Convergence of coupled cluster perturbation theory
Eriksen, Janus Juul; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe
2016-01-01
The convergence of a recently proposed coupled cluster (CC) family of perturbation series [Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)], in which the energetic difference between a parent and a target CC model is expanded in orders of the M{\\o}ller-Plesset (MP) fluctuation potential, is investigated for four prototypical closed-shell systems (Ne, singlet methylene, distorted HF, and the fluoride anion) in standard and augmented basis sets. In these investigations, energy corrections of the various series have been calculated to high orders and their convergence radii determined by probing for possible front- and back-door intruder states. In summary, we conclude how it is primarily the choice of target state, and not the choice of parent state, which ultimately governs the convergence behavior of a given series. For example, restricting the target state to, say, triple or quadruple excitations might remove intruders present in series that target the full configuration interaction (FCI) limit, such as th...
Strategies for fast convergence in semiotic dynamics
Baronchelli, A; Dall'Asta, L; Loreto, V; Asta, Luca Dall'; Baronchelli, Andrea; Barrat, Alain; Loreto, Vittorio
2005-01-01
Semiotic dynamics is a novel field that studies how semiotic conventions spread and stabilize in a population of agents. This is a central issue both for theoretical and technological reasons since large system made up of communicating agents, like web communities or artificial embodied agents teams, are getting widespread. In this paper we discuss a recently introduced simple multi-agent model which is able to account for the emergence of a shared vocabulary in a population of agents. In particular we introduce a new deterministic agents' playing strategy that strongly improves the performance of the game in terms of faster convergence and reduced cognitive effort for the agents.
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-09-01
data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Convergence feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this
Convergent close-coupling calculations of electron-helium scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Electronic Structure of Materials Centre
1996-11-01
We present a review of the recent electron-helium calculations and experiments concentrating on the extensive application of the convergent close-coupling (CCC) method. Elastic, excitation, and ionization processes are considered, as well as excitation of the metastable states. The present status of agreement between theory and experiment for elastic and discrete excitations of the ground state is, in our view, quite satisfactory. However, discrepancies for excitation of the metastable states are substantial and invite urgent attention. Application of the CCC method to the calculation of differential ionization cross sections is encouraging, but also shows some fundamental difficulties. (authors). 92 refs., 15 figs.
Convergent close-coupling calculations of electron-helium scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Electronic Structure of Materials Centre
1996-11-01
We present a review of the recent electron-helium calculations and experiments concentrating on the extensive application of the convergent close-coupling (CCC) method. Elastic, excitation, and ionization processes are considered, as well as excitation of the metastable states. The present status of agreement between theory and experiment for elastic and discrete excitations of the ground state is, in our view, quite satisfactory. However, discrepancies for excitation of the metastable states are substantial and invite urgent attention. Application of the CCC method to the calculation of differential ionization cross sections is encouraging, but also shows some fundamental difficulties. (authors). 92 refs., 15 figs.
Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses
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Ilaria Cavallari
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The discovery of human retroviruses in the early 1980s revealed the existence of viral-encoded non-structural genes that were not evident in previously described animal retroviruses. Based on the absence or presence of these additional genes retroviruses were classified as ‘simple’ and ‘complex’, respectively. Expression of most of these extra genes is achieved through the generation of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The present review summarizes the genetic organization and expression strategies of human complex retroviruses and highlights the converging mechanisms controlling their life cycles.
Convergent maternal care strategies in ungulates and macropods.
Fisher, D O; Blomberg, S P; Owens, I P F
2002-01-01
Mammals show extensive interspecific variation in the form of maternal care. Among ungulates, there is a dichotomy between species in which offspring follow the mother ("following" strategy) versus species in which offspring remain concealed ("hiding" strategy). Here we reveal that the same dichotomy exists among macropods (kangaroos, wallabies and allies). We test three traditional adaptive explanations and one new life history hypothesis, and find very similar patterns among both ungulates and macropods. The three traditional explanations that we tested were that a "following" strategy is associated with (1) open habitat, (2) large mothers, and (3) gregariousness. Our new life-history hypothesis is that a "following strategy" is associated with delayed weaning, and thus with the "slow" end of the slow-fast mammalian life-history continuum, because offspring devote resources to locomotion rather than rapid growth. Our comparative test strongly supports the habitat structure hypothesis and provides some support for this new delayed weaning hypothesis for both ungulates and macropods. We propose that sedentary young in closed habitats benefit energetically by having milk brought to them. In open habitats, predation pressure will select against hiding. Followers will suffer slower growth to independence. Taken together, therefore, our results provide the first quantitative evidence that macropods and ungulates are convergent with respect to interspecific variation in maternal care strategy. In both clades, differences between species in the form of parental care are due to a similar interaction between habitat, social behavior, and life history.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik
2002-01-01
Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN...
Non-local convergence coupling in a simple stochastic convection model
Brenowitz, N. D.; Frenkel, Y.; Majda, A. J.
2016-06-01
Observational studies show a strong correlation between large-scale wind convergence and precipitation. However, using this as a convective closure assumption to determine the total precipitation in a numerical model typically leads to deleterious wave-CISK behavior such as grid-scale noise. The quasi-equilibrium (QE) schemes ameliorate this issue and smooth the precipitation field, but still inadequately represent the intermittent and organized nature of tropical convection. However, recent observational evidence highlights that the large-scale convergence field primarily affects precipitation by increasing the overall convective cloud fraction rather than the energetics of individual convective elements. In this article, the dynamical consequences of this diagnostic observation are studied using a simple one baroclinic mode stochastic model for convectively coupled waves. A version of this model is implemented which couples the stochastic formation of convective elements to the wind convergence. Linearized analysis shows that using the local convergence results in a classic wave-CISK standing instability where the growth rate increases with the wavenumber. However, using a large-scale averaged convergence restricts the instability to physically plausible scales. Convergence coupling is interpreted as a surrogate for the non-local effects of gregarious convection. In nonlinear stochastic simulations with a non-uniform imposed sea surface temperature (SST) field, the non-local convergence coupling introduces desirable intermittent variability on intraseasonal time scales. Convergence coupling leads to a circulation with a similar mean but higher variability than the equivalent parameterization without convergence coupling. Finally, the model is shown to retain these features on fine and coarse mesh sizes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee
2009-01-01
This paper presents the main conclusions which can be drawn from the discussions on Future Communication Systems and lessons on Unpredictable Future of Wireless Communication Systems. Future systems beyond the third generation are already under discussions in international bodies, such as ITU, WW...... and R&D programmes worldwide. The incoming era is characterized by the convergence of networks and access technology and the divergence of applications. Future mobile communication systems should bring something more than only faster data or wireless internet access....
Coupling, convergence rates of Markov processes and weak Poincaré inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Fengyu(王凤雨)
2002-01-01
Some analytic and probabilistic properties of the weak Poincaré inequality are obtained. In particular, for strong Feller Markov processes the existence of this inequality is equivalent to each of the following: (i)the Liouville property (or the irreducibility); (ii) the existence of successful couplings (or shift-couplings); (iii)the convergence of the Markov process in total variation norm; (iv) the triviality of the tail (or the invariant)σ-field; (v) the convergence of the density. Estimates of the convergence rate in total variation norm of Markov processes are obtained using the weak Poincaré inequality.
Convergent Close-Coupling Approach to Electron-Atom Collisions
Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, Andris
2007-01-01
It was with great pleasure and honour to accept the invitation to make a presentation at the symposium celebrating the life-long work of Aaron Temkin and Richard Drachman. The work of Aaron Temkin was particularly influential on our own during the development of the CCC method for electron-atom collisions. There are a number of key problems that need to be dealt with when developing a general computational approach to such collisions. Traditionally, the electron energy range was subdivided into the low, intermediate, and high energies. At the low energies only a finite number of channels are open and variational or close-coupling techniques could be used to obtain accurate results. At high energies an infinite number of discrete channels and the target continuum are open, but perturbative techniques are able to yield accurate results. However, at the intermediate energies perturbative techniques fail and computational approaches need to be found for treating the infinite number of open channels. In addition, there are also problems associated with the identical nature of electrons and the difficulty of implementing the boundary conditions for ionization processes. The beauty of the Temkin-Poet model of electron-hydrogen scattering is that it simplifies the full computational problem by neglecting any non-zero orbital angular momenta in the partial-wave expansion, without loosing the complexity associated with the above-mentioned problems. The unique nature of the problem allowed for accurate solution leading to benchmark results which could then be used to test the much more general approaches to electron-atom collision problems. The immense value of the Temkin-Poet model is readily summarised by the fact that the initial papers of Temkin and Poet have been collectively cited around 250 times to date and are still being cited in present times. Many of the citations came from our own work during the course of the development of the CCC method, which we now describe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica DAMIAN
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Adopting the euro currency implies the fulfilment of Maastricht convergence criteria, which implies a number of challenges for the macroeconomic policy mix, due to the existence of the conflict between them. The paper analyzes empirically the main monetary policy strategy in the context of euro in Romania.The results of the study show that inflation targeting is an optimal monetary policy strategy to achieve real and nominal convergence criteria.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Li-Sha; Kang Xiao-Yun; Lin Lan-Xin
2010-01-01
A novel approach to the inverse problem of diffusively coupled map lattices is systematically investigated by utilizing the symbolic vector dynamics. The relationship between the performance of initial condition estimation and the structural feature of dynamical system is proved theoretically. It is found that any point in a spatiotemporal coupled system is not necessary to converge to its initial value with respect to sufficient backward iteration, which is directly relevant to the coupling strength and local mapping function. When the convergence is met, the error bound in estimating the initial condition is proposed in a noiseless environment, which is determined by the dimension of attractors and metric entropy of the system. Simulation results further confirm the theoretic analysis, and prove that the presented method provides the important theory and experimental results for better analysing and characterizing the spatiotemporal complex behaviours in an actual system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Toural Bran
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper offers a theoretical reflection on the concept of convergence in the Autonomous Community of Galicia, in Spain. In this geographic area, marked by its respect for journalistic tradition (especially referring to the press and its inertia, it is possible to distinguish two different attitudes (actually conflicting with regard to the convergence phenomenon. Conservation strategies coexist, therefore, (focusing mainly on the business aspect of the convergent phenomenon with renovation strategies (creation of new spaces on the web, great commitment to the possibilities offered by new technologies and social networks. We are presenting an analytical study of the coexistence of these two interpretations of convergence (marketing and technological, respectively in the communication ecosystem of Galicia. We can recognize the beginning of a dialectic tension between the discourses of renovation and conservation which at present coexist in harmony. It is assumed that the information industry in Galicia will eventually choose the path that guarantees the survival of its media.
FEM COUPLING FIELD ITERATION AND ITS CONVERGENCE FOR A GMM ACTURATOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cao Zhitong; Cai Jiongjiong; Chen Hongping; He Guoguang
2005-01-01
The coupling iteration (CI) of the finite element method(FEM) is used to simulate the magnetic and mechanical characteristics for a GMM actuator. The convergent ability under different prestress and different load types is investigated. Then the calculated deformations are compared with the experimental values. The results convince that the CI of FEM is suitable for the simulation of energy coupling and transformation mechanism of the GMM. At last, the output deformation properties are studied under different input currents, showing that there is a good compromise between good linearity and large strain under the prestress 6 MPa.
CONVERGENCE RATES FOR A CLASS OF EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS WITH ELITIST STRATEGY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁立新; 康立山
2001-01-01
This paper discusses the convergence rates about a class of evolutionary al-gorithms in general search spaces by means of the ergodic theory in Markov chain and some techniques in Banach algebra. Under certain conditions that transition probability functions of Markov chains corresponding to evolutionary algorithms satisfy, the authors obtain the convergence rates of the exponential order. Furthermore, they also analyze the characteristics of the conditions which can be met by genetic operators and selection strategies.
The convergent close-coupling method for a Coulomb three-body problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bray, I. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Electronic Structure of Materials Centre; Stelbovics, A.T. [Murdoch Univ., Perth, WA (Australia). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
1994-09-01
The close-coupling method relies on the reformulation of the Schroedinger equation into an infinite set of coupled-channel equations by expanding over the complete set of target states. The difficulty in applying this approach is that the continuum channels are known to be very important in the intermediate-energy region and coupling to them must be included with little approximation. The application of the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) method is discussed which allows the continuum to be treated in a systematic manner via the use of square-integrable states. The CCC method utilizes an expansion of the target in a complete set of orthogonal L{sup 2} functions which form a basis for the underlying Hilbert space. The utility of the method relies on being able to demonstrate convergence in the scattering amplitudes of interest as the basis size is increased. Numerical examples for the well known Temkin-Poet problem are used to illustrate the method. It is estimated the methods may be readily applied to full electron-atom scattering problem. 17 refs., 4 figs.
Convergence of methods for coupling of microscopic and mesoscopic reaction–diffusion simulations
Flegg, Mark B.
2015-05-01
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, three multiscale methods for coupling of mesoscopic (compartment-based) and microscopic (molecular-based) stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations are investigated. Two of the three methods that will be discussed in detail have been previously reported in the literature; the two-regime method (TRM) and the compartment-placement method (CPM). The third method that is introduced and analysed in this paper is called the ghost cell method (GCM), since it works by constructing a "ghost cell" in which molecules can disappear and jump into the compartment-based simulation. Presented is a comparison of sources of error. The convergent properties of this error are studied as the time step δ. t (for updating the molecular-based part of the model) approaches zero. It is found that the error behaviour depends on another fundamental computational parameter h, the compartment size in the mesoscopic part of the model. Two important limiting cases, which appear in applications, are considered:. (i)δt→0 and h is fixed;(ii)δt→0 and h→0 such that δt/h is fixed. The error for previously developed approaches (the TRM and CPM) converges to zero only in the limiting case (ii), but not in case (i). It is shown that the error of the GCM converges in the limiting case (i). Thus the GCM is superior to previous coupling techniques if the mesoscopic description is much coarser than the microscopic part of the model.
Strong plate coupling along the Nazca/South America convergent margin
Iaffaldano, G.; Bunge, H.
2007-12-01
The force balance in plate tectonics is fundamentally important, but poorly known. Much information on the dynamics is embedded in the record of past and present plate velocities, featured with long- as well as short- term variations, but a precise budget, in particular of resistive coupling forces along convergent margins, is hard to come by. Building on substantial, yet separate progress in modeling lithosphere dynamics and mantle convection, we couple global lithosphere models with high-resolution (more than 100 million grid points) 3-D circulation models of Earth's mantle and demonstrate that an accurate budget of plate boundary forces can be obtained. We prove the effectiveness of our approach by computing a detailed force budget along the Nazca/South America subduction zone, showing that a large portion of it comes from the recent uplift of the Andes. We find that forces computed with our global, coupled models provide simultaneous explanations for three seemingly unrelated key observations along the South American margin: (1) trench parallel gravity anomalies, (2) pronounced bathymetry variations, as well as (3) a substantial reduction in Nazca/South America plate convergence recorded over the past 10 million years. All these observations can be explained from along- trench, lateral and temporal variations in plate coupling forces that are predicted from our simulations. Interestingly enough, the distribution of great earthquakes such as the recent M 8.0 event of Peru coincides with moderate to low coupling between subducting and overriding plates. For the same convergent margin we also show that frictional forcing due to trench sediment infill is, by comparison, of minor importance. Finally, we provide an intriguing explanation for the peculiar convex shape of the South American margin. Paleomagnetic and geodetic data indicate substantial rotation over the past m.y. and continuing at present day. We tie the bend of the margin to variations in plate coupling
Strong plate coupling along the Nazca-South America convergent margin
Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Bunge, Hans-Peter
2008-06-01
The force balance in plate tectonics is fundamentally importantbut poorly known. Here, we show that two prominent and seeminglyunrelated observations—trench-parallel gravity anomaliesalong the Nazca-South America margin that coincide withthe rupture zones of great earthquakes, and a rapid slowdownof Nazca-South America convergence over the past 10 m.y.—providekey insights. Both result from rapid Miocene-Pliocene upliftof the Andes and provide quantitative measures of the magnitudeand distribution of plate coupling along the Nazca-SouthAmerica margin. We compute the plate-tectonic force budget usingglobal models of the faulted lithosphere coupled to high-resolutionmantle circulation models and find that Andean-related plate-marginforces are comparable to plate-driving forces from the mantle,and they have sufficient magnitude to account for pronouncedbathymetry variations along the trench. Our results suggestthat plate coupling, gravity anomalies, and bathymetry variationsalong a given trench are all controlled by long-term stressvariations in the upper portion of plate boundaries and thatan explicit budget of driving and resisting forces in platetectonics can be obtained. For the convergent margin consideredhere, spatial variations in the effective coefficient of frictionassociated with the distribution of lubricating sediments enteringthe trench are, by comparison, of minor importance.
A convergent scheme for a non-local coupled system modelling dislocations densities dynamics
Hajj, A. El; Forcadel, N.
2008-06-01
In this paper, we study a non-local coupled system that arises in the theory of dislocations densities dynamics. Within the framework of viscosity solutions, we prove a long time existence and uniqueness result for the solution of this model. We also propose a convergent numerical scheme and we prove a Crandall-Lions type error estimate between the continuous solution and the numerical one. As far as we know, this is the first error estimate of Crandall-Lions type for Hamilton-Jacobi systems. We also provide some numerical simulations.
Partitioned coupling strategies for multi-physically coupled radiative heat transfer problems
Wendt, Gunnar; Erbts, Patrick; Düster, Alexander
2015-11-01
This article aims to propose new aspects concerning a partitioned solution strategy for multi-physically coupled fields including the physics of thermal radiation. Particularly, we focus on the partitioned treatment of electro-thermo-mechanical problems with an additional fourth thermal radiation field. One of the main goals is to take advantage of the flexibility of the partitioned approach to enable combinations of different simulation software and solvers. Within the frame of this article, we limit ourselves to the case of nonlinear thermoelasticity at finite strains, using temperature-dependent material parameters. For the thermal radiation field, diffuse radiating surfaces and gray participating media are assumed. Moreover, we present a robust and fast partitioned coupling strategy for the fourth field problem. Stability and efficiency of the implicit coupling algorithm are improved drawing on several methods to stabilize and to accelerate the convergence. To conclude and to review the effectiveness and the advantages of the additional thermal radiation field several numerical examples are considered to study the proposed algorithm. In particular we focus on an industrial application, namely the electro-thermo-mechanical modeling of the field-assisted sintering technology.
German, Donovan P; Sung, Aaron; Jhaveri, Parth; Agnihotri, Ritika
2015-06-01
In fishes, the evolution of herbivory has occured within a spectrum of digestive strategies, with two extremes on opposite ends: (i) a rate-maximization strategy characterized by high intake, rapid throughput of food through the gut, and little reliance on microbial digestion or (ii) a yield-maximization strategy characterized by measured intake, slower transit of food through the gut, and more of a reliance on microbial digestion in the hindgut. One of these strategies tends to be favored within a given clade of fishes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rate or yield digestive strategies can arise in convergently evolved herbivores within a given lineage. In the family Stichaeidae, convergent evolution of herbivory occured in Cebidichthys violaceus and Xiphister mucosus, and despite nearly identical diets, these two species have different digestive physiologies. We found that C. violaceus has more digesta in its distal intestine than other gut regions, has comparatively high concentrations (>11 mM) of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, the endpoints of microbial fermentation) in its distal intestine, and a spike in β-glucosidase activity in this gut region, findings that, when coupled to long retention times (>20 h) of food in the guts of C. violaceus, suggest a yield-maximizing strategy in this species. X. mucosus showed none of these features and was more similar to its sister taxon, the omnivorous Xiphister atropurpureus, in terms of digestive enzyme activities, gut content partitioning, and concentrations of SCFA in their distal intestines. We also contrasted these herbivores and omnivores with other sympatric stichaeid fishes, Phytichthys chirus (omnivore) and Anoplarchus purpurescens (carnivore), each of which had digestive physiologies consistent with the consumption of animal material. This study shows that rate- and yield-maximizing strategies can evolve in closely related fishes and suggests that resource partitioning can play out on the level of
Convergence of methods for coupling of microscopic and mesoscopic reaction-diffusion simulations
Flegga, Mark B.; Hellander, Stefan; Erban, Radek
2015-01-01
In this paper, three multiscale methods for coupling of mesoscopic (compartment-based) and microscopic (molecular-based) stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations are investigated. Two of the three methods that will be discussed in detail have been previously reported in the literature; the two-regime method (TRM) and the compartment-placement method (CPM). The third method that is introduced and analysed in this paper is called the ghost cell method (GCM), since it works by constructing a “ghost cell” in which molecules can disappear and jump into the compartment-based simulation. Presented is a comparison of sources of error. The convergent properties of this error are studied as the time step Δt (for updating the molecular-based part of the model) approaches zero. It is found that the error behaviour depends on another fundamental computational parameter h, the compartment size in the mesoscopic part of the model. Two important limiting cases, which appear in applications, are considered: (i) Δt → 0 and h is fixed; (ii) Δt → 0 and h → 0 such that √Δt/h is fixed. The error for previously developed approaches (the TRM and CPM) converges to zero only in the limiting case (ii), but not in case (i). It is shown that the error of the GCM converges in the limiting case (i). Thus the GCM is superior to previous coupling techniques if the mesoscopic description is much coarser than the microscopic part of the model. PMID:26568640
Chen, Yao; Ho, Daniel W C; Lü, Jinhu; Lin, Zongli
2016-01-01
Multiagent systems (MASs) are ubiquitous in our real world. There is an increasing attention focusing on the consensus (or synchronization) problem of MASs over the past decade. Although there are numerous results reported on the convergence of a discrete-time MAS based on the infinite products of matrices, few results are on the convergence rate. Because of the switching topology, the traditional eigenvalue analysis and the Lyapunov function methods are both invalid for the convergence rate analysis of an MAS with a switching topology. Therefore, the estimation of the convergence rate for a discrete-time MAS with time-varying delays remains a difficult problem. To overcome the essential difficulty of switching topology, this paper aims at developing a contractive-set approach to analyze the convergence rate of a discrete-time MAS in the presence of time-varying delays and generalized coupling coefficients. Using the proposed approach, we obtain an upper bound of the convergence rate under the condition of joint connectivity. In particular, the proposed method neither requires the nonnegative property of the coupling coefficients nor the basic assumption of a uniform lower bound for all positive coupling coefficients, which have been widely applied in the existing works on this topic. As an application of the main results, we will show that the classical Vicsek model with time delays can realize synchronization if the initial topology is connected.
Banik, Subrata; Pal, Sourav; Prasad, M Durga
2008-10-07
Vibrational excited state energies have been calculated using vibrational coupled cluster linear response theory (CCLRT). The method has been implemented on formaldehyde and water molecule. Convergence studies have been shown with varying the cluster operator from S(4) to S(6) as well as the excitation operator from four bosons to six bosons. A good agreement with full configuration interaction results has been observed with S(6) truncation at coupled-cluster method level and six bosonic excitations at CCLRT level.
TV Goes Social: Italian Broadcasting Strategies and the Challenges of Convergence
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Luca Barra
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the Italian television scenario has become fully convergent, and social TV is an activity – and a hip buzzword – indicating both a rich set of possibilities for the audience to engage with TV shows, and an important asset developed by television industry to provide such engagement, with promotional and economic goals. Mainly adopting the perspective of the production cultures of Italian broadcasters, the essay will explore the “Italian way to social television”, highlighting the strategies adopted by networks and production companies to encourage online television discourse and to exploit it as a content, a marketing device or a source of supplementary income.
Haghdani, Shokouh; Åstrand, Per-Olof; Koch, Henrik
2016-02-01
We have calculated the electronic optical rotation of seven molecules using coupled cluster singles-doubles (CCSD) and the second-order approximation (CC2) employing the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, or Q) basis sets. We have also compared to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) by utilizing two functionals B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP and the same basis sets. Using relative and absolute error schemes, our calculations demonstrate that the CAM-B3LYP functional predicts optical rotation with the minimum deviations compared to CCSD at λ = 355 and 589.3 nm. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set provides the optical rotation in good agreement with the larger basis sets for molecules not possessing small-angle optical rotation at λ = 589.3 nm. We have also performed several two-point inverse power extrapolations for the basis set convergence, i.e., OR(∞) + AX(-n), using the CC2 model at λ = 355 and 589.3 nm. Our results reveal that a two-point inverse power extrapolation with the aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets at n = 5 provides optical rotation deviations similar to those of aug-cc-pV5Z with respect to the basis limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghoos, K., E-mail: kristel.ghoos@kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekeyser, W. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Samaey, G. [KU Leuven, Department of Computer Science, Celestijnenlaan 200A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Börner, P. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-4), FZ Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Baelmans, M. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2016-10-01
The plasma and neutral transport in the plasma edge of a nuclear fusion reactor is usually simulated using coupled finite volume (FV)/Monte Carlo (MC) codes. However, under conditions of future reactors like ITER and DEMO, convergence issues become apparent. This paper examines the convergence behaviour and the numerical error contributions with a simplified FV/MC model for three coupling techniques: Correlated Sampling, Random Noise and Robbins Monro. Also, practical procedures to estimate the errors in complex codes are proposed. Moreover, first results with more complex models show that an order of magnitude speedup can be achieved without any loss in accuracy by making use of averaging in the Random Noise coupling technique.
Convergent evolution of sexual dimorphism in skull shape using distinct developmental strategies.
Sanger, Thomas J; Sherratt, Emma; McGlothlin, Joel W; Brodie, Edmund D; Losos, Jonathan B; Abzhanov, Arhat
2013-08-01
Studies integrating evolutionary and developmental analyses of morphological variation are of growing interest to biologists as they promise to shed fresh light on the mechanisms of morphological diversification. Sexually dimorphic traits tend to be incredibly divergent across taxa. Such diversification must arise through evolutionary modifications to sex differences during development. Nevertheless, few studies of dimorphism have attempted to synthesize evolutionary and developmental perspectives. Using geometric morphometric analysis of head shape for 50 Anolis species, we show that two clades have converged on extreme levels of sexual dimorphism through similar, male-specific changes in facial morphology. In both clades, males have evolved highly elongate faces whereas females retain faces of more moderate proportion. This convergence is accomplished using distinct developmental mechanisms; one clade evolved extreme dimorphism through the exaggeration of a widely shared, potentially ancestral, developmental strategy whereas the other clade evolved a novel developmental strategy not observed elsewhere in the genus. Together, our analyses indicate that both shared and derived features of development contribute to macroevolutionary patterns of morphological diversity among Anolis lizards. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Income management strategies of older couples in Canada
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grant Schellenberg
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the income management strategies of Canadian couples are examined using data from the 2007 General Social Survey. The extent to which “older” couples, in which at least one spouse or partner is aged 45 or older, employ an allocative, pooled, or separate strategy is explored.Results show that the income management strategies used by these couples are correlated with relationship characteristics, such as common-law status, duration of relationship, and presence of children. As well, the likelihood of using a separate approach is positively correlated with levels of educational attainment and with the amount of income received by wives or female partners.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Young-Oh [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Physical Oceanography Department, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Deser, Clara [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Cassou, Christophe [CNRS-CERFACS, Toulouse (France)
2011-06-15
The winter response of the coupled atmosphere-ocean mixed layer system to anomalous geostrophic ocean heat flux convergence in the Kuroshio Extension is investigated by means of experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to an entraining ocean mixed layer model in the extra-tropics. The direct response consists of positive SST anomalies along the Kuroshio Extension and a baroclinic (low-level trough and upper-level ridge) circulation anomaly over the North Pacific. The low-level component of this atmospheric circulation response is weaker in the case without coupling to an extratropical ocean mixed layer, especially in late winter. The inclusion of an interactive mixed layer in the tropics modifies the direct coupled atmospheric response due to a northward displacement of the Pacific Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone which drives an equivalent barotropic anomalous ridge over the North Pacific. Although the tropically driven component of the North Pacific atmospheric circulation response is comparable to the direct response in terms of sea level pressure amplitude, it is less important in terms of wind stress curl amplitude due to the mitigating effect of the relatively broad spatial scale of the tropically forced atmospheric teleconnection. (orig.)
A reductive coupling strategy towards ripostatin A.
Schleicher, Kristin D; Jamison, Timothy F
2013-01-01
Synthetic studies on the antibiotic natural product ripostatin A have been carried out with the aim to construct the C9-C10 bond by a nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of an enyne and an epoxide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting dienylcyclopropane intermediate to afford the skipped 1,4,7-triene. A cyclopropyl enyne fragment corresponding to C1-C9 has been synthesized in high yield and demonstrated to be a competent substrate for the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling with a model epoxide. Several synthetic approaches toward the C10-C26 epoxide have been pursued. The C13 stereocenter can be set by allylation and reductive decyanation of a cyanohydrin acetonide. A mild, fluoride-promoted decarboxylation enables construction of the C15-C16 bond by an aldol reaction. The product of this transformation is of the correct oxidation state and potentially three steps removed from the targeted epoxide fragment.
A reductive coupling strategy towards ripostatin A
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristin D. Schleicher
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Synthetic studies on the antibiotic natural product ripostatin A have been carried out with the aim to construct the C9−C10 bond by a nickel(0-catalyzed coupling reaction of an enyne and an epoxide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting dienylcyclopropane intermediate to afford the skipped 1,4,7-triene. A cyclopropyl enyne fragment corresponding to C1−C9 has been synthesized in high yield and demonstrated to be a competent substrate for the nickel(0-catalyzed coupling with a model epoxide. Several synthetic approaches toward the C10−C26 epoxide have been pursued. The C13 stereocenter can be set by allylation and reductive decyanation of a cyanohydrin acetonide. A mild, fluoride-promoted decarboxylation enables construction of the C15−C16 bond by an aldol reaction. The product of this transformation is of the correct oxidation state and potentially three steps removed from the targeted epoxide fragment.
Strategies to prevent HIV transmission to serodiscordant couples.
Hallal, Ronaldo Campos; Raxach, Juan Carlos; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago; Maksud, Ivia
2015-09-01
The use antiretroviral reduces the sexual transmission of HIV, expanding interventions for serodiscordant couples. This article aims to review the use of antiretroviral and other prevention interventions among serodiscordant couples and to analyze its use in Brazil. A retrospective review was performed through the MEDLINE database and bases included in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. The articles recovered exhibit four main strategies: (1) condom; (2) reduction of risks in sexual practices; (3) use of antiretrovirals, particularly early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (TASP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); (4) risk reduction in reproduction. TASP is highly effective in reducing sexual transmission, PrEP was tested in serodiscordant couples and both reduce the sexual transmission risk in different sexual practices, enabling individualized prevention strategies. When used in combination, antiretrovirals and sexual practices with condoms offer greater efficacy than any single strategy. The combined use of new and old strategies allows us to build a prevention policy for all.
Thermo-mechanical coupling strategies in elastic-plastic problems
Vaz, M.; Lange, M. R.
2017-03-01
Modeling strategies aimed at thermo-mechanical coupled problems has been developed for a wide range of engineering applications. Staggered-type coupling procedures have been largely used in materials processing operations, especially in commercial codes, owing to their simplicity and flexibility. The present work shows that, in thermo-plastic problems, the classical implementation of the most common coupling procedure may present accuracy issues and time-stepping dependency. Numerical experiments indicate that an iterative coupling scheme constitutes a viable and simple approach to this class of problems.
Kadyrov, A S
2016-01-01
Much progress in the theory of positron scattering on atoms has been made in the ten years since the review of Surko, Gribakin and Buckman [J. Phys. B 38, R57 (2005)]. We review this progress for few-electron targets with a particular emphasis on the two-centre convergent close-coupling and other theories which explicitly treat positronium (Ps) formation. While substantial progress has been made for Ps formation in positron scattering on few-electron targets, considerable theoretical development is still required for multielectron atomic and molecular targets.
A Convergence Strategy of Data and Optical Networks Based on a Novel Node Structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The convergence of data and optical networks is a charming tendency of the current network evolution. In this paper, we propose a novel data and optical network integrating device. Based on it, a converging network structure is put forward and named Hierarchical Data and Optical Networking Integrating (HDONI) networking architecture.
Security Enhancement With Optimal QOS Using EAP-AKA In Hybrid Coupled 3G-WLAN Convergence Network
Shankar, R; Dananjayan, P; 10.5121/iju.2010.1303
2010-01-01
The third generation partnership project (3GPP) has addressed the feasibility of interworking and specified the interworking architecture and security architecture for third generation (3G)-wireless local area network (WLAN), it is developing, system architecture evolution (SAE)/ long term evolution (LTE) architecture, for the next generation mobile communication system. To provide a secure 3G-WLAN interworking in the SAE/LTE architecture, Extensible authentication protocol-authentication and key agreement (EAP-AKA) is used. However, EAP-AKA have several vulnerabilities. Therefore, this paper not only analyses the threats and attacks in 3G-WLAN interworking but also proposes a new authentication and key agreement protocol based on EAP-AKA. The proposed protocol combines elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) with symmetric key cryptosystem to overcome the vulnerabilities. The proposed protocol is used in hybrid coupled 3G-WLAN convergence network to analyse its efficiency in terms of QoS metrics, the results ob...
Strategies to prevent HIV transmission to serodiscordant couples
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronaldo Campos Hallal
2015-09-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The use antiretroviral reduces the sexual transmission of HIV, expanding interventions for serodiscordant couples.Objective:This article aims to review the use of antiretroviral and other prevention interventions among serodiscordant couples and to analyze its use in Brazil.Methods:A retrospective review was performed through the MEDLINE database and bases included in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde.Results:The articles recovered exhibit four main strategies: (1 condom; (2 reduction of risks in sexual practices; (3 use of antiretrovirals, particularly early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (TASP and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; (4 risk reduction in reproduction.Discussion:TASP is highly effective in reducing sexual transmission, PrEP was tested in serodiscordant couples and both reduce the sexual transmission risk in different sexual practices, enabling individualized prevention strategies.Conclusions:When used in combination, antiretrovirals and sexual practices with condoms offer greater efficacy than any single strategy. The combined use of new and old strategies allows us to build a prevention policy for all.
TV Goes Social: Italian Broadcasting Strategies and the Challenges of Convergence
Barra, Luca; Scaglioni, Massimo
2014-01-01
abstractIn recent years, the Italian television scenario has become fully convergent, and social TV is an activity – and a hip buzzword – indicating both a rich set of possibilities for the audience to engage with TV shows, and an important asset developed by television industry to provide such enga
Altendorfer, Mario; Raja, Aruna; Sasse, Florenz; Irschik, Herbert; Menche, Dirk
2013-04-07
An efficient procedure for the concise synthesis of hetero-bis-metallated alkenes as useful building blocks for the modular access to highly elaborate polyenes and stabilized analogues is reported. By applying these bifunctional olefins in convergent Stille/Suzuki-Miyaura couplings, novel, carefully selected side chain analogues of the potent RNA polymerase inhibitor etnangien were synthesized by a modular late stage coupling strategy and evaluated for antibacterial and antiproliferative activities.
Impact of DC link control strategies on the power-flow convergence of integrated AC–DC systems
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Shagufta Khan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available For the power-flow solution of integrated AC–DC systems, five quantities are required to be solved per converter, against three independent equations available. These three equations consist of two basic converter equations and one DC network equation, corresponding to each converter. Thus, for solution, two additional equations are required. These two equations are derived from the control specifications adopted for the DC link. Depending on the application, several combinations of valid control specifications are possible. A set of valid control specifications constitutes a control strategy. It is observed that the control strategy adopted for the DC link strongly affects the power-flow convergence of integrated AC–DC systems. This paper investigates how different control strategies affect the power flow convergence of integrated AC–DC systems. Sequential method is used to solve the DC variables in the Newton Raphson (NR power flow model. Seven typical control strategies have been taken into consideration. This is validated by numerous case studies carried out with multiple DC links incorporated in the IEEE 118-bus and 300-bus test systems.
Understanding of the U.S. Asia-Pacific Security Strategy:From the “Convergent Security” Perspective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang; Lianhe
2014-01-01
The U.S. Asia-Pacific policy is at a turning point. The "rebalancing" strategy,structured and implemented during Obama’s first term has produced extensive and sustained impacts, but still needs further adjustment in the evolving situation of the Asia-Pacific region.During the second term, based on re-evaluation of U.S. national security interests and U.S.relationship with countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the Obama Administration carefully modifies its "Asia-Pacific rebalancing" strategy, gives it the obvious character of "convergent security". Under the guidance of "convergent security" strategy, the United States will continue to maintain its bilateral security commitments, and play the leading role through more planning or participating in regional multilateral mechanisms and multilateral initiatives.Shifting from the traditional position of prioritizing bilateralism to equal emphasis on bilateralism and multilateralism in strategic arrangements is considered to be the most realistic option for the United States to safeguard its interests in the Asia-Pacific region under the current domestic political and economic conditions.
Focus points and convergent process operators (A proof strategy for protocol verification)
Groote, J.F.; Springintveld, J.
2008-01-01
We present a strategy for finding algebraic correctness proofs for communication systems. It is described in the setting of μCRL [11], which is, roughly, ACP [2,3] extended with a formal treatment of the interaction between data and processes. The strategy has already been applied successfully in [4
Oncken, O.
2008-12-01
Convergent continental margins are the Earth's principal locus of important earthquake hazards with nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes (M>8) in the seismogenic coupling zone between the converging plates. Despite the key importance of this zone, the processes that shape it are poorly understood. This is underscored by a number of novel observations attributed to processes in the interface zone that are attracting increasing attention: silent slip events, non-volcanic tremors, afterslip, locked patches embedded in a creeping environment, etc. We here compare the rock record from a field study with recent results from two major geophysical experiments (ANCORP and TIPTEQ) that have imaged the South Chilean subduction zone at the site of the largest historically recorded earthquake (Valdivia, 1969; Mw = 9.5) and the plate boundary in Northern Chile, where a major seismic event is expected in the near future (Iquique segment). The reflection seismic data exhibit well defined changes of reflectivity and Vp/Vs ratio along the plate interface that can be correlated with different parts of the coupling zone as well as with changes during the seismic cycle. Observations suggest an important role of the hydraulic system. The rock record from the exhumed Early Tertiary seismogenic coupling zone of the European Alps provides indications for the mechanisms and processes responsible for the geophysical images. Fabric formation and metamorphism in a largely preserved subduction channel chiefly record the deformation conditions of the pre-collisional setting along the plate interface. We identify an unstable slip domain from pseudotachylytes occurring in the temperature range between 200-300°C. This zone coincides with a domain of intense veining in the subduction mélange with mineral growth into open cavities, indicating fast, possibly seismic, rupture. Evidence for transient near-lithostatic fluid pressure as well as brittle fractures competing with mylonitic shear
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih
2015-12-01
Full Text Available People choose differently when facing potential gains than when facing potential losses. Clear gross differences in decision making between gains and losses have been empirically demonstrated in numerous studies (e.g. framing effect, risk preference, loss aversion. However, theories maintain that there are strong underlying connections (e.g. reflection effect. We investigated the relationship between gains and losses decision making, examining risk preferences and choice strategies (the reliance on option information using a monetary gamble task with interleaved trials. For risk preferences, participants were on average risk averse in the gains domain and risk neutral/seeking in the losses domain. We specifically tested for a theoretically hypothesized correlation between individual risk preferences across the gains and losses domains (the reflection effect, but found no significant relationship in the predicted direction. Interestingly, despite the lack of reflected risk preferences, cross-domain risk preferences were still informative of individual choice behavior. For choice strategies, in both domains participants relied more heavily on the maximizing strategy than the satisficing strategy, with increased reliance on the maximizing strategy in the losses domain. Additionally, while there is no mathematical reliance between the risk preference and strategy metrics, within both domains there were significant relationships between risk preferences and strategies – the more participants relied upon the maximizing strategy the more risk neutral they were (equating value and utility maximization. These results demonstrate the complexity of gains and losses decision making, indicating the apparent contradiction that their underlying cognitive/neural processes are both dissociable and overlapping.
An adaptive coupling strategy for joint inversions that use petrophysical information as constraints
Heincke, Björn; Jegen, Marion; Moorkamp, Max; Hobbs, Richard W.; Chen, Jin
2017-01-01
Joint inversion strategies for geophysical data have become increasingly popular as they allow for the efficient combination of complementary information from different data sets. The algorithm used for the joint inversion needs to be flexible in its description of the subsurface so as to be able to handle the diverse nature of the data. Hence, joint inversion schemes are needed that 1) adequately balance data from the different methods, 2) have stable convergence behavior, 3) consider the different resolution power of the methods used and 4) link the parameter models in a way that they are suited for a wide range of applications. Here, we combine active source seismic P-wave tomography, gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) data in a petrophysical joint inversion that accounts for these issues. Data from the different methods are inverted separately but are linked through constraints accounting for parameter relationships. An advantage of performing the inversions separately is that no relative weighting between the data sets is required. To avoid perturbing the convergence behavior of the inversions by the coupling, the strengths of the constraints are readjusted at each iteration. The criterion we use to control the adaption of the coupling strengths is based on variations in the objective functions of the individual inversions from one to the next iteration. Adaption of the coupling strengths makes the joint inversion scheme also applicable to subsurface conditions, where assumed relationships are not valid everywhere, because the individual inversions decouple if it is not possible to reach adequately low data misfits for the made assumptions. In addition, the coupling constraints depend on the relative resolutions of the methods, which leads to an improved convergence behavior of the joint inversion. Another benefit of the proposed scheme is that structural information can easily be incorporated in the petrophysical joint inversion (no additional terms are added
Column-coupling strategies for multidimensional electrophoretic separation techniques.
Kler, Pablo A; Sydes, Daniel; Huhn, Carolin
2015-01-01
Multidimensional electrophoretic separations represent one of the most common strategies for dealing with the analysis of complex samples. In recent years we have been witnessing the explosive growth of separation techniques for the analysis of complex samples in applications ranging from life sciences to industry. In this sense, electrophoretic separations offer several strategic advantages such as excellent separation efficiency, different methods with a broad range of separation mechanisms, and low liquid consumption generating less waste effluents and lower costs per analysis, among others. Despite their impressive separation efficiency, multidimensional electrophoretic separations present some drawbacks that have delayed their extensive use: the volumes of the columns, and consequently of the injected sample, are significantly smaller compared to other analytical techniques, thus the coupling interfaces between two separations components must be very efficient in terms of providing geometrical precision with low dead volume. Likewise, very sensitive detection systems are required. Additionally, in electrophoretic separation techniques, the surface properties of the columns play a fundamental role for electroosmosis as well as the unwanted adsorption of proteins or other complex biomolecules. In this sense the requirements for an efficient coupling for electrophoretic separation techniques involve several aspects related to microfluidics and physicochemical interactions of the electrolyte solutions and the solid capillary walls. It is interesting to see how these multidimensional electrophoretic separation techniques have been used jointly with different detection techniques, for intermediate detection as well as for final identification and quantification, particularly important in the case of mass spectrometry. In this work we present a critical review about the different strategies for coupling two or more electrophoretic separation techniques and the
Vorst, H.A. van der; Ye, Q.
1999-01-01
In this paper, a strategy is proposed for alternative computations of the residual vectors in Krylov subspace methods, which improves the agreement of the computed residuals and the true residuals to the level of O(u)kAkkxk. Building on earlier ideas on residual replacement and on insights in
‘More Than a Television Channel’: Channel 4, FilmFour and a Failed Convergence Strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hannah Andrews
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Obliged by act of Parliament to ‘innovate and experiment’, Channel 4 has, since its birth in 1982, been the UK’s most pioneering commercial television broadcaster. Its arrival broadened the meaning, function and operations of public service broadcasting in the UK, with a particular focus on minorities and pushing boundaries, political and creative. In the late 1990s, though, it was under increasing threat from specialist pay-TV services that could more accurately target its audiences. As a commercially funded channel with public service responsibilities, Channel 4 was under increasing pressure to be financially independent and fulfil a challenging remit. Its response to a threatened income and increasing competition was to diversify its portfolio into various media related businesses, particularly taking advantage of the arrival of digital television to expand its offer. The subtitle of the Corporation’s 2000 Annual report, ‘More than a Television Channel’ indicates the confidence, optimism and boldness with which this expansion was approached. The rapid expansion of the channel’s portfolio in a time of relative confidence in the commercial viability of the television industry was to be reversed only a few years later, when, after it failed to produce the returns it was designed for, 4Ventures was drastically scaled back, and Channel 4 refocused its efforts on the core broadcast channel. Channel 4 therefore offers a test case in the limits of convergence as a strategy for survival for British broadcasters at the arrival of digital television. This paper focuses specifically on the areas of Channel 4’s strategy that pertained to one of the broadcaster’s particular strengths: film culture. It explores one of the film offshoots of 4Ventures: FilmFour Ltd, the film finance, production, sales and distribution company and how its failure to find a commercial hit mirrors the general problems for a commercial public service broadcaster
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuno Queiroz
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Advances in satellite tracking and archival technologies now allow marine animal movements and behavior to be recorded at much finer temporal scales, providing a more detailed ecological understanding that can potentially be applicable to conservation and management strategies. Pelagic sharks are commercially exploited worldwide with current concerns that populations are declining, however, how pelagic sharks use exploited environments remains enigmatic for most species. Here we analyzed high-resolution dive depth profiles of two pelagic shark species with contrasting feeding strategies to investigate movement patterns in relation to environmental heterogeneity. Seven macropredatory blue (Prionace glauca and six plankton-feeding basking (Cetorhinus maximus sharks were tagged with pop-off satellite-linked archival tags in the North Atlantic Ocean to examine habitat use and investigate the function of dives. We grouped dives of both species into five major categories based on the two-dimensional dive profile shape. Each dive-shape class presented similar frequency and characteristics among the two species with U- and V-shaped dives predominating. We tested the spatial occurrence of different U- and V-shape dive parameters in response to environmental field gradients and found that mean depth and mean depth range decreased with increasing levels of primary productivity (chlorophyll “a”, whereas ascent velocities displayed a positive correlation. The results suggest that a planktivore and a macropredator responded behaviourally in similar ways to environmental heterogeneity. This indicates fine-scale dive profiles of shark species with different feeding strategies can be used to identify key marine habitats, such as foraging areas where sharks aggregate and which may represent target areas for conservation.
Akhmetov, Ildar; Bubnov, Rostyslav V
2017-12-01
As reimbursement authorities are gaining greater power to influence the prescription behavior of physicians, it remains critical for life science companies focusing on personalized medicine to develop "tailor-made" payer engagement strategies to secure reimbursement and assure timely patient access to their innovative products. Depending on the types of such engagement, pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies may benefit by obtaining access to medical and pharmacy claims data, getting invaluable upfront inputs on evidence requirements and clinical trial design, and strengthening trust by payers, therefore avoiding uncertainties with regards to pricing, reimbursement, and research and development reinvestment. This article aims to study the evolving trend of partnering among two interdependent, yet confronting, stakeholder groups-payers and producers-as well as to identify the most promising payer engagement strategies based on cocreation of value introduced by life science companies in the past few years. We analyzed the recent case studies from both therapeutic and diagnostic realms considered as the "best practices" in payer engagement. The last 5 years were a breakout period for deals between life science companies and reimbursement authorities in the area of personalized medicine with a number of felicitous collaborative practices established already, and many more yet to emerge. We suggest that there are many ways for producers and payers to collaborate throughout the product life cycle-from data exchange and scientific counseling to research collaboration aimed at reducing healthcare costs, addressing adherence issues, and diminishing risks associated with future launches. The presented case studies provide clear insights on how successful personalized medicine companies customize their state-of-the-art payer engagement strategies to ensure closer proximity with payers and establish longer-term trust-based relationships.
CONVERGENCE BETWEEN A NEW EU ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGIES
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Nicoleta VASILCOVSCHI
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Economic diplomacy is known as a symbol of the European Union and represents its primary function. With the development of science and new ways of communication, the European Union can organize a new approach for its economic diplomacy. The main advantage of the European Union as a soft power is that its economic and diplomatic interests are represented in a manner that is based not on confrontation but economic collaboration with other states. The disadvantage is that this domain is presently not used enough to represent EU interests. This paper describes economic diplomacy in general and the economic diplomacy of the EU in particular. Divided into three parts, the goal of this study is to outline the importance of economic diplomacy, its evolution, the influence of this domain on the creation of previous economic treaties, and its possible future impact on the development of new agreements between the European Union and its neighbor countries.The main methodology used is descriptive, presenting the evolution of this field and the new business strategies that can be used to improve cooperation at the eastern border of the European Union. Therefore here are presented the historical background of EU Economic diplomacy, its present issues, and future challenges. The quantitative data used in this research paper are based on information from the EU website and on the actual events concerning debates about economic diplomacy and its future. The research questions presented herein follow the general evolution of this domain and its mutual influence with EU’s businesses strategies.
Compressive sampling of polynomial chaos expansions: Convergence analysis and sampling strategies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hampton, Jerrad; Doostan, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.doostan@colorado.edu
2015-01-01
Sampling orthogonal polynomial bases via Monte Carlo is of interest for uncertainty quantification of models with random inputs, using Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions. It is known that bounding a probabilistic parameter, referred to as coherence, yields a bound on the number of samples necessary to identify coefficients in a sparse PC expansion via solution to an ℓ{sub 1}-minimization problem. Utilizing results for orthogonal polynomials, we bound the coherence parameter for polynomials of Hermite and Legendre type under their respective natural sampling distribution. In both polynomial bases we identify an importance sampling distribution which yields a bound with weaker dependence on the order of the approximation. For more general orthonormal bases, we propose the coherence-optimal sampling: a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, which directly uses the basis functions under consideration to achieve a statistical optimality among all sampling schemes with identical support. We demonstrate these different sampling strategies numerically in both high-order and high-dimensional, manufactured PC expansions. In addition, the quality of each sampling method is compared in the identification of solutions to two differential equations, one with a high-dimensional random input and the other with a high-order PC expansion. In both cases, the coherence-optimal sampling scheme leads to similar or considerably improved accuracy.
Strategies for P2P connectivity in reconfigurable converged wired/wireless access networks.
Puerto, Gustavo; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José
2010-12-06
This paper presents different strategies to define the architecture of a Radio-Over-Fiber (RoF) Access networks enabling Peer-to-Peer (P2P) functionalities. The architectures fully exploit the flexibility of a wavelength router based on the feedback configuration of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) and an optical switch to broadcast P2P services among diverse infrastructures featuring dynamic channel allocation and enabling an optical platform for 3G and beyond wireless backhaul requirements. The first architecture incorporates a tunable laser to generate a dedicated wavelength for P2P purposes and the second architecture takes advantage of reused wavelengths to enable the P2P connectivity among Optical Network Units (ONUs) or Base Stations (BS). While these two approaches allow the P2P connectivity in a one at a time basis (1:1), the third architecture enables the broadcasting of P2P sessions among different ONUs or BSs at the same time (1:M). Experimental assessment of the proposed architecture shows approximately 0.6% Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) degradation for wireless services and 1 dB penalty in average for 1 x 10(-12) Bit Error Rate (BER) for wired baseband services.
A modeling strategy for G-protein coupled receptors
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Anna Kahler
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Cell responses can be triggered via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs that interact with small molecules, peptides or proteins and transmit the signal over the membrane via structural changes to activate intracellular pathways. GPCRs are characterized by a rather low sequence similarity and exhibit structural differences even for functionally closely related GPCRs. An accurate structure prediction for GPCRs is therefore not straightforward. We propose a computational approach that relies on the generation of several independent models based on different template structures, which are subsequently refined by molecular dynamics simulations. A comparison of their conformational stability and the agreement with GPCR-typical structural features is then used to select a favorable model. This strategy was applied to predict the structure of the herpesviral chemokine receptor US28 by generating three independent models based on the known structures of the chemokine receptors CXCR1, CXCR4, and CCR5. Model refinement and evaluation suggested that the model based on CCR5 exhibits the most favorable structural properties. In particular, the GPCR-typical structural features, such as a conserved water cluster or conserved non-covalent contacts, are present to a larger extent in the model based on CCR5 compared to the other models. A final model validation based on the recently published US28 crystal structure confirms that the CCR5-based model is the most accurate and exhibits 80.8% correctly modeled residues within the transmembrane helices. The structural agreement between the selected model and the crystal structure suggests that our modeling strategy may also be more generally applicable to other GPCRs of unknown structure.
CLOUD COMPUTING AND BIG DATA AS CONVERGENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR RETAIL PRICING STRATEGIES OF SMEs
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George SUCIU
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Most retailers know that technology has played an increasingly important role in helping retailers set prices. Online business decision systems are at the core point of an SMEs management and reporting activities. But, until recently, these efforts have been rooted in advances in computing technology, such as cloud computing and big data mining, rather than in newfound applications of scientific principles. In addition, in previous approaches big data mining solutions were implemented locally on private clouds and no SME could aggregate and analyze the information that consumers are exchanging with each other. Real science is a powerful, pervasive force in retail today, particularly so for addressing the complex challenge of retail pricing. Cloud Computing comes in to provide access to entirely new business capabilities through sharing resources and services and managing and assigning resources effectively. Done right, the application of scientific principles to the creation of a true price optimization strategy can lead to significant sales, margin, and profit lift for retailers. In this paper we describe a method to provide the mobile retail consumers with reviews, brand ratings and detailed product information at the point of sale. Furthermore, we present how we use Exalead CloudView platform to search for weak signals in big data by analyzing multimedia data (text, voice, picture, video and mining online social networks. The analysis makes not only customer profiling possible, but also brand promotion in the form of coupons, discounts or upselling to generate more sales, thus providing the opportunity for retailer SMEs to connect directly to its customers in real time. The paper explains why retailers can no longer thrive without a science-based pricing system, defines and illustrates the right science-based approach, and calls out the key features and functionalities of leading science-based price optimization systems. In particular, given
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Si; XING Qin-yan; WANG Xu; YE Kang-sheng
2008-01-01
Based on the newly-developed element energy projection (EEP) method with optimal super-convergence order for computation of super-convergent results, an improved self-adaptive strategy for one-dimensional finite element method (FEM) is proposed. In the strategy, a posteriori errors are estimated by comparing FEM solutions to EEP super-convergent solutions with optimal order of super-convergence, meshes are refined by using the error-averaging method. Quasi-FEM solutions are used to replace the true FEM solutions in the adaptive process. This strategy has been found to be simple, clear, efficient and reliable. For most problems, only one adaptive step is needed to produce the required FEM solutions which point wise satisfy the user specified error tolerances in the max-norm. Taking the elliptical ordinary differential equation of the second order as the model problem, this paper describes the fundamental idea, implementation strategy and computational algorithm and representative numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed approach.
Andrade, Maria; Melazzi, Nicola; Walker, Richard; Hussmann, Heinrich; Venieris, Iakovos
2014-01-01
Convergence proposes the enhancement of the Internet with a novel, content-centric, publish–subscribe service model based on the versatile digital item (VDI): a common container for all kinds of digital content, including digital representations of real-world resources. VDIs will serve the needs of the future Internet, providing a homogeneous method for handling structured information, incorporating security and privacy mechanisms. CONVERGENCE subsumes the following areas of research: · definition of the VDI as a new fundamental unit of distribution and transaction; · content-centric networking functionality to complement or replace IP-address-based routing; · security and privacy protection mechanisms; · open-source middleware, including a community dictionary service to enable rich semantic searches; · applications, tested under real-life conditions. This book shows how CONVERGENCE allows publishing, searching and subscri...
The Stages of Traditional Media Convergence and the Corresponding Strategies%传统媒体融合发展的阶段和策略
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘子龙
2016-01-01
The development of media convergence is an urgent task currently facing the traditional media in China. From the view of the trend and patterns of media convergence, the author believes that the process of traditional media convergence may need to go through three main progressive stages.Accordingly, the traditional media need to take different strategies.%媒体融合发展是当前国内传统媒体面临的迫切任务，从媒体融合发展的趋势和规律看，笔者认为传统媒体的融合发展过程可能需要经历三个主要的渐进发展阶段，为此，传统媒体也要采取有针对性的发展策略。
van der Kolk, Berend; Schokker, Tom
2016-01-01
We examine how couplings of management control (MC) elements help to implement an organization’s strategy. Despite prior research stating that couplings between MC elements form fruitful soil for further research, empirical studies in this area are still scarce. We draw on coupling theory to explore
Guo, Weiyun; Bian, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Daohong; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jianlong; Li, Zhonghao; Yang, Fei
2015-03-01
A time-saving and organic solvent efficient method to simultaneously determine six kinds of herbicide residues in tobacco using solid-phase extraction for sample clean-up and preconcentration and the highly sensitive ultraperformance convergence chromatography method was developed. Parameters for ultraperformance convergence chromatography, including the choice of stationary phase and modifiers, autobackpressure regulator pressure, column temperature, and the flow rate of mobile solvents, were optimized. The herbicide residues of napropamide, alachlor, quizalofop-ethyl, diphenamid, metolachlor, and clomazone in tobacco samples were successfully separated and detected at levels as low as 0.0043-0.0086 mg/kg within 5 min using a nonpolar high strength silica C18 selectivity for bases column and methanol as the cosolvent of the mobile phase of carbon dioxide (75-99.9%, v/v). Analysis of tobacco samples had recoveries of 69.8-95.0%, limit of quantitation of 0.0127-0.0245 mg/kg, limit of detection of 0.0043-0.0086 mg/kg, and correlation coefficient of >0.9990. Results support this method as an efficient alternative to current methodologies for the determination of herbicide residues in tobacco.
... from convergence insufficiency? Symptoms of convergence insufficiency include diplopia (double vision) and headaches when reading. Many patients ... another time or simply watched for symptoms of diplopia or headaches with near work. A patient who ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erven, Ulrich (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard (ed.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De (ed.) [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2005-07-01
The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining
A new strategy for professional medical support couples with infertility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. B. Zhukov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available From our point of view, the problem of infertility in a pair of appropriately addressed jointly by the two related disciplines. This process has been actively helping set newsupplements Spematon and Pregnoton. The study included 50 couples planning to conceive: 25 couples with male factor infertility secretory type (group 1, 25 couples with infertility caused by varicocele in the postoperative period (group 2. The first group included patients with hyperprolactinemia relative to a second group – 25 somatically healthy patients. All groups patients takes Spematon and Pregnoton during 3 months. Terms of infertility in couples ranged from 1 to 4,5 years and an average reached 2,8 ± 1,6 years. According to the results of the comparative analysis the reproductive value of sperm had been enhanced, functional status of the female reproductive system had been improved, the menstrual cycle had been normalized and relatively elevated levels of prolactin had been decreased after co-application of these supplements. Five woman became pregnant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weinberger Morris
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost 50% of Americans have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. The behaviors required to lower LDL-C levels may be difficult to adhere to if they are inconsistent with spouses' health practices, and, alternatively, may be enhanced by enlisting support from the spouse. This trial extends previous trials by requiring spouse enrollment, teaching spouses how to provide emotional and instrumental support, allowing patients to decide which component of the intervention they would like to receive, and having patients determine their own goals and action plans. Methods Veteran outpatients with above-goal LDL-C (N = 250 and their spouses are randomized, as a couple, to receive printed education materials only or the materials plus an 11-month, nurse-delivered, telephone-based intervention. The intervention contains four modules: medication adherence, diet, exercise, and patient-physician communication. Patients decide which modules they complete and in which order; modules may be repeated or omitted. Telephone calls are to patients and spouses separately and occur monthly. During each patient telephone call, patients' progress is reviewed, and patients create goals and action plans for the upcoming month. During spouse telephone calls, which occur within one week of patient calls, spouses are informed of patients' goals and action plans and devise strategies to increase emotional and instrumental support. The primary outcome is patients' LDL-C, measured at baseline, 6 months, and 11 months. Linear mixed models will be used to test the primary hypothesis that an 11-month, telephone-based patient-spouse intervention will result in a greater reduction in LDL-C as compared to printed education materials. Various process measures, including social support, self-efficacy, medication adherence, dietary behavior, and exercise, are also assessed to explain any change, or lack thereof, in LDL-C. Discussion Given the social
Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.
2007-11-01
Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.
Jones, Robert B
2004-01-01
The recent unprecedented convergence of significant strategic events in the compensation arena has created the need for ongoing and extensive compensation planning. This article reviews the events leading to this point, describes the implications of the results from a recent Aon study with WorldatWork, and suggests what employers can do to successfully navigate the "perfect storm" in compensation.
Feller, David
2016-01-01
Benchmark quality adiabatic electron affinities for a collection of atoms and small molecules were obtained with the Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite coupled cluster theory method. Prior applications of this method demonstrated its ability to accurately predict atomization energies/heats of formation for more than 170 molecules. In the current work, the 1-particle expansion involved very large correlation consistent basis sets, ranging up to aug-cc-pV9Z (aug-cc-pV10Z for H and H2), with the goal of minimizing the residual basis set truncation error that must otherwise be approximated with extrapolation formulas. The n-particle expansion begins with coupled cluster calculations through iterative single and double excitations plus a quasiperturbative treatment of "connected" triple excitations (CCSD(T)) pushed to the complete basis set limit followed by CCSDT, CCSDTQ, or CCSDTQ5 corrections. Due to the small size of the systems examined here, it was possible in many cases to extend the n-particle expansion to the full configuration interaction wave function limit. Additional, smaller corrections associated with core/valence correlation, scalar relativity, anharmonic zero point vibrational energies, and non-adiabatic effects were also included. The overall root mean square (RMS) deviation was 0.005 eV (0.12 kcal/mol). This level of agreement was comparable to what was found with molecular heats of formation. A 95% confidence level corresponds to roughly twice the RMS value or 0.01 eV. While the atomic electron affinities are known experimentally to high accuracy, the molecular values are less certain. This contributes to the difficulty of gauging the accuracy of the theoretical results. A limited number of electron affinities were determined with the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method. After extending the VnZ-F12 orbital basis sets with additional diffuse functions, the F12b method was found to accurately reproduce the best F/F- value obtained with standard
IT Convergence and Security 2012
Chung, Kyung-Yong
2013-01-01
The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.
Raymond, Samuel J.; Jones, Bruce; Williams, John R.
2016-12-01
A strategy is introduced to allow coupling of the material point method (MPM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for numerical simulations. This new strategy partitions the domain into SPH and MPM regions, particles carry all state variables and as such no special treatment is required for the transition between regions. The aim of this work is to derive and validate the coupling methodology between MPM and SPH. Such coupling allows for general boundary conditions to be used in an SPH simulation without further augmentation. Additionally, as SPH is a purely particle method, and MPM is a combination of particles and a mesh. This coupling also permits a smooth transition from particle methods to mesh methods, where further coupling to mesh methods could in future provide an effective farfield boundary treatment for the SPH method. The coupling technique is introduced and described alongside a number of simulations in 1D and 2D to validate and contextualize the potential of using these two methods in a single simulation. The strategy shown here is capable of fully coupling the two methods without any complicated algorithms to transform information from one method to another.
Wang, Jin-Liang; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen; Ren, Shun-Yan
2016-04-01
Two types of coupled neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms are considered in this paper. In the first one, the nodes are coupled through their states. In the second one, the nodes are coupled through the spatial diffusion terms. For the former, utilizing Lyapunov functional method and pinning control technique, we obtain some sufficient conditions to guarantee that network can realize synchronization. In addition, considering that the theoretical coupling strength required for synchronization may be much larger than the needed value, we propose an adaptive strategy to adjust the coupling strength for achieving a suitable value. For the latter, we establish a criterion for synchronization using the designed pinning controllers. It is found that the coupled reaction-diffusion neural networks with state coupling under the given linear feedback pinning controllers can realize synchronization when the coupling strength is very large, which is contrary to the coupled reaction-diffusion neural networks with spatial diffusion coupling. Moreover, a general criterion for ensuring network synchronization is derived by pinning a small fraction of nodes with adaptive feedback controllers. Finally, two examples with numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narita Keiko
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.
Transnational business and family strategies among Chinese/Nigerian couples in Guangzhou and Lagos
Lan, S.
2015-01-01
Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Guangzhou and Lagos, this paper explores transnational trade activities and family strategies among Chinese/Nigerian interracial couples in the context of growing China/Africa trade relations and the recent tightening of China's immigration control. It examines how
Sutton, N.B.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.
2011-01-01
Purpose - In order to provide highly effective yet relatively inexpensive strategies for the remediation of recalcitrant organic contaminants, research has focused on in situ treatment technologies. Recent investigation has shown that coupling two common treatments-in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO)
Transnational business and family strategies among Chinese/Nigerian couples in Guangzhou and Lagos
Lan, S.
2015-01-01
Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Guangzhou and Lagos, this paper explores transnational trade activities and family strategies among Chinese/Nigerian interracial couples in the context of growing China/Africa trade relations and the recent tightening of China's immigration control. It examines how
The effect of psycho-educational strategies on marital conflict among dual-career couples
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Ghamari
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of psycho--educational strategies on decreasing the components of marital conflict among dual-career couples. The method of research was experimental design. 11 couples were selected using random sampling and then were assigned into the groups of experimental and control. The experimental group participated in psycho-educational sessions. Data were collected using Barati and Sanai’s marital conflict questionnaire and analyzed using repeated measure test. Results showed that psycho-educational strategies are effective in decreasing all components of marital conflict among dual-career couples (p<0/01 except for two components of seeking child support and separating financial events.
Research on International Convergence Strategies of the Chinese Accounting Standards%中国会计准则国际趋同策略研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
付永丽
2015-01-01
As globalization and integration of the world goes on, China's economy integration with that of the world is picking up speed. Under this new circumstance, accounting–as an international busi-ness language–is to be internationalized and will converge with that of the whole world. To this tendency the Chinese accounting standards are no exception. This paper takes international convergence of the Chi-nese accounting standards as its theme and, departing from the necessity of such convergence, and analy-zes its strategies before suggesting that China take part in formulating the international accounting standards and the financial report standards to coordinate more with the international community. The author also suggests that China can better converge its accounting standards with the international ones by producing better accountants, giving them better training and perfecting its accounting standard formulating modes.%随着世界全球化和一体化程度的不断加深,中国经济正在以较快的速度与世界经济融合在一起.在新形势下,会计作为国际通用的商业语言之一,国际化和趋同化已成为其发展的必然走向,因此我国会计准则国际趋同是势在必行的.以中国会计准则国际趋同化发展为主题,以我国会计准则国际趋同的必要性为出发点,对我国会计准则进一步实现国际趋同的策略做简要的透析,建议我国主动参与国际会计准则及财务报告规范的制定,不断加强与国际间的沟通与写作,同时全面提高我国会计人员的素质,加强对会计人员的培训,并不断完善我国的会计准则的制定模式,从而使我国的会计制度更好更快地与国际会计制度接轨.
Ensemble Kalman Filtering with a Divided State-Space Strategy for Coupled Data Assimilation Problems
Luo, Xiaodong
2014-12-01
This study considers the data assimilation problem in coupled systems, which consists of two components (subsystems) interacting with each other through certain coupling terms. A straightforward way to tackle the assimilation problem in such systems is to concatenate the states of the subsystems into one augmented state vector, so that a standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be directly applied. This work presents a divided state-space estimation strategy, in which data assimilation is carried out with respect to each individual subsystem, involving quantities from the subsystem itself and correlated quantities from other coupled subsystems. On top of the divided state-space estimation strategy, the authors also consider the possibility of running the subsystems separately. Combining these two ideas, a few variants of the EnKF are derived. The introduction of these variants is mainly inspired by the current status and challenges in coupled data assimilation problems and thus might be of interest from a practical point of view. Numerical experiments with a multiscale Lorenz 96 model are conducted to evaluate the performance of these variants against that of the conventional EnKF. In addition, specific for coupled data assimilation problems, two prototypes of extensions of the presented methods are also developed in order to achieve a trade-offbetween efficiency and accuracy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gale, R. W.
1997-05-01
The likelihood of convergence in the electric power industry in Canada and the United Sates was examined, and the impact of such a development with respect to electricity and natural gas was explored. Based on developments to date, convergence between gas and electric utilities was considered an inevitable step towards the ultimate consolidation of the energy industry as a whole. Characteristics shared by gas and electric utilities were described, and likely developments leading to convergence of the two industries were reviewed. According to this author the competition between the opposing utilities will lead to price wars, loss leaders and other marketing strategies. Prices will be set by supply and demand principles. While users will be able to select customized, money-saving energy solutions, for suppliers, the new utility market will be a Darwinian battle royale, where only the most viable will survive. The end result will be a larger market dominated by a few super players.
Pradas, Marc; Pumir, Alain; Huber, Greg; Wilkinson, Michael
2017-07-01
Chaos is widely understood as being a consequence of sensitive dependence upon initial conditions. This is the result of an instability in phase space, which separates trajectories exponentially. Here, we demonstrate that this criterion should be refined. Despite their overall intrinsic instability, trajectories may be very strongly convergent in phase space over extremely long periods, as revealed by our investigation of a simple chaotic system (a realistic model for small bodies in a turbulent flow). We establish that this strong convergence is a multi-facetted phenomenon, in which the clustering is intense, widespread and balanced by lacunarity of other regions. Power laws, indicative of scale-free features, characterize the distribution of particles in the system. We use large-deviation and extreme-value statistics to explain the effect. Our results show that the interpretation of the ‘butterfly effect’ needs to be carefully qualified. We argue that the combination of mixing and clustering processes makes our specific model relevant to understanding the evolution of simple organisms. Lastly, this notion of convergent chaos, which implies the existence of conditions for which uncertainties are unexpectedly small, may also be relevant to the valuation of insurance and futures contracts.
In vivo quantification of cell coupling in plants with different phloem-loading strategies.
Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander
2012-05-01
Uptake of photoassimilates into the leaf phloem is the key step in carbon partitioning and phloem transport. Symplasmic and apoplasmic loading strategies have been defined in different plant taxa based on the abundance of plasmodesmata between mesophyll and phloem. For apoplasmic loading to occur, an absence of plasmodesmata is a sufficient but not a necessary criterion, as passage of molecules through plasmodesmata might well be blocked or restricted. Here, we present a noninvasive, whole-plant approach to test symplasmic coupling and quantify the intercellular flux of small molecules using photoactivation microscopy. Quantification of coupling between all cells along the prephloem pathways of the apoplasmic loader Vicia faba and Nicotiana tabacum showed, to our knowledge for the first time in vivo, that small solutes like sucrose can diffuse through plasmodesmata up to the phloem sieve element companion cell complex (SECCC). As expected, the SECCC was found to be symplasmically isolated for small solutes. In contrast, the prephloem pathway of the symplasmic loader Cucurbita maxima was found to be well coupled with the SECCC. Phloem loading in gymnosperms is not well understood, due to a profoundly different leaf anatomy and a scarcity of molecular data compared with angiosperms. A cell-coupling analysis for Pinus sylvestris showed high symplasmic coupling along the entire prephloem pathway, comprising at least seven cell border interfaces between mesophyll and sieve elements. Cell coupling together with measurements of leaf sap osmolality indicate a passive symplasmic loading type. Similarities and differences of this loading type with that of angiosperm trees are discussed.
Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he
2015-08-01
The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories.
Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N C; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao
2016-03-01
Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication.
A staggered coupling strategy for the finite element analysis of warm deep drawing process
Martins, J. M. P.; Cunha, P. M.; Neto, D. M.; Alves, J. L.; Oliveira, M. C.; Laurent, H.; Menezes, L. F.
2016-08-01
The thermomechanical finite element analysis of warm forming processes enables an improved comprehension of the process parameters affecting the material formability. However, the thermal and mechanical coupling problem is still a challenge from the computational standpoint. A staggered strategy for the thermomechanical coupling problem is presented in this study, which is based on an isothermal split approach and allows the treatment of the two problems separately. The exchange of information between the mechanical and the thermal problem is performed to achieve a compromise between computational cost and accuracy. The proposed algorithm was implemented in DD3IMP in-house finite element code. Its performance is analysed and compared with a classical strategy commonly employed for solving thermomechanical problems.
van Lankveld, J J; Grotjohann, Y; van Lokven, B M; Everaerd, W
1999-01-01
This study compared characteristics of couples with different sexual dysfunctions who were recruited for participation in a bibliotherapy program via two routes: in response to media advertisements and through their presence on a waiting list for therapist-administered treatment in an outpatient sexology clinic. Data were collected from 492 subjects (246 couples). Male sexology patients were younger than media-recruited males. However, type of sexual dysfunction accounted for a substantially larger proportion of variance in the demographic and psychometric data. An interaction effect of recruitment strategy and sexual dysfunction type was found with respect to female anorgasmia. We conclude from the absence of differences between the two study groups that the Wills and DePaulo (1991) model of help-seeking behavior for mental problems does not apply to couples with sexual dysfunctions joining a bibliotherapy program who either primarily requested professional treatment or who responded to media advertising.
Kita, Yasuyuki; Dohi, Toshifumi
2015-10-01
We started our hypervalent iodine research about 30 years ago in the mid-1980s. We soon successfully developed the single-electron-transfer oxidation ability of a hypervalent iodine reagent, specifically, phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate) (PIFA), toward aromatic rings of phenyl ethers for forming aromatic cation radicals. This was one of the exciting and unexpected events in our research studies so far, and the discovery was reported in 1991. It also led to the next challenge, developing the metal-free oxidative couplings for C-H functionalizations and direct couplings between the C-H bonds of valuable aromatic compounds in organic synthesis. In order to realize the effective oxidative coupling, pioneering new aromatic ring activations was essential and several useful methodologies have been found for oxidizable arenes. The achievements regarding this objective obtained in our continuous research are herein summarized with classification of the aromatic ring activation strategies.
Vibration suppression in a flexible gyroscopic system using modal coupling strategies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddiqui Sultan A. Q.
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Several recent studies have shown that vibrations in a two-degree-of-freedom system can be suppressed by using modal coupling based control techniques. This involves making the first two natural frequencies commensurable (e.g, in a ratio of 1:1 or 1:2 to establish a state of Internal Resonance (IR. When the system exhibits IR, vibrations in the two directions are strongly coupled resulting in a beat phenomenon. Upon introducing damping in one direction, oscillations in both directions can be quickly suppressed. In this paper we consider vibration suppression of a flexible two-degree-of-freedom gyroscopic system using 1:1 and 1:2 IR. The possibility of using 1:1 and 1:2 IR to enhance the coupling in the system is established analytically using the perturbation method of multiple scales. The results of IR based control strategy are compared with a new method, which is based on tuning the system parameters to make the mode shapes identical. Results indicate that this new technique is more efficient and easy to implement than IR based control strategies. Another advantage of this method is that there is no restriction on the frequencies as in the case of IR. Finally, a control torque is obtained which on application automatically tunes the system parameters to establish modal coupling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Motoo, Yoshiharu, E-mail: motoo@kanazawa-med.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Shimasaki, Takeo [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Division of Translational & Clinical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ishigaki, Yasuhito [Medical Research Institute, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Nakajima, Hideo [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Minamoto, Toshinari [Division of Translational & Clinical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)
2011-01-24
Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer). We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toshinari Minamoto
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer. We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation.
Cai, Qiong; Adjiman, Claire S.; Brandon, Nigel P.
2014-12-01
The penetration of intermittent renewable energies requires the development of energy storage technologies. High temperature electrolysis using solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs) as a potential energy storage technology, provides the prospect of a cost-effective and energy efficient route to clean hydrogen production. The development of optimal control strategies when SOEC systems are coupled with intermittent renewable energies is discussed. Hydrogen production is examined in relation to energy consumption. Control strategies considered include maximizing hydrogen production, minimizing SOEC energy consumption and minimizing compressor energy consumption. Optimal control trajectories of the operating variables over a given period of time show feasible control for the chosen situations. Temperature control of the SOEC stack is ensured via constraints on the overall temperature difference across the cell and the local temperature gradient within the SOEC stack, to link materials properties with system performance; these constraints are successfully managed. The relative merits of the optimal control strategies are analyzed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ooi, Can-Seng
and the newly built casinos/integrated resorts, this paper argues that the Singaporean authorities are actually making Singapore less unique and more similar to other cities. This strategy is advantageous because these new but familiar attractions draw the attention of the global masses and accredit Singapore...... however overshadows another important complementary – but under-theorized and tacit – strategy: the accreditation approach. This paper gives attention to the accreditation strategy while presenting the branding of Singapore as a tourist destination. By looking at the Formula One car races in Singapore...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omar Martinez
Full Text Available Successful HIV prevention and treatment requires evidence-based approaches that combine biomedical strategies with behavioral interventions that are socially and culturally appropriate for the population or community being prioritized. Although there has been a push for a combination approach, how best to integrate different strategies into existing behavioral HIV prevention interventions remains unclear. The need to develop effective combination approaches is of particular importance for men who have sex with men (MSM, who face a disproportionately high risk of HIV acquisition.We collaborated with Latino male couples and providers to adapt Connect 'n Unite, an evidence-based intervention for Black male couples, for Latino male couples. We conducted a series of three focus groups, each with two cohorts of couples, and one focus group with providers. A purposive stratified sample of 20 couples (N = 40, divided into two cohorts and 10 providers provided insights into how to adapt and integrate social, cultural, and biomedical approaches in a couples-based HIV/AIDS behavioral intervention.The majority (N = 37 of the couple participants had no prior knowledge of the following new biomedical strategies: non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP; pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; and HIV self-testing kits. After they were introduced to these biomedical interventions, all participants expressed a need for information and empowerment through knowledge and awareness of these interventions. In particular, participants suggested that we provide PrEP and HIV self-testing kits by the middle or end of the intervention. Providers suggested a need to address behavioral, social and structural issues, such as language barriers; and the promotion of client-centered approaches to increase access to, adaptation of, and adherence to biomedical strategies. Corroborating what couple participants suggested, providers agreed that biomedical strategies should be
Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Levine, Ethan C; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Fernandez, M Isabel; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Moya, Eva M; Frasca, Timothy; Chavez-Baray, Silvia; Icard, Larry D; Ovejero, Hugo; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Rhodes, Scott D
2016-01-01
Successful HIV prevention and treatment requires evidence-based approaches that combine biomedical strategies with behavioral interventions that are socially and culturally appropriate for the population or community being prioritized. Although there has been a push for a combination approach, how best to integrate different strategies into existing behavioral HIV prevention interventions remains unclear. The need to develop effective combination approaches is of particular importance for men who have sex with men (MSM), who face a disproportionately high risk of HIV acquisition. We collaborated with Latino male couples and providers to adapt Connect 'n Unite, an evidence-based intervention for Black male couples, for Latino male couples. We conducted a series of three focus groups, each with two cohorts of couples, and one focus group with providers. A purposive stratified sample of 20 couples (N = 40, divided into two cohorts) and 10 providers provided insights into how to adapt and integrate social, cultural, and biomedical approaches in a couples-based HIV/AIDS behavioral intervention. The majority (N = 37) of the couple participants had no prior knowledge of the following new biomedical strategies: non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP); pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); and HIV self-testing kits. After they were introduced to these biomedical interventions, all participants expressed a need for information and empowerment through knowledge and awareness of these interventions. In particular, participants suggested that we provide PrEP and HIV self-testing kits by the middle or end of the intervention. Providers suggested a need to address behavioral, social and structural issues, such as language barriers; and the promotion of client-centered approaches to increase access to, adaptation of, and adherence to biomedical strategies. Corroborating what couple participants suggested, providers agreed that biomedical strategies should be offered after
Fowler, Nikola; Arkell, Paul; Abouyannis, Michael; James, Catherine; Roberts, Lesley
2015-01-01
This qualitative study aims to gain in-depth information about the attitudes of HIV-serodiscordant couples towards two new methods of HIV prevention; Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Treatment as Prevention, both of which have been recently recommended by the World Health Organisation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 individuals in a serodiscordant relationship in Western Kenya. Topic guides were used to elicit information on perceived benefits, concerns, and preferences towards Treatment as Prevention and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. Data evaluation and thematic generation were developed using framework analysis. Results suggest that the majority of participants, irrespective of gender and HIV status, found Treatment as Prevention the more acceptable strategy. Key factors influencing this decision were HIV-negative participants' limited motivation to take prophylactic antiretrovirals and the likely health improvements Treatment as Prevention offers HIV-positive partners. However, issues were raised concerning the likelihood of low concurrent condom use and poor medication adherence when using these preventative approaches. It was concluded that the adoption of Treatment as Prevention as a method of HIV control in Kenya is likely to be more readily accepted by serodiscordant couples than Pre-exposure Prophylaxis. However, future implementation of either strategy would require measures to address the possibility of risk compensation and poor adherence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.Y.; Coronella, C.J.; Bhadkamkar, A.S.; Seader, J.D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering
1993-12-01
A two-stage, thermally coupled fluidized-bed reactor system has been developed for energy-efficient conversion of tar-sand bitumen to synthetic crude oil. Modeling and temperature control of a system are addressed in this study. A process model and transfer function are determined by a transient response technique and the reactor temperature are controlled by PI controllers with tuning settings determined by an internal model control (IMC) strategy. Using the IMC tuning method, sufficiently good control performance was experimentally observed without lengthy on-line tuning. It is shown that IMC strategy provides a means to directly use process knowledge to make a control decision. Although this control method allows for fine tuning by adjusting a single tuning parameter, it is not easy to determine the optimal value of this tuning parameter, which must be specified by the user. A novel method is presented to evaluate that parameter, which must be specified by the user. A novel method is presented to evaluate that parameter in this study. It was selected based on the magnitude of elements on the off-diagonal of the relative gain array to account for the effect of thermal coupling on control performance. It is shown that this method provides stable and fast control of reactor temperatures. By successfully decoupling the system, a simple method of extending the IMC tuning technique to multiinput/multioutput systems is obtained.
Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.
Caspi, A; Herbener, E S
1993-01-01
This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both variable- and person-centered analyses. The longitudinal evidence does not support the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time. Spouse correlations most likely reflect initial assortment at marriage and not the convergence of phenotypes.
Hertzog, Christopher; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Schmiedek, Florian
2017-09-01
The importance of encoding strategies for associative recall is well established, but there have been no studies of aging and intraindividual variability (IAV) in strategy use during extended practice. We observed strategy use and cued-recall test performance over 101 days of practice in 101 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 103 older adults (M = 71.3 years) sandwiched by a pretest and posttest battery including an associative recall test. Each practice session included 2 lists of 12 number-noun paired-associate (PA) items (e.g., 23-DOGS), presented for brief exposures titrated to maintain below-ceiling performance throughout practice. Participants reported strategy use (e.g., rote repetition, imagery) after each test. Substantial IAV in strategy use was detected that was coupled with performance; lists studied with normatively effective strategies (e.g., imagery) generated higher PA recall than lists studied with less effective strategies (e.g., rote repetition). In comparison to younger adults, older adults' practice (a) relied more on repetition and less on effective strategies, (b) showed lower levels of IAV in effective strategy use, and (c) had lower within-person strategy-recall coupling, especially late in practice. Individual differences in pretest-posttest gains in PA recall were predicted by average level of effective strategy use in young adults but by strategy-recall coupling in older adults. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that experiencing variability in strategic outcomes during practice helps hone the effectiveness of strategic encoding behavior, and that older adults' reduced degree of pretest-posttest gains is influenced by lower likelihood of using and optimizing effective strategies through practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariana Iovitu
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: â€œwe are not bringing together states, we are uniting peopleâ€. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.
Gong, Dawei; Lewis, Frank L; Wang, Liping; Xu, Ke
2016-05-01
In this paper, a novel pinning synchronization (synchronization with pinning control) scheme for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling is investigated. The main contributions are as follows: (1) A novel pinning control strategy is proposed for the first time. Pinning control schemes are introduced as an array of column vector. The controllers are designed as simple linear systems, which are easy to be analyzed or tested. (2) Augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is applied to introduce more relax variables, which can alleviate the requirements of the positive definiteness of the matrix. (3) Based on the appropriate LKF, by introducing some free weighting matrices, some novel synchronization criteria are derived. Furthermore, the proposed pinning control scheme described by column vector can also be expanded to almost all the other array of neural networks. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.
An Adaptive Strategy for the Classification of G-Protein Coupled Receptors
Mohamed, S; Marwala, T
2007-01-01
One of the major problems in computational biology is the inability of existing classification models to incorporate expanding and new domain knowledge. This problem of static classification models is addressed in this paper by the introduction of incremental learning for problems in bioinformatics. Many machine learning tools have been applied to this problem using static machine learning structures such as neural networks or support vector machines that are unable to accommodate new information into their existing models. We utilize the fuzzy ARTMAP as an alternate machine learning system that has the ability of incrementally learning new data as it becomes available. The fuzzy ARTMAP is found to be comparable to many of the widespread machine learning systems. The use of an evolutionary strategy in the selection and combination of individual classifiers into an ensemble system, coupled with the incremental learning ability of the fuzzy ARTMAP is proven to be suitable as a pattern classifier. The algorithm ...
Local residue coupling strategies by neural network for InSAR phase unwrapping
Refice, Alberto; Satalino, Giuseppe; Chiaradia, Maria T.
1997-12-01
Phase unwrapping is one of the toughest problems in interferometric SAR processing. The main difficulties arise from the presence of point-like error sources, called residues, which occur mainly in close couples due to phase noise. We present an assessment of a local approach to the resolution of these problems by means of a neural network. Using a multi-layer perceptron, trained with the back- propagation scheme on a series of simulated phase images, fashion the best pairing strategies for close residue couples. Results show that god efficiencies and accuracies can have been obtained, provided a sufficient number of training examples are supplied. Results show that good efficiencies and accuracies can be obtained, provided a sufficient number of training examples are supplied. The technique is tested also on real SAR ERS-1/2 tandem interferometric images of the Matera test site, showing a good reduction of the residue density. The better results obtained by use of the neural network as far as local criteria are adopted appear justified given the probabilistic nature of the noise process on SAR interferometric phase fields and allows to outline a specifically tailored implementation of the neural network approach as a very fast pre-processing step intended to decrease the residue density and give sufficiently clean images to be processed further by more conventional techniques.
Le Roy, Jennifer J; Ungur, Liviu; Korobkov, Ilia; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murugesu, Muralee
2014-06-04
Two different coupling strategies were employed to create Er(III) single-molecule magnets (SMMs) using high blocking temperature mononuclear precursors. The magnetic properties of three lanthanide-COT complexes, [Er(III)2(COT'')3] (1) (COT'' = 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)cyclooctatetraenyl dianion) and K2(THF)4[Ln(III)2(COT)4] (Ln = Gd (2), Er (3); THF = tetrahydrofuran, COT = cyclooctatetraenyl dianion), are reported. Both Er(III) complexes behave as SMMs and exhibit magnetic hysteresis at 12 K in solid state. In solution compound 1 exhibits hysteresis up to 14 K. Ac susceptibility data indicates a 100 s blocking temperature of 12.5 and 12.9 K for [Er(III)2(COT'')3] and K2(THF)4[Er(III)2(COT)4], respectively. Both Er(III) dimers display enhanced SMM properties over their mononuclear analogues due to their linear structure and strictly axial anisotropy. A 4 K increase in the magnetic blocking temperature of [Er(III)2(COT'')3] over the double-decker analogue is attributed to an additional mechanism of magnetization blocking arising from exchange coupling between Er(III) ions.
Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun
2015-01-01
A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesis can be realized by the hybrid process, which enables us to investigate nanohybrid formation at each stage through their solution color changes and TEM images. By adjusting the bi-channel solvents and kinetic parameters of each stage, the primary components of alloyed cores and the second components of transition metal doping ZnO or Al2O3 as surface coatings can be successively formed. The core alloying and shell gradient-doping strategy can efficiently eliminate the crystal lattice mismatch in different components. Consequently, varieties of gradient core-shell nanohybrids can be synthesized using CoM, FeM, AuM, AgM (M = Zn or Al) alloys as cores and transition metal gradient-doping ZnO or Al2O3 as shells, endowing these nanohybrids with unique magnetic and optical properties (e.g., high temperature ferromagnetic property and enhanced blue emission).
Zhou, Shiqi
2011-12-01
Thermodynamic and structural properties of liquids are of fundamental interest in physics, chemistry, and biology, and perturbation approach has been fundamental to liquid theoretical approaches since the dawn of modern statistical mechanics and remains so to this day. Although thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) is widely used in the chemical physics community, one of the most popular versions of the TPT, i.e. Zwanzig (Zwanzig, R. W. J. Chem. Phys. 1954, 22, 1420-1426) 1st-order high temperature series expansion (HTSE) TPT and its 2nd-order counterpart under a macroscopic compressibility approximation of Barker-Henderson (Barker, J. A.; Henderson, D. J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 2856-2861), have some serious shortcomings: (i) the nth-order term of the HTSE is involved with reference fluid distribution functions of order up to 2n, and the higher-order terms hence progressively become more complicated and numerically inaccessible; (ii) the performance of the HTSE rapidly deteriorates and the calculated results become even qualitatively incorrect as the temperature of interest decreases. This account deals with the developments that we have made over the last five years or so to advance a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE) and a non hard sphere (HS) perturbation strategy that has scored some of its greatest successes in overcoming the above-mentioned difficulties. In this account (i) we expatiate on implementation details of our schemes: how input information indispensable to high-order truncation of the CPSE in both the HS and non HS perturbation schemes is calculated by an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory; how high-order thermodynamic quantities, such as critical parameters and excess constant volume heat capacity, are extracted from the resulting excess Helmholtz free energy with irregular and inevitable numerical errors; how to select reference potential in the non HS perturbation scheme. (ii) We give a quantitative analysis on why convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiqi Zhou
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Thermodynamic and structural properties of liquids are of fundamental interest in physics, chemistry, and biology, and perturbation approach has been fundamental to liquid theoretical approaches since the dawn of modern statistical mechanics and remains so to this day. Although thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT is widely used in the chemical physics community, one of the most popular versions of the TPT, i.e. Zwanzig (Zwanzig, R. W. J. Chem. Phys. 1954, 22, 1420-1426 1st-order high temperature series expansion (HTSE TPT and its 2nd-order counterpart under a macroscopic compressibility approximation of Barker-Henderson (Barker, J. A.; Henderson, D. J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 2856-2861, have some serious shortcomings: (i the nth-order term of the HTSE is involved with reference fluid distribution functions of order up to 2n, and the higher-order terms hence progressively become more complicated and numerically inaccessible; (ii the performance of the HTSE rapidly deteriorates and the calculated results become even qualitatively incorrect as the temperature of interest decreases. This account deals with the developments that we have made over the last five years or so to advance a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE and a non hard sphere (HS perturbation strategy that has scored some of its greatest successes in overcoming the above-mentioned difficulties. In this account (i we expatiate on implementation details of our schemes: how input information indispensable to high-order truncation of the CPSE in both the HS and non HS perturbation schemes is calculated by an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory; how high-order thermodynamic quantities, such as critical parameters and excess constant volume heat capacity, are extracted from the resulting excess Helmholtz free energy with irregular and inevitable numerical errors; how to select reference potential in the non HS perturbation scheme. (ii We give a quantitative analysis on why
Zhou, Xiaoying
The purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative environmental performance assessment tools and the theory of multi-objective optimization within the boundary of electronic product systems to support the selection among design alternatives in terms of environmental impact, technical criteria, and economic feasibility. To meet with the requirements that result from emerging environmental legislation targeting electronics products, the research addresses an important analytical methodological approach to facilitate environmentally conscious design and end-of-life management with a life cycle viewpoint. A synthesis of diverse assessment tools is applied on a set of case studies: lead-free solder materials selection, cellular phone design, and desktop display technology assessment. In the first part of this work, an in-depth industrial survey of the status and concerns of the U.S. electronics industry on the elimination of lead (Pb) in solders is described. The results show that the trade-offs among environmental consequences, technology challenges, business risks, legislative compliance and stakeholders' preferences must be explicitly, simultaneously, and systematically addressed in the decision-making process used to guide multi-faceted planning of environmental solutions. In the second part of this work, the convergent optimization of the technical cycle, economic cycle and environmental cycle is addressed in a coherent and systematic way using the application of environmentally conscious design of cellular phones. The technical understanding of product structure, components analysis, and materials flow facilitates the development of "Design for Disassembly" guidelines. A bottom-up disassembly analysis on a "bill of materials" based structure at a micro-operational level is utilized to select optimal end-of-life strategies on the basis of economic feasibility. A macro-operational level life cycle model is used to investigate the environmental consequences
Tran, Thao Minh; Ye, Yun; Chen, Vicki; Stuetz, Richard; Le-Clech, Pierre
2013-01-01
In this novel process, domestic wastewater was filtered by a hollow-fibre membrane coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (MUASB) bioreactor. To improve the process sustainability and decrease energy costs, the membranes were operated under low fluxes with little, or no, shear. The efficiency of anti-fouling strategies, including relaxation, backwashing and supply of low aeration and stir rates, was assessed through detailed characterization of the fouling layers. Results indicated that backwashing was more efficient than relaxation, even when the systems were operated under the same flux productivity. In terms of shear supply, stir provided a better fouling limitation strategy compared to aeration, at similar shear stress values. Physical and chemical cleaning methods were applied to recover three fouling fractions (i.e. cake, residual and irreversible) for better characterization of the fouling layers. Under the sustainable operating conditions used in this study, most of the fouling was easily reversible by simple rinsing. In addition, permanent and irreversible fouling, resulting in the need for frequent chemical cleanings and potential membrane degradation, is limited once small shear stresses are applied. These outcomes are expected to form the basis for the future assessment of trade-off between operation, maintenance and replacement costs of membrane filtration processes used in wastewater treatment.
Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J; Polidoro, Brian J
2016-03-01
Building energy analysis tools are available in many forms that provide the ability to address a broad spectrum of energy-related issues in various combinations. Often these tools operate in isolation from one another, making it difficult to evaluate the interactions between related phenomena and interacting systems, forcing oversimplified assumptions to be made about various phenomena that could otherwise be addressed directly with another tool. One example of such interdependence is the interaction between heat transfer, inter-zone airflow and indoor contaminant transport. In order to better address these interdependencies, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed an updated version of the multi-zone airflow and contaminant transport modelling tool, CONTAM, along with a set of utilities to enable coupling of the full CONTAM model with the TRNSYS simulation tool in a more seamless manner and with additional capabilities that were previously not available. This paper provides an overview of these new capabilities and applies them to simulating a medium-size office building. These simulations address the interaction between whole-building energy, airflow and contaminant transport in evaluating various ventilation strategies including natural and demand-controlled ventilation. CONTAM has been in practical use for many years allowing building designers, as well as IAQ and ventilation system analysts, to simulate the complex interactions between building physical layout and HVAC system configuration in determining building airflow and contaminant transport. It has been widely used to design and analyse smoke management systems and evaluate building performance in response to chemical, biological and radiological events. While CONTAM has been used to address design and performance of buildings implementing energy conserving ventilation systems, e.g., natural and hybrid, this new coupled simulation capability will enable users to apply the
Dols, W. Stuart.; Emmerich, Steven J.; Polidoro, Brian J.
2016-01-01
Building energy analysis tools are available in many forms that provide the ability to address a broad spectrum of energy-related issues in various combinations. Often these tools operate in isolation from one another, making it difficult to evaluate the interactions between related phenomena and interacting systems, forcing oversimplified assumptions to be made about various phenomena that could otherwise be addressed directly with another tool. One example of such interdependence is the interaction between heat transfer, inter-zone airflow and indoor contaminant transport. In order to better address these interdependencies, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed an updated version of the multi-zone airflow and contaminant transport modelling tool, CONTAM, along with a set of utilities to enable coupling of the full CONTAM model with the TRNSYS simulation tool in a more seamless manner and with additional capabilities that were previously not available. This paper provides an overview of these new capabilities and applies them to simulating a medium-size office building. These simulations address the interaction between whole-building energy, airflow and contaminant transport in evaluating various ventilation strategies including natural and demand-controlled ventilation. Practical Application CONTAM has been in practical use for many years allowing building designers, as well as IAQ and ventilation system analysts, to simulate the complex interactions between building physical layout and HVAC system configuration in determining building airflow and contaminant transport. It has been widely used to design and analyse smoke management systems and evaluate building performance in response to chemical, biological and radiological events. While CONTAM has been used to address design and performance of buildings implementing energy conserving ventilation systems, e.g., natural and hybrid, this new coupled simulation capability will
Exploring strategies for coupled 4D-Var data assimilation using an idealised atmosphere–ocean model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Polly J. Smith
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Operational forecasting centres are currently developing data assimilation systems for coupled atmosphere–ocean models. Strongly coupled assimilation, in which a single assimilation system is applied to a coupled model, presents significant technical and scientific challenges. Hence weakly coupled assimilation systems are being developed as a first step, in which the coupled model is used to compare the current state estimate with observations, but corrections to the atmosphere and ocean initial conditions are then calculated independently. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive description of the different coupled assimilation methodologies in the context of four-dimensional variational assimilation (4D-Var and use an idealised framework to assess the expected benefits of moving towards coupled data assimilation. We implement an incremental 4D-Var system within an idealised single-column atmosphere–ocean model. The system has the capability to run both strongly and weakly coupled assimilations as well as uncoupled atmosphere- or ocean-only assimilations, thus allowing a systematic comparison of the different strategies for treating the coupled data assimilation problem. We present results from a series of identical twin experiments devised to investigate the behaviour and sensitivities of the different approaches. Overall, our study demonstrates the potential benefits that may be expected from coupled data assimilation. When compared to uncoupled initialisation, coupled assimilation is able to produce more balanced initial analysis fields, thus reducing initialisation shock and its impact on the subsequent forecast. Single observation experiments demonstrate how coupled assimilation systems are able to pass information between the atmosphere and ocean and therefore use near-surface data to greater effect. We show that much of this benefit may also be gained from a weakly coupled assimilation system, but that this can be sensitive to the
Parker, Lisa; Pettifor, Audrey; Maman, Suzanne; Sibeko, Jabu; MacPhail, Catherine
2014-01-01
As part of a larger study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a couples-based HIV-prevention intervention, we conducted formative in-depth interviews with 10 couples to explore topics such as challenges in practising safer sex, HIV-prevention strategies, gender power and violence, and issues of trust and infidelity. In this study, both men and women perceived infidelity as ubiquitous in their social context and were therefore unable to discuss HIV risk and prevention without suspicions of infidelity in their own relationship. This impacted couples' ability openly and effectively to discuss strategies to prevent HIV and thus may have contributed to the limited uptake of HIV-prevention strategies, such as condom use and HIV testing. The contentious nature of safe-sex discussions placed both members of the couple at a higher risk for HIV acquisition within the partnership. This study sheds light on how existing relationship norms in South Africa influence HIV-prevention communication within couples and suggests that new ways of approaching conflictual issues such as mistrust and infidelity are vital in order for HIV-prevention programmes to succeed.
Veling, E.J.M.; Maas, C.
2008-01-01
Efficient strategies for solving semi-analytically the transient groundwater head in a coupled N-layer aquifer system phi(i)(r, z, t), i = 1, ..., N, with radial symmetry, with full z-dependency, and partially penetrating wells are presented. Aquitards are treated as aquifers with their own horizont
The Strategy and Implementation of a Cloud Platform for Media Convergence%融合媒体云平台的规划和实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董全武; 肖波; 别业鹏
2015-01-01
Based on the analysis of media convergence trend and requirements,this paper points out that the cloud computing technology is the most suitable choice for implementation of media convergence.Then the dif-ferent positioning and concept of private media cloud,proprietary media cloud,public cloud are given,and the idea of homogeneous media PaaS is elaborated.The paper then introduces the architecture of ONAIR,a cloud platform for media convergence ,and its services of IaaS,PaaS,SaaS in details.The IBC cloud service for 2014 Nanjing Youth Olympic Games is introduced as an example of case.At last this paper proposes a security archi-tecture of cloud platform for media convergence.%分析融合媒体的发展趋势和要求，说明云计算技术是建设融合媒体的必然选择。在融合媒体云平台的建设方面，分析媒体私有云、媒体专属云和公有云的不同定位，提出 PaaS 层同构的理念，并给出ONAIR 全媒体云平台的总体架构，介绍 IaaS 层、PaaS 层和 SaaS 层的各种服务，其中介绍了南京青奥会赛事信息云服务的案例，最后介绍融合媒体云平台的安全体系。
三网融合业务形态与未来发展策略%Business Models and Future Development Strategy of Tri-Network Convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周旗
2011-01-01
随着全球广播电视的数字化,三网融合已成为全球信息产业发展的趋势,中国的三网融合也逐渐成为拉动经济的重要手段之一.文章认为三网融合使电信业具备了传媒特性.扩展了电信运营企业的服务外延,终结了终端划分媒体的传统时代.文章指出三大网络的业务元素跨域渗透和融合,促使三网融合的业务形态向多态发展,开辟了新媒体产业发展和业务形态创新的崭新空间.%With the emergence of digital broadcast television, tri-network convergence has become a trend in the global information industry and an important stimulant of the Chinese economy. Influenced by tri-network convergence, telecommunications has now taken on some of the features of traditional media, and services offered by telecom operators have expanded. Separation of terminals, which characterized the traditional media era. Has ended. This paper suggests that service element cross-domain integration and convergence allows for mullistate service development in tn-network convergence. It creates new media industries and gives rise to innovative business models.
Strong path convergence from Loewner driving convergence
Sheffield, Scott
2010-01-01
We show that, under mild assumptions on the limiting curve, a sequence of simple chordal planar curves converges uniformly whenever certain Loewner driving functions converge. We extend this result to random curves. The random version applies in particular to random lattice paths that have chordal SLE as a scaling limit, with kappa less than 8 (non-space-filling). Existing SLE convergence proofs often begin by showing that the Loewner driving functions of these paths (viewed from infinity) converge to Brownian motion. Unfortunately, this is not sufficient, and additional arguments are required to complete the proofs. We show that driving function convergence is sufficient if it can be established for both parametrization directions and a generic target.
Order Handling in Convergent Environments
Vrtanoski, Jordan
2012-01-01
The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...
Vadose zone flow convergence test suite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-06-05
Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗毅; 韩建亭; 吴亮
2012-01-01
In the days of mobile internet, the trend of converged communication service and SNS is becoming obvious. This article researches users' social psychology requirements and communication behavior requirements in terms of interpersonal relationship development, and proposes a socialized converged communication business requirement model. Based on this model, the article benchmarks the features of RCS and SNS, and proposes some development strategies of socialized converged communication.%移动互联网时代的通信业务与社交网络融合的趋势越来越明显.本文从人际关系角度对各个交往阶段的用户社交心理需求和沟通行为需求进行研究,提出了社交化融合通信业务需求模型,并以此模型为基础对富通信与社交网络进行业务对标分析,提出了社交化融合通信业务发展策略建议.
Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Klasen, Stephan; Wacker, Konstantin M.
2016-01-01
Martin Ravallion ("Why Don't We See Poverty Convergence?" American Economic Review, 102(1): 504-23; 2012) presents evidence against the existence of convergence in global poverty rates despite convergence in household mean income levels and the close linkage between income growth and poverty reduction. We show that this finding is driven by a specification that demands more than simple convergence in poverty headcount rates and assumes a growth elasticity of poverty reduction, which is well-k...
Convergence S-compactifications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernd Losert
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Properties of continuous actions on convergence spaces are investigated. The primary focus is the characterization as to when a continuous action on a convergence space can be continuously extended to an action on a compactification of the convergence space. The largest and smallest such compactifications are studied.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tang Zhili; Dong Jun
2009-01-01
complete and complete decisions of the leader and followers respectively. Several design examples illustrate the efficiency of the coupling algorithms for multi-criterion aerodynamic design optimization problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. Andrs; R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez
2013-05-01
The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled won’t converge and vice versa.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Notermans Ton
2015-02-01
Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely
Modeling coupled nitrogen and water use strategies of plant productivity through hydraulic traits
Mackay, D. S.; Savoy, P.; Pleban, J. R.; Tai, X.; Ewers, B. E.; Sperry, J.; Weinig, C.
2016-12-01
Changes in heat, nutrient, and drought stresses create novel environments that threaten the health of forests and viability of crop production. Here a trait-based conceptual model finds tradeoffs in maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root to leaf area ratio (RLA) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) based on the energy costs of acquiring water and nitrogen (N) to support gross primary production (GPP). The atmosphere supplies carbon to and demands water from plants via their stomata. The demand for water increases at higher temperatures due to increased vapor pressure deficits. The lost water is replenished by a passive wicking process that pulls water and N from the soil into roots and up water-filled xylem tubes. When water is in short supply the cost of getting it is high as measured by a decline in K and stomatal closure. Soil N dynamics also influence plant water use. When N is abundant, plants grow low VC fine roots with lower specific root length (m g-1), low Kmax, and maintain a relatively low RLA. In low N environments, N is costly and fine roots gain efficiency by building less robust (or higher VC) xylem with higher Kmax and higher RLA. What happens when the cost of acquiring water changes from high to low under low and high N costs? We incorporated the conceptual model into TREES, which couples whole plant hydraulics to carbon allocation, root-rhizosphere expansion/contraction and, also new for this study, a rhizosphere-root centric microbe-plant N dynamics. We used two experimental studies (drought, N) and two drought-prone fluxnet sites to test the conceptual model at individual plant and regional scales, respectively, and with frequent short versus infrequent long dry periods. When water was not limiting the hydraulic tradeoffs suppressed differences in GPP between the N use strategies. When water was in short supply, however, low RLA&VC plants dropped GPP early during drought because of low Kmax. Since these plants had low VC roots they also
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Fowler
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Transmission in serodiscordant couples (SDCs accounts for approximately half of all new HIV infections, both in Kenya and the wider sub-Saharan region (1. With evidence to suggest inconsistent condom use within this population (2, the World Health Organization has recommended two new methods of HIV prevention for SDCs: Treatment as Prevention (TasP and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP. However, there has been little research about the attitudes of SDCs towards these strategies (3, 4; knowledge that is paramount for successfully predicting the acceptability and efficacy of each method, as well as for informing decisions regarding HIV policy changes in Kenya. Methods: An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted in the Muhoroni constituency of Nyando district, Kenya from January to March 2013. Purposive sampling was predominately used to recruit 21 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative individuals in a serodiscordant relationship from four hospitals and health centres. During face-to-face semi-structured interviews, topic guides were used to elicit information about participants’ attitudes and preferences towards TasP and PrEP. Collected data underwent framework analysis, allowing the development of overarching categories, sub-themes and inductive interpretation. Results: The majority of participants, irrespective of gender and HIV status, found TasP more acceptable than PrEP. A key factor influencing this decision was HIV-negative participants’ limited motivation to take and adhere to antiretrovirals (ARVs, primarily due to a predominantly external health locus of control, a lack of cultural acceptance of prophylactic medication and concerns about side effects. In addition to this, the likely health improvements TasP offers HIV-positive partners, as well as the attitude that the sick individual should be the first to receive HIV medication, also contributed to this conclusion. Issues of risk compensation were raised, with some HIV
Ros, Abel; Estepa, Beatriz; Ramírez-López, Pedro; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Fernández, Rosario; Lassaletta, José M
2013-10-23
A dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) technique has been designed for the synthesis of 2'-substituted 2-aryl pyridines/isoquinolines and related heterobiaryls. In this way, the Pd(0)-catalyzed coupling of racemic 2-triflates with aryl boroxines using a TADDOL-derived phosphoramidite as the ligand provides the corresponding coupling products with good to excellent enantioselectivities. Structural studies support that the formation of configurationally labile oxidative addition palladacycles is the key for the success of the methodology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘中望; 陶兰
2015-01-01
媒体融合对广告产业的影响主要是拓宽经营范围、分化经营方式、优化经营模式，媒体融合背景下湖南广告产业发展存在缺乏适应新媒体广告成长的平台、缺乏适合新媒体传播的广告内容、有限的内容难以满足受众需求等软肋。面对媒体融合，湖南广告产业竞争力的提升策略包括：运用移动终端，建构以受众为主导的广告互动平台；使用融合化的营销手段，推动广告与其他行业的联盟和共融；实现技术与内容的两轮驱动。%The influences of media convergence on advertising industry reflect in broadening the scope of business, differentiating the mode of operation, optimizing the mode of business. Under the background of media convergence, Hunan’s advertising industry is lacking in the platform for new media, the suitable content for the spread of new media, and limited content to meet the demand of readers. Facing the media convergence, Hunan’s advertising industry should take the strategy for promoting its’ competitiveness: using mobile terminal devices, constructing interactive advertising platform which is based on readers; utilizing the integration of marketing, promoting the union and communion of advertising industry and other industry;and realizing the two- wheel drive consisting of technology and content.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄金
2015-01-01
媒体融合时期，互联网内容生产模式的转变给传统媒体带来不小的压力与困扰，新兴媒体越来越成为舆论生成的场域；但移动互联网的消费增长为传统媒体融合发展提供了新的契机。传统媒体融合内容生产模式应向互联网思维转变，而且需要从媒体内部中观层面上设立支撑性对策来促进传统媒体的业务融合。各家地方传统媒体需要重新审视产业大环境中的处境和市场定位，建立符合自身发展的融合策略。%In this era of media convergence, the change of internet contents producing modes has brought great pressures and challenges to traditional media,and new media have been the places where public opinions are generated. But increased consumption on mobile devices poses new opportunities for the development of traditional media. The con-tent producing modes of traditional media should be shifted toward internet services and supportive policies should be es-tablished to promote the business convergence of traditional media. Local traditional media should reflect on their situa-tions and positions in the overall industry to set up suitable strategies of convergence.
Mode coupling dynamics and communication strategies for multi-core fiber systems.
Chan, Florence Y M; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw
2012-02-13
The propagation dynamics of 7-core multi-core fibers (MCFs) with identical and three-types of cores are analytically derived based on the coupled-mode theory. The mode coupling dynamics can be aperiodic with transmission distance for MCF with identical cores. For MCFs with heterogeneous cores, it is found that even though signals from different core groups will not couple with each other, the coupling within their own group is significantly affected by the presence of other core groups. Joint signal processing techniques to mitigate mode coupling induced-cross-talks such as least mean square (LMS) algorithm and maximum likelihood (ML) detection are investigated and corresponding transmission performance are determined for coherent as well as intensity modulated formats. It is shown that aperiodic mode coupling in intensity modulated systems induces cross-talks that are difficult to eliminate through signal processing. The analytical insights may help in optimizing MCF designs and corresponding signal processing techniques for future high capacity MCF transmission systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duchaine, F., E-mail: florent.duchaine@cerfacs.f [CERFACS, 42 av. Coriolis, 31 057 Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Corpron, A.; Pons, L. [Turbomeca (Safran Group), BP17, 64 511 Bordes Cedex (France); Moureau, V. [Turbomeca (Safran Group), BP17, 64 511 Bordes Cedex (France); CORIA, Site universitaire du Madrillet, BP8, 76 801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Nicoud, F. [Unviservite Montpellier II, Place Bataillon, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Poinsot, T. [IMFT, Avenue Camille Soula, 31 400 Toulouse Cedex (France)
2009-12-15
Although Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is identified today as the most promising method for turbulent flow problems, few applications of LES coupled to heat transfer solvers in solids have been published. This paper describes a coupling strategy of a LES solver and a heat transfer code within solids on parallel architectures. The numerical methods used in both solvers are briefly recalled before discussing the coupling strategy in terms of physical quantities to exchange (fluxes and temperatures), stability and parallel efficiency. The stability study is performed using an amplification matrix analysis on a one-dimensional case and allows the determination and optimization of coupling parameters. The coupled tool is then applied to a cooled turbine blade model where results demonstrate both the efficiency of the parallel implementation and the quality of the results. Coupled and non-coupled simulations are compared to experimental results and discussed in terms of cooling efficiency and flow structures.
Converged Registries Solution (CRS)
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Converged Registries platform is a hardware and software architecture designed to host individual patient registries and eliminate duplicative development effort...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Ricchi
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In November 2011, an Atlantic depression affected the Mediterranean basin, eventually evolving into a Tropical-Like Cyclone (TLC or Mediterranean Hurricane, usually designated as Medicane. In the region affected by the Medicane, mean sea level pressures down to 990 hPa, wind speeds of hurricane intensity close to the eye (around 115 km/h and intense rainfall in the prefrontal zone were reported. The intensity of this event, together with its long permanence over the sea, suggested its suitability as a paradigmatic case for investigating the sensitivity of a numerical modeling system to different configurations, air-sea interface parameterizations and coupling approaches. Toward this aim, a set of numerical experiments with different parameterization schemes and levels of coupling complexity was carried out within the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport System (COAWST, which allows the description of air-sea dynamics by coupling an atmospheric model (WRF, an ocean circulation model (ROMS, and a wave model (SWAN. The sensitivity to different initialization times and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL parameterizations was firstly investigated by running a set of WRF standalone (atmospheric-only simulations. In order to better understand the effect of coupling on the TLC formation, intensification and trajectory, different configurations of atmosphere-ocean coupling were subsequently tested, eventually including the full coupling among atmosphere, ocean and waves, also changing the PBL parameterization and the formulation of the surface roughness. Results show a strong sensitivity of both the trajectory and the intensity of this TLC to the initial conditions, while the tracks and intensities provided by the coupled modeling approaches explored in this study do not introduce drastic modifications with respect to those resulting from a fine-tuned standalone atmospheric run, though they provide by definition a better physical and energetic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Siriram
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is a catalyst for competitive advantage. However, it is how technology is used that leads to a firm’s improved performance. In this article, an investigative framework is constructed to understand better what strategically drives new technology adoption. The strategic drivers include technology and business strategy alignment, better technology planning and selection of new technologies, the effects on a firm’s culture and climate, links to a firm’s organisational and environmental evolution, and benefits through convergence and collaboration. Using an investigative framework, it is shown how the strategic drivers link to improve a firm’s performance, producing competitive advantage. The investigative framework is tested using structural equation modelling. Various hypotheses are formed, and recommendations for further research are made.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie is ‘n katalisator vir mededingende voordeel. Dit is egter hoe tegnologie aangewend word wat aanleiding gee tot ‘n onderneming se verbeterde prestasie. In hierdie artikel word ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk gekonstrueer om insig te kry in dit wat die aanvaarding van nuwe tegnologie strategies dryf. Die strategiese dryfvere sluit in die belyning van tegnologie en ondernemingstrategie, beter tegnologiebeplanning en seleksie van nuwe tegnologieë, die effek op ‘n onderneming se kultuur en klimaat, koppeling na ‘n onderneming se organisatoriese en omgewingsevolusie, en voordele verkry deur konvergensie en samewerking. Deur ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk te gebruik, word daar getoon dat die strategiese dryfvere koppel om ‘n onderneming se prestasie te verbeter en sodoende ‘n mededingende voordeel te skep. Die raamwerk word getoets en hipoteses geformuleer waarna aanbevelings oor verdere navorsing aan die hand gedoen word.
An algorithm for simulation of electrochemical systems with surface-bulk coupling strategies
Buoni, Matthew; Petzold, Linda
2010-01-01
In Buoni and Petzold (2007) [13] we described a new algorithm for simulation of electrochemical systems on two-dimensional irregular, time-dependent domains. Here we show how to extend the algorithm to three dimensions. We demonstrate our three-dimensional algorithm by simulating copper electrodeposition into a via structure. This problem poses challenges for the coupling of the dilute electrolyte (bulk) model to the surface dynamics model, which involves a complex network of reactions. To handle this coupling, we introduce a new and highly effective semi-implicit method.
A stepwise dechlorination/cross-coupling strategy to diversify the vancomycin 'in-chloride'.
Wadzinski, Tyler J; Gea, Katherine D; Miller, Scott J
2016-02-01
In an effort to rapidly access vancomycin analogues bearing diverse functionality at the 6c-Cl (the 'in-chloride') position, a two-step dechlorination/cross-coupling protocol was developed. Conditions for efficient cross-coupling of the relatively unreactive 6c-Cl group were found that ensure high conversion with minimal product decomposition. A set of 2c-dechloro-6c-functionalized vancomycin derivatives was prepared, and antibiotic activities of the compounds were evaluated against a panel of vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible strains. Results from biological testing further underscore the steric sensitivity of vancomycin's binding pocket.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beckmann, Henning S G; Nie, Feilin; Hagerman, Caroline E;
2013-01-01
A prerequisite for successful screening campaigns in drug discovery or chemical genetics is the availability of structurally and thus functionally diverse compound libraries. Diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) provides strategies for the generation of such libraries, of which the build...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Bjarnø, Ole-Christian
1997-01-01
This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts and weakn...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Bjarnø, Ole-Christian
1997-01-01
This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts and weakn......This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁亚湘
1995-01-01
The DFP method is one of the most famous numerical algorithms for unconstrained optimization. For uniformly convex objective functions convergence properties of the DFP method are studied. Several conditions that can ensure the global convergence of the DFP method are given.
An Hourly Streamflow Forecasting Model Coupled with an Enforced Learning Strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-Chang Wu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Floods, one of the most significant natural hazards, often result in loss of life and property. Accurate hourly streamflow forecasting is always a key issue in hydrology for flood hazard mitigation. To improve the performance of hourly streamflow forecasting, a methodology concerning the development of neural network (NN based models with an enforced learning strategy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, four different NNs, namely back propagation network (BPN, radial basis function network (RBFN, self-organizing map (SOM, and support vector machine (SVM, are used to construct streamflow forecasting models. Through the cross-validation test, NN-based models with superior performance in streamflow forecasting are detected. Then, an enforced learning strategy is developed to further improve the performance of the superior NN-based models, i.e., SOM and SVM in this study. Finally, the proposed flow forecasting model is obtained. Actual applications are conducted to demonstrate the potential of the proposed model. Moreover, comparison between the NN-based models with and without the enforced learning strategy is performed to evaluate the effect of the enforced learning strategy on model performance. The results indicate that the NN-based models with the enforced learning strategy indeed improve the accuracy of hourly streamflow forecasting. Hence, the presented methodology is expected to be helpful for developing improved NN-based streamflow forecasting models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuchun Ren
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Risk and resilience are important and challenging issues in complex network systems since a single failure may trigger a whole collapse of the systems due to cascading effect. New theories, models, and methods are urgently demanded to deal with this challenge. In this paper, a coupled map lattices (CML based approach is adopted to analyze the risk of cascading process in Watts-Strogatz (WS small-world network and Barabási and Albert (BA scale-free network, respectively. Then, to achieve an effective and robust system and provide guidance in countering the cascading failure, a modified CML model with recovery strategy factor is proposed. Numerical simulations are put forward based on small-world CML and scale-free CML. The simulation results reveal that appropriate recovery strategies would significantly improve the resilience of networks.
Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing
Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu
2017-01-01
We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed.
A morphing strategy to couple non-local to local continuum mechanics
Lubineau, Gilles
2012-06-01
A method for coupling non-local continuum models with long-range central forces to local continuum models is proposed. First, a single unified model that encompasses both local and non-local continuum representations is introduced. This model can be purely non-local, purely local or a hybrid depending on the constitutive parameters. Then, the coupling between the non-local and local descriptions is performed through a transition (morphing) affecting only the constitutive parameters. An important feature is the definition of the morphing functions, which relies on energy equivalence. This approach is useful in large-scale modeling of materials that exhibit strong non-local effects. The computational cost can be reduced while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Efficiency, robustness and basic properties of the approach are discussed using one- and two-dimensional examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing
Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu
2017-01-01
We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed. PMID:28051141
Convergence of Fuzzy Set Sequences
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG Yu-hu
2002-01-01
There are more than one mode of convergence with respect to the fuzzy set sequences. In this paper,common six modes of convergence and their relationships are discussed. These six modes are convergence in uniform metric D, convergence in separable metric Dp or D*p, 1 ≤ p ＜∞, convergence in level set, strong convergence in level set and weak convergence. Suitable counterexamples are given. The necessary and sufficient conditions of convergence in uniform metric D are described. Some comme nts on the convergence of LRfuzzy number sequences are represented.
Convergences and divergences in mortality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Abdel Omran's 1971 theory of "Epidemiologic Transition" was the first attempt to account for the extraordinary advances in health care made in industrialized countries since the 18th century. In the framework of the Demographic Transition, it implied a general convergence of life expectancies toward a limit imposed by the new epidemiological features of modern societies. However, important failures, occurred in the past decades (mainly the health crisis in Eastern Europe and AIDS in Africa, seem to have stopped that process of convergence. In fact such failures do not really contradict the theory. The latter is much more ruined by the unexpected dramatic improvement in the field of cardiovascular disease experienced since the seventies, which results in a new step of a more general process. On the basis of the broader concept of "Health Transition" initiated by Julio Frenk et al., the present paper tries to rethink the full process in term of divergence/convergence sequences inferred by successive major changes in health technologies and strategies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrique eRozengurt
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, the most common form of pancreatic cancer, is one of the most lethal human diseases. PDAC is now the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in both men and women and deaths due to PDAC are projected to increase dramatically. Novel targets and agents for chemoprevention are urgently needed and will most likely arise from a more detailed understanding of the signaling mechanisms that stimulate the promotion and progression of sub-malignant cells into pancreatic cancer cells and from the identification of modifiable risk factors for PDAC. Many epidemiological studies have linked obesity and long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with increased risk and worse clinical outcomes for developing PDAC. These diet-related metabolic disorders are multifaceted but characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, compensatory overproduction of insulin and increased bioavailability of IGF-1. Mounting evidence indicates that the insulin/IGF-1R system plays a critical role in PDAC development and multiple studies support the notion that crosstalk between the insulin receptor and heptahelical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling systems is an important element in the biological responses elicited by these signaling systems, including cell proliferation. This article highlights the central role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR in mediating crosstalk between insulin/IGF-1 and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells and proposes strategies, including the use of metformin, to target this signaling system in PDAC cells.
Breitnauer, Brooke T; Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Darbes, Lynae A; Leddy, Anna; Brown, Joelle
2015-01-01
Safer conception strategies (SCS) have the potential to decrease HIV transmission among HIV-discordant couples who desire children. Community perceptions of SCS may influence the scale-up and uptake of these services, but little is known about how communities will react to these strategies. Without community support for SCS, their success as an HIV prevention tool may be limited. The objective of this study is to characterize community perceptions of SCS for HIV-discordant couples in Kisumu, Kenya, to inform ongoing and future safer conception intervention studies in low-resource settings. We conducted six focus group discussions and 11 in-depth-interviews in Kisumu, Kenya, among a diverse group (N=59) of community members, including men, women, youth (age 19-25), community health workers and local leaders. An iterative qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach was employed. All participants emphasized the importance of childbearing in their society and the right to have children, regardless of an individual's HIV status. While most participants believed that HIV-discordant couples should be allowed to have children, they discussed several barriers to the uptake of SCS such as HIV-related stigma, fear of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and child, fear of unfamiliar medical procedures and lack of information among community members and health care providers about HIV prevention interventions that allow safer conception. Access to information, community experiences with successful safer conception interventions, healthcare provider training, male engagement and community mobilization may help overcome these barriers. Though assisted reproduction strategies generated the most negative reactions from participants, our results suggest that with education and explanation of these services, participants express interest in these strategies and want them to be offered in their community. Many community members noted a need and desire for safer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brooke T Breitnauer
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Safer conception strategies (SCS have the potential to decrease HIV transmission among HIV-discordant couples who desire children. Community perceptions of SCS may influence the scale-up and uptake of these services, but little is known about how communities will react to these strategies. Without community support for SCS, their success as an HIV prevention tool may be limited. The objective of this study is to characterize community perceptions of SCS for HIV-discordant couples in Kisumu, Kenya, to inform ongoing and future safer conception intervention studies in low-resource settings. Methods: We conducted six focus group discussions and 11 in-depth-interviews in Kisumu, Kenya, among a diverse group (N=59 of community members, including men, women, youth (age 19–25, community health workers and local leaders. An iterative qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach was employed. Results and discussion: All participants emphasized the importance of childbearing in their society and the right to have children, regardless of an individual's HIV status. While most participants believed that HIV-discordant couples should be allowed to have children, they discussed several barriers to the uptake of SCS such as HIV-related stigma, fear of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and child, fear of unfamiliar medical procedures and lack of information among community members and health care providers about HIV prevention interventions that allow safer conception. Access to information, community experiences with successful safer conception interventions, healthcare provider training, male engagement and community mobilization may help overcome these barriers. Though assisted reproduction strategies generated the most negative reactions from participants, our results suggest that with education and explanation of these services, participants express interest in these strategies and want them to be offered in their
Cyclization strategies to polyenes using Pd(II)-catalyzed couplings of pinacol vinylboronates.
Iafe, Robert G; Chan, Daniel G; Kuo, Jonathan L; Boon, Byron A; Faizi, Darius J; Saga, Tomomi; Turner, Jonathan W; Merlic, Craig A
2012-08-17
As a complement to Pd(0)-catalyzed cyclizations, seven Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization strategies are reported. α,ω-Diynes are selectively hydroborated to bis(boronate esters), which cyclize under Pd(II)-catalysis producing a diverse array of small, medium, and macrocyclic polyenes with controlled E,E, Z,Z, or E,Z stereochemistry. Various functional groups are tolerated including aryl bromides, and applications are illustrated.
Nonaccommodative convergence excess.
von Noorden, G K; Avilla, C W
1986-01-15
Nonaccommodative convergence excess is a condition in which a patient has orthotropia or a small-angle esophoria or esotropia at distance and a large-angle esotropia at near, not significantly reduced by the addition of spherical plus lenses. The AC/A ratio, determined with the gradient method, is normal or subnormal. Tonic convergence is suspected of causing the convergence excess in these patients. Nonaccommodative convergence excess must be distinguished from esotropia with a high AC/A ratio and from hypoaccommodative esotropia. In 24 patients treated with recession of both medial recti muscles with and without posterior fixation or by posterior fixation alone, the mean correction of esotropia was 7.4 prism diopters at distance and 17 prism diopters at near.
Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project uses short-duration activities to establish early-stage concept and technology feasibility for high-potential...
Fixed mobile convergence handbook
Ahson, Syed A
2010-01-01
From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo
Subsequential Convergence Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dik Mehmet
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Let be a sequence of real numbers and let be any regular limitable method. We prove that, under some assumptions, if a sequence or its generator sequence generated regularly by a sequence in a class of sequences is a subsequential convergence condition for , then for any integer , the repeated arithmetic means of , , generated regularly by a sequence in the class , is also a subsequential convergence condition for .
Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E
2013-05-01
The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) recommended substantial revisions to the personality disorders (PDs) section of DSM-IV-TR, proposing a hybrid categorical-dimensional model that represented PDs as combinations of core personality dysfunctions and various configurations of maladaptive personality traits. Although the DSM-5 Task Force endorsed the proposal, the Board of Trustees of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) did not, placing the Work Group's model in DSM-5 Section III ("Emerging Measures and Models") with other concepts thought to be in need of additional research. This paper documents the impact of using this alternative model in a national sample of 337 patients as described by clinicians familiar with their cases. In particular, the analyses focus on alternative strategies considered by the Work Group for deriving decision rules, or diagnostic thresholds, with which to assign categorical diagnoses. Results demonstrate that diagnostic rules could be derived that yielded appreciable correspondence between DSM-IV-TR and proposed DSM-5 PD diagnoses-correspondence greater than that observed in the transition between DSM-III and DSM-III-R PDs. The approach also represents the most comprehensive attempt to date to provide conceptual and empirical justification for diagnostic thresholds utilized within the DSM PDs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2012-12-15
This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.
Strategies for the analysis of coal by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy.
Kleiber, L; Fink, H; Niessner, R; Panne, U
2002-09-01
The potential of laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was investigated for the inorganic characterization of different coal samples pressed into pellets. Reference analysis was performed by microwave-assisted digestion of the ground samples followed by ICP-MS analysis of the resulting solutions. Two different laser ablation sampling procedures were compared. For continuous sampling, three sites of the pellet were sampled for approximately one minute, whereas for sequential sampling 15 sites were sampled for two seconds, respectively. The qualitative results of the two procedures were equivalent, but continuous sampling allowed faster analysis and better precision (RSD about 10%) than sequential sampling (RSD 10-20%). Different normalization procedures with internal and extrinsic standards were investigated and allowed a quantitative determination of Al, Ti, Zn, Ni, and V with measurement uncertainties below 10% and Fe, Si, and Sn with measurement uncertainties below 20%.
Strategies for the analysis of coal by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleiber, L.; Fink, H.; Niessner, R.; Panne, U. [Institute of Hydrochemistry, Technical University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 17, 81377 Munich (Germany)
2002-09-01
The potential of laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was investigated for the inorganic characterization of different coal samples pressed into pellets. Reference analysis was performed by microwave-assisted digestion of the ground samples followed by ICP-MS analysis of the resulting solutions. Two different laser ablation sampling procedures were compared. For continuous sampling, three sites of the pellet were sampled for approximately one minute, whereas for sequential sampling 15 sites were sampled for two seconds, respectively. The qualitative results of the two procedures were equivalent, but continuous sampling allowed faster analysis and better precision (RSD about 10%) than sequential sampling (RSD 10-20%). Different normalization procedures with internal and extrinsic standards were investigated and allowed a quantitative determination of Al, Ti, Zn, Ni, and V with measurement uncertainties below 10% and Fe, Si, and Sn with measurement uncertainties below 20%. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1989-11-01
The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.
An inversion strategy for hydraulic tomography: Coupling travel time and amplitude inversion
Brauchler, R.; Cheng, J.-T.; Dietrich, P.; Everett, M.; Johnson, B.; Liedl, R.; Sauter, M.
2007-10-01
SummaryWe present a hydraulic tomographic inversion strategy with an emphasis on the reduction of ambiguity of hydraulic travel time inversion results and the separation of the estimated diffusivity values into hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Our tomographic inversion strategy is tested by simulated multilevel interference slug tests in which the positions of the sources (injection ports) and the receivers (observation ports) isolated with packers are varied. Simulations include the delaying effect of wellbore storage on travel times which are quantified and shown to be of increasing importance for shorter travel distances. For the reduction of ambiguity of travel time inversion, we use the full travel time data set, as well as smaller data subsets of specified source-receiver angles. The inversion results of data subsets show different resolution characteristics and improve the reliability of the interpretation. The travel time of a pressure pulse is a function of the diffusivity of the medium between the source and receiver. Thus, it is difficult to directly derive values for hydraulic conductivity and specific storage by inverting travel times. In order to overcome this limitation, we exploit the great computational efficiency of hydraulic travel time tomography to define the aquifer structure, which is then input into the underlying groundwater flow model MODFLOW-96. Finally, we perform a model calibration (amplitude inversion) using the automatic parameter estimator PEST, enabling us to separate diffusivity into its two components hydraulic conductivity and specific storage.
Characteristic analysis and prevention on premature convergence in genetic algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐宗本; 高勇
1997-01-01
The identification and characteristics of premature convergence in genetic algorithms (GAs) are investigated Through a detailed quantitative analysis on the search capability and the degree of population diversity, the cause of premature convergence in GAs is recognized, and attributed to the maturation effect of the GAs: The minimum schema deduced from current population, which is the largest search space of a GA, converges to a homogeneous population in probability 1 ( so the search capability of the GA decreases and premature convergence occurs). It is shown that, as quantitative features of the maturation effect, the degree of population diversity converges to zero with probability 1, and the tendency for premature convergence is inversely proportional to the population size and directly proportional to the variance of the fitness ratio of zero allele at any gene position of the current population. Based on the theoretical analysis, several strategies for preventing premature convergence are suggest
Zhu, Wen-Kun; Cong, Huai-Ping; Guan, Qing-Fang; Yao, Wei-Tang; Liang, Hai-Wei; Wang, Wei; Yu, Shu-Hong
2016-05-25
Macroscale assembly of nanoscale building blocks is an intriguing way to translate the unique characteristics of individual nanoparticles into macroscopic materials. However, the lack of the efficient universal assembly strategy seriously hinders the possibility of macroscale architectures in practical applications. Herein, we develop a general, environment-friendly, and scalable microbial growth method for the construction of macroscopic composite assemblies with excellent mechanical strength by in situ integrating various types of nanoparticles into fungal hyphae (FH) macrospheres. Notably, the size of the FH-based composite spheres and the loading amount of the nanoparticles with different dimensions can be well tuned by controlling the cultivation time and the dosage of nanoparticles, respectively. Interestingly, bifunctional FH-based core-shell macrospheres can also be achieved by programmed assembling two different kinds of nanoparticles in the cultivation process. The produced multifunctional FH-based composite spheres exhibit wide potential applications in magnetic actuation, photothermal therapy, and contaminant adsorption, etc.
Empirical Estimates of Global Climate Sensitivity: An Assessment of Strategies Using a Coupled GCM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Weijun; Kevin HAMILTON
2008-01-01
A control integration with the normal solar constant and one with it increased by 2.5% in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) coupled atmosphere-ocean Climate System Model were conducted to see how well the actual realized global warming could be predicted just by analysis of the control results. This is a test, within a model context, of proposals that have been advanced to use knowledge of the present day climate to make "empirical" estimates of global climate sensitivity. The scaling of the top-of-the-atmosphere infrared flux and the planetary albedo as functions of surface temperature was inferred by examining four different temporal and geographical variations of the control simulations. Each of these inferences greatly overestimates the climate sensitivity of the model, largely because of the behavior of the cloud albedo. In each inference the control results suggest that cloudiness and albedo decrease with increasing surface temperature. However, the experiment with the increased solar constant actually has higher albedo and more cloudiness at most latitudes. The increased albedo is a strong negative feedback, and this helps account for the rather weak sensitivity of the climate in the NCAR model. To the extent that these model results apply to the real world, they suggest empirical evaluation of the scaling of global-mean radiative properties with surface temperature in the present day climate provides little useful guidance for estimates of the actual climate sensitivity to global changes.
Multi-scale coupling strategy for fully two-dimensional and depth-averaged models for granular flows
Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Domnik, Birte; Miller, Stephen A.
2013-04-01
We developed a full two-dimensional Coulomb-viscoplastic model and applied it for inclined channel flows of granular materials from initiation to their deposition. The model includes the basic features and observed phenomena in dense granular flows like the exhibition of a yield strength and a non-zero slip velocity. A pressure-dependent yield strength is proposed to account for the frictional nature of granular materials. The yield strength can be related to the internal friction angle of the material and plays an important role, for example, in deposition processes. The interaction of the flow with the solid boundary is modelled by a pressure and rate-dependent Coulomb-viscoplastic sliding law. We developed an innovative multi-scale strategy to couple the full two-dimensional, non depth-averaged model (N-DAM) with a one-dimensional, depth-averaged model (DAM). The coupled model reduces computational complexity dramatically by using DAM only in regions with smooth changes of flow variables. The numerics uses N-DAM in regions where depth-averaging becomes inaccurate, for instance, in the initiation and deposition regions, and (particularly) when the flow hits an obstacle or a defense structure. In these regions, momentum transfer must be, and is, considered in all directions. We observe very high coupling performance, and show that the numerical results deviate only slightly from results of the much more cumbersome full two-dimensional model. This shows that the coupled model, which retains all the basic physics of the flow, is an attractive alternative to an expensive, full two-dimensional simulations. We compare simulation results with different experimental data for shock waves appearing in rapid granular flows down inclined channels and impacting a wall. The model predicts the evolution of the strong shock wave and the impact force on a rigid wall for different inclination angles and sliding surfaces. It is demonstrated that the internal friction angle plays an
Chen, Jing; Mao, Peng; Xu, Rongqing; Tang, Chaojun; Liu, Yuanjian; Wang, Qiugu; Zhang, Labao
2015-06-15
We have demonstrated a straightforward strategy to realize magnetic field enhancement through diffraction coupling of magnetic plasmon (MP) resonances by embedding the metamaterials consisting of a planar rectangular array of U-shaped metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) into the substrate. Our method provides a more homogeneous dielectric background allowing stronger diffraction coupling of MP resonances among SRRs leading to strong suppression of the radiative damping. We observe that compared to the on-substrate metamaterials, the embedded ones lead to a narrow-band hybridized MP mode, which results from the interference between MP resonances in individual SRRs and an in-plane propagating collective surface mode arising from light diffraction. Associated with the excitation of this hybridized MP mode, a twenty-seven times enhancement of magnetic fields within the inner area of the SRRs is achieved as compared with the pure MP resonance. Moreover, we also found that besides the above requirement of homogeneous dielectric background, only a collective surface mode with its magnetic field of the same direction as the induced magnetic moment in the SRRs could mediate the excitation of such a hybridized MP mode.
Stayton, C. Tristan
2015-01-01
Convergent evolution is central to the study of life's evolutionary history. Researchers have documented the ubiquity of convergence and have used this ubiquity to make inferences about the nature of limits on evolution. However, these inferences are compromised by unrecognized inconsistencies in the definitions, measures, significance tests and inferred causes of convergent evolution. I review these inconsistencies and provide recommendations for standardizing studies of convergence. A fundamental dichotomy exists between definitions that describe convergence as a pattern and those that describe it as a pattern caused by a particular process. When this distinction is not acknowledged it becomes easy to assume that a pattern of convergence indicates that a particular process has been active, leading researchers away from alternative explanations. Convergence is not necessarily caused by limits to evolution, either adaptation or constraint; even substantial amounts of convergent evolution can be generated by a purely stochastic process. In the absence of null models, long lists of examples of convergent events do not necessarily indicate that convergence or any evolutionary process is ubiquitous throughout the history of life. Pattern-based definitions of convergence, coupled with quantitative measures and null models, must be applied before drawing inferences regarding large-scale limits to evolution. PMID:26640646
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina
2008-01-01
The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along...... with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...
Metabolic Potential of the Deep Subseafloor at Selected Convergent Margins
Cardace, D.; Amend, J. P.; Morris, J. D.
2005-12-01
reduction coupled to acetate oxidation (~-776 kJ/mol), sulfate reduction with acetate and CO2 driven methanogenesis at roughly equivalent energetic yields (~-376 kJ/mol), methanotrophy coupled to sulfate reduction (~-224 kJ/mol), and finally acetate driven methanogenesis (~-200 kJ/mol). These reactions represent possible microbial metabolic strategies in the deep subseafloor near convergent margin trenches.
Cuthbert, Peter C; Stanford, Lianne E; Coba, Marcelo P; Ainge, James A; Fink, Ann E; Opazo, Patricio; Delgado, Jary Y; Komiyama, Noboru H; O'Dell, Thomas J; Grant, Seth G N
2007-03-07
Understanding the mechanisms whereby information encoded within patterns of action potentials is deciphered by neurons is central to cognitive psychology. The multiprotein complexes formed by NMDA receptors linked to synaptic membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins including synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) and other associated proteins are instrumental in these processes. Although humans with mutations in SAP102 show mental retardation, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved are unknown. Using SAP102 knock-out mice, we found specific impairments in synaptic plasticity induced by selective frequencies of stimulation that also required extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. This was paralleled by inflexibility and impairment in spatial learning. Improvement in spatial learning performance occurred with extra training despite continued use of a suboptimal search strategy, and, in a separate nonspatial task, the mutants again deployed a different strategy. Double-mutant analysis of postsynaptic density-95 and SAP102 mutants indicate overlapping and specific functions of the two MAGUKs. These in vivo data support the model that specific MAGUK proteins couple the NMDA receptor to distinct downstream signaling pathways. This provides a mechanism for discriminating patterns of synaptic activity that lead to long-lasting changes in synaptic strength as well as distinct aspects of cognition in the mammalian nervous system.
The convergence of chaotic integrals
Bauer, O; Bauer, Oliver; Mainieri, Ronnie
1995-01-01
We review the convergence of chaotic integrals computed by Monte Carlo simulation, the trace method, dynamical zeta function, and Fredholm determinant on a simple one-dimensional example: the parabola repeller. There is a dramatic difference in convergence between these approaches. The convergence of the Monte Carlo method follows an inverse power law, whereas the trace method and dynamical zeta function converge exponentially, and the Fredholm determinant converges faster than any exponential.
Convergence of adaptive finite element methods for eigenvalue problems
Garau, Eduardo M.; Morin, Pedro; Zuppa, Carlos
2008-01-01
In this article we prove convergence of adaptive finite element methods for second order elliptic eigenvalue problems. We consider Lagrange finite elements of any degree and prove convergence for simple as well as multiple eigenvalues under a minimal refinement of marked elements, for all reasonable marking strategies, and starting from any initial triangulation.
Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.
2014-01-01
The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…
Coghetto Roland
2015-01-01
We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina
2008-01-01
with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coghetto Roland
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.
Language Convergence Infrastructure
V. Zaytsev (Vadim); J.M. Fernandes; R. Lämmel (Ralf); J.M.W. Visser (Joost); J. Saraiva
2011-01-01
htmlabstractThe process of grammar convergence involves grammar extraction and transformation for structural equivalence and contains a range of technical challenges. These need to be addressed in order for the method to deliver useful results. The paper describes a DSL and the infrastructure behind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nevanlinna, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)
1994-12-31
This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).
Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.
2014-01-01
The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woloszyn-Vallon, M.
1999-11-01
hygroscopic materials. Experimental conditions are simulated using the proposed model. A good overall performance of the model can be sent, if the vapour absorbed and released by building materials is represented. We are interested in a dynamic system described by a set of algebro-diffeential equations. To start the time integration of the differential equations, we need to fix a starting point. The best choice is given by the solution of the set of non-linear algebraic equations corresponding to initial stationary date. However, the resolution of this set is often found impossible. To face the numerical resolution of our problems, we called on block methods. The idea is to divide judiciously the system of equations, in such a way as to get an easy solution for each block. The physical interactions between blocks are then numerically ensured by successive global interations. After analysing our system, three principal blocks are identified: airflow block, describing inter-zonal air movements; energy block, describing temperatures in each zone; moisture block, describing air moisture content in each zone. The airflow block has a special role; it determines moisture and energy transport. A strategy to update the values of variables is also adapted to physical interaction among systems and allows rapid convergence. The proposed strategy is validated on a set of benchmark tests designed by CLIM2000 users. (author)
Summable series and convergence factors
Moore, Charles N
1938-01-01
Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that
Convergent evolution of vocal cooperation without convergent evolution of brain size.
Borjon, Jeremy I; Ghazanfar, Asif A
2014-01-01
One pragmatic underlying successful vocal communication is the ability to take turns. Taking turns - a form of cooperation - facilitates the transmission of signals by reducing the amount of their overlap. This allows vocalizations to be better heard. Until recently, non-human primates were not thought of as particularly cooperative, especially in the vocal domain. We recently demonstrated that common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate species, take turns when they exchange vocalizations with both related and unrelated conspecifics. As the common marmoset is distantly related to humans (and there is no documented evidence that Old World primates exhibit vocal turn taking), we argue that this ability arose as an instance of convergent evolution, and is part of a suite of prosocial behavioral tendencies. Such behaviors seem to be, at least in part, the outcome of the cooperative breeding strategy adopted by both humans and marmosets. Importantly, this suite of shared behaviors occurs without correspondence in encephalization. Marmoset vocal turn taking demonstrates that a large brain size and complex cognitive machinery is not needed for vocal cooperation to occur. Consistent with this idea, the temporal structure of marmoset vocal exchanges can be described in terms of coupled oscillator dynamics, similar to quantitative descriptions of human conversations. We propose a simple neural circuit mechanism that may account for these dynamics and, at its core, involves vocalization-induced reductions of arousal. Such a mechanism may underlie the evolution of vocal turn taking in both marmoset monkeys and humans. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖燕怜
2012-01-01
媒体融合环境中，新疆维吾尔自治区人民政府作为新疆形象的传播主体，立足于新疆社会建设与发展实际，在国家的国际战略及外交政策的指导下，建立政策保障、经济保障、技术保障、人才建设机制与沟通、协调、激励机制，有效整合传播媒介；在主动传播新疆形象的过程中，对外来敌意的信息组织实施反传播，从而及时、有效地保证了新疆形象的传播预期。%Under the circumstances of media convergence, as the main communicating image in Xinjiang, the people' s gov- ernment of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, based on the reality of social construction and development in Xinjiang, under the guidance of the China' s international strategy and foreign policy, establishes services of policy guarantee, economic security and technical support, and personnel development, communication, coordination and incentives mechanism to integrate the media effectively. And what' s more, in the process of active spreading Xinjiang image, counter - communicating is employed to handle foreign hostile information to ensure the communication expectations of Xinjiang image in a timely and effective manner.
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
Roco, Mihail C.
2008-01-01
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
The Convergent Learning Space:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering
2013-01-01
is described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources......This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress......, trajectories of participation etc. calls for new action and new pedagogies by teachers in order to secure alignment between students’ worlds and expectations and aims and plans of the teacher. Action research methods are being used to define and test the constituents and variables of the convergent learning...
Subsequential Convergence Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
İbrahim Çanak
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Let (un be a sequence of real numbers and let L be any (C,1 regular limitable method. We prove that, under some assumptions, if a sequence (un or its generator sequence (Vn(0(ÃŽÂ”u generated regularly by a sequence in a class Ã°ÂÂ’Âœ of sequences is a subsequential convergence condition for L, then for any integer mÃ¢Â‰Â¥1, the mth repeated arithmetic means of (Vn(0(ÃŽÂ”u, (Vn(m(ÃŽÂ”u, generated regularly by a sequence in the class Ã°ÂÂ’Âœ(m, is also a subsequential convergence condition for L.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Competition has been playing a dominant role among telecommunication equipment manufacturers. In 2006, however, merger overwhelmed competition. In the tide of converging, a large number of equipment manufacturers were involved in mergers. At the same time, telecommunication equipment manufacturers, the most innovative community in the world, drive 3G technology fast in line with its technical roadmap. In addition, Chinese equipment manufacturers cut a figure in world-class telecommunication markets, whic...
Liang, Guozhou; Zhang, Yiming; Han, Qi; Liu, Zhaoping; Jiang, Zhen; Tian, Shuang
2017-02-01
The safety is one of the persisting concerns related with Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, among which the internal short-circuit is the most dangerous abusive situation and has always been the root cause for several catastrophic accidents in recent years. In this work, a 3D-layered electrochemical-thermal coupled model is employed to investigate the nail-penetration process in a Li-ion cell. The model is based on multilayer construction of a cell, and an effective strategy to evaluate the short-circuit area equivalent resistance (i.e. the equivalent resistance of short-circuit area that is caused by nail-penetration) during the penetration process is proposed. The developed model is proved to have capability of estimating the thermal runaway time, as well as the temperature distribution during nail-penetration process. It is also found that the active material loss during the nail-penetration process can be reconstructed by utilizing the developed model, which could provide understandings about the side reactions inside the cell during the nail-penetration process. The present study provides some insights about the nail-penetration process, and can be treated as a useful tool that helps the design of Li-ion cells for improving safety.
Fu, Ying; Lu, Danqin; Lin, Bin; Sun, Qianqian; Liu, Kai; Xu, Lili; Zhang, Shengping; Hu, Chen; Wang, Chuangui; Xu, Zhiai; Zhang, Wen
2013-11-21
Cell surface glycans are a class of sophisticated biomolecules related to cancer development and progression, and their analysis is of great significance for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we proposed a fluorescence assay to evaluate glycan expression on living cancer cells based on a competitive strategy coupled with dual-functionalized nanobiocomposites. The competitive assay was conducted between living cancer cells and thiomannosyl derivatives using concanavalin A (Con A)-modified electrode as the interaction platform. To impart fluorescence signaling ability to competitive derivatives, quantum dots (QDs) were anchored on BSA-protected Au nanoparticles, and thiomannosyl derivatives were further immobilized on the nanoparticle surface through Au-S binding. Due to the spacing between QDs and Au nanoparticles by BSA, the {QDs-Au-BSA-mannose} nanobiocomposites maintained the fluorescence of QDs and showed binding ability with the Con A-modified electrode. Au nanorods (AuNRs)-modified electrode was used as an effective substrate to immobilize Con A. This assay was successfully applied to the analysis of two cancer cells lines (A549 and QGY-7701). The method is simple and shows promise for the study of glycan expression on living cancer cells.
Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning
Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.
2007-01-01
This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…
Convergent landscape. 39 and a half as (multi promotional intertext
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarzyna Kopecka- Piech
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a broader characterisation of the media convergence strategy applied by producers of the Polish commercial television station (TVN series 39 and a half (39 i pół. In order to examine the convergence strategies of production, distribution, promotion and media usage, this paper analyzes metaphors of landscape, terrain, map and simulacrum. Moreover the concept of convergent (intertext is proposed. In the case study of 39 and a half the author examines three main strategies implemented by the creators: the promotional virtualisation of reality, making virtual reality more real, and multiplied fiction. Transmedial and synergetic brands illustrate the hybridisation of the convergent and integrated media landscape.
Convergence Patterns in Latin America
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos
Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...
Medialogy - convergence and transdisciplinarity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordahl, Rolf
2007-01-01
for changes in society, developments in taste etc. However, it certainly seems fair to say, that available technology makes a great difference to the development of any art form or practice. With the up rise of new educations such as Medialogy, new aspects of convergence and different forms...... of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is a pre-requisite for both researchers and students. In this talk we will demonstrate our approach through concrete examples of student productions and projects. We will also display the pedagogical method (problem based learning), that enables students to bridge gaps...... between art and science....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.palermo@unifg.it; Natale, Anna; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego
2015-01-07
Highlights: • Multi-enzyme digestion for protein sequencing and characterization by CID/ETD. • Simultaneous use of trypsin/chymotrypsin for the maximization of sequence. • Identification of PTMs, sequence variants and species-specific residues. • Increase of accuracy in sequence assignments by orthogonal fragmentation techniques. - Abstract: A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Copps, Kevin D.
2011-12-01
For a CASL grid-to-rod fretting problem, Sandia's Percept software was used in conjunction with the Sierra Mechanics suite to analyze the convergence behavior of the data transfer from a fluid simulation to a solid mechanics simulation. An analytic function, with properties relatively close to numerically computed fluid approximations, was chosen to represent the pressure solution in the fluid domain. The analytic pressure was interpolated on a sequence of grids on the fluid domain, and transferred onto a separate sequence of grids in the solid domain. The error in the resulting pressure in the solid domain was measured with respect to the analytic pressure. The error in pressure approached zero as both the fluid and solids meshes were refined. The convergence of the transfer algorithm was limited by whether the source grid resolution was the same or finer than the target grid resolution. In addition, using a feature coverage analysis, we found gaps in the solid mechanics code verification test suite directly relevant to the prototype CASL GTRF simulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund
2016-01-01
. The article is based on participant observation of the Blockupy event and interviews with a group of Danish activists who also participated. The article constructs sociospatial narrative that unfolds through three different scales of organization: the Blockupy coalition, the participating formal and informal...... organizations, and the activist subject. This narrative explicates the mode of organization as a ‘convergence space’ (cf. Routledge, 2003), with different ‘roots’ and ‘routes’ of organization (cf. Davies, 2012). Thus, through an analysis of the modes of organization constituting this mass protest event......, this article restates the relevance of the concept of organization, which have recently been ignored or understated in favour of master-narratives of networks or the dichotomy of horizontalism and verticality. It concludes by posing a set of questions for further discussion among both activists...
Homology, convergence and parallelism.
Ghiselin, Michael T
2016-01-05
Homology is a relation of correspondence between parts of parts of larger wholes. It is used when tracking objects of interest through space and time and in the context of explanatory historical narratives. Homologues can be traced through a genealogical nexus back to a common ancestral precursor. Homology being a transitive relation, homologues remain homologous however much they may come to differ. Analogy is a relationship of correspondence between parts of members of classes having no relationship of common ancestry. Although homology is often treated as an alternative to convergence, the latter is not a kind of correspondence: rather, it is one of a class of processes that also includes divergence and parallelism. These often give rise to misleading appearances (homoplasies). Parallelism can be particularly hard to detect, especially when not accompanied by divergences in some parts of the body. © 2015 The Author(s).
The Convergence in Spatial Tasks
Vladimir P. Kulagin; Victor Y. Tsvetkov; Maiya V. Maksimova
2013-01-01
The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher ed...
Evolution of parasitism along convergent lines: from ecology to genomics.
Poulin, Robert; Randhawa, Haseeb S
2015-02-01
SUMMARY From hundreds of independent transitions from a free-living existence to a parasitic mode of life, separate parasite lineages have converged over evolutionary time to share traits and exploit their hosts in similar ways. Here, we first summarize the evidence that, at a phenotypic level, eukaryotic parasite lineages have all converged toward only six general parasitic strategies: parasitoid, parasitic castrator, directly transmitted parasite, trophically transmitted parasite, vector-transmitted parasite or micropredator. We argue that these strategies represent adaptive peaks, with the similarities among unrelated taxa within any strategy extending to all basic aspects of host exploitation and transmission among hosts and transcending phylogenetic boundaries. Then, we extend our examination of convergent patterns by looking at the evolution of parasite genomes. Despite the limited taxonomic coverage of sequenced parasite genomes currently available, we find some evidence of parallel evolution among unrelated parasite taxa with respect to genome reduction or compaction, and gene losses or gains. Matching such changes in parasite genomes with the broad phenotypic traits that define the convergence of parasites toward only six strategies of host exploitation is not possible at present. Nevertheless, as more parasite genomes become available, we may be able to detect clear trends in the evolution of parasitic genome architectures representing true convergent adaptive peaks, the genomic equivalents of the phenotypic strategies used by all parasites.
Meng, Guangrong; Szostak, Michal
2016-06-15
The first palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of amides with boronic acids for the synthesis of ketones by sterically-controlled N-C bond activation is reported. The transformation is characterized by operational simplicity using bench-stable, commercial reagents and catalysts, and a broad substrate scope, including substrates with electron-donating and withdrawing groups on both coupling partners, steric-hindrance, heterocycles, halides, esters and ketones. The scope and limitations are presented in the synthesis of >60 functionalized ketones. Mechanistic studies provide insight into the catalytic cycle of the cross-coupling, including the first experimental evidence for Pd insertion into the amide N-C bond. The synthetic utility is showcased by a gram-scale cross-coupling and cross-coupling at room temperature. Most importantly, this process provides a blueprint for the development of a plethora of metal catalyzed reactions of typically inert amide bonds via acyl-metal intermediates. A unified strategy for amide bond activation to enable metal insertion into N-C amide bond is outlined ().
On Effect and Strategy of International Convergence of Accounting Standards%我国会计准则国际趋同的效果分析及策略研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
靳炜伟
2012-01-01
在全球经济一体化的社会背景下,会计准则的国际趋同已成为一种必然的发展趋势。然而,国际趋同是一个艰难的、互动的过程。文章从财务报告信息质量、准则运用、对企业的影响等方面针对企业会计准则在我国企业实施的效果进行分析,指出会计准则国际趋同过程中的一些不足之处,进而提出应立足本国国情、加强会计准则国际趋同的国际交流、完善相应的法律、加强会计从业人员的职业训练等改善方案。%As the social context of global economic integration, international convergence of accounting standards has become an inevi- table trend of development. But international convergence is a difficult, interactive process. The paper analyzes the effect of the implementation of accounting standards for enterprises from the quality of financial reporting, the standards of application, the impact on enter- prise. And this paper indicates some shortages about international convergence of accounting standards, puts forward some practical sug- gestions. The paper also emphasizes national conditions as well as strengthens international exchanges of international convergence of accounting standards, and perfects related law, enhances the vocational training of accounting practitioners.
Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution.
Givnish, Thomas J
2010-01-14
Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.
Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Givnish Thomas J
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.
Notes on Some Convergences in Riesz Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zhi-jie; AI Fu-ju
2007-01-01
An equivalent description of u-uniform convergence is presented first. Then the relations among the order convergence,u-uniform convergence and norm convergence of sequences are discussed in Riesz spaces. An equivalence of the three convergences is brought forward; namely, {fn} is a u-uniform Cauchy sequence. Finally the relations among the three convergences of sequences am also extended to the relations among the convergences of nets in Riesz spaces.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent Fagan
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A novel convergent synthetic strategy for the construction of multicomponent self-adjuvanting lipopeptide vaccines was developed. A tetraalkyne-functionalized glucose derivative and lipidated Fmoc-lysine were prepared by novel efficient and convenient syntheses. The carbohydrate building block was coupled to the self-adjuvanting lipidic moiety (three lipidated Fmoc-lysines on solid support. Four copies of a group A streptococcal B cell epitope (J8 were then conjugated to the glyco-lipopeptide using a copper-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction. The approach was elaborated by the preparation of a second vaccine candidate which incorporated an additional promiscuous T-helper epitope.
Stochastic Engine Convergence Diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glaser, R
2001-12-11
;'burn-in'' period. The MCMC process begins at a particular state, which is selected at random or by design, according to the wish of the user of the engine. After the burn-in period, the chain has essentially forgotten where it started. Moreover, the sample x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (T{sub 0}+1)},... can be used for most purposes as a random sample from f, even though the x{sup (T{sub 0}+t)}, because of Markovian dependency, are not independent. For example, averages involving x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (t{sub 0}+1)},... may have an approximate normal distribution. The purpose of this note is to discuss the monitoring techniques currently in place in the stochastic engine software that addresses the issues of burn-in, stationarity, and normality. They are loosely termed ''convergence diagnostics'', in reference to the underlying Markov chains, which converge asymptotically to the desired posterior distribution.
The Convergence of Intelligences
Diederich, Joachim
Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.
Systematic strategy for decoding the NMR spin-spin coupling mechanism: the J-OC-PSP method.
Gräfenstein, Jürgen; Cremer, Dieter
2004-10-01
Criteria for analyzing the NMR spin-spin coupling mechanism were derived. Advantages and disadvantages of parallel- and post-processing analytical methods are discussed. An orbital decomposition into just one-orbital contributions provides less information than a decomposition into one-, two- and m-orbital effects. If just the last orbital in an orbital path leading from the perturbing to the responding nucleus is considered, the physics of the transport of spin information cannot be described. The theory of the J-OC-PSP (decomposition of J into Orbital Contributions using Orbital Currents and Partial Spin Polarization) is described to demonstrate the role of orbital contributions, orbital spin densities and orbital currents for the coupling mechanism. J-OC-PSP1 provides a decomposition into one- and two-orbital contributions with distinct physical reference (Ramsey perturbation of orbitals, steric exchange interactions, etc.) whereas J-OC-PSP2 introduces distinct orbital paths from perturbing to responding nucleus, clarifies the difference between active, passive and frozen orbitals and makes it possible to separate through-space from through-bond spin-spin coupling mechanism. Fermi contact coupling in hydrocarbons over more than two bonds is found to occur preferentially through space by tail interactions of the orbitals, as was anticipated in the early work of Barfield.
The Convergence in Spatial Tasks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir P. Kulagin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.
Improving the convergence of an iterative algorithm proposed by Waxman
Berger, W. A.; Miller, H. G.
2006-11-01
In an iterative algorithm recently proposed by Waxman for solving eigenvalue problems, we point out that the convergence rate may be improved. For many non-singular symmetric potentials which vanish asymptotically, a simple analytical relationship between the coupling constant of the potential and the ground state eigenvalue is obtained which can be used to make the algorithm more efficient.
Improving the Convergence of an Iterative Algorithm Proposed By Waxman
Berger, W A
2006-01-01
In the iterative algorithm recently proposed by Waxman for solving eigenvalue problems, we point out that the convergence rate may be improved. For many non-singular symmetric potentials which vanish asymptotically, a simple analytical relationship between the coupling constant of the potential and the ground state eigenvalue is obtained which can be used to make the algorithm more efficient.
IMS based WLAN/3G convergence and advanced mobility features
MANI, Mehdi; Crespi, Noel
2011-01-01
In this chapter we define new strategies for WLAN 802.11 and 3G convergence based on the service delivery infra-structure proposed by IMS. These strategies are beyond the 3GPP solutions for WLAN access to the IMS. Our main aim from this convergence is to introduce new services such as session mobility/splitting and intelligent call routing between these two access technologies. To this end, we extend the IMS policy based admission control architecture and adapt it to the different characteris...
Convergence: Computing and communications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catlett, C. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Champaign, IL (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper highlights the operations of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). NCSA is developing and implementing a national strategy to create, use, and transfer advanced computing and communication tools and information technologies for science, engineering, education, and business. The primary focus of the presentation is historical and expected growth in the computing capacity, personal computer performance, and Internet and WorldWide Web sites. Data are presented to show changes over the past 10 to 20 years in these areas. 5 figs., 4 tabs.
WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.
Dynamical Convergence Trajectory in Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Ning; ZHANG Yun-Jun; OUYANG Qi; GENG Zhi
2005-01-01
@@ It is well known that topology and dynamics are two major aspects to determine the function of a network. We study one of the dynamic properties of a network: trajectory convergence, i.e. how a system converges to its steady state. Using numerical and analytical methods, we show that in a logical-like dynamical model, the occurrence of convergent trajectory in a network depends mainly on the type of the fixed point and the ratio between activation and inhibition links. We analytically proof that this property is induced by the competition between two types of state transition structures in phase space: tree-like transition structure and star-like transition structure. We show that the biological networks, such as the cell cycle network in budding yeast, prefers the tree-like transition structures and suggest that this type of convergence trajectories may be universal.
Spaces of Ideal Convergent Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mursaleen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we introduce some sequence spaces using ideal convergence and Musielak-Orlicz function ℳ=Mk. We also examine some topological properties of the resulting sequence spaces.
Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO FuQing; LI LiNa
2008-01-01
A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved.A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.
Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabiola Perles Novas
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between emotional intelligence, jealousy and the propensity for abusiveness and violent conflict-solving strategies between couples. The predictive capacity of these variables was analysed in a mixed sample of 294 people. The outcomes show that the variables evaluated are significantly associated with the conflict-solving strategies used by the couple. These strategies have a positive association with jealousy and the propensity for abusiveness, and a negative association with emotional intelligence. Similarly, all the variables analysed had a predictive capacity regarding the conflict-solving strategies, especially the couple’s perception regarding such strategies. These outcomes show the relevance of these variables in predicting violence between couples and are suggestive of interventions for its prevention.
Periodic Convergences: Dance and Computers
deLahunta, Scott
2002-01-01
Published in German and English, this chapter is one of deLahunta's major outputs to emerge from a group of related research outputs, concerning "dance and technology". In it he explores the history of the convergence between dance and computers from the 1960s to the 1990s, arguing that this convergence has been periodic, involving particular artists at particular times, rather than producing a genre of work (as others have speculated). As the mainstream of contemporary dance evolved alongsid...
Sarkar, Kanchan; Bhattacharyya, S P
2013-08-21
We propose and implement a simple adaptive heuristic to optimize the geometries of clusters of point charges or ions with the ability to find the global minimum energy configurations. The approach uses random mutations of a single string encoding the geometry and accepts moves that decrease the energy. Mutation probability and mutation intensity are allowed to evolve adaptively on the basis of continuous evaluation of past explorations. The resulting algorithm has been called Completely Adaptive Random Mutation Hill Climbing method. We have implemented this method to search through the complex potential energy landscapes of parabolically confined 3D classical Coulomb clusters of hundreds or thousands of charges--usually found in high frequency discharge plasmas. The energy per particle (EN∕N) and its first and second differences, structural features, distribution of the oscillation frequencies of normal modes, etc., are analyzed as functions of confinement strength and the number of charges in the system. Certain magic numbers are identified. In order to test the feasibility of the algorithm in cluster geometry optimization on more complex energy landscapes, we have applied the algorithm for optimizing the geometries of MgO clusters, described by Coulomb-Born-Mayer potential and finding global minimum of some Lennard-Jones clusters. The convergence behavior of the algorithm compares favorably with those of other existing global optimizers.
Measure theory of statistical convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG LiXin; LIN GuoChen; LAN YongYi; LIU Hui
2008-01-01
The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.
Measure theory of statistical convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra A of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set S of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on A forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.
Rabin, Sam; Alexander, Peter; Anthoni, Peter; Henry, Roslyn; Huntingford, Chris; Pugh, Thomas; Rounsevell, Mark; Arneth, Almut
2017-04-01
A major question facing humanity is how well agricultural production systems will be able to feed the world in a future of rapid climate change, population growth, and demand shifts—all while minimizing our impact on the natural world. Global modeling has frequently been used to investigate certain aspects of this question, but in order to properly address the challenge, no one part of the human-environmental system can be assessed in isolation. It is especially critical that the effect on agricultural yields of changing temperature and precipitation regimes (including seasonal timing and frequency and intensity of extreme events), as well as rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, be taken into account when planning for future food security. Coupled modeling efforts, where changes in various parts of the Earth system are allowed to feed back onto one another, represent a powerful strategy in this regard. This presentation describes the structure and initial results of an effort to couple a biologically-representative vegetation and crop production simulator, LPJ-GUESS, with the climate emulator IMOGEN and the land-use model PLUMv2. With IMOGEN providing detailed future weather simulations, LPJ-GUESS simulates natural vegetation as well as cropland and pasture/rangeland; the simulated exchange of greenhouse gases between the land and atmosphere feeds back into IMOGEN's predictions. LPJ-GUESS also produces potential vegetation yields for irrigated vs. rainfed crops under three levels of nitrogen fertilizer addition. PLUMv2 combines these potential yields with endogenous demand and agricultural commodity price to calculate an optimal set of land use distributions and management strategies across the world for the next five years of simulation, based on socio-economic scenario data. These land uses are then fed back into LPJ-GUESS, and the cycle of climate, greenhouse gas emissions, crop yields, and land-use change continues. The globally gridded nature of the
Recorded Step Directional Mutation for Faster Convergence
Dunning, Ted
2008-01-01
Two meta-evolutionary optimization strategies described in this paper accelerate the convergence of evolutionary programming algorithms while still retaining much of their ability to deal with multi-modal problems. The strategies, called directional mutation and recorded step in this paper, can operate independently but together they greatly enhance the ability of evolutionary programming algorithms to deal with fitness landscapes characterized by long narrow valleys. The directional mutation aspect of this combined method uses correlated meta-mutation but does not introduce a full covariance matrix. These new methods are thus much more economical in terms of storage for problems with high dimensionality. Additionally, directional mutation is rotationally invariant which is a substantial advantage over self-adaptive methods which use a single variance per coordinate for problems where the natural orientation of the problem is not oriented along the axes.
Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.
Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke
2015-01-01
Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.
A Tightly Coupled Particle-Fluid Model for DNA-Laden Flows in Complex Microscale Geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Colella, P; Graves, D T; Martin, D F; Schwartz, P O
2004-11-18
We present a stable and convergent method for the computation of flows of DNA-laden fluids in microchannels with complex geometry. The numerical strategy combines a ball-rod model representation for polymers tightly coupled with a projection method for incompressible viscous flow. We use Cartesian grid embedded boundary methods to discretize the fluid equations in the presence of complex domain boundaries. A sample calculation is presented showing flow through a packed array microchannel in 2D.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn
2014-01-31
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new electrochemical sensing protocol for the detection of mercury ion. •Gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform was used as nanocatalyst. •The signal was amplified by cycling signal amplification strategy. -- Abstract: Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg{sup 2+}), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg{sup 2+} by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T{sub (25)} oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg{sup 2+} ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T–Hg{sup 2+}–T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg{sup 2+} ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH{sub 4} and Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg{sup 2+} level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02 nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000 nM Hg{sup 2+}. The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg{sup 2+} in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9–113.8%.
Strategy Development in Organisations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Lene
1999-01-01
" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented.......There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy...
Strategy Development in Organisations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Lene
1999-01-01
There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy......" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented....
Tourism English Teaching Techniques Converged from Two Different Angles.
Seong, Myeong-Hee
2001-01-01
Provides techniques converged from two different angles (learners and tourism English features) for effective tourism English teaching in a junior college in Korea. Used a questionnaire, needs analysis, an instrument for measuring learners' strategies for oral communication, a small-scale classroom study for learners' preferred teaching…
A rapid and convergent synthesis of the integrastatin core
Tadross, Pamela M.
2011-01-01
The tetracyclic core of the integrastatin natural products has been prepared in a convergent and rapid manner. Our strategy relies upon a palladium(ii)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization to form the central [3.3.1]-dioxabicycle of the natural product core. Overall, the core has been completed in only 4 linear steps from known compounds. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Tang, Tingting; Deng, Jingjing; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu
2016-01-01
Based on the highly sensitivity and stable-fluorescence of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with broad-specificity DNA aptamers, a novel ratiometric detection strategy was proposed for the sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticides by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). The as-prepared QDs were first conjugated with the amino-modified oligonucleotide (AMO) by amidation reaction, which is partial complementary to the DNA aptamer of organophosphorus pesticides. Then QD-labeled AMO (QD-AMO) was incubated with the DNA aptamer to form QD-AMO-aptamer duplex. When the target organophosphorus pesticides were added, they could specifically bind the DNA aptamer, leading to the cleavage of QD-AMO-aptamer duplex, accompany with the release of QD-AMO. As a result, the ratio of peak height between QD-AMO and QD-AMO-aptamer duplex changed in the detection process of CE-LIF. This strategy was subsequently applied for the detection of phorate, profenofos, isocarbophos, and omethoate with the detection limits of 0.20, 0.10, 0.17, and 0.23μM, respectively. This is the first report about using QDs as the signal indicators for organophosphorus pesticides detection based on broad-specificity DNA aptamers by CE-LIF, thus contributing to extend the scope of application of QDs in different fields. The proposed method has great potential to be a universal strategy for rapid detection of aptamer-specific small molecule targets by simply changing the types of aptamer sequences.
Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.
2014-12-01
Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our
Lewis, Jennifer D; Van de Vyver, Stijn; Crisci, Anthony J; Gunther, William R; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Griffin, Robert G; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy
2014-08-01
Hf-, Zr- and Sn-Beta zeolites effectively catalyze the coupled transfer hydrogenation and etherification of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural with primary and secondary alcohols into 2,5-bis(alkoxymethyl)furans, thus making it possible to generate renewable fuel additives without the use of external hydrogen sources or precious metals. Continuous flow experiments reveal nonuniform changes in the relative deactivation rates of the transfer hydrogenation and etherification reactions, which impact the observed product distribution over time. We found that the catalysts undergo a drastic deactivation for the etherification step while maintaining catalytic activity for the transfer hydrogenation step. (119) Sn and (29) Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies show that this deactivation can be attributed to changes in the local environment of the metal sites. Additional insights were gained by studying effects of various alcohols and water concentration on the catalytic reactivity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Convergent algorithms for protein structural alignment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martínez José
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many algorithms exist for protein structural alignment, based on internal protein coordinates or on explicit superposition of the structures. These methods are usually successful for detecting structural similarities. However, current practical methods are seldom supported by convergence theories. In particular, although the goal of each algorithm is to maximize some scoring function, there is no practical method that theoretically guarantees score maximization. A practical algorithm with solid convergence properties would be useful for the refinement of protein folding maps, and for the development of new scores designed to be correlated with functional similarity. Results In this work, the maximization of scoring functions in protein alignment is interpreted as a Low Order Value Optimization (LOVO problem. The new interpretation provides a framework for the development of algorithms based on well established methods of continuous optimization. The resulting algorithms are convergent and increase the scoring functions at every iteration. The solutions obtained are critical points of the scoring functions. Two algorithms are introduced: One is based on the maximization of the scoring function with Dynamic Programming followed by the continuous maximization of the same score, with respect to the protein position, using a smooth Newtonian method. The second algorithm replaces the Dynamic Programming step by a fast procedure for computing the correspondence between Cα atoms. The algorithms are shown to be very effective for the maximization of the STRUCTAL score. Conclusion The interpretation of protein alignment as a LOVO problem provides a new theoretical framework for the development of convergent protein alignment algorithms. These algorithms are shown to be very reliable for the maximization of the STRUCTAL score, and other distance-dependent scores may be optimized with same strategy. The improved score optimization
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael John Starks
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.
Are China and Europe converging?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bastianin; Andrea; Cattanceo; Cristina; Markandya; Anil
2009-01-01
This analysis aims at giving a flavour of what is happening between the European and Chinese markets with reference to selected energy indicators and economic variables. More precisely the analysis is concerned with the convergence between European countries (EU15 + Norway) and China in terms of both per capita GDP and "sustainability indicators". The variables we refer to as "sustainability indicators" are two: energy intensity (EI) and carbon intensity (CI). The paths of such variables will be investigated both looking at the economy as a whole and by analysing what is happening in three sectors of economic activity, namely industry, agriculture and services. It finds strong evidence of convergence in energy intensity and carbon intensity between the EU and China, with rates fast enough to achieve 90% convergence in a matter of two decades.
Algorithms in nature: the convergence of systems biology and computational thinking.
Navlakha, Saket; Bar-Joseph, Ziv
2011-11-08
Computer science and biology have enjoyed a long and fruitful relationship for decades. Biologists rely on computational methods to analyze and integrate large data sets, while several computational methods were inspired by the high-level design principles of biological systems. Recently, these two directions have been converging. In this review, we argue that thinking computationally about biological processes may lead to more accurate models, which in turn can be used to improve the design of algorithms. We discuss the similar mechanisms and requirements shared by computational and biological processes and then present several recent studies that apply this joint analysis strategy to problems related to coordination, network analysis, and tracking and vision. We also discuss additional biological processes that can be studied in a similar manner and link them to potential computational problems. With the rapid accumulation of data detailing the inner workings of biological systems, we expect this direction of coupling biological and computational studies to greatly expand in the future.
Chaurasia, Akhilesh K.; Thorat, Nanasaheb D.; Tandon, Anshula; Kim, Jin-Hahn; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Kyeong Kyu
2016-09-01
Antibiotic resistant bacteria not only affect human health and but also threatens the safety in hospitals and among communities. However, the emergence of drug resistant bacteria is inevitable due to evolutionary selection as a consequence of indiscriminate antibiotic usage. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel strategy by which pathogenic bacteria can be eliminated without triggering resistance. We propose a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based physical treatment against pathogenic bacteria, which blocks biofilm formation and kills bacteria. In this approach, multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 are trapped to the positively charged magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) by electrostatic interaction. All the trapped bacteria can be completely killed within 30 min owing to the loss of membrane potential and dysfunction of membrane-associated complexes when exposed to the radiofrequency current. These results indicate that MCSNP-based physical treatment can be an alternative antibacterial strategy without leading to antibiotic resistance, and can be used for many purposes including environmental and therapeutic applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋东升
2016-01-01
媒介融合是当代媒体特别是传统媒体发展的必由之路. 媒介融合背景下,电视媒介必须拥抱新媒体,才能真正解决当下电视媒体发展的窘境. 中原经济区是中国首个内陆经济改革和对外开放经济区. 电视媒介是较为直接、形象性较强的传播媒介,它的发展与中原经济区经济发展、文化传播和整体形象紧密相连. 从全国看,中原经济区电视媒介发展状况不佳,这与地方媒介融合发展的程度有关. 从媒介融合的角度探讨中原经济区电视媒介发展状况及长久发展战略十分必要.%Media convergence is the only way for the development of contemporary media industry , especially the traditional media.Under the background of media convergence, TV media must unite with new media can truly solve the present situation of TV media development.The CPER is the first inland economic reform and opening to the outside economic zone in our country.TV industry is the direct, vivid and strong media.and related to the transmission of image of the CPER.Development of TV media in CPER is unsatisfactory .Based on the media convergence, this paper discussed the long-term development strategy of TV industry in CPER in China.
Converging Information and Communication Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øst, Alexander
2003-01-01
This Ph.D.-project investigates the process of convergence between television and computers. Identifying three “promises of convergence”: interoperability, quality and interactivity, the project examines the key properties of the computer and television sectors, which have had - or are expected...... in the future to have - significant importance to the process and consequences of the convergence. The project focuses on the appliances, i.e. the TV sets, the computers and their peripheral equipment. It also takes into account the infrastructure and signals, which contain and deliver the information...... and communication, as well as the nature of the content and the usage scenarios of consumers....
Statistical convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability
Pratulananda Das; Sanjoy Ghosal; Sumit Som
2016-01-01
In this paper ideas of different types of convergence of a sequence of random variables in probability, namely, statistical convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability, strong $p$-Ces$\\grave{\\mbox{a}}$ro summability of order $\\alpha$ in probability, lacunary statistical convergence or $S_{\\theta}$-convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability, ${N_{\\theta}}$-convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability have been introduced and their certain basic properties have been studied.
Convergent series for lattice models with polynomial interactions
Ivanov, Aleksandr S.; Sazonov, Vasily K.
2017-01-01
The standard perturbative weak-coupling expansions in lattice models are asymptotic. The reason for this is hidden in the incorrect interchange of the summation and integration. However, substituting the Gaussian initial approximation of the perturbative expansions by a certain interacting model or regularizing original lattice integrals, one can construct desired convergent series. In this paper we develop methods, which are based on the joint and separate utilization of the regularization and new initial approximation. We prove, that the convergent series exist and can be expressed as re-summed standard perturbation theory for any model on the finite lattice with the polynomial interaction of even degree. We discuss properties of such series and study their applicability to practical computations on the example of the lattice ϕ4-model. We calculate expectation value using the convergent series, the comparison of the results with the Borel re-summation and Monte Carlo simulations shows a good agreement between all these methods.
Convergent series for lattice models with polynomial interactions
Ivanov, Aleksandr S
2016-01-01
The standard perturbative weak-coupling expansions in lattice models are asymptotic. The reason for this is hidden in the incorrect interchange of the summation and integration. However, substituting the Gaussian initial approximation of the perturbative expansions by a certain interacting model or regularizing original lattice integrals, one can construct desired convergent series. In this paper we develop methods, which are based on the joint and separate utilization of the regularization and new initial approximation. We prove, that the convergent series exist and can be expressed as the re-summed standard perturbation theory for any model on the finite lattice with the polynomial interaction of even degree. We discuss properties of such series and make them applicable to practical computations. The workability of the methods is demonstrated on the example of the lattice $\\phi^4$-model. We calculate the operator $\\langle\\phi_n^2\\rangle$ using the convergent series, the comparison of the results with the Bo...
Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C
2011-10-01
During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels.
Tang, Dianping; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Guonan; Lu, Minghua
2014-05-15
A new digital multimeter (DMM)-based immunosensing system was designed for quantitative monitoring of biomarker (prostate-specific antigen, PSA used in this case) by coupling with an external capacitor and an enzymatic catalytic reaction. The system consisted of a salt bridge-linked reaction cell and a capacitor/DMM-joined electronic circuit. A sandwich-type immunoreaction with target PSA between the immobilized primary antibody and glucose oxidase (GOx)-labeled detection antibody was initially carried out in one of the two half-cells. Accompanying the sandwiched immunocomplex, the conjugated GOx could catalyze the oxidation of glucose, simultaneously resulting in the conversion of [Fe(CN)6](3-) to [Fe(CN)6](4-). The difference in the concentrations of [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-) in two half-cells automatically produced a voltage that was utilized to charge an external capacitor. With the closing circuit switch, the capacitor discharged through the DMM, which could provide a high instantaneous current. Under the optimal conditions, the resulting currents was indirectly proportional to the concentration of target PSA in the dynamic range of 0.05-7 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 6 pg mL(-1). The reproducibility, precision, and selectivity were acceptable. In addition, the methodology was validated by analyzing 12 clinical serum specimens, receiving a good accordance with the referenced values for the detection of PSA.
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Starks, Michael John
2014-01-01
abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps a
Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frøslev Christensen, Jens
2011-01-01
The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...
System Convergence in Transport Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.
2010-01-01
-of-successive-averages (MSA) have been proposed. Convergence of the MSA under fairly weak regularity conditions was shown in Robbins and Monro (1951). The iteration between demand and assignment ? the external equilibrium ? are in many models either decoupled or follow a very simple iteration pattern. However, as demand...
Convergence of a Catalan Series
Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang
2012-01-01
This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lotfi Tadj
1993-01-01
Full Text Available Although intended for college teachers/students, Converge presents a feature that may interest all scientists: it allows an easy export of graphic files to most known word processors, specifically to the ℙ, Version 2.1, a powerful WYSIWYG mathematical word processor.
Exponential convergence rate in entropy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mu-Fa Chen
2007-01-01
The exponential convergence rate in entropy is studied for symmetric forms, with a specia! attention to the Markov chain with a state space having two points only. Some upper and lower bounds of the rate are obtained and five examples with precise or qualitatively exact estimates are presented.
Convergence analysis of cautious control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yanxia; GUO Lei
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis on stability and convergence of the cautious control, which has advantages over the traditional certainty equivalence adaptive control, since it takes the parameter estimation error into account in the design,and is also one-step-ahead optimal in the mean square sense under Gaussian assumptions.
Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy
Rooijen, van M.
2011-01-01
Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and h
Financial Development and Convergence Clubs
N. Basturk (Nalan); R. Paap (Richard); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)
2010-01-01
textabstractThis paper studies the economic development process, measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), for a large panel of countries. We propose a methodology that identifies groups of countries (convergence clubs) that show similar GDP structures, while allowing for changes in club membersh
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Starks, Michael John
2014-01-01
abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps
Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao
2014-11-07
Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive.
Shao, Bo; Yang, Zhengwen; Wang, Yida; Li, Jun; Yang, Jianzhi; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo
2015-11-18
Rare-earth-ion-doped upconversion (UC) nanoparticles have generated considerable interest because of their potential application in solar cells, biological labeling, therapeutics, and imaging. However, the applications of UC nanoparticles were still limited because of their low emission efficiency. Photonic crystals and noble metal nanoparticles are applied extensively to enhance the UC emission of rare earth ions. In the present work, a novel substrate consisting of inverse opal photonic crystals and Ag nanoparticles was prepared by the template-assisted method, which was used to enhance the UC emission of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles. The red or green UC emissions of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles were selectively enhanced on the inverse opal substrates because of the Bragg reflection of the photonic band gap. Additionally, the UC emission enhancement of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles induced by the coupling of metal nanoparticle plasmons and photonic crystal effects was realized on the Ag nanoparticles included in the inverse opal substrate. The present results demonstrated that coupling of Ag nanoparticle with inverse opal photonic crystals provides a useful strategy to enhance UC emission of rare-earth-ion-doped nanoparticles.
Convergent transcription confers a bistable switch in Enterococcus faecalis conjugation.
Chatterjee, Anushree; Johnson, Christopher M; Shu, Che-Chi; Kaznessis, Yiannis N; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Dunny, Gary M; Hu, Wei-Shou
2011-06-07
Convergent gene pairs with head-to-head configurations are widespread in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and are speculated to be involved in gene regulation. Here we present a unique mechanism of gene regulation due to convergent transcription from the antagonistic prgX/prgQ operon in Enterococcus faecalis controlling conjugative transfer of the antibiotic resistance plasmid pCF10 from donor cells to recipient cells. Using mathematical modeling and experimentation, we demonstrate that convergent transcription in the prgX/prgQ operon endows the system with the properties of a robust genetic switch through premature termination of elongating transcripts due to collisions between RNA polymerases (RNAPs) transcribing from opposite directions and antisense regulation between complementary counter-transcripts. Evidence is provided for the presence of truncated RNAs resulting from convergent transcription from both the promoters that are capable of sense-antisense interactions. A mathematical model predicts that both RNAP collision and antisense regulation are essential for a robust bistable switch behavior in the control of conjugation initiation by prgX/prgQ operons. Moreover, given that convergent transcription is conserved across species, the mechanism of coupling RNAP collision and antisense interaction is likely to have a significant regulatory role in gene expression.
Short-term time step convergence in a climate model.
Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J; Taylor, Mark A; Jablonowski, Christiane
2015-03-01
This paper evaluates the numerical convergence of very short (1 h) simulations carried out with a spectral-element (SE) configuration of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). While the horizontal grid spacing is fixed at approximately 110 km, the process-coupling time step is varied between 1800 and 1 s to reveal the convergence rate with respect to the temporal resolution. Special attention is paid to the behavior of the parameterized subgrid-scale physics. First, a dynamical core test with reduced dynamics time steps is presented. The results demonstrate that the experimental setup is able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the discrete solutions to the adiabatic equations of atmospheric motion. Second, results from full-physics CAM5 simulations with reduced physics and dynamics time steps are discussed. It is shown that the convergence rate is 0.4-considerably slower than the expected rate of 1.0. Sensitivity experiments indicate that, among the various subgrid-scale physical parameterizations, the stratiform cloud schemes are associated with the largest time-stepping errors, and are the primary cause of slow time step convergence. While the details of our findings are model specific, the general test procedure is applicable to any atmospheric general circulation model. The need for more accurate numerical treatments of physical parameterizations, especially the representation of stratiform clouds, is likely common in many models. The suggested test technique can help quantify the time-stepping errors and identify the related model sensitivities.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙兆明
2012-01-01
Tourism convergence is the new feature of transformation development and the inevitable choice for tourism to become a strategic pillar industry in island counties. The realization of tourism benefits depends on the efficient operation of the industrial system. Tourism in island counties is currently at a low level： monotonous products and simple operation, weak firm competence, and restricted development mechanism, management system and supporting policies. In order to attain the maximum benefits of tourism, we need exploring integration paths of resource, technology function and market, relaxing industrial regulations in respect of the market law, innovating management system and development mechanism, fostering enterprise group, and promoting industrial competitiveness.%产业融合是海岛县域旅游业转型发展的新特征，也是旅游业成长为战略性支柱产业的必然选择。旅游效益的实现依赖于产业系统的良性运转，当前海岛县旅游业还处于较低的层次，产品单调，业态简单，在企业能力、发展机制、管理体制、配套政策等方面存在制约，需要在资源、技术、功能、市场等方面探寻融合路径，在尊重市场规律的基础上，放松产业规制，创新管理体制和发展机制，培育企业集团，多渠道提升旅游产业竞争力。
Wang, Ting; Zhou, Lili; Bai, Shulian; Zhang, Zhang; Li, Junlong; Jing, Xiaoying; Xie, Guoming
2016-04-15
Using spontaneous cascade DNA branch migration and dual-signaling sensing strategy, we developed a novel universal electrochemical biosensor for the highly specific and sensitive detection of nucleic acids. A target strand (Ts) competitively hybridized with a ferrocene (Fc)-labeled signal probe (Fc-S1), which was blocked by a protector strand (Ps), after strand displacement to form the Ts/Fc-S1 duplex. A methylene blue (MB)-modified signal probe (MB-S2) was immobilized on the Au electrode surface by hybridizing with a thiolated capture probe (Cp). Then, the obtained reactants (Ts/Fc-S1 and MB-S2/Cp) suffered spontaneous DNA branch migration and produced two hybridization products (Fc-S1/Cp and MB-S2/Ts). These reactions led to the dissociation of MB molecules and the collection of Fc molecules. The detection mechanism of this DNA biosensor involved distance variation between the redox tags and the Au electrode, which was associated with target-induced cascade DNA branch migration. Moreover, we rationally designed the cascade DNA branch migration to occur spontaneously with ΔG° ≈ 0, at which slight thermodynamic changes caused by base mismatch exerted a disproportionately large effect on the hybridization yield. This "signal-on/off" sensing system exhibited a remarkable analytical performance and an ultrahigh discrimination capability even against a single-base mismatch. The maximum discrimination factor (DF) of base mutations or alterations can reach 17.9. Therefore, our electrochemical biosensor might hold a great potential for further applications in biomedical research and early clinical diagnosis.
Clark, Cari Jo; Spencer, Rachael A; Shrestha, Binita; Ferguson, Gemma; Oakes, J Michael; Gupta, Jhumka
2017-01-13
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue that affects 1 in 3 women globally and a similarly large number of women in Nepal. Over the past decade, important policy and programmatic steps have been taken to address violence against women in Nepal. There remains a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of primary violence prevention strategies. The Change Starts at Home study begins to fill this gap by utilizing a multi-component social behaviour change communication (SBCC) strategy involving a radio drama and community mobilization to shift attitudes, norms and behaviours that underpin IPV perpetration in Nepal. The study uses a concurrent mixed-methods design. The quantitative aspect of the evaluation is a pair-matched, repeated cross-sectional 2-armed, single-blinded cluster trial (RCT: N = 36 clusters, 1440 individuals), comparing a social behaviour change communication (SBCC) strategy to radio programming alone for its impact on physical and / or sexual IPV at the end of programming (12 months' post-baseline) and 6-months post the cessation of project activities (18-months post baseline). The qualitative aspects of the design include several longitudinal approaches to understand the impact of the intervention and to examine mechanisms of change including in-depth interviews with participants (N = 18 couples), and focus group discussions with community leaders (N = 3 groups), and family members of participants (N = 12 groups). Treatment effects will be estimated with generalized logistic mixed models specified to compare differences in primary outcome from baseline to 12-month follow-up, and baseline to 18-months follow-up in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. The study rigorously evaluates the effectiveness of a promising strategy to prevent IPV. The results of the trial will be immediately useful for governmental, nongovernmental, and donor funded programs targeting partner violence or social norms that
Iterative coupling reservoir simulation on high performance computers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Bo; Wheeler Mary F
2009-01-01
In this paper, the iterative coupling approach is proposed for applications to solving multiphase flow equation systems in reservoir simulation, as it provides a more flexible time-stepping strategy than existing approaches. The iterative method decouples the whole equation systems into pressure and saturation/concentration equations, and then solves them in sequence, implicitly and semi-implicitly. At each time step, a series of iterations are computed, which involve solving linearized equations using specific tolerances that are iteration dependent. Following convergence of subproblems, material balance is checked. Convergence of time steps is based on material balance errors. Key components of the iterative method include phase scaling for deriving a pressure equation and use of several advanced numerical techniques. The iterative model is implemented for parallel computing platforms and shows high parallel efficiency and scalability.
Romania’s Accession to Second Modernity. Potential of Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marin Dinu
2006-06-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses Romanian economy facing with European integration process at 2007. The Romanian economy advanced the development prudent macroeconomics policies and implement structural reforms in the market for goods, labor and financial products. We identify in this study the principal conditionalities for the admittance in European Union. The nominal and real convergence must be touched faster because this process supposes stability prices, the financial soundness indicators, the need to stabilize exchange rate. In addition, the real convergence with European Union is very important. First, we analyze the strategic errors of the Romanian authorities in transition period. Second, our study focuses on current challenges and makes suggestions for change the modernization process. Can Romanian economy obtain a grow faster convergence? Is the strategy of Romanian economy optimal?
Romania’s Accession to Second Modernity. Potential of Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marin Dinu
2006-04-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses Romanian economy facing with European integration process at 2007. The Romanian economy advanced the development prudent macroeconomics policies and implement structural reforms in the market for goods, labor and financial products. We identify in this study the principal conditionalities for the admittance in European Union. The nominal and real convergence must be touched faster because this process supposes stability prices, the financial soundness indicators, the need to stabilize exchange rate. In addition, the real convergence with European Union is very important. First, we analyze the strategic errors of the Romanian authorities in transition period. Second, our study focuses on current challenges and makes suggestions for change the modernization process. Can Romanian economy obtain a grow faster convergence? Is the strategy of Romanian economy optimal?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik
2002-01-01
with the emergence of remote service provision, such as supervision and control of decentralized heating facilities and wind based electrical power production. The reliability issue is addressed from a structural viewpoint, where the concept of Structural QoS (SQoS) is defined to support reliability modelling...... in communication infrastructures. A graph theoretical approach is presented as an approach to reliability management in complex communication infrastructures. Real life examples are provided and specific problems are presented and discussed. Wireless technologies are discussed as a complement, providing not only...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolai Kolev
2003-01-01
placing n labeled balls into N labeled cells. We study the asymptotic behavior of the number of empty cells when (n,N belongs to the right and left domain of attraction. An application to the estimation of characteristics of agreement among a set of raters which independently classify subjects into one of two categories is also indicated. The case when a large number of raters acts following the zero-inflated binomial law with small probability for positive diagnosis is treated using the zero-inflated Poisson approximation.
Quantifying convergence in the sciences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Lumbreras
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Traditional epistemological models classify knowledge into separate disciplines with different objects of study and specific techniques, with some frameworks even proposing hierarchies (such as Comte’s. According to thinkers such as John Holland or Teilhard de Chardin, the advancement of science involves the convergence of disciplines. This proposed convergence can be studied in a number of ways, such as how works impact research outside a specific area (citation networks or how authors collaborate with other researchers in different fields (collaboration networks. While these studies are delivering significant new insights, they cannot easily show the convergence of different topics within a body of knowledge. This paper attempts to address this question in a quantitative manner, searching for evidence that supports the idea of convergence in the content of the sciences themselves (that is, whether the sciences are dealing with increasingly the same topics. We use Latent Dirichlet Analysis (LDA, a technique that is able to analyze texts and estimate the relative contributions of the topics that were used to generate them. We apply this tool to the corpus of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI working papers, which spans research on Complexity Science from 1989 to 2015. We then analyze the relatedness of the different research areas, the rise and demise of these sub-disciplines over time and, more broadly, the convergence of the research body as a whole. Combining the topic structure obtained from the collected publication history of the SFI community with techniques to infer hierarchy and clustering, we reconstruct a picture of a dynamic community which experiences trends, periodically recurring topics, and shifts in the closeness of scholarship over time. We find that there is support for convergence, and that the application of quantitative methods such as LDA to the study of knowledge can provide valuable insights that can help
Proliferating Connections and Communicating Convergence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aylish Wood
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I use the work of Niklas Luhmann to explore what pressure the concept of convergence exerts over how we communicate about the changing expressive practices of digital games following the emergence of digital technologies. My claim will be that in its current form, convergence privileges either the human users of technological platforms, or the combination of aesthetic conventions from different media what connects is either the user or the aesthetic code. While neither of these two positions would be likely to deny a reliance on the interplay between humans and technologies, such an interplay is taken for granted rather than explored. By using Luhmann’s version of systems theory, I argue that we can more effectively grasp the interplay of human and technological participants by understanding their combined roles in changing expressive practices.
Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains
Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric
How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).
Optimality Functions and Lopsided Convergence
2015-03-16
Problems involving functions defined in terms of integrals or optimization problems (as the maxi - mization in Example 3), functions defined on infinite...optimization methods in finite time. The key technical challenge associate with the above scheme is to establish ( weak ) consistency. In the next...Theorem 4.3. In view of this result, it is clear that ( weak ) consistency will be ensured by epi-convergence of the approximating objective functions and
ACCOUNTING CONVERGENCE ON ECONOMIC CRISIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HOLBAN ONCIOIU IONICA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available If normalization accounting is the process of harmonizing the presentation of financial statements, accounting methods and terminology, accounting convergence is the process by which accounting standards are developed in a way that is able to lead to the same fact or purpose, by highlighting the similarity of national - regional - international. This paper put in light the importance of the normalization and harmonization process, what its done in and what we have to do for that in Romania.
Convergence of logistics planning and execution in outsourcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela A. D’amato
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Logistics service providers (LSPs are becoming increasingly involved in their clients’ businesses. Beyond just providing vehicles and buildings, LSPs are now becoming involved with knowledge-related work that is connected to the traditional services provided.Objectives: To investigate the likelihood and potential value of LSPs extending their range of services to their clients by means of a convergence of planning and execution activities.Method: In the research through a literature review and empirical study presented here, attention is given to the practical impact that convergence planning and execution functions have on business success, as well as how selected clients of an LSP (referred to in this article as logistics company A or LCA perceive the impact of increased integration of LCA within its businesses. The results should assist LCA and other LSPs considering the same objective to ascertain the opportunities and key requirements associated with a strategy to converge planning and execution activities for their clients.Results: The study found that the vast majority of respondents see value in the convergence of planning and execution activities.Conclusion: Such convergence will be challenging, owing to the importance of the planning function for clients, as well as key collaborative and measurement requirements that will have to be put in place for successful business integration.
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin
2014-06-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
CONVERGENCE THEOREMS FOR THE AOR METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄廷祝; 王广彬
2002-01-01
Practical sufficient conditions for the convergence of the AOR method and a practical sufficient condition for H-matrices are studied. The obtained convergence conditions suited to matrices which need not to be diagonally dominant.
User Configurations and Convergence in Consumer Electronics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ulrik
2000-01-01
Convergence has been a technical fix motivated by the digital developments in media technologies.......Convergence has been a technical fix motivated by the digital developments in media technologies....
Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union
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Georgeta VINTILĂ
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.
Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels
Kosinka, Jiří
2016-02-12
We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.
Application of partially-coupled hydro-mechanical schemes to multiphase flow problems
Tillner, Elena; Kempka, Thomas
2016-04-01
Utilization of subsurface reservoirs by fluid storage or production generally triggers pore pressure changes and volumetric strains in reservoirs and cap rocks. The assessment of hydro-mechanical effects can be undertaken using different process coupling strategies. The fully-coupled geomechanics and flow simulation, constituting a monolithic system of equations, is rarely applied for simulations involving multiphase fluid flow due to the high computational efforts required. Pseudo-coupled simulations are driven by static tabular data on porosity and permeability changes as function of pore pressure or mean stress, resulting in a rather limited flexibility when encountering complex subsurface utilization schedules and realistic geological settings. Partially-coupled hydro-mechanical simulations can be distinguished into one-way and iterative two-way coupled schemes, whereby the latter one is based on calculations of flow and geomechanics, taking into account the iterative exchange of coupling parameters between the two respective numerical simulators until convergence is achieved. In contrast, the one-way coupling scheme is determined by the provision of pore pressure changes calculated by the flow simulator to the geomechanical simulator neglecting any feedback. In the present study, partially-coupled two-way schemes are discussed in view of fully-coupled single-phase flow and geomechanics, and their applicability to multiphase flow simulations. For that purpose, we introduce a comparison study between the different coupling schemes, using selected benchmarks to identify the main requirements for the partially-coupled approach to converge with the numerical solution of the fully-coupled one.
Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等
1997-01-01
Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.
Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)
1994-12-31
This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.
TAUBERIAN THEOREMS FOR WEAK ALMOST CONVERGENT FUNCTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng-Kuang Kuo
2011-01-01
The almost convergent function which was introduced by Raimi [6] and dis- cussed by Ho [4], Das and Nanda [2, 3], is the continuous analogue of almost convergent sequences (see [5]). In this paper, we establish the Tauberian conditions and the Cauchy criteria for weak almost convergent functions on R2+.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张洪
2012-01-01
在三网融合的大背景下,广电网络运营商在面临发展机遇的同时,更多的是面对挑战,在明确广电高清互动业务发展方向的基础上,通过市场需求分析和成本分析,针对不同的细分市场设计了不同的营销策略,并且及时跟踪分析市场反映,不断优化营销策略。%In the background of three networks convergence,broadcasting and TV network operators in the face development opportunity while,more it is to face many challenges.This paper is basic on the specific strategic direction of broadcasting and TV high definition interactive business.By analysis of market need market cost,this paper designs different marketing strategies on different market segments,what＇s more,this paper tracks analyzes the market reaction timely optimizes marketing strategies constantly.
2014-01-01
Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and imple...
Formation Tracking with Orientation Convergence for Groups of Unicycles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaime González-Sierra
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents three trajectory tracking control strategies for unicycle-type robots based on a leader-followers scheme. The leader robot converges asymptotically to a smooth trajectory, while the follower robots form an undirected open-chain configuration at the same time. It is also shown that the orientation angles of all the robots converge to the same value. The control laws are based on a dynamic extension of the kinematic model of each robot. The output function to be controlled is the midpoint of the wheel axis of every robot. This choice leads to an ill-defined control law when the robot is at rest. To avoid such singularities, a complementary control law is enabled momentarily when the linear velocity of the unicycles is close to zero. Finally, numerical simulations and real-time experiments show the performance of the control strategies.
Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes
Friedman, S. T.
2016-01-26
© 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Weak* convergence of operator means
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romanov, Alexandr V [Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-12-31
For a linear operator U with ||U'n||{<=}const on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T{sub {alpha}} corresponding to the adjoint operator U* of U in the W*O-topology of the space EndX*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in EndX*, which is the kernel of the operator, where {Gamma}{sub 0}={l_brace}U{sub n}*, n{>=}0{r_brace}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T{sub {alpha}} weakly* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C({Omega}) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation {phi} of a metrizable compactum {Omega} we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and {Gamma}={Gamma}-bar{sub 0}, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade ({phi},{Omega}). In particular, if cardL=1, then a) for any {omega} element of {Omega} the closure of the trajectory {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}{omega}, n{>=}0{r_brace} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction ({phi},m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the W*O-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T{sub n} element of EndX* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E({phi},{Omega}) contains elements obtained from the 'basis' family of transformations {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}, n{>=}0{r_brace} of the compact set {Omega} by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.
SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chernyshov Alexander V.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.
Improved convergence proof of the delta expansion and order dependent mappings
Guida, R; Suzuki, H; Guida, Riccardo; Konishi, Kenichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi
1995-01-01
We improve and generalize in several accounts the recent rigorous proof of convergence of delta expansion - order dependent mappings (variational perturbation expansion) for the energy eigenvalues of anharmonic oscillator. For the single-well anharmonic oscillator the uniformity of convergence in g\\in[0,\\infty] is proven. The convergence proof is extended also to complex values of g lying on a wide domain of the Riemann surface of E(g). Via the scaling relation \\`a la Symanzik, this proves the convergence of delta expansion for the double well in the strong coupling regime (where the standard perturbation series is non Borel summable), as well as for the complex ``energy eigenvalues'' in certain metastable potentials. Sufficient conditions for the convergence of delta expansion are summarized in the form of three theorems, which should apply to a wide class of quantum mechanical and higher dimensional field theoretic systems.
Euler equation existence, non-uniqueness and mesh converged statistics.
Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Lim, Hyunkyung; Kaufman, Ryan; Hu, Wenlin
2015-09-13
We review existence and non-uniqueness results for the Euler equation of fluid flow. These results are placed in the context of physical models and their solutions. Non-uniqueness is in direct conflict with the purpose of practical simulations, so that a mitigating strategy, outlined here, is important. We illustrate these issues in an examination of mesh converged turbulent statistics, with comparison to laboratory experiments.
Renewable energy policies in Europe: Converging or diverging?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kitzing, Lena; Mitchell, Catherine; Morthorst, Poul Erik
2012-01-01
Nations today are urgently challenged with achieving a significant increase in the deployment of renewable energies. In Europe that need has given rise to a debate about the most effective and efficient support strategy. Whilst the different interests debate whether full European harmonisation or...... instruments). These trends in national decision-making, which show tendencies of convergence, could make an EU-driven ‘top-down’ harmonisation of support either dispensable or at least (depending on the agreement) less controversial....
Optimal Response Learning and Its Convergence in Multiagent Domains
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hua-xiang; HUANG Shang-teng; LE Jia-jin
2005-01-01
In multiagent reinforcement learning, with different assumptions of the opponents' policies, an agent adopts quite different learning rules, and gets different learning performances. We prove that, in nultiagent domains, convergence of the Q values is guaranteed only when an agent behaves optimally and its opponents' strategies satisfy certain conditions, and an agent can get best learning performances when it adopts the same learning algorithm as that of its opponents.
Pointwise convergence of Fourier series
Arias de Reyna, Juan
2002-01-01
This book contains a detailed exposition of Carleson-Hunt theorem following the proof of Carleson: to this day this is the only one giving better bounds. It points out the motivation of every step in the proof. Thus the Carleson-Hunt theorem becomes accessible to any analyst.The book also contains the first detailed exposition of the fine results of Hunt, Sjölin, Soria, etc on the convergence of Fourier Series. Its final chapters present original material. With both Fefferman's proof and the recent one of Lacey and Thiele in print, it becomes more important than ever to understand and compare these two related proofs with that of Carleson and Hunt. These alternative proofs do not yield all the results of the Carleson-Hunt proof. The intention of this monograph is to make Carleson's proof accessible to a wider audience, and to explain its consequences for the pointwise convergence of Fourier series for functions in spaces near $äcal Lü^1$, filling a well-known gap in the literature.
Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus
Yeaman, Michael R.; Filler, Scott G.; Schmidt, Clint S.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Edwards, John E.; Hennessey, John P.
2014-01-01
Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future “third generation” vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high-priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologs found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that (1) afford protective efficacy; (2) target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; (3) cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunological niche; and/or (4) overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre-clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3) where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target S
Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael R Yeaman
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future 3rd generation vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologues found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that 1 afford protective efficacy; 2 target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; 3 cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunologic niche; and/or 4 overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre–clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in preclinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3 where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target
Particle-Gas Dynamics with Athena: Method and Convergence
Bai, Xue-Ning
2010-01-01
The Athena MHD code has been extended to integrates the motion of particles coupled with the gas via aerodynamic drag, in order to study the dynamics of gas and solids in protoplanetary disks and the formation of planetesimals. Our particle-gas hybrid scheme is based on a second order predictor-corrector method. Careful treatment of the momentum feedback on the gas guarantees exact conservation. The hybrid scheme is stable and convergent in most regimes relevant to protoplanetary disks. We describe a semi-implicit integrator generalized from the leap-frog approach. In the absence of drag force, it preserves the geometric properties of a particle orbit. We also present a fully-implicit integrator that is unconditionally stable for all regimes of particle-gas coupling. Using our hybrid code, we study the numerical convergence of the non-linear saturated state of the streaming instability. We find that gas flow properties are well converged with modest grid resolution (128 cells per pressure length ${\\eta}r$ for...
Convergent Validity of the PUTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valerie Cathérine Brandt
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively
Improving Advanced Inverter Control Convergence in Distribution Power Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Baggu, Murali
2016-11-21
Simulation of modern distribution system powerflow increasingly requires capturing the impact of advanced PV inverter voltage regulation on powerflow. With Volt/var control, the inverter adjusts its reactive power flow as a function of the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage. Similarly, Volt/watt control curtails active power production as a function of PCC voltage. However, with larger systems and higher penetrations of PV, this active/reactive power flow itself can cause significant changes to the PCC voltage potentially introducing oscillations that slow the convergence of system simulations. Improper treatment of these advanced inverter functions could potentially lead to incorrect results. This paper explores a simple approach to speed such convergence by blending in the previous iteration's reactive power estimate to dampen these oscillations. Results with a single large (5MW) PV system and with multiple 500kW advanced inverters show dramatic improvements using this approach.
Professional convergence in forensic practice.
Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J
2001-06-01
This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.
Wang, Qian; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Ye, Bang-Ce
2016-06-15
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, play significant regulatory roles in regulating gene expression and become as biomarkers for disease diagnostics and therapeutics. In this work, we have coupled a polydopamine (PDA) nanosphere-assisted chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) platform and a duplex-specific nuclease (DSN)-assisted signal amplification strategy to develop a novel method for specific miRNA detection. With the assistance of hemin, luminol, and H2O2, the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking G-rich sequence in the sensing probe produces chemiluminescence, which is quickly quenched by the CRET effect between PDA as energy acceptor and excited luminol as energy donor. The target miRNA triggers DSN to partially degrade the sensing probe in the DNA-miRNA heteroduplex to repeatedly release G-quadruplex formed by G-rich sequence from PDA for the production of chemiluminescence. The method allows quantitative detection of target miRNA in the range of 80 pM-50 nM with a detection limit of 49.6 pM. The method also shows excellent specificity to discriminate single-base differences, and can accurately quantify miRNA in biological samples, with good agreement with the result from a commercial miRNA detection kit. The procedure requires no organic dyes or labels, and is a simple and cost-effective method for miRNA detection for early clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sibra, A.; Dupays, J.; Murrone, A.; Laurent, F.; Massot, M.
2017-06-01
In this paper, we tackle the issue of the accurate simulation of evaporating and reactive polydisperse sprays strongly coupled to unsteady gaseous flows. In solid propulsion, aluminum particles are included in the propellant to improve the global performances but the distributed combustion of these droplets in the chamber is suspected to be a driving mechanism of hydrodynamic and acoustic instabilities. The faithful prediction of two-phase interactions is a determining step for future solid rocket motor optimization. When looking at saving computational ressources as required for industrial applications, performing reliable simulations of two-phase flow instabilities appears as a challenge for both modeling and scientific computing. The size polydispersity, which conditions the droplet dynamics, is a key parameter that has to be accounted for. For moderately dense sprays, a kinetic approach based on a statistical point of view is particularly appropriate. The spray is described by a number density function and its evolution follows a Williams-Boltzmann transport equation. To solve it, we use Eulerian Multi-Fluid methods, based on a continuous discretization of the size phase space into sections, which offer an accurate treatment of the polydispersion. The objective of this paper is threefold: first to derive a new Two Size Moment Multi-Fluid model that is able to tackle evaporating polydisperse sprays at low cost while accurately describing the main driving mechanisms, second to develop a dedicated evaporation scheme to treat simultaneously mass, moment and energy exchanges with the gas and between the sections. Finally, to design a time splitting operator strategy respecting both reactive two-phase flow physics and cost/accuracy ratio required for industrial computations. Using a research code, we provide 0D validations of the new scheme before assessing the splitting technique's ability on a reference two-phase flow acoustic case. Implemented in the industrial
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫明杰
2014-01-01
There are coupling characteristics between self-owned brand strategies and enterprise international competition ability. The implementation of self-owned brand strategies can promote the enterprise international competition ability, and in turn the enterprise international competition ability affects the formulation and implementation of self-owned brand strategies. Firstly the article analyses the connotation coupling between the two,then based on this research,studies the coupling relation between the two. Secondly based on the analysis of the coupling theoretical basis,the paper analyses the coupling path between the two. Finally,the paper proposes some measures to promote the two coupling and development.%自主品牌战略与企业国际竞争力之间具有耦合特性，自主品牌战略实施可以促使企业国际竞争力的提升，而企业国际竞争力反过来对自主品牌战略的制定和实施也具有影响，两者呈现互动发展的态势。对两者之间的内涵耦合进行分析，并在此基础上阐述两者之间的耦合关系；接着在阐述两者耦合的理论依据基础上，对两者之间的耦合路径进行分析；提出促进两者耦合发展的策略。
Mosaic Convergence of Rodent Dentitions
Lazzari, Vincent; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent
2008-01-01
Background Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. Conclusion/Significance The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible pathways. Because convergent
Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent Lazzari
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible
Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science
Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Zisholtz, E.; Hilton, H.
2010-01-01
The I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium is a major educational and teaching resource for South Carolina State University, K-12 schools, other universities and the community of Orangeburg and well beyond. The concept of creating a museum with a planetarium on the campus of SC State was ahead of its time. Today scholars are writing about the unity of creative disciplines. Through its integration of the arts, humanities and sciences, the Stanback, the only art museum with a planetarium at any of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one of the few in the nation, stands in the forefront of modern thinking. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science, opening at the I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium in February 2010, will feature the works of Mildred Thompson (1936-2003), a prominent African American artist who worked in the media of painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and photography. Thompson’s artwork shows the strong influences of her interest in physics, astronomy, and metaphysics as well as music and spiritualism. “My work in the visual arts is, and has always been, a continuous search for understanding. It is an expression of purpose and reflects a personal interpretation of the Universe.” Cosmic Convergence will explore the meeting of Art and Science through Mildred Thompson's work and the scientific basis of that work. The paintings and sculptures of the exhibit will be combined with astronomical images showing both the reality and interpretation of the surrounding Universe. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.
Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.
The many roads to parasitism: a tale of convergence.
Poulin, Robert
2011-01-01
Parasitic organisms account for a large portion of living species. They have arisen on multiple independent occasions in many phyla, and thus encompass a huge biological diversity. This review uses several lines of evidence to argue that this vast diversity can be reduced to a few evolutionary end points that transcend phylogenetic boundaries. These represent peaks in the adaptive landscape reached independently by different lineages undergoing convergent evolution. Among eukaryotic parasites living in or on animals, six basic parasitic strategies are identified based on the number of hosts used per parasite generation, the fitness loss incurred by the host, and the transmission routes used by the parasites. They are parasitoids, parasitic castrators, directly transmitted parasites, trophically transmitted parasites, vector-transmitted parasites and micropredators. These show evidence of convergence in morphology, physiology, reproduction, life cycles and transmission patterns. Parasite-host body size ratios, and the relationship between virulence and intensity of infection, are also associated with the different parasitic strategies, but not consistently so. At the population level, patterns of parasite distribution among hosts are not uniform across all parasitic strategies, but are distinctly different for parasitoids and castrators than for other parasites. To demonstrate that the above six strategies defined for animal parasites are universal, comparisons are made with parasites of plants, in particular, plant-parasitic nematodes and parasitic angiosperms; these are shown to follow the same evolutionary trajectories seen among animal parasites, despite huge physiological and ecological differences between animals and plants. Beyond demonstrating the inevitable convergence of disparate lineages across biological hyperspace towards a limited set of adaptive strategies, this synthesis also provides a unifying framework for the study of parasitism. Copyright
A FAST CONVERGENT METHOD OF ITERATED REGULARIZATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Xiaowei; Wu Chuansheng; Wu Di
2009-01-01
This article presents a fast convergent method of iterated regularization based on the idea of Landweber iterated regularization, and a method for a-posteriori choice by the Morozov discrepancy principle and the optimum asymptotic convergence order of the regularized solution is obtained. Numerical test shows that the method of iterated regu-larization can quicken the convergence speed and reduce the calculation burden efficiently.
WEAK CONVERGENCE OF HENSTOCK INTEGRABLE SEQUENCES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LuisaDiPiazza
1994-01-01
Some relationships between pointwise and weak convergence of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions are studied, In particular it is provided an example of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions whose pointwise limit is different from the weak one. By introducing an asymptotic version of the Henstock equiintegrability notion it is given a necessary and sufficient condition in order that a pointwisely convergent sequence of Henstock integrable functions is weakly convergent to its pointwise limit.
Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence
Sormani, Christina
2016-01-01
Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.
Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza
The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....
Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza
The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....
Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter
2011-01-01
Existing studies have found only limited empirical evidence of welfare state convergence. Moreover, although there are good theoretical reasons both for and against welfare state convergence, there are virtually no studies that have explicitly tested the assumed effects. We argue that the concept....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...... welfare state structures. © The Author(s) 2011....
Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silling, Stewart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seleson, Pablo D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Daniel Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunzburger, Max [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2015-09-01
dramatically improved consistency at domain boundaries, and an enhancement to the meshfree discretization applied to peridynamic models that removes irregularities at the limit of the nonlocal length scale and dramatically improves conver- gence behavior. Finally, a novel approach for modeling ductile failure has been developed, moti- vated by the desire to apply coupled local-nonlocal models to a wide variety of materials, including ductile metals, which have received minimal attention in the peridynamic literature. Software im- plementation of the partial-stress coupling strategy, the position-aware peridynamic constitutive models, and the strategies for improving the convergence behavior of peridynamic models was completed within the Peridigm and Albany codes, developed at Sandia National Laboratories and made publicly available under the open-source 3-clause BSD license.
Pollen and sperm heteromorphism: convergence across kingdoms?
Till-Bottraud, I; Joly, D; Lachaise, D; Snook, R R
2005-01-01
Sperm competition theory predicts that males should produce many, similar sperm. However, in some species of animals and plants, males exhibit a heteromorphism that results in the production of at least two different types of sperm or pollen grains. In animals, sperm heteromorphism typically corresponds to the production of one fertile morph and one (or more) sterile morph(s), whereas in plants two or more pollen morphs (one of which can be either sterile or fertile) are produced in all flowers but sometimes in different anthers. Heteromorphism has arisen independently several times across phyla and at different phylogenetic levels. Here, we compare and contrast sperm and pollen heteromorphism and discuss the evolutionary hypotheses suggested to explain heteromorphism in these taxa. These hypotheses include facilitation, nutritive contribution, blocking, cheap filler, sperm flushing or killing for animals; outcrossing and precise cross-pollen transfer or bet-hedging strategy for plants; cryptic female choice for both. We conclude that heteromorphism in the two phyla is most likely linked to a general evolutionary response to sexual selection, either to increase one male's sperm or pollen success in competition with other males, or mediate male/female interactions. Therefore, although sperm and pollen are not homologous, we suggest that heteromorphism represents an example of convergence across kingdoms.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Detong
2000-01-01
This paper proposes projected gradient algorithms in association with using both trust region and line search techniques for convex constrained optimization problems.The mixed strategy is adopted which switches to back tracking steps when a trial projected gradient step produced by the trust region subproblem is unacceptable. A nonmonotone criterion is used to speed up the convergence progress in some curves with large curvature.A theoretical analysis is given which proves that the proposed algorithms are globally convergent and have local superlinear convergence rate under some reasonable conditions.The results of numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Convergence, transmedia and cognitive excess in the ocupation of USP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thiago Soares
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The Occupation of USP coverage in Folha de S. Paulo is a notable sample for a study of convergence and transmedia in journalism. From the production of content for newspaper and website, until the integration of traditional media with social networks (Twitter and Facebook, there is a peculiarity in the way of addressing journalistic content: the uses of social networking by news organizations – in this case, the Folha Communication Group – invokes the idea of collaborative production in contemporary journalism, along with strategies of convergence and transmedia. Through the review of these concepts, we recognize that the production of content through strategic uses of cognitive surplus is an exemple of a new pratice in contemporary journalism.
A Strategy Toward Convergent Combination Immunotherapy for SARS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wayne; A.; Marasco
2005-01-01
Passive Immunotherapyfor viral infections withimmune humanimmunoglobulin has been usedfor many yearsinthe pro-phylaxis andtreatment of infectious disease such as RSV,CMV,rabies,hepatitis Aand B and others.Recently,ad-vances in antibody engineering have allowedthe rapid isolation and pre-clinical development of human monoclonal anti-bodies(Mab)for the treatment of humaninfectious diseases and other conditions.We have explored the use of humanmonoclonal antibodies against the newly emerged SARS coronavirus(Co...
Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Phillip Martin
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.
Media and democracy: false convergences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco C. P. Fonseca
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This article discusses the false convergence between the role of the media in promoting democracy and political theories of democracy. With this purpose in mind, we propose critical reflections on arguments that: 1 naturalize the fact that "the news" is a commodity; b focus on the (supposedly public goals of the media, in spite of the reality that their agencies are largely private; c link these agencies to liberal- democratic values. Thus, the text attempts to show both the absence of and need for shields - personified in the theories of weights and counterbalances - against the powers that be, particularly those of the media. We point to the paradox involved in the media's role as intermediary between public and private spheres and question the degree to which the media permit fulfillment of the idea that those have control should be controlled, particularly in a world in which communication has extended its action to the planetary level. We conclude that democracy can only be made effective if democratic controls over the media are exercised; this means the creation of national and international level public information media that would be neither privately nor state owned and managed.
The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia
Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel
2012-01-01
KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study
Convergence of a Linear Recursive Sequence
Tay, E. G.; Toh, T. L.; Dong, F. M.; Lee, T. Y.
2004-01-01
A necessary and sufficient condition is found for a linear recursive sequence to be convergent, no matter what initial values are given. Its limit is also obtained when the sequence is convergent. Methods from various areas of mathematics are used to obtain the results.
ON A GENERALIZED GAUSS CONVERGENCE CRITERION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ILEANA BUCUR
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we combine the well known Raabe-Duhamel, Kummer, Bertrand . . . criterions of convergence for series with positive terms and we obtain a new one which is more powerful than those cited before. Even the famous Gauss criterion,which was in fact our starting point, is a consequence of this new convergence test.
ON LACUNARY STATISTICAL CONVERGENCE OF ORDER α
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hacer SENGUL; Mikail ET
2014-01-01
In this article, we introduce the concept of lacunary statistical convergence of orderαof real number sequences and give some inclusion relations between the sets of lacu-nary statistical convergence of order α and strong Nαθ (p)-summability. Furthermore, some relations between the spaces Nαθ (p) and Sαθ are examined.
Numerical simulation of converging shock waves
Yee, Seokjune; Abe, Kanji
We can achieve the high pressure and high temperature state of gas if the shock wave converges stably. In order to check the stability of the converging shock wave, we introduce two kinds of perturbed initial conditions. The Euler equations of conservation form are integrated by using explicit Non-Muscl TVD finite difference scheme.
CONVERGENCE RATE OFDISTRIBUTIONS OF TRIMMED SUMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIYONGCHENG; CHENGSHIHONG
1996-01-01
The authors first derive the normal expansion of the joint density function of two orderstatistics from the uniform distribution and then, using the approximation, establish a wayto estimate the normal convergence rate for trimmed sums. For applications, the convergence rates for the intermediately trimmed sums and heavily trimmed sums are found out.
Convergence of Symmetric Diffusions on Wiener Spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.Posilicano; T.S.Zhang
2004-01-01
In this paper,we study the distorted Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes associated with given densities on an abstract Wiener space.We prove that the laws of distorted Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes converge in total variation norm if the densities converge in Sobolev space D 1/2.
New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Li
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to examine the impacts of additional HONO sources on the chemical interaction between ozone (O3 and particulate matter with a diameter≤2.5 µm (PM2.5. Three additional HONO sources, i.e. HONO emissions, the reaction of photo-excited nitrogen dioxide (NO2 * with water vapour (H2O, and NO2 heterogeneous reaction on aerosol surfaces, were inserted into the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model to evaluate O3 and PM2.5 concentration enhancements in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region during August 2007. Results show that the additional HONO sources significantly increase O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during daytime. Up to 9 ppb enhancements of O3 and 32 µg m−3 increases in PM2.5 are found at seven urban sites over the BTH region. O3 increases are closely connected to PM2.5 increases over urban areas during daytime when the additional HONO sources are taken into account. PM2.5 inorganic components of SO42\t-, and NH4+ are increased by 5–18, 10–58 and 10–40%, respectively, over urban areas during daytime. The simultaneous increment of O3 and PM2.5 during daytime due to the additional HONO sources is related to the increasing oxidants (OH, H2O2 and O3 that enhance the atmospheric oxidising capacity. The concentration variations of O3 and PM2.5 under a variety of NOx, volatile organic compound and ammonia (NH3 emission control scenarios show that the additional HONO sources increase the sensitivity of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations to the changes of NOx emissions. An increase of the PM2.5 sensitivity to changes in NH3 emissions is also found. This indicates that without considering the additional HONO sources, the effectiveness of emission control strategies in reducing O3 and PM2.5 concentrations would be significantly underestimated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孟彦京; 张洪涛
2013-01-01
针对多电机的耦合特性复杂、负荷易失衡的特点,采用总线通信实时控制的方式对电机转矩与转速进行调节.通过分析多电机负荷分配中刚性耦合与柔性耦合的特点,提出了与其对应的总线通信转矩控制和总线通信转速控制的负荷分配控制策略,并对这两种控制策略的稳定性做出了理论性分析.最后通过观测现场实时数据证明了控制策略的可行性.%In accordance with the complication of coupling characteristics of multi-motor, and the feature of load imbalance, the torque and rotating speed of motor are regulated by adopting bus communication real time control. Through analyzing the features of rigid coupling and flexible coupling in load dispatching of multi-motor, corresponding load dispatch control strategies of bus communication torque control and bus communication rotating speed control are proposed, and the stability of these two control strategies are analyzed theoretically. The feasibility of the control strategies is verified through observing real time on-site data.
Convergent series for lattice models with polynomial interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandr S. Ivanov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The standard perturbative weak-coupling expansions in lattice models are asymptotic. The reason for this is hidden in the incorrect interchange of the summation and integration. However, substituting the Gaussian initial approximation of the perturbative expansions by a certain interacting model or regularizing original lattice integrals, one can construct desired convergent series. In this paper we develop methods, which are based on the joint and separate utilization of the regularization and new initial approximation. We prove, that the convergent series exist and can be expressed as re-summed standard perturbation theory for any model on the finite lattice with the polynomial interaction of even degree. We discuss properties of such series and study their applicability to practical computations on the example of the lattice ϕ4-model. We calculate 〈ϕn2〉 expectation value using the convergent series, the comparison of the results with the Borel re-summation and Monte Carlo simulations shows a good agreement between all these methods.
Convergent evolution of marine mammals is associated with distinct substitutions in common genes
Zhou, Xuming; Seim, Inge; Gladyshev, Vadim N.
2015-01-01
Phenotypic convergence is thought to be driven by parallel substitutions coupled with natural selection at the sequence level. Multiple independent evolutionary transitions of mammals to an aquatic environment offer an opportunity to test this thesis. Here, whole genome alignment of coding sequences identified widespread parallel amino acid substitutions in marine mammals; however, the majority of these changes were not unique to these animals. Conversely, we report that candidate aquatic adaptation genes, identified by signatures of likelihood convergence and/or elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate, are characterized by very few parallel substitutions and exhibit distinct sequence changes in each group. Moreover, no significant positive correlation was found between likelihood convergence and positive selection in all three marine lineages. These results suggest that convergence in protein coding genes associated with aquatic lifestyle is mainly characterized by independent substitutions and relaxed negative selection. PMID:26549748
Convergent evolution of marine mammals is associated with distinct substitutions in common genes.
Zhou, Xuming; Seim, Inge; Gladyshev, Vadim N
2015-11-09
Phenotypic convergence is thought to be driven by parallel substitutions coupled with natural selection at the sequence level. Multiple independent evolutionary transitions of mammals to an aquatic environment offer an opportunity to test this thesis. Here, whole genome alignment of coding sequences identified widespread parallel amino acid substitutions in marine mammals; however, the majority of these changes were not unique to these animals. Conversely, we report that candidate aquatic adaptation genes, identified by signatures of likelihood convergence and/or elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate, are characterized by very few parallel substitutions and exhibit distinct sequence changes in each group. Moreover, no significant positive correlation was found between likelihood convergence and positive selection in all three marine lineages. These results suggest that convergence in protein coding genes associated with aquatic lifestyle is mainly characterized by independent substitutions and relaxed negative selection.
On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence
Ferreira, Rita C.
2014-10-01
In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Oscillation quenching in third order phase locked loop coupled by mean field diffusive coupling
Chakraborty, S.; Dandapathak, M.; Sarkar, B. C.
2016-11-01
We explored analytically the oscillation quenching phenomena (amplitude death and parameter dependent inhomogeneous steady state) in a coupled third order phase locked loop (PLL) both in periodic and chaotic mode. The phase locked loops were coupled through mean field diffusive coupling. The lower and upper limits of the quenched state were identified in the parameter space of the coupled PLL using the Routh-Hurwitz technique. We further observed that the ability of convergence to the quenched state of coupled PLLs depends on the design parameters. For identical systems, both the systems converge to the homogeneous steady state, whereas for non-identical parameter values they converge to an inhomogeneous steady state. It was also observed that for identical systems, the quenched state is wider than the non-identical case. When the system parameters are so chosen that each isolated loop is chaotic in nature, we observe narrowing down of the quenched state. All these phenomena were also demonstrated through numerical simulations.
Classical FEM-BEM coupling methods: nonlinearities, well-posedness, and adaptivity
Aurada, Markus; Feischl, Michael; Führer, Thomas; Karkulik, Michael; Melenk, Jens Markus; Praetorius, Dirk
2013-04-01
We consider a (possibly) nonlinear interface problem in 2D and 3D, which is solved by use of various adaptive FEM-BEM coupling strategies, namely the Johnson-Nédélec coupling, the Bielak-MacCamy coupling, and Costabel's symmetric coupling. We provide a framework to prove that the continuous as well as the discrete Galerkin solutions of these coupling methods additionally solve an appropriate operator equation with a Lipschitz continuous and strongly monotone operator. Therefore, the original coupling formulations are well-defined, and the Galerkin solutions are quasi-optimal in the sense of a Céa-type lemma. For the respective Galerkin discretizations with lowest-order polynomials, we provide reliable residual-based error estimators. Together with an estimator reduction property, we prove convergence of the adaptive FEM-BEM coupling methods. A key point for the proof of the estimator reduction are novel inverse-type estimates for the involved boundary integral operators which are advertized. Numerical experiments conclude the work and compare performance and effectivity of the three adaptive coupling procedures in the presence of generic singularities.
A tightly-coupled domain-decomposition approach for highly nonlinear stochastic multiphysics systems
Taverniers, Søren; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.
2017-02-01
Multiphysics simulations often involve nonlinear components that are driven by internally generated or externally imposed random fluctuations. When used with a domain-decomposition (DD) algorithm, such components have to be coupled in a way that both accurately propagates the noise between the subdomains and lends itself to a stable and cost-effective temporal integration. We develop a conservative DD approach in which tight coupling is obtained by using a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JfNK) method with a generalized minimum residual iterative linear solver. This strategy is tested on a coupled nonlinear diffusion system forced by a truncated Gaussian noise at the boundary. Enforcement of path-wise continuity of the state variable and its flux, as opposed to continuity in the mean, at interfaces between subdomains enables the DD algorithm to correctly propagate boundary fluctuations throughout the computational domain. Reliance on a single Newton iteration (explicit coupling), rather than on the fully converged JfNK (implicit) coupling, may increase the solution error by an order of magnitude. Increase in communication frequency between the DD components reduces the explicit coupling's error, but makes it less efficient than the implicit coupling at comparable error levels for all noise strengths considered. Finally, the DD algorithm with the implicit JfNK coupling resolves temporally-correlated fluctuations of the boundary noise when the correlation time of the latter exceeds some multiple of an appropriately defined characteristic diffusion time.
Convergence of Corporate and Information Security
Syed,; Donahue, Shannon E
2010-01-01
As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper reports on how organizations have traditionally managed asset protection, why that is changing and how to establish convergence to optimize security value to the business within an enterprise.
Strategic business transformation through technology convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander
2015-01-01
-time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses......, and that some dimensions and stages of transformation previously thought to be relevant may not be pertinent for successful business transformations through technology convergence....
Strategic business transformation through technology convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander
2015-01-01
-time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses......, and that some dimensions and stages of transformation previously thought to be relevant may not be pertinent for successful business transformations through technology convergence....
Income Convergence and the Flow out of Poverty in India, 1994-2005
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos; Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
This paper explores the dynamics of income and poverty of rural Indian households, 1994-2005. The estimation strategy consists of convergence analysis to test whether poor households are catching-up in terms of income, followed by transition analysis to test whether poor households are more likely...... to exit poverty than to remain poor. The identification strategy explicitly addresses issues pertaining to the potential endogeneity and measurement error of initial income and poverty. We find evidence of income convergence and a higher probability of exiting poverty than of remaining poor. The key...... variables driving these results are education, occupation and asset ownership....
Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.
Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G
2016-09-01
Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.
Basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory
Franck, Odile; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien
2014-01-01
Range-separated density-functional theory is an alternative approach to Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The strategy of range-separated density-functional theory consists in separating the Coulomb electron-electron interaction into long-range and short-range components, and treating the long-range part by an explicit many-body wave-function method and the short-range part by a density-functional approximation. Among the advantages of using many-body methods for the long-range part of the electron-electron interaction is that they are much less sensitive to the one-electron atomic basis compared to the case of the standard Coulomb interaction. Here, we provide a detailed study of the basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory. We study the convergence of the partial-wave expansion of the long-range wave function near the electron-electron coalescence. We show that the rate of convergence is exponential with respect to the maximal angular momentum L for the long-range wave function, whe...
Coupled transfers; Transferts couples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolas, X.; Lauriat, G.; Jimenez-Rondan, J. [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (LETEM), 77 (France); Bouali, H.; Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, IUSTI UMR 6595, 13 Marseille (France); Stoian, M.; Rebay, M.; Lachi, M.; Padet, J. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Thermomecanique, UTAP, 51 - Reims (France); Mladin, E.C. [Universitaire Polytechnique Bucarest, Faculte de Genie Mecanique, Bucarest (Romania); Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Dept. de Physique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C.; Papini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI, 13 - Marseille (France); Lorrette, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Boechat, C.; Pailler, R. [Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux, UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Ben Salah, M.; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. d' Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetiques (Tunisia); Grine, A.; Desmons, J.Y.; Harmand, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Radenac, E.; Gressier, J.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France); Giovannini, A. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France)
2005-07-01
This session about coupled transfers gathers 30 articles dealing with: numerical study of coupled heat transfers inside an alveolar wall; natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a plugged and ventilated chimney; finite-volume modeling of the convection-conduction coupling in non-stationary regime; numerical study of the natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a partitioned cavity; modeling of the thermal conductivity of textile reinforced composites: finite element homogenization on a full periodical pattern; application of the control volume method based on non-structured finite elements to the problems of axisymmetrical radiant heat transfers in any geometries; modeling of convective transfers in transient regime on a flat plate; a conservative method for the non-stationary coupling of aero-thermal engineering codes; measurement of coupled heat transfers (forced convection/radiant transfer) inside an horizontal duct; numerical simulation of the combustion of a water-oil emulsion droplet; numerical simulation study of heat and mass transfers inside a reactor for nano-powders synthesis; reduction of a combustion and heat transfer model of a direct injection diesel engine; modeling of heat transfers inside a knocking operated spark ignition engine; heat loss inside an internal combustion engine, thermodynamical and flamelet model, composition effects of CH{sub 4}H{sub 2} mixtures; experimental study and modeling of the evolution of a flame on a solid fuel; heat transfer for laminar subsonic jet of oxygen plasma impacting an obstacle; hydrogen transport through a A-Si:H layer submitted to an hydrogen plasma: temperature effects; thermal modeling of the CO{sub 2} laser welding of a magnesium alloy; radiant heat transfer inside a 3-D environment: application of the finite volume method in association with the CK model; optimization of the infrared baking of two types of powder paints; optimization of the emission power of an infrared
Convergence acceleration for vector sequences and applications to computational fluid dynamics
Sidi, Avram; Celestina, Mark L.
1990-01-01
Some recent developments in acceleration of convergence methods for vector sequences are reviewed. The methods considered are the minimal polynomial extrapolation, the reduced rank extrapolation, and the modified minimal polynomial extrapolation. The vector sequences to be accelerated are those that are obtained from the iterative solution of linear or nonlinear systems of equations. The convergence and stability properties of these methods as well as different ways of numerical implementation are discussed in detail. Based on the convergence and stability results, strategies that are useful in practical applications are suggested. Two applications to computational fluid mechanics involving the three dimensional Euler equations for ducted and external flows are considered. The numerical results demonstrate the usefulness of the methods in accelerating the convergence of the time marching techniques in the solution of steady state problems.
Convergence of Attitudes among College Students
Whatley, Alice E.; Appel, Victor H.
1973-01-01
Attempts to determine whether the intersex convergence phenomenon could be applicable to the measured attitudes of collegiate samples. Both sexes seemed to be moving toward a more liberal view on issues related to marriage and the family. (Author)
Cultivate technology convergence for product innovation.
Wilkinson, J Malcolm
2006-04-01
Technologies from diverse scientific disciplines are being combined to drive innovation in medical devices. How technology convergence and innovation could be further stimulated is explored here using developments in imaging and point-of-care devices as examples.
Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.
Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi
2016-09-02
Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference.
Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning: Innovations ... using various blended learning media including print, ICTs, electronic platforms, ... Admittedly, the blending of offline and online learning enhances significantly ...
A Convergent Total Synthesis of Methoxatin
Hendrickson, James B.; Vries, Johannes G. de
1982-01-01
We report a convergent total synthesis of the coenzyme methoxatin (1) by linking a pyrrole subunit with an uvitonic acid derivative and oxidative photocyclization to a deoxymethoxatin triester, followed by seven refunctionalization steps to 1.
On Convergence Results for Lipschitz Pseudocontractive Mappings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shin Min Kang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We establish the strong convergence for the Ishikawa iteration scheme associated with Lipschitz pseudocontractive mappings in real Banach spaces. Moreover, our technique of proofs is of independent interest.
On Paranorm Zweier -Convergent Sequence Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vakeel A. Khan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the paranorm Zweier -convergent sequence spaces , , and , a sequence of positive real numbers. We study some topological properties, prove the decomposition theorem, and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.
Basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory.
Franck, Odile; Mussard, Bastien; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien
2015-02-21
Range-separated density-functional theory (DFT) is an alternative approach to Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The strategy of range-separated density-functional theory consists in separating the Coulomb electron-electron interaction into long-range and short-range components and treating the long-range part by an explicit many-body wave-function method and the short-range part by a density-functional approximation. Among the advantages of using many-body methods for the long-range part of the electron-electron interaction is that they are much less sensitive to the one-electron atomic basis compared to the case of the standard Coulomb interaction. Here, we provide a detailed study of the basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory. We study the convergence of the partial-wave expansion of the long-range wave function near the electron-electron coalescence. We show that the rate of convergence is exponential with respect to the maximal angular momentum L for the long-range wave function, whereas it is polynomial for the case of the Coulomb interaction. We also study the convergence of the long-range second-order Møller-Plesset correlation energy of four systems (He, Ne, N2, and H2O) with cardinal number X of the Dunning basis sets cc - p(C)V XZ and find that the error in the correlation energy is best fitted by an exponential in X. This leads us to propose a three-point complete-basis-set extrapolation scheme for range-separated density-functional theory based on an exponential formula.
Regional disparities and convergences in America
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Blížkovský
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the levels and trends of regional disparity and convergence in the two American macro-regions, NAFTA and MERCOSUR. In the case of NAFTA, 95 micro-regions were analysed (12 in Canada; 32 in Mexico; 51 states in the US. In MERCOSUR, the regions are represented by four countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The analysis covers the period 2000–2008 (or rather 2000 to 2005 for Mexico. The regional disparities were calculated with the Gini coefficient based on nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita PPS. Convergence analysis was done with the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, σ- convergence and β-convergence. The results of regional disparity were as follows. Based on the nominal GDP, it was at high levels in both macro-regions, with a Gini coefficient above 0.55. With the disparities calculated on GDP per capita, the level of regional disparity in both macro-regions was lower at 0.36 in NAFTA and 0.28 in MERCOSUR in 2000. Based on GDP per capita in PPP, the levels were lower than based on the GDP per capita analysis starting at 0.31 in NAFTA and 0.16 in MERCOSUR. The disparities further decreased by half in NAFTA while slightly increasing in MERSCOSUR. The convergence analysis results based on the DRC analysis showed that neither NAFTA nor MERCOSUR regions converged. The speed of divergence varied significantly. The disparities among the richest and poorest regions in GDP per capita increased 6.26 times more than the average GDP per capita in PPP in NAFTA as a whole. It was only 0.52 in MERCOSUR. The ADRC analysis also resulted in divergence trends for both macro-regions but with lower rates. Convergence calculated with the σ- convergence analysis confirmed that both macro-regions diverged. The divergence rate for NAFTA was 1.41% and for MERCOSUR 0.74. Calculated with the β-convergence analysis, the NAFTA region showed a status quo (convergence of 0.01% and a
Convergence of random zeros on complex manifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bernard SHIFFMAN
2008-01-01
We show that the zeros of random sequences of Gaussian systems of polynomials of in-creasing degree almost surely converge to the expected limit distribution under very general hypotheses.In particular,the normalized distribution of zeros of systems of m polynomials of degree N,orthonor-malized on a regular compact set K(∪)Cm,almost surely converge to the equilibrium measure on K as N →∞.
Convergence of random zeros on complex manifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bernard; SHIFFMAN
2008-01-01
We show that the zeros of random sequences of Gaussian systems of polynomials of in- creasing degree almost surely converge to the expected limit distribution under very general hypotheses. In particular,the normalized distribution of zeros of systems of m polynomials of degree N,orthonor- malized on a regular compact set K(?)C~m,almost surely converge to the equilibrium measure on K as N→∞.
International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure
Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.
2012-04-01
There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote
Ning, Zhangchi; Liu, Zhenli; Song, Zhiqian; Zhao, Siyu; Dong, Yunzhuo; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan; Lu, Aiping
2016-05-30
Single standard to determine multi-components (SSDMC) method has been accepted as an efficient technique for the quality control of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), especially for overcoming the shortage of reference standards. HPLC-UV methods have been applied to establish SSDMC method for quantitative analysis in several plant medicines and Chinese patent medicines, however, no LC-MS methods have been used. The purpose of this study is to put forward an improved strategy for the choice of single marker in SSDMC using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-QqQ-MS). Five different Panax genus plants, recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia 2015 edition, were used as research subjects. An improved SSDMC strategy for simultaneous characterization and determination of 18 bioactive saponins in five Panax plants was put forward, and which was validated to be more superior. Then, it was fully investigated with respect to linearity, LODs, LOQs, precision and accuracy. Coupling with multivariate statistical analysis, the established and validated SSDMC strategy could be successively used in discrimination of the five Panax genus plants.
Welfare state: Convergence: Downward versus upward
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josifidis Kosta
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute, in the theoretical and empirical sense, to better understanding the challenges of the EU welfare regimes and how particular regimes react on them. Despite significant differences among the EU welfare regimes, it is real to expect that they will converge because of the common challenges confronting them. In this paper, using the model of sigma and beta convergence, we are trying to predict the possible direction of convergence in the sense that Europe will go toward to more or less generosity or in other words it will converge downward or upward. The downward convergence means the strengthen competition among existing welfare regimes, in order to maintain and/or attract capital, that could reduce the social spending generosity. On the other hand, the upward convergence above involves the strengthening of coordination among existing welfare regimes according to the values of solidarity and social justice, which characterise not only the most developed EU countries but also the supranational European social model. .
Fixing convergence of Gaussian belief propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bickson, Danny [IBM RESEARCH LAB; Dolev, Danny [HEBREW UNIV
2009-01-01
Gaussian belief propagation (GaBP) is an iterative message-passing algorithm for inference in Gaussian graphical models. It is known that when GaBP converges it converges to the correct MAP estimate of the Gaussian random vector and simple sufficient conditions for its convergence have been established. In this paper we develop a double-loop algorithm for forcing convergence of GaBP. Our method computes the correct MAP estimate even in cases where standard GaBP would not have converged. We further extend this construction to compute least-squares solutions of over-constrained linear systems. We believe that our construction has numerous applications, since the GaBP algorithm is linked to solution of linear systems of equations, which is a fundamental problem in computer science and engineering. As a case study, we discuss the linear detection problem. We show that using our new construction, we are able to force convergence of Montanari's linear detection algorithm, in cases where it would originally fail. As a consequence, we are able to increase significantly the number of users that can transmit concurrently.
Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras
Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit
2012-03-01
Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.
Convergence of functional areas in information operations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett van Niekerk
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Contemporary technology and its rapid rise to a ubiquitous nature are affecting the way in which technology is used. This holds implications for military information operations and information warfare concepts as the previously separate functional areas are increasingly overlapping due to the increased convergence of information technology.Objective: The aim of the article is to illustrate the convergence of the functional areas of information operations through the use of reported examples and descriptive models. Methods: A qualitative review and analysis of practitioner documents, academic publications, and other reports is conducted. The diverse views of this phenomenon are contrasted and discussed. The possible implications of the convergence and possible management techniques are proposed and discussed. Results: There is strong opinion that the domains are not converging, however practice shows that there is an increasing overlap of operational considerations and organisational structure. Conclusion: It is concluded that the domains are not converging, but the operations and management of the information operations functional areas may converge, and this has an impact across all functional areas that needs to be taken into consideration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qunying Wu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the complete convergence and complete moment convergence for negatively associated sequences of random variables with E X = 0 $\\mathbb{E}X=0$ , E exp ( ln α | X | 1 $\\alpha>1$ . As a result, we extend some complete convergence and complete moment convergence theorems for independent random variables to the case of negatively associated random variables without necessarily imposing any extra conditions. Our results generalize corresponding results obtained by Gut and Stadtmüller (Stat. Probab. Lett. 81:1486-1492, 2011 and Qiu and Chen (Stat. Probab. Lett. 91:76-82, 2014.
Trophic divergence despite morphological convergence in a continental radiation of snakes
Grundler, Michael C.; Rabosky, Daniel L.
2014-01-01
Ecological and phenotypic convergence is a potential outcome of adaptive radiation in response to ecological opportunity. However, a number of factors may limit convergence during evolutionary radiations, including interregional differences in biogeographic history and clade-specific constraints on form and function. Here, we demonstrate that a single clade of terrestrial snakes from Australia—the oxyuranine elapids—exhibits widespread morphological convergence with a phylogenetically diverse and distantly related assemblage of snakes from North America. Australian elapids have evolved nearly the full spectrum of phenotypic modalities that occurs among North American snakes. Much of the convergence appears to involve the recurrent evolution of stereotyped morphologies associated with foraging mode, locomotion and habitat use. By contrast, analysis of snake diets indicates striking divergence in feeding ecology between these faunas, partially reflecting regional differences in ecological allometry between Australia and North America. Widespread phenotypic convergence with the North American snake fauna coupled with divergence in feeding ecology are clear examples of how independent continental radiations may converge along some ecological axes yet differ profoundly along others. PMID:24920479
Trophic divergence despite morphological convergence in a continental radiation of snakes.
Grundler, Michael C; Rabosky, Daniel L
2014-07-22
Ecological and phenotypic convergence is a potential outcome of adaptive radiation in response to ecological opportunity. However, a number of factors may limit convergence during evolutionary radiations, including interregional differences in biogeographic history and clade-specific constraints on form and function. Here, we demonstrate that a single clade of terrestrial snakes from Australia--the oxyuranine elapids--exhibits widespread morphological convergence with a phylogenetically diverse and distantly related assemblage of snakes from North America. Australian elapids have evolved nearly the full spectrum of phenotypic modalities that occurs among North American snakes. Much of the convergence appears to involve the recurrent evolution of stereotyped morphologies associated with foraging mode, locomotion and habitat use. By contrast, analysis of snake diets indicates striking divergence in feeding ecology between these faunas, partially reflecting regional differences in ecological allometry between Australia and North America. Widespread phenotypic convergence with the North American snake fauna coupled with divergence in feeding ecology are clear examples of how independent continental radiations may converge along some ecological axes yet differ profoundly along others.
Optimizing Vibrational Coordinates To Modulate Intermode Coupling.
Zimmerman, Paul M; Smereka, Peter
2016-04-12
The choice of coordinate system strongly affects the convergence properties of vibrational structure computations. Two methods for efficient generation of improved vibrational coordinates are presented and justified by analysis of a model anharmonic two-mode Hessian and numerical computations on polyatomic molecules. To produce optimal coordinates, metrics which quantify off-diagonal couplings over a grid of Hessian matrices are minimized through unitary rotations of the vibrational basis. The first proposed metric minimizes the total squared off-diagonal coupling, and the second minimizes the total squared change in off-diagonal coupling. In this procedure certain anharmonic modes tend to localize, for example X-H stretches. The proposed methods do not rely on prior fitting of the potential energy, vibrational structure computations, or localization metrics, so they are unique from previous vibrational coordinate generation algorithms and are generally applicable to polyatomic molecules. Fitting the potential to the approximate n-mode representation in the optimized bases for all-trans polyenes shows that off-diagonal anharmonic couplings are substantially reduced by the new choices of coordinate system. Convergence of vibrational energies is examined in detail for ethylene, and it is shown that coupling-optimized modes converge in vibrational configuration interaction computations to within 1 cm(-1) using only 3-mode couplings, where normal modes require 4-mode couplings for convergence. Comparison of the vibrational configuration interaction convergence with respect to excitation level for the two proposed metrics shows that minimization of the total off-diagonal coupling is most effective for low-cost vibrational structure computations.
Quantitative bounds for Markov chain convergence: Wasserstein and total variation distances
Madras, Neal; 10.3150/09-BEJ238
2011-01-01
We present a framework for obtaining explicit bounds on the rate of convergence to equilibrium of a Markov chain on a general state space, with respect to both total variation and Wasserstein distances. For Wasserstein bounds, our main tool is Steinsaltz's convergence theorem for locally contractive random dynamical systems. We describe practical methods for finding Steinsaltz's "drift functions" that prove local contractivity. We then use the idea of "one-shot coupling" to derive criteria that give bounds for total variation distances in terms of Wasserstein distances. Our methods are applied to two examples: a two-component Gibbs sampler for the Normal distribution and a random logistic dynamical system.
Regional disparities and convergences in Asia
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Petr Blížkovský
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the disparity and convergence between the 10 and 11 countries of ASEAN and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS respectively and the 31 sub-national regions (provinces in China.The regional disparity levels and trends were analysed using the Gini coefficient between the regions (nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita in Purchasing Parity Power, PPP. The convergence analysis was evaluated using the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, and the σ- and b-convergence. The time period covered was 2000–2008 (ASEAN and CIS and 2000–2006 (China.The results show a relatively high regional disparity between the Asian macro-regions of ASEAN and CIS and much lower disparities between the China sub-regions. The disparities were highest if based on the nominal GDP and lower if based on the DGP per capita. The GDP per capita was lower, between 0.30 to 0.4 for the CIS and China, and around 0.7 in ASEAN. The convergence analysis showed mixed results. Based on the DRC analysis, none of the Asian macro-regions converged. All three macro-regions diverged 1.4 to 12.68 times quicker than the average macro-regional GDP per capita grew, ASEAN being at the divergence top and China at the bottom. Based on the ADRC analysis, all macro-regions also proved to diverge. However, the divergence rates were much lower. For macro-regions China and CIS, the divergence was slower than macro-regional growth, thus their divergence was moderate. On the other side, if the macro-region was calculated using the σ-convergence analysis, the converging macro-regions were ASEAN and China, with 2.13% and 0.47% respectively. CIS was diverging at the speed of 1.25% per year. Based on b-convergence, ASEAN and China were converging (1.54% and 1.32%, and a slow divergence trend was registered for CIS, 1.01%.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ascic, Erhad; Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette;
2012-01-01
A “build/couple/pair” pathway for the systematic synthesis of structurally diverse small molecules is presented. The Petasis 3-component reaction was used to synthesize anti-amino alcohols displaying pairwise reactive combinations of alkene moieties. Upon treatment with a ruthenium alkylidene-cat......-catalyst, these dienes selectively underwent ring-closing metathesis reactions to form 5- and 7-membered heterocycles and cyclic aminals via a tandem isomerization/N-alkyliminium cyclization sequence....
Noise can speed convergence in Markov chains.
Franzke, Brandon; Kosko, Bart
2011-10-01
A new theorem shows that noise can speed convergence to equilibrium in discrete finite-state Markov chains. The noise applies to the state density and helps the Markov chain explore improbable regions of the state space. The theorem ensures that a stochastic-resonance noise benefit exists for states that obey a vector-norm inequality. Such noise leads to faster convergence because the noise reduces the norm components. A corollary shows that a noise benefit still occurs if the system states obey an alternate norm inequality. This leads to a noise-benefit algorithm that requires knowledge of the steady state. An alternative blind algorithm uses only past state information to achieve a weaker noise benefit. Simulations illustrate the predicted noise benefits in three well-known Markov models. The first model is a two-parameter Ehrenfest diffusion model that shows how noise benefits can occur in the class of birth-death processes. The second model is a Wright-Fisher model of genotype drift in population genetics. The third model is a chemical reaction network of zeolite crystallization. A fourth simulation shows a convergence rate increase of 64% for states that satisfy the theorem and an increase of 53% for states that satisfy the corollary. A final simulation shows that even suboptimal noise can speed convergence if the noise applies over successive time cycles. Noise benefits tend to be sharpest in Markov models that do not converge quickly and that do not have strong absorbing states.
Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses
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Julien Thézé
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.
Robust antisynchronization of chaos using sliding mode control strategy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Amit Mondal; Mitul Islam; Nurul Islam
2015-01-01
The paper proposes a sliding mode control strategy-based scheme for achieving anti-synchronization between two coupled non-linear chaotic systems. The method works irrespective of whether the systems under consideration possess or lack inverse symmetry. Using a linear sliding surface, a sliding mode control input and a non-linear coupling function are designed that synchronizes the systems antiphase. Finite-time convergence of the method is established. The controller is also robust to all forms of bounded perturbations and this robustness can be easily achieved by tuning of a single controller parameter and introduction of a control vector. The controller is also made chattering-free by producing a continuous analogue of the discontinuous control input. The effectiveness of the method is established by implementing it to antisynchronize chaotic Sprott systems and Rossler systems. The results are also verified through numerical simulation work.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch
2017-01-01
We know from evolutionary theory that sectoral characteristics are important to innovation. This paper investigates if sectoral characteristics also are important to eco-innovation, a hitherto under-researched theme. We argue that research into possible sectoral patterns in eco-innovation is key ...... convergence of automakers’ strategies towards a diversified portfolio....
Han, Sangil; Shin, Youngmi; Sharma, Satyasheel; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Park, Jihye; Kim, Mirim; Kim, Minyoung; Jang, Jinbong; Kim, In Su
2014-05-02
A rhodium(III)-catalyzed oxidative olefination of 1,2-disubstituted arylhydrazines with alkenes via sp(2) C-H bond activation followed by an intramolecular aza-Michael reaction is described. This strategy allows the direct and efficient construction of highly substituted 2,3-dihydro-1H-indazole scaffolds.
Convergence acceleration for partitioned simulations of the fluid-structure interaction in arteries
Radtke, Lars; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Düster, Alexander
2016-06-01
We present a partitioned approach to fluid-structure interaction problems arising in analyses of blood flow in arteries. Several strategies to accelerate the convergence of the fixed-point iteration resulting from the coupling of the fluid and the structural sub-problem are investigated. The Aitken relaxation and variants of the interface quasi-Newton -least-squares method are applied to different test cases. A hybrid variant of two well-known variants of the interface quasi-Newton-least-squares method is found to perform best. The test cases cover the typical boundary value problem faced when simulating the fluid-structure interaction in arteries, including a strong added mass effect and a wet surface which accounts for a large part of the overall surface of each sub-problem. A rubber-like Neo Hookean material model and a soft-tissue-like Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden material model are used to describe the artery wall and are compared in terms of stability and computational expenses. To avoid any kind of locking, high-order finite elements are used to discretize the structural sub-problem. The finite volume method is employed to discretize the fluid sub-problem. We investigate the influence of mass-proportional damping and the material model chosen for the artery on the performance and stability of the acceleration strategies as well as on the simulation results. To show the applicability of the partitioned approach to clinical relevant studies, the hemodynamics in a pathologically deformed artery are investigated, taking the findings of the test case simulations into account.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongfeng Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The authors first present a Rosenthal inequality for sequence of extended negatively dependent (END random variables. By means of the Rosenthal inequality, the authors obtain some complete moment convergence and mean convergence results for arrays of rowwise END random variables. The results in this paper extend and improve the corresponding theorems by Hu and Taylor (1997.
Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?
Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.
2011-01-01
Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societ
Li, Xiangrong; Zhao, Xupei; Duan, Xiabin; Wang, Xiaoliang
2015-01-01
It is generally acknowledged that the conjugate gradient (CG) method achieves global convergence--with at most a linear convergence rate--because CG formulas are generated by linear approximations of the objective functions. The quadratically convergent results are very limited. We introduce a new PRP method in which the restart strategy is also used. Moreover, the method we developed includes not only n-step quadratic convergence but also both the function value information and gradient value information. In this paper, we will show that the new PRP method (with either the Armijo line search or the Wolfe line search) is both linearly and quadratically convergent. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new PRP algorithm is competitive with the normal CG method.
Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu
2014-12-01
The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
NIDELET, Thibault; MARTIN, Juliette; LEGRAND, Judith; DILLMANN, Christine; BOURGAIS, Aurélie; de VIENNE, Dominique; SHERLOCK, Gavin; SICARD, Delphine
2015-01-01
Different organisms have independently and recurrently evolved similar phenotypic traits at different points throughout history. This phenotypic convergence may be caused by genotypic convergence and constrained by historical contingency. To investigate how convergence may be driven by selection in a particular environment and constrained by history, we analyzed nine life-history traits and four metabolic traits during an experimental evolution of six yeast strains in four different environments. In each of the environments, the population converged towards a different life-history strategy. However, phenotypic convergence was partly associated with the selection of mutations in genes involved in the same pathway. In a fifth of our evolution experiments, mutations in the same gene, BMH1, were selected, in three out of the six ancestral genotypes. Two types of BMH1 mutation with opposite phenotypic effects on several traits were found. The evolution of most traits, as well as the occurrence of BMH1 mutations, was significantly influenced by the ancestral strain. However, this effect could not be easily predicted from ancestors’ phylogeny or past-selection. All together, our data demonstrate that phenotypic and its underlying genotypic convergence depends on a complex interplay between the evolutionary environment, pleiotropy and the ancestor genetic background but are not straightforwardly predicable. PMID:24164389
Hundreds of Genes Experienced Convergent Shifts in Selective Pressure in Marine Mammals.
Chikina, Maria; Robinson, Joseph D; Clark, Nathan L
2016-09-01
Mammal species have made the transition to the marine environment several times, and their lineages represent one of the classical examples of convergent evolution in morphological and physiological traits. Nevertheless, the genetic mechanisms of their phenotypic transition are poorly understood, and investigations into convergence at the molecular level have been inconclusive. While past studies have searched for convergent changes at specific amino acid sites, we propose an alternative strategy to identify those genes that experienced convergent changes in their selective pressures, visible as changes in evolutionary rate specifically in the marine lineages. We present evidence of widespread convergence at the gene level by identifying parallel shifts in evolutionary rate during three independent episodes of mammalian adaptation to the marine environment. Hundreds of genes accelerated their evolutionary rates in all three marine mammal lineages during their transition to aquatic life. These marine-accelerated genes are highly enriched for pathways that control recognized functional adaptations in marine mammals, including muscle physiology, lipid-metabolism, sensory systems, and skin and connective tissue. The accelerations resulted from both adaptive evolution as seen in skin and lung genes, and loss of function as in gustatory and olfactory genes. In regard to sensory systems, this finding provides further evidence that reduced senses of taste and smell are ubiquitous in marine mammals. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes underlying convergent organism-level characteristics on a genome-wide scale and without prior knowledge of adaptations, and provides a powerful approach for investigating the physiological functions of mammalian genes.
van Duijn, Marc
2017-06-06
Various forms of elementary learning have recently been discovered in organisms lacking a nervous system, such as protists, fungi and plants. This finding has fundamental implications for how we view the role of convergent evolution in biological cognition. In this article, I first review the evidence for basic forms of learning in aneural organisms, focusing particularly on habituation and classical conditioning and considering the plausibility for convergent evolution of these capacities. Next, I examine the possible role of convergent evolution regarding these basic learning abilities during the early evolution of nervous systems. The evolution of nervous systems set the stage for at least two major events relevant to convergent evolution that are central to biological cognition: (i) nervous systems evolved, perhaps more than once, because of strong selection pressures for sustaining sensorimotor strategies in increasingly larger multicellular organisms and (ii) associative learning was a subsequent adaptation that evolved multiple times within the neuralia. Although convergent evolution of basic forms of learning among distantly related organisms such as protists, plants and neuralia is highly plausible, more research is needed to verify whether these forms of learning within the neuralia arose through convergent or parallel evolution.
Structural Changes and Convergence in EU and in Adriatic-Balkans Region
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Lucian-Liviu ALBU
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Coming from standard economic growth theory and empirical evidences, we concentrated on the convergence process as a result of structural changes in economy. We investigate the differences among countries in EU in terms of the share in total economy of main sectors. Then, based on the spatial (empirical distribution of such shares in EU we are proposing a model to estimate a typology of the convergence process in the European area. Taking into account the existing differences among sectors in matter of productivity, there are two versions of the model: considering the share of sectors in total employment and the share of sectors in GDP, respectively. Moreover, we developed several modelling schemes that could be useful to improve the strategies oriented to achieve a real convergence in EU and further in the Adriatic-Balkans Region. In this way, we can obtain simulations from a country or group of countries (European Union, for example on long term and quantifying the impact of structural changes on the convergence process. Indeed, the actual global crisis seems to influence negatively the convergence process in the EU. As a rule, just newly adhered countries have been more affected by the actual crisis. Today all forecasts are suffering from uncertainty. Thus, further efforts must be allocated to evaluate the negative impact of actual crisis on the convergence process.
Regional Convergence in Knowledge-based Economy
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Maryam Fattahi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, the world economies are rapidly moving towards being more Knowledge-based Economy (KBE and supporting the force of knowledge as a vital component of economic growth. This recent acceleration in the transition to Knowledge-based Economy in the world, has affected regional economic performance. In this paper, we surveyed the regional convergence in Knowledge-based Economy for selected Asia and pacific countries. We used a growth model in Barro and Sala-i-Martin framework (1995 for the period of 1995-2009. It includes a panel data set consisting of the annual growth rate of GDP per capita for selected Asia and pacific countries and a group of indicators that define the situation of Knowledge-based Economy in countries. The empirical results indicate that the absolute and the conditional convergence are not rejected for selected countries. The investigation on robustness of the model results confirms the existence of regional convergence for studied countries.
Convergence Time Evaluation of Algorithms in MANETs
Patil, Annapurna P; Chunhaviriyakul, Krittaya
2009-01-01
Since the advent of wireless communication, the need for mobile ad hoc networks has been growing exponentially. This has opened up a Pandoras Box of algorithms for dealing with mobile ad hoc networks, or MANETs, as they are generally referred to. Most attempts made at evaluating these algorithms so far have focused on parameters such as throughput, packet delivery ratio, overhead etc. An analysis of the convergence times of these algorithms is still an open issue. The work carried out fills this gap by evaluating the algorithms on the basis of convergence time. Algorithms for MANETs can be classified into three categories: reactive, proactive, and hybrid protocols. In this project, we compare the convergence times of representative algorithms in each category, namely Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) reactive, Destination Sequence Distance Vector protocol (DSDV) proactive, and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) hybrid. The algorithm performances are compared by simulating them in ns2. Tcl is us...
Divergence and Convergence in Education and Work
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Are the educational systems in Europe becoming more similar or more different? This book deals with the issue ofdivergence and convergence in relation to systems, learning environments, and learners in vocational educational training (VET). 18 VET researchers from eight countries contribute...... to the examination of 'divergence and convergence' at three levels: At the national level this volume deals with the following questions: What are the consequences of the European policies that aim at converging the VET systems in Europe? What is the impact of globalization on the national systems? At the level...... of institutions the central issue concerns the relation between learning environments. What is the coherence between school-based education and learning in the work-place, and how can they connect? Finally at the third level of the learners and their identities the focus is on the role of vocational educational...
Convergence of Hybrid Space Mapping Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Søndergaard, Jacob
2004-01-01
\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\$ is convex and \\$f: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^n \\$\\backslash\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m\\$ is smooth. Experience indicates that the combined method maintains the initial efficiency of the space mapping technique. We prove that the global convergence property of the classical technique is also......The space mapping technique is intended for optimization of engineering models which involve very expensive function evaluations. It may be considered a preprocessing method which often provides a very efficient initial phase of an optimization procedure. However, the ultimate rate of convergence...... may be poor, or the method may even fail to converge to a stationary point. We consider a convex combination of the space mapping technique with a classical optimization technique. The function to be optimized has the form \\$H \\$\\backslash\\$circ f\\$ where \\$H: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m \\$\\backslash...
International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niculae Feleaga
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.
EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CUCO PAULA – ROXANA,
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the process of regional convergence (regarding income wage per capita or on the contrary, the process of regional divergence, between the 42 counties as reference territorial units in Romania, within the period 2005-2014. In the econometric analyze, the models that were developed had the aim to assess the role of macroeconomic determinants on the average net income per capita, exactly the possibility of a more dynamic growth of wages in poorer counties. The results showed a clear trend towards wage convergence, under the impact of multidimensional factors of influence. Our findings confirm the literature on regional convergence, pointing out the importance of economic development level, quality of human capital, technical progress and intensity of innovation activity, improving labor market integration and even a dynamic entrepreneurial activity.
International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liliana Feleaga
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.
Core Backbone Convergence Mechanisms and Microloops Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelali Ala
2012-07-01
Full Text Available In this article we study approaches that can be used to minimise the convergence time, we also make a focus on microloops phenomenon, analysis and means to mitigate them. The convergence time reflects the time required by a network to react to a failure of a link or a router failure itself. When all nodes (routers have updated their respective routing and forwarding databases, we can say the network has converged. This study will help in building real-time and resilient network infrastructure, the goal is to make any evenement in the core network, as transparent as possible to any sensitive and real-time flows. This study is also, a deepening of earlier works presented in [10] and [11].
Convergence of Hybrid Space Mapping Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Søndergaard, Jacob
2004-01-01
\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\$ is convex and \\$f: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^n \\$\\backslash\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m\\$ is smooth. Experience indicates that the combined method maintains the initial efficiency of the space mapping technique. We prove that the global convergence property of the classical technique is also......The space mapping technique is intended for optimization of engineering models which involve very expensive function evaluations. It may be considered a preprocessing method which often provides a very efficient initial phase of an optimization procedure. However, the ultimate rate of convergence...... may be poor, or the method may even fail to converge to a stationary point. We consider a convex combination of the space mapping technique with a classical optimization technique. The function to be optimized has the form \\$H \\$\\backslash\\$circ f\\$ where \\$H: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m \\$\\backslash...
Plurality or convergence in sustainability reporting standards?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadia Albu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Over the last years an increasing number of companies issued Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR or Sustainability Reports to complement their traditional financial reporting. Companies use various sustainability reporting standards or develop their own reporting frameworks starting from the existing ones. This variation of practices pointed out by empirical research raises questions about the quality and comparability of sustainability reporting, its role in the sustainable development, and also about the suitability of accepting the plurality of reporting frameworks or the need for convergence. This study aims to investigate the issues of plurality and convergence in sustainability reporting standards, by mobilizing the discourses on regulation and the case of a group of companies in the IT industry in order to shed some light on the current challenges in this area. We frame a discussion on the opportunities and pitfalls of convergence in sustainability reporting regulations and contribute to a better understanding of this issue by academics, preparers, users and standard setters
Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence
Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C.
2016-07-01
Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.
Convergence of Wavelet Expansions in the Orlicz Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chang Mei TAN
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the convergence in norm and pointwise convergence of wavelet expansion in the Orlicz spaces, and prove that, under certain conditions on the wavelet, the wavelet expansion converges in the Orlicz-norm and also converges almost everywhere.
Specialisation and Convergence in European Regions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrico Marelli
2007-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze specialization and convergence of European countries and regions, within the framework of integration in the EU. This is important not only for long-term real convergence processes, but also for a proper functioning of the monetary union (in the line of research on the OCA's criteria, asymmetry of shocks and synchronization of business cycles. The position of new member states is particularly delicate, also considering the forthcoming adoption of the euro by some of them. As indicated by the EU Treaty, economic growth should be balanced with economic and social cohesion that includes a careful consideration of regional disparities. Our empirical investigation focuses on the regions of EU25, further broken up into other relevant groupings (EU15, EMU, and the new members' EU10 group, over the period from 1980 (or 1990 for EU10 to 2005. This paper considers a rather fine regional disaggregation (NUTS-2 level, counting 250 regions. The analysis of different indices of specialisation point to a prevalent increase of homogeneity of sector structures across European regions, although in some cases (especially in the industrial sector and in some services specialisation has increased. For convergence, a sigma convergence's analysis confirms a reduction of disparities, both at a country and regional level. However, a trade-off between fast national growth and internal distribution has emerged in the early stages of development, as in the case of new members. Moreover, beta convergence has also been established - regarding per capita income, employment and productivity - for almost all territorial aggregates (excluding the new members since 1999. The addition of structural variables, following a beta-conditional approach, indicates a positive role for services and a negative impact of agriculture. Finally, some preliminary results have been obtained by the innovative inclusion of specialisation indices within
Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J
2016-01-01
Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of
Biogeochemical drivers of microbial community convergence across actively retreating glaciers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castle, Sarah C.; Nemergut, Diana R.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Leff, Jonathan W.; Graham, Emily B.; Hood, Eran; Schmidt, Steven K.; Wickings, Kyle; Cleveland, Cory C.
2016-10-01
The ecological processes that influence biogeographical patterns of microorganisms are actively debated. To investigate how such patterns emerge during ecosystem succession, we examined the biogeochemical drivers of bacterial community assembly in soils over two environmentally distinct, recently deglaciated chronosequences separated by a distance of more than 1,300 kilometers. Our results show that despite different geographic, climatic, and soil chemical and physical characteristics at the two sites, soil bacterial community structure and decomposer function converged during plant succession. In a comparative analysis, we found that microbial communities in early succession soils were compositionally distinct from a group of diverse, mature forest soils, but that the differences between successional soils and mature soils decreased from early to late stages of succession. Differences in bacterial community composition across glacial sites were largely explained by pH. However, successional patterns and community convergence across sites were more consistently related to soil organic carbon and organic matter chemistry, which appeared to be tightly coupled with bacterial community structure across both young and mature soils.
Tenti, Lorenzo; Maynau, Daniel; Angeli, Celestino; Calzado, Carmen J
2016-07-21
A new strategy based on orthogonal valence-bond analysis of the wave function combined with intermediate Hamiltonian theory has been applied to the evaluation of the magnetic coupling constants in two AF systems. This approach provides both a quantitative estimate of the J value and a detailed analysis of the main physical mechanisms controlling the coupling, using a combined perturbative + variational scheme. The procedure requires a selection of the dominant excitations to be treated variationally. Two methods have been employed: a brute-force selection, using a logic similar to that of the CIPSI approach, or entanglement measures, which identify the most interacting orbitals in the system. Once a reduced set of excitations (about 300 determinants) is established, the interaction matrix is dressed at the second-order of perturbation by the remaining excitations of the CI space. The diagonalization of the dressed matrix provides J values in good agreement with experimental ones, at a very low-cost. This approach demonstrates the key role of d → d* excitations in the quantitative description of the magnetic coupling, as well as the importance of using an extended active space, including the bridging ligand orbitals, for the binuclear model of the intermediates of multicopper oxidases. The method is a promising tool for dealing with complex systems containing several active centers, as an alternative to both pure variational and DFT approaches.
Large Field Cutoffs Make Perturbative Series Converge
Meurice, Y
2002-01-01
For lambda phi^4 problems, convergent perturbative series can be obtained by cutting off the large field configurations. The modified series converge to values exponentially close to the exact ones. For lambda larger than some critical value, the method outperforms Pade approximants and Borel summations. We discuss some aspects of the semi-classical methods used to calculate the modified Feynman rules and estimate the error associated with the procedure. We provide a simple numerical example where the procedure works despite the fact that the Borel sum has singularities on the positive real axis.
Large field cutoffs make perturbative series converge
Meurice, Yannick
2002-03-01
For λφ 4 problems, convergent perturbative series can be obtained by cutting off the large field configurations. The modified series converge to values exponentially close to the exact ones. For λ larger than some critical value, the method outperforms Padé approximants and Borel summations. We discuss some aspects of the semi-classical methods used to calculate the modified Feynman rules and estimate the error associated with the procedure. We provide a simple numerical example where the procedure works despite the fact that the Borel sum has singularities on the positive real axis.
ON CONVERGENCE OF WAVELET PACKET EXPANSIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Morten Nielsen
2002-01-01
It is well known that the-Walsh-Fourier expansion of a function from the block space ([0, 1 ) ), 1 ＜q≤∞, converges pointwise a.e. We prove that the same result is true for the expansion of a function from in certain periodixed smooth periodic non-stationary wavelet packets bases based on the Haar filters. We also consider wavelet packets based on the Shannon filters and show that the expansion of Lp-functions, 1＜p＜∞, converges in norm and pointwise almost everywhere.
ON THE CONVERGENCE OF COMPLEX SOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In order to solve the linear algebraic system AX=b in complex domain, where A is a weakly cyclic of index p= 3 matrix (p-cyclic matrix), the convergence properties of SOR are stud ied in the paper. In section 1, we give some definitions. In section 2, the necessary conditions for convergent complex SOR are given moreover the necessary and su fficient conditions in some special situations are also presented. In section 3, we expand the techniques applied by R.S. Varga et al., and it is established that the results of R.S. Varga et. al. are special cases of our work.
Extended Global Convergence Framework for Unconstrained Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
(A)rpád B(U)RMEN; Franc BRATKOVI(C); Janez PUHAN; Iztok FAJFAR; Tadej TUMA
2004-01-01
An extension of the global convergence framework for unconstrained derivative-free optimization methods is presented. The extension makes it possible for the framework to include optimization methods with varying cardinality of the ordered direction set. Grid-based search methods are shown to be a special case of the more general extended global convergence framework. Furthermore,the required properties of the sequence of ordered direction sets listed in the definition of grid-based methods are re]axed and simplified by removing the requirement of structural equivalence.
FDI, Human Capital and Income Convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp
2016-01-01
This study examines income convergence in regional GDP per capita for a sample of 269 regions within the European Union (EU) between 2003 and 2010. We use an endogenous broad capital model based on foreign direct investment (FDI) induced agglomeration economies and human capital. By applying...... a Markov chain approach to a new dataset that exploits micro-aggregated sub-national FDI statistics, the analysis provides insights into regional income growth dynamics within the EU. Our results indicate a weak process of overall income convergence across EU regions. This does not apply to the dynamics...
On Conditions for Convergence to Consensus
Lorenz, Jan
2008-01-01
A new theorem on conditions for convergence to consensus of a multiagent time-dependent time-discrete dynamical system is presented. The theorem is build up on the notion of averaging maps. We compare this theorem to Moreau's Theorem and his proposed set-valued Lyapunov theory (IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 50, no. 2, 2005). We give examples that point out differences of approaches including examples where Moreau's theorem is not applicable but ours is. Further on, we give examples that demonstrate that the theory of convergence to consensus is still not complete.
CONVERGENCE OF REAL WAGES IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND
Piotr Adamczyk
2016-01-01
The article concerns the spatial diversity of rural areas. The aim of the article is to evaluate whether the process of convergence of real wages in rural areas in Poland can be observed. The author focuses on two concepts of convergence: absolute (unconditional) beta convergence and sigma convergence. The analysis regards rural districts at NUTS-4 level for 2002–2014. It was stated that rural areas in Poland became similar (converge) in terms of real wages what can help reducing the di...
Testing for convergence from the micro-level
Giorgio Fazio; Davide Piacentino
2011-01-01
In the growth literature, researchers are typically concerned with macro convergence. However, to the extent that macro dynamics result from the underlying microeconomic relations, convergence should also be investigated at the micro-level. In this paper, we suggest an approach that allows exploiting large micro panels to test for convergence. Compared to the traditional convergence analysis, this approach allows obtaining, at the same time, β and σ like convergence parameters for both the mi...
Normal vector method for convergence improvement using the RCWA for crossed gratings.
Schuster, Thomas; Ruoff, Johannes; Kerwien, Norbert; Rafler, Stephan; Osten, Wolfgang
2007-09-01
The rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) is a widely used method for simulating diffraction from periodic structures. Since its recognized formulation by Moharam [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12, 1068 and 1077 (1995)], there still has been a discussion about convergence problems. Those problems are more or less solved for the diffraction from line gratings, but there remain different concurrent proposals about the convergence improvement for crossed gratings. We propose to combine Popov and Nevière's formulation of the differential method [Light Propagation in Periodic Media (Dekker, 2003) and J. Opt. Soc. Am. A18, 2886 (2001)] with the classical RCWA. With a suitable choice of a normal vector field we obtain a better convergence than for the formulations that are known from the literature.
Sayers, Richard
2001-01-01
Identifies issues involved with the convergence and/or integration of library, computing, and information technology services in Australian universities. Investigates the impacts of integration of services on university libraries and their clients and recommends strategies for the successful management of convergence and integration involving…
Lintner, Benjamin R.; Langenbrunner, Baird; Neelin, J. David; Anderson, Bruce T.; Niznik, Matthew J.; Li, Gen; Xie, Shang-Ping
2016-10-01
Current-generation climate models exhibit various errors or biases in both the spatial distribution and intensity of precipitation relative to observations. In this study, empirical orthogonal function analysis is applied to the space-model index domain of precipitation over the Pacific from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations to explore systematic spread of simulated precipitation characteristics across the ensemble. Two significant modes of spread, generically termed principal uncertainty patterns (PUPs), are identified in the December-January-February precipitation climatology: the leading PUP is associated with the meridional width of deep convection, while the second is associated with tradeoffs in precipitation intensity along the South Pacific Convergence Zone, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the spurious Southern Hemisphere ITCZ. An important factor distinguishing PUPs from the analogy to time series analysis is that the modes can reflect either true systematic intermodel variance patterns or internal variability. In order to establish that the PUPS reflect the former, three complementary tests are performed by using preindustrial control simulations: a bootstrap significance test for reproducibility of the intermodel spatial patterns, a check for robustness over very long climatological averages, and a test on the loadings of these patterns relative to interdecadal sampling. Composite analysis based on these PUPs demonstrates physically plausible relationships to CMIP5 ensemble spread in simulated sea surface temperatures (SSTs), circulation, and moisture. Further analysis of atmosphere-only, prescribed SST simulations demonstrates decreased spread in the spatial distribution of precipitation, while substantial spread in intensity remains.
Study of converged communications applications program%融合通信应用方案的研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨林; 于富东; 李宝岩
2014-01-01
从融合通信业务功能要求、建设策略、建设方案等角度出发，提出了融合通信技术应用的组织方案，以求对电信运营商融合通信工程的开展提供指导意见。%From the standpoints of functional requirements of converged communication services, construction schemes and construction strategies and so on, this article proposes a converged communication technology organization solutions, in order to provide guidance for the development of converged communication projects for telecom operators.
Convergence of electronic bands for high performance bulk thermoelectrics.
Pei, Yanzhong; Shi, Xiaoya; LaLonde, Aaron; Wang, Heng; Chen, Lidong; Snyder, G Jeffrey
2011-05-01
Thermoelectric generators, which directly convert heat into electricity, have long been relegated to use in space-based or other niche applications, but are now being actively considered for a variety of practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. Although these devices can be very reliable and compact, the thermoelectric materials themselves are relatively inefficient: to facilitate widespread application, it will be desirable to identify or develop materials that have an intensive thermoelectric materials figure of merit, zT, above 1.5 (ref. 1). Many different concepts have been used in the search for new materials with high thermoelectric efficiency, such as the use of nanostructuring to reduce phonon thermal conductivity, which has led to the investigation of a variety of complex material systems. In this vein, it is well known that a high valley degeneracy (typically ≤6 for known thermoelectrics) in the electronic bands is conducive to high zT, and this in turn has stimulated attempts to engineer such degeneracy by adopting low-dimensional nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to direct the convergence of many valleys in a bulk material by tuning the doping and composition. By this route, we achieve a convergence of at least 12 valleys in doped PbTe(1-x)Se(x) alloys, leading to an extraordinary zT value of 1.8 at about 850 kelvin. Band engineering to converge the valence (or conduction) bands to achieve high valley degeneracy should be a general strategy in the search for and improvement of bulk thermoelectric materials, because it simultaneously leads to a high Seebeck coefficient and high electrical conductivity.
Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe;
2008-01-01
As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend ...... is likely to continue. The paper also provides recommendations for academic programs interested in adjusting to the trend....
Convergence of some asynchronous nonlinear multisplitting methods
Szyld, Daniel B.; Xu, Jian-Jun
2000-09-01
Frommer's nonlinear multisplitting methods for solving nonlinear systems of equations are extended to the asynchronous setting. Block methods are extended to include overlap as well. Several specific cases are discussed. Sufficient conditions to guarantee their local convergence are given. A numerical example is presented illustrating the performance of the new approach.
China's Macroeconomic Development: Stages and Nonlinear Convergence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pingyao Lai
2006-01-01
The central theme of this paper is that China's macroeconomic development can be divided into three distinct stages with significant trend changes. Market-oriented reform and opening to the outside world provide main driving forces for the convergence. However, the gradual reform and some inappropriate policies have caused serious ups and downs in China's macroeconomic performance.
Convergence of zeta functions of graphs
Clair, Bryan; Mokhtari-Sharghi, Shahriar
2000-01-01
The $L^2$-zeta function of an infinite graph Y (defined previously in a ball around zero) has an analytic extension. For a tower of finite graphs covered by Y, the normalized zeta functions of the finite graphs converge to the $L^2$-zeta function of Y.
Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives
Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose
2010-01-01
Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…
1-Convergence of Complex Double Fourier Series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kulwinder Kaur; S S Bhatia; Babu Ram
2003-11-01
It is proved that the complex double Fourier series of an integrable function (, ) with coefficients {} satisfying certain conditions, will converge in 1-norm. The conditions used here are the combinations of Tauberian condition of Hardy–Karamata kind and its limiting case. This paper extends the result of Bray [1] to complex double Fourier series.
Phonological Convergence in a Contracting Language Variety
Bullock, Barbara E.; Gerfen, Chip
2004-01-01
Most work investigating the role of convergence in situations of language attrition has focused on the morpho-syntactic restructuring of the dying language variety. A central concern of such research has been untangling the factors driving the restructuring with an eye towards establishing whether the changes observed are best viewed as externally…
Two convergence results for continuous descent methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simeon Reich
2003-03-01
Full Text Available We consider continuous descent methods for the minimization of convex functionals defined on general Banach space. We establish two convergence results for methods which are generated by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.
Convergence of approximations of monotone gradient systems
Zambotti, Lorenzo
2006-01-01
We consider stochastic differential equations in a Hilbert space, perturbed by the gradient of a convex potential. We investigate the problem of convergence of a sequence of such processes. We propose applications of this method to reflecting O.U. processes in infinite dimension, to stochastic partial differential equations with reflection of Cahn-Hilliard type and to interface models.
Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Celaleddin Şençimen; Serpil Pehlivan
2009-06-01
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate some properties of these concepts.
Strong convergence results for hemivariational inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhenhai; ZOU Jiezhong
2006-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study a regularization method of solutions of ill-posed problems involving hemivariational inequalities in Banach spaces. Under the assumption that the hemivariational inequality is solvable, a strongly convergent approximation procedure is designed by means of the so-called Browder-Tikhonov regularization method. Our results generalize and extend the previously known theorems.
Convergent evolution in plant specialized metabolism.
Pichersky, Eran; Lewinsohn, Efraim
2011-01-01
Plants synthesize a multitude of compounds that contribute to adaptation to their ecological niches. Such compounds serve as attractants of other living organisms beneficial to the plants or as defense against other biotic as well as abiotic agents. Selection for increased fitness, a never-ending process, has resulted in each plant lineage synthesizing a distinct set of specialized metabolites appropriate for its environment. The total number of specialized metabolites found in the plant kingdom far exceeds the capacity of any one plant genome to encode the necessary enzymes, and just as a plant lineage acquires the ability to make new specialized compounds during evolution, it also loses the ability to make others. Although the ability of plants to make novel, specialized metabolites continues to evolve, there are also many examples in which different plants have independently evolved the ability to make compounds already present in other plant lineages or to make different compounds that fulfill the same role-both are examples of convergent evolution. Here, we discuss many examples of convergent evolution in specialized metabolism. There are many genetic and biochemical mechanisms that can give rise to convergent evolution, and we conclude that, overall, convergent evolution in plant specialized metabolism is surprisingly common.
[Conservative and surgical treatment of convergence excess].
Ehrt, O
2016-07-01
Convergence excess is a common finding especially in pediatric strabismus. A detailed diagnostic approach has to start after full correction of any hyperopia measured in cycloplegia. It includes measurements of manifest and latent deviation at near and distance fixation, near deviation after relaxation of accommodation with addition of +3 dpt, assessment of binocular function with and without +3 dpt as well as the accommodation range. This diagnostic approach is important for the classification into three types of convergence excess, which require different therapeutic approaches: 1) hypo-accommodative convergence excess is treated with permanent bifocal glasses, 2) norm-accommodative patients should be treated with bifocals which can be weaned over years, especially in patients with good stereopsis and 3) non-accommodative convergence excess and patients with large distance deviations need a surgical approach. The most effective operations include those which reduce the muscle torque, e. g. bimedial Faden operations or Y‑splitting of the medial rectus muscles.
Improving Results on Convergence of AOR Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangbin Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present some sufficient conditions on convergence of AOR method for solving Ax=b with A being a strictly doubly α diagonally dominant matrix. Moreover, we give two numerical examples to show the advantage of the new results.
World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development.
Clark, Rob
2011-02-01
Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger.
Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Freitas, Michael Marcondes de; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda
2016-01-01
Known graphical conditions for the generic or global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...
Professionalization in Universities and European Convergence
Vivas, Amparo Jimenez; Hevia, David Menendez Alvarez
2009-01-01
The constant assessment of the quality of higher education within the framework of European convergence is a challenge for all those universities that wish their degrees and diplomas to reflect a unified Europe. As is the case in any assessment, change and review process, the quest to improve quality implies measuring achievement of the objectives…
Converging technologies: shaping the future of medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iraj nabipour
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The miniaturization and virtualization processes drive converging technologies from interactions between the NBIC (Nano, Bio, Info, and Cogno technologies. The converging technologies stimulate innovation, promote research and development in different fields and produce revolutionary progresses in medicine. These technologies enable us to create contacts between brains and machines, the growth in molecular nanotechnology, the construction of respirocytes, chromallocytes, clottocytes, nanorobotic phagocytes, and nanobots. Nanobots would enter the nucleus of a cell and extract all of the genetic material and replace it with a synthetically produced copy of the original that has been manufactured in a laboratory to contain only non-defective base-pairs. It is predicted that “the regenerative medicine”, as a megatrend, will have an enormous effect on medical technologies and clinical sciences. Regenerative medicine is an application field of converging technologies in translational medicine. It attempts to translate the results of tissue engineering to construct 3D tissues and organs. Regenerative medicine is also an exciting field for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC and promises to bring about a paradigm shift to health care. Accumulating evidence indicates that converging technologies will offer great potentials for regenerative medicine to create innovative treatments for diseases that the traditional therapies have not been effective yet.
Sweet! Generation "D" Takes on Media Convergence.
Tarpenning, David; Schaub, Laura
2002-01-01
Notes that professional journalists continually emphasize the need for developing skills for all delivery systems. Proposes that students interested in journalism should learn about technology and develop projects without the guidance of a teacher or advisor. Describes students' experience with media convergence in a summer journalism workshop.…
RNA polymerase II collision interrupts convergent transcription
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hobson, David J; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M
2012-01-01
Antisense noncoding transcripts, genes-within-genes, and convergent gene pairs are prevalent among eukaryotes. The existence of such transcription units raises the question of what happens when RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules collide head-to-head. Here we use a combination of biochemical...
Zhang, Jia-yu; Wang, Zi-jian; Li, Yun; Liu, Ying; Cai, Wei; Li, Chen; Lu, Jian-qiu; Qiao, Yan-jiang
2016-01-15
The analytical methodologies for evaluation of multi-component system in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been inadequate or unacceptable. As a result, the unclarity of multi-component hinders the sufficient interpretation of their bioactivities. In this paper, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap (UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap)-based strategy focused on the comprehensive identification of TCM sequential constituents was developed. The strategy was characterized by molecular design, multiple ion monitoring (MIM), targeted database hits and mass spectral trees similarity filter (MTSF), and even more isomerism discrimination. It was successfully applied in the HRMS data-acquisition and processing of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), and a total of 115 chromatographic peaks attributed to 18 categories were characterized, allowing a comprehensive revelation of CGAs in FLJ for the first time. This demonstrated that MIM based on molecular design could improve the efficiency to trigger MS/MS fragmentation reactions. Targeted database hits and MTSF searching greatly facilitated the processing of extremely large information data. Besides, the introduction of diagnostic product ions (DPIs) discrimination, ClogP analysis, and molecular simulation, raised the efficiency and accuracy to characterize sequential constituents especially position and geometric isomers. In conclusion, the results expanded our understanding on CGAs in FLJ, and the strategy could be exemplary for future research on the comprehensive identification of sequential constituents in TCMs. Meanwhile, it may propose a novel idea for analyzing sequential constituents, and is promising for quality control and evaluation of TCMs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter
2015-01-01
We study motivations for and outcomes of couples starting up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010, while comparing them to a set of comparable firms and couples. The main motivation for joint entrepreneurship is to create...
Multidimensional Convergence in Future 5G Networks
Ruffini, Marco
2017-02-01
Future 5G services are characterised by unprecedented need for high rate, ubiquitous availability, ultra-low latency and high reliability. The fragmented network view that is widespread in current networks will not stand the challenge posed by next generations of users. A new vision is required, and this paper provides an insight on how network convergence and application-centric approaches will play a leading role towards enabling the 5G vision. The paper, after expressing the view on the need for an end-to-end approach to network design, brings the reader into a journey on the expected 5G network requirements and outlines some of the work currently carried out by main standardisation bodies. It then proposes the use of the concept of network convergence for providing the overall architectural framework to bring together all the different technologies within a unifying and coherent network ecosystem. The novel interpretation of multi-dimensional convergence we introduce leads us to the exploration of aspects of node consolidation and converged network architectures, delving into details of optical-wireless integration and future convergence of optical data centre and access-metro networks. We then discuss how ownership models enabling network sharing will be instrumental in realising the 5G vision. The paper concludes with final remarks on the role SDN will play in 5G and on the need for new business models that reflect the application-centric view of the network. Finally, we provide some insight on growing research areas in 5G networking.
Zhou, Shiqi
2013-09-28
By appealing to the coupling parameter series expansion to calculate the first seven perturbation coefficients of the high temperature series expansion (HTSE) of the free energy, analysis of convergence and low temperature adaptability of the HTSE in calculating fluid thermodynamic properties is performed for the first time; the fluid thermodynamic properties considered include critical parameters, vapor-liquid coexistence curve, thermodynamic characteristic functions, chemical potential, pressure, and constant volume excess heat capacity. To proceed with the analysis, a well known square well model is used as sample; the well widths considered range over a wide interval, and the relevant temperatures amenable to simulation calculations (used as "exact" results to analyze the HTSE) can be both very high and very low. The main discoveries reached are summarized as follows: (1) The HTSE usually converges at the 4th-order truncation, but with decrease of the temperature considered, the lowest truncation order, which makes the HTSE to converge, tends to rise. As a conservative estimate, it is considered that the HTSE always converges for reduced temperature T* higher than 0.25, whereas for T* converges approximately to the correct solution, and the HTSE can be reliably used to calculate the fluid thermodynamic properties, and within this temperature interval, the 4th-order truncation is enough; whereas for T* converge, it does not converge to the correct solution, and the deviations between the HTSE calculations and MC simulations become an ever-prominent issue with the rising of the density, and the slopes of the thermodynamic properties over density are not satisfactorily represented. As a result, the HTSE is not suited for calculations for temperature interval T* < 0.5.
Convergence Rates of AFEM with H −1 Data
Cohen, Albert
2012-06-29
This paper studies adaptive finite element methods (AFEMs), based on piecewise linear elements and newest vertex bisection, for solving second order elliptic equations with piecewise constant coefficients on a polygonal domain Ω⊂ℝ2. The main contribution is to build algorithms that hold for a general right-hand side f∈H-1(Ω). Prior work assumes almost exclusively that f∈L2(Ω). New data indicators based on local H-1 norms are introduced, and then the AFEMs are based on a standard bulk chasing strategy (or Dörfler marking) combined with a procedure that adapts the mesh to reduce these new indicators. An analysis of our AFEM is given which establishes a contraction property and optimal convergence rates N-s with 0convergence rates N-s with s≤1/2. © 2012 SFoCM.
Tony, Kurissery A.; Dabideen, Darrin; Li, Jialiang; Díaz-Hernández, Maria Dolores; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Mootoo, David R.
2012-01-01
The convergent synthesis of two pentacyclic analogs of the polyether monensin A is described. Although different with respect to the configuration of the alcohol at the 3 position of the six membered ring of the spiroketal subunit, the configuration at the acetal center in both structures is unchanged and is consistent with the anomeric effect. The key synthetic steps are the coupling of two complex segments via an olefin metathesis, and the subsequent conversion of a dihydroxyalkene to the spiroketal through an iodoetherification-dehydroiodination sequence. The compatibility of these transformations with a variety of functional groups makes the overall strategy appropriate for highly substituted frameworks. PMID:19813766
Zhu, Zhu; Gao, Fenglei; Lei, Jianping; Dong, Haifeng; Ju, Huangxian
2012-10-22
A simple competitive strategy was designed for the sensitive detection of sequence-specific DNA by combining endonuclease-assisted target recycling and electrochemical stripping analysis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNP-tagged carbon nanospheres were synthesized by means of in situ reduction of Ag(+) adsorbed onto a negatively charged polyelectrolyte layer and functionalized with streptavidin for binding biotin-labeled DNA strands. The labeled strand was captured on the DNA sensor surface by competitive hybridization of biotinated primer 1 and its cleaved product. The cleaved product could be amplified in homogeneous solution by endonuclease-assisted target recycling with a Y-shaped junction DNA structure, thus leading to the correlation of the stripping signal to the target concentration. The functionalized nanosphere was characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The proposed method showed a linear range from 0.1 to 1000 fM with a limit of detection of 0.066 fM (3σ) and good selectivity for base discrimination. The designed strategy provided a sensitive tool for DNA analysis and could be widely applied in bioanalysis and biomedicine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Weigel, Stefan; Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Chereau, Sylvain; Rambaud, Lauriane [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Essers, Martien [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Nielen, Michel W.F. [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen (Netherlands); Le Bizec, Bruno [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France)
2011-08-26
Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17{beta}-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17{beta}-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for
Randomized Consensus Processing over Random Graphs: Independence and Convergence
Shi, Guodong
2011-01-01
Various consensus algorithms over random networks have been investigated in the literature. In this paper, we focus on the role that randomized individual decision-making plays to consensus seeking under stochastic communications. At each time step, each node will independently choose to follow the consensus algorithm, or to stick to current state by a simple Bernoulli trial with time-dependent success probabilities. This node decision strategy characterizes the random node-failures on a communication networks, or a biased opinion selection in the belief evolution over social networks. Connectivity-independent and arc-independent graphs are defined, respectively, to capture the fundamental nature of random network processes with regard to the convergence of the consensus algorithms. A series of sufficient and/or necessary conditions are given on the success probability sequence for the network to reach a global consensus with probability one under different stochastic connectivity assumptions, by which a comp...
Controlled stochastic networks in heavy traffic: Convergence of value functions
Budhiraja, Amarjit; 10.1214/11-AAP784
2012-01-01
Scheduling control problems for a family of unitary networks under heavy traffic with general interarrival and service times, probabilistic routing and an infinite horizon discounted linear holding cost are studied. Diffusion control problems, that have been proposed as approximate models for the study of these critically loaded controlled stochastic networks, can be regarded as formal scaling limits of such stochastic systems. However, to date, a rigorous limit theory that justifies the use of such approximations for a general family of controlled networks has been lacking. It is shown that, under broad conditions, the value function of the suitably scaled network control problem converges to that of the associated diffusion control problem. This scaling limit result, in addition to giving a precise mathematical basis for the above approximation approach, suggests a general strategy for constructing near optimal controls for the physical stochastic networks by solving the associated diffusion control problem...
Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation
Zografos, K.; Oliveira, M. S. N.
2016-01-01
In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field. PMID:27478523
A convergent overlapping domain decomposition method for total variation minimization
Fornasier, Massimo
2010-06-22
In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of convergent sequential and parallel overlapping domain decomposition methods for the minimization of functionals formed by a discrepancy term with respect to the data and a total variation constraint. To our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt of addressing such a strategy for the nonlinear, nonadditive, and nonsmooth problem of total variation minimization. We provide several numerical experiments, showing the successful application of the algorithm for the restoration of 1D signals and 2D images in interpolation/inpainting problems, respectively, and in a compressed sensing problem, for recovering piecewise constant medical-type images from partial Fourier ensembles. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Edward Khawam; Bachir Abiad; Alaa Boughannam; Joanna Saade; Ramzi Alameddine
2015-01-01
Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess. In both cases, conv./div. excess and insufficiency were erroneously attributed to anomalies of the AC/A ratio or to anomalies ...
DOES THE MAASTRICHT CONVERGENCE CRITERIA WORK?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karsai ZoltÃ¡n-KrisztiÃ¡n
2012-12-01
Full Text Available During its 13 year history, the euro area experienced the most severe economic downturn in the late 2000s as a result of the 2007 financial-economic crisis stemming from the US banking sector. The crisis in the monetary union, besides posting a significant economic and social cost, revealed several weaknesses not just of the currency block as a whole, but also of its constituting members, which were masked by the prosperous economic environment characteristic for the 2000s. These conditions have put to the test the solidarity among the euro zone members, or in other words the existence of the currency block. One important problem of the currency block is the lack of harmony between the fiscal and economic policies of the member states, creating several and occasionally very divergent parts of the currency block. The aim of this research is to enhance the Maastricht convergence criteriaâ€™s and the Stability and Growth Pactâ€™s role as a monitoring mechanism, allowing them to become more informative tools for the policy makers. For this, based on the relevant literature, we propose new potential explanatory variables which could enhance the role of the Maastricht convergence criteria and the Stability and Growth Pact. Some of the studied variables, like indebtedness of the private sector, capital flow compared to the size of the economy, government revenue compared to total public debt and current account balance help in enforcing the nominal convergence, while others (real labour productivity contribute to the real convergence. The explanatory power of the proposed variables are investigated in the case of France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain for the period comprised between 2000Q1-2011Q4. Results of the research show that with the exception of government revenue compared to total public debt, all proposed variables have significant explanatory power regarding the evolution of the state of the economy in all
Solis, Nestor; Cordwell, Stuart J
2016-01-01
A powerful start to the discovery and design of novel vaccines, and for better understanding of host-pathogen interactions, is to profile bacterial surfaces using the proteolytic digestion of surface-exposed proteins under mild conditions. This "cell shaving" approach has the benefit of both identifying surface proteins and their surface-exposed epitopes, which are those most likely to interact with host cells and/or the immune system, providing a comprehensive overview of bacterial cell topography. An essential requirement for successful cell shaving is to account for (or minimize) cellular lysis that can occur during the shaving procedure and thus generate data that is biased towards non-surface (e.g., cytoplasmic) proteins. This is further complicated by the presence of "moonlighting" proteins, which are proteins predicted to be intracellular but with validated surface or extracellular functions. Here, we describe an optimized cell shaving protocol for Gram-positive bacteria that uses proteolytic digestion and a "false-positive" control to reduce the number of intracellular contaminants in these datasets. Released surface-exposed peptides are analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Additionally, the probabilities of proteins being surface exposed can be further calculated by applying novel statistical tools.
Synthetic studies on hemicalide: development of a convergent approach toward the C1-C25 fragment.
Sorin, Geoffroy; Fleury, Etienne; Tran, Christine; Prost, Elise; Molinier, Nicolas; Sautel, François; Massiot, Georges; Specklin, Simon; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine; Lannou, Marie-Isabelle; Ardisson, Janick
2013-09-20
Synthetic studies on hemicalide, a recently isolated marine natural product displaying highly potent antiproliferative activity and a unique mode of action, have highlighted a reliable Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination to create the C6-C7 alkene and a remarkable efficient Suzuki-Miyaura coupling to form the C15-C16 bond, resulting in the development of a convergent approach toward the C1-C25 fragment.
Previti, Alberto; Furfaro, Roberto; Picca, Paolo; Ganapol, Barry D; Mostacci, Domiziano
2011-08-01
This paper deals with finding accurate solutions for photon transport problems in highly heterogeneous media fastly, efficiently and with modest memory resources. We propose an extended version of the analytical discrete ordinates method, coupled with domain decomposition-derived algorithms and non-linear convergence acceleration techniques. Numerical performances are evaluated using a challenging case study available in the literature. A study of accuracy versus computational time and memory requirements is reported for transport calculations that are relevant for remote sensing applications.
Convergent evolution of pathogenicity islands in helper cos phage interference
Manning, Keith A.; Dokland, Terje; Marina, Alberto
2016-01-01
Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are phage satellites that exploit the life cycle of their helper phages for their own benefit. Most SaPIs are packaged by their helper phages using a headful (pac) packaging mechanism. These SaPIs interfere with pac phage reproduction through a variety of strategies, including the redirection of phage capsid assembly to form small capsids, a process that depends on the expression of the SaPI-encoded cpmA and cpmB genes. Another SaPI subfamily is induced and packaged by cos-type phages, and although these cos SaPIs also block the life cycle of their inducing phages, the basis for this mechanism of interference remains to be deciphered. Here we have identified and characterized one mechanism by which the SaPIs interfere with cos phage reproduction. This mechanism depends on a SaPI-encoded gene, ccm, which encodes a protein involved in the production of small isometric capsids, compared with the prolate helper phage capsids. As the Ccm and CpmAB proteins are completely unrelated in sequence, this strategy represents a fascinating example of convergent evolution. Moreover, this result also indicates that the production of SaPI-sized particles is a widespread strategy of phage interference conserved during SaPI evolution. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672154
Convergent evolution of pathogenicity islands in helper cos phage interference.
Carpena, Nuria; Manning, Keith A; Dokland, Terje; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R
2016-11-05
Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are phage satellites that exploit the life cycle of their helper phages for their own benefit. Most SaPIs are packaged by their helper phages using a headful (pac) packaging mechanism. These SaPIs interfere with pac phage reproduction through a variety of strategies, including the redirection of phage capsid assembly to form small capsids, a process that depends on the expression of the SaPI-encoded cpmA and cpmB genes. Another SaPI subfamily is induced and packaged by cos-type phages, and although these cos SaPIs also block the life cycle of their inducing phages, the basis for this mechanism of interference remains to be deciphered. Here we have identified and characterized one mechanism by which the SaPIs interfere with cos phage reproduction. This mechanism depends on a SaPI-encoded gene, ccm, which encodes a protein involved in the production of small isometric capsids, compared with the prolate helper phage capsids. As the Ccm and CpmAB proteins are completely unrelated in sequence, this strategy represents a fascinating example of convergent evolution. Moreover, this result also indicates that the production of SaPI-sized particles is a widespread strategy of phage interference conserved during SaPI evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.
Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. COBHAM
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.
Neural networks convergence using physicochemical data.
Karelson, Mati; Dobchev, Dimitar A; Kulshyn, Oleksandr V; Katritzky, Alan R
2006-01-01
An investigation of the neural network convergence and prediction based on three optimization algorithms, namely, Levenberg-Marquardt, conjugate gradient, and delta rule, is described. Several simulated neural networks built using the above three algorithms indicated that the Levenberg-Marquardt optimizer implemented as a back-propagation neural network converged faster than the other two algorithms and provides in most of the cases better prediction. These conclusions are based on eight physicochemical data sets, each with a significant number of compounds comparable to that usually used in the QSAR/QSPR modeling. The superiority of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is revealed in terms of functional dependence of the change of the neural network weights with respect to the gradient of the error propagation as well as distribution of the weight values. The prediction of the models is assessed by the error of the validation sets not used in the training process.
Invited paper: A Review of Thresheld Convergence
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Stephen Chen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A multi-modal search space can be defined as having multiple attraction basins – each basin has a single local optimum which is reached from all points in that basin when greedy local search is used. Optimization in multi-modal search spaces can then be viewed as a two-phase process. The first phase is exploration in which the most promising attraction basin is identified. The second phase is exploitation in which the best solution (i.e. the local optimum within the previously identified attraction basin is attained. The goal of thresheld convergence is to improve the performance of search techniques during the first phase of exploration. The effectiveness of thresheld convergence has been demonstrated through applications to existing metaheuristics such as particle swarm optimization and differential evolution, and through the development of novel metaheuristics such as minimum population search and leaders and followers.
Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)
2002-08-01
Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)
Molecular mechanisms involved in convergent crop domestication.
Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter
2013-12-01
Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions.
Stability of spherical converging shock wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murakami, M., E-mail: murakami-m@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sanz, J. [ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Iwamoto, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)
2015-07-15
Based on Guderley's self-similar solution, stability of spherical converging shock wave is studied. A rigorous linear perturbation theory is developed, in which the growth rate of perturbation is given as a function of the spherical harmonic number ℓ and the specific heats ratio γ. Numerical calculation reveals the existence of a γ-dependent cut-off mode number ℓ{sub c}, such that all the eigenmode perturbations for ℓ > ℓ{sub c} are smeared out as the shock wave converges at the center. The analysis is applied to partially spherical geometries to give significant implication for different ignition schemes of inertial confinement fusion. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to verify the theory.
Rousseau and Marx: Convergence or divergence?
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Lošonc Alpar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Rousseau and Marx represent two paradigmatic variants of a radical opposition to the world. Without a doubt, there are significant moments of convergence between these thinkers, for instance in terms of division of labour, or in respect to the self-commandment. However, it is our contention that despite certain currents in literature, the tendencies of divergence are stronger than convergence, therefore, we argue that these thinkers signify two different variants of radical thought. We base these differences in a reading of Rousseau that focuses on collective authenticity, justice, self-presentation of people and protest against envy. Marx cannot be read from the perspective of the intensified crisis of non-authenticity, in fact, his critique of political economy generates a reflexive field (overcoming of the wage labour, etc., which is deeply divergent compared to Rousseau.
The genetic causes of convergent evolution.
Stern, David L
2013-11-01
The evolution of phenotypic similarities between species, known as convergence, illustrates that populations can respond predictably to ecological challenges. Convergence often results from similar genetic changes, which can emerge in two ways: the evolution of similar or identical mutations in independent lineages, which is termed parallel evolution; and the evolution in independent lineages of alleles that are shared among populations, which I call collateral genetic evolution. Evidence for parallel and collateral evolution has been found in many taxa, and an emerging hypothesis is that they result from the fact that mutations in some genetic targets minimize pleiotropic effects while simultaneously maximizing adaptation. If this proves correct, then the molecular changes underlying adaptation might be more predictable than has been appreciated previously.
Generalized functions, convergence structures, and their applications
Pap, Endre; Pilipović, Stevan; Vladimirov, Vasilij; International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" (GFCA-87)
1988-01-01
This Proceedings consists of a collection of papers presented at the International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" held from June 23-27, 1987 in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (GFCA-87): 71 participants from 21 countr~es from allover the world took part in the Conference. Proceedings reflects the work of the Conference. Plenary lectures of J. Burzyk, J. F. Colombeau, W. Gahler, H. Keiter, H. Komatsu, B. Stankovic, H. G. Tillman, V. S. Vladimirov provide an up-to-date account of the cur rent state of the subject. All these lectures, except H. G. Tillman's, are published in this volume. The published communications give the contemporary problems and achievements in the theory of generalized functions, in the theory of convergence structures and in their applications, specially in the theory of partial differential equations and in the mathematical physics. New approaches to the theory of generalized functions are presented, moti vated by concrete problems of applicat...
Service Creation and Deployment in Converged Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soler, José
This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context...... for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current...... and Future Converged Networks”, carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in the period [April 2002-April 2005]. Even though the technologies presented in the text have evolved from that period until now, the presented scenarios and setups are still valid as interesting initial steps in the realm....
Mondal, Bhaskar; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa
2015-08-03
The development of efficient catalysts with base metals for CO2 hydrogenation has always been a major thrust of interest. A series of experimental and theoretical work has revealed that the catalytic cycle typically involves two key steps, namely, base-promoted heterolytic H2 splitting and hydride transfer to CO2, either of which can be the rate-determining step (RDS) of the entire reaction. To explore the determining factor for the nature of RDS, we present herein a comparative mechanistic investigation on CO2 hydrogenation mediated by [M(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](n+) (M = Fe(II), Ru(II), and Co(III); PP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine) type complexes. In order to construct reliable free energy profiles, we used highly correlated wave function based ab initio methods of the coupled cluster type alongside the standard density functional theory. Our calculations demonstrate that the hydricity of the metal-hydride intermediate generated by H2 splitting dictates the nature of the RDS for the Fe(II) and Co(III) systems, while the RDS for the Ru(II) catalyst appears to be ambiguous. CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by the Fe(II) complex that possesses moderate hydricity traverses an H2-splitting RDS, whereas the RDS for the high-hydricity Co(III) species is found to be the hydride transfer. Thus, our findings suggest that hydricity can be used as a practical guide in future catalyst design. Enhancing the electron-accepting ability of low-hydricity catalysts is likely to improve their catalytic performance, while increasing the electron-donating ability of high-hydricity complexes may speed up CO2 conversion. Moreover, we also established the active roles of base NEt3 in directing the heterolytic H2 splitting and assisting product release through the formation of an acid-base complex.
Convergent designs for electrogenesis and electroreception.
Hopkins, C D
1995-12-01
New- and old-world tropical electric fish lack a common electrical ancestor, suggesting that the mechanisms of signal generation and recognition evolved independently in the two groups. Recent research on convergent designs for electrogenesis and electroreception has focused on the structure of electric organs, the neural circuitry controlling the pacemaker driving the electric organ, and the neural circuitry underlying time coding of electric waveforms.
Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olson R.E.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash ρr, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.
CONVERGENCE OF NONLINEAR CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu-hong Dai
2001-01-01
This paper proves that a simplified Armijo-type line search can ensure the global con vergences of the Fletcher-Reeves method and the Polak-Ribiére-Polyak method for un constrained optimization. Although it seems not possible to verify that the PRP method using the generalized Armijo line search converges globally for generally problems, it can be shown that in this case the PRP method always solves uniformly convex problems.
Arieti and Bowlby: convergence and direct influence.
Bacciagaluppi, Marco
2015-09-01
Arieti was a great specialist of schizophrenia and Bowlby was the initiator of attachment theory. Working independently on the two sides of the Atlantic, they converged on a range of topics, such as evolutionary theory, mourning, trauma, violence, and therapy as art and science. Later, Bowlby exerted a direct influence on Arieti, which Arieti acknowledged in his Love Can Be Found. Finally, the two authors cooperated in the second edition of the American Handbook of Psychiatry.
Wage sensitivity rankings and temporal convergence
Jones, Ronald W.; Neary, J. Peter
1988-01-01
This paper examines the two-sector general equilibrium model under a variety of labor-market distortions, including minimum wages and factor price differentials (both absolute and proportional). We introduce a new concept - the "wage sensitivity" ranking between sectors - and show that a necessary and sufficient condition for temporal convergence locally is that the physically labor-intensive sector be the wage-sensitive sector.
Economic Convergence : the East Asia evidence
Joian, Aref
2002-01-01
Summary "Economic Convergence, The East Asia evidence" generally includes a theoretical and an empirical part.. Part one present the neoclassical growth model, i.e., the so-called Solow-Swan model. We start from simple form, growth model with exogenous saving rate, no technical progress. As we know, Solow model is based on some assumptions, such as one-sector production, closed economy where output equals income, investment equals saving and constant rate of population growth and...
Convergence creates opportunities across health care system.
Fox, Brent I; Felkey, Bill G
2014-04-01
Industrial design students at Auburn do a creativity exercise where they are asked to combine a common household appliance with an animal. Have you seen a snake light? In health technology, we have a similar opportunity. In the connection between jewelry and vital sign monitoring technology or household security and health status monitoring, we are witnessing active convergence that will benefit patients, providers, and health systems.
COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolae ECOBICI
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.
Curvature and bubble convergence of harmonic maps
Kokarev, Gerasim
2010-01-01
We explore geometric aspects of bubble convergence for harmonic maps. More precisely, we show that the formation of bubbles is characterised by the local excess of curvature on the target manifold. We give a universal estimate for curvature concentration masses at each bubble point and show that there is no curvature loss in the necks. Our principal hypothesis is that the target manifold is Kaehler.
Convergences in the diversification of bats
M. Brock Fenton
2010-01-01
Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two), echolocation (12), roosting (six), reproduction (two) and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively), some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g....
Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments
Olson R.E.; Hicks D.G.; Meezan N.B.; Callahan D.A.; Landen O.L.; Jones O.S.; Langer S.H.; Kline J.L.; Wilson D.C.; Rinderknecht H.; Zylstra A.; Petrasso R.D.
2013-01-01
The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash ρr, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.
Bandlimited image extrapolation with faster convergence
Cahana, D.; Stark, H.
1981-08-01
Techniques for increasing the convergence rate of the extrapolation algorithm proposed by Gerchberg (1974) and Papoulis (1975) for image restoration applications are presented. The techniques involve the modification of the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm to include additional a priori data such as the low-pass projection of the image either by the inclusion of the data at the start of the recursion to reduce the starting-point error, or by use of the low-pass image in each iteration to correct twice in the frequency domain. The performance of the GP algorithm and the two modifications presented in the restorations of a signal consisting of widely separated spectral components of equal magnitude and a signal with spectral components grouped in passbands is compared, and it is found that while both modifications reduced the starting point error, the convergence rate of the second technique was not substantially greater than that of the first despite the additional iterative frequency-plane correction. A significant improvement in the starting-point errors and convergence rates of both modified algorithms is obtained, however, when they are combined with adaptive thresholding in the presence of low noise levels and a signal with relatively well spaced impulse-type spectral components.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter
We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and postdissolution private and financial outcomes...... with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse – most commonly the female – has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter
2015-01-01
We study possible motivations for co-entreprenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes...... with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse – most commonly the female – has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter
We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, us-ing a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes...... with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse - most commonly the female - has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female...
Automatic Convergence Adjustment for Stereoscopy using Eye Tracking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fisker, Martin; Gram, Kristoffer; Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper
When using stereoscopic displays, decoupling between convergence and accommodation can cause eyestrain. This paper proposes an adjustment method to automatically fit convergence at user fixation depth to accommodation by using eye tracking. Two different adjustment methods are proposed: one...
Theoretical analysis on convergence behavior of rank filters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YE; Wanzhou
2004-01-01
This paper systematically studies the convergence behavior of rank filters. The problem of convergence behavior of rank filters has been solved completely for bounded sequences. Moreover, some properties of its limiting sequences and recurrent sequences are obtained.
Convergence of a Moran model to Eigen's quasispecies model.
Dalmau, Joseba
2017-03-02
We prove that a Moran model converges in probability to Eigen's quasispecies model in the infinite population limit. We show further that the invariant probability measure of the Moran model converges to the unique stationary solution of Eigen's quasispecies model.
Probabilistic norms and statistical convergence of random variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamad Rafi Segi Rahmat
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The paper extends certain stochastic convergence of sequences of Rk -valued random variables (namely, the convergence in probability, in Lp and almost surely to the context of E-valued random variables.
Cherta, L; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Beltran, J; López, F J; Calatayud, C; Company, B; Hernández, F
2015-12-01
The potential of an advanced analytical strategy based on the use of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with two different analyzers and ionization sources has been investigated and applied to the non-target analysis of food packaging contaminants. Initially, the approach based on GC-time-of-flight (TOF) MS with electron ionization (EI) source allowed performing a library search and mass accurate measurements of selected ions. Then, a second analysis was performed using hybrid quadrupole (Q) TOF MS with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in order to search for the molecular ion or the protonated molecule and study the fragmentation behavior. This analytical strategy was applied to the analysis of four polypropylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol/polypropylene (PP/EVOH/PP) multilayer trays and one PP/Al foil/PP film, each one subjected to migration assays with the food simulants isooctane and Tenax®, in order to investigate its potential on the determination of migrant substances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozov, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.rozov@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Belyakov, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Mazul, I.; Sytchevsky, S. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2014-11-15
Highlights: • We present the way of modeling transient electro-magnetic loads on local conductive domains in the large magnetic system. • Simplification is achieved by decomposing of the problem, multi-scale integral-differential modeling and use of integral parameters. • The intrinsic scale of loads on a localized conductor with eddy is quantified through the load susceptibility tensor. • Solution is searched as response of a simple equivalent dynamic simulator, using control theory methods. • The concept is exemplified with multi-scenario assessment of EM eddy loads on ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: The complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) response of the tokamak structures is one of the key and design-driving issues for the ITER. We consider the specifics of the assessment of ponderomotive forces, acting on local components of a large electro-physical device during electromagnetic transients. A strategy and approach is proposed for the operative EM loads modeling and analysis that enables design optimization at early phases of development. The paper describes a method of principal simplification of the mathematical model, based on the analysis and exploiting specific features and peculiarities of the relevant technical problem, determined by the design and operation of the device and system under consideration. The application of the method for predictive EM loads analysis and corresponding numerical calculations are exemplified for the localized ITER blanket components — shield modules. The example demonstrates the efficiency of EM load analysis in complex electromagnetic systems via a set of simplified models with different scope, contents and level of detail.
Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves
2011-11-01
In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine being much higher than for slurry.
Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm
Liu, Lulu
2016-10-26
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.
Convergence in the EU related to the Maastricht criteria
Magdaléna DRASTICHOVÁ
2013-01-01
Regarding the entry into the euro area, the convergence of the EU economies can be monitored in several dimensions. One of them is the convergence represented by the Maastricht criteria, which are the only official conditions of joining the euro area for the EU countries. The aim of this paper is to detect the development of convergence related to these criteria in the EU and to draw mutual relations between the convergence criteria and the impact of compliance with these criteria...
The Mackey convergence condition for spaces with webs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas E. Gilsdorf
1988-01-01
Full Text Available If each sequence converging to 0 in a locally convex space is also Mackey convergent to 0, that space is said to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition. The problem of characterizing those locally convex spaces with this property is still open. In this paper, spaces with compatible webs are used to construct both a necessary and a sufficient condition for a locally convex space to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition.
Symmetry breaking and convergent extension in early chordate development.
Schiffmann, Yoram
2006-10-01
The initiation of axis, polarity, cell differentiation, and gastrulation in the very early chordate development is due to the breaking of radial symmetry. It is believed that this occurs by an external signal. We suggest instead spontaneous symmetry breaking through the agency of the Turing-Child field. Increased size or decreased diffusivity, both brought about by mitotic activity, cause the spontaneous loss of stability of the homogeneous state and the evolution of the metabolic pattern during development. The polar metabolic pattern is the cause of polar gene expression, polar morphogenesis (gastrulation), and polar mitotic activity. The Turing-Child theory explains not only the spontaneous formation of the invagination in gastrulation but also the coherent cell movement observed in convergence and extension during gastrulation and neurulation. The theory is demonstrated with respect to experimental observations on the early development of fish, amphibian, and the chick. The theory can explain a multitude of experimental details. For example, it explains the splayed polar progression of reduction in the fish blastoderm. Reduction starts on that side of the blastoderm margin, which will initiate invagination several hours later. It progresses toward the blastoderm center and somewhat laterally from this future "dorsal lip". This is precisely as predicted by a Turing-Child system in a circle. And for a fish like zebrafish with a blastoderm that is slightly oval, reduction is observed to progress along the long axis of the ellipse, which is what Turing-Child theory predicts. In general the shape and the chemical nature of the experimental patterns are the same as predicted by the Turing couple (cAMP, ATP). Embryological polarity and convergent extension are based on polar eigenfunction and saddle-shaped eigenfunction, respectively.
Modular Filter Convergence Theorems for Urysohn Integral Operators and Applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Antonio BOCCUTO; Xenofon DIMITRIOU
2013-01-01
We prove some versions of modular convergence theorems for nonlinear Urysohn-type integral operators with respect to filter convergence.We consider pointwise filter convergence of functions giving also some applications to linear and nonlinear Mellin operators.We show that our results are strict extensions of the classical ones.
Convergent variational calculation of positronium-hydrogen-atom scattering lengths
Adhikari, S K; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Mandal, Puspajit
2001-01-01
We present a convergent variational basis-set calculational scheme for elastic scattering of positronium atom by hydrogen atom in S wave. Highly correlated trial functions with appropriate symmetry are needed for achieving convergence. We report convergent results for scattering lengths in atomic units for both singlet ($=3.49\\pm 0.20$) and triplet ($=2.46\\pm 0.10$) states.
Learning with repeated-game strategies.
Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian
2014-01-01
We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.
Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christos A. Ioannou
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.
Mironov, Vladimir S; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Ceulemans, Arnout
2003-08-13
Unusual spin coupling between Mo(III) and Mn(II) cyano-bridged ions in bimetallic molecular magnets based on the [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-) heptacyanometalate is analyzed in terms of the superexchange theory. Due to the orbital degeneracy and strong spin-orbit coupling on Mo(III), the ground state of the pentagonal-bipyramidal [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-) complex corresponds to an anisotropic Kramers doublet. Using a specially adapted kinetic exchange model we have shown that the Mo(III)-CN-Mn(II) superexchange interaction is extremely anisotropic: it is described by an Ising-like spin Hamiltonian JS(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn) for the apical pairs and by the J(z)S(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn) + J(xy)(Sx(Mo) Sx(Mn) + Sy(Mo) Sy(Mn)) spin Hamiltonian for the equatorial pairs (in the latter case J(z) and J(xy) can have opposite signs). This anisotropy resulted from an interplay of several Ising-like (Sz(Mo) Sz(Mn)) and isotropic (S(Mo)S(Mn)) ferro- and antiferromagnetic contributions originating from metal-to-metal electron transfers through the pi and sigma orbitals of the cyano bridges. The Mo(III)-CN-Mn(II) exchange anisotropy is distinct from the anisotropy of the g-tensor of [Mo(III)(CN)(7)](4-); moreover, there is no correlation between the exchange anisotropy and g-tensor anisotropy. We indicate that highly anisotropic spin-spin couplings (such as the Ising-like JS(z)(Mo) S(z)(Mn)) combined with large exchange parameters represent a very important source of the global magnetic anisotropy of polyatomic molecular magnetic clusters. Since the total spin of such clusters is no longer a good quantum number, the spin spectrum pattern can differ considerably from the conventional scheme described by the zero-field splitting of the isotropic spin of the ground state. As a result, the spin reorientation barrier of the magnetic cluster may be considerably larger. This finding opens a new way in the strategy of designing single-molecule magnets (SMM) with unusually high blocking temperatures. The use of
Cooperative strategies in innovation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ratner Svetlana Valerevna
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.