Convergent close-coupling calculations of electron-hydrogen scattering
Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, A.T.
1992-04-01
The convergence of the close-coupling formalism is studied by expanding the target states in an orthogonal L 2 Laguerre basis. The theory is without approximation and convergence is established by simply increasing the basis size. The convergent elastic, 2s, and 2p differential cross sections, spin asymmetries, and angular correlation parameters for the 2p excitation at 35, 54.4, and 100 eV are calculated. Integrated and total cross sections as well as T-matrix elements for the first five partial waves are also given. 30 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs
Convergence analysis of neutronic/thermohydraulic coupling behavior of SCWR
Liu, Shichang; Cai, Jiejin
2013-01-01
The neutronic/thermohydraulic coupling (N–T coupling) calculations play an important role in core design and stability analysis. The traditional iterative method is not applicable for some new reactors (such as supercritical water-cooled reactor) which have intense N–T coupling behavior. In this paper, the mathematical model of N–T coupling based on fixed point theory is established firstly, with the convergent criterion, which can show the real-time convergence situation of iteration. Secondly, the self-adaptive relaxation factor and corresponding algorithm are proposed. Thirdly, the convergence analysis of the method of self-adaptive relaxation factor and common relaxation iteration has been performed, based on three calculation examples of SCWR fuel assembly. The results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently reduce the calculation time and be adapted to different coupling cases and different initial distribution. It is easy to program, providing convenience for reactor design and analysis. This research also provides the theoretical basis for further study of N–T coupling behavior of new reactors such as SCWR
Convergent close-coupling method: a `complete scattering theory`?
Bray, I; Fursa, D V
1995-09-01
It is demonstrated that a single convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculation of 100 eV electron impact on the ground state of helium is able to provide accurate elastic and inelastic (n {<=} 3 levels) differential cross sections, as well as singly-, doubly-, and triply-, differential ionization cross sections. Hence, it is suggested that the CCC theory deserve the title of a `complete scattering theory`. 28 refs., 5 figs.
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-09-01
data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Convergence feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this
Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.
2005-01-01
synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques
Studies toward brevisulcenal F via convergent strategies for marine ladder polyether synthesis.
Katcher, Matthew; Jamison, Timothy F
2018-03-15
Shortly after the initial isolation of marine ladder polyether natural products, biomimetic epoxide-opening cascade reactions were proposed as an efficient strategy for the synthesis of these compounds. However, difficulties in assembling the cascade precursors have limited the realization of these cascades. In this report, we describe strategies that provide convergent access to cascade precursors via regioselective allylation and efficient fragment coupling. We then investigate epoxide-opening cascades promoted by strong bases for the formation of fused tetrahydropyrans. These strategies are evaluated in the context of the synthesis of rings CDEFG of brevisulcenal F.
Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik
2002-01-01
Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN, such as m......Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN...... with the emergence of remote service provision, such as supervision and control of decentralized heating facilities and wind based electrical power production. The reliability issue is addressed from a structural viewpoint, where the concept of Structural QoS (SQoS) is defined to support reliability modelling...
Nguyen, Dorothy; Vedamurthy, Indu; Schor, Clifton
2008-01-01
Accommodation and convergence systems are cross-coupled so that stimulation of one system produces responses by both systems. Ideally, the cross-coupled responses of accommodation and convergence match their respective stimuli. When expressed in diopters and meter angles respectively, stimuli for accommodation and convergence are equal in the mid-sagittal plane when viewed with symmetrical convergence, where historically, the gains of the cross coupling (AC/A and CA/C ratios) have been quanti...
Prasad, Ramjee
2009-01-01
This paper presents the main conclusions which can be drawn from the discussions on Future Communication Systems and lessons on Unpredictable Future of Wireless Communication Systems. Future systems beyond the third generation are already under discussions in international bodies, such as ITU, WW...... and R&D programmes worldwide. The incoming era is characterized by the convergence of networks and access technology and the divergence of applications. Future mobile communication systems should bring something more than only faster data or wireless internet access....
Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology
Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei
2011-12-01
In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.
Monte Carlo criticality source convergence in a loosely coupled fuel storage system
Blomquist, Roger N.; Gelbard, Ely M.
2003-01-01
The fission source convergence of a very loosely coupled array of 36 fuel subassemblies with slightly non-symmetric reflection is studied. The fission source converges very slowly from a uniform guess to the fundamental mode in which about 40% of the fissions occur in one corner subassembly. Eigenvalue and fission source estimates are analyzed using a set of statistical tests similar to those used in MCNP, including the 'drift-in-mean' test and a new drift-in-mean test using a linear fit to the cumulative estimate drift, the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality, the relative error test, and the '1/N' test. The normality test does not detect a drifting eigenvalue or fission source. Applied to eigenvalue estimates, the other tests generally fail to detect an unconverged solution, but they are sometimes effective when evaluating fission source distributions. None of the tests provides completely reliable indication of convergence, although they can detect nonconvergence. (author)
Relativistic convergent close-coupling method applied to electron scattering from mercury
Bostock, Christopher J.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2010-01-01
We report on the extension of the recently formulated relativistic convergent close-coupling (RCCC) method to accommodate two-electron and quasi-two-electron targets. We apply the theory to electron scattering from mercury and obtain differential and integrated cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. We compared with previous nonrelativistic convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations and for a number of transitions obtained significantly better agreement with the experiment. The RCCC method is able to resolve structure in the integrated cross sections for the energy regime in the vicinity of the excitation thresholds for the (6s6p) 3 P 0,1,2 states. These cross sections are associated with the formation of negative ion (Hg - ) resonances that could not be resolved with the nonrelativistic CCC method. The RCCC results are compared with the experiment and other relativistic theories.
Qian Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Different configurations of coupling strategies influence greatly the accuracy and convergence of the simulation results in the hybrid atomistic-continuum method. This study aims to quantitatively investigate this effect and offer the guidance on how to choose the proper configuration of coupling strategies in the hybrid atomistic-continuum method. We first propose a hybrid molecular dynamics- (MD- continuum solver in LAMMPS and OpenFOAM that exchanges state variables between the atomistic region and the continuum region and evaluate different configurations of coupling strategies using the sudden start Couette flow, aiming to find the preferable configuration that delivers better accuracy and efficiency. The major findings are as follows: (1 the C→A region plays the most important role in the overlap region and the “4-layer-1” combination achieves the best precision with a fixed width of the overlap region; (2 the data exchanging operation only needs a few sampling points closer to the occasions of interactions and decreasing the coupling exchange operations can reduce the computational load with acceptable errors; (3 the nonperiodic boundary force model with a smoothing parameter of 0.1 and a finer parameter of 20 can not only achieve the minimum disturbance near the MD-continuum interface but also keep the simulation precision.
The convergent close-coupling method for a Coulomb three-body problem
Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A.T.
1994-09-01
The close-coupling method relies on the reformulation of the Schroedinger equation into an infinite set of coupled-channel equations by expanding over the complete set of target states. The difficulty in applying this approach is that the continuum channels are known to be very important in the intermediate-energy region and coupling to them must be included with little approximation. The application of the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) method is discussed which allows the continuum to be treated in a systematic manner via the use of square-integrable states. The CCC method utilizes an expansion of the target in a complete set of orthogonal L 2 functions which form a basis for the underlying Hilbert space. The utility of the method relies on being able to demonstrate convergence in the scattering amplitudes of interest as the basis size is increased. Numerical examples for the well known Temkin-Poet problem are used to illustrate the method. It is estimated the methods may be readily applied to full electron-atom scattering problem. 17 refs., 4 figs
Convergence of methods for coupling of microscopic and mesoscopic reaction–diffusion simulations
Flegg, Mark B.; Hellander, Stefan; Erban, Radek
2015-01-01
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, three multiscale methods for coupling of mesoscopic (compartment-based) and microscopic (molecular-based) stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations are investigated. Two of the three methods that will be discussed in detail have been previously reported in the literature; the two-regime method (TRM) and the compartment-placement method (CPM). The third method that is introduced and analysed in this paper is called the ghost cell method (GCM), since it works by constructing a "ghost cell" in which molecules can disappear and jump into the compartment-based simulation. Presented is a comparison of sources of error. The convergent properties of this error are studied as the time step δ. t (for updating the molecular-based part of the model) approaches zero. It is found that the error behaviour depends on another fundamental computational parameter h, the compartment size in the mesoscopic part of the model. Two important limiting cases, which appear in applications, are considered:. (i)δt→0 and h is fixed;(ii)δt→0 and h→0 such that δt/h is fixed. The error for previously developed approaches (the TRM and CPM) converges to zero only in the limiting case (ii), but not in case (i). It is shown that the error of the GCM converges in the limiting case (i). Thus the GCM is superior to previous coupling techniques if the mesoscopic description is much coarser than the microscopic part of the model.
Convergence of methods for coupling of microscopic and mesoscopic reaction–diffusion simulations
Flegg, Mark B.
2015-05-01
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, three multiscale methods for coupling of mesoscopic (compartment-based) and microscopic (molecular-based) stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations are investigated. Two of the three methods that will be discussed in detail have been previously reported in the literature; the two-regime method (TRM) and the compartment-placement method (CPM). The third method that is introduced and analysed in this paper is called the ghost cell method (GCM), since it works by constructing a "ghost cell" in which molecules can disappear and jump into the compartment-based simulation. Presented is a comparison of sources of error. The convergent properties of this error are studied as the time step δ. t (for updating the molecular-based part of the model) approaches zero. It is found that the error behaviour depends on another fundamental computational parameter h, the compartment size in the mesoscopic part of the model. Two important limiting cases, which appear in applications, are considered:. (i)δt→0 and h is fixed;(ii)δt→0 and h→0 such that δt/h is fixed. The error for previously developed approaches (the TRM and CPM) converges to zero only in the limiting case (ii), but not in case (i). It is shown that the error of the GCM converges in the limiting case (i). Thus the GCM is superior to previous coupling techniques if the mesoscopic description is much coarser than the microscopic part of the model.
O'Rourke, Natasha F; Micalizio, Glenn C
2016-03-18
Stereodivergent metallacycle-mediated cross-coupling reactions are described for the synthesis of densely functionalized vinylcyclopropanes from the union of alkynes with cyclopropenes. Strategies explored include hydroxyl-directed and nondirected processes, with the latter of these delivering vinylcyclopropanes with exquisite levels of regio- and stereoselectivity. Challenges inherent to these coupling reactions include diastereoselectivity (with respect to the cyclopropene) and regioselectivity (with respect to both coupling partners).
Carlos Toural Bran
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper offers a theoretical reflection on the concept of convergence in the Autonomous Community of Galicia, in Spain. In this geographic area, marked by its respect for journalistic tradition (especially referring to the press and its inertia, it is possible to distinguish two different attitudes (actually conflicting with regard to the convergence phenomenon. Conservation strategies coexist, therefore, (focusing mainly on the business aspect of the convergent phenomenon with renovation strategies (creation of new spaces on the web, great commitment to the possibilities offered by new technologies and social networks. We are presenting an analytical study of the coexistence of these two interpretations of convergence (marketing and technological, respectively in the communication ecosystem of Galicia. We can recognize the beginning of a dialectic tension between the discourses of renovation and conservation which at present coexist in harmony. It is assumed that the information industry in Galicia will eventually choose the path that guarantees the survival of its media.
Xosé López García
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper offers a theoretical reflection on the concept of convergence in the Autonomous Community of Galicia, in Spain. In this geographic area, marked by its respect for journalistic tradition (especially referring to the press and its inertia, it is possible to distinguish two different attitudes (actually conflicting with regard to the convergence phenomenon. Conservation strategies coexist, therefore, (focusing mainly on the business aspect of the convergent phenomenon with renovation strategies (creation of new spaces on the web, great commitment to the possibilities offered by new technologies and social networks. We are presenting an analytical study of the coexistence of these two interpretations of convergence (marketing and technological, respectively in the communication ecosystem of Galicia. We can recognize the beginning of a dialectic tension between the discourses of renovation and conservation which at present coexist in harmony. It is assumed that the information industry in Galicia will eventually choose the path that guarantees the survival of its media.
Convergence or divergence? Status and prospects for US climate strategy
Christiansen, Atle Christer
2003-01-01
The objective of this paper is to assess recent developments and prospects for future changes in United States (US) climate strategy. In doing so, the paper explores some of the key factors that have shaped strategies and policies to date, distinguishing between factors related to institutional and governance structures, linkages between science and policy, energy technology and the role of interest groups. Against this background, the paper attempts to explore future development paths for US climate policy. More specifically, the paper assesses opportunities for policy changes compared to the preferences of the current administration, and the prospects for future linkages between US and international climate change strategies. In brief, the paper argues that substantial changes are unlikely to take place in the near to medium term, leaving open, however, the possibility of wide-ranging changes in domestic politics or major incidents that could facilitate a shift in the perceived need for near-term action
Convergent close-coupling calculations of low-energy positron-atomic-hydrogen scattering
Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A.T.
1993-07-01
The convergent close coupling approach developed by the authors is applied to positron scattering from atomic hydrogen below the first excitation threshold. In this approach the multi-channel expansion one-electron states are obtained by diagonalizing the target Hamiltonian in a large Laguerre basis. It is demonstrated that this expansion of the scattering wave function is sufficient to reproduce the very accurate low-energy variational results, provided target states with l≤ 15 are included in the expansions. 10 refs., 1 tab
Nguyen, Dorothy; Vedamurthy, Indu; Schor, Clifton
2008-03-01
Accommodation and convergence systems are cross-coupled so that stimulation of one system produces responses by both systems. Ideally, the cross-coupled responses of accommodation and convergence match their respective stimuli. When expressed in diopters and meter angles, respectively, stimuli for accommodation and convergence are equal in the mid-sagittal plane when viewed with symmetrical convergence, where historically, the gains of the cross coupling (AC/A and CA/C ratios) have been quantified. However, targets at non-zero azimuth angles, when viewed with asymmetric convergence, present unequal stimuli for accommodation and convergence. Are the cross-links between the two systems calibrated to compensate for stimulus mismatches that increase with gaze-azimuth? We measured the response AC/A and stimulus CA/C ratios at zero azimuth, 17.5 and 30 deg of rightward gaze eccentricities with a Badal Optometer and Wheatstone-mirror haploscope. AC/A ratios were measured under open-loop convergence conditions along the iso-accommodation circle (locus of points that stimulate approximately equal amounts of accommodation to the two eyes at all azimuth angles). CA/C ratios were measured under open-loop accommodation conditions along the iso-vergence circle (locus of points that stimulate constant convergence at all azimuth angles). Our results show that the gain of accommodative-convergence (AC/A ratio) decreased and the bias of convergence-accommodation increased at the 30 deg gaze eccentricity. These changes are in directions that compensate for stimulus mismatches caused by spatial-viewing geometry during asymmetric convergence.
Some Convergence Strategies for the Alternating Generalized Projection Method
Maricarmen Andrade
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we extend the application of the alternating projection algorithm to solve the problem of finding a point in the intersection of $n$ sets ($n\\geq2$, which are not all of them convex sets. Here we term such method as alternating generalized projection (AGP method. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem of avoiding the so-called trap points, which may prevent an algorithm to obtain a feasible solution in two or more sets not all convex. Some strategies that allow us to reach the feasible solution are established and conjectured. Finally, we present simple numerical results that illustrate the efficiency of the iterative methods considered.
Convergence of the Light-Front Coupled-Cluster Method in Scalar Yukawa Theory
Usselman, Austin
We use Fock-state expansions and the Light-Front Coupled-Cluster (LFCC) method to study mass eigenvalue problems in quantum field theory. Specifically, we study convergence of the method in scalar Yukawa theory. In this theory, a single charged particle is surrounded by a cloud of neutral particles. The charged particle can create or annihilate neutral particles, causing the n-particle state to depend on the n + 1 and n - 1-particle state. Fock state expansion leads to an infinite set of coupled equations where truncation is required. The wave functions for the particle states are expanded in a basis of symmetric polynomials and a generalized eigenvalue problem is solved for the mass eigenvalue. The mass eigenvalue problem is solved for multiple values for the coupling strength while the number of particle states and polynomial basis order are increased. Convergence of the mass eigenvalue solutions is then obtained. Three mass ratios between the charged particle and neutral particles were studied. This includes a massive charged particle, equal masses and massive neutral particles. Relative probability between states can also be explored for more detailed understanding of the process of convergence with respect to the number of Fock sectors. The reliance on higher order particle states depended on how large the mass of the charge particle was. The higher the mass of the charged particle, the more the system depended on higher order particle states. The LFCC method solves this same mass eigenvalue problem using an exponential operator. This exponential operator can then be truncated instead to form a finite system of equations that can be solved using a built in system solver provided in most computational environments, such as MatLab and Mathematica. First approximation in the LFCC method allows for only one particle to be created by the new operator and proved to be not powerful enough to match the Fock state expansion. The second order approximation allowed one
Convergence of an L2-approach in the coupled-channels optical potential method for e-H scattering
Bray, I.; Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.
1990-08-01
An L 2 approach to the coupled-channels optical method is studied. The investigation is done for electron-hydrogen elastic scattering at projectile energies of 30, 50, 100 and 200 eV. Weak coupling, free-particle Green's function and no exchange in Q-space are appoximations used to calculate the polarization potential. This model problem is solved exactly using actual hydrogen discrete and continuum functions. The convergence of an L 2 approach with the Laguerre basis to the exact result is investigated. It is found that a basis of 10 Laguerre functions is sufficient for convergence of approximately 5% in the polarization potential matrix elements and 2% in the differential cross sections for non-large angles. The convergence is faster for smaller energies. In general, the convergence to the exact result is slow. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs
Wu, Xu; Kozlowski, Tomasz
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Coupling of Monte Carlo code Serpent and thermal–hydraulics code RELAP5. • A convergence criterion is developed based on the statistical uncertainty of power. • Correlation between MC statistical uncertainty and coupled error is quantified. • Both UO 2 and MOX single assembly models are used in the coupled simulation. • Validation of coupling results with a multi-group transport code DeCART. - Abstract: Coupled multi-physics approach plays an important role in improving computational accuracy. Compared with deterministic neutronics codes, Monte Carlo codes have the advantage of a higher resolution level. In the present paper, a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code, Serpent, is coupled with a thermal–hydraulics safety analysis code, RELAP5. The coupled Serpent/RELAP5 code capability is demonstrated by the improved axial power distribution of UO 2 and MOX single assembly models, based on the OECD-NEA/NRC PWR MOX/UO 2 Core Transient Benchmark. Comparisons of calculation results using the coupled code with those from the deterministic methods, specifically heterogeneous multi-group transport code DeCART, show that the coupling produces more precise results. A new convergence criterion for the coupled simulation is developed based on the statistical uncertainty in power distribution in the Monte Carlo code, rather than ad-hoc criteria used in previous research. The new convergence criterion is shown to be more rigorous, equally convenient to use but requiring a few more coupling steps to converge. Finally, the influence of Monte Carlo statistical uncertainty on the coupled error of power and thermal–hydraulics parameters is quantified. The results are presented such that they can be used to find the statistical uncertainty to use in Monte Carlo in order to achieve a desired precision in coupled simulation
Lyu, Haomin; He, Ziwen; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua
2018-01-01
Several clades of mangrove trees independently invade the interface between land and sea at the margin of woody plant distribution. As phenotypic convergence among mangroves is common, the possibility of convergent adaptation in their genomes is quite intriguing. To study this molecular convergence, we sequenced multiple mangrove genomes. In this study, we focused on the evolution of transposable elements (TEs) in relation to the genome size evolution. TEs, generally considered genomic parasites, are the most common components of woody plant genomes. Analyzing the long terminal repeat-retrotransposon (LTR-RT) type of TE, we estimated their death rates by counting solo-LTRs and truncated elements. We found that all lineages of mangroves massively and convergently reduce TE loads in comparison to their nonmangrove relatives; as a consequence, genome size reduction happens independently in all six mangrove lineages; TE load reduction in mangroves can be attributed to the paucity of young elements; the rarity of young LTR-RTs is a consequence of fewer births rather than access death. In conclusion, mangrove genomes employ a convergent strategy of TE load reduction by suppressing element origination in their independent adaptation to a new environment. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.
Convergent Close-Coupling Calculations for Electron-Atom and Electron-Molecule Scattering
Fursa, Dmitry; Zammit, M.C.; Bostock, C.J.; Bray, I.
2014-01-01
The Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) method developed in our group has been applied extensively to study electron-atom/ion collisions and recently has been extended to electron collisions with diatomic molecules. This approach relies on the ability to represent the infinite number of target bound states and its continuum via a finite number of states obtained by a diagonalization of the target in a square-integrable (Sturmian) one-electron basis. We normally use a Laguerre basis though other choices are possible, for example a boxed-based basis or a B-spline basis. The choice of the basis is governed by the physical problem under consideration. As the size of a Sturmian basis increases the calculated negative energy states (relative to the corresponding ionization stage of the target) converge to the target true bound states and the positive energy states provide an increasingly dense representation of the target continuum. We then perform a multichannel expansion of the total (projectile plus target electrons) wave function and formulate a set of close-coupling equations. These equations are transformed into momentum space where they take the form of the Lippmann-Schwinger equations for the T-matrix. A solution of the T-matrix equations is obtained at each total energy E by converting them into a set of linear equations that are solved by standard techniques. We perform a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wave function and take into account the symmetry of the scattering system (e.g, total spin, parity, etc.) in order to reduce the size of the coupled equations and make calculations feasible. As soon as the T-matrix is obtained we can evaluate scattering amplitudes and cross sections for the transitions of interest. For the case of molecular targets the formulation is done within the fixed-nuclei approximation. We adopt a single-centre approach in CCC calculations. This allows us to utilize a great deal of computational development thoroughly tested for
Strategies for the coupling of global and local crystal growth models
Derby, Jeffrey J.; Lun, Lisa; Yeckel, Andrew
2007-05-01
The modular coupling of existing numerical codes to model crystal growth processes will provide for maximum effectiveness, capability, and flexibility. However, significant challenges are posed to make these coupled models mathematically self-consistent and algorithmically robust. This paper presents sample results from a coupling of the CrysVUn code, used here to compute furnace-scale heat transfer, and Cats2D, used to calculate melt fluid dynamics and phase-change phenomena, to form a global model for a Bridgman crystal growth system. However, the strategy used to implement the CrysVUn-Cats2D coupling is unreliable and inefficient. The implementation of under-relaxation within a block Gauss-Seidel iteration is shown to be ineffective for improving the coupling performance in a model one-dimensional problem representative of a melt crystal growth model. Ideas to overcome current convergence limitations using approximations to a full Newton iteration method are discussed.
The fully relativistic implementation of the convergent close-coupling method
Bostock, Christopher James
2011-01-01
The calculation of accurate excitation and ionization cross sections for electron collisions with atoms and ions plays a fundamental role in atomic and molecular physics, laser physics, x-ray spectroscopy, plasma physics and chemistry. Within the veil of plasma physics lie important research areas affiliated with the lighting industry, nuclear fusion and astrophysics. For high energy projectiles or targets with a large atomic number it is presently understood that a scattering formalism based on the Dirac equation is required to incorporate relativistic effects. This tutorial outlines the development of the relativistic convergent close-coupling (RCCC) method and highlights the following three main accomplishments. (i) The inclusion of the Breit interaction, a relativistic correction to the Coulomb potential, in the RCCC method. This led to calculations that resolved a discrepancy between theory and experiment for the polarization of x-rays emitted by highly charged hydrogen-like ions excited by electron impact (Bostock et al 2009 Phys. Rev. A 80 052708). (ii) The extension of the RCCC method to accommodate two-electron and quasi-two-electron targets. The method was applied to electron scattering from mercury. Accurate plasma physics modelling of mercury-based fluorescent lamps requires detailed information on a large number of electron impact excitation cross sections involving transitions between various states (Bostock et al 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 022713). (iii) The third accomplishment outlined in this tutorial is the restructuring of the RCCC computer code to utilize a hybrid OpenMP-MPI parallelization scheme which now enables the RCCC code to run on the latest high performance supercomputer architectures. (tutorial)
TV Goes Social: Italian Broadcasting Strategies and the Challenges of Convergence
Luca Barra
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the Italian television scenario has become fully convergent, and social TV is an activity – and a hip buzzword – indicating both a rich set of possibilities for the audience to engage with TV shows, and an important asset developed by television industry to provide such engagement, with promotional and economic goals. Mainly adopting the perspective of the production cultures of Italian broadcasters, the essay will explore the “Italian way to social television”, highlighting the strategies adopted by networks and production companies to encourage online television discourse and to exploit it as a content, a marketing device or a source of supplementary income.
Fryer, Luke K; Vermunt, Jan D
2018-03-01
Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Strategies for waveguide coupling for SRF cavities
Doolittle, L.R.
1998-01-01
Despite widespread use of coaxial couplers in SRF cavities, a single, simple waveguide coupling can be used both to transmit generator power to a cavity, and to remove a large class of Higher Order Modes (HOMs, produced by the beam). There are balances and tradeoffs to be made, such as the coupling strength of the various frequencies, the transverse component of the coupler fields on the beam axis, and the magnitude of the surface fields and currents. This paper describes those design constraints, categories of solutions, and examples from the CEBAF Energy Upgrade studies
Martin, Alex D; Siamaki, Ali R; Belecki, Katherine; Gupton, B Frank
2015-02-06
A direct and efficient total synthesis has been developed for telmisartan, a widely prescribed treatment for hypertension. This approach brings together two functionalized benzimidazoles using a high-yielding Suzuki reaction that can be catalyzed by either a homogeneous palladium source or graphene-supported palladium nanoparticles. The ability to perform the cross-coupling reaction was facilitated by the regio-controlled preparation of the 2-bromo-1-methylbenzimidazole precursor. This convergent approach provides telmisartan in an overall yield of 72% while circumventing many issues associated with previously reported processes.
Becker, D.A.; Hirsekorn, R.P.
2013-01-01
This poster presents the global simulation of the behaviour of thick-walled steel containers piled up in a borehole in a rock salt repository. The simulation takes into account: the convergence by the creeping of rock salt, the backfill and waste compaction, the porosity dependent flow resistance, the anaerobic corrosion (iron to magnetite transformation, gas production, brine consumption, water consumption and salt precipitation) and pressure development. Mechanical influence of corrosion has not yet been taken into account in the integrated code LOPOS
Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2010-01-01
Electron-hydrogen scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense plasmas has been investigated using the convergent-close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe the plasma screening effects. The target structure, excitation dynamics, and ionization process change dramatically as the screening is increased. Excitation cross sections for the 1s→2s,2p,3s,3p,3d and 2s→2p,3s,3p,3d transitions and total and total ionization cross sections for the scattering from the 1s and 2s states are presented. Calculations cover the energy range from thresholds to high energies (250 eV) for various Debye lengths. We find that as the screening increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.
Strategies to prevent HIV transmission to serodiscordant couples.
Hallal, Ronaldo Campos; Raxach, Juan Carlos; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago; Maksud, Ivia
2015-09-01
The use antiretroviral reduces the sexual transmission of HIV, expanding interventions for serodiscordant couples. This article aims to review the use of antiretroviral and other prevention interventions among serodiscordant couples and to analyze its use in Brazil. A retrospective review was performed through the MEDLINE database and bases included in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. The articles recovered exhibit four main strategies: (1) condom; (2) reduction of risks in sexual practices; (3) use of antiretrovirals, particularly early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (TASP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); (4) risk reduction in reproduction. TASP is highly effective in reducing sexual transmission, PrEP was tested in serodiscordant couples and both reduce the sexual transmission risk in different sexual practices, enabling individualized prevention strategies. When used in combination, antiretrovirals and sexual practices with condoms offer greater efficacy than any single strategy. The combined use of new and old strategies allows us to build a prevention policy for all.
Faber, Rasmus; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
2018-01-01
The basis set convergence of nuclear spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) calculated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) level has been investigated for ten difficult molecules. Eight of the molecules contain fluorine atoms and nine contain double or triple bonds. Results obtained...
Keppler, Jan Horst; Le Pen, Yannick; Phan, Sebastien; Boureau, Charlotte
2014-10-01
Interconnecting two adjacent areas of electricity production generates benefits in combined consumer surplus and welfare by allowing electricity to flow from the low cost area to the high cost area. It will lower prices in the high cost area, raise them in the low cost area and will thus have prices in the two areas converge. With unconstrained interconnection capacity, price convergence is, of course, complete and the two areas are merged into a single area. With constrained interconnection capacity, the challenge for transport system operators (TSOs) and market operators is using the available capacity in an optimal manner. This was the logic behind the 'market coupling' mechanism installed by European power market operators in November 2009 in the Central Western Europe (CWE) electricity market, of which France and Germany constitute by far the two largest members. Market coupling aims at optimising welfare by ensuring that buyers and sellers exchange electricity at the best possible price taking into account the combined order books all power exchanges involved as well as the available transfer capacities between different bidding zones. By doing so, interconnection capacity is allocated to those who value it most. As predicted by theory and common sense, electricity prices in France and Germany converged substantially in 2010 and 2011 in the wake of market coupling with substantive increases of consumer surplus. These benefits accrued in both areas. In first approximation, France exports base-load power, while Germany exports peak-load power, thus exporting and importing at different times of the day. However since 2012, electricity prices between France and Germany diverged, a process that accelerated during 2013. The hypothesis this paper is exploring is that this divergence is due to the significant production of variable renewables (wind and solar PV) in Germany, which tends to cluster during certain hours. Typically, solar production around noontime
Li, Wei
2017-05-01
This paper considers the designated convergence rate (DCR) (or the designated convergence margin) problems of consensus or flocking of coupled double-integrator agents. The DCR problems are more valuable for systems design than just convergence or stability conditions. The system setting in this paper is general, i.e., the velocity coupling and position coupling (VCPC) between agents, respectively, are set to be general and nonequal (up to rescaling), together with distinct damping and stiffness gains for the VCPC, respectively. This paper has two primary contributions on consensus: 1) further necessary and sufficient conditions are established to guarantee the DCR problems of the system, which have enriched the previous results and 2) the patterns of the convergence rate contours for the DCR are characterized, in terms of the damping and stiffness gains, which are closely related to the characteristics of the spectra of the two Laplacian matrices of the VCPC. Additionally, this paper has a contribution on matrix theory, i.e., the sufficient conditions for the simultaneous upper-triangularization of two independent Laplacian matrices, particularly from an easily verifiable topological perspective on the corresponding digraphs of these Laplacian matrices.
Drug-Driven Phenotypic Convergence Supports Rational Treatment Strategies of Chronic Infections
Imamovic, Lejla; Ellabaan, Mostafa Mostafa Hashim; Dantas Machado, Ana Manuel
2018-01-01
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections evade antibiotic therapy and are associated with mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We find that in vitro resistance evolution of P. aeruginosa toward clinically relevant antibiotics leads to phenotypic convergence toward distinct states. These s...
Strategies to prevent HIV transmission to serodiscordant couples
Ronaldo Campos Hallal
2015-09-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The use antiretroviral reduces the sexual transmission of HIV, expanding interventions for serodiscordant couples.Objective:This article aims to review the use of antiretroviral and other prevention interventions among serodiscordant couples and to analyze its use in Brazil.Methods:A retrospective review was performed through the MEDLINE database and bases included in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde.Results:The articles recovered exhibit four main strategies: (1 condom; (2 reduction of risks in sexual practices; (3 use of antiretrovirals, particularly early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (TASP and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; (4 risk reduction in reproduction.Discussion:TASP is highly effective in reducing sexual transmission, PrEP was tested in serodiscordant couples and both reduce the sexual transmission risk in different sexual practices, enabling individualized prevention strategies.Conclusions:When used in combination, antiretrovirals and sexual practices with condoms offer greater efficacy than any single strategy. The combined use of new and old strategies allows us to build a prevention policy for all.
Devroe, E.; Edwards, A.M.; Ponsaers, P.
2017-01-01
This edited collection forms part of a broader, ongoing, research project, ‘The Policing European Metropolises Project’ (‘PEMP’). The Project has its origins in a network of researchers interested in the significance of sub-national policing for understanding processes of convergence and divergence
TV Goes Social: Italian Broadcasting Strategies and the Challenges of Convergence
Barra, Luca; Scaglioni, Massimo
2014-01-01
abstractIn recent years, the Italian television scenario has become fully convergent, and social TV is an activity – and a hip buzzword – indicating both a rich set of possibilities for the audience to engage with TV shows, and an important asset developed by television industry to provide such
Impact of DC link control strategies on the power-flow convergence of integrated AC–DC systems
Shagufta Khan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available For the power-flow solution of integrated AC–DC systems, five quantities are required to be solved per converter, against three independent equations available. These three equations consist of two basic converter equations and one DC network equation, corresponding to each converter. Thus, for solution, two additional equations are required. These two equations are derived from the control specifications adopted for the DC link. Depending on the application, several combinations of valid control specifications are possible. A set of valid control specifications constitutes a control strategy. It is observed that the control strategy adopted for the DC link strongly affects the power-flow convergence of integrated AC–DC systems. This paper investigates how different control strategies affect the power flow convergence of integrated AC–DC systems. Sequential method is used to solve the DC variables in the Newton Raphson (NR power flow model. Seven typical control strategies have been taken into consideration. This is validated by numerous case studies carried out with multiple DC links incorporated in the IEEE 118-bus and 300-bus test systems.
Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A
2015-01-01
People choose differently when facing potential gains than when facing potential losses. Clear gross differences in decision making between gains and losses have been empirically demonstrated in numerous studies (e.g., framing effect, risk preference, loss aversion). However, theories maintain that there are strong underlying connections (e.g., reflection effect). We investigated the relationship between gains and losses decision making, examining risk preferences, and choice strategies (the reliance on option information) using a monetary gamble task with interleaved trials. For risk preferences, participants were on average risk averse in the gains domain and risk neutral/seeking in the losses domain. We specifically tested for a theoretically hypothesized correlation between individual risk preferences across the gains and losses domains (the reflection effect), but found no significant relationship in the predicted direction. Interestingly, despite the lack of reflected risk preferences, cross-domain risk preferences were still informative of individual choice behavior. For choice strategies, in both domains participants relied more heavily on the maximizing strategy than the satisficing strategy, with increased reliance on the maximizing strategy in the losses domain. Additionally, while there is no mathematical reliance between the risk preference and strategy metrics, within both domains there were significant relationships between risk preferences and strategies-the more participants relied upon the maximizing strategy the more risk neutral they were (equating value and utility maximization). These results demonstrate the complexity of gains and losses decision making, indicating the apparent contradiction that their underlying cognitive/neural processes are both dissociable and overlapping.
Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih
2015-12-01
Full Text Available People choose differently when facing potential gains than when facing potential losses. Clear gross differences in decision making between gains and losses have been empirically demonstrated in numerous studies (e.g. framing effect, risk preference, loss aversion. However, theories maintain that there are strong underlying connections (e.g. reflection effect. We investigated the relationship between gains and losses decision making, examining risk preferences and choice strategies (the reliance on option information using a monetary gamble task with interleaved trials. For risk preferences, participants were on average risk averse in the gains domain and risk neutral/seeking in the losses domain. We specifically tested for a theoretically hypothesized correlation between individual risk preferences across the gains and losses domains (the reflection effect, but found no significant relationship in the predicted direction. Interestingly, despite the lack of reflected risk preferences, cross-domain risk preferences were still informative of individual choice behavior. For choice strategies, in both domains participants relied more heavily on the maximizing strategy than the satisficing strategy, with increased reliance on the maximizing strategy in the losses domain. Additionally, while there is no mathematical reliance between the risk preference and strategy metrics, within both domains there were significant relationships between risk preferences and strategies – the more participants relied upon the maximizing strategy the more risk neutral they were (equating value and utility maximization. These results demonstrate the complexity of gains and losses decision making, indicating the apparent contradiction that their underlying cognitive/neural processes are both dissociable and overlapping.
Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A.
2015-01-01
People choose differently when facing potential gains than when facing potential losses. Clear gross differences in decision making between gains and losses have been empirically demonstrated in numerous studies (e.g., framing effect, risk preference, loss aversion). However, theories maintain that there are strong underlying connections (e.g., reflection effect). We investigated the relationship between gains and losses decision making, examining risk preferences, and choice strategies (the reliance on option information) using a monetary gamble task with interleaved trials. For risk preferences, participants were on average risk averse in the gains domain and risk neutral/seeking in the losses domain. We specifically tested for a theoretically hypothesized correlation between individual risk preferences across the gains and losses domains (the reflection effect), but found no significant relationship in the predicted direction. Interestingly, despite the lack of reflected risk preferences, cross-domain risk preferences were still informative of individual choice behavior. For choice strategies, in both domains participants relied more heavily on the maximizing strategy than the satisficing strategy, with increased reliance on the maximizing strategy in the losses domain. Additionally, while there is no mathematical reliance between the risk preference and strategy metrics, within both domains there were significant relationships between risk preferences and strategies—the more participants relied upon the maximizing strategy the more risk neutral they were (equating value and utility maximization). These results demonstrate the complexity of gains and losses decision making, indicating the apparent contradiction that their underlying cognitive/neural processes are both dissociable and overlapping. PMID:26733779
‘More Than a Television Channel’: Channel 4, FilmFour and a Failed Convergence Strategy
Hannah Andrews
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Obliged by act of Parliament to ‘innovate and experiment’, Channel 4 has, since its birth in 1982, been the UK’s most pioneering commercial television broadcaster. Its arrival broadened the meaning, function and operations of public service broadcasting in the UK, with a particular focus on minorities and pushing boundaries, political and creative. In the late 1990s, though, it was under increasing threat from specialist pay-TV services that could more accurately target its audiences. As a commercially funded channel with public service responsibilities, Channel 4 was under increasing pressure to be financially independent and fulfil a challenging remit. Its response to a threatened income and increasing competition was to diversify its portfolio into various media related businesses, particularly taking advantage of the arrival of digital television to expand its offer. The subtitle of the Corporation’s 2000 Annual report, ‘More than a Television Channel’ indicates the confidence, optimism and boldness with which this expansion was approached. The rapid expansion of the channel’s portfolio in a time of relative confidence in the commercial viability of the television industry was to be reversed only a few years later, when, after it failed to produce the returns it was designed for, 4Ventures was drastically scaled back, and Channel 4 refocused its efforts on the core broadcast channel. Channel 4 therefore offers a test case in the limits of convergence as a strategy for survival for British broadcasters at the arrival of digital television. This paper focuses specifically on the areas of Channel 4’s strategy that pertained to one of the broadcaster’s particular strengths: film culture. It explores one of the film offshoots of 4Ventures: FilmFour Ltd, the film finance, production, sales and distribution company and how its failure to find a commercial hit mirrors the general problems for a commercial public service broadcaster
Akhmetov, Ildar; Bubnov, Rostyslav V
2017-12-01
As reimbursement authorities are gaining greater power to influence the prescription behavior of physicians, it remains critical for life science companies focusing on personalized medicine to develop "tailor-made" payer engagement strategies to secure reimbursement and assure timely patient access to their innovative products. Depending on the types of such engagement, pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies may benefit by obtaining access to medical and pharmacy claims data, getting invaluable upfront inputs on evidence requirements and clinical trial design, and strengthening trust by payers, therefore avoiding uncertainties with regards to pricing, reimbursement, and research and development reinvestment. This article aims to study the evolving trend of partnering among two interdependent, yet confronting, stakeholder groups-payers and producers-as well as to identify the most promising payer engagement strategies based on cocreation of value introduced by life science companies in the past few years. We analyzed the recent case studies from both therapeutic and diagnostic realms considered as the "best practices" in payer engagement. The last 5 years were a breakout period for deals between life science companies and reimbursement authorities in the area of personalized medicine with a number of felicitous collaborative practices established already, and many more yet to emerge. We suggest that there are many ways for producers and payers to collaborate throughout the product life cycle-from data exchange and scientific counseling to research collaboration aimed at reducing healthcare costs, addressing adherence issues, and diminishing risks associated with future launches. The presented case studies provide clear insights on how successful personalized medicine companies customize their state-of-the-art payer engagement strategies to ensure closer proximity with payers and establish longer-term trust-based relationships.
Szymańska, Agata; Zalewska, Elżbieta
2018-01-01
The aim of this article is to investigate the similarities between the EU countries in terms of achieving the Europe 2020 Strategy goals. Due to the latest data availability, the analysis is based on the year 2014. The study uses grouping methods, including the k-means algorithm. The results indicate the existence of a division between the “old” and “new” European Union Member States. However, as is shown, some of the Strategy’s targets have already been achieved and some indicators have been...
Storti, Mario A.; Nigro, Norberto M.; Paz, Rodrigo R.; Dalcín, Lisandro D.
2009-03-01
In this paper some results on the convergence of the Gauss-Seidel iteration when solving fluid/structure interaction problems with strong coupling via fixed point iteration are presented. The flow-induced vibration of a flat plate aligned with the flow direction at supersonic Mach number is studied. The precision of different predictor schemes and the influence of the partitioned strong coupling on stability is discussed.
CONVERGENCE BETWEEN A NEW EU ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGIES
Nicoleta VASILCOVSCHI
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Economic diplomacy is known as a symbol of the European Union and represents its primary function. With the development of science and new ways of communication, the European Union can organize a new approach for its economic diplomacy. The main advantage of the European Union as a soft power is that its economic and diplomatic interests are represented in a manner that is based not on confrontation but economic collaboration with other states. The disadvantage is that this domain is presently not used enough to represent EU interests. This paper describes economic diplomacy in general and the economic diplomacy of the EU in particular. Divided into three parts, the goal of this study is to outline the importance of economic diplomacy, its evolution, the influence of this domain on the creation of previous economic treaties, and its possible future impact on the development of new agreements between the European Union and its neighbor countries.The main methodology used is descriptive, presenting the evolution of this field and the new business strategies that can be used to improve cooperation at the eastern border of the European Union. Therefore here are presented the historical background of EU Economic diplomacy, its present issues, and future challenges. The quantitative data used in this research paper are based on information from the EU website and on the actual events concerning debates about economic diplomacy and its future. The research questions presented herein follow the general evolution of this domain and its mutual influence with EU’s businesses strategies.
Grunloh, T.P.; Manera, A.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel domain overlapping coupling method is presented. • Method calculates closure coefficients for system codes based on CFD results. • Convergence and stability are compared with a domain decomposition implementation. • Proposed method is tested in several 1D cases. • Proposed method found to exhibit more favorable convergence and stability behavior. - Abstract: A novel multiscale coupling methodology based on a domain overlapping approach has been developed to couple a computational fluid dynamics code with a best-estimate thermal hydraulic code. The methodology has been implemented in the coupling infrastructure code Janus, developed at the University of Michigan, providing methods for the online data transfer between the commercial computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+ and the US NRC best-estimate thermal hydraulic system code TRACE. Coupling between these two software packages is motivated by the desire to extend the range of applicability of TRACE to scenarios in which local momentum and energy transfer are important, such as three-dimensional mixing. These types of flows are relevant, for example, in the simulation of passive safety systems including large containment pools, or for flow mixing in the reactor pressure vessel downcomer of current light water reactors and integral small modular reactors. The intrafluid shear forces neglected by TRACE equations of motion are readily calculated from computational fluid dynamics solutions. Consequently, the coupling methods used in this study are built around correcting TRACE solutions with data from a corresponding STAR-CCM+ solution. Two coupling strategies are discussed in the paper: one based on a novel domain overlapping approach specifically designed for transient operation, and a second based on the well-known domain decomposition approach. In the present paper, we discuss the application of the two coupling methods to the simulation of open and closed loops in both steady
van der Kolk, Berend; Schokker, Tom
2016-01-01
We examine how couplings of management control (MC) elements help to implement an organization’s strategy. Despite prior research stating that couplings between MC elements form fruitful soil for further research, empirical studies in this area are still scarce. We draw on coupling theory to explore three hierarchical relations between MC elements, and examine how these couplings help to implement the organization’s strategy. We conducted a single case study in a medium-sized Dutch municipali...
A modeling strategy for G-protein coupled receptors
Anna Kahler
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Cell responses can be triggered via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs that interact with small molecules, peptides or proteins and transmit the signal over the membrane via structural changes to activate intracellular pathways. GPCRs are characterized by a rather low sequence similarity and exhibit structural differences even for functionally closely related GPCRs. An accurate structure prediction for GPCRs is therefore not straightforward. We propose a computational approach that relies on the generation of several independent models based on different template structures, which are subsequently refined by molecular dynamics simulations. A comparison of their conformational stability and the agreement with GPCR-typical structural features is then used to select a favorable model. This strategy was applied to predict the structure of the herpesviral chemokine receptor US28 by generating three independent models based on the known structures of the chemokine receptors CXCR1, CXCR4, and CCR5. Model refinement and evaluation suggested that the model based on CCR5 exhibits the most favorable structural properties. In particular, the GPCR-typical structural features, such as a conserved water cluster or conserved non-covalent contacts, are present to a larger extent in the model based on CCR5 compared to the other models. A final model validation based on the recently published US28 crystal structure confirms that the CCR5-based model is the most accurate and exhibits 80.8% correctly modeled residues within the transmembrane helices. The structural agreement between the selected model and the crystal structure suggests that our modeling strategy may also be more generally applicable to other GPCRs of unknown structure.
Compressive sampling of polynomial chaos expansions: Convergence analysis and sampling strategies
Hampton, Jerrad; Doostan, Alireza
2015-01-01
Sampling orthogonal polynomial bases via Monte Carlo is of interest for uncertainty quantification of models with random inputs, using Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions. It is known that bounding a probabilistic parameter, referred to as coherence, yields a bound on the number of samples necessary to identify coefficients in a sparse PC expansion via solution to an ℓ 1 -minimization problem. Utilizing results for orthogonal polynomials, we bound the coherence parameter for polynomials of Hermite and Legendre type under their respective natural sampling distribution. In both polynomial bases we identify an importance sampling distribution which yields a bound with weaker dependence on the order of the approximation. For more general orthonormal bases, we propose the coherence-optimal sampling: a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, which directly uses the basis functions under consideration to achieve a statistical optimality among all sampling schemes with identical support. We demonstrate these different sampling strategies numerically in both high-order and high-dimensional, manufactured PC expansions. In addition, the quality of each sampling method is compared in the identification of solutions to two differential equations, one with a high-dimensional random input and the other with a high-order PC expansion. In both cases, the coherence-optimal sampling scheme leads to similar or considerably improved accuracy
Compressive sampling of polynomial chaos expansions: Convergence analysis and sampling strategies
Hampton, Jerrad; Doostan, Alireza
2015-01-01
Sampling orthogonal polynomial bases via Monte Carlo is of interest for uncertainty quantification of models with random inputs, using Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions. It is known that bounding a probabilistic parameter, referred to as coherence, yields a bound on the number of samples necessary to identify coefficients in a sparse PC expansion via solution to an ℓ1-minimization problem. Utilizing results for orthogonal polynomials, we bound the coherence parameter for polynomials of Hermite and Legendre type under their respective natural sampling distribution. In both polynomial bases we identify an importance sampling distribution which yields a bound with weaker dependence on the order of the approximation. For more general orthonormal bases, we propose the coherence-optimal sampling: a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, which directly uses the basis functions under consideration to achieve a statistical optimality among all sampling schemes with identical support. We demonstrate these different sampling strategies numerically in both high-order and high-dimensional, manufactured PC expansions. In addition, the quality of each sampling method is compared in the identification of solutions to two differential equations, one with a high-dimensional random input and the other with a high-order PC expansion. In both cases, the coherence-optimal sampling scheme leads to similar or considerably improved accuracy.
Strategies for P2P connectivity in reconfigurable converged wired/wireless access networks.
Puerto, Gustavo; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José
2010-12-06
This paper presents different strategies to define the architecture of a Radio-Over-Fiber (RoF) Access networks enabling Peer-to-Peer (P2P) functionalities. The architectures fully exploit the flexibility of a wavelength router based on the feedback configuration of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) and an optical switch to broadcast P2P services among diverse infrastructures featuring dynamic channel allocation and enabling an optical platform for 3G and beyond wireless backhaul requirements. The first architecture incorporates a tunable laser to generate a dedicated wavelength for P2P purposes and the second architecture takes advantage of reused wavelengths to enable the P2P connectivity among Optical Network Units (ONUs) or Base Stations (BS). While these two approaches allow the P2P connectivity in a one at a time basis (1:1), the third architecture enables the broadcasting of P2P sessions among different ONUs or BSs at the same time (1:M). Experimental assessment of the proposed architecture shows approximately 0.6% Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) degradation for wireless services and 1 dB penalty in average for 1 x 10(-12) Bit Error Rate (BER) for wired baseband services.
Andrade, Maria; Melazzi, Nicola; Walker, Richard; Hussmann, Heinrich; Venieris, Iakovos
2014-01-01
Convergence proposes the enhancement of the Internet with a novel, content-centric, publish–subscribe service model based on the versatile digital item (VDI): a common container for all kinds of digital content, including digital representations of real-world resources. VDIs will serve the needs of the future Internet, providing a homogeneous method for handling structured information, incorporating security and privacy mechanisms. CONVERGENCE subsumes the following areas of research: · definition of the VDI as a new fundamental unit of distribution and transaction; · content-centric networking functionality to complement or replace IP-address-based routing; · security and privacy protection mechanisms; · open-source middleware, including a community dictionary service to enable rich semantic searches; · applications, tested under real-life conditions. This book shows how CONVERGENCE allows publishing, searching and subscri...
CLOUD COMPUTING AND BIG DATA AS CONVERGENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR RETAIL PRICING STRATEGIES OF SMEs
George SUCIU
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Most retailers know that technology has played an increasingly important role in helping retailers set prices. Online business decision systems are at the core point of an SMEs management and reporting activities. But, until recently, these efforts have been rooted in advances in computing technology, such as cloud computing and big data mining, rather than in newfound applications of scientific principles. In addition, in previous approaches big data mining solutions were implemented locally on private clouds and no SME could aggregate and analyze the information that consumers are exchanging with each other. Real science is a powerful, pervasive force in retail today, particularly so for addressing the complex challenge of retail pricing. Cloud Computing comes in to provide access to entirely new business capabilities through sharing resources and services and managing and assigning resources effectively. Done right, the application of scientific principles to the creation of a true price optimization strategy can lead to significant sales, margin, and profit lift for retailers. In this paper we describe a method to provide the mobile retail consumers with reviews, brand ratings and detailed product information at the point of sale. Furthermore, we present how we use Exalead CloudView platform to search for weak signals in big data by analyzing multimedia data (text, voice, picture, video and mining online social networks. The analysis makes not only customer profiling possible, but also brand promotion in the form of coupons, discounts or upselling to generate more sales, thus providing the opportunity for retailer SMEs to connect directly to its customers in real time. The paper explains why retailers can no longer thrive without a science-based pricing system, defines and illustrates the right science-based approach, and calls out the key features and functionalities of leading science-based price optimization systems. In particular, given
Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A.T.
1992-01-01
Convergence as a function of the number of states is studied and demonstrated for the Poet-Temkin model of electron-hydrogen scattering. In this Coulomb three-body problem only the l=0 partial waves are treated. By taking as many as thirty target states, obtained by diagonalizing the target Hamiltonian in a Laguerre basis, complete agreement with the smooth results of Poet is obtained at all energies. We show that the often-encountered pseudoresonance features in the cross sections are simply an indication of an inadequate target state representation
van der Kolk, Berend; Schokker, Tom
2016-01-01
We examine how couplings of management control (MC) elements help to implement an organization’s strategy. Despite prior research stating that couplings between MC elements form fruitful soil for further research, empirical studies in this area are still scarce. We draw on coupling theory to explore
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.
Weinberger Morris
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost 50% of Americans have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. The behaviors required to lower LDL-C levels may be difficult to adhere to if they are inconsistent with spouses' health practices, and, alternatively, may be enhanced by enlisting support from the spouse. This trial extends previous trials by requiring spouse enrollment, teaching spouses how to provide emotional and instrumental support, allowing patients to decide which component of the intervention they would like to receive, and having patients determine their own goals and action plans. Methods Veteran outpatients with above-goal LDL-C (N = 250 and their spouses are randomized, as a couple, to receive printed education materials only or the materials plus an 11-month, nurse-delivered, telephone-based intervention. The intervention contains four modules: medication adherence, diet, exercise, and patient-physician communication. Patients decide which modules they complete and in which order; modules may be repeated or omitted. Telephone calls are to patients and spouses separately and occur monthly. During each patient telephone call, patients' progress is reviewed, and patients create goals and action plans for the upcoming month. During spouse telephone calls, which occur within one week of patient calls, spouses are informed of patients' goals and action plans and devise strategies to increase emotional and instrumental support. The primary outcome is patients' LDL-C, measured at baseline, 6 months, and 11 months. Linear mixed models will be used to test the primary hypothesis that an 11-month, telephone-based patient-spouse intervention will result in a greater reduction in LDL-C as compared to printed education materials. Various process measures, including social support, self-efficacy, medication adherence, dietary behavior, and exercise, are also assessed to explain any change, or lack thereof, in LDL-C. Discussion Given the social
A new strategy for professional medical support couples with infertility
O. B. Zhukov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available From our point of view, the problem of infertility in a pair of appropriately addressed jointly by the two related disciplines. This process has been actively helping set newsupplements Spematon and Pregnoton. The study included 50 couples planning to conceive: 25 couples with male factor infertility secretory type (group 1, 25 couples with infertility caused by varicocele in the postoperative period (group 2. The first group included patients with hyperprolactinemia relative to a second group – 25 somatically healthy patients. All groups patients takes Spematon and Pregnoton during 3 months. Terms of infertility in couples ranged from 1 to 4,5 years and an average reached 2,8 ± 1,6 years. According to the results of the comparative analysis the reproductive value of sperm had been enhanced, functional status of the female reproductive system had been improved, the menstrual cycle had been normalized and relatively elevated levels of prolactin had been decreased after co-application of these supplements. Five woman became pregnant.
Boukadida, T.
1988-01-01
The compatibility between accuracy and stability of the quasilinear equations is studied. Three stuations are analyzed: the discontinuous P-1 approximation of the first order quasilinear equation, the two dimensional version of the Lax-Friedrichs scheme and the coupling of modes in a plasma. For the one dimensional case, the proposed scheme matches the available data. In the two dimensional case, tests to show the explosion condition are performed. This investigation can be applied in laser-matter interactions, nonlinear optics and in many fields of physics [fr
Erven, Ulrich (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard (ed.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De (ed.) [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2005-07-01
The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining
Erven, Ulrich [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2005-07-01
The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining
Modification of aniline containing proteins using an oxidative coupling strategy.
Hooker, Jacob M; Esser-Kahn, Aaron P; Francis, Matthew B
2006-12-13
A new bioconjugation reaction has been developed based on the chemoselective modification of anilines through an oxidative coupling pathway. Aryl amines were installed on the surface of protein substrates through lysine acylation reactions or through the use of native chemical ligation techniques. Upon exposure to NaIO4 in aqueous buffer, the anilines coupled rapidly to the aromatic rings of N,N-dialkyl-N'-acyl-p-phenylenediamines. The identities of the reaction products were confirmed using ESI-MS and through comparison to small molecule analogs. Control experiments indicated that none of the native amino acids participated in the reaction. The resulting bioconjugates were found to be stable toward hydrolysis from pH 4 to pH 11 and in the presence of many commonly used oxidants, reductants, and nucleophiles. A fluorescent phenylenediamine reagent was synthesized for the selective detection of aniline labeled proteins in mixtures, and the reaction was used to append the C-terminus of the green fluorescent protein with a single PEG chain. When combined with techniques for the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins, this bioorthogonal coupling method should prove useful for a number of applications requiring a high degree of labeling specificity.
Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.
2007-11-01
Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.
Christa E. Müller
2012-03-01
Full Text Available MG 50-3-1 (3, trisodium 1-amino-4-{4-[4-chloro-6-(2-sulfophenylamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino]-2-sulfophenylamino}-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene 2-sulfonate is the most potent and selective antagonist (IC50 4.6 nM for “P2Y1-like” nucleotide-activated membrane receptors in guinea-pig taenia coli responsible for smooth muscle relaxation. Full characterization of the compound, however, e.g., at the human P2Y1 receptor, which is a novel potential target for antithrombotic drugs, as well as other P2 receptor subtypes, has been hampered due to difficulties in synthesizing the compound in sufficient quantity. MG 50-3-1 would be highly useful as a biological tool for detailed investigation of signal transduction in the gut. We have now developed a convenient, fast, mild, and efficient convergent synthesis of 3 based on retrosynthetic analysis. A new, regioselective Ullmann coupling reaction under microwave irradiation was successfully developed to obtain 1-amino-4-(4-amino-2-sulfophenylamino-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene 2-sulfonate (8. Four different copper catalysts (Cu, CuCl, CuCl2, and CuSO4 were investigated at different pH values of sodium phosphate buffer, and in water in the absence or presence of base. Results showed that CuSO4 in water in the presence of triethylamine provided the best conditions for the regioselective Ullmann coupling reaction yielding the key intermediate compound 8. A new synthon (sodium 2-(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylaminobenzenesulfonate, 13 which can easily be obtained on a gram scale was prepared, and 13 was successfully coupled with 8 yielding the target compound 3.
Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; And Others
1994-01-01
Investigated how marital partners influenced each other concerning work and family decisions and connected influence strategies to martial satisfaction in 61 married couples who had faced work-family decisions in past 6 months. Found that gender role ideology and indirect influence strategies were related to marital satisfaction. Variables related…
IT Convergence and Security 2012
Chung, Kyung-Yong
2013-01-01
The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.
A formation control strategy with coupling weights for the multi-robot system
Liang, Xudong; Wang, Siming; Li, Weijie
2017-12-01
The distributed formation problem of the multi-robot system with general linear dynamic characteristics and directed communication topology is discussed. In order to avoid that the multi-robot system can not maintain the desired formation in the complex communication environment, the distributed cooperative algorithm with coupling weights based on zipf distribution is designed. The asymptotic stability condition for the formation of the multi-robot system is given, and the theory of the graph and the Lyapunov theory are used to prove that the formation can converge to the desired geometry formation and the desired motion rules of the virtual leader under this condition. Nontrivial simulations are performed to validate the effectiveness of the distributed cooperative algorithm with coupling weights.
Åberg, M.; Fälting, L.; Forssell, A.
2016-01-01
The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 made it possible to operate municipal district heating commercially. Until that time district heating had been organized mainly as municipal utilities. After 1996 district heating is instead expected to function on a market. In competitive and integrated markets, prices are expected to be equal, or converging. To find out if district heating operates on an integrated market the differences in price levels, price convergence, price strategy, and business goals, among municipal, private and state owned district heating companies are investigated. Price statistics was used along with results from a questionnaire that was answered by representatives for 109 Swedish district heating companies. The results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge significantly and that variations in prices among municipal systems are larger than among private and state owned systems. Furthermore, despite the fact that district heating is supposed to be commercial, a vast majority of district heating companies apply cost-based pricing and not market pricing. The municipal companies give priority to political goals before financial goals. The conclusion is that a Swedish integrated market for heat has not yet evolved, and some district heating price-controlling mechanism is necessary. - Highlights: • Price statistics and owner type data were used along with results from a questionnaire. • Results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge. • Municipal district heating companies still apply cost-based pricing to a large extent. • District heating companies are not operating on an integrated market for heat. • Some price-controlling mechanism for district heating is necessary.
Adlerian Marital Therapy Strategies with Middle Income Couples Facing Financial Stress.
Freeman, Criswell; And Others
1993-01-01
Describes the impact of economic stressors on marriage. Discusses how Adlerian marital therapy strategies can be tailored to help middle-income couples deal with such stressors. Identifies problems facing middle income families experiencing financial hardship, describes Adlerian counseling for financial conflict in marriage, and delineates…
Sutton, N.B.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.
2011-01-01
Purpose - In order to provide highly effective yet relatively inexpensive strategies for the remediation of recalcitrant organic contaminants, research has focused on in situ treatment technologies. Recent investigation has shown that coupling two common treatments-in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO)
Transnational business and family strategies among Chinese/Nigerian couples in Guangzhou and Lagos
Lan, S.
2015-01-01
Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Guangzhou and Lagos, this paper explores transnational trade activities and family strategies among Chinese/Nigerian interracial couples in the context of growing China/Africa trade relations and the recent tightening of China's immigration control. It examines how
Identification of Constitutive Parameters Using Inverse Strategy Coupled to an ANN Model
Aguir, H.; Chamekh, A.; BelHadjSalah, H.; Hambli, R.
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the identification of material parameters using an inverse strategy. In the classical methods, the inverse technique is generally coupled with a finite element code which leads to a long computing time. In this work an inverse strategy coupled with an ANN procedure is proposed. This method has the advantage of being faster than the classical one. To validate this approach an experimental plane tensile and bulge tests are used in order to identify material behavior. The ANN model is trained from finite element simulations of the two tests. In order to reduce the gap between the experimental responses and the numerical ones, the proposed method is coupled with an optimization procedure to identify material parameters for the AISI304. The identified material parameters are the hardening curve and the anisotropic coefficients
Zhao-Bing, Liu; Hua-Guang, Zhang; Qiu-Ye, Sun
2010-01-01
This paper considers the global stability of controlling an uncertain complex network to a homogeneous trajectory of the uncoupled system by a local pinning control strategy. Several sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee the network synchronisation by investigating the relationship among pinning synchronisation, network topology, and coupling strength. Also, some fundamental and yet challenging problems in the pinning control of complex networks are discussed: (1) what nodes should be selected as pinned candidates? (2) How many nodes are needed to be pinned for a fixed coupling strength? Furthermore, an adaptive pinning control scheme is developed. In order to achieve synchronisation of an uncertain complex network, the adaptive tuning strategy of either the coupling strength or the control gain is utilised. As an illustrative example, a network with the Lorenz system as node self-dynamics is simulated to verify the efficacy of theoretical results. (general)
... is also found to be weak. If both accommodation and convergence are weak, reading glasses, sometimes with prism added, may be a great option for these patients. It is very difficult to improve accommodation with exercises. Updated 7/2017 Eye Terms & Conditions ...
Liu, Yizhou; Cohen, Ryan D.; Martin, Gary E.; Williamson, R. Thomas
2018-06-01
Accurate measurement of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) requires an appropriate degree of alignment in order to optimize data quality. An overly weak alignment yields very small anisotropic data that are susceptible to measurement errors, whereas an overly strong alignment introduces extensive anisotropic effects that severely degrade spectral quality. The ideal alignment amplitude also depends on the specific pulse sequence used for the coupling measurement. In this work, we introduce a practical strategy for the accurate measurement of one-bond 13C-1H RDCs up to a range of ca. -300 to +300 Hz, corresponding to an alignment that is an order of magnitude stronger than typically employed for small molecule structural elucidation. This strong alignment was generated in the mesophase of the commercially available poly-γ-(benzyl-L-glutamate) polymer. The total coupling was measured by the simple and well-studied heteronuclear two-dimensional J-resolved experiment, which performs well in the presence of strong anisotropic effects. In order to unequivocally determine the sign of the total coupling and resolve ambiguities in assigning total couplings in the CH2 group, coupling measurements were conducted at an isotropic condition plus two anisotropic conditions of different alignment amplitudes. Most RDCs could be readily extracted from these measurements whereas more complicated spectral effects resulting from strong homonuclear coupling could be interpreted either theoretically or by simulation. Importantly, measurement of these very large RDCs actually offers significantly improved data quality and utility for the structure determination of small organic molecules.
Ensemble Kalman Filtering with a Divided State-Space Strategy for Coupled Data Assimilation Problems
Luo, Xiaodong
2014-12-01
This study considers the data assimilation problem in coupled systems, which consists of two components (subsystems) interacting with each other through certain coupling terms. A straightforward way to tackle the assimilation problem in such systems is to concatenate the states of the subsystems into one augmented state vector, so that a standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be directly applied. This work presents a divided state-space estimation strategy, in which data assimilation is carried out with respect to each individual subsystem, involving quantities from the subsystem itself and correlated quantities from other coupled subsystems. On top of the divided state-space estimation strategy, the authors also consider the possibility of running the subsystems separately. Combining these two ideas, a few variants of the EnKF are derived. The introduction of these variants is mainly inspired by the current status and challenges in coupled data assimilation problems and thus might be of interest from a practical point of view. Numerical experiments with a multiscale Lorenz 96 model are conducted to evaluate the performance of these variants against that of the conventional EnKF. In addition, specific for coupled data assimilation problems, two prototypes of extensions of the presented methods are also developed in order to achieve a trade-offbetween efficiency and accuracy.
Ensemble Kalman Filtering with a Divided State-Space Strategy for Coupled Data Assimilation Problems
Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2014-01-01
This study considers the data assimilation problem in coupled systems, which consists of two components (subsystems) interacting with each other through certain coupling terms. A straightforward way to tackle the assimilation problem in such systems is to concatenate the states of the subsystems into one augmented state vector, so that a standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be directly applied. This work presents a divided state-space estimation strategy, in which data assimilation is carried out with respect to each individual subsystem, involving quantities from the subsystem itself and correlated quantities from other coupled subsystems. On top of the divided state-space estimation strategy, the authors also consider the possibility of running the subsystems separately. Combining these two ideas, a few variants of the EnKF are derived. The introduction of these variants is mainly inspired by the current status and challenges in coupled data assimilation problems and thus might be of interest from a practical point of view. Numerical experiments with a multiscale Lorenz 96 model are conducted to evaluate the performance of these variants against that of the conventional EnKF. In addition, specific for coupled data assimilation problems, two prototypes of extensions of the presented methods are also developed in order to achieve a trade-offbetween efficiency and accuracy.
Gold(I)-catalyzed diazo coupling: strategy towards alkene formation and tandem benzannulation.
Zhang, Daming; Xu, Guangyang; Ding, Dong; Zhu, Chenghao; Li, Jian; Sun, Jiangtao
2014-10-06
A gold(I)-catalyzed cross-coupling of diazo compounds to afford tetrasubstituted alkenes has been developed by taking advantage of a trivial electronic difference between two diazo substrates. A N-heterocyclic-carbene-derived gold complex is the most effective catalyst for this transformation. Based on this new strategy, a gold(I)-initiated benzannulation has been achieved through a tandem reaction involving a diazo cross-coupling, 6π electrocyclization, and oxidative aromatization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Vogt, Natalja; Marochkin, Ilya I; Rykov, Anatolii N
2018-04-18
The accurate molecular structure of picolinic acid has been determined from experimental data and computed at the coupled cluster level of theory. Only one conformer with the O[double bond, length as m-dash]C-C-N and H-O-C[double bond, length as m-dash]O fragments in antiperiplanar (ap) positions, ap-ap, has been detected under conditions of the gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) experiment (Tnozzle = 375(3) K). The semiexperimental equilibrium structure, rsee, of this conformer has been derived from the GED data taking into account the anharmonic vibrational effects estimated from the ab initio force field. The equilibrium structures of the two lowest-energy conformers, ap-ap and ap-sp (with the synperiplanar H-O-C[double bond, length as m-dash]O fragment), have been fully optimized at the CCSD(T)_ae level of theory in conjunction with the triple-ζ basis set (cc-pwCVTZ). The quality of the optimized structures has been improved due to extrapolation to the quadruple-ζ basis set. The high accuracy of both GED determination and CCSD(T) computations has been disclosed by a correct comparison of structures having the same physical meaning. The ap-ap conformer has been found to be stabilized by the relatively strong NH-O hydrogen bond of 1.973(27) Å (GED) and predicted to be lower in energy by 16 kJ mol-1 with respect to the ap-sp conformer without a hydrogen bond. The influence of this bond on the structure of picolinic acid has been analyzed within the Natural Bond Orbital model. The possibility of the decarboxylation of picolinic acid has been considered in the GED analysis, but no significant amounts of pyridine and carbon dioxide could be detected. To reveal the structural changes reflecting the mesomeric and inductive effects due to the carboxylic substituent, the accurate structure of pyridine has been also computed at the CCSD(T)_ae level with basis sets from triple- to 5-ζ quality. The comprehensive structure computations for pyridine as well as for
Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he
2015-08-01
The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories.
van Lankveld, J J; Grotjohann, Y; van Lokven, B M; Everaerd, W
1999-01-01
This study compared characteristics of couples with different sexual dysfunctions who were recruited for participation in a bibliotherapy program via two routes: in response to media advertisements and through their presence on a waiting list for therapist-administered treatment in an outpatient sexology clinic. Data were collected from 492 subjects (246 couples). Male sexology patients were younger than media-recruited males. However, type of sexual dysfunction accounted for a substantially larger proportion of variance in the demographic and psychometric data. An interaction effect of recruitment strategy and sexual dysfunction type was found with respect to female anorgasmia. We conclude from the absence of differences between the two study groups that the Wills and DePaulo (1991) model of help-seeking behavior for mental problems does not apply to couples with sexual dysfunctions joining a bibliotherapy program who either primarily requested professional treatment or who responded to media advertising.
The effects of cystic fibrosis on couples: marital satisfaction, emotions, and coping strategies.
Delelis, Gérald; Christophe, Véronique; Leroy, Sylvie; Vanneste, Johanne; Wallaert, Benoît
2008-12-01
An earlier diagnosis and better overall multidisciplinary care enable people suffering from Cystic Fibrosis (CF) to have a life expectancy of 40. Consequently, new populations and questions about the development of the life of couples have arisen. This study by questionnaires takes a first look at marital adjustment, anxiety, depression, and emotion focused, social support focused, and problem focused coping strategies in 16 CF patients and their partners. As a whole, the couples' marital adjustment level was good; it was higher for men who were patients than men who were partners, and vice versa for women. Anxiety was high for at least one partner in 10 of the couples; depression, for at least one partner in seven of them. The participants seem to use coping strategies to a lesser extent than the general population. The results are discussed in terms of how the quality of life as a couple with one partner suffering from CF is affected by the proper mutual adjustment of the partners.
Janet Hemingway
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication.
Motoo, Yoshiharu; Shimasaki, Takeo; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Hideo; Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Minamoto, Toshinari
2011-01-01
Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer). We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation
Motoo, Yoshiharu, E-mail: motoo@kanazawa-med.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Shimasaki, Takeo [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Division of Translational & Clinical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ishigaki, Yasuhito [Medical Research Institute, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Nakajima, Hideo [Department of Medical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Minamoto, Toshinari [Division of Translational & Clinical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)
2011-01-24
Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer). We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation.
Toshinari Minamoto
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer develops and progresses through complex, cumulative biological processes involving metabolic disorder, local inflammation, and deregulated molecular pathways. The resulting tumor aggressiveness hampers surgical intervention and renders pancreatic cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Based on these pathologic properties, several therapeutic strategies are being developed to reverse refractory pancreatic cancer. Here, we outline molecular targeting therapies, which are primarily directed against growth factor receptor-type tyrosine kinases deregulated in tumors, but have failed to improve the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β is a member of a serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays a critical role in various cellular pathways. GSK3β has also emerged as a mediator of pathological states, including glucose intolerance, inflammation, and various cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer. We review recent studies that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of GSK3β inhibition alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. GSK3β inhibition may exert indirect anti-tumor actions in pancreatic cancer by modulating metabolic disorder and inflammation.
Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?
Wray, Gregory A.
2002-01-01
Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.
An advanced Lithium-ion battery optimal charging strategy based on a coupled thermoelectric model
Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Yang, Zhile; Zhang, Cheng; Deng, Jing
2017-01-01
Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted as the power supplies for electric vehicles. A key but challenging issue is to achieve optimal battery charging, while taking into account of various constraints for safe, efficient and reliable operation. In this paper, a triple-objective function is first formulated for battery charging based on a coupled thermoelectric model. An advanced optimal charging strategy is then proposed to develop the optimal constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) charge current profile, which gives the best trade-off among three conflicting but important objectives for battery management. To be specific, a coupled thermoelectric battery model is first presented. Then, a specific triple-objective function consisting of three objectives, namely charging time, energy loss, and temperature rise (both the interior and surface), is proposed. Heuristic methods such as Teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to optimize the triple-objective function, and their optimization performances are compared. The impacts of the weights for different terms in the objective function are then assessed. Experimental results show that the proposed optimal charging strategy is capable of offering desirable effective optimal charging current profiles and a proper trade-off among the conflicting objectives. Further, the proposed optimal charging strategy can be easily extended to other battery types.
Diagnosing the impact of alternative calibration strategies on coupled hydrologic models
Smith, T. J.; Perera, C.; Corrigan, C.
2017-12-01
Hydrologic models represent a significant tool for understanding, predicting, and responding to the impacts of water on society and society on water resources and, as such, are used extensively in water resources planning and management. Given this important role, the validity and fidelity of hydrologic models is imperative. While extensive focus has been paid to improving hydrologic models through better process representation, better parameter estimation, and better uncertainty quantification, significant challenges remain. In this study, we explore a number of competing model calibration scenarios for simple, coupled snowmelt-runoff models to better understand the sensitivity / variability of parameterizations and its impact on model performance, robustness, fidelity, and transferability. Our analysis highlights the sensitivity of coupled snowmelt-runoff model parameterizations to alterations in calibration approach, underscores the concept of information content in hydrologic modeling, and provides insight into potential strategies for improving model robustness / fidelity.
Ooi, Can-Seng
however overshadows another important complementary – but under-theorized and tacit – strategy: the accreditation approach. This paper gives attention to the accreditation strategy while presenting the branding of Singapore as a tourist destination. By looking at the Formula One car races in Singapore......It is widely assumed that the practice of city branding attempts to frame the place in a unique manner, so that it will stand out globally. The assertion of uniqueness has become an institutionalized global practice for celebrating city identity. The emphasis on uniqueness in the place brand...... and the newly built casinos/integrated resorts, this paper argues that the Singaporean authorities are actually making Singapore less unique and more similar to other cities. This strategy is advantageous because these new but familiar attractions draw the attention of the global masses and accredit Singapore...
Perles, Fabiola; San Martín, Jesús; Canto, Jesús M
2016-06-08
Previous research has pointed to the need to address the study of violence in teen couples. However, research has not delved into the study of the variables related to the different types of violence employed by boys and girls. The purpose of this study was to test whether gender, jealousy, and dependency predict specific strategies for conflict resolution (psychological aggression and mild physical aggression). Another objective of the study was to test gender differences in the conflict resolution strategies used by Spanish teen couples and to test the association between these variables and jealousy and emotional dependency. A sample of 296 adolescent high school students between 14 and 19 years of age of both genders from the south of Spain participated in this study. Hierarchical regression models were used to estimate the relationship between psychological aggression and mild physical aggression, and jealousy, and dependency. Results showed that jealousy correlated with psychological aggression and mild physical aggression in girls but not in boys. Psychological aggression and mild physical aggression were associated with dependency in boys. Girls scored higher in psychological aggression and jealousy than did boys. Finally, the interaction between jealousy and dependency predicted psychological aggression only in girls. These results highlight the need to address the role of the interaction between dependence and jealousy in the types of violence employed in teen dating. However, it is necessary to delve into the gender differences and similarities to develop appropriate prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2016.
Stošić, Dušan; Auroux, Aline
Basic principles of calorimetry coupled with other techniques are introduced. These methods are used in heterogeneous catalysis for characterization of acidic, basic and red-ox properties of solid catalysts. Estimation of these features is achieved by monitoring the interaction of various probe molecules with the surface of such materials. Overview of gas phase, as well as liquid phase techniques is given. Special attention is devoted to coupled calorimetry-volumetry method. Furthermore, the influence of different experimental parameters on the results of these techniques is discussed, since it is known that they can significantly influence the evaluation of catalytic properties of investigated materials.
Weiss, Laurent; Tazibt, Abdel; Aillerie, Michel; Tidu, Albert
2018-01-01
The metallurgical evolution of the Ti-6Al-4V samples is analyzed after an appropriate cutting using a converging water jet/high power laser system. New surface microstructures are obtained on the cutting edge as a result of thermo-mechanical effects of such hybrid fluid-jet-laser tool on the targeted material. The laser beam allows to melt and the water-jet to cool down and to evacuate the material upstream according to a controlled cutting process. The experimental results have shown that a rutile layer can be generated on the surface near the cutting zone. The recorded metallurgical effect is attributed to the chemical reaction between water molecules and titanium, where the laser thermal energy brought onto the surface plays the role of reaction activator. The width of the oxidized zone was found proportional to the cutting speed. During the reaction, hydrogen gas H2 is formed and is absorbed by the metal. The hydrogen atoms trapped into the alloy change the metastable phase formation developing pure β circular grains as a skin at the kerf surface. This result is original so it would lead to innovative converging laser water jet process that could be used to increase the material properties especially for surface treatment, a key value of surface engineering and manufacturing chains.
Convergence in Multispecies Interactions
Bittleston, Leonora Sophia; Pierce, Naomi E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Pringle, Anne
2016-01-01
The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent inter...
convergent methods for calculating thermodynamic Green functions
Bowen, S. P.; Williams, C. D.; Mancini, J. D.
1984-01-01
A convergent method of approximating thermodynamic Green functions is outlined briefly. The method constructs a sequence of approximants which converges independently of the strength of the Hamiltonian's coupling constants. Two new concepts associated with the approximants are introduced: the resolving power of the approximation, and conditional creation (annihilation) operators. These ideas are illustrated on an exactly soluble model and a numerical example. A convergent expression for the s...
Johansson, M.; Guardans, R.; Lindstrom, M.
1999-12-01
This report summarizes the results of a workshop held by the participants in the EU/LIFE project: Coupling of CORINAIR data to cost-effective emission reduction strategies based on critical thresholds. The project participants include FEI, Filand, NERI, Denmark, CIEMAT, Spain, Lund Univ. Sweden. EMEP/MSC-W, UN/ECE/WGE/CCE and IIASA. The main objective of the project is to support national activities in assessing the spatial and temporal details of emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds and the impacts of acidification, eutrophication and ground level ozone. The reproject workshop enabled participants to report preliminary results of the two main tasks, emissions and impacts and to agree on common solutions for the final results. (Author) 11 refs
Overbey, Douglas M; Hilton, Sarah A; Chapman, Brandon C; Townsend, Nicole T; Barnett, Carlton C; Robinson, Thomas N; Jones, Edward L
2017-11-01
Energy-based devices are used in nearly every laparoscopic operation. Radiofrequency energy can transfer to nearby instruments via antenna and capacitive coupling without direct contact. Previous studies have described inadvertent energy transfer through bundled cords and nonelectrically active wires. The purpose of this study was to describe a new mechanism of stray energy transfer from the monopolar instrument through the operating surgeon to the laparoscopic telescope and propose practical measures to decrease the risk of injury. Radiofrequency energy was delivered to a laparoscopic L-hook (monopolar "bovie"), an advanced bipolar device, and an ultrasonic device in a laparoscopic simulator. The tip of a 10-mm telescope was placed adjacent but not touching bovine liver in a standard four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy setup. Temperature increase was measured as tissue temperature from baseline nearest the tip of the telescope which was never in contact with the energy-based device after a 5-s open-air activation. The monopolar L-hook increased tissue temperature adjacent to the camera/telescope tip by 47 ± 8°C from baseline (P energy devices significantly reduced temperature change in comparison to the monopolar instrument (47 ± 8°C) for both the advanced bipolar (1.2 ± 0.5°C; P energy transfers from the monopolar "bovie" instrument through the operating surgeon to standard electrically inactive laparoscopic instruments. Hand-to-hand coupling describes a new form of capacitive coupling where the surgeon's body acts as an electrical conductor to transmit energy. Strategies to reduce stray energy transfer include avoiding the same surgeon holding the active electrode and laparoscopic camera or using alternative energy devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hertzog, Christopher; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Schmiedek, Florian
2017-09-01
The importance of encoding strategies for associative recall is well established, but there have been no studies of aging and intraindividual variability (IAV) in strategy use during extended practice. We observed strategy use and cued-recall test performance over 101 days of practice in 101 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 103 older adults (M = 71.3 years) sandwiched by a pretest and posttest battery including an associative recall test. Each practice session included 2 lists of 12 number-noun paired-associate (PA) items (e.g., 23-DOGS), presented for brief exposures titrated to maintain below-ceiling performance throughout practice. Participants reported strategy use (e.g., rote repetition, imagery) after each test. Substantial IAV in strategy use was detected that was coupled with performance; lists studied with normatively effective strategies (e.g., imagery) generated higher PA recall than lists studied with less effective strategies (e.g., rote repetition). In comparison to younger adults, older adults' practice (a) relied more on repetition and less on effective strategies, (b) showed lower levels of IAV in effective strategy use, and (c) had lower within-person strategy-recall coupling, especially late in practice. Individual differences in pretest-posttest gains in PA recall were predicted by average level of effective strategy use in young adults but by strategy-recall coupling in older adults. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that experiencing variability in strategic outcomes during practice helps hone the effectiveness of strategic encoding behavior, and that older adults' reduced degree of pretest-posttest gains is influenced by lower likelihood of using and optimizing effective strategies through practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY
Mariana Iovitu
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: â€œwe are not bringing together states, we are uniting peopleâ€. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.
Shiqi Zhou
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Thermodynamic and structural properties of liquids are of fundamental interest in physics, chemistry, and biology, and perturbation approach has been fundamental to liquid theoretical approaches since the dawn of modern statistical mechanics and remains so to this day. Although thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT is widely used in the chemical physics community, one of the most popular versions of the TPT, i.e. Zwanzig (Zwanzig, R. W. J. Chem. Phys. 1954, 22, 1420-1426 1st-order high temperature series expansion (HTSE TPT and its 2nd-order counterpart under a macroscopic compressibility approximation of Barker-Henderson (Barker, J. A.; Henderson, D. J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 2856-2861, have some serious shortcomings: (i the nth-order term of the HTSE is involved with reference fluid distribution functions of order up to 2n, and the higher-order terms hence progressively become more complicated and numerically inaccessible; (ii the performance of the HTSE rapidly deteriorates and the calculated results become even qualitatively incorrect as the temperature of interest decreases. This account deals with the developments that we have made over the last five years or so to advance a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE and a non hard sphere (HS perturbation strategy that has scored some of its greatest successes in overcoming the above-mentioned difficulties. In this account (i we expatiate on implementation details of our schemes: how input information indispensable to high-order truncation of the CPSE in both the HS and non HS perturbation schemes is calculated by an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory; how high-order thermodynamic quantities, such as critical parameters and excess constant volume heat capacity, are extracted from the resulting excess Helmholtz free energy with irregular and inevitable numerical errors; how to select reference potential in the non HS perturbation scheme. (ii We give a quantitative analysis on why
Kiyan Shabestary
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Chemical and fuel production by photosynthetic cyanobacteria is a promising technology but to date has not reached competitive rates and titers. Genome-scale metabolic modeling can reveal limitations in cyanobacteria metabolism and guide genetic engineering strategies to increase chemical production. Here, we used constraint-based modeling and optimization algorithms on a genome-scale model of Synechocystis PCC6803 to find ways to improve productivity of fermentative, fatty-acid, and terpene-derived fuels. OptGene and MOMA were used to find heuristics for knockout strategies that could increase biofuel productivity. OptKnock was used to find a set of knockouts that led to coupling between biofuel and growth. Our results show that high productivity of fermentation or reversed beta-oxidation derived alcohols such as 1-butanol requires elimination of NADH sinks, while terpenes and fatty-acid based fuels require creating imbalances in intracellular ATP and NADPH production and consumption. The FBA-predicted productivities of these fuels are at least 10-fold higher than those reported so far in the literature. We also discuss the physiological and practical feasibility of implementing these knockouts. This work gives insight into how cyanobacteria could be engineered to reach competitive biofuel productivities. Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Modeling, Flux balance analysis, Biofuel, MOMA, OptFlux, OptKnock
Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J; Polidoro, Brian J
2016-03-01
Building energy analysis tools are available in many forms that provide the ability to address a broad spectrum of energy-related issues in various combinations. Often these tools operate in isolation from one another, making it difficult to evaluate the interactions between related phenomena and interacting systems, forcing oversimplified assumptions to be made about various phenomena that could otherwise be addressed directly with another tool. One example of such interdependence is the interaction between heat transfer, inter-zone airflow and indoor contaminant transport. In order to better address these interdependencies, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed an updated version of the multi-zone airflow and contaminant transport modelling tool, CONTAM, along with a set of utilities to enable coupling of the full CONTAM model with the TRNSYS simulation tool in a more seamless manner and with additional capabilities that were previously not available. This paper provides an overview of these new capabilities and applies them to simulating a medium-size office building. These simulations address the interaction between whole-building energy, airflow and contaminant transport in evaluating various ventilation strategies including natural and demand-controlled ventilation. CONTAM has been in practical use for many years allowing building designers, as well as IAQ and ventilation system analysts, to simulate the complex interactions between building physical layout and HVAC system configuration in determining building airflow and contaminant transport. It has been widely used to design and analyse smoke management systems and evaluate building performance in response to chemical, biological and radiological events. While CONTAM has been used to address design and performance of buildings implementing energy conserving ventilation systems, e.g., natural and hybrid, this new coupled simulation capability will enable users to apply the
Zhou, Xiaoying
The purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative environmental performance assessment tools and the theory of multi-objective optimization within the boundary of electronic product systems to support the selection among design alternatives in terms of environmental impact, technical criteria, and economic feasibility. To meet with the requirements that result from emerging environmental legislation targeting electronics products, the research addresses an important analytical methodological approach to facilitate environmentally conscious design and end-of-life management with a life cycle viewpoint. A synthesis of diverse assessment tools is applied on a set of case studies: lead-free solder materials selection, cellular phone design, and desktop display technology assessment. In the first part of this work, an in-depth industrial survey of the status and concerns of the U.S. electronics industry on the elimination of lead (Pb) in solders is described. The results show that the trade-offs among environmental consequences, technology challenges, business risks, legislative compliance and stakeholders' preferences must be explicitly, simultaneously, and systematically addressed in the decision-making process used to guide multi-faceted planning of environmental solutions. In the second part of this work, the convergent optimization of the technical cycle, economic cycle and environmental cycle is addressed in a coherent and systematic way using the application of environmentally conscious design of cellular phones. The technical understanding of product structure, components analysis, and materials flow facilitates the development of "Design for Disassembly" guidelines. A bottom-up disassembly analysis on a "bill of materials" based structure at a micro-operational level is utilized to select optimal end-of-life strategies on the basis of economic feasibility. A macro-operational level life cycle model is used to investigate the environmental consequences
Quadratically convergent MCSCF scheme using Fock operators
Das, G.
1981-01-01
A quadratically convergent formulation of the MCSCF method using Fock operators is presented. Among its advantages the present formulation is quadratically convergent unlike the earlier ones based on Fock operators. In contrast to other quadratically convergent schemes as well as the one based on generalized Brillouin's theorem, this method leads easily to a hybrid scheme where the weakly coupled orbitals (such as the core) are handled purely by Fock equations, while the rest of the orbitals are treated by a quadratically convergent approach with a truncated virtual space obtained by the use of the corresponding Fock equations
Income pooling strategies among cohabiting and married couples: A comparative perspective
Nicole Hiekel
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Studies explaining why cohabiters are more likely to keep money separate than spouses have mainly focused on selection processes, without taking into account the heterogeneity within both union types in levels of commitment. Cross-national studies are rare and have predominantly included Northern and Western European countries, the United States, and Canada. Objective: This study explains the higher likelihood of cohabiters to keep income separate by selection as well as commitment factors and explores country differences, including countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Methods: Using data from the Generations and Gender Surveys of Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany, Romania, and Russia, N=41,456 cohabiting and married individuals are studied. Binary logistic regression models of the likelihood that respondents keep money separate are calculated. Results: Across countries, higher education, female labor market participation, both partners being employed, short union duration, absence of joint children, presence of separation thoughts, and (for cohabiters a lack of marital intentions are the most persistent correlates of keeping money separate. Differences between cohabiters and married couples are reduced when selection and commitment are taken into account, but are still significant. Cross-national variation in the effect of cohabitation on keeping separate purses is persistent. Conclusions: Different money management strategies of cohabiters and spouses can be explained to some extent by selection processes and inherent differences in the level of commitment within cohabitation and marriage. Countries also differ in the socio-economic context and norms concerning the way intimate relationships are organized which might lead to persistent differences in the way cohabiting and married couples organize their income.
Al-Amin, S.
2015-12-01
Municipal water demands in growing population centers in the arid southwest US are typically met through increased groundwater withdrawals. Hydro-climatic uncertainties attributed to climate change and land use conversions may also alter demands and impact the replenishment of groundwater supply. Groundwater aquifers are not necessarily confined within municipal and management boundaries, and multiple diverse agencies may manage a shared resource in a decentralized approach, based on individual concerns and resources. The interactions among water managers, consumers, and the environment influence the performance of local management strategies and regional groundwater resources. This research couples an agent-based modeling (ABM) framework and a groundwater model to analyze the effects of different management approaches on shared groundwater resources. The ABM captures the dynamic interactions between household-level consumers and policy makers to simulate water demands under climate change and population growth uncertainties. The groundwater model is used to analyze the relative effects of management approaches on reducing demands and replenishing groundwater resources. The framework is applied for municipalities located in the Verde River Basin, Arizona that withdraw groundwater from the Verde Formation-Basin Fill-Carbonate aquifer system. Insights gained through this simulation study can be used to guide groundwater policy-making under changing hydro-climatic scenarios for a long-term planning horizon.
Veling, E.J.M.; Maas, C.
2008-01-01
Efficient strategies for solving semi-analytically the transient groundwater head in a coupled N-layer aquifer system phi(i)(r, z, t), i = 1, ..., N, with radial symmetry, with full z-dependency, and partially penetrating wells are presented. Aquitards are treated as aquifers with their own
Lillian M. Rigoli
2014-09-01
Full Text Available When humans perform a response task or timing task repeatedly, fluctuations in measures of timing from one action to the next exhibit long-range correlations known as 1/f noise. The origins of 1/f noise in timing have been debated for over twenty years, with one common explanation serving as a default: Humans are composed of physiological processes throughout the brain and body that operate over a wide range of timescales, and these processes combine to be expressed as a general source of 1/f noise. To test this explanation, the present study investigated the coupling versus independence of 1/f noise in timing deviations, key-press durations, pupil dilations, and heartbeat intervals while tapping to an audiovisual metronome. All four dependent measures exhibited clear 1/f noise, regardless of whether tapping was synchronized or syncopated. 1/f spectra for timing deviations were found to match those for key-press durations on an individual basis, and 1/f spectra for pupil dilations matched those in heartbeat intervals. Results indicate a complex, multiscale relationship among 1/f noises arising from common sources, such as those arising from timing functions versus those arising from autonomic nervous system functions. Results also provide further evidence against the default hypothesis that 1/f noise in human timing is just the additive combination of processes throughout the brain and body. Our findings are better accommodated by theories of complexity matching that begin to formalize multiscale coordination as a foundation of human behavior.
Fowler, Nikola; Arkell, Paul; Abouyannis, Michael; James, Catherine; Roberts, Lesley
2014-01-01
Transmission in serodiscordant couples (SDCs) accounts for approximately half of all new HIV infections, both in Kenya and the wider sub-Saharan region (1). With evidence to suggest inconsistent condom use within this population (2), the World Health Organization has recommended two new methods of HIV prevention for SDCs: Treatment as Prevention (TasP) and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). However, there has been little research about the attitudes of SDCs towards these strategies (3, 4); knowledge that is paramount for successfully predicting the acceptability and efficacy of each method, as well as for informing decisions regarding HIV policy changes in Kenya. An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted in the Muhoroni constituency of Nyando district, Kenya from January to March 2013. Purposive sampling was predominately used to recruit 21 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative individuals in a serodiscordant relationship from four hospitals and health centres. During face-to-face semi-structured interviews, topic guides were used to elicit information about participants' attitudes and preferences towards TasP and PrEP. Collected data underwent framework analysis, allowing the development of overarching categories, sub-themes and inductive interpretation. The majority of participants, irrespective of gender and HIV status, found TasP more acceptable than PrEP. A key factor influencing this decision was HIV-negative participants' limited motivation to take and adhere to antiretrovirals (ARVs), primarily due to a predominantly external health locus of control, a lack of cultural acceptance of prophylactic medication and concerns about side effects. In addition to this, the likely health improvements TasP offers HIV-positive partners, as well as the attitude that the sick individual should be the first to receive HIV medication, also contributed to this conclusion. Issues of risk compensation were raised, with some HIV-negative partners indicating a desire to stop
Vadose zone flow convergence test suite
Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-06-05
Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.
Bozkaya, Uǧur; Turney, Justin M.; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F.; Sherrill, C. David
2011-09-01
Using a Lagrangian-based approach, we present a more elegant derivation of the equations necessary for the variational optimization of the molecular orbitals (MOs) for the coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) method and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). These orbital-optimized theories are referred to as OO-CCD and OO-MP2 (or simply "OD" and "OMP2" for short), respectively. We also present an improved algorithm for orbital optimization in these methods. Explicit equations for response density matrices, the MO gradient, and the MO Hessian are reported both in spin-orbital and closed-shell spin-adapted forms. The Newton-Raphson algorithm is used for the optimization procedure using the MO gradient and Hessian. Further, orbital stability analyses are also carried out at correlated levels. The OD and OMP2 approaches are compared with the standard MP2, CCD, CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods. All these methods are applied to H2O, three diatomics, and the O_4^+ molecule. Results demonstrate that the CCSD and OD methods give nearly identical results for H2O and diatomics; however, in symmetry-breaking problems as exemplified by O_4^+, the OD method provides better results for vibrational frequencies. The OD method has further advantages over CCSD: its analytic gradients are easier to compute since there is no need to solve the coupled-perturbed equations for the orbital response, the computation of one-electron properties are easier because there is no response contribution to the particle density matrices, the variational optimized orbitals can be readily extended to allow inactive orbitals, it avoids spurious second-order poles in its response function, and its transition dipole moments are gauge invariant. The OMP2 has these same advantages over canonical MP2, making it promising for excited state properties via linear response theory. The quadratically convergent orbital-optimization procedure converges quickly for OMP2, and provides molecular properties that
S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. Andrs; R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez
2013-05-01
The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled won’t converge and vice versa.
Novascone, S. R.; Spencer, B. W.; Andrs, D.; Williamson, R. L.; Hales, J. D.; Perez, D. M.
2013-01-01
The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled won't converge and vice versa. (authors)
Notermans Ton
2015-02-01
Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely
Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A.
2016-01-01
This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested. PMID:27458482
Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A
2016-03-01
This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested.
Modeling coupled nitrogen and water use strategies of plant productivity through hydraulic traits
Mackay, D. S.; Savoy, P.; Pleban, J. R.; Tai, X.; Ewers, B. E.; Sperry, J.; Weinig, C.
2016-12-01
Changes in heat, nutrient, and drought stresses create novel environments that threaten the health of forests and viability of crop production. Here a trait-based conceptual model finds tradeoffs in maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root to leaf area ratio (RLA) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) based on the energy costs of acquiring water and nitrogen (N) to support gross primary production (GPP). The atmosphere supplies carbon to and demands water from plants via their stomata. The demand for water increases at higher temperatures due to increased vapor pressure deficits. The lost water is replenished by a passive wicking process that pulls water and N from the soil into roots and up water-filled xylem tubes. When water is in short supply the cost of getting it is high as measured by a decline in K and stomatal closure. Soil N dynamics also influence plant water use. When N is abundant, plants grow low VC fine roots with lower specific root length (m g-1), low Kmax, and maintain a relatively low RLA. In low N environments, N is costly and fine roots gain efficiency by building less robust (or higher VC) xylem with higher Kmax and higher RLA. What happens when the cost of acquiring water changes from high to low under low and high N costs? We incorporated the conceptual model into TREES, which couples whole plant hydraulics to carbon allocation, root-rhizosphere expansion/contraction and, also new for this study, a rhizosphere-root centric microbe-plant N dynamics. We used two experimental studies (drought, N) and two drought-prone fluxnet sites to test the conceptual model at individual plant and regional scales, respectively, and with frequent short versus infrequent long dry periods. When water was not limiting the hydraulic tradeoffs suppressed differences in GPP between the N use strategies. When water was in short supply, however, low RLA&VC plants dropped GPP early during drought because of low Kmax. Since these plants had low VC roots they also
Physical/biogeochemical coupled model : impact of an offline vs online strategy
Hameau, Angélique; Perruche, Coralie; Bricaud, Clément; Gutknecht, Elodie; Reffray, Guillaume
2014-05-01
Mercator-Ocean, the French ocean forecasting center, has been developing several operational forecasting systems and reanalysis of the physical and biogeochemical 3D-Ocean. Here we study the impact of an offline vs online strategy to couple the physical (OPA) and biogeochemical (PISCES) modules included in the NEMO platform. For this purpose, we perform global one-year long simulations at 1° resolution. The model was initialized with global climatologies. The spin-up involved 10 years of biogeochemical off-line simulation forced by a climatology of ocean physics. The online mode consists in running physical and biogeochemical models simultaneously whereas in the offline mode, the biogeochemical model is launched alone, forced by averaged physical forcing (1 day, 7 days,… ). The Mercator operational biogeochemical system is currently using the offline mode with a weekly physical forcing. A special treatment is applied to the vertical diffusivity coefficient (Kz): as it varies of several orders of magnitude, we compute the mean of the LOG10 of Kz. Moreover, a threshold value is applied to remove the highest values corresponding to enhanced convection. To improve this system, 2 directions are explored. First, 3 physical forcing frequencies are compared to quantify errors due to the offline mode: 1 hour (online mode), 1 day and 1 week (offline modes). Secondly, sensitivity tests to the threshold value applied to Kz are performed. The simulations are evaluated by systematically comparing model fields to observations (Globcolour product and World Ocean Atlas 2005) at global and regional scales. We show first that offline simulations are in good agreement with online simulation. As expected, the lower the physical forcing frequency is, the closer to the online solution is the offline simulation. The threshold value on the vertical diffusivity coefficient manages the mixing strength within the mixed layer. A value of 1 m2.s-1 appears to be a good compromise to approach
Rogério H. Quintella
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Este artigo analisa como a regulação do Serviço Móvel Pessoal (SMP, implementada pela Anatel em 2001, alterou a estrutura do mercado e as estratégias das operadoras do setor de telefonia móvel no Brasil, entre 2002 e 2007. Foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa e um estudo de caso múltiplo acerca das maiores operadoras do setor: Vivo, Tim, Claro e Oi. Diante da análise setorial e da influência de fatores externos sobre a estrutura do mercado, adotou-se o referencial teórico clássico de estratégia competitiva a fim de se entender as estratégias das operadoras. Adotou-se também um referencial mais específico do setor de telecomunicações, com destaque para trabalhos que discutem a convergência entre as telefonias fixa e móvel. Entre as conclusões do trabalho estão os efeitos de caráter deliberado das mudanças na regulação sobre as estratégias empresariais do setor, entre elas a adoção generalizada de estratégias de custo até o lançamento de serviços inovadores no mercado nacional, caracterizados pela integração entre as operadoras de telefonias fixa e móvel, promovendo estratégias de diferenciação, claramente representadas pela formação de dois grupos estratégicos: um com serviços convergentes do tipo bundle e relações de quase integração vertical entre operadoras fixas e móveis e outro com serviços convergentes entre operações de telefonia fixa e móvel verticalmente integradas.This article analyzes how PMS (Personal Mobile Service regulation made by Anatel in Brazil in 2001 changed the market structure and the operators' strategies for the telephony sector between 2002 and 2007. It was carried out a quantitative research and a multiple case study about the main operators in Brazil: Vivo, Tim, Claro and Oi. According to this sector analysis and the influence of external factor as regards the market structure, the classic theoretical reference of competitive strategy was used to better understand
A classical-quantum coupling strategy for a hierarchy of one dimensional models for semiconductors
Jourdana, Clément; Pietra, Paola; Vauchelet, Nicolas
2014-01-01
We consider one dimensional coupled classical-quantum models for quantum semiconductor device simulations. The coupling occurs in the space variable : the domain of the device is divided into a region with strong quantum effects (quantum zone) and a region where quantum effects are negligible (classical zone). In the classical zone, transport in diffusive approximation is modeled through diffusive limits of the Boltzmann transport equation. This leads to a hierarchy of classical model. The qu...
Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun
2015-01-01
A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesi...
Mustafa Hamdieh
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Infertility may have many emotional and psychological implications on infertilecouples. So far, different methods for reducing anxiety in infertile couples have been evaluated. Thegoal of this study is to evaluate the effect of provision of information regarding infertility treatmentto infertile couples on their anxiety levels.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a before and after clinical trial. Forty-twoindividuals were considered as cases and 40 as controls. In order to evaluate anxiety and depressionin participants, the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire was used. Theintervention group received information about infertility treatment through a two hour face-to-facemeeting and was provided with a brochure. Anxiety level was assessed at the time of admission,immediately after the session and two weeks later. Assessment was performed twice for the controlgroup; once at the time of admission and secondly, two weeks later.Results: Our results show that receiving information about infertility treatment significantlydecreases anxiety among infertile couples two weeks post-training. This decline does not have asignificant correlation with age, sex, education level of the couple, and neither with the durationnor the cause of infertility. Providing information does not have any significant effect on the rate ofdepression among couples.Conclusion: It is recommended that provision of information regarding infertility treatmentmethods should be considered as a means of decreasing anxiety among infertile couples who referto infertility treatment centers.
Convergence in Multispecies Interactions.
Bittleston, Leonora S; Pierce, Naomi E; Ellison, Aaron M; Pringle, Anne
2016-04-01
The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent interactions in a comparative context is likely to facilitate prediction of the ecological roles of organisms (including microbes) in multispecies interactions and selective pressures acting in poorly understood or newly discovered multispecies systems. We illustrate the concept of convergent interactions with examples: vertebrates and their gut bacteria; ectomycorrhizae; insect-fungal-bacterial interactions; pitcher-plant food webs; and ants and ant-plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J.
2013-01-01
Synchronization is crucial to wireless sensor networks due to their decentralized structure. We propose an energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy to achieve this goal. The basic idea is to reduce idle listening by intentionally introducing a large refractory period in the sensors’ cooperation. The large refractory period greatly reduces idle listening in each oscillation period, and is analytically proven to have no influence on the time to synchronization. Hence, it significantly reduces the total energy consumption in a synchronization process. A topology control approach tailored for pulse-coupled synchronization is given to guarantee a k-edge strongly connected interaction topology, which is tolerant to communication-link failures. The topology control approach is totally decentralized and needs no information exchange among sensors, and it is applicable to dynamic network topologies as well. This facilitates a completely decentralized implementation of the synchronization strategy. The strategy is applicable to mobile sensor networks, too. QualNet case studies confirm the effectiveness of the synchronization strategy. PMID:24307831
Converged Registries Solution (CRS)
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Converged Registries platform is a hardware and software architecture designed to host individual patient registries and eliminate duplicative development effort...
刘中望; 陶兰
2015-01-01
媒体融合对广告产业的影响主要是拓宽经营范围、分化经营方式、优化经营模式，媒体融合背景下湖南广告产业发展存在缺乏适应新媒体广告成长的平台、缺乏适合新媒体传播的广告内容、有限的内容难以满足受众需求等软肋。面对媒体融合，湖南广告产业竞争力的提升策略包括：运用移动终端，建构以受众为主导的广告互动平台；使用融合化的营销手段，推动广告与其他行业的联盟和共融；实现技术与内容的两轮驱动。%The influences of media convergence on advertising industry reflect in broadening the scope of business, differentiating the mode of operation, optimizing the mode of business. Under the background of media convergence, Hunan’s advertising industry is lacking in the platform for new media, the suitable content for the spread of new media, and limited content to meet the demand of readers. Facing the media convergence, Hunan’s advertising industry should take the strategy for promoting its’ competitiveness: using mobile terminal devices, constructing interactive advertising platform which is based on readers; utilizing the integration of marketing, promoting the union and communion of advertising industry and other industry;and realizing the two- wheel drive consisting of technology and content.
In Vivo Quantification of Cell Coupling in Plants with Different Phloem-Loading Strategies[W][OA
Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander
2012-01-01
Uptake of photoassimilates into the leaf phloem is the key step in carbon partitioning and phloem transport. Symplasmic and apoplasmic loading strategies have been defined in different plant taxa based on the abundance of plasmodesmata between mesophyll and phloem. For apoplasmic loading to occur, an absence of plasmodesmata is a sufficient but not a necessary criterion, as passage of molecules through plasmodesmata might well be blocked or restricted. Here, we present a noninvasive, whole-plant approach to test symplasmic coupling and quantify the intercellular flux of small molecules using photoactivation microscopy. Quantification of coupling between all cells along the prephloem pathways of the apoplasmic loader Vicia faba and Nicotiana tabacum showed, to our knowledge for the first time in vivo, that small solutes like sucrose can diffuse through plasmodesmata up to the phloem sieve element companion cell complex (SECCC). As expected, the SECCC was found to be symplasmically isolated for small solutes. In contrast, the prephloem pathway of the symplasmic loader Cucurbita maxima was found to be well coupled with the SECCC. Phloem loading in gymnosperms is not well understood, due to a profoundly different leaf anatomy and a scarcity of molecular data compared with angiosperms. A cell-coupling analysis for Pinus sylvestris showed high symplasmic coupling along the entire prephloem pathway, comprising at least seven cell border interfaces between mesophyll and sieve elements. Cell coupling together with measurements of leaf sap osmolality indicate a passive symplasmic loading type. Similarities and differences of this loading type with that of angiosperm trees are discussed. PMID:22422939
R. Siriram
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is a catalyst for competitive advantage. However, it is how technology is used that leads to a firm’s improved performance. In this article, an investigative framework is constructed to understand better what strategically drives new technology adoption. The strategic drivers include technology and business strategy alignment, better technology planning and selection of new technologies, the effects on a firm’s culture and climate, links to a firm’s organisational and environmental evolution, and benefits through convergence and collaboration. Using an investigative framework, it is shown how the strategic drivers link to improve a firm’s performance, producing competitive advantage. The investigative framework is tested using structural equation modelling. Various hypotheses are formed, and recommendations for further research are made.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie is ‘n katalisator vir mededingende voordeel. Dit is egter hoe tegnologie aangewend word wat aanleiding gee tot ‘n onderneming se verbeterde prestasie. In hierdie artikel word ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk gekonstrueer om insig te kry in dit wat die aanvaarding van nuwe tegnologie strategies dryf. Die strategiese dryfvere sluit in die belyning van tegnologie en ondernemingstrategie, beter tegnologiebeplanning en seleksie van nuwe tegnologieë, die effek op ‘n onderneming se kultuur en klimaat, koppeling na ‘n onderneming se organisatoriese en omgewingsevolusie, en voordele verkry deur konvergensie en samewerking. Deur ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk te gebruik, word daar getoon dat die strategiese dryfvere koppel om ‘n onderneming se prestasie te verbeter en sodoende ‘n mededingende voordeel te skep. Die raamwerk word getoets en hipoteses geformuleer waarna aanbevelings oor verdere navorsing aan die hand gedoen word.
Convergence of mayer expansions
Brydges, D.C.
1986-01-01
The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained
Beckmann, Henning S G; Nie, Feilin; Hagerman, Caroline E
2013-01-01
the coupling reaction. We applied this step-efficient approach in a DOS of a library that consisted of 73 macrocyclic compounds based around 59 discrete scaffolds. The macrocycles prepared cover a broad range of different molecular shapes, as illustrated by principal moment-of-inertia analysis...
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Bjarnø, Ole-Christian
1997-01-01
This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts and weakn......This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts...
Jou, H. L.; Wu, J. C.; Lin, J. H.; Su, W. N.; Wu, T. S.; Lin, Y. T.
2017-11-01
The operation strategy for a small-capacity grid-tied DC-coupling power converter interface (GDPCI) integrating wind energy, solar energy and battery energy storage is proposed. The GDPCI is composed of a wind generator, a solar module set a battery bank, a boost DC-DC power converter (DDPC), a bidirectional DDPC power converter, an AC-DC power converter (ADPC) and a five-level DC-AC inverter (DAI). A solar module set, a wind generator and a battery bank are coupled to the common DC bus through the boost DDPC, the ADPC and the bidirectional DDPC, respectively. For verifying the performance of the GDPCI under different operation modes, computer simulation is carried out by PSIM.
Hui Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Three-motor synchronous coordination system is a MI-MO nonlinear and complex control system. And it often works in poor working condition. Advanced control strategies are required to improve the control performance of the system and to achieve the decoupling between main motor speed and tension. Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller coupled with Active Disturbance Rejection Control (CMAC-ADRC control strategy is proposed. The speed of the main motor and tensions between two motors is decoupled by extended state observer (ESO in ADRC. ESO in ADRC is used to compensate internal and external disturbances of the system online. And the anti interference of the system is improved by ESO. And the same time the control model is optimized. Feedforward control is implemented by the adoption of CMAC neural network controller. And control precision of the system is improved in reason of CMAC. The overshoot of the system can be reduced without affecting the dynamic response of the system by the use of CMAC-ADRC. The simulation results show that: the CMAC- ADRC control strategy is better than the traditional PID control strategy. And CMAC-ADRC control strategy can achieve the decoupling between speed and tension. The control system using CMAC-ADRC have strong anti-interference ability and small regulate time and small overshoot. The magnitude of the system response incited by the interference using CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system using conventional PID control 6.43 %. And the recovery time of the system with CMAC-ADRC is shorter than the system with traditional PID control 0.18 seconds. And the triangular wave tracking error of the system with CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system with conventional PID control 0.24 rad/min. Thus the CMAC-ADRC control strategy is a good control strategy and is able to fit three-motor synchronous coordinated control.
A morphing strategy to couple non-local to local continuum mechanics
Lubineau, Gilles; Azdoud, Yan; Han, Fei; Rey, Christian C.; Askari, Abe H.
2012-01-01
A method for coupling non-local continuum models with long-range central forces to local continuum models is proposed. First, a single unified model that encompasses both local and non-local continuum representations is introduced. This model can be purely non-local, purely local or a hybrid depending on the constitutive parameters. Then, the coupling between the non-local and local descriptions is performed through a transition (morphing) affecting only the constitutive parameters. An important feature is the definition of the morphing functions, which relies on energy equivalence. This approach is useful in large-scale modeling of materials that exhibit strong non-local effects. The computational cost can be reduced while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Efficiency, robustness and basic properties of the approach are discussed using one- and two-dimensional examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
A morphing strategy to couple non-local to local continuum mechanics
Lubineau, Gilles
2012-06-01
A method for coupling non-local continuum models with long-range central forces to local continuum models is proposed. First, a single unified model that encompasses both local and non-local continuum representations is introduced. This model can be purely non-local, purely local or a hybrid depending on the constitutive parameters. Then, the coupling between the non-local and local descriptions is performed through a transition (morphing) affecting only the constitutive parameters. An important feature is the definition of the morphing functions, which relies on energy equivalence. This approach is useful in large-scale modeling of materials that exhibit strong non-local effects. The computational cost can be reduced while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Efficiency, robustness and basic properties of the approach are discussed using one- and two-dimensional examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
An Hourly Streamflow Forecasting Model Coupled with an Enforced Learning Strategy
Ming-Chang Wu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Floods, one of the most significant natural hazards, often result in loss of life and property. Accurate hourly streamflow forecasting is always a key issue in hydrology for flood hazard mitigation. To improve the performance of hourly streamflow forecasting, a methodology concerning the development of neural network (NN based models with an enforced learning strategy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, four different NNs, namely back propagation network (BPN, radial basis function network (RBFN, self-organizing map (SOM, and support vector machine (SVM, are used to construct streamflow forecasting models. Through the cross-validation test, NN-based models with superior performance in streamflow forecasting are detected. Then, an enforced learning strategy is developed to further improve the performance of the superior NN-based models, i.e., SOM and SVM in this study. Finally, the proposed flow forecasting model is obtained. Actual applications are conducted to demonstrate the potential of the proposed model. Moreover, comparison between the NN-based models with and without the enforced learning strategy is performed to evaluate the effect of the enforced learning strategy on model performance. The results indicate that the NN-based models with the enforced learning strategy indeed improve the accuracy of hourly streamflow forecasting. Hence, the presented methodology is expected to be helpful for developing improved NN-based streamflow forecasting models.
Tur-Kaspa, I; Aljadeff, G; Rechitsky, S; Grotjan, H E; Verlinsky, Y
2010-08-01
Over 1000 children affected with cystic fibrosis (CF) are born annually in the USA. Since IVF with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an alternative to raising a sick child or to aborting an affected fetus, a cost-benefit analysis was performed for a national IVF-PGD program for preventing CF. The amount spent to deliver healthy children for all CF carrier-couples by IVF-PGD was compared with the average annual and lifetime direct medical costs per CF patient avoided. Treating annually about 4000 CF carrier-couples with IVF-PGD would result in 3715 deliveries of non-affected children at a cost of $57,467 per baby. Because the average annual direct medical cost per CF patient was $63,127 and life expectancy is 37 years, savings would be $2.3 million per patient and $2.2 billion for all new CF patients annually in lifetime treatment costs. Cumulated net saving of an IVF-PGD program for all carrier-couples for 37 years would be $33.3 billion. A total of 618,714 cumulative years of patients suffering because of CF and thousands of abortions could be prevented. A national IVF-PGD program is a highly cost-effective novel modality of preventive medicine and would avoid most births of individuals affected with debilitating genetic disease. 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fuchun Ren
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Risk and resilience are important and challenging issues in complex network systems since a single failure may trigger a whole collapse of the systems due to cascading effect. New theories, models, and methods are urgently demanded to deal with this challenge. In this paper, a coupled map lattices (CML based approach is adopted to analyze the risk of cascading process in Watts-Strogatz (WS small-world network and Barabási and Albert (BA scale-free network, respectively. Then, to achieve an effective and robust system and provide guidance in countering the cascading failure, a modified CML model with recovery strategy factor is proposed. Numerical simulations are put forward based on small-world CML and scale-free CML. The simulation results reveal that appropriate recovery strategies would significantly improve the resilience of networks.
Almost convergence of triple sequences
Ayhan Esi; M.Necdet Catalbas
2013-01-01
In this paper we introduce and study the concepts of almost convergence and almost Cauchy for triple sequences. Weshow that the set of almost convergent triple sequences of 0's and 1's is of the first category and also almost everytriple sequence of 0's and 1's is not almost convergent.Keywords: almost convergence, P-convergent, triple sequence.
Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies
Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...
Jianjun Hu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The strict operational condition of driving motors for vehicles propels the development of more complicated configurations in pure electric vehicles (PEVs. Multi-power-source powertrain configurations are one of the efficient technologies to reduce the manufacturing difficulty of driving motors. However, most of the existing studies are predominantly focused on optimal designs of powertrains and power distribution between the engine and motor of hybrid electric vehicles, which are not appropriate for PEVs. This paper proposes a novel dual-motor coupling-propulsion powertrain system that improves the dynamic and economic performance of the powertrain system in PEVs. The proposed powertrain system can realize both the single-motor driving mode and dual-motor coupling driving mode. The driving modes are divided and a power distribution strategy for the different driving modes based on an optimal system efficiency rule is employed, which enhances the performance of the proposed system. Further, a mode-switching strategy that ensures driving comfort by preventing jerk during mode switching is incorporated into the system. The results of comparative evaluations that were conducted using a dual-motor electric vehicle model implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, indicate that the mileage and dynamic performance of the proposed powertrain system are significantly better than those of the traditional single-motor powertrain system.
Bai, Xue; Chen, Jiang-Yun; Fang, Zi; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Fang; Pan, Zheng-Qiong; Fang, Peng-Qian
2017-06-01
The present study aimed to clarify the smoking cessation motivations, challenges and coping strategies among pregnant couples. A qualitative design using a grounded theory approach was applied. Data were collected by individual semi-structured interviews with 39 married individuals (21 non-smoking pregnant women and 18 smoking or ever-smoking men with a pregnant wife) and 3 imams in an ethnically diverse region of far western China. The most common theme for smoking cessation motivation was "embryo quality" (i.e., a healthier baby), followed by family's health. Most interviewees reported that husband's withdrawal symptoms were the greatest challenge to smoking cessation, followed by the Chinese tobacco culture. Coping strategies given by the pregnant women typically involved combining emotional, behavioral and social interventions. Social interventions showed advantages in helping to quit smoking. Pregnancy appears to be a positive stimulus for pregnant couples' smoking cessation. Our results suggest that pregnancy, a highly important life event, may help to reduce barriers to smoking cessation at the social level (e.g., limiting access to cigarettes, avoiding temptation to smoke), but does little to help with the withdrawal symptoms. Professional guidance for smoking cessation is still necessary.
Wittenberger, T; Schaller, H C; Hellebrand, S
2001-03-30
We have developed a comprehensive expressed sequence tag database search method and used it for the identification of new members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. Our approach proved to be especially useful for the detection of expressed sequence tag sequences that do not encode conserved parts of a protein, making it an ideal tool for the identification of members of divergent protein families or of protein parts without conserved domain structures in the expressed sequence tag database. At least 14 of the expressed sequence tags found with this strategy are promising candidates for new putative G-protein coupled receptors. Here, we describe the sequence and expression analysis of five new members of this receptor superfamily, namely GPR84, GPR86, GPR87, GPR90 and GPR91. We also studied the genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the respective genes applying in silico methods. A cluster of six closely related G-protein coupled receptors was found on the human chromosome 3q24-3q25. It consists of four orphan receptors (GPR86, GPR87, GPR91, and H963), the purinergic receptor P2Y1, and the uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose receptor KIAA0001. It seems likely that these receptors evolved from a common ancestor and therefore might have related ligands. In conclusion, we describe a data mining procedure that proved to be useful for the identification and first characterization of new genes and is well applicable for other gene families. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Convergence of Nelson diffusions
Dell'Antonio, G.; Posilicano, A.
1991-01-01
Let ψ t , ψ t n , n≥1, be solutions of Schroedinger equations with potentials form-bounded by -1/2 Δ and initial data in H 1 (R d ). Let P, P n , n≥1, be the probability measures on the path space Ω=C(R + , R d ) given by the corresponding Nelson diffusions. We show that if {ψ t n } n≥1 converges to ψ t in H 2 (R d ), uniformly in t over compact intervals, then {P n } n≥1 converges to P in total variation. Moreover, if the potentials are in the Kato class K d , we show that the above result follows from H 1 -convergence of initial data, and K d -convergence of potentials. (orig.)
Fixed mobile convergence handbook
Ahson, Syed A
2010-01-01
From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo
2012-12-01
This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.
Novel strategy to implement active-space coupled-cluster methods
Rolik, Zoltán; Kállay, Mihály
2018-03-01
A new approach is presented for the efficient implementation of coupled-cluster (CC) methods including higher excitations based on a molecular orbital space partitioned into active and inactive orbitals. In the new framework, the string representation of amplitudes and intermediates is used as long as it is beneficial, but the contractions are evaluated as matrix products. Using a new diagrammatic technique, the CC equations are represented in a compact form due to the string notations we introduced. As an application of these ideas, a new automated implementation of the single-reference-based multi-reference CC equations is presented for arbitrary excitation levels. The new program can be considered as an improvement over the previous implementations in many respects; e.g., diagram contributions are evaluated by efficient vectorized subroutines. Timings for test calculations for various complete active-space problems are presented. As an application of the new code, the weak interactions in the Be dimer were studied.
Huang, Zhihao; Zhao, Junfei; Wang, Zimu; Meng, Fanying; Ding, Kunshan; Pan, Xiangqiang; Zhou, Nianchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Zhengbiao; Zhu, Xiulin
2017-10-23
Orthogonal maleimide and thiol deprotections were combined with thiol-maleimide coupling to synthesize discrete oligomers/macromolecules on a gram scale with molecular weights up to 27.4 kDa (128mer, 7.9 g) using an iterative exponential growth strategy with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 2 n -1. Using the same chemistry, a "readable" sequence-defined oligomer and a discrete cyclic topology were also created. Furthermore, uniform dendrons were fabricated using sequential growth (DP=2 n -1) or double exponential dendrimer growth approaches (DP=22n -1) with significantly accelerated growth rates. A versatile, efficient, and metal-free method for construction of discrete oligomers with tailored structures and a high growth rate would greatly facilitate research into the structure-property relationships of sophisticated polymeric materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Costin, Ovidiu; Dunne, Gerald V.
2018-01-01
We show how to convert divergent series, which typically occur in many applications in physics, into rapidly convergent inverse factorial series. This can be interpreted physically as a novel resummation of perturbative series. Being convergent, these new series allow rigorous extrapolation from an asymptotic region with a large parameter, to the opposite region where the parameter is small. We illustrate the method with various physical examples, and discuss how these convergent series relate to standard methods such as Borel summation, and also how they incorporate the physical Stokes phenomenon. We comment on the relation of these results to Dyson’s physical argument for the divergence of perturbation theory. This approach also leads naturally to a wide class of relations between bosonic and fermionic partition functions, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac determinants.
Hao Yu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This study introduces a data-driven modeling strategy for smart grid power quality (PQ coupling assessment based on time series pattern matching to quantify the influence of single and integrated disturbance among nodes in different pollution patterns. Periodic and random PQ patterns are constructed by using multidimensional frequency-domain decomposition for all disturbances. A multidimensional piecewise linear representation based on local extreme points is proposed to extract the patterns features of single and integrated disturbance in consideration of disturbance variation trend and severity. A feature distance of pattern (FDP is developed to implement pattern matching on univariate PQ time series (UPQTS and multivariate PQ time series (MPQTS to quantify the influence of single and integrated disturbance among nodes in the pollution patterns. Case studies on a 14-bus distribution system are performed and analyzed; the accuracy and applicability of the FDP in the smart grid PQ coupling assessment are verified by comparing with other time series pattern matching methods.
Lin, Zhuchong; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Delin
2016-09-01
Maglev dual-stage inertially stabilization (MDIS) system is a newly proposed system which combines a conventional two-axis gimbal assembly and a 5-DOF (degree of freedom) magnetic bearing with vernier tilting capacity to perform dual-stage stabilization for the LOS of the suspended optical instrument. Compared with traditional dual-stage system, maglev dual-stage system exhibits different characteristics due to the negative position stiffness of the magnetic forces, which introduces additional coupling in the dual stage control system. In this paper, the coupling effect on the system performance is addressed based on frequency-domain analysis, including disturbance rejection, fine stage saturation and coarse stage structural resonance suppression. The difference between various control strategies is also discussed, including pile-up(PU), stabilize-follow (SF) and stabilize-compensate (SC). A number of principles for the design of a maglev dual stage system are proposed. A general process is also suggested, which leads to a cost-effective design striking a balance between high performance and complexity. At last, a simulation example is presented to illustrate the arguments in the paper. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.
Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina
2008-01-01
The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along...... with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...
Fourier convergence analysis applied to neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem
Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook
2004-01-01
Fourier error analysis has been a standard technique for the stability and convergence analysis of linear and nonlinear iterative methods. Though the methods can be applied to Eigenvalue problems too, all the Fourier convergence analyses have been performed only for fixed source problems and a Fourier convergence analysis for Eigenvalue problem has never been reported. Lee et al proposed new 2-D/1-D coupling methods and they showed that the new ones are unconditionally stable while one of the two existing ones is unstable at a small mesh size and that the new ones are better than the existing ones in terms of the convergence rate. In this paper the convergence of method A in reference 4 for the diffusion Eigenvalue problem was analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The Fourier convergence analysis presented in this paper is the first one applied to a neutronics eigenvalue problem to the best of our knowledge
Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series
MacMillan, D.S.
1981-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials
Coghetto Roland
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.
Branca, Mario
2013-01-01
Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)
Language Convergence Infrastructure
V. Zaytsev (Vadim); J.M. Fernandes; R. Lämmel (Ralf); J.M.W. Visser (Joost); J. Saraiva
2011-01-01
htmlabstractThe process of grammar convergence involves grammar extraction and transformation for structural equivalence and contains a range of technical challenges. These need to be addressed in order for the method to deliver useful results. The paper describes a DSL and the infrastructure behind
Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.
2014-01-01
The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…
Summable series and convergence factors
Moore, Charles N
1938-01-01
Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that
Woloszyn-Vallon, M.
1999-11-01
hygroscopic materials. Experimental conditions are simulated using the proposed model. A good overall performance of the model can be sent, if the vapour absorbed and released by building materials is represented. We are interested in a dynamic system described by a set of algebro-diffeential equations. To start the time integration of the differential equations, we need to fix a starting point. The best choice is given by the solution of the set of non-linear algebraic equations corresponding to initial stationary date. However, the resolution of this set is often found impossible. To face the numerical resolution of our problems, we called on block methods. The idea is to divide judiciously the system of equations, in such a way as to get an easy solution for each block. The physical interactions between blocks are then numerically ensured by successive global interations. After analysing our system, three principal blocks are identified: airflow block, describing inter-zonal air movements; energy block, describing temperatures in each zone; moisture block, describing air moisture content in each zone. The airflow block has a special role; it determines moisture and energy transport. A strategy to update the values of variables is also adapted to physical interaction among systems and allows rapid convergence. The proposed strategy is validated on a set of benchmark tests designed by CLIM2000 users. (author)
Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher
networks are still more prominently expected by students. Against this backdrop, an action research project has worked with the definition and testing of the hypothesized constituents of the Convergent Learning Space and how it challenges our traditional conceptions of learning spaces. The article...... describes this pilot study involving teachers in conscious, documented reflection on methods, approaches, and procedures conducive to learning processes in this new learning space. As a perspective, the article briefly outlines an intervention study aimed at investigating how students benefit from......The concept of the Convergent Learning Space has been hypothesized and explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College, where classrooms are technology rich and students bring their own devices. The changes...
The Convergent Learning Space:
Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering
is described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources......This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress......, trajectories of participation etc. calls for new action and new pedagogies by teachers in order to secure alignment between students’ worlds and expectations and aims and plans of the teacher. Action research methods are being used to define and test the constituents and variables of the convergent learning...
Simpson, Seamus
2015-01-01
The Broadcasting, Information Technology and Telecommunications sectors have in recent years been the subject of notable transformation, one important feature of which is their coming closer together in a number of ways - it is now commonplace to speak of a new hybrid sector, Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). This convergence is of considerable interest to policy-makers in industry and government at the national and international level, as well as the academic community and,...
Convergence semigroup categories
Gary Richardson
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X → X is an injection.
Multiplier convergent series and uniform convergence of mapping ...
MS received 14 April 2011; revised 17 November 2012. Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the frame property of complex sequence sets and study the uniform convergence of nonlinear mapping series in β-dual of spaces consisting of multiplier convergent series. Keywords. Multiplier convergent series; mapping series. 1.
An uncoupling strategy for numerically solving the dynamic thermoelasticity equations
Moura, C.A. de; Feijoo, R.A.
1981-01-01
The dynamic equations of coupled linear thermoelasticity are presented. A numerical algorithm which combines finite-element space approximation with a two-step time discretization in such a way as to reach significant computational savings is presented: It features a strategy for independently calculating the displacement and temperature fields through equations that nevertheless remain coupled. The scheme convergence was shown to be optimal and its machine performance, as ilustrated by some examples, fairly satisfactory. (Author) [pt
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
Roco, Mihail C.
2008-01-01
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
Roco, Mihail C.
2008-01-01
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies
Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov
2008-01-15
The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and
Convergence semigroup actions: generalized quotients
H. Boustique
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Continuous actions of a convergence semigroup are investigated in the category of convergence spaces. Invariance properties of actions as well as properties of a generalized quotient space are presented
Generalization of the Fourier Convergence Analysis in the Neutron Diffusion Eigenvalue Problem
Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook
2005-01-01
Fourier error analysis has been a standard technique for the stability and convergence analysis of linear and nonlinear iterative methods. Lee et al proposed new 2- D/1-D coupling methods and demonstrated several advantages of the new methods by performing a Fourier convergence analysis of the methods as well as two existing methods for a fixed source problem. We demonstrated the Fourier convergence analysis of one of the 2-D/1-D coupling methods applied to a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem. However, the technique cannot be used directly to analyze the convergence of the other 2-D/1-D coupling methods since some algorithm-specific features were used in our previous study. In this paper we generalized the Fourier convergence analysis technique proposed and analyzed the convergence of the 2-D/1-D coupling methods applied to a neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem using the generalized technique
Rogério Christofoletti
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.
Rogério Christofoletti
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Three ideas would suffice for the reading of “Cultura da Convergência” (Culture of Convergence by Henry Jenkins to be of interest to journalists and researchers in the area: media convergence as a cultural process; the strengthening of an emotional economy which guides consumers of symbolic goods and media creators; the expansion of trans-media narrative forms.
Escalated convergent artificial bee colony
Jadon, Shimpi Singh; Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Tiwari, Ritu
2016-03-01
Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimisation algorithm is a recent, fast and easy-to-implement population-based meta heuristic for optimisation. ABC has been proved a rival algorithm with some popular swarm intelligence-based algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm and ant colony optimisation. The solution search equation of ABC is influenced by a random quantity which helps its search process in exploration at the cost of exploitation. In order to find a fast convergent behaviour of ABC while exploitation capability is maintained, in this paper basic ABC is modified in two ways. First, to improve exploitation capability, two local search strategies, namely classical unidimensional local search and levy flight random walk-based local search are incorporated with ABC. Furthermore, a new solution search strategy, namely stochastic diffusion scout search is proposed and incorporated into the scout bee phase to provide more chance to abandon solution to improve itself. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested on 20 benchmark test functions of different complexities and characteristics. Results are very promising and they prove it to be a competitive algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence-based algorithms.
Letchumanan, Michelle; Coyte, Peter C; Loutfy, Mona
2015-01-01
To conduct an economic evaluation of the three commonly used interventions that reduce sexual HIV transmission when an HIV-negative female aims to conceive with an HIV-positive male on combination antiretroviral therapy (condomless sex restricted to timed ovulation [CS], sperm washing with intrauterine insemination [SW] and condomless sex restricted to timed ovulation with pre-exposure prophylaxis [CS-PrEP]). As SW and CS-PrEP are only privately available for pregnancy planning for this population in Canada, this study was conducted to inform policy decisions concerning potential public health insurance coverage, as well as to inform fertility counselling in settings with adequate combination antiretroviral therapy access globally. We developed a cohort Markov model with a lifetime horizon and used the perspective of Ontario's Ministry of Health (MOH). Input parameters were drawn from literature, the MOH's Schedule of Benefits and a time trade-off questionnaire designed for this study. Outcome measures included quality-adjusted life-years and incremental cost-effectiveness. Costs and benefits were discounted at annual rates of 3%. Costs were reported in Canadian 2013 dollars and an exchange rate of 1 USD to 1.066 CND was applied where necessary. Sensitivity analysis assessed the uncertainty of model parameters. The base case analysis found that CS-PrEP and SW were each more costly and less effective at conception than CS. The results were robust in the sensitivity analysis and suggest that CS is the dominant conception strategy in this population. Neither CS-PrEP nor SW represent better value for money relative to CS as a conception option for HIV-discordant couples with positive male partners. Based on these findings, CS-PrEP and SW cannot be recommended for public-funding in developed countries.
Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.palermo@unifg.it; Natale, Anna; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego
2015-01-07
Highlights: • Multi-enzyme digestion for protein sequencing and characterization by CID/ETD. • Simultaneous use of trypsin/chymotrypsin for the maximization of sequence. • Identification of PTMs, sequence variants and species-specific residues. • Increase of accuracy in sequence assignments by orthogonal fragmentation techniques. - Abstract: A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.
Faggionato, Davide; Serb, Jeanne M
2017-08-01
The rise of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and de novo transcriptome assembly has had a transformative impact on how we identify and study genes in the phototransduction cascade of non-model organisms. But the advantage provided by the nearly automated annotation of RNA-seq transcriptomes may at the same time hinder the possibility for gene discovery and the discovery of new gene functions. For example, standard functional annotation based on domain homology to known protein families can only confirm group membership, not identify the emergence of new biochemical function. In this study, we show the importance of developing a strategy that circumvents the limitations of semiautomated annotation and apply this workflow to photosensitivity as a means to discover non-opsin photoreceptors. We hypothesize that non-opsin G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins may have chromophore-binding lysines in locations that differ from opsin. Here, we provide the first case study describing non-opsin light-sensitive GPCRs based on tissue-specific RNA-seq data of the common bay scallop Argopecten irradians (Lamarck, 1819). Using a combination of sequence analysis and three-dimensional protein modeling, we identified two candidate proteins. We tested their photochemical properties and provide evidence showing that these two proteins incorporate 11-cis and/or all-trans retinal and react to light photochemically. Based on this case study, we demonstrate that there is potential for the discovery of new light-sensitive GPCRs, and we have developed a workflow that starts from RNA-seq assemblies to the discovery of new non-opsin, GPCR-based photopigments.
Convergent landscape. 39 and a half as (multi promotional intertext
Katarzyna Kopecka- Piech
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a broader characterisation of the media convergence strategy applied by producers of the Polish commercial television station (TVN series 39 and a half (39 i pół. In order to examine the convergence strategies of production, distribution, promotion and media usage, this paper analyzes metaphors of landscape, terrain, map and simulacrum. Moreover the concept of convergent (intertext is proposed. In the case study of 39 and a half the author examines three main strategies implemented by the creators: the promotional virtualisation of reality, making virtual reality more real, and multiplied fiction. Transmedial and synergetic brands illustrate the hybridisation of the convergent and integrated media landscape.
Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method
Măruşter Ştefan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.
Medialogy - convergence and transdisciplinarity
Nordahl, Rolf
2007-01-01
Art and design have many qualities which intuitively by society are appreciated. But on daily basis they are also assessed and evaluated. Some communities also share common understandings that norms, standards, conventions evolve, both from artistic desire as well as from more physical needs...... for changes in society, developments in taste etc. However, it certainly seems fair to say, that available technology makes a great difference to the development of any art form or practice. With the up rise of new educations such as Medialogy, new aspects of convergence and different forms...... of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is a pre-requisite for both researchers and students. In this talk we will demonstrate our approach through concrete examples of student productions and projects. We will also display the pedagogical method (problem based learning), that enables students to bridge gaps...
Dhatt, Sharmistha; Bhattacharyya, Kamal
2012-08-01
Appropriate constructions of Padé approximants are believed to provide reasonable estimates of the asymptotic (large-coupling) amplitude and exponent of an observable, given its weak-coupling expansion to some desired order. In many instances, however, sequences of such approximants are seen to converge very poorly. We outline here a strategy that exploits the idea of fractional calculus to considerably improve the convergence behavior. Pilot calculations on the ground-state perturbative energy series of quartic, sextic, and octic anharmonic oscillators reveal clearly the worth of our endeavor.
Convergence Science in a Nano World
Cady, Nathaniel
2013-01-01
Convergence is a new paradigm that brings together critical advances in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. Going beyond traditional “interdisciplinary” studies, “convergence” describes the culmination of truly integrated research and development, yielding revolutionary advances in both scientific research and new technologies. At its core, nanotechnology embodies these elements of convergence science by bringing together multiple disciplines with the goal of creating innovative and groundbreaking technologies. In the biological and biomedical sciences, nanotechnology research has resulted in dramatic improvements in sensors, diagnostics, imaging, and even therapeutics. In particular, there is a current push to examine the interface between the biological world and micro/nano-scale systems. For example, my laboratory is developing novel strategies for spatial patterning of biomolecules, electrical and optical biosensing, nanomaterial delivery systems, cellular patterning techniques, and the study of cellular interactions with nano-structured surfaces. In this seminar, I will give examples of how convergent research is being applied to three major areas of biological research &endash; cancer diagnostics, microbiology, and DNA-based biosensing. These topics will be presented as case studies, showing the benefits (and challenges) of multi-disciplinary, convergent research and development.
Feng Yi
2017-01-01
Psychological travel is a new-type travel mode with wide applicability. From aspect of cultural connotation, tea culture is naturally related to psychological travel. The coupling of these two has generated “tea-culture” psychological travel product which can fit current social trend. Based on reference from literatures and materials, this thesis conducted field investigation and interviews for study. It illustrates the preconditions for the coupling of tea culture and psychological travel; a...
Meng, Guangrong; Szostak, Michal
2016-06-15
The first palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of amides with boronic acids for the synthesis of ketones by sterically-controlled N-C bond activation is reported. The transformation is characterized by operational simplicity using bench-stable, commercial reagents and catalysts, and a broad substrate scope, including substrates with electron-donating and withdrawing groups on both coupling partners, steric-hindrance, heterocycles, halides, esters and ketones. The scope and limitations are presented in the synthesis of >60 functionalized ketones. Mechanistic studies provide insight into the catalytic cycle of the cross-coupling, including the first experimental evidence for Pd insertion into the amide N-C bond. The synthetic utility is showcased by a gram-scale cross-coupling and cross-coupling at room temperature. Most importantly, this process provides a blueprint for the development of a plethora of metal catalyzed reactions of typically inert amide bonds via acyl-metal intermediates. A unified strategy for amide bond activation to enable metal insertion into N-C amide bond is outlined ().
Convergent systems vs. incremental stability
Rüffer, B.S.; Wouw, van de N.; Mueller, M.
2013-01-01
Two similar stability notions are considered; one is the long established notion of convergent systems, the other is the younger notion of incremental stability. Both notions require that any two solutions of a system converge to each other. Yet these stability concepts are different, in the sense
Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution
Givnish Thomas J
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.
Monte Carlo source convergence and the Whitesides problem
Blomquist, R. N.
2000-01-01
The issue of fission source convergence in Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations is of interest because of the potential consequences of erroneous criticality safety calculations. In this work, the authors compare two different techniques to improve the source convergence behavior of standard Monte Carlo calculations applied to challenging source convergence problems. The first method, super-history powering, attempts to avoid discarding important fission sites between generations by delaying stochastic sampling of the fission site bank until after several generations of multiplication. The second method, stratified sampling of the fission site bank, explicitly keeps the important sites even if conventional sampling would have eliminated them. The test problems are variants of Whitesides' Criticality of the World problem in which the fission site phase space was intentionally undersampled in order to induce marginally intolerable variability in local fission site populations. Three variants of the problem were studied, each with a different degree of coupling between fissionable pieces. Both the superhistory powering method and the stratified sampling method were shown to improve convergence behavior, although stratified sampling is more robust for the extreme case of no coupling. Neither algorithm completely eliminates the loss of the most important fissionable piece, and if coupling is absent, the lost piece cannot be recovered unless its sites from earlier generations have been retained. Finally, criteria for measuring source convergence reliability are proposed and applied to the test problems
Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective
Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.
2012-12-01
Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview
Heterotic quantum and classical computing on convergence spaces
Patten, D. R.; Jakel, D. W.; Irwin, R. J.; Blair, H. A.
2015-05-01
Category-theoretic characterizations of heterotic models of computation, introduced by Stepney et al., combine computational models such as classical/quantum, digital/analog, synchronous/asynchronous, etc. to obtain increased computational power. A highly informative classical/quantum heterotic model of computation is represented by Abramsky's simple sequential imperative quantum programming language which extends the classical simple imperative programming language to encompass quantum computation. The mathematical (denotational) semantics of this classical language serves as a basic foundation upon which formal verification methods can be developed. We present a more comprehensive heterotic classical/quantum model of computation based on heterotic dynamical systems on convergence spaces. Convergence spaces subsume topological spaces but admit finer structure from which, in prior work, we obtained differential calculi in the cartesian closed category of convergence spaces allowing us to define heterotic dynamical systems, given by coupled systems of first order differential equations whose variables are functions from the reals to convergence spaces.
Vincent Fagan
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A novel convergent synthetic strategy for the construction of multicomponent self-adjuvanting lipopeptide vaccines was developed. A tetraalkyne-functionalized glucose derivative and lipidated Fmoc-lysine were prepared by novel efficient and convenient syntheses. The carbohydrate building block was coupled to the self-adjuvanting lipidic moiety (three lipidated Fmoc-lysines on solid support. Four copies of a group A streptococcal B cell epitope (J8 were then conjugated to the glyco-lipopeptide using a copper-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction. The approach was elaborated by the preparation of a second vaccine candidate which incorporated an additional promiscuous T-helper epitope.
Convergent synthesis of the right-hand segment of ciguatoxin.
Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru
2006-03-16
[reaction: see text] A convergent synthesis of the right-hand half of ciguatoxin (the HIJKLM ring system) has been achieved with complete stereocontrol in the introduction of the stereocenters on the eight-membered I ring. Key steps are Sonogashira coupling, dicobalt complexation, intramolecular conjugate addition, and hydrogenation of an endo-olefin to provide the 39-alpha-methyl group.
The Convergence in Spatial Tasks
Vladimir P. Kulagin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.
Stochastic model of cell rearrangements in convergent extension of ascidian notochord
Lubkin, Sharon; Backes, Tracy; Latterman, Russell; Small, Stephen
2007-03-01
We present a discrete stochastic cell based model of convergent extension of the ascidian notochord. Our work derives from research that clarifies the coupling of invagination and convergent extension in ascidian notochord morphogenesis (Odell and Munro, 2002). We have tested the roles of cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, random motion, and extension of individual cells, as well as the presence or absence of various tissue types, and determined which factors are necessary and/or sufficient for convergent extension.
Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes
Friedman, S. T.; Price, S. A.; Hoey, Andrew; Wainwright, P. C.
2016-01-01
two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives
Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence
2008-01-01
A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.
Rogério Christofoletti
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Culturada Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas epesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.
Coupling Algorithms for Calculating Sensitivities of Population Balances
Man, P. L. W.; Kraft, M.; Norris, J. R.
2008-01-01
We introduce a new class of stochastic algorithms for calculating parametric derivatives of the solution of the space-homogeneous Smoluchowski's coagulation equation. Currently, it is very difficult to produce low variance estimates of these derivatives in reasonable amounts of computational time through the use of stochastic methods. These new algorithms consider a central difference estimator of the parametric derivative which is calculated by evaluating the coagulation equation at two different parameter values simultaneously, and causing variance reduction by maximising the covariance between these. The two different coupling strategies ('Single' and 'Double') have been compared to the case when there is no coupling ('Independent'). Both coupling algorithms converge and the Double coupling is the most 'efficient' algorithm. For the numerical example chosen we obtain a factor of about 100 in efficiency in the best case (small system evolution time and small parameter perturbation).
Wang, X. Y.; Dou, J. M.; Shen, H.; Li, J.; Yang, G. S.; Fan, R. Q.; Shen, Q.
2018-03-01
With the continuous strengthening of power grids, the network structure is becoming more and more complicated. An open and regional data modeling is used to complete the calculation of the protection fixed value based on the local region. At the same time, a high precision, quasi real-time boundary fusion technique is needed to seamlessly integrate the various regions so as to constitute an integrated fault computing platform which can conduct transient stability analysis of covering the whole network with high accuracy and multiple modes, deal with the impact results of non-single fault, interlocking fault and build “the first line of defense” of the power grid. The boundary fusion algorithm in this paper is an automatic fusion algorithm based on the boundary accurate coupling of the networking power grid partition, which takes the actual operation mode for qualification, complete the boundary coupling algorithm of various weak coupling partition based on open-loop mode, improving the fusion efficiency, truly reflecting its transient stability level, and effectively solving the problems of too much data, too many difficulties of partition fusion, and no effective fusion due to mutually exclusive conditions. In this paper, the basic principle of fusion process is introduced firstly, and then the method of boundary fusion customization is introduced by scene description. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the specific algorithm on how it effectively implements the boundary fusion after grid partition and to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm.
Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.
Hendi, Arun S
2017-09-01
The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.
Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R
2014-07-01
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a developmental visual anomaly defined clinically by a reduced near point of convergence, a reduced capacity to view through base-out prisms (fusional convergence); coupled with asthenopic symptoms typically blur and diplopia. Experimental studies show reduced vergence parameters and tonic adaptation. Based upon current models of accommodation and vergence, we hypothesize that the reduced vergence adaptation in CI leads to excessive amounts of convergence accommodation (CA). Eleven CI participants (mean age=17.4±2.3 years) were recruited with reduced capacity to view through increasing magnitudes of base out (BO) prisms (mean fusional convergence at 40 cm=12±0.9Δ). Testing followed our previous experimental design for (n=11) binocularly normal adults. Binocular fixation of a difference of Gaussian (DoG) target (0.2 cpd) elicited CA responses during vergence adaptation to a 12Δ BO. Vergence and CA responses were obtained at 3 min intervals over a 15 min period and time course were quantified using exponential decay functions. Results were compared to previously published data on eleven binocular normals. Eight participants completed the study. CI's showed significantly reduced magnitude of vergence adaptation (CI: 2.9Δ vs. normals: 6.6Δ; p=0.01) and CA reduction (CI=0.21 D, Normals=0.55 D; p=0.03). However, the decay time constants for adaptation and CA responses were not significantly different. CA changes were not confounded by changes in tonic accommodation (Change in TA=0.01±0.2D; p=0.8). The reduced magnitude of vergence adaptation found in CI patients resulting in higher levels of CA may potentially explain their clinical findings of reduced positive fusional vergence (PFV) and the common symptom of blur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.
Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria
2017-07-01
This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH 4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO 2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guo, Lin
2018-04-13
The utilization of carboxylic acid esters as electrophiles in metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions is increasingly popular, as environmentally friendly and readily available ester derivatives can be powerful alternatives to the commonly used organohalides. However, key challenges associated with the use of these chemicals remain to be addressed, including the stability of ester substrates and the high energy barrier associated with their oxidative addition to low-valent metal species. Due to recent developments in nickel catalysis that make it easier to perform oxidative additions, chemists have become interested in applying less reactive electrophiles as coupling counterparts in nickel-catalyzed transformations. Hence, our group and others have independently investigated various ester group substitutions and functionalizations enabled by nickel catalysis. Such methods are of great interest as they enable the exchange of ester groups, which can be used as directing groups in metal-catalyzed C-H functionalizations prior to their replacement. Here, we summarize our recent efforts toward the development of nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions of carboxylic esters. Achievements accomplished by other groups in this area are also included. To this day, a number of new transformations have been successfully developed, including decarbonylative arylations, alkylations, cyanations, silylations, borylations, aminations, thioetherifications, stannylations, and hydrogenolysis reactions. These transformations proceed via a nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative pathway and have shown a high degree of reactivity and chemoselectivity, as well as several other unique advantages in terms of substrate availability, due to the use of esters as coupling partners. Although the mechanisms of these reactions have not yet been fully understood, chemists have already provided some important insights. For example, Yamamoto explored the stoichiometric nickel
Guo, Lin; Rueping, Magnus
2018-05-15
The utilization of carboxylic acid esters as electrophiles in metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions is increasingly popular, as environmentally friendly and readily available ester derivatives can be powerful alternatives to the commonly used organohalides. However, key challenges associated with the use of these chemicals remain to be addressed, including the stability of ester substrates and the high energy barrier associated with their oxidative addition to low-valent metal species. Due to recent developments in nickel catalysis that make it easier to perform oxidative additions, chemists have become interested in applying less reactive electrophiles as coupling counterparts in nickel-catalyzed transformations. Hence, our group and others have independently investigated various ester group substitutions and functionalizations enabled by nickel catalysis. Such methods are of great interest as they enable the exchange of ester groups, which can be used as directing groups in metal-catalyzed C-H functionalizations prior to their replacement. Here, we summarize our recent efforts toward the development of nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions of carboxylic esters. Achievements accomplished by other groups in this area are also included. To this day, a number of new transformations have been successfully developed, including decarbonylative arylations, alkylations, cyanations, silylations, borylations, aminations, thioetherifications, stannylations, and hydrogenolysis reactions. These transformations proceed via a nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative pathway and have shown a high degree of reactivity and chemoselectivity, as well as several other unique advantages in terms of substrate availability, due to the use of esters as coupling partners. Although the mechanisms of these reactions have not yet been fully understood, chemists have already provided some important insights. For example, Yamamoto explored the stoichiometric nickel
Guo, Lin; Rueping, Magnus
2018-01-01
The utilization of carboxylic acid esters as electrophiles in metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions is increasingly popular, as environmentally friendly and readily available ester derivatives can be powerful alternatives to the commonly used organohalides. However, key challenges associated with the use of these chemicals remain to be addressed, including the stability of ester substrates and the high energy barrier associated with their oxidative addition to low-valent metal species. Due to recent developments in nickel catalysis that make it easier to perform oxidative additions, chemists have become interested in applying less reactive electrophiles as coupling counterparts in nickel-catalyzed transformations. Hence, our group and others have independently investigated various ester group substitutions and functionalizations enabled by nickel catalysis. Such methods are of great interest as they enable the exchange of ester groups, which can be used as directing groups in metal-catalyzed C-H functionalizations prior to their replacement. Here, we summarize our recent efforts toward the development of nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative cross-coupling reactions of carboxylic esters. Achievements accomplished by other groups in this area are also included. To this day, a number of new transformations have been successfully developed, including decarbonylative arylations, alkylations, cyanations, silylations, borylations, aminations, thioetherifications, stannylations, and hydrogenolysis reactions. These transformations proceed via a nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative pathway and have shown a high degree of reactivity and chemoselectivity, as well as several other unique advantages in terms of substrate availability, due to the use of esters as coupling partners. Although the mechanisms of these reactions have not yet been fully understood, chemists have already provided some important insights. For example, Yamamoto explored the stoichiometric nickel
Fabiola Perles Novas
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between emotional intelligence, jealousy and the propensity for abusiveness and violent conflict-solving strategies between couples. The predictive capacity of these variables was analysed in a mixed sample of 294 people. The outcomes show that the variables evaluated are significantly associated with the conflict-solving strategies used by the couple. These strategies have a positive association with jealousy and the propensity for abusiveness, and a negative association with emotional intelligence. Similarly, all the variables analysed had a predictive capacity regarding the conflict-solving strategies, especially the couple’s perception regarding such strategies. These outcomes show the relevance of these variables in predicting violence between couples and are suggestive of interventions for its prevention.
Li, Hua; Havens, Wendy M; Nibert, Max L; Ghabrial, Said A
2011-07-01
The genome-length, dicistronic mRNA of the double-stranded RNA fungal virus Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S (genus Victorivirus, family Totiviridae) contains two long open reading frames (ORFs) that overlap in the tetranucleotide AUGA. Translation of the downstream ORF, which encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has been proposed to depend on ribosomal reinitiation following termination of the upstream ORF, which encodes the capsid protein. In the current study, we examined the RNA sequence determinants for RdRp translation in this virus and demonstrated that a coupled termination-reinitiation (stop-restart) strategy is indeed used. Signals for termination-reinitiation are found within a 32-nucleotide stretch of RNA immediately upstream of the AUGA motif, including a predicted pseudoknot structure. The close proximity in which this predicted structure is followed by the upstream ORF's stop codon appears to be especially important for promoting translation of the downstream ORF. The normal strong preferences for an AUG start codon and the canonical sequence context to favor translation initiation appear somewhat relaxed for the downstream ORF. Similar sequence motifs and predicted RNA structures in other victoriviruses suggest that they all share a related stop-restart strategy for RdRp translation. Members of the genus Victorivirus thus provide new and unique opportunities for exploring the molecular mechanisms of translational coupling, which remain only partly understood in this and other systems.
Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.
Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke
2015-01-01
Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.
Rabin, Sam; Alexander, Peter; Anthoni, Peter; Henry, Roslyn; Huntingford, Chris; Pugh, Thomas; Rounsevell, Mark; Arneth, Almut
2017-04-01
A major question facing humanity is how well agricultural production systems will be able to feed the world in a future of rapid climate change, population growth, and demand shifts—all while minimizing our impact on the natural world. Global modeling has frequently been used to investigate certain aspects of this question, but in order to properly address the challenge, no one part of the human-environmental system can be assessed in isolation. It is especially critical that the effect on agricultural yields of changing temperature and precipitation regimes (including seasonal timing and frequency and intensity of extreme events), as well as rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, be taken into account when planning for future food security. Coupled modeling efforts, where changes in various parts of the Earth system are allowed to feed back onto one another, represent a powerful strategy in this regard. This presentation describes the structure and initial results of an effort to couple a biologically-representative vegetation and crop production simulator, LPJ-GUESS, with the climate emulator IMOGEN and the land-use model PLUMv2. With IMOGEN providing detailed future weather simulations, LPJ-GUESS simulates natural vegetation as well as cropland and pasture/rangeland; the simulated exchange of greenhouse gases between the land and atmosphere feeds back into IMOGEN's predictions. LPJ-GUESS also produces potential vegetation yields for irrigated vs. rainfed crops under three levels of nitrogen fertilizer addition. PLUMv2 combines these potential yields with endogenous demand and agricultural commodity price to calculate an optimal set of land use distributions and management strategies across the world for the next five years of simulation, based on socio-economic scenario data. These land uses are then fed back into LPJ-GUESS, and the cycle of climate, greenhouse gas emissions, crop yields, and land-use change continues. The globally gridded nature of the
Sun, Xinbo; Du, Lingfeng; Hou, Yuqian; Cheng, Shaoju; Zhang, Xuxiang; Liu, Bo
2018-02-21
The anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) and sulfocompound-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification coupling system (A/SAD) was initiated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater. Owing to cooperation between anammox and partial sulfocompound-oxidation autotrophic denitrification coupling system (PSAD), the highest nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of 98.1% ± 0.4% achieved at the optimal influent conditions of conversion efficiency of ammonium (CEA) of 55% and S 2 O 3 2- -S/NO 3 - -N (S/N) of 1.4 mol mol -1 . The activity of the short-cut sulfocompound-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification (SSAD) was also regulated to cope with dynamic CEA in the influent by changing the S/N, which was demonstrated to be effective in alleviating nitrite accumulation when the CEA was between 57% and 61%. Both the anammox and SAD bacteria enriched in the reactor after long-term incubation. Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Jettenia might be potentially contributing the most to anammox, while the Thiobacillus was the dominant taxa related to SAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new electrochemical sensing protocol for the detection of mercury ion. •Gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform was used as nanocatalyst. •The signal was amplified by cycling signal amplification strategy. -- Abstract: Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg 2+ ), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg 2+ by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T (25) oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg 2+ ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T–Hg 2+ –T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg 2+ ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH 4 and Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg 2+ level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02 nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000 nM Hg 2+ . The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg 2+ against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg 2+ in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9–113.8%
Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn
2014-01-31
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We report a new electrochemical sensing protocol for the detection of mercury ion. •Gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform was used as nanocatalyst. •The signal was amplified by cycling signal amplification strategy. -- Abstract: Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg{sup 2+}), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg{sup 2+} by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T{sub (25)} oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg{sup 2+} ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T–Hg{sup 2+}–T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg{sup 2+} ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH{sub 4} and Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg{sup 2+} level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02 nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000 nM Hg{sup 2+}. The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg{sup 2+} in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9–113.8%.
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Michael John Starks
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.
Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.
2014-12-01
Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our
Faucher, Vincent
2014-01-01
Simulating fast transient phenomena involving fluids and structures in interaction for safety purposes requires both accurate and robust algorithms, and parallel computing to reduce the calculation time for industrial models. Managing kinematic constraints linking fluid and structural entities is thus a key issue and this contribution promotes a dual approach over the classical penalty approach, introducing arbitrary coefficients in the solution. This choice however severely increases the complexity of the problem, mainly due to non-permanent kinematic constraints. An innovative parallel strategy is therefore described, whose performances are demonstrated on significant examples exhibiting the full complexity of the target industrial simulations. (authors)
Rogério Christofoletti
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Três idéias já seriam suficientes para que a leitura de “Cultura da Convergência”, de Henry Jenkins, interessasse a jornalistas e pesquisadores da área: a convergência midiática como um processo cultural; o fortalecimento de uma economia afetiva que orienta consumidores de bens simbólicos e criadores midiáticos; a expansão de formas narrativas transmidiáticas.
A rapid and convergent synthesis of the integrastatin core
Tadross, Pamela M.; Bugga, Pradeep; Stoltz, Brian M.
2011-01-01
The tetracyclic core of the integrastatin natural products has been prepared in a convergent and rapid manner. Our strategy relies upon a palladium(ii)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization to form the central [3.3.1]-dioxabicycle of the natural product core. Overall, the core has been completed in only 4 linear steps from known compounds. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Ma Bo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Ukrainian Crisis of 2014 is crucial for Russian pivot to the East which is considered to be a tool for tackling economic challenges and avoiding diplomatic isolation. Economically, this pivot implies cooperation with AsiaPacific region in trade and energy. Politically, it means closer ties with the states of that region. At the same time, the success of the strategy hinges on the state of affairs in energy and on promoting to Asian markets specifi c goods that turns out to be a constraint for diversifi cation of the Russian economy. Moreover, culturally and social Russia is much closer to Europe than Asia, and that is one more obstacle to “Pivot to the East” strategy realization. However, transregional projects of the recent years, including Chinese initiative “One Belt – One Road” and Russian “Pivot to the East” might be key to enhance the strategic potential of Russia-China cooperation which meets Chinese national interests.
Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries
Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.
2015-01-01
The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ∼45 kA and rise time of ∼80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger
On the systematic construction of convergent perturbation series
Schmidt, C.
1993-12-01
Starting from the general decomposition of the many-body Hamiltonian parametrized by an operator Λwe derive the class of 'Λ-transformed' perturbation series. Aiming at practical applications we consider many-body perturbation theory of atoms and molecules in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Investigation of the analyticity properties of the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the Hamiltonian as functions of the coupling parameter defined by the particular decomposition of H allows for the construction of (minimal) Λoperators mapping an originally divergent series to a convergent one. There exists an operator Λ opt leading to the exact results in first order. Further improvements of the above mentioned minimal Λoperators can be achieved by approximations of Λ opt leading to fast convergent perturbation series. As the size of the remaining perturbation is given by the Λoperator chosen this method provides an a priori estimate of the convergence properties. (orig.)
Charco, M.; Rodriguez Molina, S.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Negredo, A. M.; Poland, M. P.; Schmidt, D. A.
2017-12-01
The Three Sisters volcanic region Oregon (USA) is one of the most active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range and is densely populated with eruptive vents. An extensive area just west of South Sister volcano has been actively uplifting since about 1998. InSAR data from 1992 through 2001 showed an uplift rate in the area of 3-4 cm/yr. Then the deformation rate considerably decreased between 2004 and 2006 as shown by both InSAR and continuous GPS measurements. Once magmatic system geometry and location are determined, a linear inversion of all GPS and InSAR data available is performed in order to estimate the volume changes of the source along the analyzed time interval. For doing so, we applied a technique based on the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) of the Green's function matrix representing the linear inversion. Here, we develop a strategy to provide a cut-off for truncation removing the smallest singular values without too much loose of data resolution against the stability of the method. Furthermore, the strategy will give us a quantification of the uncertainty of the volume change time series. The strength of the methodology resides in allowing the joint inversion of InSAR measurements from multiple tracks with different look angles and three component GPS measurements from multiple sites.Finally, we analyze the temporal behavior of the source volume changes using a new analytical model that describes the process of injecting magma into a reservoir surrounded by a viscoelastic shell. This dynamic model is based on Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a vertical conduit that leads to an increase in pressure within a spherical reservoir and time-dependent surface deformation. The volume time series are compared to predictions from the dynamic model to constrain model parameters, namely characteristic Poiseuille and Maxwell time scales, inlet and outlet injection pressure, and source and shell geometries. The modeling approach used here could be used to
Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Dickmu, Simon; Kwiatek, Olivier; Albina, Emmanuel
2017-09-01
Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) have been shown to be ideal viral vectors for the development of recombinant multivalent vaccines to enable delivery of immunogenic genes from ruminant pathogens. So far, the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene is the only gene used to generate recombinants. A putative non-essential gene encoding a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor subfamily homologue (GPCR) was targeted as an additional insertion site. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was chosen as a disease model. A new recombinant CaPV expressing the viral attachment hemagglutinin (H) of the PPR virus (PPRV) in the GPCR insertion site (rKS1-HPPR-GPCR) was generated in the backbone North African isolate KS1 strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Comparison with the recombinant CaPV expressing the H of PPRV in the TK gene (rKS1-HPPR-TK) shown to induce protection against both PPR and LSD in both sheep and goats was assessed. The suitability of the GPCR gene to be a putative additional insertion site in the CaPV genome is evaluated and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On an extension of the method of two-scale convergence and its applications
Zhikov, V V
2000-01-01
The concept of two-scale convergence associated with a fixed periodic Borel measure μ is introduced. In the case when dμ=dx is Lebesgue measure on the torus convergence in the sense of Nguetseng-Allaire is obtained. The main properties of two-scale convergence are revealed by the simultaneous consideration of a sequence of functions and a sequence of their gradients. An application of two-scale convergence to the homogenization of some problems in the theory of porous media (the double-porosity model) is presented. A mathematical notion of 'softly or weakly coupled parallel flows' is worked out. A homogenized operator is constructed and the convergence result itself is interpreted as a 'strong two-scale resolvent convergence'. Problems concerning the behaviour of the spectrum under homogenization are touched upon in this connection
A conceptual framework for measuring airline business model convergence
Daft, Jost; Albers, Sascha
2012-01-01
This paper develops a measurement framework that synthesizes the airline and strategy literature to identify relevant dimensions and elements of airline business models. The applicability of this framework for describing airline strategies and structures and, based on this conceptualization, for assessing the potential convergence of airline business models over time is then illustrated using a small sample of five German passenger airlines. For this sample, the perception of a rapprochement ...
Convergence accommodation to convergence CA/C ratio: convergence versus divergence.
Simmons, Joshua M; Firth, Alison Y
2014-09-01
To determine whether the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio during divergence with base-in (BI) prisms is of a similar or different magnitude to that measured during convergence with base-out (BO) prisms. Eighteen participants with normal binocular single vision were recruited. The participants viewed a pseudo-Gaussian target, which consisted of a light emitting diode (LED) behind a diffusing screen at 40 cm. After 5 minutes of dark adaptation, the refractive status of the eye was measured without any prism using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor. The participant held the selected prism (5Δ or 10Δ BO or BI, counterbalanced) in front of their right eye and obtained a single, fused image of the target while refractive measures were taken with each. A 30-second rest period was given between measurements. The mean age of the participants was 20.6±3.22 years. The mean CA/C ratios for the 5Δ BO, 10Δ BO, 5Δ BI, and 10Δ BI were 0.108 (±0.074) D/Δ, 0.110 (±0.056) D/Δ, 0.100 (±0.090) D/Δ, and 0.089 (±0.055) D/Δ, respectively. A 2-factor repeated measures ANOVA found that the CA/C ratio did not significantly change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence (p=0.649). Change in accommodation induced by manipulating vergence is similar whether convergence or divergence are induced. The CA/C ratio did not show any change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence.
Perrier, Sandrine; Zhu, Zhenyu; Fiore, Emmanuelle; Ravelet, Corinne; Guieu, Valérie; Peyrin, Eric
2014-05-06
This novel, multi small-analyte sensing strategy is the result of combining the target-induced aptamer enzymatic protection approach with the CGE-LIF (capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence) technique. The implemented assay principle is based on an analysis of the phosphodiesterase I (PDE I)-mediated size variation of a fluorescein-labeled aptamer (FApt), the enzyme catalyzing the removal of nucleotides from DNA in the 3' to 5' direction. In the absence of the target, the unfolded aptamer was enzymatically cleaved into short DNA fragments. Upon target binding, the DNA substrate was partially protected against enzymatic hydrolysis. The amount of bound aptamer remaining after the exonuclease reaction was proportional to the concentration of the target. The CGE technique, which was used to determine the separation of FApt species from DNA digested products, permitted the quantification of adenosine (A), ochratoxin A (O), and tyrosinamide (T) under the same optimized enzymatic conditions. This assay strategy was subsequently applied to the simultaneous detection of A, O, and T in a single capillary under buffered conditions using corresponding FApt probes of different lengths (23, 36, and 49 nucleotides, respectively). Additionally, the detection of these three small molecules was successfully achieved in a complex medium (diluted, heat-treated human serum) showing a good recovery. It is worth noting that the multiplexed analysis was accomplished for targets with different charge states by using aptamers possessing various structural features. This sensing platform constitutes a rationalized and reliable approach with an expanded potential for a high-throughput determination of small analytes in a single capillary.
Design of convergent switched systems
Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromsky, A.Y.; Leonov, G.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Gravdahl, J.T.; Nijmeijer, H.
2006-01-01
In this paper we deal with the problem of rendering hybrid/nonlinear systems into convergent closed-loop systems by means of a feedback law or switching rules. We illustrate our approach to this problem by means of two examples: the anti-windup design for a marginally stable system with input
Convergence Patterns in Latin America
Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos
characteristics, and external shocks in the region. I study three important phases, following Thorp (1998): from 1900 to 1930, the exporting phase, from 1931 to 1974, the industrialization phase, and from 1975 to 2007, the globalization phase. During the last two phases, I find strong evidence of convergence...
Convergence of a Catalan Series
Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang
2012-01-01
This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.
Digital Convergence and Content Regulation
Starks, Michael John
2014-01-01
abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps
Convergence and migration among provinces.
Helliwell, J F
1996-04-01
"Have regional disparities in Canada changed over the past thirty years? This paper assesses the robustness of earlier findings of convergence in the levels and growth rates of provincial per capita GDP, and then estimates the extent to which interprovincial and international migration is being influenced by regional differences in incomes and employment." excerpt
Revisiting convergence: A research note.
Clark, Rob
2015-09-01
A number of recent studies show that income inequality is declining between countries. In this research note, I question the significance of this trend by examining the role of initial conditions in producing convergence. An important (but neglected) property of inequality dynamics is the tendency for extreme distributions to become more moderate. When income disparities are large, the subsequent trend is biased toward convergence. Conversely, when initial conditions approach parity, divergence becomes the more likely long-term outcome. I apply this principle to trends in GDP PC across 127 countries during the 1980-2010 period. Using counterfactual analysis, I manipulate the initial level of inequality in GDP PC while holding constant each country's observed growth rate during the sample period. I find that the growth dynamics of GDP PC produce either convergence or divergence based simply on the initial distribution of income. The point of transition occurs at a moderate level of inequality, whether using population weights (Gini=.365) or not (Gini=.377). I conclude that the recent convergence observed in GDP PC is primarily a function of large income gaps between countries and would not have materialized at more moderate levels of initial inequality. By contrast, an examination of the pre-1950 period reveals divergent growth patterns that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence
Frøslev Christensen, Jens
2011-01-01
The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...
Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy
Rooijen, van M.
2011-01-01
Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and
Converging Information and Communication Systems
Øst, Alexander
2003-01-01
in the future to have - significant importance to the process and consequences of the convergence. The project focuses on the appliances, i.e. the TV sets, the computers and their peripheral equipment. It also takes into account the infrastructure and signals, which contain and deliver the information...
Tang, Dianping; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Guonan; Lu, Minghua
2014-05-15
A new digital multimeter (DMM)-based immunosensing system was designed for quantitative monitoring of biomarker (prostate-specific antigen, PSA used in this case) by coupling with an external capacitor and an enzymatic catalytic reaction. The system consisted of a salt bridge-linked reaction cell and a capacitor/DMM-joined electronic circuit. A sandwich-type immunoreaction with target PSA between the immobilized primary antibody and glucose oxidase (GOx)-labeled detection antibody was initially carried out in one of the two half-cells. Accompanying the sandwiched immunocomplex, the conjugated GOx could catalyze the oxidation of glucose, simultaneously resulting in the conversion of [Fe(CN)6](3-) to [Fe(CN)6](4-). The difference in the concentrations of [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-) in two half-cells automatically produced a voltage that was utilized to charge an external capacitor. With the closing circuit switch, the capacitor discharged through the DMM, which could provide a high instantaneous current. Under the optimal conditions, the resulting currents was indirectly proportional to the concentration of target PSA in the dynamic range of 0.05-7 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 6 pg mL(-1). The reproducibility, precision, and selectivity were acceptable. In addition, the methodology was validated by analyzing 12 clinical serum specimens, receiving a good accordance with the referenced values for the detection of PSA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Evolution and convergence in telecommunications
Radicella, S; Grilli, D [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy)
2002-12-15
These lectures throw a spotlight on different aspects of the evolution of telecommunications networks, namely on the various facets of service and network convergence. The last years progress in data and telecommunications technologies, such as P-based networks, and the enormous potential of mobile communication systems and users' demands for comprehensive and network-independent have led to a convergence of data and telecommunications infrastructures in many aspects. In order to help the reader to an easier understanding of the phenomenon convergence, in the first two parts of this volume the evolution of the basic technologies is described one by one. This is done briefly and is focused on the principle topics, just to build a basis for the third part devoted to problems of convergence in telecommunications. These notes are addressed to those readers, who in a quick overview want to be informed on the future service and network landscape. The notes are equally suited for professionals with the desire to extend their horizon as well as for students looking for an introduction into telecommunications under more general aspects. The authors clearly understand the difficulties in writing a book devoted to the evolution in telecommunications. Today, telecom landscape varies at very high speed. Every few months new network technologies, new products and new services are developed. Attempts to present them in time can be accessible only for magazine publications or contributions to conferences. Therefore, in a number of areas, such as Voice over IP and new switching technologies not much more than the starting point of new paradigms is described. However, the content is up-to-date to a degree, that the phenomenon convergence can be fully understood. Partially, these notes are based on a number of lecture courses that were delivered during recent ICTP winter schools devoted to multimedia and digital communications.
Evolution and convergence in telecommunications
Radicella, S.; Grilli, D.
2002-01-01
These lectures throw a spotlight on different aspects of the evolution of telecommunications networks, namely on the various facets of service and network convergence. The last years progress in data and telecommunications technologies, such as P-based networks, and the enormous potential of mobile communication systems and users' demands for comprehensive and network-independent have led to a convergence of data and telecommunications infrastructures in many aspects. In order to help the reader to an easier understanding of the phenomenon convergence, in the first two parts of this volume the evolution of the basic technologies is described one by one. This is done briefly and is focused on the principle topics, just to build a basis for the third part devoted to problems of convergence in telecommunications. These notes are addressed to those readers, who in a quick overview want to be informed on the future service and network landscape. The notes are equally suited for professionals with the desire to extend their horizon as well as for students looking for an introduction into telecommunications under more general aspects. The authors clearly understand the difficulties in writing a book devoted to the evolution in telecommunications. Today, telecom landscape varies at very high speed. Every few months new network technologies, new products and new services are developed. Attempts to present them in time can be accessible only for magazine publications or contributions to conferences. Therefore, in a number of areas, such as Voice over IP and new switching technologies not much more than the starting point of new paradigms is described. However, the content is up-to-date to a degree, that the phenomenon convergence can be fully understood. Partially, these notes are based on a number of lecture courses that were delivered during recent ICTP winter schools devoted to multimedia and digital communications
Chen, Jinfeng; Tang, Juan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping
2014-01-31
Heavy metal ion pollution poses severe risks in human health and environmental pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Driven by the requirement to monitor trace-level mercury ion (Hg(2+)), herein we construct a new DNA-based sensor for sensitive electrochemical monitoring of Hg(2+) by coupling target-induced formation of gold amalgamation on DNA-based sensing platform with gold amalgamation-catalyzed cycling signal amplification strategy. The sensor was simply prepared by covalent conjugation of aminated poly-T(25) oligonucleotide onto the glassy carbon electrode by typical carbodiimide coupling. Upon introduction of target analyte, Hg(2+) ion was intercalated into the DNA polyion complex membrane based on T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry. The chelated Hg(2+) ion could induce the formation of gold amalgamation, which could catalyze the p-nitrophenol with the aid of NaBH4 and Ru(NH3)6(3+) for cycling signal amplification. Experimental results indicated that the electronic signal of our system increased with the increasing Hg(2+) level in the sample, and has a detection limit of 0.02nM with a dynamic range of up to 1000nM Hg(2+). The strategy afforded exquisite selectivity for Hg(2+) against other environmentally related metal ions. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of Hg(2+) in spiked tap-water samples, and the recovery was 87.9-113.8%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Tomita, Kengo; Teratani, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Motonori; Nishikawa, Makoto; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Takajo, Takeshi; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Maruta, Koji; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Aosasa, Suefumi; Nagao, Shigeaki; Yamamoto, Junji; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota
2018-04-01
Liver fibrosis is a life-threatening disorder for which no approved therapy is available. Recently, we reported that mouse hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation increased free cholesterol (FC) accumulation, partly by enhancing signaling through sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and microRNA-33a (miR-33a), which resulted in HSC sensitization to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-induced activation in a "vicious cycle" of liver fibrosis. Human HSCs were isolated from surgical liver specimens from control patients and patients with liver fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride for 4 weeks and concurrently given SREBP2-siRNA- or anti-miR-33a-bearing vitamin A-coupled liposomes. In human activated HSCs obtained from patients with liver fibrosis, FC accumulation was enhanced independently of serum cholesterol levels through increased signaling by both SREBP2 and miR-33a. This increased FC accumulation enhanced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels and lowered the TGFβ-pseudoreceptor Bambi (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) mRNA levels in HSCs. Notably, in a mouse liver fibrosis model, reduction of FC accumulation, specifically in activated HSCs by suppression of SREBP2 or miR-33a expression using SREBP2-siRNA- or anti-miR-33a-bearing vitamin A-coupled liposomes, downregulated TLR4 signaling, increased Bambi expression, and consequently ameliorated liver fibrosis. Our results suggest that FC accumulation in HSCs, as an intracellular mediator promoting HSC activation, contributes to a vicious cycle of HSC activation in human and mouse liver fibrosis independent of serum cholesterol levels. Targeting FC accumulation-related molecules in HSCs through a vitamin A-coupled liposomal system represents a favorable therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.
Shao, Bo; Yang, Zhengwen; Wang, Yida; Li, Jun; Yang, Jianzhi; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo
2015-11-18
Rare-earth-ion-doped upconversion (UC) nanoparticles have generated considerable interest because of their potential application in solar cells, biological labeling, therapeutics, and imaging. However, the applications of UC nanoparticles were still limited because of their low emission efficiency. Photonic crystals and noble metal nanoparticles are applied extensively to enhance the UC emission of rare earth ions. In the present work, a novel substrate consisting of inverse opal photonic crystals and Ag nanoparticles was prepared by the template-assisted method, which was used to enhance the UC emission of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles. The red or green UC emissions of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles were selectively enhanced on the inverse opal substrates because of the Bragg reflection of the photonic band gap. Additionally, the UC emission enhancement of NaYF4: Yb(3+), Er(3+) nanoparticles induced by the coupling of metal nanoparticle plasmons and photonic crystal effects was realized on the Ag nanoparticles included in the inverse opal substrate. The present results demonstrated that coupling of Ag nanoparticle with inverse opal photonic crystals provides a useful strategy to enhance UC emission of rare-earth-ion-doped nanoparticles.
Glashow, S.L.
1976-01-01
These are scattered remarks concerning what is happening to (not in) elementary particle physics. New developments are unfolding with unprecedented speed, so that one does not even attempt to give a comprehensive review at this time. Mostly charm is discussed, both its phenomenology and its impact on belief in quarks, chromodynamics, and unified theories. Beneath the newsworthy experimental discoveries of the last two years lies a quieter and more profound theoretical development: the emergence of a theory of particle physics
Quantifying convergence in the sciences
Sara Lumbreras
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Traditional epistemological models classify knowledge into separate disciplines with different objects of study and specific techniques, with some frameworks even proposing hierarchies (such as Comte’s. According to thinkers such as John Holland or Teilhard de Chardin, the advancement of science involves the convergence of disciplines. This proposed convergence can be studied in a number of ways, such as how works impact research outside a specific area (citation networks or how authors collaborate with other researchers in different fields (collaboration networks. While these studies are delivering significant new insights, they cannot easily show the convergence of different topics within a body of knowledge. This paper attempts to address this question in a quantitative manner, searching for evidence that supports the idea of convergence in the content of the sciences themselves (that is, whether the sciences are dealing with increasingly the same topics. We use Latent Dirichlet Analysis (LDA, a technique that is able to analyze texts and estimate the relative contributions of the topics that were used to generate them. We apply this tool to the corpus of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI working papers, which spans research on Complexity Science from 1989 to 2015. We then analyze the relatedness of the different research areas, the rise and demise of these sub-disciplines over time and, more broadly, the convergence of the research body as a whole. Combining the topic structure obtained from the collected publication history of the SFI community with techniques to infer hierarchy and clustering, we reconstruct a picture of a dynamic community which experiences trends, periodically recurring topics, and shifts in the closeness of scholarship over time. We find that there is support for convergence, and that the application of quantitative methods such as LDA to the study of knowledge can provide valuable insights that can help
Strategy Development in Organisations
Sørensen, Lene
1999-01-01
There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy......" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented....
Economic convergence and climate policy
Ciscar, J.C.; Soria, A.
2000-01-01
This paper addresses the relevance of the economic convergence hypotheses between the developing and the developed world in international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions negotiations. The results are based on a two-region (the OECD and the rest of the world, ROW) neo-classical growth model with exogenous technical progress, different technological diffusion patterns, and a set of geophysical relationships that consider an environmental externality linked to GHG emissions. A game framework is taken into account in the model to capture the strategic interactions between agents. The outcome of the negotiations seems indeed to depend on the economic convergence hypotheses. Faster economic growth of the ROW countries would encourage them to further mitigate carbon emissions. (Author)
Cari Jo Clark
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue that affects 1 in 3 women globally and a similarly large number of women in Nepal. Over the past decade, important policy and programmatic steps have been taken to address violence against women in Nepal. There remains a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of primary violence prevention strategies. The Change Starts at Home study begins to fill this gap by utilizing a multi-component social behaviour change communication (SBCC strategy involving a radio drama and community mobilization to shift attitudes, norms and behaviours that underpin IPV perpetration in Nepal. Methods/Design The study uses a concurrent mixed-methods design. The quantitative aspect of the evaluation is a pair-matched, repeated cross-sectional 2-armed, single-blinded cluster trial (RCT: N = 36 clusters, 1440 individuals, comparing a social behaviour change communication (SBCC strategy to radio programming alone for its impact on physical and / or sexual IPV at the end of programming (12 months’ post-baseline and 6-months post the cessation of project activities (18-months post baseline. The qualitative aspects of the design include several longitudinal approaches to understand the impact of the intervention and to examine mechanisms of change including in-depth interviews with participants (N = 18 couples, and focus group discussions with community leaders (N = 3 groups, and family members of participants (N = 12 groups. Treatment effects will be estimated with generalized logistic mixed models specified to compare differences in primary outcome from baseline to 12-month follow-up, and baseline to 18-months follow-up in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. Discussion The study rigorously evaluates the effectiveness of a promising strategy to prevent IPV. The results of the trial will be immediately useful for governmental, nongovernmental, and donor funded
Wang, Kaidong; Huang, Ke; Jiang, Guoqiang
2018-03-01
Acetaminophen is one kind of pharmaceutical contaminant that has been detected in municipal water and is hard to digest. A laccase-catalyzed oxidative coupling reaction is a potential method of removing acetaminophen from water. In the present study, the kinetics of radical polymerization combined with precipitation was studied, and the dual-pH optimization strategy (the enzyme solution at pH7.4 being added to the substrate solution at pH4.2) was proposed to enhance the removal efficiency of acetaminophen. The reaction kinetics that consisted of the laccase-catalyzed oxidation, radical polymerization and precipitation were studied by UV in situ, LC-MS and DLS (dynamic light scattering) in situ. The results showed that the laccase-catalyzed oxidation is the rate-limiting step in the whole process. The higher rate of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation under a dual-pH optimization strategy led to much faster formation of the dimer, trimer and tetramer. Similarly, the formation of polymerized products that could precipitate naturally from water was faster. Under the dual-pH optimization strategy, the initial laccase activity was increased approximately 2.9-fold, and the activity remained higher for >250s, during which approximately 63.7% of the total acetaminophen was transformed into biologically inactive polymerized products, and part of these polymerized products precipitated from the water. Laccase belongs to the family of multi-copper oxidases, and the present study provides a universal method to improve the activity of multi-copper oxidases for the high-performance removal of phenol and its derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Romania’s Accession to Second Modernity. Potential of Convergence
Marin Dinu
2006-06-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses Romanian economy facing with European integration process at 2007. The Romanian economy advanced the development prudent macroeconomics policies and implement structural reforms in the market for goods, labor and financial products. We identify in this study the principal conditionalities for the admittance in European Union. The nominal and real convergence must be touched faster because this process supposes stability prices, the financial soundness indicators, the need to stabilize exchange rate. In addition, the real convergence with European Union is very important. First, we analyze the strategic errors of the Romanian authorities in transition period. Second, our study focuses on current challenges and makes suggestions for change the modernization process. Can Romanian economy obtain a grow faster convergence? Is the strategy of Romanian economy optimal?
Converging-barrel plasma accelerator
Paine, T.O.
1971-01-01
The invention comprises a device for generating and accelerating plasma to extremely high velocity, while focusing the plasma to a decreasing cross section for attaining a very dense high-velocity plasma burst capable of causing nuclear fusion reactions. A converging coaxial accelerator-electrode configuration is employed with ''high-pressure'' gas injection in controlled amounts to achieve acceleration by deflagration and focusing by the shaped electromagnetic fields. (U.S.)
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin; Zeng, Wei; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming; Gu, Xianfengdavid
2014-01-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin
2014-06-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Natural gas and electricity convergence
Calger, C.
1998-01-01
Convergence between the gas and electricity industries was described as a means for creating an increasingly more efficient energy market where prices and fundamental relationships exist between gas and electricity. Convergence creates new opportunities for producers and consumers. Convergence will likely lead to the disaggregation of the electricity and gas industry into segments such as: (1) power generation and production, (2) transmission wires and pipelines, (3) wholesale merchants, (4) distribution wires and pipelines, and (5) retail marketing, services and administration. The de-integration of integrated utilities has already begun in the U.S. energy markets and retail open access is accelerating. This retail competition will create very demanding customers and the changing risk profile will create new issues for stakeholders. The pace of reform for the telecommunications, airlines, natural gas and electricity industries was graphically illustrated to serve as an example of what to expect. The different paths that the industry might take to deregulation (aggressively embrace reform, or defensively blocking it), and the likely consequences of each reaction were also described. A map indicating where U.S. electric and natural gas utility merger and acquisition activities have taken place between 1994-1997, was included. Another map showing the physical asset positions of the Enron grid, one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the U.S., with increasing international operations, including an electric power transmission and distribution arm, was also provided as an illustration of a fully integrated energy market company of the future. 9 figs
a globally convergent hyperpl onvergent hyperplane
userpc
Bayero Journal of Pure and App. ISSN 2006 – 6996 ... Globally Convergent Hyper plane-BFGS method for solving nonline. The attractive ... Numerical performance on some b rates there liability ..... convergence of a class of quasi methods on ...
Density by Moduli and Lacunary Statistical Convergence
Vinod K. Bhardwaj
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We have introduced and studied a new concept of f-lacunary statistical convergence, where f is an unbounded modulus. It is shown that, under certain conditions on a modulus f, the concepts of lacunary strong convergence with respect to a modulus f and f-lacunary statistical convergence are equivalent on bounded sequences. We further characterize those θ for which Sθf=Sf, where Sθf and Sf denote the sets of all f-lacunary statistically convergent sequences and f-statistically convergent sequences, respectively. A general description of inclusion between two arbitrary lacunary methods of f-statistical convergence is given. Finally, we give an Sθf-analog of the Cauchy criterion for convergence and a Tauberian theorem for Sθf-convergence is also proved.
Stable convergence and stable limit theorems
Häusler, Erich
2015-01-01
The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...
Convergence of logistics planning and execution in outsourcing
Angela A. D’amato
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Logistics service providers (LSPs are becoming increasingly involved in their clients’ businesses. Beyond just providing vehicles and buildings, LSPs are now becoming involved with knowledge-related work that is connected to the traditional services provided. Objectives: To investigate the likelihood and potential value of LSPs extending their range of services to their clients by means of a convergence of planning and execution activities. Method: In the research through a literature review and empirical study presented here, attention is given to the practical impact that convergence planning and execution functions have on business success, as well as how selected clients of an LSP (referred to in this article as logistics company A or LCA perceive the impact of increased integration of LCA within its businesses. The results should assist LCA and other LSPs considering the same objective to ascertain the opportunities and key requirements associated with a strategy to converge planning and execution activities for their clients. Results: The study found that the vast majority of respondents see value in the convergence of planning and execution activities. Conclusion: Such convergence will be challenging, owing to the importance of the planning function for clients, as well as key collaborative and measurement requirements that will have to be put in place for successful business integration.
Technology assessment using NBIC convergence
Vaseashta, Ashok
2009-01-01
Full text: Notwithstanding progress in the areas of nanotechnology/nanoscience, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences (NBIC), the synergy arising from convergence of these disciplines offers great potential for transformational, revolutionary, and embryonic opportunities with many technological applications. In addition, advances in synthesis and characterization methods have provided the means to study, understand, control, or even manipulate the transitional characteristics between isolated atoms and bulk material. In recent years, newly developed architectures in nanostructures and nanosystems with improved functionality, and ensuing unique characteristics have been developed with applications in chemical and biological sensors, nanobiotechnology, nanophotonics, and analysis of cellular processes. Novel convergence methodologies will integrate and advance next generation solutions to current and future technical challenges. Convergence in research methodologies transform the way research is conducted by overcoming specific barriers or filling existing knowledge gaps. NBIC Convergence and associated research methodologies has exceptionally high potential for transforming the manner in which state-of-the-art information is gathered, analyzed, and leveraged to enable future advances and applications. Examples of synergy of these disciplines include: label free, highly multiplexed over broad dynamic range, and decentralized nanotechnology based sensor platform for detection of biological and chemical agents; nucleic acid layers in conjunction with nanomaterials-based electrochemical or optical transducers as DNA Biosensor; potential targets for the next generation of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics to enhance human performance; basis for 'Gene Ontology' to provides an important link between gene function and systems biology to understand a global picture of host-microbe interactions - to name a few. Since the idea of 'Converging
Statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces
Karakus, S.; Demirci, K.; Duman, O.
2008-01-01
Saadati and Park [Saadati R, Park JH, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;27:331-44] has recently introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy normed space. In this paper, we study the concept of statistical convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces. Then we give a useful characterization for statistically convergent sequences. Furthermore, we display an example such that our method of convergence is stronger than the usual convergence on intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces
Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels
Kosinka, Jiří
2016-02-12
We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.
Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels
Kosinka, Jiří
2016-01-01
We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.
Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao
2014-10-01
Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive.Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the
Source convergence problems in the application of burnup credit for WWER-440 fuel
Hordosy, Gabor
2003-01-01
The problems in Monte Carlo criticality calculations caused by the slow convergence of the fission source are examined on an example. A spent fuel storage cask designed for WWER-440 fuel used a sample case. The influence of the main parameters of the calculations is investigated including the initial fission source. A possible strategy is proposed to overcome the difficulties associated by the slow source convergence. The advantage of the proposed strategy that it can be implemented using the standard MCNP features. (author)
Semantic Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon
Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert; Van Assche, Fons
2009-01-01
Bilinguals' lexical mappings for their two languages have been found to converge toward a common naming pattern. The present paper investigates in more detail how semantic convergence is manifested in bilingual lexical knowledge. We examined how semantic convergence affects the centers and boundaries of lexical categories for common household…
"Nanoselves": NBIC and the Culture of Convergence
Venkatesan, Priya
2010-01-01
The subject of this essay is NBIC convergence (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science convergence). NBIC convergence is a recurring trope that is dominated by the paradigm of integration of the sciences. It is largely influenced by the considerations of social and economic impact, and it assumes positivism in…
Gao Zhan-Guo
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantum dots (QDs are crystalline nanoparticles that are compatible with biological systems to provide a chemically and photochemically stable fluorescent label. New ligand probes with fluorescent reporter groups are needed for detection and characterization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Results Synthetic strategies for coupling the A2A adenosine receptor (AR agonist CGS21680 (2-[4-(2-carboxyethylphenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine to functionalized QDs were explored. Conjugates tethered through amide-linked chains and poly(ethyleneglycol (PEG displayed low solubility and lacked receptor affinity. The anchor to the dendron was either through two thiol groups of (R-thioctic acid or through amide formation to a commercial carboxy-derivatized QD. The most effective approach was to use polyamidoamine (PAMAM D5 dendrons as multivalent spacer groups, grafted on the QD surface through a thioctic acid moiety. In radioligand binding assays, dendron nucleoside conjugate 11 displayed a moderate affinity at the human A2AAR (Kiapp 1.02 ± 0.15 μM. The QD conjugate of increased water solubility 13, resulting from the anchoring of this dendron derivative, interacted with the receptor with Kiapp of 118 ± 54 nM. The fluorescence emission of 13 occurred at 565 nm, and the presence of the pendant nucleoside did not appreciably quench the fluorescence. Conclusions This is a feasibility study to demonstrate a means of conjugating to a QD a small molecular pharmacophore of a GPCR that is relatively hydrophobic. Further enhancement of affinity by altering the pharmacophore or the linking structures will be needed to make useful affinity probes.
Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes
Friedman, S. T.
2016-01-26
© 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes.
Friedman, S T; Price, S A; Hoey, A S; Wainwright, P C
2016-05-01
Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European
Convergence estimates in approximation theory
Gupta, Vijay
2014-01-01
The study of linear positive operators is an area of mathematical studies with significant relevance to studies of computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and differential equations. This book focuses on the convergence of linear positive operators in real and complex domains. The theoretical aspects of these operators have been an active area of research over the past few decades. In this volume, authors Gupta and Agarwal explore new and more efficient methods of applying this research to studies in Optimization and Analysis. The text will be of interest to upper-level students seeking an introduction to the field and to researchers developing innovative approaches.
SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE
Chernyshov Alexander V.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.
Henriksen, Lars Skov; Zimmer, Annette; Smith, Steven Rathgeb
. Specifically, we will investigate whether and to what extent social services and health care in these three countries are affected by current changes. With a special focus on nonprofit organizations, we will particularly address the question whether a trend towards convergence of the very different welfare......Due to severe societal, economic and political changes, of which the financial crisis counts prominently, welfare states all over the world are under stress. In our comparative analysis, we will concentrate on specific segments of welfare state activity in Denmark, Germany, and the United States...
On the acceleration of convergence of many-body perturbation theory. Pt. 2
Dietz, K.; Schmidt, C.; Warken, M.; Hess, B.A.
1992-07-01
We employ the method developed in a previous paper to small systems-Be, LiH, H 2 -where full CI-calculations are available for monitoring convergence of many-body perturbation theory. It is shown that divergent series, in particular for excited states, can be transformed into fast converging ones. In essence our method consists in performing infinite subsummations of perturbation series in order to improve convergence: coupling constants are redefined such that singularities are incorporated in a non-perturbative manner and remaining correlations can be expanded in a larger domain of the complex coupling constant plane. It is in this way that the notion of 'improved convergence' has a well defined meaning. (orig.)
Formation Tracking with Orientation Convergence for Groups of Unicycles
Jaime González-Sierra
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents three trajectory tracking control strategies for unicycle-type robots based on a leader-followers scheme. The leader robot converges asymptotically to a smooth trajectory, while the follower robots form an undirected open-chain configuration at the same time. It is also shown that the orientation angles of all the robots converge to the same value. The control laws are based on a dynamic extension of the kinematic model of each robot. The output function to be controlled is the midpoint of the wheel axis of every robot. This choice leads to an ill-defined control law when the robot is at rest. To avoid such singularities, a complementary control law is enabled momentarily when the linear velocity of the unicycles is close to zero. Finally, numerical simulations and real-time experiments show the performance of the control strategies.
Pointwise convergence of Fourier series
Arias de Reyna, Juan
2002-01-01
This book contains a detailed exposition of Carleson-Hunt theorem following the proof of Carleson: to this day this is the only one giving better bounds. It points out the motivation of every step in the proof. Thus the Carleson-Hunt theorem becomes accessible to any analyst.The book also contains the first detailed exposition of the fine results of Hunt, Sjölin, Soria, etc on the convergence of Fourier Series. Its final chapters present original material. With both Fefferman's proof and the recent one of Lacey and Thiele in print, it becomes more important than ever to understand and compare these two related proofs with that of Carleson and Hunt. These alternative proofs do not yield all the results of the Carleson-Hunt proof. The intention of this monograph is to make Carleson's proof accessible to a wider audience, and to explain its consequences for the pointwise convergence of Fourier series for functions in spaces near $äcal Lü^1$, filling a well-known gap in the literature.
2014-01-01
Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and imple...
Borelli, Jessica L; Palmer, Alexandra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Sharp, Carla
2017-12-13
Although convergence in parent-youth reports of adolescent psychopathology is critical for treatment planning, research documents a pervasive lack of agreement in ratings of adolescents' symptoms. Attachment insecurity (particularly disorganized attachment) and impoverished reflective functioning (RF) are 2 theoretically implicated predictors of low convergence that have not been examined in the literature. In a cross-sectional investigation of adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, we examined whether disorganized attachment and low (adolescent and parent) RF were associated with patterns of convergence in adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Compared with organized adolescents, disorganized adolescents had lower parent-youth convergence in reports of their internalizing symptoms and higher convergence in reports of their externalizing symptoms; low adolescent self-focused RF was associated with low convergence in parent-adolescent reports of internalizing symptoms, whereas low adolescent global RF was associated with high convergence in parent-adolescent reports of externalizing symptoms. Among adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, disorganized attachment and lower RF were associated with weaker internalizing symptom convergence and greater externalizing symptom convergence, which if replicated, could inform assessment strategies and treatment planning in this setting.
Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus
Yeaman, Michael R.; Filler, Scott G.; Schmidt, Clint S.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Edwards, John E.; Hennessey, John P.
2014-01-01
Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future “third generation” vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high-priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologs found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that (1) afford protective efficacy; (2) target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; (3) cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunological niche; and/or (4) overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre-clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3) where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target S
Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus
Michael R Yeaman
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future 3rd generation vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologues found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that 1 afford protective efficacy; 2 target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; 3 cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunologic niche; and/or 4 overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre–clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in preclinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3 where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target
Convergent Validity of the PUTS
Valerie Cathérine Brandt
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively
A theoretical study on a convergence problem of nodal methods
Shaohong, Z.; Ziyong, L. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Chao, Y. A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)
2006-07-01
The effectiveness of modern nodal methods is largely due to its use of the information from the analytical flux solution inside a homogeneous node. As a result, the nodal coupling coefficients depend explicitly or implicitly on the evolving Eigen-value of a problem during its solution iteration process. This poses an inherently non-linear matrix Eigen-value iteration problem. This paper points out analytically that, whenever the half wave length of an evolving node interior analytic solution becomes smaller than the size of that node, this non-linear iteration problem can become inherently unstable and theoretically can always be non-convergent or converge to higher order harmonics. This phenomenon is confirmed, demonstrated and analyzed via the simplest 1-D problem solved by the simplest analytic nodal method, the Analytic Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD, [1]) method. (authors)
Professional convergence in forensic practice.
Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J
2001-06-01
This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.
Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.
Vincent Lazzari
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible
Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in Teams
Seeber, Isabella; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Maier, Ronald; Weber, Barbara
2017-01-01
Abstract Collaborative brainstorming is often followed by a convergence activity where teams extract the most promising ideas on a useful level of detail from the brainstorming results. Contrary to the wealth of research on electronic brainstorming, there is a dearth of research on convergence. We used experimental methods for an in-depth exploration of two facilitation-based interventions in a convergence activity: attention guidance (focusing participants on procedures to execute a convergence task) and discussion encouragement (engaging participants in conversations to combine knowledge on ideas). Our findings show that both attention guidance and discussion encouragement are correlated with higher convergence quality. We argue that attention guidance’s contribution is in its support of coordination, information processing, and goal specification. Similar, we argue that discussion encouragement’s contribution is in its stimulation of idea clarification and idea combination. Contrary to past research, our findings further show that satisfaction was higher after convergence than after brainstorming. PMID:29399005
Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China
Fang Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.
Sibra, A.; Dupays, J.; Murrone, A.; Laurent, F.; Massot, M.
2017-06-01
In this paper, we tackle the issue of the accurate simulation of evaporating and reactive polydisperse sprays strongly coupled to unsteady gaseous flows. In solid propulsion, aluminum particles are included in the propellant to improve the global performances but the distributed combustion of these droplets in the chamber is suspected to be a driving mechanism of hydrodynamic and acoustic instabilities. The faithful prediction of two-phase interactions is a determining step for future solid rocket motor optimization. When looking at saving computational ressources as required for industrial applications, performing reliable simulations of two-phase flow instabilities appears as a challenge for both modeling and scientific computing. The size polydispersity, which conditions the droplet dynamics, is a key parameter that has to be accounted for. For moderately dense sprays, a kinetic approach based on a statistical point of view is particularly appropriate. The spray is described by a number density function and its evolution follows a Williams-Boltzmann transport equation. To solve it, we use Eulerian Multi-Fluid methods, based on a continuous discretization of the size phase space into sections, which offer an accurate treatment of the polydispersion. The objective of this paper is threefold: first to derive a new Two Size Moment Multi-Fluid model that is able to tackle evaporating polydisperse sprays at low cost while accurately describing the main driving mechanisms, second to develop a dedicated evaporation scheme to treat simultaneously mass, moment and energy exchanges with the gas and between the sections. Finally, to design a time splitting operator strategy respecting both reactive two-phase flow physics and cost/accuracy ratio required for industrial computations. Using a research code, we provide 0D validations of the new scheme before assessing the splitting technique's ability on a reference two-phase flow acoustic case. Implemented in the industrial
On statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences
Bipan Hazarika
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this article the notion of statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences in Pringsheim's sense has been introduced. We prove the decompostion theorems for statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences and some theorems related to that concept have been established using the four dimensional matrix transformations. We provided some examples, where the results of acceleration convergence fails to hold for the statistical cases.
Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence
Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza
The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....
Convergence as conditionant for Media Regulation
Othon Jambeiro
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Convergence comprises a combination of interlinked and interdependent transformations, of technological, industrial, commercial, cultural and social nature, which affect communication regulation. Customers, at their time, turned also convergent, involved in an intense participative culture, which is too, from the point of view of its social and geographical range, thanks to convergence, more and more extense. Instead of passive consumers of media and information and communication services, we have now active and socially connected consumers, no more readers/spectators/listeners, but noisy activists and publishers. To understand this phenomenon is essential to discern a regulatory frame suitable for it. This paper tries to define convergence and to discuss its consequences.
A convergent reformulation of perturbative QCD
Alves, R.J.G.
2000-10-01
We present and explore a new formulation of perturbative QCD based not on the renormalised coupling but on the dimensional transmutation parameter of the theory and the property of asymptotic scaling. The approach yields a continued function, the iterated function being that involved in the solution of the two-loop β-function equation. In the so-called large-b limit the continued function reduces to a continued fraction and the successive approximants are diagonal Pade approximants. We investigate numerically the convergence of successive approximants using the leading-b approximation, motivated by renormalons, to model the all-orders result. We consider the Adler D-function of vacuum polarisation, the Polarised Bjorken and Gross-LIewellyn Smith sum rules, the (unpolarised) Bjorken sum rule, and the Minkowskian quantities R τ and the R-ratio of e + e - annihilation. In contrast to diagonal Pade approximants the truncated continued function method gives remarkably stable large-order approximants in cases where infrared renormalon effects are important. We also use the new approach to determine the QCD fundamental parameters from the R τ and the R-ratio measurements, where we find Λ-tilde (3)/MS = 516 ± 48 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m τ ) = 0.360 -0.020 +0.021 ), and Λ-tilde (5)/MS = 299 -7 +6 MeV (which yields α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.1218 ± 0.0004), respectively. The evolution of the former value to the m z 0 energy results in α s (μ = m z 0 ) = 0.123 ± 0.002. These values are in line with other determinations available in the literature. We implement the Complete Renormalisation Group Improvement (CORGI) scheme throughout all the calculations. We report on how the mathematical concept of Stieltjes series can be used to assess the convergence of Pade approximants of perturbative series. We find that the combinations of UV renormalons which occur in perturbative QCD may or may not be Stieltjes series depending on the renormalisation scheme used. (author)
Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling
Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silling, Stewart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seleson, Pablo D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Daniel Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunzburger, Max [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2015-09-01
dramatically improved consistency at domain boundaries, and an enhancement to the meshfree discretization applied to peridynamic models that removes irregularities at the limit of the nonlocal length scale and dramatically improves conver- gence behavior. Finally, a novel approach for modeling ductile failure has been developed, moti- vated by the desire to apply coupled local-nonlocal models to a wide variety of materials, including ductile metals, which have received minimal attention in the peridynamic literature. Software im- plementation of the partial-stress coupling strategy, the position-aware peridynamic constitutive models, and the strategies for improving the convergence behavior of peridynamic models was completed within the Peridigm and Albany codes, developed at Sandia National Laboratories and made publicly available under the open-source 3-clause BSD license.
Simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling via transpiration
Yiu, K.F.C.; Giles, M.B.
1995-01-01
In viscous-inviscid coupling analysis, the direct coupling technique and the inverse coupling technique are commonly adopted. However, stability and convergence of the algorithms derived are usually very unsatisfactory. Here, by using the transpiration technique to simulate the effect of the displacement thickness, a new simultaneous coupling method is derived. The integral boundary layer equations and the full potential equation are chosen to be the viscous-inviscid coupled system. After discretization, the Newton-Raphson technique is proposed to solve the coupled nonlinear system. Several numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. 15 refs., 23 figs
Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?
Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.
2011-01-01
Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate
BRICS: Evolution and Convergence of Powers
Vatanyar Saidovich Yagya
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Conducting of foreign policy solely by means of classical diplomacy today seems inefficient. States are supposed to use additional set of tools that have traditionally been at the confluence of soft and hard powers. Convergence of these concepts launched the emergence of such strategies, as smart power and hybrid power that we analyze as a system in relation to such a phenomenon, as BRICS. In the first part of paper we contemplate the concept of power and further expand it to the theoretical ground of each of these strategies along with the existing experience and prospects of their implementation in the BRICS countries. Systematic analysis is taken as the basis of the methodology of this paper, which allowed us to explore this theme separately for each of the BRICS countries and collectively as a system. Feasibility of a number of our provisions is confirmed by relevant case studies and analyses of the most relevant Russian and foreign literature, which results in our main conclusions. Current trends indicate that the BRICS countries are actively expanding its presence in all the key sectors of the global economy and politics. BRICS is at an early stage of implementation of own formats and tools of smart and hybrid powers, the role of which will steadily increase in the international activities of the group, adding value to its arsenal of traditional diplomacy. The potential capacity of soft, smart and hybrid powers of BRICS aims at helping countries to achieve a new level of integration and attractiveness in the eyes of the international community, and will also allow countries to strengthen their positions.
Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management
Christopher Phillip Martin
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.
Europe of energy: convergencies - complexity
Chevalier, J.M. and others
2001-01-01
This issue of 'Economies et Societes' journal comprises 16 articles dealing with the evolution of European energy markets: the security of European petroleum supplies (P.R. Bauquis); the security of European natural gas supplies (J.M. Dauger); an empirical analysis of the power prices convergence in the European union (J.A. Vega-Cervera, A. Jurado-Malaga); the integration of European power markets, from the juxtaposition of national market to the establishment of a regional market (D. Finon); the fusions-acquisitions in the energy sector and the globalization impact (C.A. Michalet); the reorganization of power economics and the share of right (M.A. Frison-Roche); the European industry facing the new economy (J.M. Chevalier); the confidence stake of the traditional power operators (Y. Benamour, A. Bonanni); status and prospects of gas prices in continental Europe (G. Bellec); the gas and power transport challenges and the access charges fixing (L. David, J. Percebois); the strategic challenges of underground storage in the new European gas context (B. Esnault); stranded costs and deregulation of power networks: some questions raised by the US experience (J. Bezzina); natural gas in Europe and the emergence of spot markets and trading hubs (G. Heyvaert); the competitiveness of the power exchange market of the Netherlands (F. Boisseleau); setting up and de-regulated trades in European markets (H. Geman); the Californian power market (P.L. Joskow). (J.S.)
Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya
2015-01-01
This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…
The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia
Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel
2012-01-01
KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study
Frequency response functions for nonlinear convergent systems
Pavlov, A.V.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.
2007-01-01
Convergent systems constitute a practically important class of nonlinear systems that extends the class of asymptotically stable linear time-invariant systems. In this note, we extend frequency response functions defined for linear systems to nonlinear convergent systems. Such nonlinear frequency
Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in Teams
Seeber, Isabella; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Maier, Ronald
2017-01-01
Collaborative brainstorming is often followed by a convergence activity where teams extract the most promising ideas on a useful level of detail from the brainstorming results. Contrary to the wealth of research on electronic brainstorming, there is a dearth of research on convergence. We used...
Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states
Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter
2011-01-01
of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects...
New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence
Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.
Convergence without hard criteria: Does EU soft law affect domestic unemployment protection schemes?
Paetzold, Jörg; van Vliet, Olaf
2012-01-01
The European Employment Strategy (EES) aims to promote convergence of domestic labour market policies by soft law instruments. Previous studies on the impact of the EES are mainly focused on active labour market policies. The present study aims at explaining cross national variation in national passive labour market policies and unemployment benefit levels. Building on the most recent measures and pooled time series data, the empirical findings reveal the presence of a convergence process amo...
Convergent strategy for the synthesis of S-linked oligoxylans
Bonora, Beatrice; Boos, Irene; Clausen, Mads Hartvig
2017-01-01
Arabinoxylans (AX) are a major class of hemicellulose and an important polysaccharide component of lignocellulosic biomass. To utilize the glycan polymer effectively, it is desirable to learn more about the enzymatic hydrolysis of AXs. Well-defined glycans can help to elucidate these processes. H...
Convergent evolution of marine mammals is associated with distinct substitutions in common genes
Zhou, Xuming; Seim, Inge; Gladyshev, Vadim N.
2015-01-01
Phenotypic convergence is thought to be driven by parallel substitutions coupled with natural selection at the sequence level. Multiple independent evolutionary transitions of mammals to an aquatic environment offer an opportunity to test this thesis. Here, whole genome alignment of coding sequences identified widespread parallel amino acid substitutions in marine mammals; however, the majority of these changes were not unique to these animals. Conversely, we report that candidate aquatic adaptation genes, identified by signatures of likelihood convergence and/or elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate, are characterized by very few parallel substitutions and exhibit distinct sequence changes in each group. Moreover, no significant positive correlation was found between likelihood convergence and positive selection in all three marine lineages. These results suggest that convergence in protein coding genes associated with aquatic lifestyle is mainly characterized by independent substitutions and relaxed negative selection. PMID:26549748
Sandvik, Kjetil
2010-01-01
også blive rekonstrueret: forbrydelsen bliver afdækket, morderen bliver afsløret. Et vigtigt element i denne narrative praksis er at benytte simulation som fortælleteknisk greb. Som narrativ strategi er simulation en velkendt metode i udforskning af gerningssteder, som metode til rekonstruktion af...
On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence
Ferreira, Rita C.; Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-01-01
In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence
Ferreira, Rita C.
2014-10-01
In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Shen Diao; Lan Ju
2017-01-01
In the process of meida Convergence,many researchers paid excessive attention to media technology,industry and management,and ignored the culture dimensions of media convergence.Therefore,to transcend media convergence technology,industrial thinking and more to the particularity attach importance to cultural media,it is a right way to achieve media convergence.But in the context of China's culture,media convergence should value the cultural uniqueness and the imbalance of the realistic problems,to reach innovation and breakthrough.
Convergent j-matrix calculation of electron-helium resonances
Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.
1994-12-01
Resonance structures in n=2 and n=3 electron-helium excitation cross sections are calculated using the J-matrix method. The number of close-coupled helium bound and continuum states is taken to convergence, e.g. about 100 channels are coupled for each total spin and angular momentum. It is found that the present J-matrix results are in good shape agreement with recent 29-state R-matrix calculations. However the J-matrix absolute cross sections are slightly lower due to the influence of continuum channels included in the present method. Experiment and theory agree on the positions of n=2 and n=3 resonances. 22 refs., 1 tab.; 3 figs
Sausen, R [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Voss, R [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)
1995-07-01
Asynchronous and periodically-synchronous schemes for coupling atmosphere and ocean models are presented. The performance of the schemes is tested by simulating the climatic response to a step function forcing and to a gradually increasing forcing with a simple zero-dimensional non-linear energy balance model. Both the initial transient response and the asymptotic approach of the equilibrium state are studied. If no annual cycle is allowed the asynchronous coupling technique proves to be a suitable tool. However, if the annual cycle is retained, the periodically-synchronous coupling technique reproduces the results of the synchronously coupled runs with smaller bias. In this case it is important that the total length of one synchronous period and one ocean only period is not a multiple of 6 months. (orig.)
A tightly-coupled domain-decomposition approach for highly nonlinear stochastic multiphysics systems
Taverniers, Søren; Tartakovsky, Daniel M., E-mail: dmt@ucsd.edu
2017-02-01
Multiphysics simulations often involve nonlinear components that are driven by internally generated or externally imposed random fluctuations. When used with a domain-decomposition (DD) algorithm, such components have to be coupled in a way that both accurately propagates the noise between the subdomains and lends itself to a stable and cost-effective temporal integration. We develop a conservative DD approach in which tight coupling is obtained by using a Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JfNK) method with a generalized minimum residual iterative linear solver. This strategy is tested on a coupled nonlinear diffusion system forced by a truncated Gaussian noise at the boundary. Enforcement of path-wise continuity of the state variable and its flux, as opposed to continuity in the mean, at interfaces between subdomains enables the DD algorithm to correctly propagate boundary fluctuations throughout the computational domain. Reliance on a single Newton iteration (explicit coupling), rather than on the fully converged JfNK (implicit) coupling, may increase the solution error by an order of magnitude. Increase in communication frequency between the DD components reduces the explicit coupling's error, but makes it less efficient than the implicit coupling at comparable error levels for all noise strengths considered. Finally, the DD algorithm with the implicit JfNK coupling resolves temporally-correlated fluctuations of the boundary noise when the correlation time of the latter exceeds some multiple of an appropriately defined characteristic diffusion time.
Convergence or Continuity? The Gender Gap in Household Labor after Retirement
Leopold, T.; Skopek, J.
2015-01-01
This research examined 2 hypotheses about the effect of retirement on couples' division of household labor. The continuity hypothesis posits that the gender gap in household labor remains unaffected by retirement, whereas the convergence hypothesis expects it to close. The authors tested these
Neutron gain for converging guide tubes
Mildner, D.F.R.
1982-01-01
The method of acceptance diagrams is used to obtain analytical expressions for the neutron gain of a one-dimensional converging guide tube. It is found that the results are more easily expressed by analyzing the acceptance diagram at the exit of the funnel. The results are compared with those for the straight guide. When both guides have the same dimensions at the guide exit, the converging guide has higher transmitted intensity but with greater divergence of the beam. This analytical method is useful to assess the performance of a converging guide, though numerical computations may be required for detailed analysis of a guide system. (orig.)
Convergence analysis of canonical genetic algorithms.
Rudolph, G
1994-01-01
This paper analyzes the convergence properties of the canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with mutation, crossover and proportional reproduction applied to static optimization problems. It is proved by means of homogeneous finite Markov chain analysis that a CGA will never converge to the global optimum regardless of the initialization, crossover, operator and objective function. But variants of CGA's that always maintain the best solution in the population, either before or after selection, are shown to converge to the global optimum due to the irreducibility property of the underlying original nonconvergent CGA. These results are discussed with respect to the schema theorem.
Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.
Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G
2016-09-01
Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.
Strategic business transformation through technology convergence
Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander
2015-01-01
-time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses...... are experiencing have increased the overlap and convergence of these two areas. Industrial organisations are investing heavily in the integration and alignment of these technologies and expect to benefit in several ways from this convergence, such as through increased productivity, reduction in cost, and real...
Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.
Goldsmith, Ronald E.
1986-01-01
Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)
A class of convergent neural network dynamics
Fiedler, Bernold; Gedeon, Tomáš
1998-01-01
We consider a class of systems of differential equations in Rn which exhibits convergent dynamics. We find a Lyapunov function and show that every bounded trajectory converges to the set of equilibria. Our result generalizes the results of Cohen and Grossberg (1983) for convergent neural networks. It replaces the symmetry assumption on the matrix of weights by the assumption on the structure of the connections in the neural network. We prove the convergence result also for a large class of Lotka-Volterra systems. These are naturally defined on the closed positive orthant. We show that there are no heteroclinic cycles on the boundary of the positive orthant for the systems in this class.
Divergence and convergence in nutrition science
Penders, Bart; Spruit, Shannon L.; Sikkema, Jan; Maat, Jan; Schuurbiers, Daan
2015-01-01
Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we
Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks
Toral-Cruz, Homero; Mihovska, Albena
2017-01-01
Welcome to this special issue of Wireless Personal Communications on Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks. The main purpose of this special issue is to present new progresses and challenges in convergent networks. Communication networks play an important role in our daily...... life because they allow communicating and sharing contents between heterogeneous nodes around the globe. The emergence of multiple network architectures and emerging technologies have resulted in new applications and services over a heterogeneous network. This heterogeneous network has undergone...... significant challenges in recent years, such as the evolution to a converged network with the capability to support multiple services, while maintaining a satisfactory level of QoE/QoS, security, efficiency and trust. The special issue on Advances and Challenges in Convergent Communication Networks...
Testing the Conditional Convergence Hypothesis for Pakistan
Sajjad Ahmad Jan (Corresponding Author
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This study investigates for the existence or non-existence of conditional convergence across the provinces of Pakistan. The annual output data from 1973 to 2000 is pooled for the four Pakistani provinces. The cross-sectional specific effects, the time specific effects, the manufacturing output, and the structural variable for aggregate supply or production shocks are used to control the different steady state levels of per capita incomes of thedifferent provinces. The equation for conditional convergence is estimated through generalized least squares (GLS method, after controlling for the different steady states of the provinces. The result shows that the provinces of Pakistan converge to their own respective steady states with a convergence speed of 11% per annum. At the same time manufacturing output is also statistically significant and positively affects the economic growth in the provinces. However the structural variable is not statistically significant.
Convergence of Corporate and Information Security
Syed; Rahman, M.; Donahue, Shannon E.
2010-01-01
As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper rep...
Convergence in Global Food Demand and Delivery
Regmi, Anita; Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Unnevehr, Laurian J.
2008-01-01
Using food expenditures and food sales data over 1990-2004, this report examines whether food consumption and delivery trends are converging across 47 high- and middle-income countries. Middle-income countries, such as China and Mexico, appear to be following trends in high-income countries, measured across several dimensions of food system growth and change. Convergence is apparent in most important food expenditure categories and in indicators of food system modernization such as supermarke...
Convergence Science in a Nano World
Cady, Nathaniel
2013-01-01
Convergence is a new paradigm that brings together critical advances in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. Going beyond traditional “interdisciplinary” studies, “convergence” describes the culmination of truly integrated research and development, yielding revolutionary advances in both scientific research and new technologies. At its core, nanotechnology embodies these elements of convergence science by bringing together multiple disciplines with the goal of creating innova...
Global Convergence of a Modified LS Method
Liu JinKui
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The LS method is one of the effective conjugate gradient methods in solving the unconstrained optimization problems. The paper presents a modified LS method on the basis of the famous LS method and proves the strong global convergence for the uniformly convex functions and the global convergence for general functions under the strong Wolfe line search. The numerical experiments show that the modified LS method is very effective in practice.
International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure
Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.
2012-04-01
There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote
Chen, W.-P.; Huang, W.-N.; Chen, P.-S.; Fan, T.-Y.; Chen, M.-P.; Teng, C.-C.
2006-01-01
In this paper, the novel design concept for highly effective magnetic flux coupling (HEMFC) schemes, based on enhancement of path guiding effect for leakage flux transmitting, is proposed for a non-contact power transfer system. Two implementation techniques are presented herein utilizing simple structure opinions of specific slant air gap as well as adding of metal bushing components. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the improvement of magnetic coupling ratio and overall system efficiency are achieved by applying the two HEMFC schemes as the power transmitting devices
Income Convergence and the Flow out of Poverty in India, 1994-2005
Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos; Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
This paper explores the dynamics of income and poverty of rural Indian households, 1994-2005. The estimation strategy consists of convergence analysis to test whether poor households are catching-up in terms of income, followed by transition analysis to test whether poor households are more likely...... to exit poverty than to remain poor. The identification strategy explicitly addresses issues pertaining to the potential endogeneity and measurement error of initial income and poverty. We find evidence of income convergence and a higher probability of exiting poverty than of remaining poor. The key...
Employment Performance and Convergence in the European Countries and Regions
Cristiano Perugini
2004-12-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the national and regional (NUTS-2 employment performance and convergence for various aggregations of 27 European countries (EU-25, plus Romania and Bulgaria, mainly using the three employment rates (total, female, older worker adopted by the European Employment Strategy (EES. At the national level, this analysis confirmed the existence of considerable differences in employment performance between and within the various country aggregations. Empirical analysis highlighted the remarkable net job creations in the EU-15 (and EMU-12 for the period 1997-2003, accompanied by a (national convergence for all three employment indicators. As regards total employment rates, significant converging trends also emerge at the regional level for both EU-15 and EMU-12 aggregations. In the eight Central European Countries, new EU members (8 CEC-NM, a diverging trend in the total employment rate began in 1999, whereas converging dynamics were limited to the employment rate of older workers in the period 1998-2001. Regional analyses showed significant diverging dynamics in the total employment rates (1999-2003 for the eight CEC-NM regions. At the national level of analyses, the relationship between “progress in transition” and employment performance was also briefly examined. Results show that a simple, stable correlation does not exist. However, a weak U-shaped relationship existing in 1998 shifted downward and evolved toward a positive link in 2003. The main results of cluster analysis of the 53 regions of the ten CECs confirmed a high level of regional labour market diversification, and the fact that sector structure affects employment performance significantly
ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION SIGMA AND BETA CONVERGENCE
Begu Liviu-Stelian
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Real convergence study began with the development of neoclassical models of growth and especially with the passage of econometric applications of these models. In this paper we present applications of indicators and patterns of convergence on the example of European Union member countries and some current economic impact assessments on European convergence process. This analysis is based on the estimated a- and b convergence and on Markov chains. The study deals with the economic convergence of the European countries and especially the convergence of the EU countries, including Romania. In the end of the study presents several economic scenarios for a faster and easier exit from the current crisis in Romania.
Christoforou, S.; Hoogenboom, J. E.
2009-01-01
We have used Boltzmann entropy in order to test whether a zero-variance based scheme can speed up the fission source convergence in a Monte Carlo calculation. It is shown that the choice of the initial source distribution significantly influences the evolution of the source, even leading to cases where the source does not converge at all throughout the calculation. The results from a loosely coupled system based on the NEA/OECD source convergence benchmarks indicate that, when using a biasing scheme such as the one we have developed, there can be significant improvement in the convergence, up to 3 times faster, which coupled with an figure of merit improvement of 1.5 leads to more efficient calculations. (authors)
Ascic, Erhad; Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette
2012-01-01
A “build/couple/pair” pathway for the systematic synthesis of structurally diverse small molecules is presented. The Petasis 3-component reaction was used to synthesize anti-amino alcohols displaying pairwise reactive combinations of alkene moieties. Upon treatment with a ruthenium alkylidene...
Trophic divergence despite morphological convergence in a continental radiation of snakes.
Grundler, Michael C; Rabosky, Daniel L
2014-07-22
Ecological and phenotypic convergence is a potential outcome of adaptive radiation in response to ecological opportunity. However, a number of factors may limit convergence during evolutionary radiations, including interregional differences in biogeographic history and clade-specific constraints on form and function. Here, we demonstrate that a single clade of terrestrial snakes from Australia--the oxyuranine elapids--exhibits widespread morphological convergence with a phylogenetically diverse and distantly related assemblage of snakes from North America. Australian elapids have evolved nearly the full spectrum of phenotypic modalities that occurs among North American snakes. Much of the convergence appears to involve the recurrent evolution of stereotyped morphologies associated with foraging mode, locomotion and habitat use. By contrast, analysis of snake diets indicates striking divergence in feeding ecology between these faunas, partially reflecting regional differences in ecological allometry between Australia and North America. Widespread phenotypic convergence with the North American snake fauna coupled with divergence in feeding ecology are clear examples of how independent continental radiations may converge along some ecological axes yet differ profoundly along others. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Calculation of coupling factor for the heterogeneous accelerating structure
Bian Xiaohao; Chen Huaibi; Zheng Shuxin
2006-01-01
The converging part of electron accelerator is designed to converge the phase of injecting electrons, improving the beam quality of the accelerator. It is very crucial to calculate the coupling factor between cavities and to design the geometry structure of the coupling irises. By the E module of code MAFIA, the authors calculate the frequency of every single resonant cavity and the two eigenfrequencies of two-cavitiy line. Then we get the coupling factor between the two cavities. This method can be used to design the geometry structure of the coupling isises between every two cavities. Compared to experiment, the results of the method is very accurate. (authors)
Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses
Julien Thézé
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.
Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.
Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton
2013-12-13
Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.
Noise can speed convergence in Markov chains.
Franzke, Brandon; Kosko, Bart
2011-10-01
A new theorem shows that noise can speed convergence to equilibrium in discrete finite-state Markov chains. The noise applies to the state density and helps the Markov chain explore improbable regions of the state space. The theorem ensures that a stochastic-resonance noise benefit exists for states that obey a vector-norm inequality. Such noise leads to faster convergence because the noise reduces the norm components. A corollary shows that a noise benefit still occurs if the system states obey an alternate norm inequality. This leads to a noise-benefit algorithm that requires knowledge of the steady state. An alternative blind algorithm uses only past state information to achieve a weaker noise benefit. Simulations illustrate the predicted noise benefits in three well-known Markov models. The first model is a two-parameter Ehrenfest diffusion model that shows how noise benefits can occur in the class of birth-death processes. The second model is a Wright-Fisher model of genotype drift in population genetics. The third model is a chemical reaction network of zeolite crystallization. A fourth simulation shows a convergence rate increase of 64% for states that satisfy the theorem and an increase of 53% for states that satisfy the corollary. A final simulation shows that even suboptimal noise can speed convergence if the noise applies over successive time cycles. Noise benefits tend to be sharpest in Markov models that do not converge quickly and that do not have strong absorbing states.
Sectoral Energy, and Labour, Productivity Convergence
Mulder, P.; De Groot, H.L.F.
2007-01-01
This paper empirically investigates the development of cross-country differences in energy- and labour productivity. The analysis is performed at a detailed sectoral level for 14 OECD countries, covering the period 1970-1997. A ρ-convergence analysis reveals that the development over time of the cross-country variation in productivity performance differs across sectors as well as across different levels of aggregation. Both patterns of convergence as well as divergence are found. Cross-country variation of productivity levels is typically larger for energy than for labour. A β-convergence analysis provides support for the hypothesis that in most sectors lagging countries tend to catch up with technological leaders, in particular in terms of energy productivity. Moreover, the results show that convergence is conditional, meaning that productivity levels converge to country-specific steady states. Energy prices and wages are shown to positively affect energy- and labour-productivity growth, respectively. We also find evidence for the importance of economies of scale, whereas the investment share, openness and specialization play only a modest role in explaining cross-country variation in energy- and labour-productivity growth
Jinaphanh, A.
2012-01-01
Monte Carlo criticality calculation allows to estimate the effective multiplication factor as well as local quantities such as local reaction rates. Some configurations presenting weak neutronic coupling (high burn up profile, complete reactor core,...) may induce biased estimations for k eff or reaction rates. In order to improve robustness of the iterative Monte Carlo methods, a coupling with a deterministic code was studied. An adjoint flux is obtained by a deterministic calculation and then used in the Monte Carlo. The initial guess is then automated, the sampling of fission sites is modified and the random walk of neutrons is modified using splitting and russian roulette strategies. An automated convergence detection method has been developed. It locates and suppresses the transient due to the initialization in an output series, applied here to k eff and Shannon entropy. It relies on modeling stationary series by an order 1 auto regressive process and applying statistical tests based on a Student Bridge statistics. This method can easily be extended to every output of an iterative Monte Carlo. Methods developed in this thesis are tested on different test cases. (author)
Convergent dynamics for multistable delayed neural networks
Shih, Chih-Wen; Tseng, Jui-Pin
2008-01-01
This investigation aims at developing a methodology to establish convergence of dynamics for delayed neural network systems with multiple stable equilibria. The present approach is general and can be applied to several network models. We take the Hopfield-type neural networks with both instantaneous and delayed feedbacks to illustrate the idea. We shall construct the complete dynamical scenario which comprises exactly 2 n stable equilibria and exactly (3 n − 2 n ) unstable equilibria for the n-neuron network. In addition, it is shown that every solution of the system converges to one of the equilibria as time tends to infinity. The approach is based on employing the geometrical structure of the network system. Positively invariant sets and componentwise dynamical properties are derived under the geometrical configuration. An iteration scheme is subsequently designed to confirm the convergence of dynamics for the system. Two examples with numerical simulations are arranged to illustrate the present theory
Well-Tempered Metadynamics Converges Asymptotically
Dama, James F.; Parrinello, Michele; Voth, Gregory A.
2014-06-01
Metadynamics is a versatile and capable enhanced sampling method for the computational study of soft matter materials and biomolecular systems. However, over a decade of application and several attempts to give this adaptive umbrella sampling method a firm theoretical grounding prove that a rigorous convergence analysis is elusive. This Letter describes such an analysis, demonstrating that well-tempered metadynamics converges to the final state it was designed to reach and, therefore, that the simple formulas currently used to interpret the final converged state of tempered metadynamics are correct and exact. The results do not rely on any assumption that the collective variable dynamics are effectively Brownian or any idealizations of the hill deposition function; instead, they suggest new, more permissive criteria for the method to be well behaved. The results apply to tempered metadynamics with or without adaptive Gaussians or boundary corrections and whether the bias is stored approximately on a grid or exactly.
Filamentation of a converging heavy ion beam
Lee, E.P.; Buchanan, H.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.
1980-01-01
A major concern in the use of heavy ion beams as igniters in pellet fusion systems is the vulnerability of the beam to the transverse flamentation instability. The undesirable consequence of this mode is the transverse heating of the beam to the extent that convergence on the pellet becomes impossible. This work considers the case of a beam injected into a gas filled reactor vessel, where finite pulse length and propagation distance play an important role in limiting growth. Two geometries are analyzed: a nonconverging case where the radius at injection is nearly equal to the desired radius at the pellet, and a converging case in which the injection radius is large and the beam is pre-focused to converge at the target. It is found that a cold beam will be severely disrupted if the product of the magnetic plasma frequency and the propagation distance is much larger than unity
Multicloud: Multigrid convergence with a meshless operator
Katz, Aaron; Jameson, Antony
2009-01-01
The primary objective of this work is to develop and test a new convergence acceleration technique we call multicloud. Multicloud is well-founded in the mathematical basis of multigrid, but relies on a meshless operator on coarse levels. The meshless operator enables extremely simple and automatic coarsening procedures for arbitrary meshes using arbitrary fine level discretization schemes. The performance of multicloud is compared with established multigrid techniques for structured and unstructured meshes for the Euler equations on two-dimensional test cases. Results indicate comparable convergence rates per unit work for multicloud and multigrid. However, because of its mesh and scheme transparency, multicloud may be applied to a wide array of problems with no modification of fine level schemes as is often required with agglomeration techniques. The implication is that multicloud can be implemented in a completely modular fashion, allowing researchers to develop fine level algorithms independent of the convergence accelerator for complex three-dimensional problems.
Plurality or convergence in sustainability reporting standards?
Nadia Albu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Over the last years an increasing number of companies issued Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR or Sustainability Reports to complement their traditional financial reporting. Companies use various sustainability reporting standards or develop their own reporting frameworks starting from the existing ones. This variation of practices pointed out by empirical research raises questions about the quality and comparability of sustainability reporting, its role in the sustainable development, and also about the suitability of accepting the plurality of reporting frameworks or the need for convergence. This study aims to investigate the issues of plurality and convergence in sustainability reporting standards, by mobilizing the discourses on regulation and the case of a group of companies in the IT industry in order to shed some light on the current challenges in this area. We frame a discussion on the opportunities and pitfalls of convergence in sustainability reporting regulations and contribute to a better understanding of this issue by academics, preparers, users and standard setters
International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance
Niculae Feleaga
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.
Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence
Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C.
2016-01-01
Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.
Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence
Bainbridge, William S.; Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov [National Science Foundation (United States)
2016-07-15
Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved conditions for work, learning, aging, physical, and cognitive wellness. This paper outlines ten key theories that offer complementary perspectives on this complex dynamic. Principles and methods are proposed to facilitate and enhance science and technology convergence. Several convergence success stories in the first part of the 21st century—including nanotechnology and other emerging technologies—are discussed in parallel with case studies focused on the future. The formulation of relevant theories, principles, and methods aims at establishing the convergence science.
Specialisation and Convergence in European Regions
Enrico Marelli
2007-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze specialization and convergence of European countries and regions, within the framework of integration in the EU. This is important not only for long-term real convergence processes, but also for a proper functioning of the monetary union (in the line of research on the OCA's criteria, asymmetry of shocks and synchronization of business cycles. The position of new member states is particularly delicate, also considering the forthcoming adoption of the euro by some of them. As indicated by the EU Treaty, economic growth should be balanced with economic and social cohesion that includes a careful consideration of regional disparities. Our empirical investigation focuses on the regions of EU25, further broken up into other relevant groupings (EU15, EMU, and the new members' EU10 group, over the period from 1980 (or 1990 for EU10 to 2005. This paper considers a rather fine regional disaggregation (NUTS-2 level, counting 250 regions. The analysis of different indices of specialisation point to a prevalent increase of homogeneity of sector structures across European regions, although in some cases (especially in the industrial sector and in some services specialisation has increased. For convergence, a sigma convergence's analysis confirms a reduction of disparities, both at a country and regional level. However, a trade-off between fast national growth and internal distribution has emerged in the early stages of development, as in the case of new members. Moreover, beta convergence has also been established - regarding per capita income, employment and productivity - for almost all territorial aggregates (excluding the new members since 1999. The addition of structural variables, following a beta-conditional approach, indicates a positive role for services and a negative impact of agriculture. Finally, some preliminary results have been obtained by the innovative inclusion of specialisation indices within
GLOBAL CONVERGENCE FOR THE XOR BOOLEAN NETWORKS
Ho, Juei-Ling
2009-01-01
Shih and Ho have proved a global convergent theorem for boolean network: if a map from $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ to itself defines a boolean network has the conditions: (1) each column of the discrete Jacobian matrix of each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ is either a unit vector or a zero vector; (2) all the boolean eigenvalues of the discrete Jacobian matrix of this map evaluated at each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ are zero, then it has a unique fixed point and this boolean network is global convergent to the fi...
Convergence of Hybrid Space Mapping Algorithms
Madsen, Kaj; Søndergaard, Jacob
2004-01-01
may be poor, or the method may even fail to converge to a stationary point. We consider a convex combination of the space mapping technique with a classical optimization technique. The function to be optimized has the form \\$H \\$\\backslash\\$circ f\\$ where \\$H: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m \\$\\backslash......\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\$ is convex and \\$f: \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^n \\$\\backslash\\$mapsto \\$\\backslash\\$dR\\^m\\$ is smooth. Experience indicates that the combined method maintains the initial efficiency of the space mapping technique. We prove that the global convergence property of the classical technique is also...
Lacunary ideal convergence of multiple sequences
Bipan Hazarika
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An ideal I is a family of subsets of N×N which is closed under taking finite unions and subsets of its elements. In this article, the concept of lacunary ideal convergence of double sequences has been introduced. Also the relation between lacunary ideal convergent and lacunary Cauchy double sequences has been established. Furthermore, the notions of lacunary ideal limit point and lacunary ideal cluster points have been introduced and find the relation between these two notions. Finally, we have studied the properties such as solidity, monotonic.
Nanotechnologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications
Capuano, Vincenzo
2005-01-01
The applications of nanotechnology to biology and medicine appear really promising far diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievements. It appears therefore necessary a careful assessment of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society [it
Convergence acceleration for partitioned simulations of the fluid-structure interaction in arteries
Radtke, Lars; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Düster, Alexander
2016-06-01
We present a partitioned approach to fluid-structure interaction problems arising in analyses of blood flow in arteries. Several strategies to accelerate the convergence of the fixed-point iteration resulting from the coupling of the fluid and the structural sub-problem are investigated. The Aitken relaxation and variants of the interface quasi-Newton -least-squares method are applied to different test cases. A hybrid variant of two well-known variants of the interface quasi-Newton-least-squares method is found to perform best. The test cases cover the typical boundary value problem faced when simulating the fluid-structure interaction in arteries, including a strong added mass effect and a wet surface which accounts for a large part of the overall surface of each sub-problem. A rubber-like Neo Hookean material model and a soft-tissue-like Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden material model are used to describe the artery wall and are compared in terms of stability and computational expenses. To avoid any kind of locking, high-order finite elements are used to discretize the structural sub-problem. The finite volume method is employed to discretize the fluid sub-problem. We investigate the influence of mass-proportional damping and the material model chosen for the artery on the performance and stability of the acceleration strategies as well as on the simulation results. To show the applicability of the partitioned approach to clinical relevant studies, the hemodynamics in a pathologically deformed artery are investigated, taking the findings of the test case simulations into account.
Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu
2014-12-01
The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Some exact velocity profiles for granular flow in converging hoppers
Cox, Grant M.; Hill, James M.
2005-01-01
Gravity flow of granular materials through hoppers occurs in many industrial processes. For an ideal cohesionless granular material, which satisfies the Coulomb-Mohr yield condition, the number of known analytical solutions is limited. However, for the special case of the angle of internal friction δ equal to ninety degrees, there exist exact parametric solutions for the governing coupled ordinary differential equations for both two-dimensional wedges and three-dimensional cones, both of which involve two arbitrary constants of integration. These solutions are the only known analytical solutions of this generality. Here, we utilize the double-shearing theory of granular materials to determine the velocity field corresponding to these exact parametric solutions for the two problems of gravity flow through converging wedge and conical hoppers. An independent numerical solution for other angles of internal friction is shown to coincide with the analytical solution.
Complex emergent dynamics of anisotropic swarms: Convergence vs oscillation
Chu Tianguang; Wang Long; Chen Tongwen; Mu Shumei
2006-01-01
This paper considers an anisotropic swarm model with a simple attraction and repulsion function. It is shown that the members of a reciprocal swarm will aggregate and eventually form a cohesive cluster of finite size around the swarm center. Moreover, the swarm system is also completely stable, i.e., every solution converges to the set of equilibrium points of the system. These results are also valid for a class of non-reciprocal swarms under the detailed balance condition on coupling weights. For general non-reciprocal swarms, numerical simulations are worked out to demonstrate more complex oscillatory motions in the systems. The study provides further insight into the effect of the interaction pattern on the collective behavior of a swarm system
Numerical Simulation of Polynomial-Speed Convergence Phenomenon
Li, Yao; Xu, Hui
2017-11-01
We provide a hybrid method that captures the polynomial speed of convergence and polynomial speed of mixing for Markov processes. The hybrid method that we introduce is based on the coupling technique and renewal theory. We propose to replace some estimates in classical results about the ergodicity of Markov processes by numerical simulations when the corresponding analytical proof is difficult. After that, all remaining conclusions can be derived from rigorous analysis. Then we apply our results to seek numerical justification for the ergodicity of two 1D microscopic heat conduction models. The mixing rate of these two models are expected to be polynomial but very difficult to prove. In both examples, our numerical results match the expected polynomial mixing rate well.
Xiangrong Li
Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that the conjugate gradient (CG method achieves global convergence--with at most a linear convergence rate--because CG formulas are generated by linear approximations of the objective functions. The quadratically convergent results are very limited. We introduce a new PRP method in which the restart strategy is also used. Moreover, the method we developed includes not only n-step quadratic convergence but also both the function value information and gradient value information. In this paper, we will show that the new PRP method (with either the Armijo line search or the Wolfe line search is both linearly and quadratically convergent. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new PRP algorithm is competitive with the normal CG method.
Li, Xiangrong; Zhao, Xupei; Duan, Xiabin; Wang, Xiaoliang
2015-01-01
It is generally acknowledged that the conjugate gradient (CG) method achieves global convergence--with at most a linear convergence rate--because CG formulas are generated by linear approximations of the objective functions. The quadratically convergent results are very limited. We introduce a new PRP method in which the restart strategy is also used. Moreover, the method we developed includes not only n-step quadratic convergence but also both the function value information and gradient value information. In this paper, we will show that the new PRP method (with either the Armijo line search or the Wolfe line search) is both linearly and quadratically convergent. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new PRP algorithm is competitive with the normal CG method.
Alternative solution algorithm for coupled thermal-hydraulic problems
Farnsworth, D.A.; Rice, J.G.
1986-01-01
A thermal-hydraulic system involves flow of a fluid for which a combined solution of the continuity, momentum, and energy equations is required. When the solutions of the energy and momentum fields are dependent on each other, the system is said to be thermally coupled. A common problem encountered in the numerical solution of strongly coupled thermal-hydraulic problems is a very slow rate of convergence or a complete lack of convergence. Many times this degradation in convergence is due to the lack of true coupling between the energy and momentum fields during the iteration process. In the most widely used solution algorithms - such as the SIMPLE algorithm and its many variants - a sequential solution technique is required. That is, the solution process alternates between the flow and energy fields until a converged solution is obtained. This approach allows only implicit energy-momentum coupling. To improve the convergence rate for strongly coupled problems, a practical solution algorithm that can accommodate true energy-momentum coupling terms was developed. A complete simultaneous (versus sequential) solution of the governing conservation equations utilizing a line-by-line solution was developed and direct coupling terms between the momentum and energy fields were added utilizing a modified Newton-Raphson technique
Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhixin; Zhang, Jin-Lan
2017-07-18
Acidic glycosphingolipids (AGSLs), which mainly consist of ganglioside and sulfatide moieties, are highly concentrated in the central nervous system. Comprehensive profiling of AGSLs has historically been challenging because of their high complexity and the lack of standards. In this study, a novel strategy was developed to comprehensively profile AGSLs using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ganglioside isomers with different glycan chains such as GD1a/GD1b were completely separated on a C18 column for the first time to our knowledge, facilitated by the addition of formic acid in the mobile phase. A mathematical model was established to predict the retention times (RTs) of all theoretically possible AGSLs on the basis of the good logarithmic relationship between the ceramide carbon numbers of the AGSLs in the reference material and their RTs. A data set was created of 571 theoretically possible AGSLs, including the ceramide carbon numbers, RTs, and high-resolution quasi-molecular ions. A novel fast identification strategy was established for global AGSL profiling by comparing the high-resolution quasi-molecular ions and RTs of the tested peaks to those in the data set of 571 AGSLs. Using this strategy, 199 AGSL candidates were identified in rat brain tissue. MS/MS fragments were further collected for these 199 candidates to confirm their identity as AGSLs. This novel strategy was employed to profile AGSLs in brain tissue samples from control rats and model rats with bilateral common carotid artery (2-VO) cerebral ischemia. Forty AGSLs were significantly different between the control and model groups, and these differences were further interpreted.
Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence
Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe
2008-01-01
As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...... is likely to continue. The paper also provides recommendations for academic programs interested in adjusting to the trend....
Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...
Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants ...
Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal (RSA) ... The possibility of transmission of resistant genes between bacteria (especially pathogenic) which invade human and animal populations within this river poses a health risk ...
Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives
Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose
2010-01-01
Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…
Evolutionary convergence and biologically embodied cognition
Keijzer, Franciscus
2017-01-01
The study of evolutionary patterns of cognitive convergence would be greatly helped by a clear demarcation of cognition. Cognition is often used as an equivalent of mind, making it difficult to pin down empirically or to apply it confidently beyond the human condition. Recent developments in
Convergence properties of the effective interaction
Ellis, P.J.; Engeland, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Holt, A.; Osnes, E.
1994-01-01
The convergence properties of two perturbative schemes to sum the so-called folded diagrams are critically reviewed in this work, with an emphasis on the intruder state problem. The methods we study are the approaches of Kuo and co-workers and Lee and Suzuki. The suitability of the two schemes for shell-model calculations is discussed. ((orig.))
RNA polymerase II collision interrupts convergent transcription
Hobson, David J; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M
2012-01-01
Antisense noncoding transcripts, genes-within-genes, and convergent gene pairs are prevalent among eukaryotes. The existence of such transcription units raises the question of what happens when RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules collide head-to-head. Here we use a combination of biochemical...
Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence
Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe
2008-01-01
As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...
Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil
2008-01-01
In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.
Convergence properties of the effective interaction
Ellis, P.J.; Engeland, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Holt, A.; Osnes, E.
1993-10-01
The convergence properties of two perturbative schemes to sum the so called folded diagrams are critically reviewed with an emphasis on the intruder state problem. The methods studied are the approaches of Kuo and co-workers and Lee and Suzuki. The suitability of the two schemes for shell-model calculations is discussed. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Another Perspective: A Response to "Toward Convergence"
Regelski, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
This response by Thomas A. Regelski was solicited to complement the lead article in this issue, "Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture" by Evan S. Tobias. The author notes that many interesting and vital questions and alternatives that are often studiously ignored, overlooked, or taken for…
Summability of alterations of convergent series
T. A. Keagy
1981-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of splitting, rearrangement, and grouping series alterations on the summability of a convergent series by ℓ−ℓ and cs−cs matrix methods is studied. Conditions are determined that guarantee the existence of alterations that are transformed into divergent series and into series with preassigned sums.
International convergence of capital market interest rates.
Fase, M.M.G.; Vlaar, P.J.G.
1997-01-01
This article investigates the extent of capital market interest rate convergence among six EU countries on the one hand, and a group of four countries with floating exchange rates - US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland - on the other. We conclude that interest rate changes within the EU have been and
World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development.
Clark, Rob
2011-02-01
Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria
Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda
2017-01-01
Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...
On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices
Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.
2014-01-01
Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014
Exponential rate of convergence in current reservoirs
De Masi, Anna; Presutti, Errico; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Vares, Maria Eulalia
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider a family of interacting particle systems on $[-N,N]$ that arises as a natural model for current reservoirs and Fick's law. We study the exponential rate of convergence to the stationary measure, which we prove to be of the order $N^{-2}$.
Uniform Statistical Convergence on Time Scales
Yavuz Altin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We will introduce the concept of m- and (λ,m-uniform density of a set and m- and (λ,m-uniform statistical convergence on an arbitrary time scale. However, we will define m-uniform Cauchy function on a time scale. Furthermore, some relations about these new notions are also obtained.
Impact of fixed-mobile convergence
Pachnicke, Stephan; Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Autenrieth, Achim
2016-01-01
Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) is a very trendy concept as it promises integration of the previously separated fixed access network and the mobile network. From this novel approach telecommunication operators expect significant cost savings and performance improvements. FMC can be separated...
Converging technologies: shaping the future of medicine
Iraj nabipour
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The miniaturization and virtualization processes drive converging technologies from interactions between the NBIC (Nano, Bio, Info, and Cogno technologies. The converging technologies stimulate innovation, promote research and development in different fields and produce revolutionary progresses in medicine. These technologies enable us to create contacts between brains and machines, the growth in molecular nanotechnology, the construction of respirocytes, chromallocytes, clottocytes, nanorobotic phagocytes, and nanobots. Nanobots would enter the nucleus of a cell and extract all of the genetic material and replace it with a synthetically produced copy of the original that has been manufactured in a laboratory to contain only non-defective base-pairs. It is predicted that “the regenerative medicine”, as a megatrend, will have an enormous effect on medical technologies and clinical sciences. Regenerative medicine is an application field of converging technologies in translational medicine. It attempts to translate the results of tissue engineering to construct 3D tissues and organs. Regenerative medicine is also an exciting field for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC and promises to bring about a paradigm shift to health care. Accumulating evidence indicates that converging technologies will offer great potentials for regenerative medicine to create innovative treatments for diseases that the traditional therapies have not been effective yet.
Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Tian, Weidong; Chen, Jingqi; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian
2016-12-28
Preconception care (PCC) is recommended for optimizing a woman's health prior to pregnancy to minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of strategy and a novel risk classification model of China´s "National Preconception Health Care Project" (NPHCP) in identifying risk factors and stratifying couples' preconception health status. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected by NPHCP during April 2010 to December 2012 in 220 selected counties in China. All couples enrolled in the project accepted free preconception health examination, risk evaluation, health education and medical advice. Risk factors were categorized into five preconception risk classes based on their amenability to prevention and treatment: A-avoidable risk factors, B- benefiting from targeted medical intervention, C-controllable but requiring close monitoring and treatment during pregnancy, D-diagnosable prenatally but not modifiable preconceptionally, X-pregnancy not advisable. Information on each couple´s socio-demographic and health status was recorded and further analyzed. Among the 2,142,849 couples who were enrolled to this study, the majority (92.36%) were from rural areas with low education levels (89.2% women and 88.3% men had education below university level). A total of 1463266 (68.29%) couples had one or more preconception risk factors mainly of category A, B and C, among which 46.25% were women and 51.92% were men. Category A risk factors were more common among men compared with women (38.13% versus 11.24%; P = 0.000). This project provided new insights into preconception health of Chinese couples of reproductive age. More than half of the male partners planning to father a child, were exposed to risk factors during the preconception period, suggesting that an integrated approach to PCC including both women and men is justified. Stratification based on the new risk classification model demonstrated that a majority of the
Ioana Sorina Mihuț
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Convergence may be considered a central issue of the current economic literature, and not only, concentrating upon income distribution within different economies, but also focusing on different aspects of polarity and inequality that characterize especially the emerging economies. Testing convergence within economies may serve as a useful instrument for the validation of the economic growth models. While convergence was considered a defining element of the neoclassical growth models, the majority of the new endogenous growth models argue in favour of divergence across different economies. Testing convergence among European Union is even more challenging due to the high degree of heterogeneity that characterizes these economies. The recent accessions with ten new countries in 2004 and with another two in 2007 were considered only the first step towards assuring a sustainable convergence and finally adopting a common currency-the euro. A series of empirical studies concentrated upon testing convergence among EU, using as benchmark the real convergence quantified by the level of GDP/capita as an indicator for the living standards of every economy. The most popular approach rely on Beta and Sigma convergence, the first one being and indicator of the GDP/capita dispersion between different economies, and the later one being an estimator of the reverse relationship between GDP/capita and its initial level. The main purpose of this paper is to test Beta converge among the new EU member states, in order to obtained more information about the fact whether the poor countries are trying to catch-up with the more developed one. Also Beta convergence indicator embodies useful information about conditional and un-conditional convergence, two leading hypothesis within the neoclassical and endogenous growth models. For Beta convergence hypothesis to be valid it should be taken into consideration a ”catch-up” mechanism over a longer period of time
Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori
2004-01-01
A new algorithm of Monte Carlo criticality calculations for implementing Wielandt's method, which is one of acceleration techniques for deterministic source iteration methods, is developed, and the algorithm can be successfully implemented into MCNP code. In this algorithm, part of fission neutrons emitted during random walk processes are tracked within the current cycle, and thus a fission source distribution used in the next cycle spread more widely. Applying this method intensifies a neutron interaction effect even in a loosely-coupled array where conventional Monte Carlo criticality methods have difficulties, and a converged fission source distribution can be obtained with fewer cycles. Computing time spent for one cycle, however, increases because of tracking fission neutrons within the current cycle, which eventually results in an increase of total computing time up to convergence. In addition, statistical fluctuations of a fission source distribution in a cycle are worsened by applying Wielandt's method to Monte Carlo criticality calculations. However, since a fission source convergence is attained with fewer source iterations, a reliable determination of convergence can easily be made even in a system with a slow convergence. This acceleration method is expected to contribute to prevention of incorrect Monte Carlo criticality calculations. (author)
Belpex and trilateral market coupling
2006-01-01
This document describes the operation of Belpex, the Belgian power transmission spot market, and its linking with the French (Powernext) and Dutch (APX) auction-style day-ahead spot markets. A last part deals with the extension of this trilateral market to other European countries. Content: Belpex day-ahead market (DAM) (Goals of the DAM: Provide consumers with a wider choice of electrical energy sources, Enable the ARP's to optimize their portfolio in terms of imbalance costs, Reduce trade and credit risks for market players compared with the risks involved in concluding bilateral contracts, Provide economic players with a transparent price benchmark, Stimulate the opening of the electricity market); Market model Product (description, Contracts, Collateral calculation, From 12 January to launch date Corporate and Legal Aspects, Next developments); Trilateral Market Coupling (What is market coupling and what are the benefits?, Implementation of trilateral market coupling ('TLC') in France/Belgium/Netherlands, From Trilateral to Multilateral, Implementation of Trilateral Market Coupling (TLC) in France/Belgium/Netherlands, Decentralized market coupling mechanism, influence of import and export on area prices); Decentralized market coupling (2 countries Situations: unconstrained/constrained, Decentralized market coupling: 3 countries, High Level Properties of Market Coupling, Maximize flow until prices across link converge (or ATC limit reached), Power flows from low price area to high price area, Implementing a decentralized technical approach, Market Coupling Daily Process, Impact on Existing Exchange Arrangements, Implementing a decentralized contractual approach, TLC Project Process); From Trilateral to Multilateral (Geographic extensions, Towards an Open and Multilateral Market Coupling, Management of Interconnection Capacities, Interconnection Capacities: current situation, TSO Roles and Responsibilities in the TLC, Other Import/Export products on the
Convergence Rates of AFEM with H −1 Data
Cohen, Albert
2012-06-29
This paper studies adaptive finite element methods (AFEMs), based on piecewise linear elements and newest vertex bisection, for solving second order elliptic equations with piecewise constant coefficients on a polygonal domain Ω⊂ℝ2. The main contribution is to build algorithms that hold for a general right-hand side f∈H-1(Ω). Prior work assumes almost exclusively that f∈L2(Ω). New data indicators based on local H-1 norms are introduced, and then the AFEMs are based on a standard bulk chasing strategy (or Dörfler marking) combined with a procedure that adapts the mesh to reduce these new indicators. An analysis of our AFEM is given which establishes a contraction property and optimal convergence rates N-s with 0convergence rates N-s with s≤1/2. © 2012 SFoCM.
DOES THE MAASTRICHT CONVERGENCE CRITERIA WORK?
Karsai ZoltÃ¡n-KrisztiÃ¡n
2012-12-01
Full Text Available During its 13 year history, the euro area experienced the most severe economic downturn in the late 2000s as a result of the 2007 financial-economic crisis stemming from the US banking sector. The crisis in the monetary union, besides posting a significant economic and social cost, revealed several weaknesses not just of the currency block as a whole, but also of its constituting members, which were masked by the prosperous economic environment characteristic for the 2000s. These conditions have put to the test the solidarity among the euro zone members, or in other words the existence of the currency block. One important problem of the currency block is the lack of harmony between the fiscal and economic policies of the member states, creating several and occasionally very divergent parts of the currency block. The aim of this research is to enhance the Maastricht convergence criteriaâ€™s and the Stability and Growth Pactâ€™s role as a monitoring mechanism, allowing them to become more informative tools for the policy makers. For this, based on the relevant literature, we propose new potential explanatory variables which could enhance the role of the Maastricht convergence criteria and the Stability and Growth Pact. Some of the studied variables, like indebtedness of the private sector, capital flow compared to the size of the economy, government revenue compared to total public debt and current account balance help in enforcing the nominal convergence, while others (real labour productivity contribute to the real convergence. The explanatory power of the proposed variables are investigated in the case of France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain for the period comprised between 2000Q1-2011Q4. Results of the research show that with the exception of government revenue compared to total public debt, all proposed variables have significant explanatory power regarding the evolution of the state of the economy in all
Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Weigel, Stefan; Lommen, Arjen; Chereau, Sylvain; Rambaud, Lauriane; Essers, Martien; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Nielen, Michel W.F.; Le Bizec, Bruno
2011-01-01
Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17β-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17β-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for discriminating anabolic
Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Weigel, Stefan; Lommen, Arjen [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Chereau, Sylvain; Rambaud, Lauriane [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Essers, Martien [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France); Nielen, Michel W.F. [RIKILT - Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen (Netherlands); Le Bizec, Bruno [ONIRIS, Ecole nationale veterinaire, agroalimentaire et de l' alimentation Nantes-Atlantique, Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Atlanpole - La Chantrerie, BP 40706, Nantes F-44307 (France)
2011-08-26
Anabolic steroids are banned in food producing livestock in Europe. Efficient methods based on mass spectrometry detection have been developed to ensure the control of such veterinary drug residues. Nevertheless, the use of 'cocktails' composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention. New analytical tools able to detect such abuse are today mandatory. In this context, metabolomics may represent new emerging strategies for investigating the global physiological effects associated to a family of substances and therefore, to suspect the administration of steroids. The purpose of the present study was to set up, assess and compare two complementary mass spectrometry-based metabolomic strategies as new tools to screen for steroid abuse in cattle and demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. The protocols were developed in two European laboratories in charge of residues analysis in the field of food safety. Apart from sample preparation, the global process was different in both laboratories from LC-HRMS fingerprinting to multivariate data analysis through data processing and involved both LC-Orbitrap-XCMS and UPLC-ToF-MS-MetAlign strategies. The reproducibility of both sample preparation and MS measurements were assessed in order to guarantee that any differences in the acquired fingerprints were not caused by analytical variability but reflect metabolome modifications upon steroids administration. The protocols were then applied to urine samples collected on a large group of animals consisting of 12 control calves and 12 calves administrated with a mixture of 17{beta}-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17{beta}-nandrolone laureate esters according to a protocol reflecting likely illegal practices. The modifications in urine profiles as indicators of steroid administration have been evaluated in this context and proved the suitability of the approach for
On convergence of nuclear and correlation operators in Hilbert space
Kubrusly, C.S.
1985-01-01
The convergence of sequences of nuclear operators on a separable Hilbert space is studied. Emphasis is given to trace-norm convergence, which is a basic property in stochastic systems theory. Obviously trace-norm convergence implies uniform convergence. The central theme of the paper focus the opposite way, by investigating when convergence in a weaker topology turns out to imply convergence in a stronger topology. The analysis carried out here is exhaustive in the following sense. All possible implications within a selected set of asymptotic properties for sequences of nuclear operators are established. The special case of correlation operators is also considered in detail. (Author) [pt
Previti, Alberto; Furfaro, Roberto; Picca, Paolo; Ganapol, Barry D.; Mostacci, Domiziano
2011-01-01
This paper deals with finding accurate solutions for photon transport problems in highly heterogeneous media fastly, efficiently and with modest memory resources. We propose an extended version of the analytical discrete ordinates method, coupled with domain decomposition-derived algorithms and non-linear convergence acceleration techniques. Numerical performances are evaluated using a challenging case study available in the literature. A study of accuracy versus computational time and memory requirements is reported for transport calculations that are relevant for remote sensing applications.
Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter
2015-01-01
We study possible motivations for co-entreprenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes...
Qi, Meng; Xiong, Aizhen; Geng, Fang; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao
2012-06-01
Phenylethanoid glycosides are a group of phenolic compounds with diverse biological activities such as hypotensive, diuretic, and hypoglycemic effects. In this study, a target profiling analysis approach using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) was established on the basis of parent ion scanning for m/z 161, the characteristic product ion for phenylethanoid glycosides. It was successfully employed to discriminate the chemical composition of phenylethanoid glycosides between Plantaginis Herba and Plantaginis Semen, two medicinal parts of Plantago plants, which are widely used as herbal medicine in China. Totally, 34 phenylethanoid glycosides were characterized and tentatively identified by their retention times, MS, and tandem quadrupole MS (MS/MS) data. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, eight of them, especially acteoside and plantamajoside, were picked out and contributed to the chemical distinction between Plantaginis Herba and Plantaginis Semen, which might be responsible for the differences in diuretic and hypotensive effects between the two medicinal parts. This new approach for target profiling provides not only a novel idea for specific analysis of active chemical constituents in the same type, but also a promising and reference method for quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Synthesis of coupled resonator optical waveguides by cavity aggregation.
Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, José David; Capmany, José
2010-01-18
In this paper, the layer aggregation method is applied to coupled resonator optical waveguides. Starting from the frequency transfer function, the method yields the coupling constants between the resonators. The convergence of the algorithm developed is examined and the related parameters discussed.
E Holzbecher
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In a classical paper Henry set up a conceptual model for simulating saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Up to now the problem has been taken up by software developers and modellers as a benchmark for codes simulating coupled flow and transport in porous media. The Henry test case has been treated using different numerical methods based on various formulations of differential equations. We compare several of these approaches using multiphysics software. We model the problem using Finite Elements, utilizing the primitive variables and the streamfunction approach, both with and without using the Oberbeck-Boussinesq assumption. We compare directly coupled solvers with segregated solver strategies. Changing finite element orders and mesh refinement, we find that models based on the streamfunction converge 2-4 times faster than runs based on primitive variables. Concerning the solution strategy, we find an advantage of Picard iterations compared to monolithic Newton iterations.
Effects of noise on convergent game-learning dynamics
Sanders, James B T; Galla, Tobias; Shapiro, Jonathan L
2012-01-01
We study stochastic effects on the lagging anchor dynamics, a reinforcement learning algorithm used to learn successful strategies in iterated games, which is known to converge to Nash points in the absence of noise. The dynamics is stochastic when players only have limited information about their opponents’ strategic propensities. The effects of this noise are studied analytically in the case where it is small but finite, and we show that the statistics and correlation properties of fluctuations can be computed to a high accuracy. We find that the system can exhibit quasicycles, driven by intrinsic noise. If players are asymmetric and use different parameters for their learning, a net payoff advantage can be achieved due to these stochastic oscillations around the deterministic equilibrium. (paper)
A convergent overlapping domain decomposition method for total variation minimization
Fornasier, Massimo
2010-06-22
In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of convergent sequential and parallel overlapping domain decomposition methods for the minimization of functionals formed by a discrepancy term with respect to the data and a total variation constraint. To our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt of addressing such a strategy for the nonlinear, nonadditive, and nonsmooth problem of total variation minimization. We provide several numerical experiments, showing the successful application of the algorithm for the restoration of 1D signals and 2D images in interpolation/inpainting problems, respectively, and in a compressed sensing problem, for recovering piecewise constant medical-type images from partial Fourier ensembles. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Computed tomography findings in convergent strabismus fixus
Ohta, Michitaka; Iwashige, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Takao; Maruo, Toshio
1995-01-01
X-ray computed tomography (CT) of the eyeball and orbit revealed the cause of eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus. The findings suggest that the disease can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Twelve cases of progressive esotropia with high myopia and 20 cases with normal visual acuity served as subjects in this study. The CT slice was parallel to the German horizontal plane, and the lens and medial and lateral rectus muscles were scanned. The average axial length of the affected eyes was significantly longer than in normal eyes. In progressive esotropia, the characteristic CT findings are an elongated eyeball, mechanical contact between the eyeball and lateral wall of the orbit, and a downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscle. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus results from weakness of the lateral rectus muscle which has been displaced downward due to compression of the eyeball against the orbital wall. (author)
Generalized functions, convergence structures, and their applications
Pap, Endre; Pilipović, Stevan; Vladimirov, Vasilij; International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" (GFCA-87)
1988-01-01
This Proceedings consists of a collection of papers presented at the International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" held from June 23-27, 1987 in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (GFCA-87): 71 participants from 21 countr~es from allover the world took part in the Conference. Proceedings reflects the work of the Conference. Plenary lectures of J. Burzyk, J. F. Colombeau, W. Gahler, H. Keiter, H. Komatsu, B. Stankovic, H. G. Tillman, V. S. Vladimirov provide an up-to-date account of the cur rent state of the subject. All these lectures, except H. G. Tillman's, are published in this volume. The published communications give the contemporary problems and achievements in the theory of generalized functions, in the theory of convergence structures and in their applications, specially in the theory of partial differential equations and in the mathematical physics. New approaches to the theory of generalized functions are presented, moti vated by concrete problems of applicat...
Molecular mechanisms involved in convergent crop domestication.
Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter
2013-12-01
Domestication has helped to understand evolution. We argue that, vice versa, novel insights into evolutionary principles could provide deeper insights into domestication. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that convergent phenotypic evolution is often based on molecular changes in orthologous genes or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that during plant domestication the causal mutations for convergent changes in key traits are likely to be located in particular genes. These insights may contribute to defining candidate genes for genetic improvement during the domestication of new plant species. Such efforts may help to increase the range of arable crops available, thus increasing crop biodiversity and food security to help meet the predicted demands of the continually growing global population under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets
Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)
2002-08-01
Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)
Service Creation and Deployment in Converged Networks
Soler, José
for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current......This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context...... and Future Converged Networks”, carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in the period [April 2002-April 2005]. Even though the technologies presented in the text have evolved from that period until now, the presented scenarios and setups are still valid as interesting initial steps in the realm....
Convergent functional genomics of psychiatric disorders.
Niculescu, Alexander B
2013-10-01
Genetic and gene expression studies, in humans and animal models of psychiatric and other medical disorders, are becoming increasingly integrated. Particularly for genomics, the convergence and integration of data across species, experimental modalities and technical platforms is providing a fit-to-disease way of extracting reproducible and biologically important signal, in contrast to the fit-to-cohort effect and limited reproducibility of human genetic analyses alone. With the advent of whole-genome sequencing and the realization that a major portion of the non-coding genome may contain regulatory variants, Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approaches are going to be essential to identify disease-relevant signal from the tremendous polymorphic variation present in the general population. Such work in psychiatry can provide an example of how to address other genetically complex disorders, and in turn will benefit by incorporating concepts from other areas, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stochastic convergence of persistence landscapes and silhouettes
Frédéric Chazal
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Persistent homology is a widely used tool in Topological Data Analysis that encodes multi-scale topological information as a multiset of points in the plane called a persistence diagram. It is difficult to apply statistical theory directly to a random sample of diagrams. Instead, we summarize persistent homology with a persistence landscape, introduced by Bubenik, which converts a diagram into a well-behaved real-valued function. We investigate the statistical properties of landscapes, such as weak convergence of the average landscapes and convergence of the bootstrap. In addition, we introduce an alternate functional summary of persistent homology, which we call the silhouette, and derive an analogous statistical theory.
Emotional convergence between people over time.
Anderson, Cameron; Keltner, Dacher; John, Oliver P
2003-05-01
The authors propose that people in relationships become emotionally similar over time--as this similarity would help coordinate the thoughts and behaviors of the relationship partners, increase their mutual understanding, and foster their social cohesion. Using laboratory procedures to induce and assess emotional response, the authors found that dating partners (Study 1) and college roommates (Studies 2 and 3) became more similar in their emotional responses over the course of a year. Further, relationship partners with less power made more of the change necessary for convergence to occur. Consistent with the proposed benefits of emotional similarity, relationships whose partners were more emotionally similar were more cohesive and less likely to dissolve. Discussion focuses on implications of emotional convergence and on potential mechanisms.
Electricity wholesale market prices in Europe: Convergence?
Zachmann, Georg
2008-01-01
This paper tests the hypothesis that the ongoing restructuring process in the European electricity sector has led to a common European market for electricity. Based on a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of wholesale electricity prices in 2002-2006, we reject the assumption of full market integration. For several pairs of countries, the weaker hypothesis of (bilateral) convergence is accepted based on unit root tests (KPSS and ADF) and a convergence test based on filtered pairwise price relations. This indicates that the efforts to develop a single European market for electricity were so far only partially successful. We show that the daily auction prices of scarce cross-border transmission capacities are insufficient to explain the persistence of international price differentials. Empirically, our findings confirm the insufficiency of explicit capacity auctions as stated in the theoretical literature. (author)
Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China
Wang, Juan; Zhang, Kezhong
2014-01-01
In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the σ-convergence, stochastic convergence and β-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector. - Highlights: • Analyze differences in CO 2 emissions in six sectors among 28 provinces in China. • Examine the convergence of CO 2 emissions in six sectors. • Investigate factors impact on convergence of CO 2 emissions in each sector. • Factors impact on convergence of per capita CO 2 emissions in each sector vary
Caiyun Qian
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Under the current model of advocating urban intensive development and updating built-up areas, promoting the coupling optimization of space and public transport in built-up areas is an important way to realize sustainable urban development. Apart from researching the space and accessibility of the central area in Hexi new city of Nanjing and analyzing problems from various aspects, i.e., urban land use, road network planning, bus station distribution, non-motorized traffic, and space and environment design, combining with the OD (Origin & Destination survey, this paper further put forward the corresponding improvement strategy for the public space accessibility of different levels and optimized design of non-motorized traffic.
Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund
2013-07-30
Medieval human bones have the potential to reveal diet, mobility and treatment of diseases in the past. During the last two decades trace element chemistry has been used extensively in archaeometric investigations revealing such data. Many studies have reported the trace element inventory in only one sample from each skeleton - usually from the femur or a tooth. It cannot a priori be assumed that all bones or teeth in a skeleton will have the same trace element concentrations. Six different bone and teeth samples from each individual were carefully decontaminated by mechanical means. Following dissolution of ca. 20 mg sample in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide the assays were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) with quadropole detection. We describe the precise sampling technique as well as the analytical methods and parameters used for the ICPMS analysis. The places of sampling in the human skeleton did exhibit varying trace element concentrations. Although the samples are contaminated by Fe, Mn and Al from the surrounding soil where the bones have been residing for more than 500 years, other trace elements are intact within the bones. It is shown that the elemental ratios Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca can be used as indicators of provenance. The differences in trace element concentrations can be interpreted as indications of varying diet and provenance as a function of time in the life of the individual - a concept which can be termed chemical life history. A few examples of the results of such analyses are shown, which contains information about provenance and diagenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hattendorf, Bodo; Guenther, Detlef
2003-01-01
An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with dynamic reaction cell (DRC) was used to investigate different approaches for chemical resolution of Ar 2 + ions and to improve the determination of Se. Hydrogen, methane, oxygen and nitrous oxide were used as reaction gases. The method development for each approach consists of the acquisition of spectra for blank and spiked samples at different operating parameters, including reaction gas flow and transmission settings, of the DRC. Isotope ratio studies and the analytes signal to background ratio (SBR), were used as criteria to determine the operating conditions of the DRC where spectral interferences from the ion source or from polyatomic ions formed inside the DRC are minimized. Methane was found to provide the highest reaction efficiency for determination of Se. Nitrous oxide and oxygen also very efficiently suppress the Ar 2 + interference but reaction or scattering losses of Se + and SeO + are significant. Hydrogen is the least efficient gas for Ar 2 + reduction but little scattering or reactive loss lead to a good SBR. The determination of Se as SeO + was investigated with oxygen and nitrous oxide as reaction gases. The efficiency when using the oxygenation reaction was found to be similar to the efficiency for the charge transfer reactions but the slow oxygenation of the potentially interfering Mo + renders this approach less useful for analytical purposes. Using a natural water sample it could be shown that very good agreement is obtained using methane or hydrogen for analysis of 80 Se + at the μg/l level. Limits of detection are lowest (2 ng/l) when methane is used to suppress the Ar 2 + ion and when 80 Se + is used for analysis
Mondal, Bhaskar; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa
2015-08-03
The development of efficient catalysts with base metals for CO2 hydrogenation has always been a major thrust of interest. A series of experimental and theoretical work has revealed that the catalytic cycle typically involves two key steps, namely, base-promoted heterolytic H2 splitting and hydride transfer to CO2, either of which can be the rate-determining step (RDS) of the entire reaction. To explore the determining factor for the nature of RDS, we present herein a comparative mechanistic investigation on CO2 hydrogenation mediated by [M(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](n+) (M = Fe(II), Ru(II), and Co(III); PP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine) type complexes. In order to construct reliable free energy profiles, we used highly correlated wave function based ab initio methods of the coupled cluster type alongside the standard density functional theory. Our calculations demonstrate that the hydricity of the metal-hydride intermediate generated by H2 splitting dictates the nature of the RDS for the Fe(II) and Co(III) systems, while the RDS for the Ru(II) catalyst appears to be ambiguous. CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by the Fe(II) complex that possesses moderate hydricity traverses an H2-splitting RDS, whereas the RDS for the high-hydricity Co(III) species is found to be the hydride transfer. Thus, our findings suggest that hydricity can be used as a practical guide in future catalyst design. Enhancing the electron-accepting ability of low-hydricity catalysts is likely to improve their catalytic performance, while increasing the electron-donating ability of high-hydricity complexes may speed up CO2 conversion. Moreover, we also established the active roles of base NEt3 in directing the heterolytic H2 splitting and assisting product release through the formation of an acid-base complex.
Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem
Alvarez-Vázquez, L.J.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Vázquez-Méndez, M.E.
2001-01-01
The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in the right-hand side of the state system. Finally, we present numerical results for a realistic problem posed in a ria...
COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE
Nicolae ECOBICI
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.
Convolutional Dictionary Learning: Acceleration and Convergence
Chun, Il Yong; Fessler, Jeffrey A.
2018-04-01
Convolutional dictionary learning (CDL or sparsifying CDL) has many applications in image processing and computer vision. There has been growing interest in developing efficient algorithms for CDL, mostly relying on the augmented Lagrangian (AL) method or the variant alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). When their parameters are properly tuned, AL methods have shown fast convergence in CDL. However, the parameter tuning process is not trivial due to its data dependence and, in practice, the convergence of AL methods depends on the AL parameters for nonconvex CDL problems. To moderate these problems, this paper proposes a new practically feasible and convergent Block Proximal Gradient method using a Majorizer (BPG-M) for CDL. The BPG-M-based CDL is investigated with different block updating schemes and majorization matrix designs, and further accelerated by incorporating some momentum coefficient formulas and restarting techniques. All of the methods investigated incorporate a boundary artifacts removal (or, more generally, sampling) operator in the learning model. Numerical experiments show that, without needing any parameter tuning process, the proposed BPG-M approach converges more stably to desirable solutions of lower objective values than the existing state-of-the-art ADMM algorithm and its memory-efficient variant do. Compared to the ADMM approaches, the BPG-M method using a multi-block updating scheme is particularly useful in single-threaded CDL algorithm handling large datasets, due to its lower memory requirement and no polynomial computational complexity. Image denoising experiments show that, for relatively strong additive white Gaussian noise, the filters learned by BPG-M-based CDL outperform those trained by the ADMM approach.
Isotropy analyses of the Planck convergence map
Marques, G. A.; Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I. S.
2018-01-01
The presence of matter in the path of relic photons causes distortions in the angular pattern of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, modifying their properties in a slight but measurable way. Recently, the Planck Collaboration released the estimated convergence map, an integrated measure of the large-scale matter distribution that produced the weak gravitational lensing (WL) phenomenon observed in Planck CMB data. We perform exhaustive analyses of this convergence map calculating the variance in small and large regions of the sky, but excluding the area masked due to Galactic contaminations, and compare them with the features expected in the set of simulated convergence maps, also released by the Planck Collaboration. Our goal is to search for sky directions or regions where the WL imprints anomalous signatures to the variance estimator revealed through a χ2 analyses at a statistically significant level. In the local analysis of the Planck convergence map, we identified eight patches of the sky in disagreement, in more than 2σ, with what is observed in the average of the simulations. In contrast, in the large regions analysis we found no statistically significant discrepancies, but, interestingly, the regions with the highest χ2 values are surrounding the ecliptic poles. Thus, our results show a good agreement with the features expected by the Λ cold dark matter concordance model, as given by the simulations. Yet, the outliers regions found here could suggest that the data still contain residual contamination, like noise, due to over- or underestimation of systematic effects in the simulation data set.
Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments
Olson R.E.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash ρr, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.
Arieti and Bowlby: convergence and direct influence.
Bacciagaluppi, Marco
2015-09-01
Arieti was a great specialist of schizophrenia and Bowlby was the initiator of attachment theory. Working independently on the two sides of the Atlantic, they converged on a range of topics, such as evolutionary theory, mourning, trauma, violence, and therapy as art and science. Later, Bowlby exerted a direct influence on Arieti, which Arieti acknowledged in his Love Can Be Found. Finally, the two authors cooperated in the second edition of the American Handbook of Psychiatry.
ON STATISTICALLY CONVERGENT IN FINITE DIMENSIONAL SPACES
GÜNCAN, Ayşe Nur
2009-01-01
Abstract: In this paper, the notion of statistical convergence, which was introduced by Steinhaus (1951), was studied in Rm ; and some concepts and theorems, whose statistical correspondence for the real number sequences were given, were carried to Rm . In addition, the concepts of the statistical limit point and the statistical cluster point were given and it was mentioned that these two concepts were'nt equal in Fridy's study in 1993. These concepts were given in Rm and the i...
Innovation diffusion, technological convergence and economic growth
R. Andergassen; F. Nardini; M. Ricottilli
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the mechanics through which novel technological principles are developed and diffused throughout an economy consisting of a technologically heterogeneous ensemble of firms. In the model entrepreneurs invest in the discovery and in the diffusion of a technological principle and their profit flow depends on how many firms adopt the innovation and on how long it takes other entrepreneurs to improve it. We show that technological convergence emerges from the competition amo...
Guaranteed convergence of the Hough transform
Soffer, Menashe; Kiryati, Nahum
1995-01-01
The straight-line Hough Transform using normal parameterization with a continuous voting kernel is considered. It transforms the colinearity detection problem to a problem of finding the global maximum of a two dimensional function above a domain in the parameter space. The principle is similar to robust regression using fixed scale M-estimation. Unlike standard M-estimation procedures the Hough Transform does not rely on a good initial estimate of the line parameters: The global optimization problem is approached by exhaustive search on a grid that is usually as fine as computationally feasible. The global maximum of a general function above a bounded domain cannot be found by a finite number of function evaluations. Only if sufficient a-priori knowledge about the smoothness of the objective function is available, convergence to the global maximum can be guaranteed. The extraction of a-priori information and its efficient use are the main challenges in real global optimization problems. The global optimization problem in the Hough Transform is essentially how fine should the parameter space quantization be in order not to miss the true maximum. More than thirty years after Hough patented the basic algorithm, the problem is still essentially open. In this paper an attempt is made to identify a-priori information on the smoothness of the objective (Hough) function and to introduce sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Hough Transform to the global maximum. An image model with several application dependent parameters is defined. Edge point location errors as well as background noise are accounted for. Minimal parameter space quantization intervals that guarantee convergence are obtained. Focusing policies for multi-resolution Hough algorithms are developed. Theoretical support for bottom- up processing is provided. Due to the randomness of errors and noise, convergence guarantees are probabilistic.
Convergence theorems for quasi-contractive mappings
Chidume, C.E.
1992-01-01
It is proved that each of two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly, without any compactness assumption on the domain of the map, to the unique fixed point of a quasi-contractive map in real Banach spacers with property (U, α, m+1, m). These Banach spaces include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p ≥ 2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs
On the convergence in female participation rates
Abe, Yukiko
2016-01-01
Large regional differences exist in female participation across regions within Japan. This paper uses two datasets to show that a significant convergence in female participation took place from 1940 to 2010. Historically, urban areas have had low participation, whereas non-urban areas have had high participation. The participation rate rose steadily and significantly in urban areas and, to a lesser extent in non-urban areas, and as a result, regional differences shrank over time. The microdat...
Gas-Electricity Convergence and foreclosure market
Barquin Gil, J.
2007-01-01
Gas-electricity convergence is a relatively recent industrial trend. It can significantly increase energy sector efficiency. However, it also raises the possibility on anti-competitive behaviours. One of these problems is the so-called input foreclosure. It happens when a natural gas dominant firm restricts its access to its electricity sector competitors. This paper intends to briefly introduce the issue, with special focus in aspects relevant for the Spanish case. (Author)
Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J
2016-01-01
Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of
Real Convergence, Steps from Adherence to Integration
Mihail Busu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The macroeconomic model Solow-Swan shows that the marginal rates of capital, technology and labor force, with positive values, have the capacity to stimulate the economic growth of the emergent economies, as in the case of Romania, for the 2005-2014 period, facilitating the determination of specific correlations between macroeconomic indicators to analyze the convergence towards the average European Union (EU. The economic theory, highlighted in particular by the Solow-Swan model, was applied in the current paper, to determine the potential of real convergence. Moreover, the statistics for the period 2005-2014 facilitated the analysis of the growth and recession factors specific to economies of Central and Eastern Europe and placed Romania amongst the EU countries with emergent economies and potential of economic growth. The European Commission’s reports regarding the macroeconomic imbalance procedure draw attention on the same indicators presented in the article to address proper recommendations and support corrective measures. Making a step from nominal to real convergence, the latter derives naturally from the need to recoup the gaps in comparison with developed economies amongst countries of the Euro Area.
Particle Acceleration in Two Converging Shocks
Wang, Xin; Wang, Na; Shan, Hao [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Giacalone, Joe [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Yihua [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012 (China); Ding, Mingde, E-mail: wangxin@xao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2017-06-20
Observations by spacecraft such as ACE , STEREO , and others show that there are proton spectral “breaks” with energy E {sub br} at 1–10 MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. Generally, a single shock with the diffusive acceleration mechanism would not predict the “broken” energy spectrum. The present paper focuses on two converging shocks to identify this energy spectral feature. In this case, the converging shocks comprise one forward CME-driven shock on 2006 December 13 and another backward Earth bow shock. We simulate the detailed particle acceleration processes in the region of the converging shocks using the Monte Carlo method. As a result, we not only obtain an extended energy spectrum with an energy “tail” up to a few 10 MeV higher than that in previous single shock model, but also we find an energy spectral “break” occurring on ∼5.5 MeV. The predicted energy spectral shape is consistent with observations from multiple spacecraft. The spectral “break,” then, in this case is caused by the interaction between the CME shock and Earth’s bow shock, and otherwise would not be present if Earth were not in the path of the CME.
Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects.
Aylward, Frank O; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H W; Adams, Aaron S; Scott, Jarrod J; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F; Klepzig, Kier D; Currie, Cameron R
2014-11-18
The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes. The cultivation of fungi for food is a behavior that has evolved independently in ants, beetles, and termites and has enabled many species of these insects to become ecologically important and widely distributed herbivores and forest pests. Although the primary fungal cultivars of these insects have been studied for decades, comparatively little is known of their bacterial microbiota. In this study, we show that diverse fungus-growing insects are associated with a common bacterial community composed of the
Agrawal, Anurag A
2017-08-01
A charm of biology as a scientific discipline is the diversity of life. Although this diversity can make laws of biology challenging to discover, several repeated patterns and general principles govern evolutionary diversification. Convergent evolution, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes, has been at the heart of one approach to understand generality in the evolutionary process. Yet understanding when and why organismal traits and strategies repeatedly evolve has been a central challenge. These issues were the focus of the American Society of Naturalists Vice Presidential Symposium in 2016 and are the subject of this collection of articles. Although naturalists have long made inferences about convergent evolution and its importance, there has been confusion in the interpretation of the pattern of convergence. Does convergence primarily indicate adaptation or constraint? How often should convergence be expected? Are there general principles that would allow us to predict where and when and by what mechanisms convergent evolution should occur? What role does natural history play in advancing our understanding of general evolutionary principles? In this introductory article, I address these questions, review several generalizations about convergent evolution that have emerged over the past 15 years, and present a framework for advancing the study and interpretation of convergence. Perhaps the most important emerging conclusion is that the genetic mechanisms of convergent evolution are phylogenetically conserved; that is, more closely related species tend to share the same genetic basis of traits, even when independently evolved. Finally, I highlight how the articles in this special issue further develop concepts, methodologies, and case studies at the frontier of our understanding of the causes and consequences of convergent evolution.
Geemert, René van
2014-01-01
Highlights: • New type of multi-level rebalancing approach for nodal transport. • Generally improved and more mesh-independent convergence behavior. • Importance for intended regime of 3D pin-by-pin core computations. - Abstract: A new multi-level surface rebalancing (MLSR) approach has been developed, aimed at enabling an improved non-linear acceleration of nodal flux iteration convergence in 3D steady-state and transient reactor simulation. This development is meant specifically for anticipating computational needs for solving envisaged multi-group diffusion-like SP N calculations with enhanced mesh resolution (i.e. 3D multi-box up to 3D pin-by-pin grid). For the latter grid refinement regime, the previously available multi-level coarse mesh rebalancing (MLCMR) strategy has been observed to become increasingly inefficient with increasing 3D mesh resolution. Furthermore, for very fine 3D grids that feature a very fine axial mesh as well, non-convergence phenomena have been observed to emerge. In the verifications pursued up to now, these problems have been resolved by the new approach. The novelty arises from taking the interface current balance equations defined over all Cartesian box edges, instead of the nodal volume-integrated process-rate balance equation, as an appropriate restriction basis for setting up multi-level acceleration of fine grid interface current iterations. The new restriction strategy calls for the use of a newly derived set of adjoint spectral equations that are needed for computing a limited set of spectral response vectors per node. This enables a straightforward determination of group-condensed interface current spectral coupling operators that are of crucial relevance in the new rebalancing setup. Another novelty in the approach is a new variational method for computing the neutronic eigenvalue. Within this context, the latter is treated as a control parameter for driving another, newly defined and numerically more fundamental
Traders' behavioral coupling and market phase transition
Ma, Rong; Zhang, Yin; Li, Honggang
2017-11-01
Traditional economic theory is based on the assumption that traders are completely independent and rational; however, trading behavior in the real market is often coupled by various factors. This paper discusses behavioral coupling based on the stock index in the stock market, focusing on the convergence of traders' behavior, its effect on the correlation of stock returns and market volatility. We find that the behavioral consensus in the stock market, the correlation degree of stock returns, and the market volatility all exhibit significant phase transitions with stronger coupling.
The Mackey convergence condition for spaces with webs
Thomas E. Gilsdorf
1988-01-01
Full Text Available If each sequence converging to 0 in a locally convex space is also Mackey convergent to 0, that space is said to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition. The problem of characterizing those locally convex spaces with this property is still open. In this paper, spaces with compatible webs are used to construct both a necessary and a sufficient condition for a locally convex space to satisfy the Mackey convergence condition.
Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm
Liu, Lulu
2016-10-26
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.
Convergence Analysis for the Multiplicative Schwarz Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithm
Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.
2016-01-01
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm, based on decomposition by field type rather than by subdomain, was recently introduced to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities. This paper provides a convergence analysis of the MSPIN algorithm. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that MSPIN is locally convergent, and desired superlinear or even quadratic convergence can be obtained when the forcing terms are picked suitably.
Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves
2011-11-01
In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P storage from FaW, FSl and SSl samples representing 77%, 58% and 64% of the B0 value. The dynamic of CH 4 production during BMP tests was rather similar for all dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine being much higher than for slurry.
Rozov, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.rozov@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Belyakov, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Mazul, I.; Sytchevsky, S. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2014-11-15
Highlights: • We present the way of modeling transient electro-magnetic loads on local conductive domains in the large magnetic system. • Simplification is achieved by decomposing of the problem, multi-scale integral-differential modeling and use of integral parameters. • The intrinsic scale of loads on a localized conductor with eddy is quantified through the load susceptibility tensor. • Solution is searched as response of a simple equivalent dynamic simulator, using control theory methods. • The concept is exemplified with multi-scenario assessment of EM eddy loads on ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: The complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) response of the tokamak structures is one of the key and design-driving issues for the ITER. We consider the specifics of the assessment of ponderomotive forces, acting on local components of a large electro-physical device during electromagnetic transients. A strategy and approach is proposed for the operative EM loads modeling and analysis that enables design optimization at early phases of development. The paper describes a method of principal simplification of the mathematical model, based on the analysis and exploiting specific features and peculiarities of the relevant technical problem, determined by the design and operation of the device and system under consideration. The application of the method for predictive EM loads analysis and corresponding numerical calculations are exemplified for the localized ITER blanket components — shield modules. The example demonstrates the efficiency of EM load analysis in complex electromagnetic systems via a set of simplified models with different scope, contents and level of detail.
Rozov, Vladimir; Belyakov, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Mazul, I.; Sytchevsky, S.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We present the way of modeling transient electro-magnetic loads on local conductive domains in the large magnetic system. • Simplification is achieved by decomposing of the problem, multi-scale integral-differential modeling and use of integral parameters. • The intrinsic scale of loads on a localized conductor with eddy is quantified through the load susceptibility tensor. • Solution is searched as response of a simple equivalent dynamic simulator, using control theory methods. • The concept is exemplified with multi-scenario assessment of EM eddy loads on ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: The complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) response of the tokamak structures is one of the key and design-driving issues for the ITER. We consider the specifics of the assessment of ponderomotive forces, acting on local components of a large electro-physical device during electromagnetic transients. A strategy and approach is proposed for the operative EM loads modeling and analysis that enables design optimization at early phases of development. The paper describes a method of principal simplification of the mathematical model, based on the analysis and exploiting specific features and peculiarities of the relevant technical problem, determined by the design and operation of the device and system under consideration. The application of the method for predictive EM loads analysis and corresponding numerical calculations are exemplified for the localized ITER blanket components — shield modules. The example demonstrates the efficiency of EM load analysis in complex electromagnetic systems via a set of simplified models with different scope, contents and level of detail
Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter
with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse – most commonly the female – has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female......We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and postdissolution private and financial outcomes......, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. The start-up of co-entrepreneurial firms seems therefore a sound investment in the human capital of both spouses as well as in the reduction of income inequality in the household. We find no evidence of non...
Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter
with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse - most commonly the female - has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female......We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, us-ing a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes......, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. The start-up of co-entrepreneurial firms seems therefore a sound in-vestment in the human capital of both spouses as well as in the reduction of income inequality in the household. We find no evidence of non...
The convergence of lattice solutions of linearised Regge calculus
Barrett, J.W.; Williams, R.M.
1988-01-01
Sequences of configurations of linearised Regge calculus converging to plane wave solutions are constructed to illustrate an earlier result on convergence. It is shown that, for these examples, the convergence criterion filters out the solutions which do not satisfy Einstein's equations from those which do. (author)
Rates of convergence of Brezier net over triangles
Feng Yuyu.
1986-12-01
It is well known (Farin, 1979) that the sequence of Bezier nets f-circumflex n (x) associated with Bernstein-Bezier surface over a triangle converges to the surface uniformly as n goes to infinity. In this paper the precise rates of convergence are given. The pointwise convergence result and saturation theorem are presented. (author). 7 refs
Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries
Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.
2015-01-01
This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…
Modelling Convergence of Finite Element Analysis of Cantilever Beam
Convergence studies are carried out by investigating the convergence of numerical results as the number of elements is increased. If convergence is not obtained, the engineer using the finite element method has absolutely no indication whether the results are indicative of a meaningful approximation to the correct solution ...
An Ensemble Approach in Converging Contents of LMS and KMS
Sabitha, A. Sai; Mehrotra, Deepti; Bansal, Abhay
2017-01-01
Currently the challenges in e-Learning are converging the learning content from various sources and managing them within e-learning practices. Data mining learning algorithms can be used and the contents can be converged based on the Metadata of the objects. Ensemble methods use multiple learning algorithms and it can be used to converge the…
Granite ascent and emplacement during contractional deformation in convergent orogens
Brown, Michael; Solar, Gary S.
1998-09-01
Based on a case study in the Central Maine Belt of west-central Maine, U.S.A., it is proposed that crustal-scale shear zone systems provide an effective focussing mechanism for transfer of granite melt through the crust in convergent orogens. During contractional deformation, flow of melt in crustal materials at depths below the brittle-plastic transition is coupled with plastic deformation of these materials. The flow is driven by pressure gradients generated by buoyancy forces and tectonic stresses. Within the oblique-reverse Central Maine Belt shear zone system, stromatic migmatite and concordant to weakly discordant irregular granite sheets occur in zones of higher strain, which suggests percolative flow of melt to form the migmatite leucosomes and viscous flow of melt channelized in sheet-like bodies, possibly along fractures. Cyclic fluctuations of melt pressure may cause instantaneous changes in the effective permeability of the flow network if self-propagating melt-filled tensile and/or dilatant shear fractures are produced due to melt-enhanced embrittlement. Inhomogeneous migmatite and schlieric granite occur in zones of lower strain, which suggests migration of partially-molten material through these zones en masse by granular flow, and channelized flow of melt carrying entrained residue. Founded on the Central Maine Belt case study, we develop a model of melt extraction and ascent using the driving forces, stress conditions and crustal rheologies in convergent, especially transpressive orogens. Ascent of melt becomes inhibited with decreasing depth as the solidus is approached. For intermediate a(H 2O) muscovite-dehydration melting, the water-saturated solidus occurs between 400 and 200 MPa, near the brittle-plastic transition during high- T-low- P metamorphism, where the balance of forces favors (sub-) horizontal fracture propagation. Emplacement of melt may be accommodated by ductile flow and/or stoping of wall rock, and inflation may be accommodated
Convergence analysis of household expenditures using the absolute β-convergence method
Anto Domazet
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the convergence of household expenditures, in terms of a possible usage of the standardized, rather than consumer-tailored marketing, mainly on a regional level. Objectives: The main goal of this research is to study the existence of consumption expenditure convergence in the EU-27 countries, in the period between 2000 and 2007. Methods/Approach: The analysis used the absolute β-convergence method, in order to investigate the existence of a negative correlation between the growth over time in the overall consumption expenditure in EU member- countries for each individual product and service category and the initial expenditure level. Results: According to the obtained results, in the period between 2000 and 2007, the EU-27 countries reached a high level of consumer expenditure convergence, which provides a basis for developing a regional concept of the standardized international marketing for these countries’ markets. Conclusions: The results provide an empirical contribution to claims on consumer convergence in the countries included into economic integrations. Also, the obtained results can be used to create a basis for defining and applying the regional marketing concept for companies focusing on the EU-27 countries’ market.
Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?
Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde
2011-01-01
Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.
Zhang, Jia-yu; Wang, Zi-jian; Li, Yun; Liu, Ying; Cai, Wei; Li, Chen; Lu, Jian-qiu; Qiao, Yan-jiang
2016-01-15
The analytical methodologies for evaluation of multi-component system in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been inadequate or unacceptable. As a result, the unclarity of multi-component hinders the sufficient interpretation of their bioactivities. In this paper, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap (UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap)-based strategy focused on the comprehensive identification of TCM sequential constituents was developed. The strategy was characterized by molecular design, multiple ion monitoring (MIM), targeted database hits and mass spectral trees similarity filter (MTSF), and even more isomerism discrimination. It was successfully applied in the HRMS data-acquisition and processing of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), and a total of 115 chromatographic peaks attributed to 18 categories were characterized, allowing a comprehensive revelation of CGAs in FLJ for the first time. This demonstrated that MIM based on molecular design could improve the efficiency to trigger MS/MS fragmentation reactions. Targeted database hits and MTSF searching greatly facilitated the processing of extremely large information data. Besides, the introduction of diagnostic product ions (DPIs) discrimination, ClogP analysis, and molecular simulation, raised the efficiency and accuracy to characterize sequential constituents especially position and geometric isomers. In conclusion, the results expanded our understanding on CGAs in FLJ, and the strategy could be exemplary for future research on the comprehensive identification of sequential constituents in TCMs. Meanwhile, it may propose a novel idea for analyzing sequential constituents, and is promising for quality control and evaluation of TCMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Warthog: Coupling Status Update
Hart, Shane W. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reardon, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2017-06-30
The Warthog code was developed to couple codes that are developed in both the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SHARP from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The initial phase of this work, focused on coupling the neutronics code PROTEUS with the fuel performance code BISON. The main technical challenge involves mapping the power density solution determined by PROTEUS to the fuel in BISON. This presents a challenge since PROTEUS uses the MOAB mesh format, but BISON, like all other MOOSE codes, uses the libMesh format. When coupling the different codes, one must consider that Warthog is a light-weight MOOSE-based program that uses the Data Transfer Kit (DTK) to transfer data between the various mesh types. Users set up inputs for the codes they want to run, and then Warthog transfers the data between them. Currently Warthog supports XSProc from SCALE or the Sub-Group Application Programming Interface (SGAPI) in PROTEUS for generating cross sections. It supports arbitrary geometries using PROTEUS and BISON. DTK will transfer power densities and temperatures between the codes where the domains overlap. In the past fiscal year (FY), much work has gone into demonstrating two-way coupling for simple pin cells of various materials. XSProc was used to calculate the cross sections, which were then passed to PROTEUS in an external file. PROTEUS calculates the fission/power density, and Warthog uses DTK to pass this information to BISON, where it is used as the heat source. BISON then calculates the temperature profile of the pin cell and sends it back to XSProc to obtain the temperature corrected cross sections. This process is repeated until the convergence criteria (tolerance on BISON solve, or number of time steps) is reached. Models have been constructed and run for both uranium oxide and uranium silicide fuels. These models demonstrate a clear difference in power shape that is not accounted for in a
Variational iteration method for solving coupled-KdV equations
Assas, Laila M.B.
2008-01-01
In this paper, the He's variational iteration method is applied to solve the non-linear coupled-KdV equations. This method is based on the use of Lagrange multipliers for identification of optimal value of a parameter in a functional. This technique provides a sequence of functions which converge to the exact solution of the coupled-KdV equations. This procedure is a powerful tool for solving coupled-KdV equations
Camarero, Mariam; Picazo-Tadeo, Andres J.; Tamarit, Cecilio
2008-01-01
In this paper, we test for convergence in the environmental performance of a sample of OECD countries, with data ranging from 1971 to 2002. First, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compute two environmental performance indicators (EPIs) in the production theory framework. Second, we propose the use of a sequential multivariate approach to test for convergence in environmental performance. These tests allow us to reconcile the time series literature with the cross-sectional dimension, which is basic when testing for convergence in regional blocs. The SURE technique is used, which allows for the existence of correlations across the series without imposing a common speed of mean reversion. The empirical results show that the group of countries as a whole, as well as the majority of countries considered on an individual basis (results for some countries vary between EPIs), are catching-up with Switzerland (the benchmark country). (author)
Bainbridge, William; Tonn, Bruce; Whitesides, George
2013-01-01
Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the 21st century, based on five principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combine existing principles, and divergence that generates new ones, (3) decision analysis for research and development based on system-logic deduction, (4) higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. Solutions are outlined for key societal challenges, including creating new industries and jobs, improving lifelong wellness and human potential, achieving personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and securing a sustainable quality of life for all. This report provides a ten-year “NBIC2” vision within a longer-term framework for converging technology and human...
A Globally Convergent Matrix-Free Method for Constrained Equations and Its Linear Convergence Rate
Min Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A matrix-free method for constrained equations is proposed, which is a combination of the well-known PRP (Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method and the famous hyperplane projection method. The new method is not only derivative-free, but also completely matrix-free, and consequently, it can be applied to solve large-scale constrained equations. We obtain global convergence of the new method without any differentiability requirement on the constrained equations. Compared with the existing gradient methods for solving such problem, the new method possesses linear convergence rate under standard conditions, and a relax factor γ is attached in the update step to accelerate convergence. Preliminary numerical results show that it is promising in practice.
Longitudinal coupling impedance of a thick iris collimator
Gluckstern, R.L.; Jiang, S.
1992-01-01
A previous calculation of the longitudinal coupling impedance of an iris in a beam pipe turned out not to be well convergent. In this work an alternate basis vector for the matrix equations is constructed, leading to convergent results. Numerical results are presented for the limit a/b → ∞, corresponding to a beam passing through a circular hole in a thick wall. 4 figs., 4 refs
Convergence criteria for systems of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations
Sharma, R.K.
1986-01-01
This thesis deals with convergence criteria for a special system of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations. A fixed-point algorithm is used, which iteratively solves one linearized elliptic partial differential equation at a time. Conditions are established that help foresee the convergence of the algorithm. Under reasonable hypotheses it is proved that the algorithm converges for such nonlinear elliptic systems. Extensive experimental results are reported and they show the algorithm converges in a wide variety of cases and the convergence is well correlated with the theoretical conditions introduced in this thesis
Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α
Altınok, Hıfsı; Et, Mikail; Işık, Mahmut
2018-01-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the concepts of Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α and lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α. We establish some connections between lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α and Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α. It is shown that if a sequence is lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-summable of order α then it is Δim-lacunary statistically convergent of order α.
Convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries
Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell
2014-01-01
We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries over the period 1971 to 2011 using the panel KPSS stationarity test and panel Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test. The results for the panel stationarity and unit root tests with structural breaks find support for energy convergence in ASEAN. - Highlights: • We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among the ASEAN nations. • Univariate conventional unit root tests provide mixed evidence of convergence. • Panel unit root tests with structural breaks support convergence hypothesis
Convergence theorems for Banach space valued integrable multifunctions
Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou
1987-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we generalize a result of Kato on the pointwise behavior of a weakly convergent sequence in the Lebesgue-Bochner spaces LXP(Ω (1≤p≤∞. Then we use that result to prove Fatou's type lemmata and dominated convergence theorems for the Aumann integral of Banach space valued measurable multifunctions. Analogous convergence results are also proved for the sets of integrable selectors of those multifunctions. In the process of proving those convergence theorems we make some useful observations concerning the Kuratowski-Mosco convergence of sets.
Weak convergence and uniform normalization in infinitary rewriting
Simonsen, Jakob Grue
2010-01-01
the starkly surprising result that for any orthogonal system with finitely many rules, the system is weakly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is weakly normalizing under strong convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under strong...... convergence. As further corollaries, we derive a number of new results for weakly convergent rewriting: Systems with finitely many rules enjoy unique normal forms, and acyclic orthogonal systems are confluent. Our results suggest that it may be possible to recover some of the positive results for strongly...
A Quadratically Convergent O(square root of nL-Iteration Algorithm for Linear Programming
Ye, Y; Gueler, O; Tapia, Richard A; Zhang, Y
1991-01-01
...)-iteration complexity while exhibiting superlinear convergence of the duality gap to zero under the assumption that the iteration sequence converges, and quadratic convergence of the duality gap...
The convergent LEP and SPS control systems
Altaber, J.
1987-01-01
The major design contraint of the control system for LEP is the compatibility with the existing SPS control system. The first reason for this compatibility is to allow a long term convergence of the SPS control system towards the LEP one. The second reason is to operate both LEP and SPS machines from a unique main control room. The distributed architecture of LEP and the existing SPS control systems are described. The design of the equipment interface for both machines is explained. Finally, the infrastructure of the common main control room for LEP and SPS is described
Towards a convergence of world gas markets?
Legros, E.
2002-01-01
This 7. summit of the world natural gas industry leaders was jointly organized by Petrostrategies, IFP-ENSPM (French institute of petroleum and national upper school of petroleum and engines), and SPTEC consulting. Three themes were debated: the natural gas market in Europe at the eve of the second directive (while the first directive has not been fully enforced), the world development of LNG market, the gas-electric power convergence and the effects of a growing up interdependence between both energy sources. (J.S.)
Convergence as Organization: Blockupy against the ECB
Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund
2016-01-01
of organization: the Blockupy coalition, the participating formal and informal organizations, and the activist subject. This narrative explicates the mode of organization as a “convergence space” (cf. Routledge, 2003), with different “roots” and “routes” of organization (cf. Davies, 2012). Originality....../value – Thus, through an analysis of the modes of organization constituting this mass protest event, this paper restates the relevance of the concept of organization, which have recently been ignored or understated in favour of master-narratives of networks or the dichotomy of horizontalism and verticality...
The converged Sn algorithm for nuclear criticality
Ganapol, B. D.; Hadad, K.
2009-01-01
A new discrete ordinates algorithm to determine the multiplication factor of a 1D nuclear reactor, based on Bengt Carlson's S n method, is presented. The algorithm applies the Romberg and Wynn-epsilon accelerators to accelerate a 1D, one-group S n solution to its asymptotic limit. We demonstrate the feasibility of the Converged Sn (CSn) solution on several one-group criticality benchmark compilations. The new formulation is especially convenient since it enables highly accurate critical fluxes and eigenvalues using the most fundamental transport algorithm. (authors)
Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence
Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu
2014-01-01
Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the
Multimedia reviews: multimedia convergence for clinicians.
Taintor, Zebulon
2003-12-01
Introduction by the column editor: In this final column of the year, Dr. Taintor provides an overview of exciting technological developments via his report on the 2003 annual meeting of the American Association for Technology in Psychiatry (AATP). Advances-and convergences-in technology are providing clinicians with increasingly useful tools to enhance the effectiveness of their treatments, increase access to care, reduce errors, and save time. As Dr. Taintor notes, AATP's meeting is traditionally held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). I hope that his report will encourage APA's members to attend some of next year's informative sessions.
Can evolutionary convergence be tested on Europa?
Chela-Flores, Julian [Instituto de Estudios Avanzados, Caracas (Venezuela); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: chelaf@ictp.trieste.it
2002-09-01
A major objective in solar system exploration has to be the insertion of appropriate biology-oriented experiments in future missions. We discuss various reasons for suggesting that this type of research be considered a high priority for feasibility studies and, subsequently, for technological development of appropriate melters and submersibles. With the assumption that Darwin's theory is valid for the evolution of life anywhere in the universe, various degrees of convergent phenomena argue in favor of the conjecture that universal evolution of intelligent behavior is just a matter of time and preservation of steady planetary conditions. A preliminary test of this conjecture is feasible with experiments involving evolutionary biosignatures on Europa. (author)
Exponentially Convergent Algorithms for Abstract Differential Equations
Gavrilyuk, Ivan; Vasylyk, Vitalii
2011-01-01
This book presents new accurate and efficient exponentially convergent methods for abstract differential equations with unbounded operator coefficients in Banach space. These methods are highly relevant for the practical scientific computing since the equations under consideration can be seen as the meta-models of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) as well as the partial differential equations (PDEs) describing various applied problems. The framework of functional analysis allows one to obtain very general but at the same time transparent algorithms and mathematical results which
Is the 2MASS dipole convergent?
Chodorowski, Michał; Bilicki, Maciej; Mamon, Gary A.; Jarrett, Thomas
2010-01-01
We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). We find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e. up to about 300 Mpc/h. We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional growth for the LambdaCDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by WMAP. The observed growth turns out to be within 1-sigma confidence level of the theo...
Reble, a radially converging electron beam accelerator
Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R.
1976-01-01
The Reble accelerator at Sandia Laboratories is described. This accelerator was developed to provide an experimental source for studying the relevant diode physics, beam propagation, beam energy deposition in a gas using a radially converging e-beam. The nominal parameters for Reble are 1 MV, 200 kA, 20 ns e-beam pulse. The anode and cathode are concentric cylinders with the anode as the inner cylinder. The radial beam can be propagated through the thin foil anode into the laser gas volume. The design and performance of the various components of the accelerator are presented
Cubature on Wiener Space: Pathwise Convergence
Bayer, Christian; Friz, Peter K.
2013-01-01
Cubature on Wiener space (Lyons and Victoir in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 460(2041):169–198, 2004) provides a powerful alternative to Monte Carlo simulation for the integration of certain functionals on Wiener space. More specifically, and in the language of mathematical finance, cubature allows for fast computation of European option prices in generic diffusion models.We give a random walk interpretation of cubature and similar (e.g. the Ninomiya–Victoir) weak approximation schemes. By using rough path analysis, we are able to establish weak convergence for general path-dependent option prices.
Morphological convergence in ‘river dolphin’ skulls
Charlotte E. Page
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the ‘river dolphins’. The four dolphin genera that make up the ‘river dolphins’ (Inia geoffrensis, Pontoporia blainvillei, Platanista gangetica and Lipotes vexillifer do not represent a single monophyletic group, despite being very similar in morphology. This has led many to using the ‘river dolphins’ as an example of convergent evolution. We investigate whether the skulls of the four ‘river dolphin’ genera are convergent when compared to other toothed dolphin taxa in addition to identifying convergent cranial and mandibular features. We use geometric morphometrics to uncover shape variation in the skulls of the ‘river dolphins’ and then apply a number of phylogenetic techniques to test for convergence. We find significant convergence in the skull morphology of the ‘river dolphins’. The four genera seem to have evolved similar skull shapes, leading to a convergent morphotype characterised by elongation of skull features. The cause of this morphological convergence remains unclear. However, the features we uncover as convergent, in particular elongation of the rostrum, support hypotheses of shared feeding mode or diet and thus provide the foundation for future work into convergence within the Odontoceti.
OpenMC In Situ Source Convergence Detection
Aldrich, Garrett Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Dutta, Soumya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Woodring, Jonathan Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-07
We designed and implemented an in situ version of particle source convergence for the OpenMC particle transport simulator. OpenMC is a Monte Carlo based-particle simulator for neutron criticality calculations. For the transport simulation to be accurate, source particles must converge on a spatial distribution. Typically, convergence is obtained by iterating the simulation by a user-settable, fixed number of steps, and it is assumed that convergence is achieved. We instead implement a method to detect convergence, using the stochastic oscillator for identifying convergence of source particles based on their accumulated Shannon Entropy. Using our in situ convergence detection, we are able to detect and begin tallying results for the full simulation once the proper source distribution has been confirmed. Our method ensures that the simulation is not started too early, by a user setting too optimistic parameters, or too late, by setting too conservative a parameter.
Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals
Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.
2015-01-01
Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.
Elena Mădălina OPRIȚESCU
2017-11-01
Full Text Available One of the important objectives of the European Union is to support economic growth based on economic, social and territorial cohesion between Member States. Due to the accession of relatively poor countries to the European Union, maintaining cohesion is and will remain a major challenge, with cohesion policy having to support the reduction of imbalances between the old Member States and also support the development of less developed regions. One of the main measures adopted by the European authorities emphasizes the importance of increasing the degree of economic convergence between Member States by promoting a common market along with an economic and monetary union. In addition, increasing productivity and convergence within the EU are the foundations of the Lisbon Strategy and remain an important pillar of the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy.
Energy efficiency and social equity in South Africa: seeking convergence
Van Horen, C.; Simmonds, G. [University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Energy and Development Research Centre
1998-09-01
A key challenge facing post-apartheid South Africa is to achieve a balance between equity and efficiency goals. On the one hand, the democratic government wishes to improve the quality of life of the majority of the population, whilst on the other, the country needs an efficient and internationally competitive economy. At the more specific level of household energy policy, this efficiency-equity linkage represents a key challenge for policy-making and implementation: it is essential that convergence is sought between household energy strategies aimed at improving energy efficiency, and those strategies which improve the living conditions of the poor. This paper begins by reviewing developments in South Africa`s household energy sector in the early-1990s, most notably the national electrification plan which was launched in 1991. A second development, in 1994, was the establishment of the National Electricity Regulator. Despite the attention given to energy efficiency in the government`s new energy policy, energy efficiency considerations have not yet emerged as a major force in the energy sector. Electricity prices underestimated the environmental and other impacts of coal and nuclear-generated electricity. A range of economic and institutional reasons for this are identified and considered. Finally, two interventions on which some progress has been made, are described: these include insulation and thermal performance projects in new lost-cost houses, and a compact fluorescent lighting programme. 37 refs., 4 figs.
Converging social classes through humanized urban edges
Abuan, M. V.; Galingan, Z. D.
2017-10-01
Urban open spaces are created to be used by people. It is a place of convergence and social activity. However, these places have transformed into places of divergence. When spaces become dehumanized, it separates social classes. As a result, underused spaces contribute to urban decay. Particularly an urban edge, the JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is the center of this paper. The JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is a waterfront development situated along the banks of one of Metro Manila’s major water thoroughfare --- Pasig River. The park and its physical form, urban design and landscape tend to deteriorate over time --- creating a further division of social convergence. Social hostility, crime, negligent maintenance and poor urban design are contributing factors to this sprawling decay in what used to be spaces of bringing people together. Amidst attempts to beautify and renew this portion of Makati City’s edge, the urban area still remains misspent.This paper attempts to re-humanize the waterfront development. It uses the responsive environment design principles to be able to achieve this goal.
Convergences in the diversification of bats
M. Brock FENTON
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].
Regional Convergence of Income: Spatial Analysis
Vera Ivanovna Ivanova
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Russia has a huge territory and a strong interregional heterogeneity, so we can assume that geographical factors have a significant impact on the pace of economic growth in Russian regions. Therefore the article is focused on the following issues: 1 correlation between comparative advantages of geographical location and differences in growth rates; 2 impact of more developed regions on their neighbors and 3 correlation between economic growth of regions and their spatial interaction. The article is devoted to the empirical analysis of regional per capita incomes from 1996 to 2012 and explores the dynamics of the spatial autocorrelation of regional development indicator. It is shown that there is a problem of measuring the intensity of spatial dependence: factor value of Moran’s index varies greatly depending on the choice of the matrix of distances. In addition, with the help of spatial econometrics the author tests the following hypotheses: 1 there is convergence between regions for a specified period; 2 the process of beta convergence is explained by the spatial arrangement of regions and 3 there is positive impact of market size on regional growth. The author empirically confirmed all three hypotheses
The convergence theory for vitiligo: A reappraisal.
Kundu, Roopal V; Mhlaba, Julia M; Rangel, Stephanie M; Le Poole, I Caroline
2018-04-28
Vitiligo is characterized by progressive loss of skin pigmentation. The search for etiologic factors has led to the biochemical, the neurologic and the autoimmune theory. The convergence theory was then proposed several years ago to incorporate existing theories of vitiligo development into a single overview of vitiligo etiology. The viewpoint that vitiligo is not caused only by predisposing mutations, or only by melanocytes responding to chemical/radiation exposure, or only by hyperreactive T cells, but rather results from a combination of etiologic factors that impact melanocyte viability, has certainly stood the test of time. New findings have since informed the description of progressive depigmentation. Understanding the relative importance of such etiologic factors combined with a careful selection of the most targetable pathways will continue to drive the next phase in vitiligo research: the development of effective therapeutics. In that arena it is likewise important to acknowledge that pathways affected in some patients may not be altered in others. Taken together, the convergence theory continues to provide a comprehensive viewpoint of vitiligo etiology. The theory serves to intertwine etiologic pathways and will help to define pathways amenable to disease intervention in individual patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Symbolic convergence and the hydrogen economy
Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brossmann, Brent
2010-01-01
This article documents that the hydrogen economy continues to attract significant attention among politicians, the media, and some academics. We believe that an explanation lies in the way that the hydrogen economy fulfills psychological and cultural needs related to a future world where energy is abundant, cheap, and pollution-free, a 'fantasy' that manifests itself with the idea that society can continue to operate without limits imposed by population growth and the destruction of the environment. The article begins by explaining its research methodology consisting of two literature reviews, research interviews of energy experts, and the application of symbolic convergence theory, a general communications theory about the construction of rhetorical fantasies. We then identify a host of socio-technical challenges to explain why the creation of a hydrogen economy would present immense (and possibly intractable) obstacles, an argument supplemented by our research interviews. Next, we employ symbolic convergence theory to identify five prevalent fantasy themes and rhetorical visions-independence, patriotism, progress, democratization, and inevitability-in academic and public discussions in favor of the hydrogen economy. We conclude by offering implications for scholarship relating to energy policy more broadly.
Convergence almost everywhere of multidimensional vectors
El Berdan, Kassem; Zeineddine, Hassan
2000-01-01
Let X be a reflexive Banach space, Ω a measure space, T 1 ,...,T d be linear not commuting operators on L 1 (Ω,X)=L 1 (X) which are strictly contracting in L 1 (X) (i.e. there exist αjbelong to ]0,1[ such that ||T j f||≤αj||f|| for all j=1....,d and f belong to L 1 (X), and contracting in L ∞ (X). We prove a maximal equality for the averages: A n (T 1 ,...,T d )f= n d /1 i1=0 Σ n-1 ... id=0 Σ n-1 T 1 i1 ...T d id f and the convergence almost everywhere of it for all f in L 1 (X). This result generalizes Chacon's theorem (Chacon 19620 to the multidimensional case for this operators class. Finally, we give two operators which are strictly contracting in L 1 (X) and contracting in L ∞ (X) such that the convergence of the averages is not trivial. (author)
Prioritization of epilepsy associated candidate genes by convergent analysis.
Jia, Peilin; Ewers, Jeffrey M; Zhao, Zhongming
2011-02-24
Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder affecting a large number of individuals, yet the underlying genetic risk factors for epilepsy remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed several recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) that are more likely to be associated with epilepsy. The responsible gene(s) within these regions have yet to be definitively linked to the disorder, and the implications of their interactions are not fully understood. Identification of these genes may contribute to a better pathological understanding of epilepsy, and serve to implicate novel therapeutic targets for further research. In this study, we examined genes within heterozygous deletion regions identified in a recent large-scale study, encompassing a diverse spectrum of epileptic syndromes. By integrating additional protein-protein interaction data, we constructed subnetworks for these CNV-region genes and also those previously studied for epilepsy. We observed 20 genes common to both networks, primarily concentrated within a small molecular network populated by GABA receptor, BDNF/MAPK signaling, and estrogen receptor genes. From among the hundreds of genes in the initial networks, these were designated by convergent evidence for their likely association with epilepsy. Importantly, the identified molecular network was found to contain complex interrelationships, providing further insight into epilepsy's underlying pathology. We further performed pathway enrichment and crosstalk analysis and revealed a functional map which indicates the significant enrichment of closely related neurological, immune, and kinase regulatory pathways. The convergent framework we proposed here provides a unique and powerful approach to screening and identifying promising disease genes out of typically hundreds to thousands of genes in disease-related CNV-regions. Our network and pathway analysis provides important implications for the underlying molecular mechanisms for epilepsy. The strategy can be
Prioritization of epilepsy associated candidate genes by convergent analysis.
Peilin Jia
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder affecting a large number of individuals, yet the underlying genetic risk factors for epilepsy remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed several recurrent copy number variations (CNVs that are more likely to be associated with epilepsy. The responsible gene(s within these regions have yet to be definitively linked to the disorder, and the implications of their interactions are not fully understood. Identification of these genes may contribute to a better pathological understanding of epilepsy, and serve to implicate novel therapeutic targets for further research.In this study, we examined genes within heterozygous deletion regions identified in a recent large-scale study, encompassing a diverse spectrum of epileptic syndromes. By integrating additional protein-protein interaction data, we constructed subnetworks for these CNV-region genes and also those previously studied for epilepsy. We observed 20 genes common to both networks, primarily concentrated within a small molecular network populated by GABA receptor, BDNF/MAPK signaling, and estrogen receptor genes. From among the hundreds of genes in the initial networks, these were designated by convergent evidence for their likely association with epilepsy. Importantly, the identified molecular network was found to contain complex interrelationships, providing further insight into epilepsy's underlying pathology. We further performed pathway enrichment and crosstalk analysis and revealed a functional map which indicates the significant enrichment of closely related neurological, immune, and kinase regulatory pathways.The convergent framework we proposed here provides a unique and powerful approach to screening and identifying promising disease genes out of typically hundreds to thousands of genes in disease-related CNV-regions. Our network and pathway analysis provides important implications for the underlying molecular mechanisms for epilepsy. The
Zhang, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Qian; Li, Ning; Wang, Zi-Jian; Lu, Jian-Qiu; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
2013-01-30
A method of modified diagnostic fragment-ion-based extension strategy (DFIBES) coupled to DFIs (diagnostic fragmentation ions) intensity analysis was successfully established to simultaneously screen and identify the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) by HPLC-ESI-MS(n). DFIs, such as m/z 191 [quinic acid-H](-), m/z 179 [caffeic acid-H](-) and m/z 173 [quinic acid-H-H2O](-) were determined or proposed from the fragmentation patterns analysis of corresponding reference substances for every chemical family of CGAs. A "structure extension" method was then proposed based on the well-demonstrated fragmentation patterns and was successively applied into the rapid screening of CGAs in FLJ. Considering that substitution isomerism is a common phenomenon, a full ESI-MS(n) fragmentation analysis according to the intensity of DFIs has been performed to identify the CGA isomers. Based on the DFIs and intensity analysis, 41 peaks attributed to CGAs including 4 caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), 7 CQA glycosides, 6 dicaffeoylquinic acids (DiCQA), 10 DiCQA glycosides, 1 tricaffeoylquinic acids (TriCQA), 4p-coumaroylquinic acids (pCoQA), 3 feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and 6 caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (CFQA) were identified preliminarily in a 65-min chromatographic run. It was the first time to systematically report the presence of CGAs in FLJ, especially for CQA glycosides, DiCQA glycosides, TriCQA, pCoQA and CFQA. All the results indicated that the method of developed DFIBES coupled to DFIs analysis was feasible, reliable and universal for screening and identifying the constituents with the same carbon skeletons especially the isomeric compounds from the complex extract of TCMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Optimal convergence in naming game with geography-based negotiation on small-world networks
Liu Runran, E-mail: runran@mail.ustc.edu.c [Department of Modern Physics and Nonlinear Science Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Wenxu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Lai Yingcheng [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Chen Guanrong [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wang Binghong [Department of Modern Physics and Nonlinear Science Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230026 (China); Research Center for Complex System Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology and Shanghai Academy of System Science, Shanghai 200093 (China)
2011-01-17
We propose a negotiation strategy to address the effect of geography on the dynamics of naming games over small-world networks. Communication and negotiation frequencies between two agents are determined by their geographical distance in terms of a parameter characterizing the correlation between interaction strength and the distance. A finding is that there exists an optimal parameter value leading to fastest convergence to global consensus on naming. Numerical computations and a theoretical analysis are provided to substantiate our findings.
Optimal convergence in naming game with geography-based negotiation on small-world networks
Liu Runran; Wang Wenxu; Lai Yingcheng; Chen Guanrong; Wang Binghong
2011-01-01
We propose a negotiation strategy to address the effect of geography on the dynamics of naming games over small-world networks. Communication and negotiation frequencies between two agents are determined by their geographical distance in terms of a parameter characterizing the correlation between interaction strength and the distance. A finding is that there exists an optimal parameter value leading to fastest convergence to global consensus on naming. Numerical computations and a theoretical analysis are provided to substantiate our findings.
Electricity and gas : market and price convergence : fundamentals of restructuring and convergence
Heintz, H.; Spragins, R.
2000-07-01
One of the results of the transition from regulation to competition in the Canadian and American natural gas and electricity industries is convergence of the two industries. Convergence is occurring in the areas of corporate structuring activities (mergers and acquisitions), natural gas and electricity prices, products and services, and on a geographic basis. This study examines the restructuring and convergence from the perspective of industry stakeholders, consumers, competitors and regulators. The trend to deregulate to establish competitive markets has been driven by the assumption that lower prices and more choices will result. Deregulation has been made easier by technological developments and innovations in the area of conventional generation, distributed generation, information management and analysis, as well as mass communication channels such as the Internet. These changes have made it possible to measure and monitor energy use in real-time. Technological changes will continue to influence the energy industry. The use of different restructuring rules and regulations in jurisdictions that are implementing change may be one of the primary factors that could limit the extent of convergence. Successful competition by energy service providers in converged retail energy markets will depend on several factors, the first of which is the ability to control the customer interface through retail cycle services such as metering and billing. The second is the successful branding of corporate identities, products and services. These will ensure customer loyalty and facilitate the marketing of new products. Another factor would be the effective management of information regarding natural gas and electricity consumption patterns and the establishment of low cost operations through the use of conventional generation technologies. The final factor for successful competition is the effective use of low cost communication technologies such as the Internet. The transition
Electricity and gas : market and price convergence : fundamentals of restructuring and convergence
Heintz, H.; Spragins, R.
2000-01-01
One of the results of the transition from regulation to competition in the Canadian and American natural gas and electricity industries is convergence of the two industries. Convergence is occurring in the areas of corporate structuring activities (mergers and acquisitions), natural gas and electricity prices, products and services, and on a geographic basis. This study examines the restructuring and convergence from the perspective of industry stakeholders, consumers, competitors and regulators. The trend to deregulate to establish competitive markets has been driven by the assumption that lower prices and more choices will result. Deregulation has been made easier by technological developments and innovations in the area of conventional generation, distributed generation, information management and analysis, as well as mass communication channels such as the Internet. These changes have made it possible to measure and monitor energy use in real-time. Technological changes will continue to influence the energy industry. The use of different restructuring rules and regulations in jurisdictions that are implementing change may be one of the primary factors that could limit the extent of convergence. Successful competition by energy service providers in converged retail energy markets will depend on several factors, the first of which is the ability to control the customer interface through retail cycle services such as metering and billing. The second is the successful branding of corporate identities, products and services. These will ensure customer loyalty and facilitate the marketing of new products. Another factor would be the effective management of information regarding natural gas and electricity consumption patterns and the establishment of low cost operations through the use of conventional generation technologies. The final factor for successful competition is the effective use of low cost communication technologies such as the Internet. The transition
Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies
Christos A. Ioannou
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.
Real Economic Convergence in Western Europe from 1995 to 2013
Dzenita Siljak
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic convergence of real per capita GDP in the Western European countries with two types of measurement methodology. The first is sigma convergence, based on the coefficient of variation of real per capita GDP. The second is beta convergence, absolute/unconditional and conditional, including economic and socio-political variables, based on the neoclassical growth theory. The hypothesis of the paper is that there has been real economic convergence in Western Europe in at least one analyzed sub-period. The relationships between selected macroeconomic variables and the rate of economic growth are econometrically tested. Both sigma and beta convergence are estimated for the period 1995-2013 and four sub-periods: 1995-2003, 2004-2013, pre-crisis sub-period 2004-2008 and the crisis sub-period 2009-2013. The empirical findings support the hypothesis of economic convergence, i.e. that the poorer countries tend to grow faster than the rich ones in per capita terms, for some periods. However, the countries had a tendency to diverge, confiriming the negative effects of the crisis on per capita GDP growth. Sigma convergence is consistent with beta convergence. According to the results, the half-life of real convergence may take from 12 to 1078 years. Significant dissimilarities between the growth patterns among individual countries show the considerable heterogeneity of growth, i.e. the convergence clubs.
Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries
Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2016-07-15
Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ∼550 kA and rise time of ∼300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ∼7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.
Concentration of floating biogenic material in convergence zones
Dandonneau, Yves; Menkes, Christophe; Duteil, Olaf; Gorgues, Thomas
Some organisms that live just below the sea surface (the neuston) are known more as a matter of curiosity than as critical players in biogeochemical cycles. The hypothesis of this work is that their existence implies that they receive some food from an upward flux of organic matter. The behaviour of these organisms and of the associated organic matter, hereafter mentioned as floating biogenic material (FBM) is explored using a global physical-biogeochemical coupled model, in which its generation is fixed to 1% of primary production, and decay rate is of the order of 1 month. The model shows that the distribution of FBM should depart rapidly from that of primary production, and be more sensitive to circulation patterns than to the distribution of primary production. It is trapped in convergence areas, where it reaches concentrations larger by a factor 10 than in divergences, thus enhancing and inverting the contrast between high and low primary productivity areas. Attention is called on the need to better understand the biogeochemical processes in the first meter of the ocean, as they may impact the distribution of food for fishes, as well as the conditions for air-sea exchange and for the interpretation of sea color.
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.
Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the