has led many to using the ‘river dolphins’ as an example of convergent evolution. We investigate whether the skulls of the four ‘river dolphin’ genera are convergent when compared to other toothed dolphin taxa in addition to identifying convergent cranial and mandibular features. We use geometric morphometrics to uncover shape variation in the skulls of the ‘river dolphins’ and then apply a number of phylogenetic techniques to test for convergence. We find significant convergence in the skull morphology of the ‘river dolphins’. The four genera seem to have evolved similar skull shapes, leading to a convergent morphotype characterised by elongation of skull features. The cause of this morphological convergence remains unclear. However, the features we uncover as convergent, in particular elongation of the rostrum, support hypotheses of shared feeding mode or diet and thus provide the foundation for future work into convergence within the Odontoceti.

  20. The Wall-Rock Record of Incremental Emplacement in the Little Cottonwood-Alta Magmatic and Hydrothermal System, Wasatch Mountains, Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Callis, S.; Beno, C.; Bowman, J. R.; Bartley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Contact aureoles record the cumulative effects on wall rocks of magma emplacement. Like the plutons they surround, contact aureoles have long been regarded to form geologically instantaneously. Protracted incremental emplacement of plutons must be reconciled with the wall-rock record of heat and mass transfer. Fundamental questions include how heat and material move from intrusions into their aureoles and how long that process takes. The Little Cottonwood stock is surrounded by a 2 km-wide contact aureole that contains prograde AFM mineral assemblages in the pelitic layers of the Proterozoic Big Cottonwood Formation. The Alta stock is surrounded by a well characterized 1 km-wide contact aureole containing both prograde AFM and CMS mineral assemblages in Ophir Shale and Mississippian dolostones, respectively. Understanding the petrogenesis of these aureoles requires the timing of magmatism and wall-rock metamorphism to be independently determined. Preliminary petrochronology (U/Th-Pb dates and trace element concentrations collected by LASS-ICP-MS) from the inner aureoles of both intrusions establishes a protracted history of monazite (re)crystallization from 35-25 Ma in the Little Cottonwood aureole and 35 Ma in the Alta aureole. Little Cottonwood aureole monazites are characterized by a positive age correlation with heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and a negative correlation with Eu/Eu*. Alta aureole monazites have a similar range of the HREE concentrations and Eu/Eu* variation. Zircon growth interpreted to record emplacement-level magmatic crystallization of the western Little Cottonwood stock ranges from 33-28 Ma near the contact. Multi-grain U-Pb zircon TIMS dates from the Alta stock range from 35-33 Ma and are interpreted to suggest the full range of emplacement-level magmatism in the Alta stock. Additionally, in situ U-Pb titanite dates from the Alta stock record intermittent high temperature hydrothermal activity in the stock margin from 35-24 Ma. These new

  1. Magmatic and Crustal Differentiation History of Granitic Rocks from Hf-O Isotopes in Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, , A. I. S.; Hawkesworth, , C. J.; Foster, , G. L.; Paterson, , B. A.; Woodhead, , J. D.; Hergt, , J. M.; Gray, , C. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2007-02-01

    Granitic plutonism is the principal agent of crustal differentiation, but linking granite emplacement to crust formation requires knowledge of the magmatic evolution, which is notoriously difficult to reconstruct from bulk rock compositions. We unlocked the plutonic archive through hafnium (Hf) and oxygen (O) isotope analysis of zoned zircon crystals from the classic hornblende-bearing (I-type) granites of eastern Australia. This granite type forms by the reworking of sedimentary materials by mantle-like magmas instead of by remelting ancient metamorphosed igneous rocks as widely believed. I-type magmatism thus drives the coupled growth and differentiation of continental crust.

  2. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  3. 50 Myr of pulsed mafic magmatism in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D. G.; Dockman, D. M.; Heaman, L. M.; Gibson, S. A.; Sarkar, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive and voluminous Cretaceous mafic magmatism in the Sverdrup Basin of Arctic Canada forms the circum-Arctic High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The small number of published high-precision ages for this LIP indicate its eruption over a considerable timespan raising concerns over whether the HALIP can be strictly defined as a single LIP and questioning the role of a single or multiple plumes in its genesis. Here we present an integrated geochemical and geochronological study to better constrain the timing and cause of mafic magma genesis in the Canadian HALIP. Six new U-Pb and four 40Ar/39Ar ages of mafic lavas and intrusive sheets range from 121 Ma to 78 Ma. The U-Pb ages are the first analyzed from the mafic intrusions of Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere Islands. The new geochronology, combined with other published high-precision ages, reveal a > 50 Myr duration of mafic magmatism in the HALIP defined by three main pulses. Tholeiites dominate the initial 25 Myr of magmatism, transitioning to coeval emplacement of alkali and tholeiitic basalts. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotope ratios indicate that both magma types are derived from a similar source dominated by convecting mantle. Rare-earth-element inversion models reveal that the alkalic and tholeiitic magmas were generated beneath a bimodal lithospheric `lid' thickness of 65 ± 5 and 45 ± 4 km, respectively. We suggest that the early 128 - 122 Ma tholeiitic event is primarily plume-generated and correlates across the circum-Arctic with the other HALIP tholeiites. Younger HALIP magmatism, with coeval alkalic and tholeiitic magmas erupting over 25 Myr, may be explained by alternating modes of edge-driven mantle convection as the primary control on magma genesis. A distal plume may have intensified magma production by edge-driven convection.

  4. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  5. The giant Carlin gold province: A protracted interplay of orogenic, basinal, and hydrothermal processes above a lithospheric boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsbo, P.; Groves, D.I.; Hofstra, A.H.; Bierlein, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Northern Nevada hosts the only province that contains multiple world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. The first-order control on the uniqueness of this province is its anomalous far back-arc tectonic setting over the rifted North American paleocontinental margin that separates Precambrian from Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Globally, most other significant gold provinces form in volcanic arcs and accreted terranes proximal to convergent margins. In northern Nevada, periodic reactivation of basement faults along this margin focused and amplified subsequent geological events. Early basement faults localized Devonian synsedimentary extension and normal faulting. These controlled the geometry of the Devonian sedimentary basin architecture and focused the discharge of basinal brines that deposited syngenetic gold along the basin margins. Inversion of these basins and faults during subsequent contraction produced the complex elongate structural culminations that characterize the anomalous mineral deposit "trends." Subsequently, these features localized repeated episodes of shallow magmatic and hydrothermal activity that also deposited some gold. During a pulse of Eocene extension, these faults focused advection of Carlin-type fluids, which had the opportunity to leach gold from gold-enriched sequences and deposit it in reactive miogeoclinal host rocks below the hydrologic seal at the Roberts Mountain thrust contact. Hence, the vast endowment of the Carlin province resulted from the conjunction of spatially superposed events localized by long-lived basement structures in a highly anomalous tectonic setting, rather than by the sole operation of special magmatic or fluid-related processes. An important indicator of the longevity of this basement control is the superposition of different gold deposit types (e.g., Sedex, porphyry, Carlin-type, epithermal, and hot spring deposits) that formed repeatedly between the Devonian and Miocene time along the trends

  6. Convergence of mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained

  7. Datation U_Pb : âge de mise en place du magmatisme bimodal des Jebilet centrales (chaîne Varisque, Maroc). Implications géodynamiquesU_Pb dating: emplacement age of the bimodal magmatism of central Jebilet (Variscan Belt, Morocco). Geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaifi, Abderrahim; Potrel, Alain; Capdevila, Ramon; Lagarde, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    The bimodal magmatism of central Jebilet is dated to 330.5 +0.68-0.83 Ma by UPb dating on zircons. This age, similar to that of the syntectonic Jebilet cordierite-bearing granitoids, corresponds to the age of the local major tectonometamorphic event. The syntectonic plutonism of the Jebilet massif, composed of tholeiitic, alkaline, and peraluminous calc-alkaline series, is variegated. Magmas emplacement was favoured by the local extension induced by the motion along the western boundary of the Carboniferous basins of the Moroccan Meseta. The Jebilet massif exemplifies the activation of various magmas sources during an episode of continental convergence and crustal wrenching.

  8. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth's surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii

  10. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  11. Active Magmatic Underplating in Western Eger Rift, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Geissler, W.H.; Bräuer, K.; Vavryčuk, Václav; Tomek, Č.; Kämpf, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2017), s. 2846-2862 ISSN 0278-7407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-19297S; GA ČR GC16-19751J Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : active intraplate magmatic underplating * mantle-derived fluids * high-velocity lower crust * reflection-free magma body Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 3.784, year: 2016

  12. Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Isabella; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Maier, Ronald; Weber, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative brainstorming is often followed by a convergence activity where teams extract the most promising ideas on a useful level of detail from the brainstorming results. Contrary to the wealth of research on electronic brainstorming, there is a dearth of research on convergence. We used experimental methods for an in-depth exploration of two facilitation-based interventions in a convergence activity: attention guidance (focusing participants on procedures to execute a convergence task) and discussion encouragement (engaging participants in conversations to combine knowledge on ideas). Our findings show that both attention guidance and discussion encouragement are correlated with higher convergence quality. We argue that attention guidance’s contribution is in its support of coordination, information processing, and goal specification. Similar, we argue that discussion encouragement’s contribution is in its stimulation of idea clarification and idea combination. Contrary to past research, our findings further show that satisfaction was higher after convergence than after brainstorming. PMID:29399005

  13. Recording the transition from flare-up to steady-state arc magmatism at the Purico-Chascon volcanic complex, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Dale H.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Tepley, Frank; Schmitt, Axel K.; Loewen, Matthew W.

    2015-07-01

    The long-term evolution of continental magmatic arcs is episodic, where a few transient events of high magmatic flux or flare-ups punctuate the low-flux magmatism or "steady state" that makes up most of the arc history. How this duality manifests in terms of differences in crustal architecture, magma dynamics and chemistry, and the time scale over which transitions occur is poorly known. Herein we use multiscale geochemical and isotopic characteristics coupled with geothermobarometry at the Purico-Chascon Volcanic Complex (PCVC) in the Central Andes to identify a transition from flare-up to steady state arc magmatism over ∼800 kyr during which significant changes in upper crustal magmatic dynamics are recorded. The PCVC is one of the youngest volcanic centers related to a 10-1 Ma ignimbrite flare-up in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes. Activity at the PCVC initiated 0.98 ± 0.03 Ma with the eruption of a large 80-100 km3 crystal-rich dacite ignimbrite. High, restricted 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios between 0.7085 and 0.7090 in the bulk rock and plagioclase crystals from the Purico ignimbrite, combined with mineral chemistry and phase relationships indicate the dacite magma accumulated and evolved at relatively low temperatures around 800-850 °C in the upper crust at 4-8 km depth. Minor andesite pumice erupted late in the ignimbrite sequence records a second higher temperature (965 °C), higher pressure environment (17-20 km), but with similar restricted radiogenic bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089-0.7091 to the dacites. The compositional and isotopic characteristics of the Purico ignimbrite implicate an extensive zone of upper crustal mixing, assimilation, storage and homogenization (MASH) between ∼30 and 4 km beneath the PCVC ∼1 Ma. The final eruptions at the PCVC engine". High magmatic fluxes during the flare-up would lead to elevated geothermal gradients and efficient crustal processing leading to a dominantly "crustal" magmatism feeding the

  14. Semantic Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert; Van Assche, Fons

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals' lexical mappings for their two languages have been found to converge toward a common naming pattern. The present paper investigates in more detail how semantic convergence is manifested in bilingual lexical knowledge. We examined how semantic convergence affects the centers and boundaries of lexical categories for common household…

  15. Convergence semigroup actions: generalized quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boustique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous actions of a convergence semigroup are investigated in the category of convergence spaces. Invariance properties of actions as well as properties of a generalized quotient space are presented

  16. Magmatism, ash-flow tuffs, and calderas of the ignimbrite flareup in the western Nevada volcanic field, Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Henry,; John, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Sierra Nevada, which was not a barrier to westward flow of ash flows at that time. At least three tuffs flowed eastward across a north-south paleodivide through central Nevada. That tuffs could flow significant distances apparently uphill raises questions about the absolute elevation of the region and the elevation, relief, and location of the paleodivide.Calderas are equant to slightly elongate, at least 12 km in diameter, and as much as 35 km in longest dimension. Exceptional exposure of two caldera complexes that resulted from extensional faulting and tilting show that calderas subsided as much as 5 km as large piston-like blocks; caldera walls were vertical to steeply inward dipping to depths ≥4–5 km, and topographic walls formed by slumping of wall rock into the caldera were only slightly outboard (≤1 km) of structural margins.Most calderas show abundant post-collapse magmatism expressed as resurgent intrusions, ring-fracture intrusions, or intracaldera lavas that are closely related temporally (∼0–0.5 Ma younger) to caldera formation. Granitoid intrusions, which were emplaced at paleodepths ranging from Mountain epithermal gold deposit, few known caldera-related hydrothermal systems are strongly mineralized. Major middle Cenozoic precious and base metal mineral deposits in and along the margins of the western Nevada volcanic field are mostly related to intrusive rocks that preceded caldera-forming eruptions.

  17. Constraints on the depth of generation and emplacement of a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton in the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Andronicos, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Petrology and P-T estimates indicate that a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton from Mt. Gamsby, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, was sourced at pressures below ???1.4 GPa and cooled nearly isobarically at ???0.9 GPa. The P-T path indicates that the magma was within the stability field of magmatic epidote early and remained there upon final crystallization. The pluton formed and crystallized at depths greater than ???30 km. REE data indicate that garnet was absent in the melting region and did not fractionate during crystallization. This suggests that the crust was less than or equal to ???55 km thick at 188 Ma during the early phases of magmatism in the Coast Plutonic Complex. Late Cretaceous contractional deformation and early Tertiary extension exhumed the rocks to upper crustal levels. Textures of magmatic epidote and other magmatic phases, combined with REE data, can be important for constraining the P-T path followed by magmas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  19. Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Pamir-Tian Shan convergence zone, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Jobe, Jessica Ann; Li, Tao; Chen, Jie; Burbank, Douglas W.; Bufe, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    The Pamir-Tian Shan collision zone in the western Tarim Basin, northwest China, formed from rapid and ongoing convergence in response to the Indo-Eurasian collision. The arid landscape preserves suites of fluvial terraces crossing structures active since the late Neogene that create fault and fold scarps recording Quaternary deformation. Using geologic and geomorphic mapping, differential GPS surveys of deformed terraces, and optically stimulated luminescence dating, we create a synthesis of the active structures that delineate the timing, rate, and migration of Quaternary deformation during ongoing convergence. New deformation rates on eight faults and folds, when combined with previous studies, highlight the spatial and temporal patterns of deformation within the Pamir-Tian Shan convergence zone during the Quaternary. Terraces spanning 130 to 8 ka record deformation rates between 0.1 and 5.6 mm/yr on individual structures. In the westernmost Tarim Basin, where the Pamir and Tian Shan are already juxtaposed, the fastest rates occur on actively deforming structures at the interface of the Pamir-Tian Shan orogens. Farther east, as the separation between the Pamir-Tian Shan orogens increases, the deformation has not been concentrated on a single structure, but rather has been concurrently distributed across a zone of faults and folds in the Kashi-Atushi fold-and-thrust belt and along the NE Pamir margin, where shortening rates vary on individual structures during the Quaternary. Although numerous structures accommodate the shortening and the locus of deformation shifts during the Quaternary, the total shortening across the western Tarim Basin has remained steady and approximately matches the current geodetic rate of 6-9 mm/yr.

  20. Magmatism during Gondwana break-up : new geochronological data from Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, Q.H.A.; Scott, J.M.; Waight, T.E.; Sudo, M.; Schersten, A.; Cooper, A.F.; Spell, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Newly determined Late Cretaceous 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages on megacrystic kaersutite from four lamprophyre dikes, and a U-Pb zircon age on a trachyte, from central and north Westland (New Zealand) are presented. These ages suggest that the intrusion of mafic dikes (88-86 and 69 Ma) was not necessarily restricted to the previously established narrow age range of 80-92 Ma. The younger lamprophyre and trachyte dikes (c. 68-70 Ma) imply that tensional stresses in the Western Province were either renewed at this time, or that extension and related magmatism continued during opening of the Tasman Sea. Extension-related magmatism in the region not only preceded Tasman seafloor spreading initiation (starting at c. 83 Ma, lasting to c. 53 Ma), but may have sporadically continued for up to 15 Ma after continental break-up. (author)

  1. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the proto Andean Margin: Geochemical characterization and zircon U-Pb geochronologic constraints from the Ecuadorian Eastern Cordilleran granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwaldt, R.; Toulkeridis, T.

    2013-05-01

    the northern Andes from Peru to Columbia. The occurrence of numerous granite intrusions during Triassic times along the South American margin indicates that western South America underwent a widespread thermal anomaly between 250 and 210 Ma, which produced large amounts of granitoids. We argue that this occurrence is associated with the closure of the Panthalassan Gondwana sutur between 200 and 300 Ma and the correlated magmatism is related to the development of strike-slip tectonics subparallel to the proto-Andean margin. Contrasting to the older episode the younger magmatics appears to be the ultimate dispersal of Gondwana in the Cretaceous, which has been followed by the establishment of a continental arc that has intermittently characterized the modern Andean orogeny for the past 180 Ma.

  2. Convergence of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along...... with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...

  3. Expansion of the granitic post-orogenic magmatism in the formation of Serrinha (Northeastern Bahia, B R), Sao Francisco craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Debora Correia; Conceicao, Herbet; Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Davis, Donaldo Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The Pedra Vermelha Granitic Massif, located at the North area of Serrinha Nucleus, presents a circular shape, being intrusive at the Archaean geoscience-magmatic basement rocks and the Paleoproterozoic volcano sedimentary sequences. The single zircon U-Pb dating yield a crystallization age of 2080 ± 8 Ma. The geological, petrographic al and litogeochemical characteristics of the studied rocks are similar to those of the Morro do Lopes granitic magmatism (2076 ± 6 a 2071 ± 6 Ma), which is located at the South area of this nucleus. These allow us to infer that those post-orogenic alkaline bodies are widespread throughout the Serrinha Nucleus and constitute its last Paleoproterozoic magmatic expression. (author)

  4. OpenMC In Situ Source Convergence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Garrett Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Dutta, Soumya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Woodring, Jonathan Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-07

    We designed and implemented an in situ version of particle source convergence for the OpenMC particle transport simulator. OpenMC is a Monte Carlo based-particle simulator for neutron criticality calculations. For the transport simulation to be accurate, source particles must converge on a spatial distribution. Typically, convergence is obtained by iterating the simulation by a user-settable, fixed number of steps, and it is assumed that convergence is achieved. We instead implement a method to detect convergence, using the stochastic oscillator for identifying convergence of source particles based on their accumulated Shannon Entropy. Using our in situ convergence detection, we are able to detect and begin tallying results for the full simulation once the proper source distribution has been confirmed. Our method ensures that the simulation is not started too early, by a user setting too optimistic parameters, or too late, by setting too conservative a parameter.

  5. Petrotectonic characteristics, geochemistry, and U-Pb geochronology of Jurassic plutons in the Upper Magdalena Valley-Colombia: Implications on the evolution of magmatic arcs in the NW Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, G.; Arango, M. I.; Zapata, G.; Bermúdez, J. G.

    2018-01-01

    Field, petrographic, and geochemical characterization along with U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jurassic plutons exposed in the Upper Magdalena Valley (Colombia) allowed recognizing distinct western and eastern suites formed in at least three magmatic pulses. The western plutons crop out between the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera and the Las Minas range, being limited by the Avirama and the Betania-El Agrado faults. The western suite comprises a quartz monzonite - quartz monzodiorite - quartz diorite series and subordinate monzogranites. Chemically, the rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids (some reaching the shoshonitic series) with metaluminous of magnesium affinity. Trace-element tectonic discrimination is consistent with magmatism in a continental arc environment. Most rocks of this suite crystallized between 195 and 186 Ma (Early Jurassic, Pliensbachian), but locally some plutons yielded younger ages between 182 and 179 Ma (Early Jurassic, Toarcian). The eastern suite crops out in the eastern margin of the Upper Magdalena Valley, east of the Betania - El Agrado fault. Plutons of this unit belong to the monzogranite series with rock types ranging between syenogranites and granodiorites. They are high-K calc-alkaline continental granitoids, some metaluminous and some peraluminous, related to I-type granites generated in a volcanic arc. Crystallization of the suite was between 173 and 169 Ma (Middle Jurassic, Aalenian-Bajocian), but locally these rocks contain zircon with earlier inherited ages related to the magmatic pulse of the western suite between 182 and 179 Ma (Early Jurassic, Toarcian). The evolution of the Jurassic plutons in the Upper Magdalena Valley is best explained by onset or increase in subduction erosion of the accretionary prism. This explains the eastward migration of the arc away from the trench. Subduction of prism sediments increased the water flux from the subducting slab, decreasing solidus temperatures, therefore

  6. Geometry of the neoproterozoic and paleozoic rift margin of western Laurentia: Implications for mineral deposit settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. and Canadian Cordilleran miogeocline evolved during several phases of Cryogenian-Devonian intracontinental rifting that formed the western mangin of Laurentia. Recent field and dating studies across central Idaho and northern Nevada result in identification of two segments of the rift margin. Resulting interpretations of rift geometry in the northern U.S. Cordillera are compatible with interpretations of northwest- striking asymmetric extensional segments subdivided by northeast-striking transform and transfer segments. The new interpretation permits integration of miogeoclinal segments along the length of the western North American Cordillera. For the U.S. Cordillera, miogeoclinal segments include the St. Mary-Moyie transform, eastern Washington- eastern Idaho upper-plate margin, Snake River transfer, Nevada-Utah lower-plate margin, and Mina transfer. The rift is orthogonal to most older basement domains, but the location of the transform-transfer zones suggests control of them by basement domain boundaries. The zigzag geometry of reentrants and promontories along the rift is paralleled by salients and recesses in younger thrust belts and by segmentation of younger extensional domains. Likewise, transform transfer zones localized subsequent transcurrent structures and igneous activity. Sediment-hosted mineral deposits trace the same zigzag geometry along the margin. Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Zn-Pb-Ag ??Au and barite mineral deposits formed in continental-slope rocks during the Late Devonian-Mississippian and to a lesser degree, during the Cambrian-Early Ordovician. Such deposits formed during episodes of renewed extension along miogeoclinal segments. Carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley- type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits formed in structurally reactivated continental shelf rocks during the Late Devonian-Mississippian and Mesozoic due to reactivation of preexisting structures. The distribution and abundance of sedex and MVT deposits are controlled by the

  7. Geochemistry, U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating and Hf isotopes of the Gondwanan magmatism in NW Argentina: petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poma, Stella; Zappettini, Eduardo O; Quenardelle, Sonia; Santos, Joao O; Koukharsky, Magdalena; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neil

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating and Hf isotope determinations as well as geochemical analyses on three plutonic units of Gondwanan magmatism that crop out in NW Argentina. Two episodes of different age and genesis have been identified. The older one includes gabbros and diorites (Rio Grande Unit) of 267±3 Ma and granitoids (belonging to the Llullaillaco Unit) of 263±1 Ma (late Permian, Guadalupian); the parent magmas were generated in an intraplate environment and derived from an enriched mantle but were subsequently contaminated by crustal components. The younger rocks are granodiorites with arc signature (Chuculaqui Unit) and an age of 247±2 Ma (middle Triassic-Anisian). Hf isotope signature of the units indicates mantle sources as well as crustal components. Hf model ages obtained are consistent with the presence of crustal Mesoproterozoic (mainly Ectasian to Calymnian (T DM(c) =1.24 to 1.44 Ga-negative ε Hf m) and juvenile Cryogenian sources (T DM =0.65 to 0.79 Ga-positiveε Hf(T) , supporting the idea of a continuous, mostly Mesoproterozoic, basement under the Central Andes, as an extension of the Arequipa-Antofalla massif. The tectonic setting and age of the Gondwanan magmatism in NW Argentina allow to differentiate: a. Permian intra-plate magmatism developed under similar conditions to the upper section of the Choiyoi magmatism exposed in the Frontal Cordillera and San Rafael Block, Argentina; b. Triassic magmatism belonging to a poorly known subduction-related magmatic arc segment of mostly NS trend with evidence of porphyry type mineralization in Chile, allowing to extend this metallotect into Argentina

  8. Intense magmatic degassing through the lake of Copahue volcano, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburello, G.; Agusto, M.; Caselli, A.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Calabrese, S.; Rouwet, D.; Capaccioni, B.; Di Napoli, R.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Bitetto, M.; Brusca, L.; Bellomo, S.; Aiuppa, A.

    2015-09-01

    Here we report on the first assessment of volatile fluxes from the hyperacid crater lake hosted within the summit crater of Copahue, a very active volcano on the Argentina-Chile border. Our observations were performed using a variety of in situ and remote sensing techniques during field campaigns in March 2013, when the crater hosted an active fumarole field, and in March 2014, when an acidic volcanic lake covered the fumarole field. In the latter campaign, we found that 566 to 1373 t d-1 of SO2 were being emitted from the lake in a plume that appeared largely invisible. This, combined with our derived bulk plume composition, was converted into flux of other volcanic species (H2O ~ 10989 t d-1, CO2 ~ 638 t d-1, HCl ~ 66 t d-1, H2 ~ 3.3 t d-1, and HBr ~ 0.05 t d-1). These levels of degassing, comparable to those seen at many open-vent degassing arc volcanoes, were surprisingly high for a volcano hosting a crater lake. Copahue's unusual degassing regime was also confirmed by the chemical composition of the plume that, although issuing from a hot (65°C) lake, preserves a close-to-magmatic signature. EQ3/6 models of gas-water-rock interaction in the lake were able to match observed compositions and demonstrated that magmatic gases emitted to the atmosphere were virtually unaffected by scrubbing of soluble (S and Cl) species. Finally, the derived large H2O flux (10,988 t d-1) suggested a mechanism in which magmatic gas stripping drove enhanced lake water evaporation, a process likely common to many degassing volcanic lakes worldwide.

  9. Mg isotope systematics during magmatic processes: Inter-mineral fractionation in mafic to ultramafic Hawaiian xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, A.; Tipper, E. T.; Klemme, S.; Bizimis, M.

    2018-04-01

    Observed differences in Mg isotope ratios between bulk magmatic rocks are small, often on a sub per mill level. Inter-mineral differences in the 26Mg/24Mg ratio (expressed as δ26Mg) in plutonic rocks are on a similar scale, and have mostly been attributed to equilibrium isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Here we report Mg isotope data on minerals in spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from the rejuvenated stage of volcanism on Oahu and Kauai, Hawaii. The new data are compared to literature data and to theoretical predictions to investigate the processes responsible for inter-mineral Mg isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Theory predicts up to per mill level differences in δ26Mg between olivine and spinel at magmatic temperatures and a general decrease in Δ26Mgolivine-spinel (=δ26Mgolivine - δ26Mgspinel) with increasing temperature, but also with increasing Cr# in spinel. For peridotites with a simple petrogenetic history by melt depletion, where increasing depletion relates to increasing melting temperatures, Δ26Mgolivine-spinel should thus systematically decrease with increasing Cr# in spinel. However, most natural peridotites, including the Hawaiian spinel peridotites investigated in this study, are overprinted by variable extents of melt-rock reaction, which disturb the systematic primary temperature and compositionally related olivine-spinel Mg isotope systematics. Diffusion, subsolidus re-equilibration, or surface alteration may further affect the observed olivine-spinel Mg isotope fractionation in peridotites, making Δ26Mgolivine-spinel in peridotites a difficult-to-apply geothermometer. The available Mg isotope data on clinopyroxene and garnet suggest that this mineral pair is a more promising geothermometer, but its application is restricted to garnet-bearing igneous (garnet pyroxenites) and metamorphic rocks (eclogites). Although the observed δ26Mg variation is on a sub per mill range in bulk magmatic rocks

  10. The Convergence in Spatial Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Kulagin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.

  11. Comparison of authigenic carbonates formation at mud volcanoes and pockmarks in the Portuguese Margin vs. at the Yinazao serpentinite mud volcano in the Marianas forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, V. H.; Freitas, M.; Azevedo, M. R.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Salgueiro, E.; Abrantes, F. F. G.

    2017-12-01

    On the Portuguese passive continental margin, active and past seepage processes form mud volcanoes and pockmarks at the seafloor. Often associated with these structures are extensive methane-derived authigenic carbonates that form from deep-sourced methane-rich fluids that ascend from deep to the upper sedimentary column and often discharge at the seafloor. These carbonates form within the sediments and are either dominated by dolomite and high-Mg calcites, when formed under a restricted seawater circulation environment, anoxic and low sulphate conditions; or by aragonite and calcite when formed close to or at the seafloor in a high sulphate system. The δ13C values (-56.2‰ VPDB) found on the carbonate-cemented material clearly indicates methane as the major carbon source. On the Yinazao serpentinite mud volcano at an active, non-accretionary, convergent margin, sediment samples from IODP Sites U1491 and U1492 (Exp. 366) contain authigenic minerals such as aragonite, calcite, brucite, gypsum among others. Authigenic aragonite occurs predominantly within the top meters of the cores where both oxidation and seawater circulation in the sedimentary column are higher. In this system, initial results indicate that the major carbon source is most probably not methane but seawater related. This work discusses and compares the major carbon sources in both systems: sedimentary mud volcanoes and pockmarks of a passive margin vs. a serpentinite mud volcano of an active, non-accretionary, convergent margin. We acknowledge the support from the PES project - Pockmarks and fluid seepage in the Estremadura Spur: implications for regional geology, biology, and petroleum systems (PTDC/GEOFIQ/5162/2014) financed by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT).

  12. The Axum-Adwa basalt-trachyte complex: a late magmatic activity at the periphery of the Afar plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, C.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Siena, F.

    2013-08-01

    The Axum-Adwa igneous complex consists of a basalt-trachyte (syenite) suite emplaced at the northern periphery of the Ethiopian plateau, after the paroxysmal eruption of the Oligocene (ca 30 Ma) continental flood basalts (CFB), which is related to the Afar plume activity. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages, carried out for the first time on felsic and basaltic rocks, constrain the magmatic age of the greater part of the complex around Axum to 19-15 Ma, whereas trachytic lavas from volcanic centres NE of Adwa are dated ca 27 Ma. The felsic compositions straddle the critical SiO2-saturation boundary, ranging from normative quartz trachyte lavas east of Adwa to normative (and modal) nepheline syenite subvolcanic domes (the obelisks stones of ancient axumites) around Axum. Petrogenetic modelling based on rock chemical data and phase equilibria calculations by PELE (Boudreau 1999) shows that low-pressure fractional crystallization processes, starting from mildly alkaline- and alkaline basalts comparable to those present in the complex, could generate SiO2-saturated trachytes and SiO2-undersaturated syenites, respectively, which correspond to residual liquid fractions of 17 and 10 %. The observed differentiation processes are consistent with the development of rifting events and formation of shallow magma chambers plausibly located between displaced (tilted) crustal blocks that favoured trapping of basaltic parental magmas and their fractionation to felsic differentiates. In syenitic domes, late- to post-magmatic processes are sometimes evidenced by secondary mineral associations (e.g. Bete Giorgis dome) which overprint the magmatic parageneses, and mainly induce additional nepheline and sodic pyroxene neo-crystallization. These metasomatic reactions were promoted by the circulation of Na-Cl-rich deuteric fluids (600-400 °C), as indicated by mineral and bulk rock chemical budgets as well as by δ18O analyses on mineral separates. The occurrence of this magmatism post-dating the

  13. Petrography and geochemistry of magmatic units from the western cordillera of Ecuador (0 deg. 30'S): tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, L.; Mamberti, M.; Gabriele, P.; Desmet, A.

    1998-01-01

    The cost and western Cordillera of Ecuador are made of accreted oceanic terranes, separated from from the continental margin by a suture zone containing tectonic slices of mafic rocks. The western Cordillera contains three distinct magmatic units. Ultramafic and mafic cumulates from the suture zone (San Juan slice) represent likely the plutonic roots of oceanic plateau basalts. The mafic cumulates are LREE(depleted and Ta and Pb enriched (primitive mantle). Their Nd and Pb isotopic compositions suggest that they derived from an enriched OIB type mantle source. Pre-Coniacian arc-tholeiites present flat REE patterns, low Pb and Th contents, and high ξ Nd(T=100Ma) (+7.5 to + 7.9) which are indicative of their derivation from a mantle source. These arc-tholeiites developed likely in an intra-oceanic setting. The Eocene calc-alkaline lavas differ from the arc-tholeiites because they are LREE-enriched and have lower ξ Nd(T=50Ma) ratios. Their high Pb and Th contents are probably related to crustal assimilation during the magmas ascent. Their Pb isotopic compositions support involvement of subducted pelagic sediments in their genesis. These lavas represent likely the remnants of a continental calc-alkaline magmatic arc. The continental-arc setting of the Eocene lavas demonstrates that these volcanic rocks postdate the accretion of the western Cordillera, upon which they rest unconformably. Therefore, the accretion of the western Cordillera may have occurred in late Paleocene times, as for part of the oceanic terranes of coastal Ecuador. Nevertheless, the occurrence of a collisional event during late Santonian-early Campanian times is strongly suggested by: the arrival of detrital quartz on oceanic series of the western Cordillera by Campanian-Maastrichtian times, a regional unconformity locally dates early Campanian, the arc-jump observed on coastal Ecuador in Santonian times, and finally a thermal event recognised in the eastern Cordillera around 85-80 Ma. (authors)

  14. Present-day Opening of the Natron Rift: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, E.; Dalaison, M.; Saria, E.; Doubre, C.; Masson, F.

    2017-12-01

    The young Natron basin (system, is an important locale to study the initial stage of continental rifting. It was the locus of a rarely observed tectono-magmatic event in July 2007, with slow slip on an intra-basin normal fault followed by a 10 km-long dike intrusion underneath the Gelai shield volcano. Here we report on a series of GPS observations over a 20-site network spanning the basin, measured repeatedly since 2013. We observe a long wavelength ( 200 km wide) extension with a horizontal rate of about 2 mm/yr, consistent with recentlty published regional kinematic models, and a velocity gradient centered on the west-bounding fault of the Natron basin. Initial models show that the data is best fit by a normal fault dipping 60 degrees to the east and slipping at a rate of 6 mm/yr. Superimposed on this long wavelength extension, we observe a smaller scale ( 30 km wide) extensional signal in the middle of the basin, roughly coincident with the location of the Gelai volcano, which was the locale of the 2007 seismic-magmatic crisis. We investigate the relative importance of tectonic faulting, post-diking relaxation following the 2007 intrusion (as observed for instance in Afar or Iceland after similar events), and melt recharge of the intra-basin magmatic system in present-day extension across this young segment of the East African Rift.

  15. Regional setting and geochronology of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Stein, Holly

    2002-08-01

    The 1,500-km-long Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic Belt (BMMB) of Romania, Serbia and Bulgaria is a complex calc-alkaline magmatic arc of Late Cretaceous age. It hosts a variety of magmatic-hydrothermal Cu, Au, Mo, Zn, Pb and Fe deposits, including Europe's only world-class porphyry-copper deposits. Regional metallogeny can be linked to subduction of the Vardar Ocean during the Late Cretaceous, as part of the closure of the Neotethys Ocean that had separated Europe and Africa in the Mesozoic. Porphyry Cu-(Au)-(Mo) and intimately associated epithermal massive sulphides dominate in the central segments of the belt in southernmost Banat (Romania), Serbia and north-west Bulgaria. These districts are the economically most important today, including major active Cu-Au mines at Moldova Nouă in Romania, Majdanpek, Veliki Krivelj and Bor in Serbia, and Elatsite, Assarel and Chelopech in Bulgaria. More numerous (and mostly mined in the past) are Fe, Cu and Zn-Pb skarns, which occur mainly at the two ends of the belt, in Eastern Bulgaria and in Romania. This paper summarises some of the deposit characteristics within the geodynamic framework of terminal Vardar subduction. Heterogeneous terranes of the belt, including the Apuseni Mountains at the western end, are aligned parallel to the Vardar front following continental collision of the Dacia and Tisza blocks. All available geochronological data (numerous K-Ar and some U-Pb and Re-Os ages) are compiled, and are complemented by a new high-precision Re-Os date for the Dognecea skarn deposit, south-west Romania (76.6±0.3 Ma). These data indicate that magmatism extended over at least 25 million years, from about 90 to 65 Ma in each segment of the belt. Within Apuseni Mountains and Banat, where magma emplacement was related to syn-collisional extension in the orogenic belt of Carpathians, ore formation seems to be restricted in time and maybe constrained by a shared tectonic event.

  16. Apatite: A New Tool For Understanding The Temporal Variability Of Magmatic Volatile Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M. J.; Humphreys, M.; Smith, V.; Pyle, D. M.; Isaia, R.

    2015-12-01

    The apatite crystal structure is capable of incorporating H2O, F and Cl, as well as trace CO2 and sulphur. These can be related to parental magma compositions through application of a series of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994), permitting apatite crystals to preserve a record of all major volatile species in the melt. Furthermore, due to the general incompatibility of P in other rock-forming minerals, apatite is ubiquitous in igneous systems and often begins crystallising early, such that apatite inclusions within phenocrysts record melt volatile contents throughout magmatic differentiation. In this work, we compare the compositions of apatite inclusions and microphenocrysts with pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy. These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to determine a time-series of magmatic volatile evolution in the build-up to eruption. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset during ascent, due to rapid H diffusion through the phenocryst hosts (Woods et al., 2000). Given the rapid diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), preservation of undersaturated compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved a few days to months before eruption and that it may have been the transition into a volatile-saturated state that ultimately triggered eruption. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Gualda et al., 2012

  17. Refining the Formation and Early Evolution of the Eastern North American Margin: New Insights From Multiscale Magnetic Anomaly Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, John A.; Tominaga, Masako; Miller, Nathaniel C.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Karl, Matthew R.

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the oceanic lithosphere formation and early seafloor spreading history of the North Atlantic Ocean, we examine multiscale magnetic anomaly data from the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous age Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) between 31 and 40°N. We integrate newly acquired sea surface magnetic anomaly and seismic reflection data with publicly available aeromagnetic and composite magnetic anomaly grids, satellite-derived gravity anomaly, and satellite-derived and shipboard bathymetry data. We evaluate these data sets to (1) refine magnetic anomaly correlations throughout the ENAM and assign updated ages and chron numbers to M0-M25 and eight pre-M25 anomalies; (2) identify five correlatable magnetic anomalies between the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) and Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (BSMA), which may document the earliest Atlantic seafloor spreading or synrift magmatism; (3) suggest preexisting margin structure and rifting segmentation may have influenced the seafloor spreading regimes in the Atlantic Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ); (4) suggest that, if the BSMA source is oceanic crust, the BSMA may be M series magnetic anomaly M42 ( 168.5 Ma); (5) examine the along and across margin variation in seafloor spreading rates and spreading center orientations from the BSMA to M25, suggesting asymmetric crustal accretion accommodated the straightening of the ridge from the bend in the ECMA to the more linear M25; and (6) observe anomalously high-amplitude magnetic anomalies near the Hudson Fan, which may be related to a short-lived propagating rift segment that could have helped accommodate the crustal alignment during the early Atlantic opening.

  18. Geochemical studies, magmatic evolution, microstructures and replacement mechanisms in Jebale-Barez granitoid Complex (East and Southeast Jiroft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Rasouli

    2017-08-01

    samples and full matrix correction, the sum of all major oxides was equal to about 100 wt.%. The concentration of trace elements in the selected samples has been performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The uncertainty is <10% for trace element contents higher than 2 ppm (except for Pb, <15% and <15% for all the other trace elements. Results The microstructures observed in thin sections in this study were grouped into three types: (i magmatic microstructures; (ii submagmatic microstructures and (iii mylonitic microstructures. Magmatic and submagmatic microstructures occurred simultaneously with the emplacement of granitoid complex and mylonitic microstructures that occurred after emplacement of granitoid complex. The magma nature of these rocks is sub-alkaline-(calc-alkaline, which fall into calc-alkaline series with high potassium in SiO2-K2O plots. The geochemical variation diagrams of major oxides, the continuous spectrum of rock compositions has been carried out which indicates the crystallization of magmatic differentiation and extensive appendices. Field observations, petrographic and geochemical studies suggest that the rocks in this area have type I and CAG subsections. Studying the geochemical diagrams of the rocks in the studied area indicates that these rocks have been formed in active continental margin tectononic settings. It seems that the Jebale-Barez granitoid Complex is located within a shear zone. Magma has been percolated through Mijan caldera and emplacement Forms of Sill along the shear zone during various periods and the structural setting of granitoid complex in the Jebale-Barez is extensional-shear fractures which are the product of transpression tectonic regime. Discussion The JBPC is calc-alkaline, high-K, subalkaline, and mostly metaluminous except granite and alkali-granite units which are slightly peraluminous and I type in character. These geochemical properties of the studied granitoids suggest subduction

  19. Genesis of the Hengling magmatic belt in the North China Craton: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Guo, Jinghui; Zhai, Mingguo; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Tiesheng; Liu, Fu

    2012-09-01

    The 2200-1880 Ma igneous rocks in the central and eastern parts of the North China Craton (NCC) constitute a new Hengling magmatic belt (HMB), which includes the ~ 2147 Ma Hengling mafic sill/dyke swarm, the ~ 2060 Ma Yixingzhai mafic dyke swarm, and the ~ 1973 Ma Xiwangshan mafic dyke swarm. The three swarms are contiguous and have experienced variable degrees of metamorphism from greenschist to low amphibolite facies (Hengling), medium granulite facies (Yixingzhai), and medium/high-pressure granulite facies (Xiwangshan). They are all tholeiitic in composition typically with 47-52 wt.% SiO2 and 4-10 wt.% MgO, and all show light rare earth element enrichments and Nb- and Ta-depletion. Their Nd TDM ages are in the range of 2.5-3.0 Ga. Specifically, the Hengling and Yixingzhai dykes/sills are depleted in Th, U, Zr, Hf and Ti, whereas the Xiwangshan dykes are enriched in U and weakly depleted in other elements. Variable Sr-anomalies indicate significant feldspar accumulation (positive anomalies) or fractionation. The ɛNd(t) values of the three swarms are: - 3.2-+3.0 (Hengling), - 1.7-+ 1.8 (Yixingzhai) and - 1.4-+ 1.0 (Xiwangshan). These mafic representatives of the HMB originated from the > 2.5 Ga sub-continental lithospheric mantle of the NCC, and with A-type granites and other igneous associations in this belt they likely evolved in an intra-continental rift. The progressive changing compositions of the three swarms are interpreted in terms of their source regions at different depths, i.e., shallower and shallower through time. And the decrease in scale and size of the intrusions and their magma volumes indicate the progressive weakening of magmatism in this rift. The rocks in this belt are different chronologically, petrologically and chemically from those in the Xuwujia magmatic belt (XMB). We propose that the two magmatic belts represent two different magmatic systems in different blocks of the NCC, i.e., an eastern block (with the HMB) and a western block

  20. Carbonatite magmatism in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Mamallan, R.; Dwivedy, K. K.

    The Shillong Plateau of northeast India is identified as an alkaline province in view of the development of several carbonatite complexes e.g. the Sung Valley (Jaintia Hills), Jasra (Karbi-Anglong), Samchampi and Barpung (Mikir Hills) and lamprophyre dyke swarms (Swangkre, Garo-Khasi Hills). On the basis of limited KAr data, magmatic activity appears to have taken place over a protracted period, ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The carbonatite complexes of the Shillong Plateau share several common traits: they are emplaced along rift zones, either within Archaean gneisses or Proterozoic metasediments and granites, and exhibit enrichment in the light rare-earth elements, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Ti, K and Na. The enrichment in incompatible trace elements can best be accounted for if the parental magmas were of alkali basaltic type (e.g. mela-nephelinite or carbonate-rich alkali picrite).

  1. Do Hf isotopes in magmatic zircons represent those of their host rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Cai, Yue; Goldstein, Steven L.; Yang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Lu-Hf isotopic system in zircon is a powerful and widely used geochemical tracer in studying petrogenesis of magmatic rocks and crustal evolution, assuming that zircon Hf isotopes can represent initial Hf isotopes of their parental whole rock. However, this assumption may not always be valid. Disequilibrium partial melting of continental crust would preferentially melt out non-zircon minerals with high time-integrated Lu/Hf ratios and generate partial melts with Hf isotope compositions that are more radiogenic than those of its magma source. Dissolution experiments (with hotplate, bomb and sintering procedures) of zircon-bearing samples demonstrate this disequilibrium effect where partial dissolution yielded variable and more radiogenic Hf isotope compositions than fully dissolved samples. A case study from the Neoproterozoic Jiuling batholith in southern China shows that about half of the investigated samples show decoupled Hf isotopes between zircons and the bulk rocks. This decoupling could reflect complex and prolonged magmatic processes, such as crustal assimilation, magma mixing, and disequilibrium melting, which are consistent with the wide temperature spectrum from ∼630 °C to ∼900 °C by Ti-in-zircon thermometer. We suggest that magmatic zircons may only record the Hf isotopic composition of their surrounding melt during crystallization and it is uncertain whether their Hf isotopic compositions can represent the primary Hf isotopic compositions of the bulk magmas. In this regard, using zircon Hf isotopic compositions to trace crustal evolution may be biased since most of these could be originally from disequilibrium partial melts.

  2. Experimental study of the interplay between magmatic rift intrusion and flank instability with application to the 2001 Mount Etna eruption

    KAUST Repository

    Le Corvec, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Mount Etna volcano is subject to transient magmatic intrusions and flank movement. The east flank of the edifice, in particular, is moving eastward and is dissected by the Timpe Fault System. The relationship of this eastward motion with intrusions and tectonic fault motion, however, remains poorly constrained. Here we explore this relationship by using analogue experiments that are designed to simulate magmatic rift intrusion, flank movement, and fault activity before, during, and after a magmatic intrusion episode. Using particle image velocimetry allows for a precise temporal and spatial analysis of the development and activity of fault systems. The results show that the occurrence of rift intrusion episodes has a direct effect on fault activity. In such a situation, fault activity may occur or may be hindered, depending on the interplay of fault displacement and flank acceleration in response to dike intrusion. Our results demonstrate that a complex interplay may exist between an active tectonic fault system and magmatically induced flank instability. Episodes of magmatic intrusion change the intensity pattern of horizontal flank displacements and may hinder or activate associated faults. We further compare our results with the GPS data of the Mount Etna 2001 eruption and intrusion. We find that syneruptive displacement rates at the Timpe Fault System have differed from the preeruptive or posteruptive periods, which shows a good agreement of both the experimental and the GPS data. Therefore, understanding the flank instability and flank stability at Mount Etna requires consideration of both tectonic and magmatic forcing. Key Points Analyzing Mount Etna east flank dynamics during the 2001 eruption Good correlation between analogue models and GPS data Understanding the different behavior of faulting before/during/after an eruption © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Experimental study of the interplay between magmatic rift intrusion and flank instability with application to the 2001 Mount Etna eruption

    KAUST Repository

    Le Corvec, Nicolas; Walter, Thomas R.; Ruch, Joel; Bonforte, Alessandro; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Mount Etna volcano is subject to transient magmatic intrusions and flank movement. The east flank of the edifice, in particular, is moving eastward and is dissected by the Timpe Fault System. The relationship of this eastward motion with intrusions and tectonic fault motion, however, remains poorly constrained. Here we explore this relationship by using analogue experiments that are designed to simulate magmatic rift intrusion, flank movement, and fault activity before, during, and after a magmatic intrusion episode. Using particle image velocimetry allows for a precise temporal and spatial analysis of the development and activity of fault systems. The results show that the occurrence of rift intrusion episodes has a direct effect on fault activity. In such a situation, fault activity may occur or may be hindered, depending on the interplay of fault displacement and flank acceleration in response to dike intrusion. Our results demonstrate that a complex interplay may exist between an active tectonic fault system and magmatically induced flank instability. Episodes of magmatic intrusion change the intensity pattern of horizontal flank displacements and may hinder or activate associated faults. We further compare our results with the GPS data of the Mount Etna 2001 eruption and intrusion. We find that syneruptive displacement rates at the Timpe Fault System have differed from the preeruptive or posteruptive periods, which shows a good agreement of both the experimental and the GPS data. Therefore, understanding the flank instability and flank stability at Mount Etna requires consideration of both tectonic and magmatic forcing. Key Points Analyzing Mount Etna east flank dynamics during the 2001 eruption Good correlation between analogue models and GPS data Understanding the different behavior of faulting before/during/after an eruption © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Episodic melting and magmatic recycling along 50 Ma in the Variscan belt linked to the orogenic evolution in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; López-Carmona, A.; García Acera, G.; Martín Garro, J.; Fernández-Suárez, J.; Gärtner, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of a large amount of more precise U-Pb age data on Variscan granitoids from NW Iberia in recent years has provided a more focused picture of the magmatic history of the Western European Variscan belt (WEVB). Based on these data, three main pulses of magmatic activity seem to be well established.

  5. "We call ourselves marginalized"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt

    2014-01-01

    of the people we refer to as marginalized. In this paper, I discuss how young secondary school graduates from a pastoralist community in Kenya use and negotiate indigeneity, marginal identity, and experiences of marginalization in social navigations aimed at broadening their current and future opportunities. I...

  6. Statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakus, S.; Demirci, K.; Duman, O.

    2008-01-01

    Saadati and Park [Saadati R, Park JH, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;27:331-44] has recently introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy normed space. In this paper, we study the concept of statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. Then we give a useful characterization for statistically convergent sequences. Furthermore, we display an example such that our method of convergence is stronger than the usual convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces

  7. Rift propagation at craton margin.: Distribution of faulting and volcanism in the North Tanzanian Divergence (East Africa) during Neogene times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, B.; Nonnotte, P.; Rolet, J.; Benoit, M.; Guillou, H.; Mousseau-Nonnotte, M.; Albaric, J.; Deverchère, J.

    2008-02-01

    A revised kinematic model is proposed for the Neogene tectono-magmatic development of the North Tanzanian Divergence where the axial valley in S Kenya splits southwards into a wide diverging pattern of block faulting in association with the disappearance of volcanism. Propagation of rifting along the S Kenya proto-rift during the last 8 Ma is first assumed to have operated by linkage of discrete magmatic cells as far S as the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic belt that follows the margin of cratonic blocks in N Tanzania. Strain is believed to have nucleated throughout the thermally-weakened lithosphere in the transverse volcanic belt that might have later linked the S Kenya and N Tanzania rift segments with marked structural changes along-strike. The North Tanzanian Divergence is now regarded as a two-armed rift pattern involving: (1) a wide domain of tilted fault blocks to the W (Mbulu) that encompasses the Eyasi and Manyara fault systems, in direct continuation with the Natron northern trough. The reactivation of basement fabrics in the cold and intact Precambrian lithosphere in the Mbulu domain resulted in an oblique rift pattern that contrasts with the orthogonal extension that prevailed in the Magadi-Natron trough above a more attenuated lithosphere. (2) To the E, the Pangani horst-like range is thought to be a younger (< 1 Ma) structure that formed in response to the relocation of extension S of the Kilimanjaro magmatic center. A significant contrast in the mechanical behaviour of the stretched lithosphere in the North Tanzanian diverging rift is assumed to have occurred on both sides of the Masai cratonic block with a mid-crustal decoupling level to the W where asymmetrical fault-basin patterns are dominant (Magadi-Natron and Mbulu), whereas a component of dynamical uplift is suspected to have caused the topographic elevation of the Pangani range in relation with possible far-travelled mantle melts produced at depth further N.

  8. Microchemistry, geochemistry and geochronology of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province (BA) magmatic association: petrological and evolutionary significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias

    2016-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (PULR) is located in the center-south of the Bahia State, in the central part of Sao Francisco Craton and consists of an association of Paleoproterozoic meta-granites, alkali-gneiss, albitites, meta-leucodiorite and charnockites. This work has as objective the studies of the magmatic association, trying to understand its petrological and evolutionary meaning. For this purpose, representative bodies were sampled in order to develop unpublished studies of litogeochemistry, isotopes, geochronology and mineral chemistry. These analyzes were performed in: different preserved granitoid facies (Lagoa do Barro, Sao Timoteo, Juazeirinho and late pegmatitic phases), the meta-leucodiorites and charnockite. The data obtained using several modern methodologies, such as geochronology and mineral chemistry by LA-ICP-MS, provided results that allowed the characterization of two magmatic lithologies not described in the literature (Juazeirinho granite e late pegmatitic phases), and also a lithology preliminarily described (Lagoa do Barro granite). Moreover, these data contributed to elucidate the origin and meaning of the leucodiorite and charnoquito varieties, and made it possible to verify new compositional and mineral chemistry tendencies of Sao Timoteo granite. The data presented show that the studied granites were affected by albititization events (tardi or post-magmatic), which have different micro-chemical characteristics from the processes of albite formation related to the non-mineralized albitites bodies. Three albititization events were identified: a) An event that affected the granites characterized by the formation of albite with Rb and U, (b) Another event related to fluids associated with late pegmatitic bodies that formed albite with high levels of U, Rb and Ba, and partially affected the granites of the next pegmatoids portions; and (c) a final albititization event that caused the formation of the albite gneiss bodies, with albite

  9. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Culturada Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas epesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.

  10. The effects of magmatic redistribution of heat producing elements on the lunar mantle evolution inferred from numerical models that start from various initial states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaki

    2018-02-01

    To discuss how redistribution of heat producing elements (HPEs) by magmatism affects the lunar mantle evolution depending on the initial condition, I present two-dimensional numerical models of magmatism in convecting mantle internally heated by incompatible HPEs. Mantle convection occurs beneath a stagnant lithosphere that inhibits recycling of the HPE-enriched crustal materials to the mantle. Magmatism is modeled by a permeable flow of magma generated by decompression melting through matrix. Migrating magma transports heat, mass, and HPEs. When the deep mantle is initially hot with the temperature TD around 1800 K at its base, magmatism starts from the beginning of the calculated history to extract HPEs from the mantle. The mantle is monotonously cooled, and magmatism ceases within 2 Gyr, accordingly. When the deep mantle is initially colder with TD around 1100 K, HPEs stay in the deep mantle for a longer time to let the planet be first heated up and then cooled only slightly. If, in addition, there is an HPE-enriched domain in the shallow mantle at the beginning of the calculation, magma continues ascending to the surface through the domain for more than 3 Gyr. The low TD models fit in with the thermal and magmatic history of the Moon inferred from spacecraft observations, although it is not clear if the models are consistent with the current understanding of the origin of the Moon and its magnetic field. Redistribution of HPEs by magmatism is a crucial factor that must be taken into account in future studies of the evolution of the Moon.

  11. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The relation between alkaline magmatism and tectonism has been a contentious issue, particularly for the Precambrian continental regions. Alkaline complexes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt, India, have been interpreted as rift-valley magmatism. However, those complexes occurring in granulite ...

  12. Convergent systems vs. incremental stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rüffer, B.S.; Wouw, van de N.; Mueller, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two similar stability notions are considered; one is the long established notion of convergent systems, the other is the younger notion of incremental stability. Both notions require that any two solutions of a system converge to each other. Yet these stability concepts are different, in the sense

  13. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  14. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  15. Convergence as conditionant for Media Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon Jambeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Convergence comprises a combination of interlinked and interdependent transformations, of technological, industrial, commercial, cultural and social nature, which affect communication regulation. Customers, at their time, turned also convergent, involved in an intense participative culture, which is too, from the point of view of its social and geographical range, thanks to convergence, more and more extense. Instead of passive consumers of media and information and communication services, we have now active and socially connected consumers, no more readers/spectators/listeners, but noisy activists and publishers. To understand this phenomenon is essential to discern a regulatory frame suitable for it. This paper tries to define convergence and to discuss its consequences.

  16. Marginalization of the Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....

  17. Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipping, Jaayke L.; Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Barra, Fernando; Deditius, Artur P.; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Holtz, François; Munizaga, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits are an important source of iron and other elements (e.g., REE, P, U, Ag and Co) vital to modern society. However, their formation, including the namesake Kiruna-type IOA deposit (Sweden), remains controversial. Working hypotheses include a purely magmatic origin involving separation of an Fe-, P-rich, volatile-rich oxide melt from a Si-rich silicate melt, and precipitation of magnetite from an aqueous ore fluid, which is either of magmatic-hydrothermal or non-magmatic surface or metamorphic origin. In this study, we focus on the geochemistry of magnetite from the Cretaceous Kiruna-type Los Colorados IOA deposit (∼350 Mt Fe) located in the northern Chilean Iron Belt. Los Colorados has experienced minimal hydrothermal alteration that commonly obscures primary features in IOA deposits. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) transects and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectrometry mapping demonstrate distinct chemical zoning in magnetite grains, wherein cores are enriched in Ti, Al, Mn and Mg. The concentrations of these trace elements in magnetite cores are consistent with igneous magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt, whereas magnetite rims show a pronounced depletion in these elements, consistent with magnetite grown from an Fe-rich magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. Further, magnetite grains contain polycrystalline inclusions that re-homogenize at magmatic temperatures (>850 °C). Smaller inclusions (500 ppm) concentrations.

  18. Repeated magmatic intrusions at El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Parks, Michelle M.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; García-Cañada, Laura

    2017-09-01

    After more than 200 years of quiescence, in July 2011 an intense seismic swarm was detected beneath the center of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands), culminating on 10 October 2011 in a submarine eruption, 2 km off the southern coast. Although the eruption officially ended on 5 March 2012, magmatic activity continued in the area. From June 2012 to March 2014, six earthquake swarms, indicative of magmatic intrusions, were detected underneath the island. We have studied these post-eruption intrusive events using GPS and InSAR techniques to characterize the ground surface deformation produced by each of these intrusions, and to determine the optimal source parameters (geometry, location, depth, volume change). Source inversions provide insight into the depth of the intrusions ( 11-16 km) and the volume change associated with each of them (between 0.02 and 0.13 km3). During this period, > 20 cm of uplift was detected in the central-western part of the island, corresponding to approximately 0.32-0.38 km3 of magma intruded beneath the volcano. We suggest that these intrusions result from deep magma migrating from the mantle, trapped at the mantle/lower crust discontinuity in the form of sill-like bodies. This study, using joint inversion of GPS and InSAR data in a post-eruption period, provides important insight into the characteristics of the magmatic plumbing system of El Hierro, an oceanic intraplate volcanic island.

  19. Convexity and Marginal Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Norde, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we construct sets of marginal vectors of a TU game with the property that if the marginal vectors from these sets are core elements, then the game is convex.This approach leads to new upperbounds on the number of marginal vectors needed to characterize convexity.An other result is that

  20. Cultura da Convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Christofoletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Cultura da Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas e pesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.

  1. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří

    2016-02-12

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  2. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří ; Barton, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  3. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J.V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C.F.; Bloomberg, S.; Hernandez, P.A.; Mazot, A.; Viveiros, F.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Magmatic hydrothermal systems are of increasing interest as a renewable energy source. Surface heat flux indicates system resource potential, and can be inferred from soil CO2 flux measurements and fumarole gas chemistry. Here we compile and reanalyze results from previous CO2 flux surveys worldwide to compare heat flux from a variety of magma-hydrothermal areas. We infer that availability of water to recharge magmatic hydrothermal systems is correlated with heat flux. Recharge availability is in turn governed by permeability, structure, lithology, rainfall, topography, and perhaps unsurprisingly, proximity to a large supply of water such as the ocean. The relationship between recharge and heat flux interpreted by this study is consistent with recent numerical modeling that relates hydrothermal system heat output to rainfall catchment area. This result highlights the importance of recharge as a consideration when evaluating hydrothermal systems for electricity generation, and the utility of CO2 flux as a resource evaluation tool.

  4. Dating emplacement and evolution of the orogenic magmatism in the internal Western Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Ovtcharova, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Canavese Line in the Western Alps represents the position in the Alpine chain, where alkaline and calc-alkaline magmatism occur in close spatial and temporal association. In addition to available data on the alkaline Valle del Cervo Pluton, we present petrological and geochemical data...... on the Miagliano tonalite. The latter is of special interest, because it is located in the south-eastern side of the Canavese Line, in contrast to most Periadriatic Plutons. The dioritic to tonalitic rocks of the Miagliano Pluton represent an intermediate stage of a calc-alkaline differentiation, demonstrated...... by relics of two different pyroxenes as well as the texture of allanite. Hornblende barometry indicates pressures of similar to 0.46 GPa consistent with the presence of magmatic epidote. Field relationships between the two Plutons, the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Biella Volcanic Suite...

  5. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  6. Fixing soft margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kofman (Paul); A. Vaal, de (Albert); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNon-parametric tolerance limits are employed to calculate soft margins such as advocated in Williamson's target zone proposal. In particular, the tradeoff between softness and zone width is quantified. This may be helpful in choosing appropriate margins. Furthermore, it offers

  7. SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION AND HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Bogdanović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was characterized by special improvement in health. The aim of WHO’s policy EQUITY IN HEALTH is to enable equal accessibility and equal high quality of health care for all citizens. More or less some social groups have stayed out of many social systems even out of health care system in the condition of social marginalization. Phenomenon of social marginalization is characterized by dynamics. Marginalized persons have lack of control over their life and available resources. Social marginalization stands for a stroke on health and makes the health status worse. Low socio-economic level dramatically influences people’s health status, therefore, poverty and illness work together. Characteristic marginalized groups are: Roma people, people with AIDS, prisoners, persons with development disorders, persons with mental health disorders, refugees, homosexual people, delinquents, prostitutes, drug consumers, homeless…There is a mutual responsibility of community and marginalized individuals in trying to resolve the problem. Health and other problems could be solved only by multisector approach to well-designed programs.

  8. Pickering seismic safety margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.; Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has sufficient seismic safety margin over its design basis to assure plant safety. In this review process, it is possible to identify the weak links which might limit the seismic performance of critical structures, systems and components. The proposed methodology is a modification the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) approach. The methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path, and the determination of the seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of using historical records and the regional seismo-tectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection, analysis or testing. An implementation plan for the application of the methodology to the Pickering A NGS is prepared

  9. Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınok, Hıfsı; Et, Mikail; Işık, Mahmut

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the concepts of Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α and lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α. We establish some connections between lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α and Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α. It is shown that if a sequence is lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-summable of order α then it is Δim-lacunary statistically convergent of order α.

  10. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  11. Strategic business transformation through technology convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    -time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses...... are experiencing have increased the overlap and convergence of these two areas. Industrial organisations are investing heavily in the integration and alignment of these technologies and expect to benefit in several ways from this convergence, such as through increased productivity, reduction in cost, and real...

  12. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A

    in the latter two areas. Some of these fluxes are expected to be substantial in the case of Indonesian continental margins and probably also across the eastern coasts of Africa not covered in this chapter. However, a dearth of information makes these margins...

  13. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  14. Effects of magmatic processes on the potential Yucca Mountain repository: Field and computational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.A.; Groves, K.R.; Gable, C.W.; Perry, F.V.; Crowe, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Assessing the risk of future magmatic activity at a potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository requires, in addition to event probabilities, some knowledge of the consequences of such activity. Magmatic consequences are divided into an eruptive component, which pertains to the possibility of radioactive waste being erupted onto the surface of Yucca Mountain, and a subsurface component, which occurs whether there is an accompanying eruption or not. The subsurface component pertains to a suite of processes such as hydrothermal activity, changes in country rock properties, and long term alteration of the hydrologic flow field which change the waste isolation system. This paper is the second in a series describing progress on studies of the effects of magmatic activity. We describe initial results of field analog studies at small volume basaltic centers where detailed measurements are being conducted of the amount of wall rock debris that can be erupted as a function of depth in the volcanic plumbing system. Constraints from field evidence of wall rock entrainment mechanisms are also discussed. Evidence is described for a mechanism of producing subhorizontal sills versus subvertical dikes, an issue that is important for assessing subsurface effects. Finally, new modeling techniques, which are being developed in order to capture the three dimensional complexities of real geologic situations in subsurface effects, are described

  15. A Globally Convergent Matrix-Free Method for Constrained Equations and Its Linear Convergence Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A matrix-free method for constrained equations is proposed, which is a combination of the well-known PRP (Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method and the famous hyperplane projection method. The new method is not only derivative-free, but also completely matrix-free, and consequently, it can be applied to solve large-scale constrained equations. We obtain global convergence of the new method without any differentiability requirement on the constrained equations. Compared with the existing gradient methods for solving such problem, the new method possesses linear convergence rate under standard conditions, and a relax factor γ is attached in the update step to accelerate convergence. Preliminary numerical results show that it is promising in practice.

  16. Contrasting magmatic structures between small plutons and batholiths emplaced at shallow crustal level (Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Lucio P.; D'Eramo, Fernando J.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Demartis, Manuel; Tubía, José María; Coniglio, Jorge E.; Radice, Stefania; Maffini, M. Natalia; Aragón, Eugenio

    2016-11-01

    Processes like injection, magma flow and differentiation and influence of the regional strain field are here described and contrasted to shed light on their role in the formation of small plutons and large batholiths their magmatic structures. The final geometric and compositional arrangement of magma bodies are a complex record of their construction and internal flow history. Magma injection, flow and differentiation, as well as regional stresses, all control the internal nature of magma bodies. Large magma bodies emplaced at shallow crustal levels result from the intrusion of multiple magma batches that interact in a variety of ways, depending on internal and external dynamics, and where the early magmatic, growth-related structures are commonly overprinted by subsequent history. In contrast, small plutons emplaced in the brittle-ductile transition more likely preserve growth-related structures, having a relatively simple cooling history and limited internal magma flow. Outcrop-scale magmatic structures in both cases record a rich set of complementary information that can help elucidate their evolution. Large and small granitic bodies of the Sierra Pampeanas preserve excellent exposures of magmatic structures that formed as magmas stepped through different rheological states during pluton growth and solidification. These structures reveal not only the flow pattern inside magma chambers, but also the rheological evolution of magmas in response to temperature evolution.

  17. "Nanoselves": NBIC and the Culture of Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Priya

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this essay is NBIC convergence (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science convergence). NBIC convergence is a recurring trope that is dominated by the paradigm of integration of the sciences. It is largely influenced by the considerations of social and economic impact, and it assumes positivism in…

  18. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  19. Martian Magmatic-Driven Hydrothermal Sites: Potential Sources of Energy, Water, and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Tanaka, K. L.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Skinner, J. A.; Scott, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Magmatic-driven processes and impact events dominate the geologic record of Mars. Such recorded geologic activity coupled with significant evidence of past and present-day water/ice, above and below the martian surface, indicate that hydrothermal environments certainly existed in the past and may exist today. The identification of such environments, especially long-lived magmatic-driven hydrothermal environments, provides NASA with significant target sites for future sample return missions, since they (1) could favor the development and sustenance of life, (2) may comprise a large variety of exotic mineral assemblages, and (3) could potentially contain water/ice reservoirs for future Mars-related human activities. If life developed on Mars, the fossil record would presumably be at its greatest concentration and diversity in environments where long-term energy sources and water coexisted such as at sites where long-lived, magmatic-driven hydrothermal activity occurred. These assertions are supported by terrestrial analogs. Small, single-celled creatures (prokaryotes) are vitally important in the evolution of the Earth; these prokaryotes are environmentally tough and tolerant of environmental extremes of pH, temperature, salinity, and anoxic conditions found around hydrothermal vents. In addition, there is a great ability for bacteria to survive long periods of geologic time in extreme conditions, including high temperature hydrogen sulfide and sulfur erupted from Mount St. Helens volcano. Our team of investigators is conducting a geological investigation using multiple mission-derived datasets (e.g., existing geologic map data, MOC imagery, MOLA, TES image data, geophysical data, etc.) to identify prime target sites of hydrothermal activity for future hydrological, mineralogical, and biological investigations. The identification of these sites will enhance the probability of success for future missions to Mars.

  20. Sectoral Energy, and Labour, Productivity Convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.; De Groot, H.L.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the development of cross-country differences in energy- and labour productivity. The analysis is performed at a detailed sectoral level for 14 OECD countries, covering the period 1970-1997. A ρ-convergence analysis reveals that the development over time of the cross-country variation in productivity performance differs across sectors as well as across different levels of aggregation. Both patterns of convergence as well as divergence are found. Cross-country variation of productivity levels is typically larger for energy than for labour. A β-convergence analysis provides support for the hypothesis that in most sectors lagging countries tend to catch up with technological leaders, in particular in terms of energy productivity. Moreover, the results show that convergence is conditional, meaning that productivity levels converge to country-specific steady states. Energy prices and wages are shown to positively affect energy- and labour-productivity growth, respectively. We also find evidence for the importance of economies of scale, whereas the investment share, openness and specialization play only a modest role in explaining cross-country variation in energy- and labour-productivity growth

  1. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.

  2. Convergence Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also found to be weak. If both accommodation and convergence are weak, reading glasses, sometimes with prism added, may be a great option for these patients. It is very difficult to improve accommodation with exercises. Updated 7/2017 Eye Terms & Conditions ...

  3. Magmatic Hydrothermal Fluids: Experimental Constraints on the Role of Magmatic Sulfide Crystallization and Other Early Magmatic Processes in Moderating the Metal Content of Ore-Forming Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, P. M.; Candela, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    It has been recognized for some time that sulfide phases, although common in intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks, are not as common in their plutonic equivalents. That sulfide crystallization, or the lack thereof, is important in the protracted magmatic history of porphyry Cu and related systems is supported by the work of e.g., Rowins (2000). Candela and Holland (1986) suggested that sulfide crystallization could moderate the ore metal concentrations in porphyry environments. Experiments show clearly that Au and Cu can partition into Cl-bearing vapor and brine. This effect can be enhanced by S (Simon, this session). However, in some instances enhances this effect. That is, the partitioning of Au and Cu into vapor+brine is highly efficient (e.g. Simon et al. 2003; Frank et al 2003). This suggests that if sulfides do not sequester ore metals early during the history of a magma body from the melt, they will partition strongly into the volatile phases. Whether volatile release occurs in the porphyry ore environment, or at deeper levels upon magma rise, is a yet unsolved question. Little is known about deep release of volatiles (during magma transport at lower- to mid-crustal levels). Saturation of melts with a CO2-bearing fluid could happen at levels much deeper than those typical of ore formation. CO2 is released preferentially, so a high CO2 concentration in fluids in the porphyry ore environment argues against deep fluid release. Of course, this depends upon the specific processes of crystallization and fluid release, which may be complex. Our experiments on sulfides have concentrated on pyrrhotite and Iss. Our partitioning data for Po/melt exhibit wide variations from metal to metal: Cu (2600); Co (170); Au (140); Ni (100); Bi, Zn and Mn (2). These results suggest that crystallization of Po can contribute to variable ore metal ratios (e.g. Cu/Au). Other sulfides behave differently. If a melt is Iss (Cpy) saturated, then Cu will be buffered at a high value, and Au

  4. Convergence theorems for Banach space valued integrable multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we generalize a result of Kato on the pointwise behavior of a weakly convergent sequence in the Lebesgue-Bochner spaces LXP(Ω (1≤p≤∞. Then we use that result to prove Fatou's type lemmata and dominated convergence theorems for the Aumann integral of Banach space valued measurable multifunctions. Analogous convergence results are also proved for the sets of integrable selectors of those multifunctions. In the process of proving those convergence theorems we make some useful observations concerning the Kuratowski-Mosco convergence of sets.

  5. Weak convergence and uniform normalization in infinitary rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    the starkly surprising result that for any orthogonal system with finitely many rules, the system is weakly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is weakly normalizing under strong convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under strong...... convergence. As further corollaries, we derive a number of new results for weakly convergent rewriting: Systems with finitely many rules enjoy unique normal forms, and acyclic orthogonal systems are confluent. Our results suggest that it may be possible to recover some of the positive results for strongly...