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Sample records for conventional test-negative deer

  1. Deer Banby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 Deer Banby is very clever.Many animals like him. Lion and Tiger,are strong.They like to bully other animals.Deer Banby decides to help his friends. One day Lion sees Deer Banby and says."I'm going to eat you!"Deer Banby laughs,"No,you can't.I am as strong as you are."Lion laughs.

  2. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  3. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  4. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  5. First report of Leptospira infections in red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudzki Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently in Europe an increase in the population of red deer (Cervus elaphus, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, and fallow deer (Dama dama has been observed. Research on the prevalence of Leptospira infections in Polish cervids has been performed for the first time.

  6. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  7. DEER BELIEF AND DEER SACRIFICE AROUND STEPPE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı KAHRAMAN ÇINAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Turkish people have spreaded on a large area historically. They have left a mark on all the places they reach. The history of Turks begun in Central Asian Steppes. In reaction to the steppe culture, the human communities of Turks are hunter-nomad communities. The hunter-nomad comminuties make a living from stockfarming and apiculture. The deer is one of the essential animals for t he hunter-nomad communities in the daily life. In the steppe, the deer is seen in all area of social life. Further, the deer motives are commonly used in political, military, financial, the most religious areas. The hunter-nomad comminuties benefit by the meat, milk, leather, horns, nails, etc of the deer. In this study, we dwell on the deer with regard to its intended purposes and usage areas according to steppe culture. The references of this study are references are inscriptions, mythologic stories and archeological datas.

  8. Control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, F.; Bannerman, F.; Liggett, S.; Griffin, F.; Clarke, J.; Lyashchenko, K. P.; Rhodes, S.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes how Mycobacterium bovis infection was controlled and eventually eradicated in a farmed red deer herd in the north of England, following sustained tuberculin skin testing supplemented with serological (antibody) tests over a period of approximately two years. By taking advantage of the anamnestic antibody response produced by the skin test to detect skin test-negative, antibody-positive infected individuals, a total of 35 additional animals were identified, including 2 with gross visible lesions typical of bovine tuberculosis (BTB). Without detection and removal, these animals would have posed a continued risk of BTB persistence within the herd and potentially contributed to the spread of infection from deer into wildlife and surrounding cattle farms in an area of low BTB incidence. This case supports the use of ancillary diagnostic serological tests to speed up the resolution of incidents of BTB caused by M bovis in captive deer herds. PMID:28100768

  9. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans. PMID:22260956

  10. Nulhegan Deer Wintering Area Management Plan 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the Nulhegan basin lies the Nulhegan Deer Wintering Area, an approximately 15,000-acre tract of land. In addition to being the largest deer wintering area in...

  11. David’s Deer Natural Preserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    China is the ground for championing the survival of David’s deer. In ten years, the number of the endangered deer has increased six times, creating three world records of the number for David’s deer living in the wild, the species’ fertility rate and survival Located in Dafeng County, Jiangsu Province. David’s Deer Natural Preserve covers 1.000 hectares of land Established in 1986 under the sponsorship of the World Nature Fund and he

  12. Validity of the estimates of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness derived from the test-negative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; You, Young Ae; Sur, Dipika; Kanungo, Suman; Kim, Deok Ryun; Deen, Jacqueline; Lopez, Anna Lena; Wierzba, Thomas F; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Clemens, John D

    2016-01-20

    The test-negative design (TND) has emerged as a simple method for evaluating vaccine effectiveness (VE). Its utility for evaluating oral cholera vaccine (OCV) effectiveness is unknown. We examined this method's validity in assessing OCV effectiveness by comparing the results of TND analyses with those of conventional cohort analyses. Randomized controlled trials of OCV were conducted in Matlab (Bangladesh) and Kolkata (India), and an observational cohort design was used in Zanzibar (Tanzania). For all three studies, VE using the TND was estimated from the odds ratio (OR) relating vaccination status to fecal test status (Vibrio cholerae O1 positive or negative) among diarrheal patients enrolled during surveillance (VE= (1-OR)×100%). In cohort analyses of these studies, we employed the Cox proportional hazard model for estimating VE (=1-hazard ratio)×100%). OCV effectiveness estimates obtained using the TND (Matlab: 51%, 95% CI:37-62%; Kolkata: 67%, 95% CI:57-75%) were similar to the cohort analyses of these RCTs (Matlab: 52%, 95% CI:43-60% and Kolkata: 66%, 95% CI:55-74%). The TND VE estimate for the Zanzibar data was 94% (95% CI:84-98%) compared with 82% (95% CI:58-93%) in the cohort analysis. After adjusting for residual confounding in the cohort analysis of the Zanzibar study, using a bias indicator condition, we observed almost no difference in the two estimates. Our findings suggest that the TND is a valid approach for evaluating OCV effectiveness in routine vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cougar predation and population growth of sympatric mule deer and white-tailed deer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson H.S; Wielgus R.B; Gwilliam J.C

    2002-01-01

    ...), recruitment, and cause-specific adult ( 1 year old) mortality rate for sympatric mule deer and white-tailed deer in south-central British Columbia to assess population growth for each species...

  14. Lions and prions and deer demise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contagious prion diseases--scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease of several species in the deer family--give rise to epidemics that seem capable of compromising host population viability. Despite this prospect, the ecological consequences of prion disease epidemics in natural populations have received little consideration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cohort study design, we found that prion infection dramatically lowered survival of free-ranging adult (>2-year-old mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus: estimated average life expectancy was 5.2 additional years for uninfected deer but only 1.6 additional years for infected deer. Prion infection also increased nearly fourfold the rate of mountain lions (Puma concolor preying on deer, suggesting that epidemics may alter predator-prey dynamics by facilitating hunting success. Despite selective predation, about one fourth of the adult deer we sampled were infected. High prevalence and low survival of infected deer provided a plausible explanation for the marked decline in this deer population since the 1980s. CONCLUSION: Remarkably high infection rates sustained in the face of intense predation show that even seemingly complete ecosystems may offer little resistance to the spread and persistence of contagious prion diseases. Moreover, the depression of infected populations may lead to local imbalances in food webs and nutrient cycling in ecosystems in which deer are important herbivores.

  15. Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. William

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.

  16. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mattiello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

  17. Reproductive Behaviour Of Timor Deer (Rusa Timorensis

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    Daud Sansudewa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.

  18. Detection of Brucellosis in Sika Deer ( Cervus nippon ) through Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianhong; Wei, Jie; Sun, Qingsong; Wang, Ben; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Ying; Wu, Wenrong

    2017-03-20

    Brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) can cause enormous losses to stag breeding, especially in areas in which stag breeding has become an important industry. It also poses a threat to humans because it is a zoonotic disease. Use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been poorly described in the diagnosis of brucellosis in deer. We developed a LAMP assay targeting the omp25 gene sequence to detect brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer. The reaction can be completed in 60 min at 63 C and, with a detection limit of 17 pg, it was more sensitive than conventional PCR, with its detection limit of 1.7 ng. No cross-reactivity was observed with four bacteria: Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Clostridium pasteurianum , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . We used 263 samples of blood to evaluate the reaction. The percentage of agreement between LAMP and PCR reached 91%; relative specificity reached 87%, and relative sensitivity reached 100%. The results indicate LAMP can be a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting brucellosis in sika deer, particularly in the field, where it is essential to control brucellosis in deer with a rapid and accurate diagnosis for removal of positive animals.

  19. The case test-negative design for studies of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Haber, Michael; Ferdinands, Jill M; Shay, David K

    2013-06-26

    A modification to the case-control study design has become popular to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) against viral infections. Subjects with symptomatic illness seeking medical care are tested by a highly specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of the infection of interest. Cases are subjects testing positive for the virus; those testing negative represent the comparison group. Influenza and rotavirus VE studies using this design are often termed "test-negative case-control" studies, but this design has not been formally described or evaluated. We explicitly state several assumptions of the design and examine the conditions under which VE estimates derived with it are valid and unbiased. We derived mathematical expressions for VE estimators obtained using this design and examined their statistical properties. We used simulation methods to test the validity of the estimators and illustrate their performance using an influenza VE study as an example. Because the marginal ratio of cases to non-cases is unknown during enrollment, this design is not a traditional case-control study; we suggest the name "case test-negative" design. Under sets of increasingly general assumptions, we found that the case test-negative design can provide unbiased VE estimates. However, differences in health care-seeking behavior among cases and non-cases by vaccine status, strong viral interference, or modification of the probability of symptomatic illness by vaccine status can bias VE estimates. Vaccine effectiveness estimates derived from case test-negative studies are valid and unbiased under a wide range of assumptions. However, if vaccinated cases are less severely ill and seek care less frequently than unvaccinated cases, then an appropriate adjustment for illness severity is required to avoid bias in effectiveness estimates. Viral interference will lead to a non-trivial bias in the vaccine effectiveness estimate from case test-negative studies only when

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock.

  1. 2012 deer census data : final totals

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final data from the 2012 deer census survey at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. A combination of census techniques was selected including Mobile...

  2. Inbreeding depression in red deer calves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walling, Craig A; Nussey, Daniel H; Morris, Alison; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2011-01-01

    .... Here we investigated the consequences of variation in inbreeding coefficient for three juvenile traits, birth date, birth weight and first year survival, in a wild population of red deer, considering...

  3. Sambar Deer are Saved - For Now

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sambar deer on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are very popular amongst hunters in the Apalachicola, FL area; however, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  4. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer.

  5. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  6. Causes of Mortality and Diseases in Farmed Deer in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Sieber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate diseases and causes of mortality in Swiss farmed deer, deer found dead or shot due to diseased condition between March 2003 and December 2004 were requested for a complete postmortem examination. One hundred and sixty-two animals were submitted. Perinatal mortality, necrobacillosis in 3 week to 6 month old deer, and endoparasitosis in 6 month to 2 year old deer were identified as the most important causes of loss, followed by ruminal acidosis, which was diagnosed in 22% of deer older than 1 year. Congenital malformations were observed in 15% of deer less than 6 months old. Reportable infectious diseases known as major problems in deer farming in other countries were rare (yersiniosis, malignant catarrhal fever or not observed (tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease. Overall, the results indicate that the Swiss deer population does not present major health problems of concern for domestic animals.

  7. St. Vincent Island White-Tailed Deer Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The white tailed deer herd on St. Vincent Island represents an important part of the island's biotic community. To maintain the integrity of the island's deer...

  8. Population Density Influences Dispersal in Female White-Tailed Deer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton L. Lutz; Duane R. Diefenbach; Christopher S. Rosenberry

    2015-01-01

    .... To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density...

  9. Deer Herd Health Check dahomey National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains findings of deer herd health collection on Dahomey NWR in 1997. Deer appear to be in good health with no excess indication of parasite loading.

  10. Bayou Cocodrie NWR Deer Hunt Harvest Data Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data summaries from deer hunts that occur on Bayou Cocodrie NWR. Reports include summarized deer harvest data and basic analysis of these data.

  11. St. Catherine Creek NWR Deer Hunt Harvest Data Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data summaries from deer hunts that occur on St. Catherine Creek NWR. Reports include summarized deer harvest data and basic analysis of these data.

  12. Recovery of human DNA profiles from poached deer remains: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Shanan S; Govan, James; Welch, Lindsey A

    2011-12-01

    Poaching is a crime that occurs worldwide and can be extremely difficult to investigate and prosecute due to the nature of the evidence available. If a species is protected by international legislation such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora then simply possessing any part of that species is illegal. Previous studies have focused on the identification of endangered species in cases of potential poaching. Difficulties arise if the poached animal is not endangered. Species such as deer have hunting seasons whereby they can legally be hunted however poaching is the illegal take of deer, irrespective of season. Therefore, identification of deer alone has little probative value as samples could have originated from legal hunting activities in season. After a deer is hunted it is usual to remove the innards, head and lower limbs. The limbs are removed through manual force and represent a potential source of human touch DNA. We investigate the potential to recover and profile human autosomal DNA from poached deer remains. Samples from the legs of ten culled deer were obtained (40 in total) using minitapes. DNA from samples was extracted, quantified and amplified to determine if it would be possible to recover human STR profiles. Low quantification data led to the use of an extended PCR cycling protocol of 34 cycles. Samples from seven deer amplified, however some samples were excluded from further analysis due to 'drop in' alleles or the low level of successfully amplified loci. Samples from five deer could be further analysed and gave match probabilities ranging from 6.37×10(-3) to 9.53×10(-11). This study demonstrates the potential of recovering human touch DNA from poached animal remains. There is the potential for this test to be used in relation to other species of poached remains or other types of wildlife crimes. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that human STR profiling has been successfully applied to

  13. Forestry and deer in the pine region of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; G. R. Moorhead; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    Forestry and deer affect each other's welfare. Forestry and other land-use practices, particularly farming, affect deer chiefly by modifying the supplies of available food and protective cover. On the other side, an overabundance of deer can overbrowse and eliminate the most palatable and nutritious food species. If these are trees that could be valuable for...

  14. Supplier Education--Deere & Company Partners with Black Hawk College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Describes the partnership between Deere & Company and Black Hawk College that provided a training program for John Deere suppliers, resulting in a cost-effective approach to upgrading supplier skills and improving Deere product quality. Lists benefits of supplier development and training. (YKH)

  15. SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM AND TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN BLACK TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS COLUMBIANUS) AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS HEMIONUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deer are considered important intermediate hosts for the coccidian parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were determined in sera of 42 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and 43 black tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from the Wash...

  16. The Assessment of Deer (Cervus elaphus Trophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The red deer (Cervus elaphus population’s potential for trophy value from the 34 Neagra and 35 Sălard hunting areas on the Northern slope of the Gurghiu Mountains has been analysed and evaluated, based on a number of 42 red deer trophies taken between 2000-2014. The trophies were evaluated using the C.I.C. method, which was adopted at the “Conseil International de la Chasse” in Berlin in 1937. A description of the C.I.C. method and the score for the 42 trophies is included in the study. The result of the analysis shows that 50% of the total number of trophies are high value trophies (gold and silver medal, indicating the remarkable overall quality of the red deer population in the research area.

  17. Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

    2014-02-01

    Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations.

  18. DETECTION OF BARTONELLA SP. IN DEER LOUSE FLIES (LIPOPTENA MAZAMAE) ON GRAY BROCKET DEER (MAZAMA GOUAZOUBIRA) IN THE NEOTROPICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ugo; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Michel, Thais; Webster, Anelise; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Kasper, Carlos Benhur; Trigo, Tatiane Campos; Ott, Ricardo; Maria de Assis Jardim, Márcia; Reck, José

    2017-06-01

    Louse flies or deer keds, Lipoptena spp., are widespread in Neotropical cervids, but the vector-borne pathogens of louse flies had only been previously reported in the Northern hemisphere. This is the first report of Bartonella spp. in deer louse flies (Lipoptena mazamae) in the neotropics collected from gray brocket deer ( Mazama gouazoubira ) in Southern Brazil. DNA from Bartonella sp. was detected in all 429 L. mazamae collected from 11 road-killed gray brocket deer. The same sequences of DNA of Bartonella spp. were identified in samples. Gray brocket deer are abundant in Brazil, so Bartonella-infected Lipoptena spp. may be widely distributed in the neotropics.

  19. Effects of Deer Settling Stimulus and Deer Density on Regeneration in a Harvested Southern New England Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Barrett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated deer densities have led to reports of forest regeneration failure and ecological damage. However, there is growing evidence that the biophysical conditions of a forest that make it attractive to deer may be a contributing factor in determining browsing levels. Thus, an understanding of settling stimulus—how attractive an area is to deer in terms of food-independent habitat requirements—is potentially important to manage deer browsing impacts. We tested the settling stimulus hypothesis by evaluating the degree to which thermal settling stimulus and deer density are related to spatial variation in browsing intensity across different forest harvesting strategies over the course of a year. We determined if deer were impacting plant communities and if they resulted in changes in plant cover. We quantified the thermal environment around each harvest and tested to see if it influenced deer density and browsing impact. We found that deer had an impact on the landscape but did not alter plant cover or diminish forest regeneration capacity. Deer density and browse impact had a relationship with thermal settling stimulus for summer and fall months, and deer density had a relationship with browse impact in the winter on woody plants. We conclude that thermal settling stimulus is an important predictor for deer density and browsing impact.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  1. The global analysis of DEER data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Suzanne; Beth, Albert H; Hustedt, Eric J

    2012-05-01

    Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) has emerged as a powerful technique for measuring long range distances and distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in biomolecules. This information can then be used to characterize functionally relevant structural and dynamic properties of biological molecules and their macromolecular assemblies. Approaches have been developed for analyzing experimental data from standard four-pulse DEER experiments to extract distance distributions. However, these methods typically use an a priori baseline correction to account for background signals. In the current work an approach is described for direct fitting of the DEER signal using a model for the distance distribution which permits a rigorous error analysis of the fitting parameters. Moreover, this approach does not require a priori background correction of the experimental data and can take into account excluded volume effects on the background signal when necessary. The global analysis of multiple DEER data sets is also demonstrated. Global analysis has the potential to provide new capabilities for extracting distance distributions and additional structural parameters in a wide range of studies.

  2. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas.

  3. White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida

  4. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  5. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  6. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  7. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-10-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter`s cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  8. TB-infected deer are more closely related than non-infected deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A; Scribner, Kim T; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Winterstein, Scott R

    2007-02-22

    Identifying mechanisms of pathogen transmission is critical to controlling disease. Social organization should influence contacts among individuals and thus the distribution and spread of disease within a population. Molecular genetic markers can be used to elucidate mechanisms of disease transmission in wildlife populations without undertaking detailed observational studies to determine probable contact rates. Estimates of genealogical relationships within a bovine tuberculosis-infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population indicated that infected deer were significantly more closely related than non-infected deer suggesting that contact within family groups was a significant mechanism of disease transmission. Results demonstrate that epidemiological models should incorporate aspects of host ecology likely to affect the probability of disease transmission.

  9. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  10. Adaptive Levy walks in foraging fallow deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Focardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lévy flights are random walks, the step lengths of which come from probability distributions with heavy power-law tails, such that clusters of short steps are connected by rare long steps. Lévy walks maximise search efficiency of mobile foragers. Recently, several studies raised some concerns about the reliability of the statistical analysis used in previous analyses. Further, it is unclear whether Lévy walks represent adaptive strategies or emergent properties determined by the interaction between foragers and resource distribution. Thus two fundamental questions still need to be addressed: the presence of Lévy walks in the wild and whether or not they represent a form of adaptive behaviour. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 235 paths of solitary and clustered (i.e. foraging in group fallow deer (Dama dama, exploiting the same pasture. We used maximum likelihood estimation for discriminating between a power-tailed distribution and the exponential alternative and rank/frequency plots to discriminate between Lévy walks and composite Brownian walks. We showed that solitary deer perform Lévy searches, while clustered animals did not adopt that strategy. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our demonstration of the presence of Lévy walks is, at our knowledge, the first available which adopts up-to-date statistical methodologies in a terrestrial mammal. Comparing solitary and clustered deer, we concluded that the Lévy walks of solitary deer represent an adaptation maximising encounter rates with forage resources and not an epiphenomenon induced by a peculiar food distribution.

  11. Season effect on genitalia and epididymal sperm from Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Guerra, Camino; Kaabi, Mohammed; Garcia-Macias, Vanesa; de Paz, Paulino; Alvarez, M; Herraez, Paz; Anel, Luis

    2005-04-15

    Seasonality deeply affects the physiology and behavior of many species, and must be taken into account when biological resource banks (BRBs) are established. We have studied the effect of seasonality on many reproductive parameters of free-ranging Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois, living in Spain. Testicles from hunted animals were collected and sent to our laboratory at different times during the year. We recorded the weight and volume of testis, the weight of the epididymis and its separate parts (caput, corpus, and cauda), the weight of the sperm sample collected from the cauda epididymis, and several sperm parameters (sperm concentration, spermatozoa recovered, motility, HOS test reactivity, acrosomal status, and viability). We studied the data according to several periods, defined accordingly to each species. For red deer, we defined rut (mid-September to mid-October), post-rut (mid-October to mid-December), and non-breeding season (February). For roe deer, they were pre-rut (June), rut (July), post-rut (first fortnight of August), and non-breeding season (September). For chamois: non-breeding season (June to mid-September) and breeding season (October-November). The rut/breeding season yielded significantly higher numbers for almost all parameters. However, in the case of red deer, sperm quality was higher in the post-rut. For roe deer, testicular weight was similar in the pre-rut and in the rut, and sperm quality did not differ significantly between these two periods, although we noticed higher values in the rut. In the case of chamois, sperm quality did not differ significantly from the breeding season, but data distribution suggested that in the non-breeding season there are less males with sperm of good quality. On the whole, we find these results of interest for BRB planning. The best season to collect sperm in this species would be the breeding season. However, post-rut in red deer, pre-rut in roe deer, and non-breeding season in

  12. Merogonic stages of Theileria cervi in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jason; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Campbell, Gregory A; Rezabek, Grant; Bradway, Daniel S; Pittman, Louis L; Little, Susan E; Panciera, Roger J

    2013-09-01

    In February 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern Oklahoma to a facility in southeastern Oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. The deer were heavily infested with Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). Hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasites consistent with Theileria spp. Microscopically, the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen contained multifocally distributed, enlarged monocytic cells whose cytoplasm was replaced by developing meronts in various stages of merogony. It appears that, upon arrival, the Theileria cervi-naïve mule deer became infested with large numbers of Theileria-infected lone star ticks leading to massive exposure of the mule deer to sporozoites of the protozoan, resulting in an acute hemolytic crisis and fatalities. The merogonic stages of T. cervi are also described. The lack of earlier reports of merogony may be due to the fact that only a single, short-lived, merogonic cycle follows exposure to sporozoites and thus merogonic stages are demonstrable for only a short period. Polymerase chain reaction testing of paraffin-embedded tissue yielded a 507-bp amplicon sequence that was 100% identical with the sequence of T. cervi previously reported from white-tailed deer in Oklahoma and from elk in Wisconsin and Indiana.

  13. What do they eat? Using DNA barcoding to assess diet preferences of deer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    preferences of deer (red deer and roe deer) in Klelund Deer Park in Denmark. Over one year, we collect feces samples every month from different habitat types (e.g., heath, marsh, meadow, open forests and coniferous plantation) within the park. DNA barcoding can not only tell us which plants are consumed...

  14. Flight distance in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama as related to hunting and other factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.Y.; Breukelen, van L.; Hootsmans, M.J.M.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Flight distances in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama with respect to a human observer on foot were measured in four nature reserves in the Netherlands: two dune reserves in the western part (the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes (AWD) and Kennemerduinen (KD)) and two forested areas

  15. The effect of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on Johne's disease risk in test-negative herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Sergeant, E S G; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Kenny, Kevin; Graham, D

    2013-03-01

    Herd classification is a key component of national Johne's disease (JD) control programs. Herds are categorized on the basis of test results, and separate sub-programs are followed for test-positive and test-negative herds. However, a test-negative herd result does not necessarily equate to JD freedom for reasons relating to disease pathogenesis and available diagnostic tests. Thus, in several countries, JD control programs define test-negative herds as having a "low risk" of infection below a specified prevalence. However, the approach is qualitative, and little quantitative work is available on herd-level estimates of probability of freedom in test-negative herds. This paper examines the effect over time of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on JD risk in test-negative herds. A simulation model was developed in the programming language R. Key model inputs included sensitivity and specificity estimates for 3 individual animal diagnostic tests (serum ELISA, milk ELISA, and fecal culture), design prevalence, testing options, and testing costs. Key model outputs included the probability that infection will be detected if present at the design prevalence or greater (herd sensitivity; SeH), the probability that infection in the herd is either absent or at very low prevalence (i.e., less than the design prevalence; ProbF), the probability of an uninfected herd producing a false-positive result [P(False+)], and mean testing cost (HerdCost) for different testing strategies. The output ProbF can be updated periodically, incorporating data from additional herd testing and information on cattle purchases, and could form the basis for an output-based approach to herd classification. A high ProbF is very difficult to achieve, reflecting the low sensitivity of the evaluated tests. Moreover, ProbF is greatly affected by any risk of introduction of infection, decreasing in herds with poor bio-exclusion practices despite ongoing negative test results. The

  16. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote.

  17. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  19. Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelle Brian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV, the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. Limitations of detailed analysis of deer mouse immune responses to SNV are the lack of reagents and methods for evaluating such responses. Results We developed real-time PCR-based detection assays for several immune-related transcription factor and cytokine genes from deer mice that permit the profiling of CD4+ helper T cells, including markers of Th1 cells (T-bet, STAT4, IFNγ, TNF, LT, Th2 cells (GATA-3, STAT6, IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory T cells (Fox-p3, IL-10, TGFβ1. These assays compare the expression of in vitro antigen-stimulated and unstimulated T cells from individual deer mice. Conclusion We developed molecular methods for profiling immune gene expression in deer mice, including a multiplexed real-time PCR assay for assessing expression of several cytokine and transcription factor genes. These assays should be useful for characterizing the immune responses of experimentally- and naturally-infected deer mice.

  20. Photoperiod and reproduction in female deer mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.

    1982-03-01

    Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.

  1. Molecular Survey of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia of Red Deer and Sika Deer in Gansu, China in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Chen, Z; Liu, Z; Liu, J; Yang, J; Li, Q; Li, Y; Luo, J; Yin, H

    2016-12-01

    Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals. Here, we conducted a molecular surveillance study in Gansu, China to assess the prevalence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. in red deer and sika deer based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and sequencing of 16S rRNA or msp genes. PCR revealed that the prevalence of Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma platys of the Qilian Mountain samples was 32%, 9% and 9%, respectively; the prevalence of Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma platys was 20%, 15% and 15% among the Long Mountain samples, respectively. Of the Long Mountain samples, two (5%) of the 40 samples were positive for Ehrlichia canis, but all 44 of the Qilian Mountain samples were negative for E. canis, and no other Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. were found in the samples. The phylogenetic tree showed that the newly isolated Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. could be classified as belonging to four clades, including an A. bovis cluster, A. ovis cluster, A. platys cluster and E. canis cluster. In addition, Bartonella schoenbuchensis was firstly identified in blood samples from red deer in Gansu, China. Our results provide important data to increase the understanding of the epidemiology of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis of red deer and sika deer and will assist with the implementation of measures to control anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis transmission to red deer, sika deer and other animals in Gansu, China.

  2. Wildlife management series no. 1: The black-tailed deer in Alaska: An outline of management methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes changes in the population of deer in Alaska. The objectives of deer management in Alaska are to promote maximum utilization of our deer herds...

  3. Relationship of Herd Density and Physical Parameters of White-tailed Deer in Northwest Florida Pine Flatwoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study assessing the effects of changes in deer density on physical parameters of deer in northwest Florida flatwoods. Biological data from white-tailed deer...

  4. Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1979: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  5. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  6. 1984 Deer Harvest Summary for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1984 deer harvest for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge. Tables summarize numerical findings, including bucks, does, and points.

  7. Targeted CWD surveillance mule deer HD 600 February 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — February 2015 Progress report for Targeted Chronic Wasting Disease Project in Montana Hunting District 600. From February 5-6th, 25 mule deer were captured in...

  8. 1984 Deer Harvest Summary for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1985 deer harvest for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge. Tables summarize numerical findings, including bucks, does, and points.

  9. FOREST COVER INFLUENCES DISPERSAL DISTANCE OF WHITE-TAILED DEER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric S. Long; Duane R. Diefenbach; Christopher S. Rosenberry; Bret D. Wallingford; Marrett D. Grund

    2005-01-01

    ...) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer...

  10. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Alvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    ... provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy...

  11. The case test-negative design for studies of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in inpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Ferdinands, Jill M; Chaves, Sandra S; Haber, Michael J; Reynolds, Sue B; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M

    2016-12-01

    The test-negative design (TND) to evaluate influenza vaccine effectiveness is based on patients seeking care for acute respiratory infection, with those who test positive for influenza as cases and the test-negatives serving as controls. This design has not been validated for the inpatient setting where selection bias might be different from an outpatient setting. We derived mathematical expressions for vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations and used numerical simulations to verify theoretical results exploring expected biases under various scenarios. We explored meaningful interpretations of VE estimates from inpatient TND studies. VE estimates from inpatient TND studies capture the vaccine-mediated protection of the source population against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations. If vaccination does not modify disease severity, these estimates are equivalent to VE against influenza virus infection. If chronic cardiopulmonary individuals are enrolled because of non-infectious exacerbation, biased VE estimates (too high) will result. If chronic cardiopulmonary disease status is adjusted for accurately, the VE estimates will be unbiased. If chronic cardiopulmonary illness cannot be adequately be characterized, excluding these individuals may provide unbiased VE estimates. The inpatient TND offers logistic advantages and can provide valid estimates of influenza VE. If highly vaccinated patients with respiratory exacerbation of chronic cardiopulmonary conditions are eligible for study inclusion, biased VE estimates will result unless this group is well characterized and the analysis can adequately adjust for it. Otherwise, such groups of subjects should be excluded from the analysis.

  12. Identification and characterization of deer astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Saskia L.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-01-01

    The threat of emerging infectious viruses in humans requires a more effective approach regarding virus surveillance. A thorough understanding of virus diversity in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about pathogens and may lead to the identification of newly emerging pathogens...... in the future. In this study, diarrhoea samples from an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in a Danish population of European roe deer were gathered for which no aetiological agent could be identified. Large-scale molecular RNA virus screening, based on host nucleic acid depletion, sequence......-independent amplification and sequencing of partially purified viral RNA, revealed the presence of novel astroviruses, CcAstV-1 and CcAstV-2, in two of ten diarrhoea samples. Whether these viruses were responsible for causing diarrhoea remains to be determined. Phylogenetic analyses on amplified sequences showed...

  13. Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and PRL were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1 ± 2.04 ng/mL at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98 ± 0.07 ng/mL in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05. The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p > 0.05, which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

  14. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  15. Will Culling White-Tailed Deer Prevent Lyme Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugeler, K J; Jordan, R A; Schulze, T L; Griffith, K S; Mead, P S

    2016-08-01

    White-tailed deer play an important role in the ecology of Lyme disease. In the United States, where the incidence and geographic range of Lyme disease continue to increase, reduction of white-tailed deer populations has been proposed as a means of preventing human illness. The effectiveness of this politically sensitive prevention method is poorly understood. We summarize and evaluate available evidence regarding the effect of deer reduction on vector tick abundance and human disease incidence. Elimination of deer from islands and other isolated settings can have a substantial impact on the reproduction of blacklegged ticks, while reduction short of complete elimination has yielded mixed results. To date, most studies have been conducted in ecologic situations that are not representative to the vast majority of areas with high human Lyme disease risk. Robust evidence linking deer control to reduced human Lyme disease risk is lacking. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend deer population reduction as a Lyme disease prevention measure, except in specific ecologic circumstances. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Factors Affecting the Winter-Feeding Ecology of Red Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Náhlik, A.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of browsing the forest regenerations and the consumption of supplementary given food of red deer were investigated. On a 10,000 ha territory managed by a forest management unit all the regenerations were fenced in due to the high browsing pressure. In the course of the experiment three plots of 0.5 ha-s each regenerated by oak (Querqus robur were left unfenced. On the side of one plot a feeding station was built in which sugar beet slices were given supplementary. On the side of another plot maize fodder was offered, while the third one served as a control. All three plots were surrounded by sandy bands, to be able to count how many deer stepped in weekly the respective plot. During the freeze days deer used significantly less the regeneration plots, and consequently browsed less. The same was found during the snow cover. Although snow was as shallow as 5 cm in average, it caused a change in feeding strategy of deer. Regenerations covered by snow did not offer enough forage anymore, because the hiding of the forbs and grasses. On weeks with snow cover red deer consumed significantly more sugar beet slices, than on weeks without snow. On the days without snow cover the later the week during the winter was, the more sugar beet was consumed. Browsing pressure caused in average by one deer in the neighbouring of the feeding stations was significantly increased by giving supplementary maize or sugar beet slices.

  17. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Columbian White-tailed Deer:Black-tailed Deer Ratio Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower Columbia population of Columbian White-tailed deer CWTD—Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) is an endangered population that has undergone a dramatic...

  18. 2012 mule deer and white-tailed deer census and population density estimate : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on the 2012 deer census survey at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. Census methods and survey results are discussed. A combination of census...

  19. Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest Records from 2011 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Morgan Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  20. Deer Management Assistance Reports at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge for 2011 and 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest forms are from Hillside during the 2011-2012 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  1. Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest Records from 2011 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Mathews Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  2. Health of mule and white-tailed deer at Rocky Mountain Arsenal : March-April 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer(~ virginianus), reside within the Arsenal. Little information about the health of these animals in relation to...

  3. Environmental Assessment: Public Deer Hunting on the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge (DRAFT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer have been present on Plum Island since before Refuge establishment in 1942. An aerial survey in 1948 revealed at least 15 deer wintering on the...

  4. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  5. Environmental Assessment : proposed shotgun slug/blackpowder antlerless deer hunt on Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lee Metcalf NWR, in this assessment, is proposing a gun hunt for the 1988 deer hunting season in an effort to reduce the deer herd on the refuge. A biological...

  6. Study of deer movement on and adjacent to Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We evaluated movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer (WT) and mule deer (MD) on and adjacent to Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in north-central...

  7. Seasonal movements and home ranges of white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grovenburg, T. W; Jenks, J. A; Klaver, R. W; Swanson, C. C; Jacques, C. N; Todey, D

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of movement patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) inhabiting landscapes intensively modified by agricultural systems is important to the present and future understanding of deer ecology...

  8. LONG-TERM INFLUENCE OF HUMAN PRESENCE ON SPATIAL SEXUAL SEGREGATION IN FALLOW DEER (DAMA DAMA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marco Apollonio; Simone Ciuti; Siriano Luccarini

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The present work investigates how a fallow deer (Dama dama) population in central Italy might have been affected from 1984 to 2003 by the increase of human access to the study site, where humans were the main deer predators...

  9. Spatial and temporal analysis of factors associated with urban deer-vehicle collisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erin C McCance; Richard K Baydack; David J Walker; Derek N Leask

    2015-01-01

    ...). Deer-vehicle collisions represent a human-wildlife conflict of serious concern, given that they result, most notably, in significant risk to human safety, deer mortality, and costly vehicle damage...

  10. Elk and Deer Management Plan and Environmental Assessment : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Elk and Deer Management Plan and Environmental Assessment (EDMP/EA) is to develop and evaluate alternative actions for management of elk and deer...

  11. New Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Isolated from Sika Deer and Red Deer in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the occurrence and genotype distribution of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cervids, 615 fecal samples were collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus and sika deer (Cervus nippon on 10 different farms in Henan and Jilin Province. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped with a nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the rRNA genes, showing an average infection rate of 35.9% (221/615. In this study, 25 ITS genotypes were identified including seven known genotypes (BEB6, EbpC, EbpA, D, HLJDI, HLJD-IV, and COS-I and 18 novel genotypes (designated JLD-I to JLD-XIV, HND-I to HND-IV. Among these, BEB6 (131/221, 59.3% was the predominant genotype (P < 0.01, followed by HLJDI (18/221, 8.1% and JLD-VIII (16/221, 7.2%. BEB6 has recently been detected in humans and nonhuman primates in China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that BEB6, HLJDI, HLJD-IV, COS-I, and 10 novel genotypes (JLD-VII to JLD-XIV, HND-III to HND-IV clustered in group 2. Genotype D, EbpC, and EbpA, known to cause human microsporidiosis worldwide, clustered in group 1, the members of which have zoonotic potential, together with eight novel genotypes (JLD-I to JLD-VI, HND-I to HND-II. Therefore, deer may play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans.

  12. Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: Diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Waser, NM; Price, MV; Blumstein, DT; Arózqueta, SR; Escobar, BDC; Pickens, R; A. Pistoia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were p...

  13. Decreasing deer browsing pressure influenced understory vegetation dynamics over 30 years

    OpenAIRE

    Boulanger, Vincent; Baltzinger, Christophe; Saïd, Sonia; Ballon, Philippe; Picard, Jean-Francois; Dupouey, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Key message Thanks to the concomitant recordings of vegetation and deer browsing sampled first in 1976, then resurveyed in 2006, we show that forest plant communities shifted in response to deer population dynamics, stand management and eutrophication. Context and aims High deer populations alter forest under-story dynamics worldwide. However, no study ever attempted to rank the importance of deer herbivory relatively to other environmental drivers. In the Arc-en-Barrois National Forest (...

  14. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-resistant ear tag, or other device approved by APHIS. One of the animal identifications must be an official... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk, and...

  15. [Preparation and Determination of Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Deer Antler, Heart and Blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan-bo; Yin, Jian-yuan; Liu, Jing-yan; Yang, Yu-xia; Sun, Dan-dan; Liu, Ji-hua

    2014-12-01

    To optimize the method for preparation of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I ) in deer antler, and to determine the IGF-I in deer antler, heart and blood. Ultrasonic extraction was used to extract IGF-I from different tissues of deer with ammonia-ammonium acetate buffer, followed by ultrafiltration and solid phase extraction to concentrate and purify the samples. At the same time, ethanol precipitation method was carried out in the purification of IGF-I ultrafiltratein deer antler, a parallel test proceeded and radio immune assay (RIA) was set to determine the IGF-I in deer antler, heart and blood. The IGF-I (60.8 ng/g) in deer antler by solid phase extraction was only existed in 30% methanol aqueous solution which was much higher than that (46.1 ng/g) by ethanol precipitation method. The quantities of IGF-I in deer antler, heart and blood were significantly different, it was 61.9 ng/g in antler and 21.9 ng/mL in blood, while there was no IGF-I tested in deer heart. Solid phase extraction is superior to ethanol precipitation method in preparing IGF-I in deer antler and it is clear that the IGF-I contained in deer antler is significantly higher than that in deer heart and blood, so it is the best choice to take IGF-I from deer antler.

  16. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Mejía Salazar

    Full Text Available Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus from a chronic wasting disease (CWD endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013, we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics.

  18. Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2014-07-08

    In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

  19. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open

  20. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R.; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. PMID:27763552

  1. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda McGuire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  2. Influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation with confirmed influenza in the 2010-11 seasons: a test-negative observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen C Cheng

    Full Text Available Immunisation programs are designed to reduce serious morbidity and mortality from influenza, but most evidence supporting the effectiveness of this intervention has focused on disease in the community or in primary care settings. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against hospitalisation with confirmed influenza. We compared influenza vaccination status in patients hospitalised with PCR-confirmed influenza with patients hospitalised with influenza-negative respiratory infections in an Australian sentinel surveillance system. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated from the odds ratio of vaccination in cases and controls. We performed both simple multivariate regression and a stratified analysis based on propensity score of vaccination. Vaccination status was ascertained in 333 of 598 patients with confirmed influenza and 785 of 1384 test-negative patients. Overall estimated crude vaccine effectiveness was 57% (41%, 68%. After adjusting for age, chronic comorbidities and pregnancy status, the estimated vaccine effectiveness was 37% (95% CI: 12%, 55%. In an analysis accounting for a propensity score for vaccination, the estimated vaccine effectiveness was 48.3% (95% CI: 30.0, 61.8%. Influenza vaccination was moderately protective against hospitalisation with influenza in the 2010 and 2011 seasons.

  3. Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nilssen

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

  4. First record in South Asia of deer throat bot fly larvae Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Oesteridae) from Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), a new host record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, Radhakrishnan; Ajithkumar, K G; Reghu, Ravindran; Kavitha, Rajagopal

    2012-06-01

    The Bot fly larvae, identified to be the third instars of the deer throat bot fly Pharyngomyia picta were recovered from the lumen of trachea and secondary bronchi during the necropsy of a female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, India. This forms the first report of P. picta from India and the whole of South Asia. Sambar deer is a new host record for the larvae of this fly. Morphological description of the third stage larvae with supporting figures are presented.

  5. Inferring white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population dynamics from wildlife collisions in the City of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Widenmaier, Kerri; Fahrig, Lenore

    2005-01-01

    Concerns associated with growing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers in Ottawa, Ontario have motivated several studies related to the distribution and ecology of deer in the Ottawa-Carleton region. This project infers deer-population trends from deer-vehicle collisions in Ottawa, Ontario, and considers the influence of traffic volume on estimates of population dynamics from deer-vehicle collision data. Traffic volume and collision data for various road segments across suburban ...

  6. What do they eat? Using DNA barcoding to assess diet preferences of deer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    landscapes open. However, in order to use this tool properly, we need to know more about what the animals eat compared to what is available in different habitats and how access to supplementary fodder influences the grazing effect on the vegetation. Using DNA barcoding of feces, we are investigating the diet...... preferences of deer (red deer and roe deer) in Klelund Deer Park in Denmark. Over one year, we collect feces samples every month from different habitat types (e.g., heath, marsh, meadow, open forests and coniferous plantation) within the park. DNA barcoding can not only tell us which plants are consumed...... but also in which proportions. We intend to uncover the variation in deer diet over a year and among different habitats and how supplementary fodder influences the diet preference. The results will contribute to a better understanding of deer management as well as how deer grazing can be used as a tool...

  7. Distribution of lesions in red and fallow deer naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernando, M P; Torres, M J; Aznar, J; Negro, J J; Gandía, A; Gortázar, C

    2010-01-01

    Wild deer have an important role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The aims of this study were (1) to compare the pattern of lesions present in wild red (Cervus elaphus) and fallow (Dama dama) deer that were naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, and (2) to use this information to develop a sampling strategy for the isolation of M. bovis from the lymphoid tissues of the head of these animals. Culture of head lymphoid tissues demonstrated that 28 of 95 red deer and 22 of 100 fallow deer sampled were infected with M. bovis. Approximately 30% of each deer population had no gross lesions. Fallow deer were significantly more likely to have thoracic lesions than red deer. Lesions were observed in the retropharyngeal lymph nodes of 64% of the culture-positive red deer and 43% of the culture positive fallow deer. One third of the red deer, but none of the fallow deer, had well-encapsulated abscess lesions. There were no microscopical differences in the lesions in the lymph nodes of the red and fallow deer. Bacteriological culture from both the tonsil and retropharyngeal lymph nodes increased the rate of isolation of M. bovis by 22% over culture of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes alone in both species. These findings indicate that investigation of wild deer for bTB-compatible lesions should include examination of the medial retropharyngeal, left tracheobronchial, mediastinal, mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes. Sampling for bacteriological culture from head lymphoid tissues should be from the tonsil and the medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes. These protocols may prove useful in bTB surveillance and control in regions where wild deer contribute to the circulation of M. bovis.

  8. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... purchasing power on the volatile open electric market. The Action Alternative at White Site 1 would be... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations...

  9. Abiotic factors influencing deer browsing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Richard H. Odom; Karl V. Miller

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison of woody browse availability and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use among clearcut interiors, skidder trail edges, and mature forest and an evaluation of the relative importance of aboitic factors in predicting browsing pressure within regenerating clearcuts in the central Appalachians of West Virginia. We sampled...

  10. Roe deer sera used for TBE surveillance in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Wetscher, Monika; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Walder, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    A large majority of Austrian citizens are aware of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), consequently reflected by a high vaccination rate of 85%. In return, risk assessment and disease mapping on human cases might be hampered due to high and inhomogeneous vaccination rates and travel habitats of humans. The roe deer was used to obtain a starting point for the integral view on the actual risk of TBE in Austria. The roe deer exhibits several attributes which makes it suitable as an indicator species: the roe deer has a restricted home range and it is known to be a heavy tick carrier. Furthermore it sero-converts after infection with TBE, but no outbreak occurs. Sera from 945 roe deer were obtained from all over Austria and screened with IFAT for the antibodies against TBE. Twenty-two positive samples, 2.4%, and 17 samples at the borderline titre of 1:16 were identified. The majority of the positive samples, 70.6%, were located in known TBE areas based on human cases. Further research is needed to confirm or reject new endemic foci of TBE transmission.

  11. Ecological correlates of seed survival after ingestion by Fallow Deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Van der Veen, CEJ; Veen, GF; Van Diggelen, R

    1. The survival and retention of seeds was studied by feeding known quantities of seeds of 25 species to four captive Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.). To test for ecological correlates, plant species were selected to represent large variation in seed size, seed shape, seed longevity and habitat

  12. Pathogen specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective - To develop a noninvasive biomarker based Mycobacterium bovis specific detection system to track infection in domestic and wild animals. Design – Experimental longitudinal study for discovery and cross sectional design for validation Animals - Yearling white-tailed deer fawns (n=8) were ...

  13. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans.

  14. Landscape development and mule deer habitat in Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Duncan; Theresa Burcsu

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the ecological consequences of rural residential development and different management regimes on a tract of former industrial timberland in central Oregon known as the Bull Springs. Forage quality and habitat suitability models for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) winter range were joined to the outputs of a spatially explicit...

  15. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9 ± 0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2 ± 1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

  16. Evaluating a strategy to deliver vaccine to white-tailed deer at a landscape level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, William D.; Anderson, Charles W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Hall, Wayne H.; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Effective delivery of vaccines and other pharmaceuticals to wildlife populations is needed when zoonotic diseases pose a risk to public health and natural resources or have considerable economic consequences. The objective of our study was to develop a bait-distribution strategy for potential delivery of oral bovine tuberculosis (bTB) vaccine to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) where deer are reservoirs for the disease. During 17 February and 2 March 2011, we created a grid of experimental bait stations (n = 64) on Sandhill Wildlife Management Area, Wisconsin, USA, to assess station densities needed to attract and deliver placebo baits to free-ranging white-tailed deer and look for associations among deer density, number of bait stations per deer, and bait consumption. We placed 1 L of commercially available alfalfa cubes at bait stations 652 m apart, and monitored stations with motion-activated cameras for 5 days to document visitation and consumption by deer and nontarget species. Deer discovered 38% of all bait stations within 37 hr, on average (SE = 3.91 hr), and consumed variable amounts of bait at each station. Deer were documented in 94% of all photographs of wildlife at bait stations. We found no correlation between bait consumption and deer density or the number of bait stations per deer. We provide the first information on use of baits by free-ranging deer and nontarget wildlife to eventually vaccinate deer against bTB at a landscape level. The results of this study can further the development of strategies in delivery of pharmaceuticals to free-ranging white-tailed deer.

  17. Genetic diversity among Chinese sika deer (Cervus nippon) populations and relationships between Chinese and Japanese sika deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) is a cervid endemic to mainland and insular Asia and endangered. We analyzed variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region for four subspecies to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and evolutionary history in China. 335 bp were sequenced and eight haplotypes were identified based on 25 variable sites among the populations. Sika deer in China showed lower genetic diversity, suggesting a small effective population size due to habitat fragmentation, a low number of founder individuals, or the narrow breeding program. AMOVA analysis indicated that there was significant genetic subdivision among the four populations, but no correlation between the genetic and geographic distance. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that Chinese sika deer may be divided into three genetic clades, but the genetic structure among Chinese populations was inconsistent with subspecies designations and present geographic distribution. Including the sequence data of Japanese sika deer, the results indicated that Chinese populations were more closely related to Southern Japanese populations than to the Northern Japanese one, and the Taiwan population was closer to populations of Northeastern China and Sichuan than to those of Southern China.

  18. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus in northeastern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Olano-Marin

    Full Text Available We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus. No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  19. Molecular Evidence of Malaria and Zoonotic Diseases among Rapid Diagnostic Test-Negative Febrile Patients in Low-Transmission Season, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Petersen, Pelle T; Bathily, Sidy N'd;

    2016-01-01

    From November to December 2012 in Sélingué-Mali, blood samples from 88 febrile patients who tested negative by malaria Paracheck (®) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were used to assess the presence of sub-RDT Plasmodium falciparum as well as Borrelia, Coxiella burnetii, and Babesia applying molecul...

  20. Prion-seeding activity in cerebrospinal fluid of deer with chronic wasting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Haley

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, or prion diseases, are a uniformly fatal family of neurodegenerative diseases in mammals that includes chronic wasting disease (CWD of cervids. The early and ante-mortem identification of TSE-infected individuals using conventional western blotting or immunohistochemistry (IHC has proven difficult, as the levels of infectious prions in readily obtainable samples, including blood and bodily fluids, are typically beyond the limits of detection. The development of amplification-based seeding assays has been instrumental in the detection of low levels of infectious prions in clinical samples. In the present study, we evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of CWD-exposed (n=44 and naïve (n=4 deer (n=48 total for CWD prions (PrP(d using two amplification assays: serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification with polytetrafluoroethylene beads (sPMCAb and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC employing a truncated Syrian hamster recombinant protein substrate. Samples were evaluated blindly in parallel with appropriate positive and negative controls. Results from amplification assays were compared to one another and to obex immunohistochemistry, and were correlated to available clinical histories including CWD inoculum source (e.g. saliva, blood, genotype, survival period, and duration of clinical signs. We found that both sPMCAb and RT-QuIC were capable of amplifying CWD prions from cervid CSF, and results correlated well with one another. Prion seeding activity in either assay was observed in approximately 50% of deer with PrP(d detected by IHC in the obex region of the brain. Important predictors of amplification included duration of clinical signs and time of first tonsil biopsy positive results, and ultimately the levels of PrP(d identified in the obex by IHC. Based on our findings, we expect that both sPMCAb and RT-QuIC may prove to be useful detection assays for the detection of prions in

  1. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Nan; Sun Changjiang; Wang Quankai; Du Rui; Wang Shijie; Gao Yugang; Zhang Pengju; Zhang Lianxue

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical...

  2. Experiments on the ectoparasitic deer ked that often attacks humans; preferences for body parts, colour and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Hokkanen, P; Härkönen, S; Kaitala, A; Kaunisto, S; Laaksonen, S; Kekäläinen, J; Ylönen, H

    2010-06-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) can fail in its host search. Host search fails when an individual deer ked irreversibly accepts a host unsuitable for its reproduction (e.g. a human) and drops its wings. In northern Europe, the main host of the deer ked is the moose (Alces alces). The deer ked is increasingly causing serious problems for humans (for example, causing deer ked dermatitis) and is considered a threat for the recreational use of forests. The adult deer ked flies in early and mid-autumn to search for a host. Our aims were: (i) to study whether there are ways to avoid deer ked attacks by wearing particular clothing, and (ii) to evaluate deer ked host choice. Using human targets, we explored the cues the deer ked uses for host selection. We studied which part of the host body deer keds target and if body colour and temperature affect their choice. In our experiments, deer keds landed more on dark and red clothing than on white clothing. Moreover, deer keds mostly attacked the upper body parts and preferred the back side of the body over the front side. Finally, deer keds preferred the warmest areas of the host.

  3. Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer: sex-specific behavior comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Peishi YAN; Xiuxiang MENG; Jinchao FENG; Hongfa XU; Qisen YANG; Zuojian FENG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the behavior of captive alpine musk deer and to determine if daily behavior patterns varied between females and males. From August 2002 to January 2003, focal sampling was used to observe 32 adult captive alpine musk deer (13 female and 19 male) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province. Results indicated similar behavior patterns for males and females, with only two out of 12 recorded behaviors showing significant sex differences. In comparison to females, males rested for a longer duration and exhibited tail pasting more frequently. This study also provided the first recording of tail pasting by female musk deer.

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  5. Management of deer for experimental studies with foor-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E P; McDiarmid, A; Rowe, J J

    1975-06-07

    Red, sika, fallow, roe and muntjac deer adapted to captivity in experimental units designed for working with foot-and-mouth disease. The red, sika and fallow deer readily accepted rolled oats and hay as their staple diet. This diet was replaced for the roe and muntjac deer with flaked maize, calf starter pellets and green browse. Etorphine/acepromazine ans xylazine were found to be suitable sedatives for detailed examination of the tongue and oral cavity of the various species of deer and gave adequate analgesia for the inoculation and collection of virus samples.

  6. An epidemiological survey of hepatitis E virus in Shika deer, Cervus nippon, in Nara Park, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    萩原, 克郎; 辻, 正義; 川渕, 貴子; 鳥居, 春己; 小林, 朋子; 浅川, 満彦; 石原, 智明

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections have been reported in deer as well as in domestic animals; however, the precise epidemiological information regarding HEV infections in the Shika Deer in Nara Park in Japan remains to be investigated. In this study, we examined the anti-HEV antibodies and HEV-RNA in sera from 173 of female sika deer in the park. The reactivity to HEV antigen in the serum samples were low levels. The detection of HEV-RNA in sera from the deer revealed no positive samples by R...

  7. Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) poisoning in fallow deer (Dama dama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Pedro M O; Von Hohendorf, Raquel; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Schmitz, Milene; da Cruz, Cláudio E F; Driemeier, David

    2009-09-01

    A captive fallow deer (Dama dama) in a zoo was spontaneously poisoned after consumption of Sida carpinifolia. The paddock where cervids were kept was severely infested by S. carpinifolia. The deer developed a neurological syndrome characterized by muscular weakness, intention tremors, visual and standing-up deficits, falls, and abnormal behavior and posture. Because a severe mandibular fracture and the consequent deteriorating condition, it was euthanized. Main microscopic findings were swelling and multifocal cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells. The cytoplasm of multiple cells of the cerebellum, especially the Purkinje cells, stained with the lectins Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris, and succinylated Triticum vulgaris. Diagnostic possibilities such as bovine diarrhea virus, rabies, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy were excluded. The report focuses on the risk of maintaining S. carpinifolia populations in zoo enclosures of wild herbivores.

  8. Cutaneous fibroma in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromas present very frequent skin neoplasms in different species of wild game of the family Cervidae. Viral etiology of skin neoplasms was proven in certain species of wild game from this family, with the most frequent diagnoses being: fibromas, ossifying fibromas, fibrosarcomas, multiple neurofibromatosis, fibropapillomas, and papillomas. The diagnozed tumor in the roe deer had the histological characteristics of a polimorphous fibroblast, which is not the case with domestic animals. This finding can be considered as a characteristic of fibromas in animals of the family Cervidae. Solitary fibroma or multiple fibroma (fibromatosis does not present a significant cause of deer deaths, but they cause concern among hunters who are in direct contact with them. Although fibromas do not lead to spoilage of game meat, they are esthetically repellent and people are reluctant to consume meat of such game.

  9. A roe deer from the Pliocene of Hidalgo, central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Jiménez-Hidalgo; Victor M. Bravo-Cuevas

    2015-01-01

    Mexican Pliocene cervids are very poorly known. We report on new fossil material of the roe deer Capreolus constantini recovered from the Pliocene Atotonilco El Grande Formation of Santa María Amajac, Hidalgo (central Mexico). The specimens were collected from a series of layers of friable to moderately indurated polymictic conglomerate supported by a sandstone-tuffaceous-calcareous matrix. This species was formerly known only from the late Pliocene of Udunga, Russia, thus implying a dispersa...

  10. Gestation length in red deer: genetically determined or environmentally controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2007-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) of European origin (e.g. subspecies scoticus, hispanicus, hippelaphus) is a medium sized (100-150kg mature hind weight) ruminant that exhibits highly seasonally patterns of autumn conceptions and summer births. Historic data indicate average (+/- s.d.) gestation length of 233-234 (+/- 2-4) days. Recently, however, there has been growing awareness that there is considerably greater variation in gestation length than earlier indicated and that there is a significant element of environmental, and possibly even social, control over the duration of pregnancy in this species. Imposition of variable levels of nutrition over late pregnancy of red deer hinds has been observed to influence fetal growth trajectory and gestation length, with no apparent effect on birth weight. This supports a hypothesis that under conditions of modest feed imbalance, variation in gestation length compensates for variation in fetal growth trajectory to ensure optimisation of birth weight. More recent studies on primiparous (24 month old) red deer hinds have identified surprisingly large variation in gestation length (193-263 days) compared with adult hinds (228-243 days), with earlier conceiving individuals within the primiparous cohort expressing significantly longer gestation than the later conceiving hinds, resulting in a higher level of calving synchrony than expected from known conception dates. This introduces an intriguing hypothesis of social indicative effects on parturition timing to promote within-cohort birth synchrony. Collectively, these data debunk the commonly held notion that gestation length of red deer is genetically fixed within strict limits. A review of the literature points to this as possibly a common phenomenon across a range of non-domesticated ruminant species but this conclusion is not supported by numerous conflicting studies on domestic sheep and cattle.

  11. 绿巨人——JOHN DEERE 9420T和8530

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    机械怪

    2010-01-01

    @@ 这次展示给大家的模型是ERTL金牌系列拖拉机模型--JOHN DEERE 9420T和8530.由于在现实世界中他们都是绿巨人似的大块头,所以ERTL公司以1:32的比例再现这两部JOHN DEERE公司的主力型号.

  12. Incidence of gasrointestinal helminthiasis in captive deers at Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Borghare

    Full Text Available Out of 60 Samples of deer from Maharajbag Zoo, Nagpur, 30 were positive for eggs and larvae of helminthic parasites. The encountered parasitic species were Haemonchus spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum spp. etc. Direct smear method together with sedimentation technique were used for the purpose. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 337-338

  13. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  14. SOX9 duplication linked to intersex in deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kropatsch

    Full Text Available A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal.

  15. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  16. Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

  17. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach... numbers. The lethal actions would include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be...

  18. 78 FR 46603 - Notice of Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... add lethal deer management actions (sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia of... include the reduction of the deer herd through sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia and...

  19. Immune phenotype and body condition in roe deer: individuals with high body condition have different, not stronger immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jégo, Maël; Bonenfant, Christophe; Gibert, Philippe; Rannou, Benoit; Klein, François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    .... Roe deer living at Chizé, a forest with poor habitat quality, were expected to show lower values for body condition and immune parameters than roe deer at Trois Fontaines, a forest with high habitat quality...

  20. Immune Phenotype and Body Condition in Roe Deer: Individuals with High Body Condition Have Different, Not Stronger Immunity: e45576

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont; Maël Jégo; Christophe Bonenfant; Philippe Gibert; Benoit Rannou; François Klein; Jean-Michel Gaillard

    2012-01-01

    .... Roe deer living at Chizé, a forest with poor habitat quality, were expected to show lower values for body condition and immune parameters than roe deer at Trois Fontaines, a forest with high habitat quality...

  1. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Timothy B; Li, Hong; Rosenburg, Stuart R; Norhausen, Robert W; Garner, Michael M

    2002-09-15

    Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses. Disease in these deer was substantially different from that typically seen following infection with ovine herpesvirus-2, the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus. Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species.

  2. Agricultural Technology--A Real Industry-Education Partnership [and] John Deere Ag Tech in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Paul J.; Ginsburg, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Bamford describes the partnership between John Deere and colleges in the United States and Canada to train technicians in the latest agricultural technology. Ginsburg discusses the John Deere Agricultural Technology program at State University of New York-Cobleskill. (JOW)

  3. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  4. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R.; Franson, J.C.; Baker, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p < 0.001) and mercury (p = 0.05). Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  5. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hothorn

    Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining

  6. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Delwyn P; Barr, Daniel J; Bochsler, Philip N; Hall, S Mark; Gidlewski, Thomas; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Spraker, Terry R; Samuel, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrP(CWD)) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrP(CWD) in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of recto-anal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  7. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelli Dubay

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  8. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  9. Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

  10. Reproduction, growth, and tissue residues of deer fed dieldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D.A.; Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Feeding tests were conducted from January, 1966, to January, 1969, to ascertain the effects of daily ingestions of sublethal amounts of dieldrin on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Groups of deer on 0 ppm dieldrin (controls), 5 ppm, and 25 ppm dieldrin were maintained at these respective levels, as were their progeny. Treated food was readily accepted. Dieldrin intoxication was not observed, and 9 of 10 animals of each group survived 3 years of treatment. No differences in conception or in utero mortality were found between groups. Fawns from dieldrin-fed does were smaller at birth and greater post-partum mortality occurred. Fertility of male progeny was not affected. Growth was slower and remained reduced in dieldrin-treated females which were immature when the study began. Hematologic values and serum protein concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to treatment. Liver/body weight ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) larger for the 25-ppm-dieldrin group. Pituitary glands were smaller and thyroids were larger in dieldrin-fed deer. Weight gains of fawns were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2 of 3 years in dieldrin-treated groups. Placental transfer of dieldrin occurred. Whole milk from does fed 25 ppm dieldrin contained residues of 17 ppm. Residue levels in brain, liver, and thigh muscle tissues showed no evidence of increasing with length of treatment, but showed definite relationships to levels of dieldrin in daily diets. Nursing fawns had higher residues in brain tissues than did older deer on 5 ppm a d 25 ppm dieldrin. Highest brain residues (12.60 and 12.10 ppm, wet weight) occurred in fawns only a few days of age at death. Equilibrium between ingestion and storage or excretion of dieldrin occurred prior to 200 days and continued until nearly 1,100 days. There was no evidence of a sharp decline in residues after a long period of continued dosage. Daily ingestion of 100 and 200 ppm of dieldrin proved fatal to yearling male deer at 27

  11. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8≤ pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH≥ 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och m

  12. Genetic population structure and relatedness of Colorado mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and incidence of chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of farmed and free ranging mule deer, white tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk, and moose in some areas of the United States. The disease is enzootic in herds of free ranging mule deer in the Rocky Mountain National ...

  13. Inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation in a transformed deer cell line infected with chronic wasting disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymond, G.J.; Olsen, E.A.; Lee, K.S.; Raymond, L.D.; Bryant, P.K.; Baron, G.S.; Caughey, W.S.; Kocisko, D.A.; McHolland, L.E.; Favara, C.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Mayer, R.T.; Miller, M.W.; Williams, E.S.; Caughey, B.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected wi

  14. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity.

  15. Systemic adenovirus infection associated with high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Woods, L.W.; Swift, P.K.; Barr, B.C.; Nordhausen, R.W.; Stillian, M.H.; Patton, J.F.; Oliver, M.N.; Jones, K.R.; Maclachlan, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen counties in northern California experienced epizootics of high mortality in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population during the latter half of 1993. Thirteen deer submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System as part of this natural die-off had systemic

  16. 78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Policy Act of 1969 and consistent with National Park Service law, regulations, and policies, and the... capture and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to the target density and maintain that level. Donation... through the use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture, and euthanasia to reduce deer...

  17. Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. (family Anaplasmataceae) from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Cynthia M; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Mead, Daniel G; Dugan, Vivien G; Luttrell, M Page; Sahora, Alexandra I; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Davidson, William R; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Recently, an undescribed Anaplasma sp. (also called Ehrlichia-like sp. or WTD agent) was isolated in ISE6 tick cells from captive white-tailed deer. The goal of the current study was to characterize this organism using a combination of experimental infection, morphologic, serologic, and molecular studies. Each of 6 experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) became chronically infected (100+ days) with the Anaplasma sp. by inoculation of either infected whole blood or culture. None of the deer showed evidence of clinical disease, but 3 of the 6 deer evaluated had multiple episodes of transient thrombocytopenia. Light microscopy of Giemsa-stained, thin blood smears revealed tiny, dark, spherical structures in platelets of acutely infected deer. Anaplasma sp. was detected in platelets of inoculated deer by polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Five of 6 deer developed antibodies reactive to Anaplasma sp. antigen, as detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and gltA sequences confirmed the Anaplasma sp. is related to A. platys. Two attempts to transmit the Anaplasma sp. between deer by feeding Amblyomma americanum, a suspected tick vector, were unsuccessful. Based on its biologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, this organism is considered a novel species of Anaplasma, and the name Anaplasma odocoilei sp. nov. is proposed with UMUM76(T) (=CSUR-A1) as the type strain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural coinfection of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population with three Ehrlichia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S E; Stallknecht, D E; Lockhart, J M; Dawson, J E; Davidson, W R

    1998-10-01

    The ticks Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis, strongly implicated vectors of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent, respectively, commonly are found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). As deer can be infected with E. chaffeensis, the HGE agent, and another Ehrlichia-like organism, a deer population parasitized by both tick species in coastal Georgia was tested for evidence of Ehrlichia spp. infection using serologic, molecular, and culture techniques. Antibodies to both E. chaffeensis (geometric mean titer = 111) and Ehrlichia equi, surrogate antigen for the HGE agent, (geometric mean titer = 1,024) were detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Nested polymerase chain reaction employing species-specific primers demonstrated sequence-confirmed 16S rDNA fragments of 3 distinct Ehrlichia spp. in this population: E. chaffeensis (1/5), the HGE agent (3/5), and an Ehrlichia-like organism previously described from white-tailed deer (5/5). Ehrlichia chaffeensis was isolated in culture from the inguinal lymph node of a single deer. An Ehrlichia-type morula was identified in a neutrophil of 1 deer on examination of blood smears. This work provides the first evidence of the HGE agent in a nonhuman host in the southeastern United States and documents infection with both E. chaffeensis and the HGE agent in a single deer population, thereby supporting the importance of white-tailed deer in the natural history of the human ehrlichioses agents.

  19. Behavioral ecology of sika deer in spring in semi-natural area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Behaviors of sika deer in spring were studied by scan sampling, ad libitum sampling, and all-occurrence recording methods during 1998. The results showed that behaviors of sika deer in spring can be classified by seven categories: grazing, ruminating, bedding, moving, standing, drinking, alert, agonistic and other behaviors. Various behavioral models were more regular. Grazing behavior was a kind of mainly behavioral model.

  20. The legacy of deer overabundance: long-term delays in herbaceous understory recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendergast; Shane M. Hanlon; Zachary M. Long; Alex Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2016-01-01

    Decades of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) overpopulation have dramatically homogenized forests across much of the eastern United States, creating depauperate forest understory communities. The rate at which these communities recover once deer browsing has been reduced remains an open question. We evaluate overbrowsing...

  1. On the identity of Cervus nigricans Brooke, 1877, with remarks upon other deer from the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobroruka, L.J.

    1971-01-01

    A great number of papers deal with the deer of the Philippine Islands but in spite of this fact the taxonomy and the nomenclature are still not clear. The first author who recapitulated all known facts about the Philippine deer was Brooke (1877), who also described a new species, Cervus nigricans.

  2. Genetic structuring of Coues white-tailed deer in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy G. Lopez

    2006-01-01

    The manuscripts in this thesis examine different aspects of white-tailed deer. In the first manuscript I used microsatellite DNA markers in the form of multilocus genotype data and microsatellite allele frequencies to examine spatial patterns of genetic relatedness for Coues white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) in Arizona and New Mexico...

  3. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids or biting midges (ceratopogonids. Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25, roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6 and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7, all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  4. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species.

  5. No evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.

  6. Association mapping of genetic risk factors for chronic wasting disease in wild deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomomi Matsumoto,; Samuel, Michael D.; Trent Bollinger,; Margo Pybus,; David W. Coltman,

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. We assessed the feasibility of association mapping CWD genetic risk factors in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using a panel of bovine microsatellite markers from three homologous deer linkage groups predicted to contain candidate genes. These markers had a low cross-species amplification rate (27.9%) and showed weak linkage disequilibrium (<1 cM). Markers near the prion protein and the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) genes were suggestively associated with CWD status in white-tailed deer (P = 0.006) and mule deer (P = 0.02), respectively. This is the first time an association between the NF1 region and CWD has been reported.

  7. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  8. The impact of Sika deer on vegetation in Japan: setting management priorities on a national scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

    2014-09-01

    Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact.

  9. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Rhodococcus equi in wild boars (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Cisek, Agata Anna; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Kita, Jerzy

    2015-05-22

    Rhodococcus equi is now considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Sources and routes of human infection remain unclear but foodborne transmission seems to be the most probable way. Strains of pig or bovine type are most often isolated from human cases and moreover R. equi is present in submaxillary lymph nodes of apparently healthy pigs and wild boars intended for human consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of R. equi in submaxillary lymph nodes in wild boars, roe deer and red deer. Samples were collected from 936 animals and 27 R. equi strains were isolated, from 5.1 % of wild boars (23/452), 0.7 % of red deer (2/272) and 0.9 % of roe deer (2/212). Genetic diversity of all 27 isolates was studied using VspI-PFGE method, resulting in the detection of 25 PFGE patterns and four PFGE clusters. PFGE patterns of the isolates were compared with virulence plasmid types and no concordance was observed. R. equi was present in wild animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of R. equi infection for humans. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of R. equi prevalence in tissues of roe deer and red deer. However, risk associated with wild ruminant consumption seems marginal. Investigation of R. equi transmission between animals and humans based exclusively on types of virulence plasmids seems to be insufficient to identify sources of R. equi infection for people.

  10. Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Davin M; Manca, Matteo; Haley, Nicholas J; Denkers, Nathaniel D; Nalls, Amy V; Mathiason, Candace K; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination.

  11. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  12. Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davin M Henderson

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3% diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%. In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1% of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination.

  13. Rapid Antemortem Detection of CWD Prions in Deer Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Nalls, Amy V.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

  14. A roe deer from the Pliocene of Hidalgo, central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jiménez-Hidalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican Pliocene cervids are very poorly known. We report on new fossil material of the roe deer Capreolus constantini recovered from the Pliocene Atotonilco El Grande Formation of Santa María Amajac, Hidalgo (central Mexico. The specimens were collected from a series of layers of friable to moderately indurated polymictic conglomerate supported by a sandstone-tuffaceous-calcareous matrix. This species was formerly known only from the late Pliocene of Udunga, Russia, thus implying a dispersal event to North America around 4.0 Ma. This cervid is one of the very small number of mammals recorded from the poorly sampled Pliocene temperate deposits of Mexico.

  15. Orthopedic conditions of small ruminants. Llama, sheep, goat, and deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneps, A J

    1996-03-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the foot, infectious arthritis, angular limb deformities, patellar luxation, tendon contracture and injuries, and fractures encountered in sheep, goats, llamas, and deer are reviewed. These species share similar orthopedic problems to cattle, but management conditions, particularly for pet animals, may place special demands on the veterinarian treating these disease conditions. The mild temperament and relatively small body size of these animals make them excellent candidates for treatment of orthopedic problems often not amenable to practical treatment in larger or more fractious animals.

  16. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  17. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert B; Forsyth, David M; Allen, Roy K J; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I

    2015-01-01

    Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut), we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011) to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat.

  18. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Allen

    Full Text Available Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species. Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut, we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011 to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat.

  19. Iberian red deer: paraphyletic nature at mtDNA but nuclear markers support its genetic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Salinas, María; de Andrés, Damián; Pérez-González, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Red deer populations in the Iberian glacial refugium were the main source for postglacial recolonization and subspecific radiation in north-western Europe. However, the phylogenetic history of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and its relationships with northern European populations remain uncertain. Here, we study DNA sequences at the mitochondrial control region along with STR markers for over 680 specimens from all the main red deer populations in Spain and other west European areas. Our results from mitochondrial and genomic DNA show contrasting patterns, likely related to the nature of these types of DNA markers and their specific processes of change over time. The results, taken together, bring support to two distinct, cryptic maternal lineages for Iberian red deer that predated the last glacial maximum and that have maintained geographically well differentiated until present. Haplotype relationships show that only one of them contributed to the northern postglacial recolonization. However, allele frequencies of nuclear markers evidenced one main differentiation between Iberian and northern European subspecies although also supported the structure of both matrilines within Iberia. Thus, our findings reveal a paraphyletic nature for Iberian red deer but also its genetic identity and differentiation with respect to northern subspecies. Finally, we suggest that maintaining the singularity of Iberian red deer requires preventing not only restocking practices with red deer specimens belonging to other European populations but also translocations between both Iberian lineages.

  20. Serosurvey for selected disease agents in white-tailed deer from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A; Salinas, A; Martinez, F; Cantu, A; Miller, D K

    1999-10-01

    Serum samples from 350 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) collected in March 1994 from northeastern Mexico were tested for the prevalence of antibody activity against five infectious diseases of ruminants. The prevalence rate was 81% for bluetongue virus (BTV) of all serotypes, 72% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), 3% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 69% for Anaplasma marginale, and 0% for Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. ovis. These are diseases that affect domestic ruminants, and deer may act as a reservoir of infection. In addition, if deer are translocated, they may introduce pathogens to formerly disease-free areas. The high seroprevalence of BTV and EHDV cannot be related to the presence of hemorrhagic disease in the deer in this region. This is the first report to indicate the presence of B. burgdorferi infection of deer in Mexico. Despite the high prevalence of A. marginale titers, it is uncertain that deer play a role in the epizootiology of cattle anaplasmosis in the region. Apparently, white-tailed deer are unimportant in the epizootiology of brucellosis of both cattle and goats in northeastern Mexico.

  1. Establishment rate of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Escárate, D; Pomroy, W E; Scott, I; Wilson, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2015-04-15

    To investigate the establishment of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in red deer, five red deer and five sheep aged 5-6 months were challenged with a mixed burden of sheep GIN at a rate of 327L3/kg bodyweight. The LSmean (SE) establishment rates (%) for Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Cooperia curticei, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum+Chabertia spp. were 18.6 (0.03), 35.5 (0.04), 30.7 (0.04), 74.9 (0.05), 19.9 (0.06), respectively in sheep and 10.5 (0.03), 1.0 (0.04), 0.1 (0.04), 1.0 (0.05), 4.8 (0.06) respectively, in deer. Establishment rates were significantly different (p<0.05) between hosts for all genera. No Trichostrongylus colubriformis or Trichostrongylus vitrinus were seen in any deer but were present in all sheep. Trichostrongylus axei were seen in both hosts but there were relatively more which established in sheep than in deer (p<0.01). No Chabertia ovina were seen in any deer but were present in four of five sheep in low numbers. The only species of Oesophagostomum seen in either host was Oesophagostomum venulosum. These results suggest that the sheep GIN most likely to infect red deer grazing the same pastures are H. contortus, T. axei and O. venulosum.

  2. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  3. [Animal welfare-conforming fallow deer farming in Germany--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, D; von Borell, E

    2002-09-01

    Fallow deer farming for venison production on pasture and fallow land has gained importance in Germany during recent years. As fallow deer farming constitutes a relatively young farming practice, many questions concerning a welfare-conforming and ecologically sound keeping of fallow deer are still open. Based on the recommendations on the keeping of fallow deer in enclosures for the purpose of venison meat production including by-products from 2 November 1979, a critical comparative review considering the current knowledge from research and practical deer farming experience was conducted. Recommendations on measures for breeding management and administration (statistics on farms and stocks, security and control of enclosures, training and experience of stockperson, practical skills for immobilisation and killing) are proposed. The cultivation goals for the care of landscape by fallow deer farming in protected areas need to be defined precisely. Due to infection risk, mixed herds with domesticated ruminants are not recommended. Potential progress can be foreseen in preventive health measures (control of endoparasites) and by appropriate feeding and water supply, considering feeding and drinking place design, feeding behaviour and water needs. The knowledge on handling and immobilisation methods should also be applied to small herd sizes. More research is needed on transportation of fallow deer.

  4. First report of hepatitis E virus infection in sika deer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43%) out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon) were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male and female deer was 4.82% and 6.52%, respectively. HEV seroprevalence in sika deer from different geographical locations varied from 3.13% to 6.73%. There was no significant difference in HEV seroprevalence between sika deer collected in autumn (5.65%) and winter (4.85%). This is the first report of HEV seroprevalence in sika deer in China, which will provide foundation information for estimating the effectiveness of future measures to control HEV infection in sika deer in China and assessing the potential risk of humans infected with HEV after consumption of undercooked or raw meat from infected sika deer.

  5. First Report of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sika Deer in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43% out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male and female deer was 4.82% and 6.52%, respectively. HEV seroprevalence in sika deer from different geographical locations varied from 3.13% to 6.73%. There was no significant difference in HEV seroprevalence between sika deer collected in autumn (5.65% and winter (4.85%. This is the first report of HEV seroprevalence in sika deer in China, which will provide foundation information for estimating the effectiveness of future measures to control HEV infection in sika deer in China and assessing the potential risk of humans infected with HEV after consumption of undercooked or raw meat from infected sika deer.

  6. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  7. Factors affecting deer ked (Lipoptena cervi prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (Alces alces in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madslien Knut

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, a hematophagous ectoparasite of Cervids, is currently spreading in Scandinavia. In Norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (Alces alces is the definitive host. However, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. The objectives of our study were to (i determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population density are determinants of deer ked abundance on moose. Methods In order to identify key factors for deer ked abundance, a total of 350 skin samples from the neck of hunted moose were examined and deer keds counted. Infestation intensity was analyzed in relation to moose age and sex, moose population density and landscape characteristics surrounding the killing site. Results Deer ked infestation prevalence was 100%, but infestation intensity varied from 0.001 to 1.405 keds/cm2. Ked intensity was highest in male yearlings (~1.5 years and positively associated with longitude and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris dominated habitat and negatively associated with bogs and latitude. Moose population density during autumn showed a tendency to be positively associated, while altitude tended to be negatively associated with ked intensity. Conclusions Deer keds exploit the whole moose population within our study area, but are most prevalent in areas dominated by Scots pine. This is probably a reflection of Scots pine being the preferred winter browse for moose in areas with highest moose densities in winter. Ked intensity decreases towards the northwest and partly with increasing altitude, probably explained by the direction of dispersal and reduced temperature, respectively. Abundant deer ked harm humans and domestic animals. Moose management authorities should therefore be aware of the close relationship between moose, deer ked and habitat, using the

  8. Spatiotemporal variation in deer browse and tolerance in a woodland herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendeville, Holly R; Steven, Janet C; Galloway, Laura F

    2015-02-01

    Herbivory can shape the dynamics of plant populations, including effects on survival and reproduction, and is in turn affected by environmental factors that vary in space and time. White-tailed deer are significant herbivores in North America that have been broadly documented to affect plant reproductive success. If variation in the frequency and impact of herbivory by deer correlates with a broad-scale latitudinal gradient, climactic effects may be important for shaping plant-herbivore interactions, Alternatively, a lack of broad-scale gradients would suggest local factors such as plant community composition and deer densities are affecting herbivory. To investigate broad-scale patterns of deer herbivory, we examined the frequency and reproductive consequences of deer browse over three years in 17 populations of Campanulastrum americanum spanning the latitudinal extent of its range. Even though deer are overabundant throughout the range of C. americanum, we found spatiotemporal variation in deer browse frequency (0-0.96, mean 0.46) and its effects on plant reproductive success. The four southernmost populations experienced high levels of herbivory, and were responsible for generating a negative relationship between latitude and herbivory. In general, patterns of variation in the frequency and impact of herbivory across the entire latitudinal gradient pointed to the importance of local rather than broad-scale factors. Within a population, deer consumed larger plants. Across many populations and years, average fitnesses of browsed and uneaten plants were similar, suggesting that plants are tolerant to browse. However, since large plants have greater reproductive success and are more likely to be browsed, tolerance may be influenced by plant size. When plant size was accounted for, most populations did not fully compensate for browsing. There was no relationship between browsing intensity and tolerance, suggesting that browsing may be too variable to consistently

  9. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chips, Michael J.; Carson, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread. PMID:27703868

  10. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Elizabeth J; Chips, Michael J; Carson, Walter P; Rooney, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7-12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  11. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Roberson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  12. Does small-perimeter fencing inhibit mule deer or pronghorn use of water developments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.T.; Bissonette, J.A.; Flinders, J.T.; Robinson, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife water development can be an important habitat management strategy in western North America for many species, including both pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In many areas, water developments are fenced (often with small-perimeter fencing) to exclude domestic livestock and feral horses. Small-perimeter exclosures could limit wild ungulate use of fenced water sources, as exclosures present a barrier pronghorn and mule deer must negotiate to gain access to fenced drinking water. To evaluate the hypothesis that exclosures limit wild ungulate access to water sources, we compared use (photo counts) of fenced versus unfenced water sources for both pronghorn and mule deer between June and October 2002-2008 in western Utah. We used model selection to identify an adequate distribution and best approximating model. We selected a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution for both pronghorn and mule deer photo counts. Both pronghorn and mule deer photo counts were positively associated with sampling time and average daily maximum temperature in top models. A fence effect was present in top models for both pronghorn and mule deer, but mule deer response to small-perimeter fencing was much more pronounced than pronghorn response. For mule deer, we estimated that presence of a fence around water developments reduced photo counts by a factor of 0.25. We suggest eliminating fencing of water developments whenever possible or fencing a big enough area around water sources to avoid inhibiting mule deer. More generally, our results provide additional evidence that water development design and placement influence wildlife use. Failure to account for species-specific preferences will limit effectiveness of management actions and could compromise research results. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  13. Feasibility of vertebral internal fixation using deer and sheep as animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-min; LI You-qiong; XU Chuan-jie; ZHU Xiao-min; LIU Yi

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud Studies on new vertebral internal fixations of animals are very important prior to clinical application. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of vertebral internal fixation on morphologic and biomechanical properties using deer and sheep as animal models and comparing to human data.Methods Thirty sets of fresh Sika deer lumbar, 30 sets of fresh sheep lumbar, and 20 sets of fresh lumbar from male cadavers were used. We examined the morphology of the centra and pedicles of the three groups, and determined the cancellous bone density and biomechanical properties in all groups.Results There were marked differences in all parameters measured between the different species. The sizes of the upper, middle, and lower transverse diameter were largest in the human, followed by the deer, then the sheep. The index of centrum transverse diameters and sagittal diameters were less than 0.8 (a triangle), and the deer was more similar to the human. The heights of the right vertebral pedicles and the anterior disc heights (IDH) were largest in the human, followed by the deer, then the sheep. The apparent density, elastic modulus, and ultimate load were largest in the sheep, followed by the deer, then the human. The range of motion (ROM) of functional lumbar units (FLUs) with a combined flexion-extension moment was largest in the human, followed by the deer then the sheep. Conclusions The deer lumbar is more similar to that of human in anatomical form and biomechanics than the sheep lumbar. As such, deer is more appropriate as an animal model for use in vertebral internal fixation studies.

  14. Experimental trichinellosis in fallow-deer (Dama dama L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbivora can play a very important role in spreading trichinellosis, as showed by the massive epidemics in man, caused by the consumption of horse meat in the last years. In this context, the present study has been undertaken to verify, through an experimental infection, the susceptibility, together with other biological parameters, of fallow-deer to Trichinella infection. The four animals, 8-9 months of age and 18-25 Kg body weight, were orally infected with low doses of Trichinella britovi and T. pseudospiralis (2,000 larvae/animal. After day 30 p.i,, the animals were necropsied and, using artificial digestion methods, larval burden of Trichinella in muscle tissues was determined. Histopathological, serological (lgG monoclonal blocking ELISA and biochemical data were assessed during the experiment. The results showed the susceptibility of fallow-deer to T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis infection; under the same inoculum size, the number of larvae/g was higher in group infected with T. britovi. The animals showed a higher immunological response to T. pseudospiralis infection. The results are discussed.

  15. Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F

    2002-08-01

    The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control.

  16. Movement and habitat use of Sika and White-tailed Deer on Assateague Island national seashore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Christensen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    This research project was conducted to describe habitat use of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and possibly attribute the effects of ungulate herbivory to specific deer species, if spatial separation in habitat use could be identified. Sturm (2007) conducted an exclosure study to document the effect of feral horse (Equus caballus) herbivory, deer herbivory, and horse and deer herbivory combined on plant communities. Sturm (2007) found that ungulate herbivory reduced plant species richness, evenness, and diversity in the maritime forest and affected species composition in all habitats studied. Sturm (2007) also found that herbivory on some species could be directly attributable to either horse or deer. However, the effects of sika and white-tailed deer herbivory could not be separated via an exclosure study design because of the difficulty of passively excluding one deer species but not the other. We captured white-tailed deer and sika deer in January–March of 2006 and 2007 throughout the Maryland portion of Assateague Island. Deer were fitted with radio-collars and their survival and locations monitored via ground telemetry. Up to four locations were acquired per deer each week during early (May–June) and late (August–September) growth periods for vegetation on the island. Also, we estimated deer locations during a dormant vegetation period (November– December 2006). We used these data to estimate survival and harvest rates, document movements, and model habitat use. We captured and fitted 50 deer with radio-collars over the course of the study. Of these 50 deer, 36 were sika and 14 were white-tailed deer. Of the 36 sika deer, 10 were harvested, three were likely killed by hunters but not recovered, and one died of natural causes while giving birth. Of the 14 white-tailed deer, three were harvested, one was illegally killed, and two were censored because of study-related mortality. Annual survival was 0.48 (95% CI

  17. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients scheduled for clcctive unilateral lower limb surgery. ... the conventional group were turned supine immediately after injection. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen .... Characteristic Type of spinal anaesthcsia P-value.

  18. Distribution of lesions in red and fallow deer naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Hernando, Mari Paz; Torres, María José; Aznar Martín, Javier; Negro, Juan J.; Gandía, A.; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Wild deer have an important role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The aims of this study were (1) to compare the pattern of lesions present in wild red (Cervus elaphus) and fallow (Dama dama) deer that were naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, and (2) to use this information to develop a sampling strategy for the isolation of M. bovis from the lymphoid tissues of the head of these animals. Culture of head lymphoid tissues demonstrated that 28 of 95 red deer and 22 of ...

  19. Tracking of white-tailed deer migration by Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.; Frame, P.F.

    2004-01-01

    Based on global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars in northeastern Minnesota, deer migrated 23-45 km in spring during 31-356 h, deviating a maximum 1.6-4.0 km perpendicular from a straight line of travel between their seasonal ranges. They migrated a minimum of 2.1-18.6 km/day over 11-56 h during 2-14 periods of travel. Minimum travel during 1-h intervals averaged 1.5 km/h. Deer paused 1-12 times, averaging 24 h/pause. Deer migrated similar distances in autumn with comparable rates and patterns of travel.

  20. Prevalence of infectious agents in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Mosqueda, Juan; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Mexico. Deer (n=521) were captured from helicopter using a netgun on 15 ranches covering 62,114 ha in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during spring 2004. The prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, BVDV, and brucellosis were 5.6, 41.1, 63.5, and 0%, respectively, indicating that white-tailed deer and cattle may share disease agents when cohabiting in northeastern Mexico.

  1. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  2. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  3. Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Perez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758, a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

  4. 卓越的JOHN DEERE永远的JOHN DEERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅成建

    2005-01-01

    @@ "JOHN DEERE"代表着我们的承诺,"JOHN DEERE"代表着美好的体验."JOHN DEERE"代表着我们的声誉,我们的高标准,以及推动我们公司发展的所有价值观念.创立企业的品牌形象是我们每一位成员的神圣职责的永远的追求.

  5. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Hijikata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  6. Space-time Bayesian survival modeling of chronic wasting disease in deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hae-Ryoung; Lawson, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to describe the spatial and temporal variation in disease prevalence of chronic wasting disease (CWD), to assess the effect of demographic factors such as age and sex on disease prevalence and to model the disease clustering effects over space and time. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical survival model where latent parameters capture temporal and spatial trends in disease incidence, incorporating several individual covariates and random effects. The model is applied to a data set which consists of 65085 harvested deer in Wisconsin from 2002 to 2006. We found significant sex effects, spatial effects, temporal effects and spatio-temporal interacted effects in CWD infection in deer in Wisconsin. The risk of infection for male deer was significantly higher than that of female deer, and CWD has been significantly different over space, time, and space and time based on the harvest samples.

  7. Southeastern Cooperative wildlife disease study: Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge deer herd health checks

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Enclosed are our reports on the deer herd health checks we conducted on the Duck River and Big Sandy Units, Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Humphrey and Henry...

  8. [Southeastern Cooperative wildlife disease study: Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge deer herd health checks

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Enclosed are the reports on the deer herd health checks conducted on the Big Sandy and Duck River Units of Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry and Humphrey...

  9. National Key Deer Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 7 of 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at National Key Deer Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography, cadastral...

  10. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Deer and Hog Hunt Program 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Refuge hunting for the 1998 season included white-tailed deer and feral hogs only. The State of Virginia's Department of Game & Inland Fisheries (VDGIF)...

  11. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Columbian White-tailed Deer Body Condition Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Refuge actively manages deer habitat through pasture enhancement, tree planting, and cattle grazing, however, we have few tools to directly measure the effects...

  12. Factors in the Mass Mortality of a Herd of Sika Deer Cervus Nippon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Sika Deer discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery objectives and criteria, actions...

  13. 80 FR 9279 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington Counties, ID, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-20

    ...-2013-N279; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and..., 1010 Dearborn St, Caldwell, ID 83605. [ssquf] Homedale Public Library, 125 W Owyhee Ave, Homedale,...

  14. Detected CWD in wild deer and elk outside the established area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map shows chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild deer and elk outside established game management units where CWD has been previously detected.

  15. Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erlend B Nilsen; E.J Milner-Gulland; Lee Schofield; Atle Mysterud; Nils Chr Stenseth; Tim Coulson

    2007-01-01

    ). Red deer are themselves a contentious component of the Scottish landscape. They support a trophy hunting industry but are thought to be close to carrying capacity, and are believed to have a considerable economic and ecological impact...

  16. 2015 Deer Spotlight Survey Report at Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In past years white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing has caused considerable damage to the under-story of the bottomland forest areas located on the...

  17. Snake River Islands Wilderness proposal : Snake River sector : Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the Snake River Islands in the Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge which have been studied pursuant to the Wilderness Act of 1964 to determine...

  18. Columbian White-Tailed Deer National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts lands owned and/or administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Julia Butler Hansen Refuge For The Columbian White-tailed Deer.

  19. Problems of habitat management for deer and elk in the northern forests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article discusses wildlife habitat problems and research needs in the northern Rocky Mountains and is focused primarily on habitats of deer and elk. The article...

  20. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Columbian White-tailed Deer FLIR Efficacy Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recovery of the lower Columbia population of Columbian White-tailed Deer (CWTD) relies on specific population goals. As such, monitoring programs cannot be based on...

  1. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Mule Deer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of mule deer, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for climate...

  2. 2014 Deer Spotlight Survey Report For Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers have increased greatly throughout Missouri over the past century due to the abundant habitat and conservation...

  3. Amendment #3 : Hunting and Fishing Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge : Historic Weapons Deer Hunt

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the Mingo NWR Hunting and Fishing Plan opens an additional 5,000 acres in the southwest portion of the Refuge to a historic weapons deer hunt.

  4. Analysis of 2007-2014 Ouray National Wildlife Refuge deer and elk survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A population survey for deer and elk on Ouray National Wildlife Refuge was established in 2007 and conducted through 2014. The purpose of the survey was to establish...

  5. Outreach Plan : Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Special Deer & Turkey Hunting Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a plan for special deer and turkey hunting opportunities at Crane Meadows NWR. Goals, strategies, messages, and key dates relevant to this plan are outlined.

  6. Negative density-dependent emigration of males in an increasing red deer population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leif Egil Loe; Atle Mysterud; Vebjørn Veiberg; Rolf Langvatn

    2009-01-01

    ...), possibly caused by increasing saturation of deer in areas surrounding the marking sites. Our study highlights that pattern of density dependence in dispersal rates may differ markedly between sexes in highly polygynous species...

  7. Environmental Action Memorandum : [Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge White-tailed Deer Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Action Memorandum for the proposed Ottawa NWR White-tailed Deer Hunting Plan states that the plan is found not to have significant environmental...

  8. White-Tailed Deer Research on Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge 1989-90

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report covers the program to monitor the status of deer on Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge since 1985. This program is run by the Fisheries and Wildlife...

  9. Deer Harvest Records for Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge from 1997 to 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These Deer Harvest Records show raw data for muzzleloader hunts collected from check in stations at Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge from 1997-2001

  10. Home range and habitat use of reintroduced Javan Deer in Panaitan Island, Ujung Kulon National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Javan deer which inhabit Panaitan Island (± 175 Km2 were reintroduced from Peucang Island (± 4.5 Km2 during 1978–1982 (3 males: 13 females. The information of home range and habitat use of these animals were needed for wildlife habitat management especially in the small island habitat. We measured the home range size and habitat use of Javan deer in Peucang Island and Panaitan Island and compared them. The home range size was measured using Minimum Convex Polygon and then the polygon of home ranges were used to measure the habitat use. The results showed that in general the home range size in all age class of Javan deer between both islands did not differ significantly, only subadult males in Peucang Island which have a larger home range size than subadult males in Panaitan Island. Javan deer in Panaitan Island have found suitable conditions.

  11. The Trail Inventory of Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  12. Water quality of Lower Deer Creek, Harford County, MD, home of the federally endangered Maryland darter

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Maryland darter (Etheostoma sellare) is one of the rarest fish in the world, existing in one riffle of Deer Creek, Harford County. There have been several...

  13. Accumulation of polonium 210Po in tissues and organs of deer carvidae from Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Prucnal, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on accumulation of polonium in tissues and organs of deer carvidae in order to assess the potential transport of this element via food-chain to game meat consumers. Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals belonging to three species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in Northern Poland, were the subject of the present investigation. Activities of (210)Po were determined by means of alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The concentration of (210)Po in analyzed animals decreased in the order kidney > liver > muscle tissue. The average activity concentrations of (210)Po ranged between 0.02 +/- 0.01 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in muscles and 7.15 +/- 0.12 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in kidneys. Levels of polonium were not influenced by sampling location, sex, age and species of animals.

  14. Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 - a novel deltapapillomavirus inducing endemic papillomatosis in the endangered Visayan spotted deer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Jörgens, Dirk; Schubert, Christina; Heckel, Jens-Ove; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel papillomavirus - Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 (RalPV1) - which causes endemic fibropapillomatosis in the European conservation breeding population of the highly endangered Visayan spotted deer (Rusa alfredi...

  15. Modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almberg, Emily S; Cross, Paul C; Johnson, Christopher J; Heisey, Dennis M; Richards, Bryan J

    2011-01-01

    ... of environmental prion persistence may affect epidemics of CWD and populations of North American deer. Existing data from Colorado, Wyoming, and Wisconsin's CWD epidemics were used to define plausible short-term outcomes and associated parameter spaces...

  16. National Key Deer Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 3 of 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at National Key Deer Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography, cadastral...

  17. Deer Harvest Records for Hillside National Wildlife Refuge from 1995 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These Deer Harvest Records show raw data collected from check in stations at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge from 1995-1999 and 2005-2007.

  18. Presence of Hepatitis E Virus in a RED Deer (Cervus elaphus) Population in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolo, I; Ponterio, E; Angeloni, G; Morandi, F; Ostanello, F; Nicoloso, S; Ruggeri, F M

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). In addition to humans, HEV has been detected in several animal species and is recognized as a zoonotic pathogen. Pigs, wild boar and deer can be reservoir. In this study, we evaluated HEV prevalence in a free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in central Italy by detecting virus-specific antibodies and RNA in sera. A total of 35 of 251 red deer sera were positive for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was detected in 10 of 91 sera examined. Two genomic fragments targeted by diagnostic PCRs in the capsid region were sequenced, both matching with genotype 3 HEV. Overall results confirmed the occurrence of HEV infection in deer also in Italy.

  19. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge deer hunt : Gatehouse guidelines during hunt

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines the gatehouse guidelines for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge during the 1993 deer hunt. Key responsibilities include: checking in each...

  20. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A J Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    .... To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time...

  1. Factors Affecting Maternal Care in an Income Breeder, the European Roe Deer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reidar Andersen; Jean-Michel Gaillard; John D. C. Linnell; Patrick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    ...), which rely heavily on body reserves to raise their young. Roe deer, in contrast, are close to the income breeder end of the capital-income breeder continuum, and show high levels of maternal care. 2...

  2. Population dynamics of Norwegian red deer: density–dependence and climatic variation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M.C. Forchhammer; N.C. Stenseth; E. Post; R. Landvatn

    1998-01-01

    We present a model on plant—deer—climate interactions developed for improving our understanding of the temporal dynamics of deer abundance and, in particular, how intrinsic (density–dependent) and extrinsic (plants, climate...

  3. Temporal and Spatial Development of Red Deer Harvesting in Europe: Biological and Cultural Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jos M. Milner; Christophe Bonenfant; Atle Mysterud; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Sándor Csányi; Nils Chr. Stenseth

    2006-01-01

    1. Deer numbers have increased dramatically throughout Europe and North America over the last century, but empirical analyses of variation in harvesting and the influence of biological and cultural factors are lacking. 2...

  4. Environmental Assessment for Public Deer Hunting at James River National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An excessively high deer population will conflict with any forest management program conducted at James River National Wildlife Refuge. To accomplish the objective...

  5. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual refuge results for National Key Deer Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for National Key Deer Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 754. The survey was conducted to...

  6. Deer Population Health Evaluation for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge from Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The letter and enclosed report discusses the health evaluation of 5 deer taken randomly from Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge population. Herd health appears...

  7. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Biggs, James [Northern New Mexico College; Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bare, Carey [Bare and Associates, LLC; Sherwood, Sherri R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation

  8. Estimation of type- and subtype-specific influenza vaccine effectiveness in Victoria, Australia using a test negative case control method, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Kristina A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigenic variation of influenza virus necessitates annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines, which contain two type A strains (H1N1 and H3N2 and one type B strain. We used a test negative case control design to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against influenza by type and subtype over two consecutive seasons in Victoria, Australia. Methods Patients presenting with influenza-like illness to general practitioners (GPs in a sentinel surveillance network during 2007 and 2008 were tested for influenza. Cases tested positive for influenza by polymerase chain reaction and controls tested negative for influenza. Vaccination status was recorded by sentinel GPs. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as [(1 - adjusted odds ratio × 100%]. Results There were 386 eligible study participants in 2007 of whom 50% were influenza positive and 19% were vaccinated. In 2008 there were 330 eligible study participants of whom 32% were influenza positive and 17% were vaccinated. Adjusted VE against A/H3N2 influenza in 2007 was 68% (95% CI, 32 to 85% but VE against A/H1N1 (27%; 95% CI, -92 to 72% and B (84%; 95% CI, -2 to 98% were not statistically significant. In 2008, the adjusted VE estimate was positive against type B influenza (49% but negative for A/H1N1 (-88% and A/H3N2 (-66%; none was statistically significant. Conclusions Type- and subtype-specific assessment of influenza VE is needed to identify variations that cannot be differentiated from a measure of VE against all influenza. Type- and subtype-specific influenza VE estimates in Victoria in 2007 and 2008 were generally consistent with strain circulation data.

  9. Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Keane, Delwyn; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

    2006-07-01

    The primary sequence of the prion protein affects susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, in mice, sheep and humans. The Prnp gene sequence of free-ranging, Wisconsin white-tailed deer was determined and the Prnp genotypes of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-positive and CWD-negative deer were compared. Six amino acid changes were identified, two of which were located in pseudogenes. Two alleles, a Q-->K polymorphism at codon 226 and a single octapeptide repeat insertion into the pseudogene, have not been reported previously. The predominant alleles--wild-type (Q95, G96 and Q226) and a G96S polymorphism--comprised almost 98% of the Prnp alleles in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Comparison of the allelic frequencies in the CWD-positive and CWD-negative deer suggested that G96S and a Q95H polymorphism were linked to a reduced susceptibility to CWD. The G96S allele did not, however, provide complete resistance, as a CWD-positive G96S/G96S deer was identified. The G96S allele was also linked to slower progression of the disease in CWD-positive deer based on the deposition of PrP(CWD) in the obex region of the medulla oblongata. Although the reduced susceptibility of deer with at least one copy of the Q95H or G96S allele is insufficient to serve as a genetic barrier, the presence of these alleles may modulate the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

  10. Wild boar and red deer display high prevalences of tuberculosis-like lesions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquín; Höfle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M; Fernández-De-Mera, Isabel G; Juste, Ramón; Barral, Marta; Gortazar, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We describe the distribution of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain. Animals with TBL were confirmed in 84.21% of mixed populations (n=57) of red deer and wild boar and in 75% of populations of wild boar alone (n=8) in central and southern Spain (core area). The prevalence of TBL declined towards the periphery of this region. In the core area, the prevalence ranged up to 100% in local populations of wild boar (mean estate prevalence 42.51%) and up to 50% in red deer (mean estate prevalence 13.70%). We carried out exploratory statistical analyses to describe the epidemiology of TBL in both species throughout the core area. Prevalence of TBL increased with age in both species. Wild boar and red deer mean TBL prevalence at the estate level were positively associated, and lesion scores were consistently higher in wild boars than in red deer. The wild boar prevalence of TBL in wild boar did not differ between populations that were or were not cohabiting with red deer. Amongst the wild boars with TBL, 61.19% presented generalized lesions, and the proportion of generalized cases was similar between sex and age classes. In red deer, 57.14% of TBL-positive individuals presented generalized lesions, and the percentage of generalized cases increased with age class, but did not differ between the sexes. These results highlight the potential importance of wild boar and red deer in the maintenance of tuberculosis in south central Spain.

  11. Conservation and management of fallow deer (Dama dama dama L.)on Lemnos Island, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    MATTILA, MARIAMA; HADJIGEORGIOU, IOANNIS

    2015-01-01

    A small population of European fallow deer (Dama dama dama L.) was transferred to Myrina, Lemnos Island, Greece, in the early 1970s from the island of Rhodes. Since the Rhodian population may preserve a remarkable proportion of the original genetic diversity, it is necessary to preserve its offspring population. Our objective was to estimate population size, vegetation cover, and key stakeholder attitudes towards deer on the island, based on personal interviews. Following the visual inspectio...

  12. Ecology of mule deer on the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Thomas P.

    1987-01-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population dynamics, movements, and habitat use were studied on the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site in southeastern Colorado during January 1983- December 1984. Thirty-eight adults and 28 fawns were radio collared, and 35 adults were color collared or ear tagged. Population estimates were 365 and 370 deer for 1983 and 1984, respectively. The sex ratio (yearling and adult) was 60 males: 100 females. Adult female pregnancy rate was 95%; the mean litter ...

  13. White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley F Blackwell

    Full Text Available The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1 flight-initiation distance (FID would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety; 2 deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3 individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4 crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC, median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P, where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow

  14. Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease

    OpenAIRE

    Holly B Ernest; Hoar, Bruce R; Well, Jay A.; O’Rourke, Katherine I

    2010-01-01

    Molecular genetic data provide powerful tools for genealogy reconstruction to reveal mechanisms underlying disease ecology. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) congregate in matriarchal groups; kin-related close social spacing may be a factor in the spread of infectious diseases. Spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of deer and their cervid relatives, is presumed to be associated with direct contact between individuals and by exposure to shared food and water sourc...

  15. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    OpenAIRE

    Roberson, Elizabeth J.; Chips, Michael J.; Walter P. Carson; Thomas P. Rooney

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau re...

  16. White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Justin J; Smith, Jodi D; Kunkle, Robert A

    2011-10-11

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Deer (n = 5) were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi) due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrP(Sc) immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem), trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation.

  17. Natural diet and food habitat use of the Tarim red deer, Cervus elaphus yarkandensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Jianfang; YANG Weikang; GAO Xingyi

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the natural diet and food habitat use of Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis), a study was carried out in Qiemo, Xinjiang, China from October 2000 to June 2001. Direct observation combined with faecal analysis method was used to determine the natural diet of red deer. 15 different species of plant were identified as food items. Among them, 13 species of plants were identified in winter diet and 9 species in summer. Red deer consumed a wider range of species in winter because of their nutrient requirement as well as the shortage of food and the scarcity of high-quality forage in the study area. Phragmites communis, Glycyrrhiza inflata and populus diversifolia were frequently present in the deer's diet whenever in winter and summer. Among them, Phragmites communis was the most abundant plant in the area and was included in the deer's diet. Observation on food selection frequency of captive Tarim red deer showed that Populus diversifolia was the first preferred species. However, this food was limited in the study area. Five food habitat types were found in the study area according to plant association: (1)Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association, (2) Tamarix ramosissima-Halostachys caspica association, (3) Tamarix ramosissima-Phragmites communis association, (4) Populus diversifoliaPhragmites communis association, (5) Burned area.Among them, Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association (reed meadow and reed marsh)was preferred to other types within the study area whenever in summer and winter. Dense reed cover could reduce the chance of detection from predator and obstruct attack from predator. Furthermore, under the cover of the reed, Tarim red deer was protected from direct solar radiation during the hours of www. scichina.com www.springerlink.com hot day in summer. The reed meadow and marsh was preferred, presumably because the red deer could minimize their movements while searching for food, water and cover.

  18. Creating an urban deer-vehicle accident management plan using information from a town's GIS project

    OpenAIRE

    Premo, Dean B.; Rogers, Elizabeth I.

    2001-01-01

    Funding Source and Budget: Town of Amherst, New York. $60,000 Project Period: October 2000-September 2001 The Town of Amherst, New York is an urban/suburban community near Buffalo that has experienced considerable development in the past 10 years (1991-2000). In the same time period, the Town has experienced a noticeable increase in deer vehicle accidents. Given the Town's landscape, interactions of deer and people seem highly likely to continue. In addition to commercial uses and residential...

  19. Susceptible conditions for debarking by deer in subalpine coniferous forests in central Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hayato Iijima; Takuo Nagaike

    2016-01-01

    Background:Recently, deer have expanded their distribution to higher altitude ranges including subalpine forests. However, culling deer and construction of deer fence in subalpine forests are difficult because of steep slopes and complex topography. Thus it is necessary to clarify the factors which are associated with debarking by deer for the effective protection of subalpine forests. In this study, we examined which factors are associated with debarking by sika deer (Cervus nippon) in subalpine coniferous forests. Methods:We conducted our survey in Minami-Alps National Park, central Japan. We established 24 10 m × 40 m plots and surveyed the occurrence of debarking on saplings>30 cm in height and3 cm in DBH, as well as sapling density within each plot. Minimum distances to nearest grassland of plots were calculated (tentatively assuming grassland would attract deer and would cause high debarking pressure in the surrounding subalpine forests). Results:The mean percentage of debarked live saplings was higher than that of live trees. The mean percentage of debarked saplings which had already died was 81.6 %. Debarking of saplings increased with lower elevation, taller sapling size, and marginally increased near grassland. Sapling density was lower in plots with low basal area of conspecific trees near grassland and differed among species. Sapling density marginally decreased with decreasing elevation and increasing stand tree density. Debarking of trees was positively related to small DBH and low elevation, and marginally increased near grassland and differed among species. Conclusions:Our results suggest that tall saplings in subalpine forests of low elevation or near subalpine grassland were susceptible to debarking by deer and monitoring of these areas may permit the early detection of the impacts of deer in subalpine coniferous forests.

  20. Contrasting responses of web-building spiders to deer browsing among habitats and feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Mayura; Baba, Yuki G; Yanagi, Yosuke; Terada, Saeko; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2008-08-01

    We examined web-building spider species richness and abundance in forests across a deer density gradient to determine the effects of sika deer browsing on spiders among habitats and feeding guilds. Deer decreased the abundance of web-building spiders in understory vegetation but increased their abundance in the litter layer. Deer seemed to affect web-building spiders in the understory vegetation by reducing the number of sites for webs because vegetation complexity was positively correlated with spider density and negatively correlated with deer density. In contrast, the presence of vegetation just above the litter layer decreased the spider density, and deer exerted a negative effect on this vegetation, possibly resulting in an indirect positive effect on spider density. The vegetation just above the litter layer may be unsuitable as a scaffold for building webs if it is too flexible to serve as a reliable web support, and may even hinder spiders from building webs on litter. Alternatively, the negative effect of this vegetation on spiders in the litter may be as a result of reduced local prey availability under the leaves because of the reduced accessibility of aerial insects. The response to deer browsing on web-building spiders that inhabit the understory vegetation varied with feeding guild. Deer tended to affect web-invading spiders, which inhabit the webs of other spiders and steal prey, more heavily than other web-building spiders, probably because of the accumulated effects of habitat fragmentation through the trophic levels. Thus, the treatment of a particular higher-order taxon as a homogeneous group could result in misleading conclusions about the effects of mammalian herbivores.

  1. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  2. Of elephants and blind men: Deer management in the U.S. National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    Overabundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are becoming common in the eastern United States. Faced with burgeoning deer populations in eastern parks, the National Park Service (NPS) formulated policy based on its long experience with ungulate management in western parks. That the NPS failed to find a management solution acceptable to its many constituencies was inevitable. Like blind men touching different parts of an elephant and disagreeing about its form, those engaged in the debate about deer management in parks are viewing different parts of the ecological system. None has seen the entire system, and consequently, there is neither common agreement on the nature of the problem nor on the solutions. We explore the quandary of deer management in eastern parks by addressing three questions: (1) Can the National Park Service reconcile its management goals with those of its neighbors? (2) Can thresholds be identified for determining when to intervene in natural processes? (3) Is there a scientific foundation for proceeding with effective management of deer? We argue that reconciling the NPS management with that of state conservation agencies is not possible because management policy guides these agencies in opposite directions: the NPS is charged with limiting human impact on ecological processes, and state agencies are charged with exerting human control over population abundance. Questions about thresholds and a scientific basis for management arise from concern that irrupting deer populations are a manifestation of disrupted natural processes. Several population growth paradigms are at the heart of this ecological question. The science provides no consensus about which of these paradigms are appropriate to deer in eastern ecosystems. Thus, it is premature to expect science to identify if or when natural processes have been disrupted. While the NPS cannot effectively achieve its goals without better science, neither can it wait for

  3. Habitat selection by Eld's deer following relocation to a patchy landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Pan

    Full Text Available An emerging issue in wildlife conservation is the re-establishment of viable populations of endangered species in suitable habitats. Here, we studied habitat selection by a population of Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi relocated to a patchy landscape of farmland and forest. Hainan Eld's deer were pushed to the brink of extinction in the 1970s, but their population expanded rapidly from 26 to more than 1000 individuals by 2003 through effective reserve protection. As part of a wider relocation and population management strategy, 131 deer were removed from the reserve and reintroduced into a farmland-forest landscape in 2005. Habitat use under a context of human disturbance was surveyed by monitoring 19 radio-collared animals. The majority of deer locations (77% were within 0.6-2 km of villages. Annual home ranges of these collared deer averaged 725 ha (SD 436, which was 55% of the size of the reserve from which they had originated. The annual home ranges contained 54% shrub-grassland, 26% forest and 15% farmland. The relocated deer population selected landscape comprising slash-and-burn agriculture and forest, and avoided both intensively farmed areas and areas containing only forest. Within the selected landscape, deer preferred swiddens and shrub-grasslands. Forests above 300 m in elevation were avoided, whereas forests below 300 m in elevation were overrepresented during the dry season and randomly used during the wet season. Our findings show that reintroduced deer can utilize disturbed habitats, and further demonstrate that subsistence agroforest ecosystems have the capacity to sustain endangered ungulates.

  4. Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Milner-Gulland, E J; Schofield, Lee; Mysterud, Atle; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Coulson, Tim

    2007-04-07

    Reintroductions are important tools for the conservation of individual species, but recently more attention has been paid to the restoration of ecosystem function, and to the importance of carrying out a full risk assessment prior to any reintroduction programme. In much of the Highlands of Scotland, wolves (Canis lupus) were eradicated by 1769, but there are currently proposals for them to be reintroduced. Their main wild prey if reintroduced would be red deer (Cervus elaphus). Red deer are themselves a contentious component of the Scottish landscape. They support a trophy hunting industry but are thought to be close to carrying capacity, and are believed to have a considerable economic and ecological impact. High deer densities hamper attempts to reforest, reduce bird densities and compete with livestock for grazing. Here, we examine the probable consequences for the red deer population of reintroducing wolves into the Scottish Highlands using a structured Markov predator-prey model. Our simulations suggest that reintroducing wolves is likely to generate conservation benefits by lowering deer densities. It would also free deer estates from the financial burden of costly hind culls, which are required in order to achieve the Deer Commission for Scotland's target deer densities. However, a reintroduced wolf population would also carry costs, particularly through increased livestock mortality. We investigated perceptions of the costs and benefits of wolf reintroductions among rural and urban communities in Scotland and found that the public are generally positive to the idea. Farmers hold more negative attitudes, but far less negative than the organizations that represent them.

  5. Evaluation of 25-Percent ATJ Fuel Blends in the John Deere 4045HF 280 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    advertising or product endorsement purposes. Contracted Author As the author(s) is(are) not a Government employee(s), this document was only...ABSTRACT A 25% blend of Alcohol to Jet (ATJ) and JP8 fuel was evaluated in the mechanically fuel injected John Deere 4045HF280 engine. Pre and post...TERMS Alcohol to Jet (ATJ), JP8, Alternative Fuels, Stanadyne, Rotary Fuel Injection Pump, John Deere 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  6. Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr−1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr−1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering

  7. A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

    2007-04-01

    Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

  8. Changes in distribution area of Korean musk deer (Moschus moschiferus parvipes) from 1950s to 1999 in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the literature reviews and questionnaire, field survey on the species, feces, and tracks in non-snow season and snow season of Korean musk deer from February to December of 1999 in South Korea (Cultural Properties Administration 1999), the authors summarized the change of distribution area and number of Korean musk deer from 1950s to 1999. The results showed that the distribution area of Korean musk deer (Moschus moschiferus parvipes) was sharply decreased from 1950s to 1999 in South Korea. Due to the road and forest road construction in the habitat of Korean musk deer, the musk deer habitats were fragmented and lost. And the illegal capture for economic benefits was the main reason of decreases in number of individuals and habitats of this species. Forest roads in high elevation area were also used as the passages for illegal captures. For the conservation and protection of Korean musk deer, strict regulation of illegal capture is urgently needed.

  9. a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  10. A bivalent scale for measuring crowding among deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Chase, Loren

    2014-01-01

    One factor that may influence satisfaction in outdoor recreation is crowding, which historically has been defined as a negative evaluation of the density of other participants. While this definition is suitable for most scenarios, there are circumstances where encounters with others in the area are evaluated positively and thus contribute to the satisfaction of the participant. To adequately describe this phenomenon we suggest a more inclusive measurement of crowding that allows for both positive and negative evaluations of participant density to more accurately explore the relationship between crowding and satisfaction. We identified a sub-group of deer hunters who negatively evaluated the low density of other hunters, which reduced their satisfaction with their overall hunting experience. The methodology for measuring crowding in recreation research may have an important effect in identifying the relationship crowding has with other relevant variables as well as management implications.

  11. Tolerance to deer herbivory and resistance to insect herbivores in the common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, A; Johnson, M T J

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of plant defence in response to herbivory will depend on the fitness effects of damage, availability of genetic variation and potential ecological and genetic constraints on defence. Here, we examine the potential for evolution of tolerance to deer herbivory in Oenothera biennis while simultaneously considering resistance to natural insect herbivores. We examined (i) the effects of deer damage on fitness, (ii) the presence of genetic variation in tolerance and resistance, (iii) selection on tolerance, (iv) genetic correlations with resistance that could constrain evolution of tolerance and (v) plant traits that might predict defence. In a field experiment, we simulated deer damage occurring early and late in the season, recorded arthropod abundances, flowering phenology and measured growth rate and lifetime reproduction. Our study showed that deer herbivory has a negative effect on fitness, with effects being more pronounced for late-season damage. Selection acted to increase tolerance to deer damage, yet there was low and nonsignificant genetic variation in this trait. In contrast, there was substantial genetic variation in resistance to insect herbivores. Resistance was genetically uncorrelated with tolerance, whereas positive genetic correlations in resistance to insect herbivores suggest there exists diffuse selection on resistance traits. In addition, growth rate and flowering time did not predict variation in tolerance, but flowering phenology was genetically correlated with resistance. Our results suggest that deer damage has the potential to exert selection because browsing reduces plant fitness, but limited standing genetic variation in tolerance is expected to constrain adaptive evolution in O. biennis.

  12. Hair-loss epizootic in moose (Alces alces) associated with massive deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madslien, Knut; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Vikøren, Turid; Malmsten, Jonas; Isaksen, Ketil; Hygen, Hans Olav; Solberg, Erling J

    2011-10-01

    Deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) are blood-sucking flies in the family Hippoboscidae; moose (Alces alces) are their main host in Scandinavia. There are no detailed reports of the negative impacts of deer keds on moose. In 2006 and 2007, hunters in southeastern Norway and midwestern Sweden found several moose cadavers with severe alopecia; numerous moose had extensive hair loss. Between February 2006 and June 2007, materials from 23 moose were submitted for laboratory examination and large numbers of deer keds were found in the coat of most animals. The body condition of the moose varied but was poor in animals with severe alopecia. The findings of enormous numbers of deer keds in the coat of the majority of the affected animals and a consistent histologic image (acute to chronic, multifocal to coalescing, eosinophilic to lymphocytic dermatitis), concurrent with the absence of any other lesions, trace element deficiencies, or dermal infections which are known to cause alopecia, suggest that the hair-loss epizootic was linked to massive infestations with deer keds. The emergence of this hair-loss syndrome implies that the dynamics between parasite and host have been disrupted by a currently unknown environmental or ecological factor. A high moose density, combined with extraordinarily mild weather June 2006-June 2007 and a particularly long period with the absence of night-frost in autumn of 2006, may have been ideal for deer ked development, survival, and optimal host acquisition.

  13. Bartonella infections in deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) and moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Samuel; Madslien, Knut; Hjelm, Eva; Molin, Ylva; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Harris, Philip D; Colquhoun, Duncan J; Ytrehus, Bjørnar

    2013-01-01

    Infections with Bartonella spp. have been recognized as emerging zoonotic diseases in humans. Large knowledge gaps exist, however, relating to reservoirs, vectors, and transmission of these bacteria. We describe identification by culture, PCR, and housekeeping gene sequencing of Bartonella spp. in fed, wingless deer keds (Lipoptena cervi), deer ked pupae, and blood samples collected from moose, Alces alces, sampled within the deer ked distribution range in Norway. Direct sequencing from moose blood sampled in a deer ked-free area also indicated Bartonella infection but at a much lower prevalence. The sequencing data suggested the presence of mixed infections involving two species of Bartonella within the deer ked range, while moose outside the range appeared to be infected with a single species. Bartonella were not detected or cultured from unfed winged deer keds. The results may indicate that long-term bacteremia in the moose represents a reservoir of infection and that L. cervi acts as a vector for the spread of infection of Bartonella spp. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of L. cervi in the transmission of Bartonella to animals and humans and the possible pathogenicity of these bacteria for humans and animals.

  14. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Francisco J; Panadero, Rosario; Vázquez, Luis; López, Ceferino M; Díaz, Pablo; Vázquez, Esther; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in roe deer in relation to different parameters in northwestern Spain was investigated. A total of 154 roe deer hunted between April 2007 and October 2008 from different localities of Galicia (northwest Spain) were examined. From each animal, a blood sample and all attached ticks found were collected. All the specimens for tick stages (larva, nymph, and adult) were speciated based on reference keys. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (titer > or = 1:64). The percentage of roe deer seropositive for B. burgdorferi was 68.8% (106/ 154), of which 88.7% (94/106) were parasitized by ticks. Ixodes ricinus was the only species identified and was detected in 83.1% of roe deer with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) intensity of 46 +/- 47 ticks. Individual host characteristics such as age or sex did not have any effect on the prevalence of B. burgdorferi, but significant seasonal variation was observed, with higher prevalences in April-July than in August-October. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were related to the presence of ticks. When analyzing all the factors together, the total number of ticks parasitizing roe deer was found as the most influential factor on B. burgdorferi prevalence. The results of this study have shown that roe deer in the northwest of Spain are highly exposed to B. burgdorferi and that exposure is related to the presence of I. ricinus.

  15. Vehicle Collisions Cause Differential Age and Sex-Specific Mortality in Mule Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Olson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As roads continue to be built and expanded, it is important that managers understand the effects that vehicle-related mortality can have on the population dynamics of wildlife. Our objective was to examine the frequency of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus vehicle collisions to determine if different demographic groups showed differential susceptibility to mortality when compared with their proportion in the population. We also compared vehicle collision rates of mule deer, elk (Cervus canadensis, and moose (Alces alces to determine their relative vulnerability to vehicle collisions. We found that 65% of mule deer involved in vehicle collisions were female; of those, 40% were adult does ≥2 yrs. When we compared the proportion of bucks, does, and fawns killed in vehicle collisions to surveys of live deer, we found that bucks were killed at rate of 2.1–3.0 times their proportion in the population. Additionally, when we compared vehicle collision rates for 2010 and 2011, we found that mule deer were 7.4–8.7 times more likely to be involved in collisions than elk and 1.2–2.0 times more likely than moose. However, we were unable to detect a negative correlation (P=0.55 between mule deer abundance and increasing traffic volume.

  16. DEFECATION RATE IN CAPTIVE DEER IN “LOS CAPOMOS”, MUNICIPALITY OF El FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gibrán Ochoa-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of white-tailed deer in Mexico can only be performed in Management Units for the Conservation of Wildlife (UMA , for its acronym in Spanish , based on a management plan for legal operation. Among the methods for population estimate harvest rates, highlights fecal count groups, depending on the frequency at which a deer excretes daily, and whose values are estimated from captive specimens and tolerant observer, but considering subspecies and different from the northern Sinaloa conditions. Using these rates of defecation can lead to overharvesting. This research was conducted in the farmed deer of the indigenous ejido (Mayo-Yoreme ethnic group called “Los Capomos”, in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, between October 2011 and May 2012, to estimate the rate of defecation counts from fecal groups, obtained from a confined deer population and in apparent equilibrium with its environment through adjustments to the model of Eberhardt and Van Etten. It was found that the lowest rate published defecation (12.7 deer fecal groups per day, the estimated population accounted for half of the known population, which would prevent excessive use of native deer in the wild. However, the pattern of random grouping of excreta in confinement, makes it advisable that it be used in conditions of freedom, since it presupposes the mathematical model used aggregate grouping patterns.

  17. Transmission studies with Sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, B

    1980-04-01

    Transmission studies with Sarcocystis idahoensis of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gopher snakes (pituophis melanoleucus) were conducted to determine host specificity of various stages of the parasite. Sporocysts were not passed by four dogs or four cats fed infected skeletal muscle from deer mice. Seven white mice (Mus musculus) and 34 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts following oral inoculation with S. idahoensis sporocysts; however, excystation of sporocysts occurred in two white-footed mice killed four hours post inoculation (PI). A gopher snake orally inoculated with sporocysts remained negative for coccidia for two months PI. Three deer mice orally inoculated and three intraperitoneally (IP) inoculated with tachyzoites from liver meronts developed sarcocysts in their skeletal muscles similar to those seen in deer mice orally inoculated with sporocysts. Liver meronts were not found. Ten deer mice orally inoculated and 10 deer mice inoculated IP with bradyzoites from S. idahoensis sarcocysts remained negative for sarcocysts and liver meronts at necropsy 17 days PI.

  18. Ecology and management of white-tailed deer in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, William J

    2012-02-01

    Due to chronic high densities and preferential browsing, white-tailed deer have significant impacts on woody and herbaceous plants. These impacts have ramifications for animals that share resources and across trophic levels. High deer densities result from an absence of predators or high plant productivity, often due to human habitat modifications, and from the desires of stakeholders that set deer management goals based on cultural, rather than biological, carrying capacity. Success at maintaining forest ecosystems require regulating deer below biological carrying capacity, as measured by ecological impacts. Control methods limit reproduction through modifications in habitat productivity or increase mortality through increasing predators or hunting. Hunting is the primary deer management tool and relies on active participation of citizens. Hunters are capable of reducing deer densities but struggle with creating densities sufficiently low to ensure the persistence of rare species. Alternative management models may be necessary to achieve densities sufficiently below biological carrying capacity. Regardless of the population control adopted, success should be measured by ecological benchmarks and not solely by cultural acceptance.

  19. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  20. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, E; Cross, P C; Beneria, M; Ficapal, A; Curia, J; Marco, X; Lavín, S; Marco, I

    2011-10-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  1. Response of mule deer to habitat modification near natural gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Van Dyke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with energy development. Their specific behavioral responses, however, and capacities to habituate to particular aspects of energy development have not been effectively studied. We examined mule deer response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008—2010, an area experiencing development for extraction of natural gas. We created 10-1 ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 wells by removing standing trees in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated deer use, indexed by pellet density, before and after tree removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production, cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by deer and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity and graminoid and forb cover and biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Use increased following tree removal on cut and control sites, but was greater on cut sites in 2010. Herbivores removed negligible quantities of vegetation on control sites in both years, suggesting that control sites may have been used primarily for concealment. Mule deer demonstrated the behavioral capacity to habituate to habitat modifications and other environmental changes associated with development for the extraction of energy. Managing forage and habitat availability appears to have the potential to affect the type of response and degree of habituation by mule deer to such development.

  2. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, D.C.; Skerl, K.; Shank, E.M.; Lime, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used the theory of reasoned action to help understand attitudes and beliefs about lethal management of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), Ohio. We used a mail-back survey to collect data from Ohio residents in the surrounding 9-county area. Two strata were defined: residents action to reduce deer populations was unacceptable (near 75%??4.5%, far 72%??5.1%). Beliefs about outcomes of lethal control and evaluation of those outcomes proved to be strong predictors of the acceptability of lethal control of deer in CVNP. Lethal control was more acceptable if it was done to prevent severe consequences for humans (e.g., spread of disease, car collisions) or the natural environment (e.g., maintain a healthy deer herd) than to prevent negative aesthetic impacts or personal property damage. Results from the study can be used to assist managers at CVNP as they make decisions regarding alternatives for deer management in the park and to inform others managing abundant deer populations of socially relevant impacts of management actions.

  3. An epizootic of hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, J; Hansen, L P; Stallknecht, D E

    2000-07-01

    As part of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival study in Missouri (USA) we were actively monitoring 97 radio-collared deer when 8 (8%) died. This mortality, which occurred from 20 August to 23 September 1996, consisted of five adult females, two yearling females and one yearling male. Based on the seasonality of this mortality and the isolation of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 2 from one of these animals, we believe that these losses resulted from an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease. The remains of five unmarked deer that may have died from HD also were found on the study area during this same period. During the fall following this mortality, we tested serum from 96 deer taken by hunters in the immediate area. Fifteen (16%) were positive for EHDV or bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion tests. Serum neutralization test results indicated that previous infections were caused by EHDV virus serotype 2. Based on these data, and assuming that there was no prior exposure to EHDV serotype 2 in this population, the exposure rate for this epizootic was 24% of which 8% died. We noted hoof interruptions in only two of the 96 deer sampled. During this mortality event, the Missouri Department of Conservation received no reports of dead deer, and without the radio-monitored animals the event would have been undetected.

  4. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus in a fenced nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Fløjgaard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body condition, as a sign of animal welfare, is of management concern in rewilding projects where fenced animals are subject to winter starvation, which may conflict with animal welfare legislation. Investigating the relationship between body condition, age, sex, diet quality and diet composition is therefore relevant to increase understanding of herbivores' ecosystem function and to inform management. In this study, we focused on red deer, Cervus elaphus, in a fenced nature reserve in Denmark, where the deer are managed as ecosystem engineers to contribute to biodiversity conservation. We measured body mass and body size of 91 culled red deer, and determined diet composition using DNA metabarcoding and diet quality using fecal nitrogen on 246 fecal samples. We found that body condition was predicted by age and diet composition, but not diet quality. We also found that individuals of different body condition had different diets, i.e., the fecal samples of red deer in poorer body condition contained significantly more Ericaceae sequences than red deer in good body condition. This may imply that certain functions of red deer in ecosystems, such as regeneration of heather by grazing, may depend on variation in body condition within the population. Our findings call for the need to consider the consequences of management practices, including culling or supplemental feeding, on the outcomes of habitat restoration, and more broadly underline the importance of preserving the overall breath of herbivore ecosystem functions for effective biodiversity conservation.

  5. Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, J.R.; Rabon, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    The /sup 137/Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the /sup 137/Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from /sup 137/Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from /sup 40/K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from /sup 137/Cs.

  6. Seminal plasma improves cryopreservation of Iberian red deer epididymal sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Anel, Luis; Guerra, Camino; Alvarez, Mercedes; Soler, Ana J; Garde, J Julián; Chamorro, César; de Paz, Paulino

    2006-11-01

    We tested the protective action of seminal plasma on epididymal spermatozoa from Iberian red deer, especially considering cryopreservation, as a means for germplasm banking improvement. We obtained seminal plasma by centrifuging electroejaculated semen, and part of it was thermically inactivated (denatured plasma; 55 degrees C 30 min). Epididymal samples (always at 5 degrees C) were obtained from genitalia harvested after regulated hunting, and pooled for each assay (five in total). We tested three seminal plasma treatments (mixing seminal plasma with samples 2:1): no plasma, untreated plasma and denatured plasma; and four incubation treatments: 32 degrees C 15 min, 5 degrees C 15 min, 5 degrees C 2h and 5 degrees C 6h. After each incubation, samples were diluted 1:1 with extender: Tes-Tris-Fructose, 10% egg yolk, 4% glycerol; equilibrated for 2h at 5 degrees C, extended down to 10(8) spz./mL and frozen. Sperm quality was evaluated before 1:1 dilution, before freezing and after thawing the samples, assessing motility (CASA) and viability (percentage of viable and acrosome-intact spermatozoa; PI/PNA-FITC and fluorescent microscopy). Plasma treatment, both untreated and denatured, rendered higher viability before freezing and higher results for most parameters after thawing. The improvement was irrespective of incubation treatment, except for viability, which rendered slightly different results for untreated and denatured plasma. This may be due to the presence of thermolabile components. We still have to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in this protection. These results might help to improve the design of cryopreservation extenders for red deer epididymal sperm.

  7. Maternal investment and reproductive success in Chinese water deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane MAUGET; Robert MAUGET

    2009-01-01

    Among cervids, maternal investment, estimated as the amount of resources and care allocated to the offspring, was expected to be related to species body size. Therefore, maternal investment in a herd of captive Chinese water deer Hydropotes inermis, a relatively small species of cervid, was investigated over 3 years. Except during the lactation period, reproductive females spent about 2-fold more time resting than feeding. During lactation, the amount of time spent feeding increased highly (25.3 min/h during lactation vs 17.3 min/h during the gestation period). Females spent less than 30% of time in communal behaviours with offspring. They did not reject alien fawns during this care period. Frequency and duration of suckling events decreased exponentially from the second week onwards. More than 10% of suckling bouts were non-filial. Prenatal investment leads to a mean litter mass (about 12% of maternal mass) higher than in most cervid species. Postnatal investment in fawns represents a daily mass gain of ca. 85 g/d during the first 2 weeks, without any sexual difference. Female production, timing and synchrony of births and survival of fawns characterized reproductive success. Seventy percent of mature females gave birth, with a mean of 1.9 offspring per female. The sex ratio was even. Births were synchronous, 80% of births occurring in 25 days. In this herd, 0.74 fawn per female was successfully weaned and 0.56 fawn per female survived through their first year. Based on these results we conclude that reproductive strategy of Chinese water deer was efficient and characterized by mother-offspring relationships typical of hiders and high levels of pre- and postnatal investments. This strategy seems typical of small species of cervids without marked sexual dimorphism.[Current Zoology 55(2):102-110,2009].

  8. Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) confirms their role as natural reservoir hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J M; Davidson, W R; Stallknecht, D E; Dawson, J E; Howerth, E W

    1997-07-01

    Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular, cell culture, and xenodiagnostic methods. Twenty-seven deer (77%) had E. chaffeensis-reactive indirect fluorescent-antibody assay titers of > or = 1:64; and the blood, spleens, or lymph nodes of seven (20%) deer were positive in a nested PCR assay with E. chaffeensis-specific primers. E. chaffeensis was isolated in DH82 cell cultures from the blood of five (14%) deer, including two deer that were PCR negative. Combination of culture and PCR results indicated that six (17%) deer were probably rickettsemic and that nine (26%) were probably infected. Restriction digestion of PCR products amplified from deer tissues and cell culture isolates resulted in a banding pattern consistent with the E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA gene sequence. The sequences of all PCR products from deer tissues or cell culture isolates were identical to the sequence of the Arkansas type strain of E. chaffeensis. Xenodiagnosis with C3H mice inoculated intraperitoneally with deer blood, spleen, or lymph node suspensions was unsuccessful. When viewed in the context of previous studies, these findings provide strong evidence that E. chaffeensis is maintained in nature primarily by a tick vector-vertebrate reservoir system consisting of lone star ticks and white-tailed deer.

  9. Host and Environmental Factors Modulate the Exposure of Free-Ranging and Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Coxiella burnetii

    OpenAIRE

    González-Barrio, David; Velasco Ávila , Ana Luisa; Boadella, Mariana; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Barasona, José Ángel; Santos, João P. V.; Queirós, João; García-Pérez, Ana L; Barral, Marta; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii. We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hyp...

  10. 海南坡鹿的起源、进化及保护%The origin and phylogenetics of Hainan Eld's deer and implications for Eld's deer conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼; 曾治高; 孙丽风; 宋延龄

    2009-01-01

    Eld's deer (Cervus eldi) , a highly endangered cervid, includes three subspecies (C. e. eldi, C. e. siamensis and C. e, thamin) that distribute in Southeast Asia and one separated population of C. e. siamensii occurs in Hainan Island of China named Hainan Eld's deer. The endangered subspecies C. e. siamensis has been extinct in wild in Thailand over several dec-ades. Recently, a conservation program has been launched in Thailand to establish wild population of C. e. siamensis from cap-tive breeding deer in the zoo. Hainan Eld' s deer has been considered as supplement resource for the reestablish deer population. In this study, we analyzed variation in the mitochondria! DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of 35 Eld's deer samples, including two Eld's deer subspecies (C e. siamensis and C. e. thamin) and Hainan Eld's deer to address the following questions: (1) where did the Hainan Eld's deer originate from; (2) the relationship between Hainan Eld's deer and subspecies C. e. siamen-sis , and (3) the genetic diversity of Hainan Eld' s deer population. Four haplotypes were observed in all samples, all the sam-ples of Hainan Eld's deer shared an identical haplotype. We constructed phylogenetic trees by Maximum likelihood (ML) , max-imum parsimony ( MP) , Neighbour-Joining ( NJ ) and Bayesian method using the results of this study with sequences data provid-ed by GenBank together. The Hainan Eld's deer and C. e. siamensis were clustered together by MP and NJ method, however, some genetic differentiation was detected between the Hainan Eld' s deer and C. e. siamensii. The average genetic distance is 0.026 between the Hainan Eld's deer and 6". e. siamensii. Our results suggest that Eld's deer could distribute via land bridge from the South-easten Asian mainland to the Hainan Island during the Pleistocene (0. 69 Mya) when the sea level of Beibu Gulf seacoast went down in glacier age. Our results indicate a long-term historical isolation of Hainan Eld's deer population from its

  11. WildSense: Monitoring Interactions among Wild Deer in Harsh Outdoor Environments Using a Delay-Tolerant WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologists and ecologists often monitor the spread of disease among deer in the wild by using tracking systems that record their movement patterns, locations, and interaction behavior. The existing commercial systems for monitoring wild deer utilize collars with GPS sensors, deployed on captured and rereleased deer. The GPS sensors record location data every few hours, enabling researchers to approximate the interaction behavior of tracked deer with their GPS locations. However, the coarse granularity of periodically recorded GPS location data provides only limited precision for determining deer interaction behavior. We have designed a novel system to monitor wild deer interaction behavior more precisely in harsh wilderness environments. Our system combines the functionalities of both GPS and RF-radio sensors with low-cost and minimal-resource motes. We designed and built our system to be able to operate robustly for a period of up to several months for continual tracking and monitoring of the locations and interaction behaviors of wild deer in harsh environments. We successfully deployed six deer collars on six wild deer that were captured and rereleased in the Soapstone Prairie Natural Area of northern Colorado over a one-month period. In this paper, we describe how we designed and built this system and evaluate its successful operation in a wilderness area.

  12. The cross-ecosystem impact of deer on an endangered submerged macrophyte, Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hino Takafumi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a critical component of freshwater ecosystems and are often eaten by cervids. However, the impact of cervids on macrophytes is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis on the endangered macrophyte Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus in a spring stream in southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. We monitored the frequency of stream habitat use by deer by using sensor cameras in photography mode for four seasons. We also monitored deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus using sensor cameras in movie mode. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of deer on R. nipponicus var. submersus, we conducted a field experiment in which deer were excluded from part of the stream. We selected 10 pairs of adjacent patches of R. nipponicus var. submersus and set up exclosures covering one patch in each pair. We assessed the frequency of deer feeding and trampling on the control patches using the sensor cameras in photography mode and measured the mean macrophyte stem length in the exclosure and control patches every month for four seasons. To compare abiotic conditions between the exclosure and control patches, we investigated canopy openness, water depth, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, current velocity, and water quality at each patch during the growing season. The frequency of deer in the stream habitat was higher from spring to summer than in other seasons. Direct evidence of deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus was recorded using the sensor cameras. Deer often fed on and trampled on the control patches, particularly from spring to summer. The R. nipponicus var. submersus stem length was longer in the exclosure patches than in control patches (P 0.189. Stem growth of R. nipponicus var. submersus differed among seasons (P <0.001, and was low from winter to spring. In addition, exclosure and seasonality significantly affected stem length (P <0.001, and the

  13. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  14. Influence of level of nutrition during late pregnancy on reproductive productivity of red deer (2) Adult hinds gestating wapitixred deer crossbred calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W; Scott, I C; O'Neill, K T; Littlejohn, R P

    2005-04-01

    The present study aimed to relate feed intake of red deer hinds in the later stages of gestating wapitixred deer crossbred foetuses on dam body condition, gestation length, birth weight and calf growth. Multiparous hinds (N=18) conceiving at known dates to either wapiti (n=12) or red deer (n=6) sires were housed in individual pens from days 150-220 of pregnancy, during which time they were offered either ad libitum access to pelletised rations (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [HH] and n=6 red deer-bearing hinds [RH]) or a restricted offer (n=6 crossbred-bearing hinds [HL]) set at 70% of the average ad libitum intake of HH hind in the previous week. Hinds were returned to pasture at day 220 and calving was closely monitored. Liveweights, body condition score (BCS), and lactation score (LS) of hinds were recorded weekly from day 130 of pregnancy until calves were weaned at 12 weeks of age. Calves were tagged and weighed at birth, and subsequently weighed at 7 and 12 weeks of age. HH and RH hinds exhibited similar patterns and levels of MEI/kg0.75, which peaked at 7.8 MJME/kg0.75 at day 220. HL hinds peaked at approximately 5 MJME/kg0.75 and showed significantly lower rates of liveweight gain during pregnancy. Interestingly, both crossbred-bearing groups initiated mammary development in advance of the RH hinds. While there were significant effects of foetal genotype on mean gestation length (239 days versus 234 days for crossbred versus red deer) and mean birth weight (14.5 kg versus 10 kg), the nutritional contrast for gestation length of crossbred-bearing hinds (i.e. HH versus HL) was not significant but approached significance for birth weight (14.5 kg versus 11.9 kg; P=0.06). Regression analysis revealed weak relationships between changes in hind liveweight and gestation length (P>0.05) but a significant relationship with birth weight (Pgestation length and birth weight. Crossbred calves reared by HH hinds were 30% heavier at 7 and 12 weeks of age than the red deer

  15. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  16. Population status and management of mule and white-tailed deer [at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, FY95-FY97

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary report of the population status and management of white-tailed deer and mule deer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge for fiscal years...

  17. Using Mark-recapture Distance Sampling to Estimate Sitka Black-tailed Deer Densities in Non-forested Habitats of Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management goals for Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) at Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge are to minimize deer impacts to native flora and...

  18. Contaminants in white-tailed deer tissue from the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Morris and Somerset Counties, New Jersey: Results of 1988 sampling and analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) tissues were sampled during the December, 1988, public deer hunt at the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GSNWR) to...

  19. Use of Distance Sampling to Estimate Sitka Black-tailed Deer Abundances in Non-forested Habitats of Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maximizing Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) harvestopportunities on Kodiak Island, and minimizing deer impacts on native flora andfauna, are...

  20. Parasitism of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, on the moose, Alces alces, in eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkonen, T; Mustonen, A-M; Roininen, H; Niemelä, P; Ruusila, V; Nieminen, P

    2010-12-01

    The deer ked, Lipoptena cervi L. (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), is an ectoparasitic fly that spread to Finland in the early 1960s from the southeast across the Soviet border. It is currently a common parasite of the moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), in the southern part of the country and its area of distribution is gradually spreading to Finnish Lapland, where it will come into contact with another potential cervid host, the semi-domesticated reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity of deer ked parasitism on the moose in eastern Finland. Whole skins of 23 moose were examined for the presence of deer keds, which were extracted and their total numbers estimated. The intensity of deer ked parasitism was correlated to the age, sex, skin area and anatomical region of the host. Bulls had the highest total number of keds (10616 ± 1375) and the highest deer ked density (35.7 ± 4.4 keds/dm(2) of skin). Cows had a higher total number of keds than calves (3549 ± 587 vs. 1730 ± 191), but ked densities on cows and calves were roughly equal (11.8 ± 1.7 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1 keds/dm(2) of skin). The density of keds was highest on the anterior back, followed by the posterior back, front limbs, abdomen, head and hind limbs. The sex ratio of deer keds was close to equal (male : female, 1.0 : 1.1). After they had consumed blood, male keds were heavier than females. As the total numbers and densities of deer keds were higher than reported previously on moose or for any other louse fly species, the effects of parasitism on the health of the host species should be determined.

  1. Wild red deer (Cervus elaphus L. grazing may seriously reduce forage production in mountain meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at estimating the impact of red deer grazing on the productivity of meadows located in Pian Cansiglio, north-eastern Italian Pre-Alps. These meadows (383 ha; average elevation 1000 m asl are managed for hay/silage production (1-2 cuts per season and are included in a protected area that hosts a high density of deer (around 30 heads/100 ha. In 2008 and 2010, dry matter (DM production and loss due to deer grazing were estimated with exclusion cages (1 m2; 48 exclusion cages in 2008 and 52 in 2010. Night counts with spotlights were conducted to index deer use of meadows plots. DM production inside the cages was fairly good for the area (first and second cut: 5079 - 2193 Kg DM/ha in 2008, and 4200 - 2615 Kg DM/ha in 2010. DM production outside the cages was significantly lower (first and second cut in 2008: 4314-1389 Kg DM/ha, and in 2010: 3376-2052 Kg DM/ha. Therefore, the magnitude of losses was of 15-20% in the first and 25-40% in the second cut. DM losses in the different meadow plots were positively correlated with index of deer use, which in some plots was as high as 7-8 heads/ha. Deer grazing reduced also crude protein (CP content of forage (15.6±4.4% DM inside exclusion cages and 13.8±3.5% DM outside, with losses being greater where CP content was higher. This study demonstrates that high densities of grazing deer may seriously impact on forage production and quality.

  2. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

    2014-08-01

    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population.

  3. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, David W G; Mulville, Jacqueline A; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-04-13

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human-wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzic, Nina, E-mail: bilandzic@veinst.hr [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sedak, Marija [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrataric, Darija; Peric, Tomislav [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management Veterinary Directorat, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Simic, Branimir [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

  5. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation.

  6. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.

  7. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of

  8. Fast and efficient DNA-based method for winter diet analysis from stools of three cervids: moose, red deer, and roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernik, Marta; Taberlet, Pierre; Swisłocka, Magdalena; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Duda, Norbert; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    Effects of cervid browsing on timber production, especially during winter, lead to economic losses in forest management. The aim of this study was to present an efficient DNA-based method which allows qualitative assessment of the winter diet from stools of moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The preliminary results of the diet composition of the three cervids from Poland were also presented with a special emphasis on moose. The electropherograms of the chloroplast intron trnL (UAA) P6 loop amplification products using g (fluorescence-labeled) and h primers revealed differences in the length of PCR products among various plant species eaten by these herbivores. In addition, the usage of species-specific primers allowed unambiguous identification of different gymnosperms and angiosperms. The preliminary moose diet analysis, based on winter fecal samples from the entire range of moose occurrence in Poland, revealed the presence of 15 to 24 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species. This fast, cost-efficient, and simple method proved also to be reliable for the diet analysis of red deer and roe deer. It may be a valuable tool in forest and conservation management, as well as a way of enhancing ecological studies focusing on the impact of herbivores on the ecosystems and their possible food niche overlap.

  9. Polymorphisms and variants in the prion protein sequence of European moose (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Lotta; Mikko, Sofia; Klingeborn, Mikael; Stéen, Margareta; Simonsson, Magnus; Linné, Tommy

    2012-07-01

    The prion protein (PrP) sequence of European moose, reindeer, roe deer and fallow deer in Scandinavia has high homology to the PrP sequence of North American cervids. Variants in the European moose PrP sequence were found at amino acid position 109 as K or Q. The 109Q variant is unique in the PrP sequence of vertebrates. During the 1980s a wasting syndrome in Swedish moose, Moose Wasting Syndrome (MWS), was described. SNP analysis demonstrated a difference in the observed genotype proportions of the heterozygous Q/K and homozygous Q/Q variants in the MWS animals compared with the healthy animals. In MWS moose the allele frequencies for 109K and 109Q were 0.73 and 0.27, respectively, and for healthy animals 0.69 and 0.31. Both alleles were seen as heterozygotes and homozygotes. In reindeer, PrP sequence variation was demonstrated at codon 176 as D or N and codon 225 as S or Y. The PrP sequences in roe deer and fallow deer were identical with published GenBank sequences.

  10. Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefańska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, Elżbieta; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

    2014-08-06

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  13. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  14. The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative: can adaptive management and local stakeholder engagement sustain reduced impact of ungulate browsers in forest systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Alejandro A. Royo; David S. deCalesta; Kevin McAleese; James C. Finley

    2013-01-01

    The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) was established in 2000 to test new approaches to stewardship of white-tailed deer and forest habitat on a 30 000 hectare landscape in northwest Pennsylvania, USA. Partners included land managers, scientists, educators, tourism promoters,and hunters. KQDC goals were adaptive management of the deer herd, improved habitat...

  15. Conserving migratory mule deer through the umbrella of sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, H. E.; Sawyer, H.; Monteith, K. L.; Naugle, D.E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Graf, N.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving migratory ungulates in increasingly human-dominated landscapes presents a difficult challenge to land managers and conservation practitioners. Nevertheless, ungulates may receive ancillary benefits from conservation actions designed to protect species of greater conservation priority where their ranges are sympatric. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocerus urophasianus), for example, have been proposed as an umbrella species for other sagebrush (Artemesia spp.)-dependent fauna. We examined a landscape where conservation efforts for sage-grouse overlap spatially with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to determine whether sage-grouse conservation measures also might protect important mule deer migration routes and seasonal ranges. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine what proportion of migration routes, stopover areas, and winter ranges used by mule deer were located in areas managed for sage-grouse conservation. Conservation measures overlapped with 66–70% of migration corridors, 74–75% of stopovers, and 52–91% of wintering areas for two mule deer populations in the upper Green River Basin of Wyoming. Of those proportions, conservation actions targeted towards sage-grouse accounted for approximately half of the overlap in corridors and stopover areas, and nearly all overlap on winter ranges, indicating that sage-grouse conservation efforts represent an important step in conserving migratory mule deer. Conservation of migratory species presents unique challenges because although overlap with conserved lands may be high, connectivity of the entire route must be maintained as barriers to movement anywhere within the migration corridor could render it unviable. Where mule deer habitats overlap with sage-grouse core areas, our results indicate that increased protection is afforded to winter ranges and migration routes within the umbrella of sage-grouse conservation, but this protection is contingent on concentrated developments within core areas not

  16. Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  17. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  18. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  19. Occurrence of Small Mammals: Deer mice and challenge of trapping across large spatial extents: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Knick, Steven T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    Small mammal communities living in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) may be sensitive to habitat isolation and invasion by exotic grass species. Yet there have been no spatially explicit models to improve our understanding of landscape-scale factors determining small mammal occurrence or abundance. We live-trapped small mammals at 186 locations in the Wyoming Basin Ecoregional Assessment area to develop species distribution (habitat) models for each species. Most small mammal species (n = 14) were trapped at a only few locations. As a result, we developed a small mammal model only for the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Deer mice were associated with areas having moderately productive habitat as measured by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), increased grassland land cover, contagion of sagebrush land cover, and proximity to intermittent water. The proportion of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) within 0.27 km, proportion of mixed shrubland within 5 km, soil clay content, and proximity to pipelines were inversely related to the occurrence of deer mice. Understanding habitat characteristics for deer mice helps our overall understanding of the ecological processes within sagebrush habitats because deer mice act as predator, prey, competitor, and disease reservoir. Development of the empirical data necessary for spatially explicit habitat modeling of small mammal distributions at large spatial extents requires an extensive trapping effort in order to obtain enough observations to construct models, calculate robust detectability estimates, and overcome issues such as trap shyness and population cycling.

  20. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Wild Boars and Deer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Uchishima, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Muto, Maki; Koizumi, Nobuo; Yamada, Akio

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographic distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in wild deer and boars in Japan. We analyzed the blood samples of the study animals using PCR-targeting the 16S rDNA followed by DNA sequencing. Wild deer infected with Anaplasma spp., including Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma centrale were detected in the region from Hokkaido to Kyushu. The infection rates of A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis, and A. centrale in deer were 15.6, 21.9, and 37.5%, respectively, and the corresponding infection rates in wild boar were 3.6, 17.9, and 3.6%, respectively. However, p44/msp2 genes specific to A. phagocytophilum were not detected among the 16S rDNA-positive samples on PCR analysis. In addition, the 16S rDNA sequences of A. phagocytophilum were 100% similar to those detected previously in the deer in Japan and 98.6% similar to those of A. phagocytophilum detected in the United States and Europe, and from the tick, Ixodes ovatus and Ixodes persulcatus in Japan. These findings suggested that the A. phagocytophilum-related sequences detected from deer and wild boars in Japan were different from those of typical A. phagocytophilum strains.

  1. Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHENG; Guy BEAUCHAMP; Xuelei JIANG; Zhongqiu LI; Qinglong YANG

    2013-01-01

    After being kept in captivity and isolated from natural predators for more than 1,200 years,Père David's deer has been reintroduced in China and now occurs in a reserve where human activity is the only potential threat.Antipredator vigilance is an important component of survival for many prey animals in their natural habitat.Do deer still adjust vigilance as a function of risk after such a long period of relaxed predation pressure? Here,we examined vigilance levels in Père David's deer groups as a function of group size,sex and level of human disturbance.The results showed that individual vigilance significantly decreased with group size in all-female groups but not in all-males or mixed-sex groups.In rutting season,males compete with one another and harass females,and we argue that vigilance is partly aimed at threatening males and that such vigilance increases with group size.This explains why overall vigilance did not vary with group size for males in general and for females in mixed-sex groups.Vigilance increased in more disturbed areas but in in male deer only.The results indicate that despite relaxed predation pressure over centuries,Père David's deer can still adjust antipredator responses as a function of perceived risk.Such information may become useful in the rewilding programme now under way for this species in China.

  2. Factors affecting seasonal habitat use, and predicted range of two tropical deer in Indonesian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Dede Aulia; Gonzalez, Georges; Haryono, Mohammad; Muhtarom, Aom; Firdaus, Asep Yayus; Aulagnier, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    There is an urgent recognized need for conservation of tropical forest deer. In order to identify some environmental factors affecting conservation, we analyzed the seasonal habitat use of two Indonesian deer species, Axis kuhlii in Bawean Island and Muntiacus muntjak in south-western Java Island, in response to several physical, climatic, biological, and anthropogenic variables. Camera trapping was performed in different habitat types during both wet and dry season to record these elusive species. The highest number of photographs was recorded in secondary forest and during the dry season for both Bawean deer and red muntjac. In models, anthropogenic and climatic variables were the main predictors of habitat use. Distances to cultivated area and to settlement were the most important for A. kuhlii in the dry season. Distances to cultivated area and annual rainfall were significant for M. muntjak in both seasons. Then we modelled their predictive range using Maximum entropy modelling (Maxent). We concluded that forest landscape is the fundamental scale for deer management, and that secondary forests are potentially important landscape elements for deer conservation. Important areas for conservation were identified accounting of habitat transformation in both study areas.

  3. Positioning the red deer (Cervus elaphus hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Olivieri

    Full Text Available In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present. A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy and Sardinia.

  4. Occurrence of Small Mammals: Deer mice and challenge of trapping across large spatial extents: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Knick, Steven T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    Small mammal communities living in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) may be sensitive to habitat isolation and invasion by exotic grass species. Yet there have been no spatially explicit models to improve our understanding of landscape-scale factors determining small mammal occurrence or abundance. We live-trapped small mammals at 186 locations in the Wyoming Basin Ecoregional Assessment area to develop species distribution (habitat) models for each species. Most small mammal species (n = 14) were trapped at a only few locations. As a result, we developed a small mammal model only for the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Deer mice were associated with areas having moderately productive habitat as measured by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), increased grassland land cover, contagion of sagebrush land cover, and proximity to intermittent water. The proportion of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) within 0.27 km, proportion of mixed shrubland within 5 km, soil clay content, and proximity to pipelines were inversely related to the occurrence of deer mice. Understanding habitat characteristics for deer mice helps our overall understanding of the ecological processes within sagebrush habitats because deer mice act as predator, prey, competitor, and disease reservoir. Development of the empirical data necessary for spatially explicit habitat modeling of small mammal distributions at large spatial extents requires an extensive trapping effort in order to obtain enough observations to construct models, calculate robust detectability estimates, and overcome issues such as trap shyness and population cycling.

  5. Determinants of vigilance in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei ZHENG, Guy BEAUCHAMP, Xuelei JIANG, Zhongqiu LI, Qinglong YANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After being kept in captivity and isolated from natural predators for more than 1,200 years, Père David’s deer has been reintroduced in China and now occurs in a reserve where human activity is the only potential threat. Antipredator vigilance is an important component of survival for many prey animals in their natural habitat. Do deer still adjust vigilance as a function of risk after such a long period of relaxed predation pressure? Here, we examined vigilance levels in Père David’s deer groups as a function of group size, sex and level of human disturbance. The results showed that individual vigilance significantly decreased with group size in all-female groups but not in all-males or mixed-sex groups. In rutting season, males compete with one another and harass females, and we argue that vigilance is partly aimed at threatening males and that such vigilance increases with group size. This explains why overall vigilance did not vary with group size for males in general and for females in mixed-sex groups. Vigilance increased in more disturbed areas but in in male deer only. The results indicate that despite relaxed predation pressure over centuries, Père David’s deer can still adjust antipredator responses as a function of perceived risk. Such information may become useful in the rewilding programme now under way for this species in China [Current Zoology 59 (2: 265–270, 2013].

  6. A randomised controlled trial of Silirum vaccine for control of paratuberculosis in farmed red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, L A; Wilson, P R; Heuer, C; Mackintosh, C G

    2013-12-07

    A randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of Silirum vaccine in control of paratuberculosis in young farmed deer was carried out in 2008-2009 in six New Zealand herds with a history of clinical disease. Vaccination with Silirum was carried out in four-month-old deer, and vaccinates (n=1671) and controls (n=1664) were weighed at vaccination and at 8 and 12 months old, when faecal samples were collected from 125 vaccinates and 123 controls on five farms. Deer were slaughtered between 11 and 20 months of age, and the incidence of gross visceral lymph node (VLN) pathology typical of paratuberculosis in deer, that is, enlarged and/or granulomatous VLN, was recorded. Clinical disease was confirmed in 18 controls and seven vaccinates, representing a vaccine efficacy estimate of 60 per cent (95% CI 3 per cent to 83 per cent, P=0.04). Forty-seven percent (95% CI 38 per cent to 56 per cent) of faecal samples from vaccinates and 55 per cent (95% CI 46 per cent to 64 per cent) from controls were Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis positive (P=0.5). Average daily liveweight gain did not differ between the cohorts. At slaughter, 1.4 per cent of vaccinates and 4.5 per cent of controls had VLN pathology, RR=0.32 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.54, Pvaccination with Silirum may be useful as an aid to control losses associated with clinical paratuberculosis in young deer.

  7. Heterogeneity in Primary Productivity Influences Competitive Interactions between Red Deer and Alpine Chamois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Anderwald

    Full Text Available Habitat heterogeneity can promote coexistence between herbivores of different body size limited to different extents by resource quantity and quality. Red deer (Cervus elaphus are known as superior competitors to smaller species with similar diets. We compared competitive interactions and habitat use between red deer and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra in two adjacent valleys in a strictly protected area in the Central Alps. Red deer density was higher in the valley with higher primary productivity. Only here was horn growth in kid and yearling chamois (as a measure for body condition negatively correlated with red deer population size, suggesting interspecific competition, and chamois selected meadows with steeper slopes and lower productivity than available on average. Conversely, red deer selected meadows of high productivity, particularly in the poorer area. As these were located mainly at lower elevations, this led to strong altitudinal segregation between the two species here. Local differences in interspecific competition thus coincided with differences in habitat preference and-segregation between areas. This suggests that spatial habitat and resource heterogeneity at the scale of adjacent valleys can provide competition refuges for competitively inferior mountain ungulates which differ from their superior competitor in their metabolic requirements.

  8. Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

    1988-03-01

    Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

  9. Immunogenetic heterogeneity in a widespread ungulate: the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, Erwan; Galan, Maxime; Cosson, Jean-François; Klein, François; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Merlet, Joël; Bonhomme, Maxime; Hewison, A J Mark; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how immune genetic variation is shaped by selective and neutral processes in wild populations is of prime importance in both evolutionary biology and epidemiology. The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has considerably expanded its distribution range these last decades, notably by colonizing agricultural landscapes. This range shift is likely to have led to bottlenecks and increased roe deer exposure to a new range of pathogens that until recently predominantly infected humans and domestic fauna. We therefore investigated the historical and contemporary forces that have shaped variability in a panel of genes involved in innate and acquired immunity in roe deer, including Mhc-Drb and genes encoding cytokines or toll-like receptors (TLRs). Together, our results suggest that genetic drift is the main contemporary evolutionary force shaping immunogenetic variation within populations. However, in contrast to the classical view, we found that some innate immune genes involved in micropathogen recognition (e.g. Tlrs) continue to evolve dynamically in roe deer in response to pathogen-mediated positive selection. Most studied Tlrs (Tlr2, Tlr4 and Tlr5) had similarly high levels of amino acid diversity in the three studied populations including one recently established in southwestern France that showed a clear signature of genetic bottleneck. Tlr2 implicated in the recognition of Gram-positive bacteria in domestic ungulates, showed strong evidence of balancing selection. The high immunogenetic variation revealed here implies that roe deer are able to cope with a wide spectrum of pathogens and to respond rapidly to emerging infectious diseases.

  10. White-tailed deer harvest from the chronic wasting disease eradication zone in south-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Sausen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope=0.003, 95% CI=0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope=0.071, 95% CI=0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD infection (slope=-0.041, 95% CI=-0.056- -0.027). Concomitantly, harvest was not impacted in areas where landowners signed a petition protesting intensive deer reduction (slope=-0.00006, 95% CI=-0.0005-0.0003). Our results suggest that the success of programs designed to reduce deer populations for disease control or to reduce overabundance in Wisconsin are dependent on landowner and hunter participation. We recommend that programs or actions implemented to eradicate or mitigate the spread of CWD should monitor and assess deer population reduction and evaluate factors affecting program success to improve methods to meet management goals.

  11. Evaluating spatial overlap and relatedness of white-tailed deer in a chronic wasting disease management zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magle, Seth B; Samuel, Michael D; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Robinson, Stacie J; Mathews, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin's area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular.

  12. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with vesicular ulcerative and necrotizing lesions of the digestive mucosa in fallow deer (Dama dama L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Diaz

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic epithelial inclusion bodies in the digestive mucosa of fallow deer (Dama dama L. were found to most probably be the result of an unspecific degenerative or post mortal change. There are reasons to believe that this is true also for the inclusion bodies found in reindeer, roe deer and moose.

  13. The effects of an abundant ectoparasite, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), on the health of moose (Alces alces) in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Laaksonen, Sauli; Solismaa, Milla; Aho, Jari; Puukka, Katri; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-09-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi, Diptera, Hippoboscidae) is a haematophagous parasitic fly of the moose (Alces alces) and other cervids, and it is very common in southern and central parts of Finland. The aim of this study was to determine how the intensive parasitism caused by the deer ked affects the health and welfare of the moose. Moose blood samples (n = 78) were collected from deer ked-infested and ked-free regions at 62-68° N and analysed for haematology and clinical chemistry. In addition, tissue samples of moose (n = 23) were collected from a deer ked-infested region at 62° N to determine how the parasite load correlates to several physiological variables of the host. The differences in the blood and plasma values between the deer ked-free and ked-infested animals were minor. In the infested regions, the moose had higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations unlikely to have been caused by the parasitism. The intensities of deer keds had no consistent correlations with the values of plasma clinical chemistry, endocrinology, amino acids, tissue enzyme activities or body energy stores. However, the hepatic percentages of several individual n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the n-3 PUFA sum correlated inversely with the intensity and density of deer keds. Although a wide array of physiological variables was determined, only minor effects caused by the heavy deer ked parasitism could be detected, suggesting that the moose might tolerate this parasite relatively well.

  14. Preventing the Establishment of a Wildlife Disease Reservoir: A Case Study of Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild Deer in Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Carstensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB has been found in 12 cattle operations and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in northwestern Minnesota, following the state's most recent outbreak of the disease in 2005 in the northwest part of the state. Both deer and cattle have the same strain of bTB. The Minnesota Board of Animal Health has been leading efforts to eradicate the disease in Minnesota's cattle, which have included the depopulation of all infected herds, a cattle buy-out program, and mandatory fencing of stored feeds. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources began surveillance efforts in free-ranging white-tailed deer in fall 2005. All bTB-infected deer have been found within a 16 km2 area in direct association with infected cattle farms. Aggressive efforts to reduce deer densities through liberalized hunting and sharpshooting have resulted in a 55% decline in deer densities. Also, recreational feeding of wild deer has been banned. Disease prevalence in deer has decreased from 1.2% in 2005 to an undetectable level in 2010.

  15. Natural and experimental tests of trophic cascades: gray wolves and white-tailed deer in a Great Lakes forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, D G; Belovsky, G E; Beyer, D E

    2016-04-01

    Herbivores can be major drivers of environmental change, altering plant community structure and changing biodiversity through the amount and species of plants consumed. If natural predators can reduce herbivore numbers and/or alter herbivore foraging behavior, then predators may reduce herbivory on sensitive plants, and a trophic cascade will emerge. We have investigated whether gray wolves (Canis lupus) generate such trophic cascades by reducing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on saplings and rare forbs in a northern mesic forest (Land O' Lakes, WI). Our investigation used an experimental system of deer exclosures in areas of high and low wolf use that allowed us to examine the role that wolf predation may play in reducing deer herbivory through direct reduction in deer numbers or indirectly through changing deer behavior. We found that in areas of high wolf use, deer were 62 % less dense, visit duration was reduced by 82 %, and percentage of time spent foraging was reduced by 43 %; in addition, the proportion of saplings browsed was nearly sevenfold less. Average maple (Acer spp.) sapling height and forb species richness increased 137 and 117 % in areas of high versus low wolf use, respectively. The results of the exclosure experiments revealed that the negative impacts of deer on sapling growth and forb species richness became negligible in high wolf use areas. We conclude that wolves are likely generating trophic cascades which benefit maples and rare forbs through trait-mediated effects on deer herbivory, not through direct predation kills.

  16. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  17. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Five Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Wild Deer in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shiori; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Takai, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the major foodborne pathogens. Having observed the wide distribution of this pathogen in wild deer, we report here the draft genome sequence of five STEC strains isolated from wild deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan. PMID:28254967

  19. The John Deere E diesel Test & Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Nathan; Mitchell, William E.

    2008-09-23

    Three non-road Tier II emissions compliant diesel engines manufactured by John Deere were placed on a durability test plan of 2000 hours each at full load, rated speed (FLRS). The fuel was a blend of 10% fuel ethanol and 90% low sulfur #2 diesel fuel. Seven operational failures involving twenty seven fuel system components occurred prior to completion of the intended test plan. Regulated emissions measured prior to component failure indicated compliance to Tier II certification goals for the observed test experience. The program plan included operating three non-road Tier II diesel engines for 2000 hours each monitoring the regulated emissions at 500 hour intervals for changes/deterioration. The program was stopped prematurely due to number and frequency of injection system failures. The failures and weaknesses observed involved injector seat and valve wear, control solenoid material incompatibility, injector valve deposits and injector high pressure seal cavitation erosion. Future work should target an E diesel fuel standard that emphasizes minimum water content, stability, lubricity, cetane neutrality and oxidation resistance. Standards for fuel ethanol need to require water content no greater than the base diesel fuel standard. Lubricity bench test standards may need new development for E diesel.

  20. Geographical variation of the skull of the lesser mouse deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Junpei; Sasaki, Motoki; Stafford, Brian J

    2004-10-01

    We examined the geographical variation of the skull size and shape of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) from Laos, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Langkawi and some Islands of Tenasserim in Myanmar. Although the influence of the climatic condition on skull size was not confirmed in the mainland populations, the skull became rostro-caudally longer in the populations of Tenasserim and Sumatra because of island isolation effect. The skull size was classified into the following three clusters of localities from the matrix of Q-mode correlation coefficients: 1) Langkawi and Tenasserim, 2) Laos and Thailand, 3) Sumatra and Borneo. The skulls in the population of Java belong to the cluster of Langkawi and Tenasserim in male, however were morphologically similar to those in the cluster of Borneo and Sumatra. The canonical discriminant analysis pointed out that the Laos and Tenasserim populations were separated from the other ones and that the populations of Sumatra, Java and Borneo were intermingled each other.

  1. Metabolic indicators of habitat differences in four Minnesota deer populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Blood samples were collected from 40 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 winter yards in northeastern Minnesota from 17 March 1974 through 23 April 1975. The results of 26 blood assays were examined for the effects of age, sex, capture date, capture method, disease and location. Age-related effects were found for serum chloride, calcium, gamma globulin, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase. The only sex difference was lower CPK in males. Date of collection effects were found for erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEF A). Capture method affected serum glucose, acid base balance, and serum enzymes. Effects related primarily to capture location or habitat differences were found for erythrocyte count, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum urea, cholesterol, LDH, thyroxine, and NEF A. Animals whose assays indicated the poorest nutritional status inhabited wintering areas with the oldest vegetation. Habitat differences can be detected by measuring the physiological status of the local animal populations.

  2. Deer antler regeneration: a stem cell-based epimorphic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyi

    2012-03-01

    Full regeneration of deer antlers, a bona fide epimorphic process in mammals, is in defiance of the general rule of nature. Revealing the mechanism underlying this unique exception would place us in a better position to promote organ regeneration in humans. Antler regeneration takes place in yearly cycles from its pedicle, a permanent protuberance on the frontal bone. Both growing antlers and pedicles consist of internal (cartilage and bone) and external components (skin, blood vessels, and nerves). Recent studies have demonstrated that the regeneration of both internal and external components relies on the presence of pedicle periosteum (PP). PP cells express key embryonic stem cell markers (Oct4, Nanog, and SOX2) and are multipotent, so are termed antler stem cells. Now it is clear that proliferation and differentiation of PP cells directly forms internal antler components; however, how PP initiates and maintains the regeneration of external antler components is thus far not known. Based on the direct as well as indirect evidence that is presented in this review, I put forward the following hypothesis to address this issue. The full regenerative ability of external antler tissue components is achieved through PP-derived chemical induction and PP-derived mechanical stimulation: the former triggers the regeneration of these external components, whereas the latter drives their rapid elongation. Eventual identification of the putative PP-derived chemical factors would open up a new avenue for devising effective therapies for lesions involving each of these tissue components, be they traumatic, degenerative, or linked to developmental (genetic) anomalies.

  3. Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

  4. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  5. Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children Estimated by a Test-Negative Case-Control Design Study Based on Influenza Rapid Diagnostic Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Sugaya, Norio; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Tomidokoro, Yuka; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Mitamura, Keiko; Fujino, Motoko; Shiro, Hiroyuki; Komiyama, Osamu; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Nakata, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoko; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Myokai, Michiko; Sato, Masanori; Furuichi, Munehiro; Baba, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hisayo; Sato, Akihiro; Ookawara, Ichiro; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kono, Mio; Tanaka, Fumie; Kawakami, Chiharu; Kimiya, Takahisa; Takahashi, Takao; Iwata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 months to 15 years of age in 22 hospitals in Japan during the 2013-14 season. Our study was conducted according to a test-negative case-control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test (IRDT) results. Outpatients who came to our clinics with a fever of 38 °C or over and had undergone an IRDT were enrolled in this study. Patients with positive IRDT results were recorded as cases, and patients with negative results were recorded as controls. Between November 2013 and March 2014, a total of 4727 pediatric patients (6 months to 15 years of age) were enrolled: 876 were positive for influenza A, 66 for A(H1N1)pdm09 and in the other 810 the subtype was unknown; 1405 were positive for influenza B; and 2445 were negative for influenza. Overall VE was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-52). Adjusted VE against influenza A, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B was 63% (95% CI, 56-69), 77% (95% CI, 59-87), and 26% (95% CI, 14-36), respectively. Influenza vaccine was not effective against either influenza A or influenza B in infants 6 to 11 months of age. Two doses of influenza vaccine provided better protection against influenza A infection than a single dose did. VE against hospitalization influenza A infection was 76%. Influenza vaccine was effective against influenza A, especially against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, but was much less effective against influenza B.

  6. The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 (Acari, Demodecidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Kozina, Paulina; Fryderyk, Sławomira

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 was examined and compared in red deer coming from different populations--25 red deer from northern Poland (Masurian Lake District) and 25 from southern Poland (Lower Silesia). The total prevalence of infestation in red deer by D. kutzeri was 52% with the mean intensity of 38 individuals and the intensity range of 1-135. Parameters of infestation for red deer from northern Poland were much higher (68%, 49), while for other red deer--lower (36%, 16). Demodectic mites D. kutzeri are associated with common hair follicles, therefore they can be found in different parts of the body, however most of the specimens were found in the head skin. Regardless of the location and the infestation rate (including density of mites in the skin), infestations were not accompanied by symptoms of demodecosis.

  7. What constitutes a convention? : implications for the coexistence of conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    A model of repeated play of a coordination game, where stage games have a location in social space, and players receive noisy signals of the true location of their games, is reviewed. Sugden (1995) suggests that in such a model, there can be a stationary state of convention coexistence only if interaction is non-uniform across social space. This paper shows that an alternative definition of conventions, which links conventions to actions rather than expectations, permits convention coexistenc...

  8. Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Villena, I; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2013-09-23

    Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010, brains of 155 white-tailed deer fetuses were bioassayed in mice for protozoal isolation. Viable N. caninum (NcWTDMn1, NcWTDMn2) was isolated from the brains of two fetuses by bioassays in mice, and subsequent propagation in cell culture. Dams of these two infected fetuses had antibodies to N. caninum by Neospora agglutination test at 1:100 serum dilution. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates with Nc5 PCR confirmed diagnosis. Results prove congenital transmission of N. caninum in the white tailed deer for the first time.

  9. A First Attempt at Modelling Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus Distributions Over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil S Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of roe deer can be an important component within ecological and epidemiological systems contributing to the risk and spread of a range of vector-borne diseases. Deer are important hosts for many vectors, and may therefore serve as a focal point or attractant for vectors or may themselves act as a reservoir for vector-borne disease. Three spatial modelling techniques were used to generate an ensemble model describing the proportion of suitable roe deer habitat within recorded distributions for Europe as identified from diverse sources. The resulting model is therefore an index of presence, which may be useful in supporting the modelling of vector-borne disease across Europe.

  10. Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

  11. Genotypic study of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli isolates from deer by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Prasad Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to study the genotypes of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC in fecal samples of deer due to its public health significance. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 fecal samples of deer were taken from Mathura district and Kanpur Zoo and screened for VTEC genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: All fecal samples were positive for E. coli. All the E. coli isolates were screened by PCR to detect virulence genes stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA. Of these, 15 isolates were found positive for VTEC having one or more genes in different combinations. Conclusion: Genes such as stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA were prevalent in VTEC isolates from feces of deer. The presence of VTEC isolates having virulent genes may pose a threat to public health.

  12. Fructosamine: An Alternative to Serum Glucose Measurement in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePerno, Christopher S; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2015-10-01

    We determined the relationship between fructosamine and serum glucose in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested during two seasonally stressful periods for deer in coastal North Carolina, US: July 2008 represented the postparturition and lactation period, and March 2009 represented the late winter and pre-green-up period. Serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were similar between time periods but were uncorrelated within each season. However, when serum glucose was separated into high and low categories based on the median blood glucose score within each time period, we detected statistically significant differences between July and March for serum glucose. Fructosamine was more stable than serum glucose for evaluating the white-tailed deer physiologic condition.

  13. Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Holly B; Hoar, Bruce R; Well, Jay A; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2010-04-01

    Molecular genetic data provide powerful tools for genealogy reconstruction to reveal mechanisms underlying disease ecology. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) congregate in matriarchal groups; kin-related close social spacing may be a factor in the spread of infectious diseases. Spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of deer and their cervid relatives, is presumed to be associated with direct contact between individuals and by exposure to shared food and water sources contaminated with prions shed by infected deer. Key aspects of disease ecology are yet unknown. DNA tools for pedigree reconstruction were developed to fill knowledge gaps in disease dynamics in prion-infected wild animals. Kinship indices using data from microsatellite loci and sequence haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA were employed to assemble genealogies. Molecular genealogy tools will be useful for landscape-level population genetic research and monitoring, in addition to epidemiologic studies examining transmission of CWD in captive and free-ranging cervids.

  15. Two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus desmarest, 1822 in Leyte Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvie Potot Portugaliza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the necropsy findings of two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting the Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus in Leyte Island, Philippines. A female deer aging approximately 5-year was presented for necropsy to the Diagnostic Laboratory at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Visayas State University. Gross pathology was recorded and the selected organs having lesion were collected for histopathological studies. Results showed severe necrotizing lesions in the nasal and palatal areas, infestation of calliphorid maggots, hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, lung atelectasis and duodenitis. Heavy ruminal fluke infection was also observed. Two potentially zoonotic parasites namely Fasciola gigantica and Sarcocystis spp. were identified. The Philippine brown deer appears to have a role in transmission and amplification of zoonotic parasites, and can also be threatened by diseases caused by the parasites.

  16. Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglero, Manuel M; Taggart, Mark A; Castellanos, Pilar; Mateo, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa.

  17. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus among wild sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Y; Suzuki, M; Yoshimatsu, K; Arikawa, J; Takashima, I; Yokoyama, M; Igota, H; Yamauchi, K; Ishida, S; Fukui, D; Bando, G; Kosuge, M; Tsunemitsu, H; Koshimoto, C; Sakae, K; Chikahira, M; Ogawa, S; Miyamura, T; Takeda, N; Li, T C

    2007-01-01

    We examined 976 sika deer serum samples, 159 liver tissue samples and 88 stool samples collected from 16 prefectures in Japan, and performed ELISA and RT-PCR assays to detect antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA, respectively. Although 25 (2.6%) of 976 samples were positive for anti-HEV IgG, the antibody titers were very low. The OD values ranged between 0.018 and 0.486, forming a single distribution rather than a bimodal distribution, suggesting that the antibody detected in this study was not induced by HEV infection, or that deer have low sensitivity to HEV. HEV RNA was not detected in these samples, also suggesting that deer may not play a role as an HEV reservoir.

  18. Population characteristics and viability of the introduced hog deer (Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1780 in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawidh Wajjwalku

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to study population characteristics of hog deer released into the wild, namely: density,age structure, sex ratio, recruitment rate, threats to hog deer, carrying capacity and inter-specific relationships, as well as toassess the population viability over time. In this study, direct observation was used to study the hog deer population characteristics,and population density was estimated from the pellet-group count method. Vortex program was used to analyze thepopulation viability. Results showed that the population density of hog deer at Thung Ka Mung (TKM in Phu Khieo WildlifeSanctuary (PKWS was 2.03-2.04 individuals/hectare (SD = 1.25. The population structure showed that the average herd sizewas 9.57 individuals. Hog deer in TKM preferred to stay with a group (91.5%, rather than being solitary (8.5%. The sex ratiofor males to females was 54.64:100, and for females to fawns was 100:26.18. The annual recruitment rate was 16.98 %. Theirpredators were Asian wild dogs, Burmese pythons, Asiatic jackals, leopard cats and clouded leopards. The mortality rate ofthe existing hog deer in TKM during the study period was 18.1%. The habitat sharing by camera traps revealed 4 ungulatespecies. They were sambar deer, barking deer, wild boar, and elephant, and their relative abundance were 28.41%, 7.38%,4.70%, and 2.01% respectively. Fifty-year simulation modeling using population viability analysis indicated the sustainabilityof this population. Hog deer population in the simulations did not exhibit sensitivity to an increase or decrease in carryingcapacity. Habitat management should be carried out continuously in TKM area, which is the main habitat for hog deer inPKWS.

  19. Surveillance to detect chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P

    2009-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting North American cervids, has been discovered in at least 12 states and provinces throughout the continent. Since 2002, a number of states and provinces have initiated surveillance programs to detect CWD in native cervid populations. However, many questions remain about the appropriate methods, geographic scope, and number of samples required for an effective CWD surveillance program. We provide an improved statistical method to calculate the probability of detecting CWD in primary sample units (e.g., county or deer management unit) that also considers deer abundance and the nonrandom distribution of CWD and hunter harvests. We used this method to analyze data from a statewide CWD detection program conducted in Wisconsin during the autumns of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer heads were collected at hunter registration stations, and brainstem (obex) and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were removed for disease testing. Our analysis includes samples from >35,000 deer collected outside the known affected area. The probability of detecting chronic wasting disease at a prevalence of 1% varied from 0.89 to > or =0.99 among the 56 primary sample units. Detection probabilities for 1% CWD prevalence were >0.9 in 55 primary sample units, and >0.99 in 10. Detection probabilities will be higher in areas where CWD prevalence exceeds 1%. CWD-positive deer were detected in eight primary sample units surrounding the known affected area during surveillance activities. Our approach provides a novel statistical technique to accommodate nonrandom sampling in wildlife disease surveillance programs.

  20. Bohr effect and temperature sensitivity of hemoglobins from highland and lowland deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Birgitte; Storz, Jay F; Fago, Angela

    2016-05-01

    An important means of physiological adaptation to environmental hypoxia is an increased oxygen (O2) affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb) that can help secure high O2 saturation of arterial blood. However, the trade-off associated with a high Hb-O2 affinity is that it can compromise O2 unloading in the systemic capillaries. High-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved an increased Hb-O2 affinity relative to lowland conspecifics, but it is not known whether they have also evolved compensatory mechanisms to facilitate O2 unloading to respiring tissues. Here we investigate the effects of pH (Bohr effect) and temperature on the O2-affinity of high- and low-altitude deer mouse Hb variants, as these properties can potentially facilitate O2 unloading to metabolizing tissues. Our experiments revealed that Bohr factors for the high- and low-altitude Hb variants are very similar in spite of the differences in O2-affinity. The Bohr factors of deer mouse Hbs are also comparable to those of other mammalian Hbs. In contrast, the high- and low-altitude variants of deer mouse Hb exhibited similarly low temperature sensitivities that were independent of red blood cell anionic cofactors, suggesting an appreciable endothermic allosteric transition upon oxygenation. In conclusion, high-altitude deer mice have evolved an adaptive increase in Hb-O2 affinity, but this is not associated with compensatory changes in sensitivity to changes in pH or temperature. Instead, it appears that the elevated Hb-O2 affinity in high-altitude deer mice is compensated by an associated increase in the tissue diffusion capacity of O2 (via increased muscle capillarization), which promotes O2 unloading.

  1. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  2. Does landscape connectivity shape local and global social network structure in white-tailed deer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Erin L; Tosa, Marie I; Nielsen, Clayton K; Schauber, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific social behavior can be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While much research has focused on how characteristics of individuals influence their roles in social networks, we were interested in the role that landscape structure plays in animal sociality at both individual (local) and population (global) levels. We used female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois, USA, to investigate the potential effect of landscape on social network structure by weighting the edges of seasonal social networks with association rate (based on proximity inferred from GPS collar data). At the local level, we found that sociality among female deer in neighboring social groups (n = 36) was mainly explained by their home range overlap, with two exceptions: 1) during fawning in an area of mixed forest and grassland, deer whose home ranges had low forest connectivity were more social than expected; and 2) during the rut in an area of intensive agriculture, deer inhabiting home ranges with high amount and connectedness of agriculture were more social than expected. At the global scale, we found that deer populations (n = 7) in areas with highly connected forest-agriculture edge, a high proportion of agriculture, and a low proportion of forest tended to have higher weighted network closeness, although low sample size precluded statistical significance. This result implies that infectious disease could spread faster in deer populations inhabiting such landscapes. Our work advances the general understanding of animal social networks, demonstrating how landscape features can underlie differences in social behavior both within and among wildlife social networks.

  3. Serosurveillance for livestock pathogens in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Roug

    Full Text Available Routine disease surveillance has been conducted for decades in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus in California for pathogens shared between wildlife and domestic ruminants that may have implications for the animal production industry and wildlife health. Deer sampled from 1990 to 2007 (n = 2,619 were tested for exposure to six pathogens: bluetongue virus (BTV, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, Leptospira spp., Anaplasma spp. and Brucella spp. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to these pathogens and demographic risk factors to identify broad patterns in seroprevalence across a large temporal and spatial scale. The overall seroprevalence for the entire study period was 13.4% for BTV, 16.8% for EHDV, 17.1% for BVDV, 6.5% for Leptospira spp., 0.2% for Brucella spp., and 17% for Anaplasma spp. Antibodies against BTV and EHDV were most prevalent in the deer populations of southern California. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. and Anaplasma spp. were most prevalent in coastal and central northern California whereas antibodies against BVDV were most prevalent in central-eastern and northeastern California. The overall seroprevalence for Anaplasma spp. was slightly lower than detected in previous studies. North and central eastern California contains large tracts of federal land grazed by livestock; therefore, possible contact between deer and livestock could explain the high BVDV seroprevalence found in these areas. Findings from this study will help to establish baseline values for future comparisons of pathogen exposure in deer, inform on long-term trends in deer population health and provide relevant information on the distribution of diseases that are shared between wildlife and livestock.

  4. Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Steele, Philip; Finlayson, Jeanie; Eaton, Samantha L; Sisó, Sílvia; Stewart, Paula; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Hamilton, Scott; Pang, Yvonne; Chianini, Francesca; Reid, Hugh W; Goldmann, Wilfred; González, Lorenzo; Castilla, Joaquín; Jeffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6%) weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of venison is probably

  5. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin in a liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuhong; GAO Tian; ZHANG Ligang

    2007-01-01

    Gelatin extracted from deer bone was hydrolyzed for 3.5-120 min. The degree of hydrolysis was higher from Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin than that from neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than that of neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Hydrolysates showed strong radical-scavenging ability and Fe2+-chelating activity, both of which were influenced by hydrolysis time. Although nonhydrolyzed gelatin displayed a certain antioxidative effect, it was far less than that of hydrolysates. The hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin can work as a radical stabilizer and metal ion chelator to inhibit lipid oxidation.

  6. Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

  7. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

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    Guilloteau Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins

  8. Molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of Ercc6l in Sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum.

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    Yupeng Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One important protein family that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER factors is the SNF2 family. A newly identified mouse ERCC6-like gene, Ercc6l (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 6-like, has been shown to be another developmentally related member of the SNF2 family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, Sika deer Ercc6l cDNA was first cloned and then sequenced. The full-length cDNA of the Sika deer Ercc6l gene is 4197 bp and contains a 3732 bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 1243 amino acids. The similarity of Sika deer Ercc6l to Bos taurus Ercc6l is 94.05% at the amino acid sequence level. The similarity, however, is reduced to 68.42-82.21% when compared to Ercc6l orthologs in other mammals and to less than 50% compared to orthologs in Gallus gallus and Xenopus. Additionally, the expression of Ercc6l mRNA was investigated in the organs of fetal and adult Sika deer (FSD and ASD, respectively by quantitative RT-PCR. The common expression level of Ercc6l mRNA in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and stomach from six different developmental stages of 18 Sika deer were examined, though the expression levels in each organ varied among individual Sika deer. During development, there was a slight trend toward decreased Ercc61 mRNA expression. The highest Ercc6l expression levels were seen at 3 months old in every organ and showed the highest level of detection in the spleen of FSD. The lowest Ercc6l expression levels were seen at 3 years old. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We are the first to successfully clone Sika deer Ercc6l mRNA. Ercc6l transcript is present in almost every organ. During Sika deer development, there is a slight trend toward decreased Ercc61 mRNA expression. It is possible that Ercc6l has other roles in embryonic development and in maintaining the growth of animals.

  9. Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

  10. Wild sheep and deer in Hawai'i: a threat to fragile ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    The unique native flora of the Hawaiian Islands, which evolved in the absence of ungulates (grazing animals), is highly vulnerable to damage by trampling and browsing. Wild ungulates introduced into Hawai'i in the past 150 years, including mouflon, axis deer, and mule deer, have severely harmed the native flora. Control measures used against feral animals do not work as well against these wild animals. Trophy hunting tends to alter sex ratios and increase population growth. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are studying these wild ungulates in order to develop more effective control measures that help protect Hawai'i's endemic flora.

  11. Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Beck, Katy E; Wilson, Christina; Denyer, Margaret; Sheehan, John; Marsh, Sarah; Webb, Paul R; Dexter, Ian; Norman, Angela; Popescu, Emma; Schneider, Amanda; Holden, Paul; Griffiths, Peter C; Plater, Jane M; Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Telling, Glenn C; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2014-02-01

    Several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. The present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent adaptation in the deer.

  12. John Deere 6534: un nuevo concepto llevado al limite en campo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Los días 4 y 5 de marzo tuvo lugar en Toledo un ensayo de campo para verificar las características de un nuevo concepto, el John Deere 6534, que se comercializa desde el pasado mes de febrero. El JD 6534 representa el compromiso de John Deere de fabricar productos más eficientes según la estrategia Green Efficiency. Animamos a los lectores a revisar este dedicado trabajo con resultados que, creemos, les sorprenderán.

  13. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  14. Assessing plant community composition fails to capture impacts of white-tailed deer on native and invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Victoria; Dávalos, Andrea; Blossey, Bernd

    2017-07-01

    Excessive herbivory can have transformative effects on forest understory vegetation, converting diverse communities into depauperate ones, often with increased abundance of non-native plants. White-tailed deer are a problematic herbivore throughout much of eastern North America and alter forest understory community structure. Reducing (by culling) or eliminating (by fencing) deer herbivory is expected to return understory vegetation to a previously diverse condition. We examined this assumption from 1992 to 2006 at Fermilab (Batavia, IL) where a cull reduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) abundance in 1998/1999 by 90 % from 24.6 to 2.5/km(2), and at West Point, NY, where we assessed interactive effects of deer, earthworms, and invasive plants using 30 × 30 m paired fenced and open plots in 12 different forests from 2009 to 2012. We recorded not only plant community responses (species presence and cover) within 1 m(2) quadrats, but also responses of select individual species (growth, reproduction). At Fermilab, introduced Alliaria petiolata abundance initially increased as deer density increased, but then declined after deer reduction. The understory community responded to the deer cull by increased cover, species richness and height, and community composition changed but was dominated by early successional native forbs. At West Point plant community composition was affected by introduced earthworm density but not deer exclusion. Native plant cover increased and non-native plant cover decreased in fenced plots, thus keeping overall plant cover similar. At both sites native forb cover increased in response to deer reduction, but the anticipated response of understory vegetation failed to materialize at the community level. Deer-favoured forbs (Eurybia divaricata, Maianthemum racemosum, Polygonatum pubescens and Trillium recurvatum) grew taller and flowering probability increased in the absence of deer. Plant community monitoring fails to capture

  15. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  16. Two alternative DNA extraction methods to improve the detection of Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex members in cattle and red deer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Shari; Bröckl, Stephanie; Büttner, Mathias; Rettinger, Anna; Zimmermann, Pia; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-09-15

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), which is caused by Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae, is a notifiable animal disease in Germany. Diagnostic procedure is based on a prescribed protocol that is published in the framework of German bTB legislation. In this protocol small sample volumes are used for DNA extraction followed by real-time PCR analyses. As mycobacteria tend to concentrate in granuloma and the infected tissue in early stages of infection does not necessarily show any visible lesions, it is likely that DNA extraction from only small tissue samples (20-40 mg) of a randomly chosen spot from the organ and following PCR testing may result in false negative results. In this study two DNA extraction methods were developed to process larger sample volumes to increase the detection sensitivity of mycobacterial DNA in animal tissue. The first extraction method is based on magnetic capture, in which specific capture oligonucleotides were utilized. These nucleotides are linked to magnetic particles and capture Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex (MTC) DNA released from 10 to 15 g of tissue material. In a second approach remaining sediments from the magnetic capture protocol were further processed with a less complex extraction protocol that can be used in daily routine diagnostics. A total number of 100 tissue samples from 34 cattle (n = 74) and 18 red deer (n = 26) were analyzed with the developed protocols and results were compared to the prescribed protocol. All three extraction methods yield reliable results by the real-time PCR analysis. The use of larger sample volume led to a sensitivity increase of DNA detection which was shown by the decrease of Ct-values. Furthermore five samples which were tested negative or questionable by the official extraction protocol were detected positive by real time PCR when the alternative extraction methods were used. By calculating the kappa index, the three extraction protocols resulted in a moderate (0.52; protocol 1 vs 3

  17. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Domínguez-Rebolledo, Alvaro Efrén; Garde, José Julián

    2014-01-01

    The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF) or bad freezers (BF) at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006). The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; psperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  18. Morphological observation of antler regeneration in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyi; Suttie, James M; Clark, Dawn E

    2004-12-01

    Deer antler offers a unique opportunity to explore how nature solves the problem of mammalian appendage regeneration. Annual antler renewal is an example of epimorphic regeneration, which is known to take place through initial blastema formation. Detailed examination of the early process of antler regeneration, however, has thus far been lacking. Therefore, we conducted morphological observations on antler regeneration from naturally cast and artificially created pedicle/antler stumps. On the naturally cast pedicle stumps, early antler regeneration underwent four distinguishable stages (with the Chinese equivalent names): casting of previous hard antlers (oil lamp bowl), early wound healing (tiger eye), late wound healing and early regeneration (millstone), and formation of main beam and brown tine (small saddle). Overall, no cone-shaped regenerate, a common feature to blastema-based regeneration, was observed. Taken together with the examination on the sagittal plane of each regenerating stage sample, we found that there are considerable overlaps between late-stage wound healing and the establishment of posterior and anterior growth centers. Observation of antler regeneration from the artificially created stumps showed that the regeneration potential of antler remnants was significantly reduced compared with that of pedicle tissue. Interestingly, the distal portion of a pedicle stump had greater regeneration potential than the proximal region, although this differential potential may not be constitutive, but rather caused by whether or not pedicle antlerogenic tissue becomes closely associated with the enveloping skin at the cut plane. Antler formation could take place from the distal peripheral tissues of an antler/pedicle stump, without the obvious participation of the entire central bony portion. Overall, our morphological results do not support the notion that antler regeneration takes place through the initial formation of a blastema; rather, it may be a stem

  19. Occurrence of antibodies anti -Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Kraemer Zimpel

    Full Text Available Abstract A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%, N. caninum (6.2% and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1% were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo.

  20. Occurrence of antibodies anti -Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia de Sa; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; de Oliveira, Marcos Jose; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Silva, Lília Marcia Paulin; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Castro, Vanessa; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2015-01-01

    A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana) kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%), N. caninum (6.2%) and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1%) were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo.

  1. HPLC-MS/MS shotgun proteomic research of deer antlers with multiparallel protein extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Tao, Dingyin; Shan, Yichu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Huo, Yushu; Zhang, Yukui

    2010-12-15

    Deer antlers mature rapidly in 60 days, and subsequently shed in 5 days with rapid ossification. During this procedure, the function of deer antlers changes significantly. Therefore, the profiling of antler proteome is helpful to discover important growing and shedding regulation proteins, which might be of great significance for studying development and regeneration. In this study, a parallel protein extraction strategy was developed to extract proteins from antlers of red deer with five different lysis solutions, followed by shotgun proteomic analysis by microflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (μRPLC-ESI-MS/MS) with a 30 cm-long serially coupled microcolumn. Our experimental results showed that the identified proteins extracted by five kinds of lysis solution were complementary to each other. In total, 416 unique proteins were identified, with relative molecular masses from 2000 to 600,000, and isoelectric points from 3.84 to 11.57. All these results demonstrate that the combination of parallel protein extraction strategy and μRPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis with serially coupled long microcolumns might be of great significance for comprehensive proteomic research of deer antler.

  2. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in farmed sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-Feng; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yu; Bai, Ya-Duo; Wang, Wei-Lin; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-07-30

    Neospora caninum is a worldwide protozoan that can induce neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive failure in domestic and wild ruminants. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in farmed sika deer in China as little is known of this host-parasite relationship. A total of 1800 serum samples were collected during 2013 and 2014 from farmed sika deer in the major production areas of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces.Assay by ELISA for N. caninum antibodies indicated a seroprevalence of 13.6% in 2013 and 15.8% in 2014, varying in different regions from 9.5% to 27.5%. Statistical analysis revealed that prevalence in animals aged >4 years (20.4%) was significantly higher than in the age ranges <2 years (9.6%) and 2-4 years (11.4%) (P<0.01). Moreover, sika deer in herds with a history of miscarriage (41.9%) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than in those without (12.6%) (P<0.01). The present survey confirms that N. caninum does occur in farmed sika deer in China and provides base-line data for the design and evaluation of measures for its control and prevention in this host.

  3. Congenital transmission of Neospora caninum in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neosporosis is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Many aspects of transmission of Neospora caninum in nature are unknown. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is considered one of the most important wildlife reservoirs of N. caninum in the USA. During the hunting seasons of 2...

  4. Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Blanchong, Julie A; Batha, Carl A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P; Ribic, Christine A

    2006-07-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors involved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission.

  5. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin White-tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien O; Ribic, Christine A; Langenberg, Julie A; Beheler, Kerry; Batha, Carl A; Dhuey, Brian J; Rolley, Robert E; Bartelt, Gerald; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Samuel, Michael D

    2003-05-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  6. Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Griffin, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

  7. Taphonomic reinterpretation of a bone sample of endemic Pleistocene deer from Crete (Greece): osteoporosis versus regurgitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attard, I.R.; Reumer, J.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of fossil deer remains (genus Candiacervus) from Mavro Mouri cave, Crete, Greece is studied because a large proportion shows aberrant, seemingly pathological changes to the morphology and the structure of the bones. Here we show that the aberrant appearance of the Mavro Mouri bone sample ca

  8. 81 FR 16198 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington Counties, ID, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington..., 1010 Dearborn St., Caldwell, ID 83605. Homedale Public Library, 125 W Owyhee Ave., Homedale, ID...

  9. 75 FR 41232 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID; Malheur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington...). The Refuge has units located in Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID, and Malheur... the Snake River located in Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington Counties in ID; and Malheur...

  10. Effects of deer exclosures on oak regeneration in closed-canopy stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela M. Yuska; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the effects of high deer densities on forest regeneration have shown altered species composition and reduced diversity in stands regenerating after harvest. The effects of browsing in fully stocked, undisturbed stands are less well known but important, as establishment of seedlings of oaks and other species prior to disturbance is very important for self-...

  11. Relevance of management and feeding regimens on life expectancy in captive deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2010-03-01

    To establish a demographic approach to facilitate the comparison of husbandry success for deer species in zoos and to test for factors that influence the performance of deer species in captivity. Data collected from 45,736 zoo-kept deer that comprised 31 species. Data had been collected by the International Species Information System during the last 3 decades on zoo-kept deer around the world. The relative life expectancy (rLE) of a species (ie, mean life expectancy as a proportion of the maximum recorded life span for that species) was used to describe zoo populations. The rLE (values between 0 and 1) was used to reflect the husbandry success of a species. A significant positive correlation was found between the rLE of a species and the percentage of grass in the natural diet of the species, suggesting that there are more problems in the husbandry of browsing than of grazing species. The 4 species for which a studbook (ie, record of the lineage of wild animals bred in captivity) was maintained had a high rLE, potentially indicating the positive effect of intensive breeding management. The rLE facilitated the comparison of husbandry success for various species and may offer the possibility of correlating this quotient with other biological variables. Ultimately, identifying reasons for a low husbandry success in certain species may form the basis for further improvements of animal welfare in captivity.

  12. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  13. Mother to offspring transmission of chronic wasting disease in reeves' muntjac deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V Nalls

    Full Text Available The horizontal transmission of prion diseases has been well characterized in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, chronic wasting disease (CWD of deer and elk and scrapie of sheep, and has been regarded as the primary mode of transmission. Few studies have monitored the possibility of vertical transmission occurring within an infected mother during pregnancy. To study the potential for and pathway of vertical transmission of CWD in the native cervid species, we used a small cervid model-the polyestrous breeding, indoor maintainable, Reeves' muntjac deer-and determined that the susceptibility and pathogenesis of CWD in these deer reproduce that in native mule and white-tailed deer. Moreover, we demonstrate here that CWD prions are transmitted from doe to fawn. Maternal CWD infection also appears to result in lower percentage of live birth offspring. In addition, evolving evidence from protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA assays on fetal tissues suggest that covert prion infection occurs in utero. Overall, our findings demonstrate that transmission of prions from mother to offspring can occur, and may be underestimated for all prion diseases.

  14. Department of the Interior Environmental Assessment: Public Deer Hunting on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to initiate an annual public hunt for white-tailed deer on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It is the purpose of the...

  15. Summary of the 2001-2002 Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2001-2002 Squaw Creek NWR primitive firearms antler-less deer hunt consisted of two separate 2-day hunts occurring on December 15/16 2001 and January 12/13 2002....

  16. 78 FR 16523 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington Counties, ID, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington..., photography, jogging, bicycling, on- leash dog walking, and horseback riding. No additional trail or lake.... Gotts Point would be opened to vehicular traffic upon completion of a cooperative agreement with...

  17. Reduced sperm quality in relation to oxidative stress in red deer from a lead mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reglero, Manuel M.; Taggart, Mark A.; Castellanos, Pilar [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.e [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    We studied the effects of elevated heavy metal uptake on the sperm quality and the antioxidant mechanisms of sperm and testis of red deer from a Pb mining area in Spain. Testis, liver and bone of red deer from mining (n = 21) and control (n = 20) areas were obtained from hunters and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As and Se. Testes were weighed and measured. Motility, acrosome integrity and viability and functionality of membrane were evaluated in epididymal spermatozoa. Lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in testis and spermatozoa. Deer from mined areas showed less Cu in testis, a higher testis mass and size and reduced spermatozoa membrane viability and acrosome integrity. Effects on sperm quality were associated to decreased Cu and increased Se in testis, and to decreases in the activity of SOD and GPX in testis and spermatozoa. - A decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in testis correlates with reduced sperm quality in red deer from a Pb mining area.

  18. The fire and oak hypothesis: incorporating the influence of deer browsing and canopy gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel J. Collins; Walter P. Carson

    2003-01-01

    A century of fire suppression has altered tree species composition and is a commonly cited cause for the region-wide decline in oak abundance (the fire and oak hypothesis). Other explanations include alterations in canopy gap regimes and deer browsing that operate in conjunction with fire suppression. We examined the interactions among these processes by manipulating...

  19. Mismatch Between Birth Date and Vegetation Phenology Slows the Demography of Roe Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A. J. Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition. PMID:24690936

  20. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations.

  1. Quantification of the transmission of bovine herpesvirus 1 among red deer (cervus elaphus) under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Nodelijk, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) is endemically present in a cattle population that lives in a nature reserve in the Netherlands. Red deer (Cervus elaphus), living in the same nature reserve, can come into contact with the BHV1-infected cattle and could then become infected with BHV1. For the eradication

  2. Long-term dynamics of Coxiella burnetii in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGonzález-Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the dynamics of Coxiella burnetii that are relevant for the implementation of control strategies in ruminant herds with endemic Q-fever are unknown. We designed a longitudinal study to monitor the dynamics of exposure to C. burnetii in a red deer herd with endemic infection in order to allow the design of Q fever specific control approaches. Other relevant aspects of the dynamics of C. burnetii - the effect of herd immune status, age, season and early infection on exposure, the average half-life of antibodies, the presence and duration of maternal humoral immunity and the age of first exposure - were analysed. The dynamics of C. burnetii in deer herds seems to be modulated by host herd and host individual factors and by particular host life history traits. Red deer females become exposed to C. burnetii at the beginning of their second year since maternal antibodies protect them after birth and during the main pathogen shedding season - at the end of spring-early summer. Infection pressure varies between years, probably associated to herd immunity effects, determining inter-annual variation in the risk of exposure. These results suggest that any strategy applied to control C. burnetii in deer herds should be designed to induce immunity in their first year of life immediately after losing maternal antibodies. The short average life of C. burnetii antibodies suggests that any protection based upon humoral immunity would require re-vaccination every 6 months.

  3. Gene expression of axon growth promoting factors in the deer antler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pita-Thomas

    Full Text Available The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus. Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin.

  4. Effectiveness of rodenticides for managing invasive roof rats and native deer mice in orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Roger A; Quinn, Niamh; Davis, David H; Engeman, Richard M

    2014-05-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are occasional pests of nut and tree fruit orchards throughout California and in many other parts of the USA and beyond. In general, the most practical and cost-effective control method for rodents in many agricultural environments is the use of rodenticides (toxic baits), but little or no information exists on the efficacy of current rodenticides in controlling roof rats and deer mice in orchards. Therefore, our goals were to develop an index of rodent activity to monitor efficacy of rodenticides and to subsequently test the efficacy of three California Department of Food and Agriculture rodenticide baits (0.005 % chlorophacinone treated oats, 0.005 % diphacinone treated oats, and 0.005 % diphacinone wax block) to determine their utility for controlling roof rats and deer mice in agricultural orchards. We determined that a general index using the number of roof rat photos taken at a minimum of a 5-min interval was strongly correlated to the minimum number known estimate of roof rats; this approach was used to monitor roof rat and deer mouse populations pre- and post-treatment. Of the baits tested, the 0.005 % diphacinone treated oats was most effective for both species; 0.005 % chlorophacinone grain was completely ineffective against roof rats. Our use of elevated bait stations proved effective at providing bait to target species and should substantially limit access to rodenticides by many non-target species.

  5. Field evidence that roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are a natural host for Ehrlichia phagocytophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, M. P.; Walker, A. R.; Urquhart, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of blood, spleen and legs from 112 culled roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were collected from nine sites widespread in the United Kingdom. The prevalence of infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction. Means of 58% of 102 plasma or serum samples were seroreactive by IFA, 38% of 84 blood samples and 29% of 82 spleen samples were positive by PCR. Ticks on legs of 71 roe deer were Ixodes ricinus larvae, nymphs and adults and 83% of legs were infested. Numbers of ticks corresponded positively to the percentage of samples positive for E. phagocytophila by serology and PCR for different sampling sites. Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from the vegetation at one site with infected deer were analysed for infection with E. phagocytophila by examination of Feulgen stained salivary glands. Of 135 nymphs 5% were infected. These results confirm that roe deer are commonly parasitized by both E. phagocytophila and its vector tick in such a way that it is likely to be an important natural mammalian reservoir of E. phagocytophila. PMID:10813158

  6. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A J Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition.

  7. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  8. Nasal bots and lice from white-tailed deer in southern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Douglas D; Gray, Dawn; Morton, Kim; Pybus, Margo

    2008-07-01

    Heads of 64 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, harvested in the vicinity of Magrath, Alberta, Canada, (49 degrees 24'782''N, 112 degrees 52'113''W) were examined for the presence of nasal bots and lice. The deer were collected between 8-30 January 2004 as part of a government-approved herd reduction protocol. The entire surface of each head was scanned visually for the presence of lice. Each head was split longitudinally, and the nasal passages, sinuses, and ethmoid region were washed for recovery of nasal bots. First instar Cephenemyia spp. were recovered from 17 heads (27%). Intensity of infestation ranged from 1-18 larvae (mean intensity 4.8). Among fawns, there were no significant differences in prevalence or mean intensity between the sexes. Two species of nasal bots were identified. Smaller larvae, tentatively identified as C. jellisoni, were present in 16 of 17 infested deer while larger specimens, tentatively identified as C. phobifera, were found in four deer; and in three of the four it co-occurred with C. jellisoni. The presence of C. phobifera in Alberta would represent a range extension for this species, which has not been known to occur west of North Dakota. Thirty-one fawns (48%) were infested with the sucking louse Solenopotes ferrisi. One infested fawn also had one specimen of the chewing louse, Tricholiopeurus lipeuroides.

  9. Large-scale ELISA testing of Spanish red deer for paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, R; Pérez-de-la-Lastra, J M; Vicente, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Garrido, J M; Gortázar, C

    2008-07-15

    A role of wildlife species as paratuberculosis reservoirs is strongly suspected based on field and molecular epidemiologic evidence. This paper presents the first large-scale data on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in red deer from Spain, and tests the effect of host and environmental risk factors on antibody levels. A total of 257 out of 852 serum samples tested positive, yielding a total seroprevalence of 30.16% (95% CI 27.08-33.24). Sampling locality, presence of cattle and increasing age explained the variation in the individual ELISA optical density (OD) results. Data presented in this study strongly suggest that Spanish red deer are exposed to MAP. While contact with cattle was statistically significant, some wild populations showed the highest positivity to the ELISA. The results support the need of a careful study of MAP prevalence based on culture and molecular tools in order to clarify if deer play a significant role as paratuberculosis reservoirs for livestock, and if deer paratuberculosis is affecting hunting harvest, trophy quality, or wild animal welfare in Spain.

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites in an isolated Norwegian population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen red deer, culled from the isolated population at the Mongstad Oil Refinery, were investigated for gastrointestinal helminths. These animals, enclosed by the refinery fence, do not have contact with other ruminants and have a high population density considering the available browsing area (1...

  11. OCCURRENCE OF FASCIOLOIDOSIS IN RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS IN BARANJA REGION IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Flirijančić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fascioloidosis is a parasitic disease caused by the giant American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875. In Croatia, the first report of this disease was in January 2000, in red deer (Cervus elaphus L. from the Tikveš Forestry in Baranja region (east Croatia. The aim of this survey was to determine the geographical distribution of fascioloidosis and the infection prevalence in deer. The survey was carried out in six state hunting grounds that manage with deer game in Baranja region during 2001 – 2004. Parasitological examinations were carried out by qualitative and quantitative faecal exams. The highest prevalence’s (35 – 60% were found in epizootic focuses of two hunting grounds at flooding – bog land area in east Baranja, Danube forestry. The mean intensity of infection, determined on the basis of the number of eggs per gram (EPG was 30 – 33 EPG (range 1 – 300. High 86% of examined samples was in category to 50 EPG. The highest prevalence and the biggest EPG number too, were determined during the first year of survey. In the Baranja area fascioloidosis represents a potential danger for other game species, mainly roe deer and wild boars, as for domestic animals.

  12. Iodine distribution in the environment as a limiting factor for roe deer antler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczki, Róbert; Erdélyi, Károly; Sonkoly, Krisztina; Szemethy, László; Csányi, Sándor

    2011-02-01

    The iodine-containing hormones produced by the thyroid gland play a role in the complex neuro-hormonal regulation of antler development. The proper function of the thyroid depends on the adequate iodine supply of the organism, which is directly related to the iodine content of food and drinking water. The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between the iodine content of the water base, which has a strong correlation with the iodine concentration of environmental components available to animals, and the antler weight of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) shot in Hungarian hunting areas. Using a general linear model, controlling for the collective effects of other environmental factors (deer population density, harvest rate, land use, and soil fertility information), the iodine content of the water base explained 51.4% of the total variance of antler weights. The results suggest that antler weights increase with increasing iodine concentration regardless of other factors; thus, the environmental iodine distribution can be a limiting factor suppressing roe deer performance assessed here as antler weight. Further experimental studies of controlled iodine uptake are needed to define the exact physiological iodine requirements of roe deer bucks.

  13. Action Is Needed to Improve the Completeness and Accuracy of DEERS Beneficiary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    hospital record; or day care or nursery school record are acceptable forms of identity. 4...were ineligible for benefits. For example, one was an Army sponsor who had been discharged following a court martial proceeding. DEERS erroneously...eligibility documents for newborns ; however, the Joint Inter-Service Instruction 36-3026 did not require RAPIDS verifying officials to scan eligibility

  14. Use of curlleaf mountain-mahogany by mule deer on a transition range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Edward Dealy; Paul J. Edgerton; Wayne G. Williams

    1986-01-01

    Using the pellet-group sampling method, we concluded that migrating mule deer showed no preference in use between two ratios of curlleaf mountain-mahogany cover and openings on a northern California transition range. Where there is a need to develop forage openings in transition habitats dominated by dense thickets of curlleaf mountain-mahogany, manipulation of cover...

  15. Finding of No Significant Impact : [Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge White-tailed Deer Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This FONSI for the Ottawa NWR proposed White-tailed Deer Hunting Plan states that the plan does not pose a significant threat to diminish the area’s value for...

  16. Selection of bed-sites by roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns in a boreal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnell, J.D.C.; Nijhuis, P.G.T.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Andersen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Bed-site selection by 19 radio-collared roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns from seven family groups was studied during June-July 1998 in southeastern Norway. The habitat consisted of small agricultural fields surrounded by industrially exploited boreal forest. Within the forest, fawns selected

  17. Orientation selective DEER measurements on vinculin tail at X-band frequencies reveal spin label orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Christoph; Klose, Daniel; Dietrich, Franziska; Ziegler, Wolfgang H.; Polyhach, Yevhen; Jeschke, Gunnar; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Double electron electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has been established as a valuable method to determine distances between spin labels bound to protein molecules. Caused by selective excitation of molecular orientations DEER primary data also depend on the mutual orientation of the spin labels. For a doubly spin labeled variant of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin tail strong orientation selection can be observed already at X-band frequencies, which allows us to reduce the problem to the relative orientation of two molecular axes and the spin-spin axis parameterized by three angles. A full grid search of parameter space reveals that the DEER experiment introduces parameter-space symmetry higher than the symmetry of the spin Hamiltonian. Thus, the number of equivalent parameter sets is twice as large as expected and the relative orientation of the two spin labels is ambiguous. Except for this inherent ambiguity the most probable relative orientation of the two spin labels can be determined with good confidence and moderate uncertainty by global fitting of a set of five DEER experiments at different offsets between pump and observer frequency. The experiment provides restraints on the angles between the z axis of the nitroxide molecular frame and the spin-spin vector and on the dihedral between the two z axes. When using the same type of label at both sites, assignment of the angle restraints is ambiguous and the sign of the dihedral restraint is also ambiguous.

  18. Habitat, wildlife and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans.

  19. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-09-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons.

  20. Reduced efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) after 20 years of moxidectin pour-on use on a New Zealand deer farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, C G; Cowie, C; Fraser, K; Johnstone, P; Mason, P C

    2014-01-17

    A study was undertaken on weaned 4-5 month old farmed red deer to test the efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin anthelmintics, given by three different routes of administration, compared with an untreated control. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14 for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), blood samples were collected on days 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 for pharmacokinetics, and the deer were killed on days 14 or 15 for total nematode count. The control group averaged 1264 adult Ostertagia-type nematode parasite species and treatment efficacy was 77.4% for moxidectin injection, 26% for oral moxidectin and 27.6% for pour-on moxidectin, while the treatment efficacy was 72.4% for abamectin injection, 70.1% for oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and 34.1% for pour-on abamectin. Both moxidectin and abamectin injections were significantly more efficacious than their equivalent pour-ons. There was a significant difference in efficacy between oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and oral moxidectin (Pworm burdens in all six treatment groups, suggesting egg-laying suppression in resistant nematodes, and all three different FECRT calculations tended to overestimate the efficacy of the treatments compared with actual nematode counts. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for both actives were measured 12h after treatment for injection and oral and at 5 days for pour-on. Cmax (ng/ml) for moxidectin injection, oral and pour-on were 71.8, 8.3 and 0.4, respectively, and for abamectin injection, oral and pour-on were 62.1, 30.3 and 10.0, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) estimates for moxidectin injection, oral and pour-on were 106.6, 12.9 and 6.1, respectively, and for abamectin injection, oral and pour-on were 162.7, 57.5 and 74.3, respectively. The results demonstrate that significant anthelmintic resistance to moxidectin and abamectin is present on this deer farm. However, the injection was the most effective route of administration in young deer for both

  1. Prion protein gene sequence and chronic wasting disease susceptibility in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam L; Kelly, Amy C; Green, Michelle L; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2015-01-01

    The sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP) affects susceptibility to spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases in many species. In white-tailed deer, both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in this gene that correlate to chronic wasting disease (CWD) susceptibility. Previous studies examined individual nucleotide or amino acid mutations; here we examine all nucleotide polymorphisms and their combined effects on CWD. A 626 bp region of PRNP was examined from 703 free-ranging white-tailed deer. Deer were sampled between 2002 and 2010 by hunter harvest or government culling in Illinois and Wisconsin. Fourteen variable nucleotide positions were identified (4 new and 10 previously reported). We identified 68 diplotypes comprised of 24 predicted haplotypes, with the most common diplotype occurring in 123 individuals. Diplotypes that were found exclusively among positive or negative animals were rare, each occurring in less than 1% of the deer studied. Only one haplotype (C, odds ratio 0.240) and 2 diplotypes (AC and BC, odds ratios of 0.161 and 0.108 respectively) has significant associations with CWD resistance. Each contains mutations (one synonymous nucleotide 555C/T and one nonsynonymous nucleotide 286G/A) at positions reported to be significantly associated with reduced CWD susceptibility. Results suggest that deer populations with higher frequencies of haplotype C or diplotypes AC and BC might have a reduced risk for CWD infection--while populations with lower frequencies may have higher risk for infection. Understanding the genetic basis of CWD has improved our ability to assess herd susceptibility and direct management efforts within CWD infected areas.

  2. Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  3. Patterns in deer-related traffic injuries over a decade: the Mayo clinic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoot Dustin L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our American College of Surgeons Level 1 Trauma Center serves a rural population. As a result, there is a unique set of accidents that are not present in an urban environment such as deer related motor vehicle crashes (dMVC. We characterized injury patterns between motorcycle/all-terrain vehicles (MCC and automobile (MVC crashes related to dMVC (deer motor vehicle crash with the hypotheses that MCC will present with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS and that it would be related to whether the driver struck the deer or swerved. Methods The records of 157 consecutive patients evaluated at our institution for injury related to dMVC from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2006 were reviewed from our prospectively collected trauma database. Demographic, clinical, and crash specific parameters were abstracted. Injury severity was analyzed by the Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each body region as well as the overall Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results Motorcycle crashes presented with a higher median ISS than MVCs (14 vs 5, p Within the MVC group, there was no difference between swerving and hitting the deer in any AIS group. Forty-seven percent of drivers were not wearing seat belts which resulted in similar median ISS (6 vs 5 and AIS of all body regions. Conclusions Motorcycle operators suffered higher ISS. There were no significant differences in median ISS if a driver involved in a deer-related motor vehicle crash swerved rather than collided, was helmeted, or restrained.

  4. Serological activity of white-tail deer against several species of Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Meléndez, J A; Martínez-Muñoz, A; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Cerutti-Pereyra, N; Riojas-Valdés, V M

    1998-01-01

    In Mexico, brucellosis is a widely distributed disease of domesticated ruminants, but its frequency in wild ruminants has not been documented. Since northeast Mexico is the main distribution area of white-tailed deer and has been reported as an area positive for brucellosis in domesticated species, the present study was conducted in order to determine serological activity against several species of the genus Brucella in white-tailed deer. A total of 208 sera of white-tailed deer were collected during the springs of 1994 and 1995 in the north part of the states of Nuevo León and Coahuila. Each serum was analyzed for the detection of antibodies against two smooth (B. abortus and B. melitensis) and one rough (B. ovis) species of the genus Brucella. The serological tests used for the determination of the presence of antibodies against Brucella were card and plate agglutination for B. abortus, plate agglutination and rivanol precipitation for B. melitensis, and agar gel immunodiffusion for B. ovis. Each assay had positive and negative controls. None of the analyzed samples was found to be positive, and only two sera showed partial plate agglutination against B. melitensis at a dilution of 1:25; however, at higher dilutions and to the rivanol precipitation test the same samples were negative. Therefore, the percentage of positive sera was estimated at 0% (0/208). This result makes evident the absence of positive white-tailed deer against Brucella in the sampled area, despite that this disease is considered present in domesticated species. Therefore, white-tailed deer does not have, at the present time, an important role for the dispersion of the disease. The same result has been reported in other countries.

  5. Comparing protein and energy status of winter-fed white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.

  6. Sustainable monitoring of roe deer in public hunting areas in the Spanish Pyrenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, J.; Torres, R. T.; Prada, C.; Garcia-Serrano, A.; Gimenez-Anaya, A.; Fernandez, O.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies. Area of study: The area is situated in the southern Pyrenees (Aragon), Spain. Material and methods: To measure the abundance, population trends, sex ratio, and mortality of roe deer populations, we analyzed data from i) driven hunts for wild boar (hunting seasons 1995/96-2009/10, n = 1,417, ii) itineraries, which were used to calculate the KAI and density using DS (2003-2010, n = 310 itineraries), iii) roe deer carcass recoveries (2006-2010, n = 100), and iv) data from the deer hunting quota fulfillment (2006-2010, n = 325 hunted animals. Main results: Based on DS, in 2010, the average density of roe deer populations was 2.3 km–2 (CV 17%). Based on the KAI and the battues, the estimated average annual rate of increase was 5.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Based on the KAI and the carcass recoveries, the estimates of the population sex ratio were 0.75 (n = 641) and 0.9 (n = 100) males per female, respectively. Carcass recoveries indicated that mortality was highest in late winter and early spring. The average body masses and sizes of males and females were within the ranges reported for other Iberian and European populations. Research highlights: Monitoring should be continued in the Aragon population of roe deer, although larger sample sizes are required to increase the accuracy of estimates and assessments of the impact of management actions. (Author)

  7. Landscape features affect gene flow of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Espona, S; Pérez-Barbería, F J; McLeod, J E; Jiggins, C D; Gordon, I J; Pemberton, J M

    2008-02-01

    Landscape features have been shown to strongly influence dispersal and, consequently, the genetic population structure of organisms. Studies quantifying the effect of landscape features on gene flow of large mammals with high dispersal capabilities are rare and have mainly been focused at large geographical scales. In this study, we assessed the influence of several natural and human-made landscape features on red deer gene flow in the Scottish Highlands by analysing 695 individuals for 21 microsatellite markers. Despite the relatively small scale of the study area (115 x 87 km), significant population structure was found using F-statistics (F(ST) = 0.019) and the program structure, with major differentiation found between populations sampled on either side of the main geographical barrier (the Great Glen). To assess the effect of landscape features on red deer population structure, the ArcMap GIS was used to create cost-distance matrices for moving between populations, using a range of cost values for each of the landscape features under consideration. Landscape features were shown to significantly affect red deer gene flow as they explained a greater proportion of the genetic variation than the geographical distance between populations. Sea lochs were found to be the most important red deer gene flow barriers in our study area, followed by mountain slopes, roads and forests. Inland lochs and rivers were identified as landscape features that might facilitate gene flow of red deer. Additionally, we explored the effect of choosing arbitrary cell cost values to construct least cost-distance matrices and described a method for improving the selection of cell cost values for a particular landscape feature.

  8. Sustainable monitoring of roe deer in public hunting areas in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies.Area of study: The area is situated in the southern Pyrenees (Aragon, Spain.Material and methods: To measure the abundance, population trends, sex ratio, and mortality of roe deer populations, we analyzed data from i driven hunts for wild boar (hunting seasons 1995/96 – 2009/10, n = 1,417, ii itineraries, which were used to calculate the KAI and density using DS (2003 – 2010, n = 310 itineraries, iii roe deer carcass recoveries (2006 – 2010, n = 100, and iv data from the deer hunting quota fulfillment (2006 – 2010, n = 325 hunted animals.Main results: Based on DS, in 2010, the average density of roe deer populations was 2.3 km-2 (CV 17%. Based on the KAI and the battues, the estimated average annual rate of increase was 5.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Based on the KAI and the carcass recoveries, the estimates of the population sex ratio were 0.75 (n = 641 and 0.9 (n = 100 males per female, respectively. Carcass recoveries indicated that mortality was highest in late winter and early spring. The average body masses and sizes of males and females were within the ranges reported for other Iberian and European populations.Research highlights: Monitoring should be continued in the Aragon population of roe deer, although larger sample sizes are required to increase the accuracy of estimates and assessments of the impact of management actions.Key words: Capreolus capreolus; hunting bag; distance sampling; KAI; Spain; rangers; long-term monitoring.

  9. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (Pbacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E) % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E) % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  10. Anatomical study of the gastrointestinal tract in free-living axis deer (Axis axis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Erdogan, S; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-02-01

    The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach and intestines of adult axis deer (Axis axis), a cervid species considered intermediate/mixed feeder, was observed and recorded. Nine adult wild axis deers of both sexes were used and studied by simple dissection. The ruminal papillae were distributed unevenly in the overall area of the inner surface of rumen and primarily were more large and abundant within the atrium. The ruminal pillars had no papillae. There was an additional ruminal pillar located between the right longitudinal and right coronary ventral pillars connected to the caudal pillar. No dorsal coronary pillars were found, and the ventral coronary pillars are connected. The reticulum was the third compartment in size, and the maximum height of the reticular crests was 1.0 mm. The Cellulae reticuli were not divided and rarely contained secondary crests. There were no Papillae unguiculiformes. The omasum was the smallest gastric compartment. The abomasum had about twelve spiral plicae, and a small pyloric torus was present. The intraruminal papillation was similar to those species that are characterized by a higher proportion of grass in their natural diet. The finding of the small reticular crests is typical for browser ruminants and was coincident with data reported for other deer. The comparative ratio of the small intestine to the large intestine was 1.69, in terms of length measurements in axis deer and appears below of the 'browser range'. We concluded that the gastrointestinal system of axis deer reflected similar morphological characteristics of the both types of ruminants: browser and grazer, and we consider it as an intermediate feeder. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Sequence Characterization of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene in Mouse Deer (Moschiola indica for PCR-RFLP Based Species Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mohan Siddappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial 12S rRNA has proven to be a useful molecular marker for better conservation and management of the endangered species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene has proven to be a reliable and efficient tool for the identification of different Indian deer species of family cervidae. In the present study, mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence of mouse deer (Moschiola indica belonging to the family Tragulidae was characterized and analysed in silico for its use in species identification. Genomic DNA was isolated from the hair follicles and mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primers. PCR product was cloned and sequenced for the first time. The sequence of mouse deer showed 90.04, 90.08, 90.04, 91.2, 90.04, and 90.08% identities with sika deer, sambar, hog deer, musk deer, chital, and barking deer, respectively. Restriction mapping in Lasergene (DNAstar Inc., Madison, WI, USA revealed that mouse deer mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence can be differentiated from the other deer species in PCR-RFLP using RsaI, DdeI, BsrI, and BstSFI. With the help of predicted pattern, mouse deer can be identified using genomic DNA from a variety of biomaterials, thereby providing molecular aid in wildlife forensics and conservation of the species.

  12. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in four regions of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, J A; Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P; Riggs, M R; Stromberg, B E

    1996-02-01

    Sera from 1,367 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 geographic regions in Minnesota collected during 4 hunting seasons (1990-1993) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol. Sera from 30% of the deer had antibody titers > or = 25; 8.6% were positive at a titer of 25, 11% at a titer of 50, and 10% at a titer > or = 500. There was a significant increase in seropositivity with age (P oak suburban park land. There were no statistically significant differences by year of collection. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in white-tailed deer remains high and deer hunters and consumers should ensure that venison is well-cooked or frozen prior to consumption.

  13. Evaluation of inorganic and organochlorine contaminants in sediment and biota from Lake Lowell, Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lake Lowell is located on Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Southwest Idaho, in Canyon County. Inflows to the reservoir are a combination of diverted...

  14. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Post-translocation Monitoring of Columbian White-tailed Deer

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A large part of CWTD Recovery has hinged on translocation of deer to their former range. Much of CWTD historical range, however, is now on or near private land....

  15. Population dynamics of a natural red deer population over 200 years detected via substantial changes of genetic variation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffmann, Gunther Sebastian; Johannesen, Jes; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    ... of the structure of extant populations. Here, we investigate for the first time the change in the genetic constitution of a natural red deer population over two centuries, using up to 200‐year‐old antlers (30 generations...

  16. Patterns of habitat selection and densities of white-tailed deer on and around Quivira National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on a project conducted to provide additional analysis of GPS and VHF data that was initially collected from white-tailed deer at Quivira National...

  17. Establishment Report for Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots Inside and Outside Deer Exclosures in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two deer exclosures were built in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, WV in the fall of 2001 to protect young balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and to study and demonstrate the...

  18. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Columbian White-tailed Deer Monitoring – Population Status Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recovery of the lower Columbia population of Columbian White-tailed Deer (CWTD) relies on specific population goals. As such, monitoring programs cannot be based on...

  19. Effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S; Butler, Mari; Zhioua, Elyes

    2002-12-01

    The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pretreatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.

  20. Population dynamics of northern white-tailed deer during mild winters: evidence of regulation by food competition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumont, André; Crête, Michel; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre; Huot, Jean; Lamoureux, Jean

    2000-01-01

      We studied white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis) at the northeastern limit of their range after their density had decreased as a result of harsh winters aggravated by coyote predation...

  1. Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Deer Harvest Records are from 2008 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs during the 2008 and 2014 deer seasons. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of...

  2. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Jonas; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Björkman, Camilla

    2011-05-11

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. T. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. N. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. Wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of T. gondii, and N. caninum in moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden. Blood samples were collected from 417 moose during 2000-2005 and from 199 roe deer during 1990-2007. The samples were investigated for presence of antibodies by a T. gondii direct agglutination test and a N. caninum iscom ELISA. Because the iscom ELISA has not been validated for moose or roe deer, sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by immunoblot analysis to verify presence of antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (20%) and 68 (34%) moose and roe deer sera, respectively. In moose the seroprevalence was higher in south and central Sweden than in the north, whereas there was no difference between the regions for roe deer. Adult moose and roe deer had higher odds of being seropositive than young animals but there were no difference in seroprevalence between males and females. One roe deer was positive by immunoblotting and was regarded as N. caninum positive, whereas all moose sera were negative. The results show that T. gondii infection is widely spread in the Swedish moose and roe deer populations. Precautions should therefore be taken when handling internal organs and carcasses of harvested cervids. Proper handling and cooking of game meat also is important to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans.

  3. Occurrence of the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys Terrapin Littoralis) at South Deer Island in Galveston Bay, Texas, April 2001-May 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    North Deer Island South Deer Island Virginia Point TEXAS LOCATION MAP Area enlarged Nueces Bay Baffin Bay Corpus Christi Laguna Madre GU LF... TEXAS Galveston Bay GU LF OF ME XI CO In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Occurrence of the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys...SURVEY Open-File Report 03–022 In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Austin, Texas 2003 ii U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Gale A

  4. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  5. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa M. Turner; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Robert W Klaver; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM) dise...

  6. Plasmid DNA Analysis of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Musk Deer%麝致病性大肠杆菌的质粒DNA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗燕; 程建国; 郑士华; 赵翠; 李蓓; 李敏

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer was classified at molecular level to provide basic materials for molecular epidemiology of pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer. [Method] Plasmids from 24 pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer were extracted by the Lysis Triton method, and then identified by single enzyme digestion with three endonucleases of Hind Ⅲ, EcoR Ⅰ and BamH Ⅰ. [Result] The yield rate of plasmids was 91.6%, and 24 pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer had the identical or similar plasmid profiles. [Conclusion] Plasmid DNA analysis offers scientific basis for molecular epidemiology of pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer in Sichuan Institute of Musk Deer Breeding.

  7. [Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Danilo; Tarango, Luis; Olmos, Genaro; Palacio, Jorge; Clemente, Fernando; Mendoza, Germán

    2014-06-01

    Forage use and availability for white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in an experimental unit of Campeche, Mexico. In Campeche state, 122 Wildlife Conservation and Management Units have been recently conformed. In these units, eventhough the white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi is a game species, no studies on its diet have been undertaken. The objectives of this work were to estimate the botanical composition of the diet and its seasonal change, to determine forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate of O. virginianus thomasi. The study was conducted in the experimental unit of Colegio de Postgraduados in Campeche, Mexico, from October 2010 to May 2012. The diet was determined through microhistological analyses of the white tailed deer feces by the use of reference material. Forage availability was determined through the Adelaide's method; the stocking rate, using the grazing pressure factor; and carrying capacity considering forage availability and 35% of utilization efficiency. In this experimental unit, the deer diet included 40 species belonging to 15 families. The highest species richness ocurred during the rainy season with 29 species. However, deers preferred shrubs during all seasons, and herbaceous species during the rainy season. The diet composition, forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate varied throughout the year. Carrying capacity ranged from 0.04 to 1.08deer/ha. Additional studies are required to detail about the composition of the diet, habitat availability and use throughout its geographical range, and to detail on nutritional and health aspects.

  8. [Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

    2013-03-01

    White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic.

  9. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  10. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum of red deer during prenatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masot, A J; Franco, A J; Redondo, E

    2007-01-01

    The red deer is well suited to scientific study, given its economic importance as an animal to be hunted, and because it has a rich genetic heritage. However, there has been little research into the prenatal development of the stomach of ruminants in general, and none for the red deer. For this reason, we undertook histological evaluation of the ontogenesis of the abomasum in red deer. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. The animals were divided for test purposes into five experimental groups: group I [1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length (CRL); 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation]; group II (4.5–7.2 cm CRL; 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation); group III (8–19 cm CRL; 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation); group IV (21–33 cm CRL; 142–191 days, 50–70% of gestation) group V (36–40 cm CRL; 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation). In the organogenesis of the primitive gastric tube of red deer, differentiation of the abomasum took place at 67 days, forming a three-layered structure: the epithelial layer (pseudostratified), pluripotential blastemic tissue and serosa. The abomasal wall displayed the primitive folds of the abomasum and by 97 days abomasal peak areas were observed on the fold surface. At 135 days the abomasal surface showed a single mucous cylindrical epithelium, and gastric pits were observed in the spaces between abomasal areas. At the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands could be observed. The histodifferentiation of the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa showed patterns similar to those described for the forestomach of red deer. The abomasum of red deer during prenatal life, especially from 67 days of gestation, was shown to be an active structure with full secretory capacity. Its histological development, its secretory capacity (as revealed by the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides) and its

  11. Predation by coyotes on white-tailed deer neonates in South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilgo, John C.; Ray, H. Scott; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Matthew J.; Ruth, Charles

    2012-05-07

    Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local

  12. Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild Deer and Ticks on Two Major Islands in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Makoto; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Lin, Quan; Isogai, Emiko; Tahara, Kenji; Itagaki, Asao; Hiramitsu, Yoshimichi; Tajima, Tomoko

    2006-01-01

    Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the United States and Europe. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma naturally infect deer in Japan. Blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major Japanese islands, Hokkaido and Honshu, were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma by PCR assays and sequencing ...

  13. Pronounced reduction of fluoride exposure in free-ranging deer in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) as indicated by the biomarkers skeletal fluoride content and dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Bahelková, Petra; Sedláček, František; Kierdorf, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Wild deer have been recommended as bioindicators of fluoride pollution. We compared bone fluoride concentrations and prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in free-ranging European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from five counties in the northwestern part of the Czech Republic that had been collected by hunters and whose mandibles were presented at trophy exhibitions in the years 1996/1997 ("early period") and 2009 ("late period"). Data on atmospheric fluoride deposition suggested that the deer from the early period had been exposed to markedly higher fluoride levels than those from the late period. We therefore predicted a decline in skeletal fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis for both species from the early to the late period. Fluoride concentrations were determined in the coronoid process of the mandible, and assessment of dental fluorosis was performed on the permanent cheek teeth. A pronounced drop in fluoride concentrations from the early period (roe deer (n = 157), median: 3147 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 127), median: 1263 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) to the late period (roe deer (n = 117), median: 350 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 72), median: 288 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) was recorded. Prevalence of dental fluorosis also markedly declined from the early to the late period (roe deer: from 93% to 12%, red deer: from 87% to 28%). The reduction of fluoride deposition in the study area and, in consequence, fluoride exposure of the resident deer populations, is attributed largely to the implementation of emission control devices in the brown coal-fired power plants located in North Bohemia from the mid 1990s onwards. The findings of the present study demonstrate that wild deer are well suited for monitoring temporal changes in fluoride pollution of their habitats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E.; Elkins, William; Glenn A Nardone; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper disks from freshly killed deer. The disks were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of b...

  15. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference...

  16. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  17. Evolution of habitat and environment of deer during the Late-glacial and early Holocene: the case of red deer in French Jura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Dorothée.; Bridault, Anne; Hujic, Alisa; Bocherens, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The Late-glacial and early Holocene transition is a key period of environmental changes in a context of to a global warming. In northwestern Europe, extensive studies have documented the vegetation and faunal recomposition with the replacement of the cold steppe-tundra ecosystem by the forested temperate ecosystem we can still observe. Paleoecological interest focused on the extinct large mammals species like the Mammoth. In comparison, little has been done to decipher the ecological adaptation of the surviving species, especially those that are still present in the very same region than in the past. A better knowledge of the impact of changing environmental conditions on the ecology would be useful to define the degree of selective pressure. Thus, we have studied the habitat and environment evolution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the Late-glacial and early Holocene using stable isotopes and radiocarbon investigations. The analyzed bone material was selected from archaeological sites in French Jura. Performing direct radiocarbon dating on the bone collagen of the selected remains solved the problem of possible chronological uncertainties of the stratigraphical record of the sites. The same bone collagen samples were used for stable isotope measurements. We investigated the relative abundances in 13C to examine changes in habitat closure (canopy effect), in 15N to decipher changes in pedogenic activities (soil maturation) of the animals dwelling, and in 18O to track changes in altitude and/or local temperatures of the occupied territories. The results demonstrate that the stable isotopic composition of red deer bone collagen can be a valuable and sensitive indicator of habitat use and environmental conditions. The associated direct dating allows us to reconstruct the chronology of ecological changes. The combined chronological and ecological results evidence local differences in red deer adaptation at a small geographical scale.

  18. Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

    2012-06-01

    Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A. marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A. marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2011.

  19. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha Juliette Albert; Seshasayanan Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to p...

  20. Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J

    1994-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested.

  1. Habitat acoustics of Rocky Mountain elk in Colorado and European Red deer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Tobias; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

      Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We investig......  Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We...... investigated whether sound attenuation characteristics in their respective habitats might have contributed to the evolution of these very different vocal displays. We tested two hypotheses in two representative habitats, the Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and the Vejers Klitplantage Nord, Denmark...

  2. Anatomy of an eradication effort: Removing Hawaii's illegally introduced axis deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Muise, Jake; Schipper, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In February 2011, a rancher in the rural southern part of Hawaii Island reported a large mammal on her land. Her call mobilized several agencies led by the Big Island Invasive Species Committee (BIISC), a partnership to prevent, detect, and control the establishment and spread of invasive species, to sit up and take notice. Agency biologists installed camera traps to identify the animal, and a few months later verified the diagnostic field marks of a chervid with spots. The animal in questions was a chital, or axis deer (Axis axis)--a species native to tropical and subtropical India. Although the deer are abundant on the islands of Molokai, Lānai, and Maui, officials knew they weren't capable of swimming across the notoriously treacherous ʻAlenuihāhā channel, and subsequently suspected human intervention.

  3. Genetic differences in hemoglobin function between highland and lowland deer mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Runck, Amy M.; Moriyama, Hideaki;

    2010-01-01

    In high-altitude vertebrates, adaptive changes in blood–O2 affinity may be mediated by modifications of hemoglobin (Hb) structure that affect intrinsic O2 affinity and/or responsiveness to allosteric effectors that modulate Hb–O2 affinity. This mode of genotypic specialization is considered typical...... of mammalian species that are high-altitude natives. Here we investigated genetically based differences in Hb–O2 affinity between highland and lowland populations of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a generalist species that has the broadest altitudinal distribution of any North American mammal....... The results of a combined genetic and proteomic analysis revealed that deer mice harbor a high level of Hb isoform diversity that is attributable to allelic polymorphism at two tandemly duplicated -globin genes and two tandemly duplicated β-globin genes. This high level of isoHb diversity translates...

  4. Development of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth in fallow deer (Dama dama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, H; Hommelsheim, S; Kierdorf, U

    2012-12-01

    The study describes crown and root formation of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth of fallow deer from a gestational age of 22-23 weeks up to a post-natal age of 33 months. Tooth development was recorded using a scoring scheme based on morphological criteria ranging from crypt formation to completion of root growth. The morphological appearance of the enamel surface during three different stages (secretory-stage enamel, maturation-stage enamel and mature enamel) was described, and the approximate age at termination of the secretory stage of amelogenesis in the deciduous and permanent mandibular cheek teeth was determined. The data enable an age estimation of fallow deer up to 3 years of age and provide a basis for assessing the timing of stress episodes that affect tooth crown formation. This information is useful for the management of the species as well as in bioarchaeological and bioindication studies.

  5. Electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toetdal, B. (Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, The Norwegian Institute of Technology); Hals, E. (Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway)

    1985-01-01

    A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained.

  6. Genetic diversity in European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.): anthropogenic influences on natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Günther B; Zachos, Frank; Nadlinger, Karl

    2003-08-01

    Allozyme, microsatellite and mtDNA (RFLP and sequence) data of European red deer populations were examined as to their capability of indicating anthropogenic influences such as the keeping of animals in enclosures, selective hunting for trophies translocation of specimens to improve trophy quality and habitat fragmentation. Deer in enclosures revealed considerable deviations of allele frequencies from isolation-by-distance expectations but no remarkable loss of genetic diversity. Particular allozyme genotypes were associated with antler morphology, and selective hunting was shown to alter allele frequencies in the expected direction. Habitat fragmentation is reflected by various kinds of genetic markers but due to the lack of information on population histories no unequivocal evidence on particular human activities could be obtained.

  7. [Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Martin; Eikelberg, Deborah; Jongmans, Vincent; Pranada, Arthur Boniface; Wohlsein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An one-year-old male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with abnormal behaviour was shot in order to exclude rabies virus infection. The 12.8 kg weighing animal was emaciated and revealed an asymmetric head with protruding left eye and expositional keratitis. There was a grey whitish soft mass within the caudal nasal cavity, which had infiltrated the frontal cerebrum through the cribriform plate and the retrobulbar tissue through the orbita. Histologically, the mass consisted of a chronic granulomatous inflammation with plentiful fungal hyphae. Fungal culture revealed mold fungi of the zygomycotic genus Rhizomucor, which were differentiated as Rhizopus microsporus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA-sequencing. Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis has to be considered as a differential diagnosis for nasal and orbital tumour-like lesions and as a cause of abnormal behaviour of roe deer.

  8. The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mahan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma (Ehrlichia phagocytophilum (HGE agent and Ehrlichia ewingii. Recently, a novel but as yet unnamed ehrlichial species, the white-tailed deer ehrlichia (WTDE, has been discovered in deer populations in the United States. Although the significance of WTDE as a pathogen is unknown at present, it can be distinguished from other Ehrlichia spp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In this study it was differentiated from E. ruminantium by the use of the pCS20 PCR assay which has high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of E. ruminantium. This assay did not amplify DNA from the WTDE DNA samples isolated from deer resident in Florida, Georgia and Missouri, but amplified the specific 279 bp fragment from E. ruminantium DNA. The specificity of the pCS20 PCR assay for E. ruminantium was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Similarly, the 16S PCR primers (nested that amplify a specific 405-412 bp fragment from the WTDE DNA samples, did not amplify any product from E. ruminantium DNA. This result demonstrates that it would be possible to differentiate between E. ruminantium and the novel WTDE agent found in white tailed deer by applying the two respective PCR assays followed by Southern hybridizations. Since the pCS20 PCR assay also does not amplify any DNA products from E. chaffeensis or Ehrlichia canis DNA, it is therefore the method of choice for the detection of E. ruminantium in these deer and other animal hosts.

  9. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu, Hai; Boor, Paul J; Ansari, G A Shakeel

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH(-)) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH(-) and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH(+)) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was ∼1.5-fold greater in ADH(-) vs. ADH(+) deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH(-) deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional responses and resilience of boreal forest ecosystem after reduction of deer density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, Marianne; Pellerin, Stéphanie; Moretti, Marco; Aubin, Isabelle; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Steeve D; Poulin, Monique

    2014-01-01

    The functional trait-based approach is increasingly used to predict responses of ecological communities to disturbances, but most studies target a single taxonomic group. Here, we assessed the resilience of a forest ecosystem to an overabundant herbivore population by assessing changes in 19 functional traits for plant, 13 traits for ground beetle and 16 traits for songbird communities after six years of controlled browsing on Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada). Our results indicated that plants were more responsive to 6 years of reduced browsing pressure than ground beetles and songbirds. However, co-inertia analysis revealed that ground beetle communities responded in a similar way than plant communities with stronger relationships between plant and ground beetle traits at reduced deer density, a pattern not detected between plant and songbird. High deer density favored plants species that reproduce vegetatively and with abiotic pollination and seed dispersal, traits implying little interaction with animal. On the other hand, traits found at reduced deer density mostly involved trophic interaction. For example, plants in this treatment had fleshy fruits and large seeds dispersed by birds or other animals whereas ground beetle species were carnivorous. Overall, our results suggest that plant communities recovered some functional components to overabundant herbivore populations, since most traits associated with undisturbed forests were reestablished after six years of deer reduction. The re-establishment of functional plant communities with traits involving trophic interaction induces changes in the ground-beetle trait community, but forest structure remains likely insufficiently heterogeneous to shift the songbird trait community within six years.

  11. Quantifying spatial habitat loss from hydrocarbon development through assessing habitat selection patterns of mule deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Joseph M; Anderson, Charles R; Wittemyer, George

    2015-11-01

    Extraction of oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) from shale is increasing rapidly in North America, with documented impacts to native species and ecosystems. With shale oil and gas resources on nearly every continent, this development is set to become a major driver of global land-use change. It is increasingly critical to quantify spatial habitat loss driven by this development to implement effective mitigation strategies and develop habitat offsets. Habitat selection is a fundamental ecological process, influencing both individual fitness and population-level distribution on the landscape. Examinations of habitat selection provide a natural means for understanding spatial impacts. We examined the impact of natural gas development on habitat selection patterns of mule deer on their winter range in Colorado. We fit resource selection functions in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, with habitat availability defined using a movement-based modeling approach. Energy development drove considerable alterations to deer habitat selection patterns, with the most substantial impacts manifested as avoidance of well pads with active drilling to a distance of at least 800 m. Deer displayed more nuanced responses to other infrastructure, avoiding pads with active production and roads to a greater degree during the day than night. In aggregate, these responses equate to alteration of behavior by human development in over 50% of the critical winter range in our study area during the day and over 25% at night. Compared to other regions, the topographic and vegetative diversity in the study area appear to provide refugia that allow deer to behaviorally mediate some of the impacts of development. This study, and the methods we employed, provides a template for quantifying spatial take by industrial activities in natural areas and the results offer guidance for policy makers, mangers, and industry when attempting to mitigate habitat loss due to energy development.

  12. Detection and identification of Theileria infection in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Khan, Muhanmad Kasib; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Junlong

    2012-06-01

    The sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) is a first-grade state-protected animal in China and designated a threatened species by the World Conservation Union. To detect hemoparasite infection of sika deer, blood samples were collected from 24 animals in the Hubei Province Deer Center. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the V4 hypervariable region encoding 18S rRNA was analyzed by reverse line blot hybridization assay. PCR products hybridized with Babesia / Theileria genus-specific probes but failed to hybridize with any of the Babesia or Theileria species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of a novel, or variant, species. Here 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes were amplified, cloned, and sequenced from 7 isolates. Alignment and BlastN of the cloned sequences revealed high similarities to the homologous 18S rRNA genes and ITS genes of Theileria cervi (AY735122), Theileria sp. CNY1A (AB012194), and Theileria sp. ex Yamaguchi (AF529272). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene and ITS sequences showed that all cloned sequences were grouped within the Theileria clade. Phylogeny based on the 18S rRNA gene divided the organisms into 2 groups. Group 1 was closest to Theileria sp. ex Yamaguchi (AF529272), and group 2 was distinct from all other identified Theileria and Babesia species. These results suggest the existence of Theileria sp. infection in sika deer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cervine Theileria sp. in China.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-08-26

    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated.

  14. Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Gaston, G.; Brazzle, R.; O'Connell, A.F.; Audet, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil, the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap.

  15. Functional responses and resilience of boreal forest ecosystem after reduction of deer density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Bachand

    Full Text Available The functional trait-based approach is increasingly used to predict responses of ecological communities to disturbances, but most studies target a single taxonomic group. Here, we assessed the resilience of a forest ecosystem to an overabundant herbivore population by assessing changes in 19 functional traits for plant, 13 traits for ground beetle and 16 traits for songbird communities after six years of controlled browsing on Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada. Our results indicated that plants were more responsive to 6 years of reduced browsing pressure than ground beetles and songbirds. However, co-inertia analysis revealed that ground beetle communities responded in a similar way than plant communities with stronger relationships between plant and ground beetle traits at reduced deer density, a pattern not detected between plant and songbird. High deer density favored plants species that reproduce vegetatively and with abiotic pollination and seed dispersal, traits implying little interaction with animal. On the other hand, traits found at reduced deer density mostly involved trophic interaction. For example, plants in this treatment had fleshy fruits and large seeds dispersed by birds or other animals whereas ground beetle species were carnivorous. Overall, our results suggest that plant communities recovered some functional components to overabundant herbivore populations, since most traits associated with undisturbed forests were reestablished after six years of deer reduction. The re-establishment of functional plant communities with traits involving trophic interaction induces changes in the ground-beetle trait community, but forest structure remains likely insufficiently heterogeneous to shift the songbird trait community within six years.

  16. Contraceptive efficacy of a novel intrauterine device (IUD) in white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Karl D; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Drake, David; Kesler, Darrel J; Vercauteren, Kurt C

    2010-02-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pose risks to property, health, and safety of human beings. Public concerns about lethal management can impair efforts to address these issues, particularly in urban settings. Several techniques developed for reducing reproductive output of deer have limited utility because they require repeated dosing to achieve permanent effect and face uncertain regulatory approval for use beyond experimentation. From 10 August 2006 through 30 December 2007, we evaluated the contraceptive efficacy of copper-containing intrauterine devices (IUDs) implanted trans-cervically in white-tailed deer at the E.S. George Reserve in Pinckney, Michigan. Intrauterine devices were implanted before (n=9) and shortly after (n=10) the breeding season. Post-breeding season IUD treatment was in conjunction with a 5cm(3) dose of 5mg/ml prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)), delivered subcutaneously. Intrauterine devices reduced pregnancy rates when administered prior to breeding (PIUDs prior to the breeding season and survived to the end of the study became pregnant (due to loss of the implant) during the second year while all (n=16) does without implants conceived. Cervical changes associated with early pregnancy made trans-cervical implantation after the breeding season challenging, and resulted in improperly placed IUDs in 2 treated does. The apparent expulsion of IUDs by pregnant does that received the combined treatment after breeding suggests IUD treatment should be limited to the pre-breeding season. Intrauterine devices show potential as a tool for small-scale deer population management via non-steroidal reproductive inhibition.

  17. Energy expenditure in relation to activity of lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlis; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Purwanto, B; Ho, Y W

    2001-11-01

    Heat production (HP) of male and female mouse deer during eating, standing and sitting was determined using the open circuit respiration chamber (RC). The time taken for similar activities was also determined in an outdoor enclosure (OD). The animals were fed kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and rabbit pellet ad libitum. Male mouse deer consumed more dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE) than female. The time for each activity of male and female mouse deer kept in RC and OD was similar. The average time spent in RC and OD for both male and female, respectively, for sitting (956 and 896 min/day) was significantly (P<0.01) longer than standing (463 and 520 min/day) and eating (21 and 24 min/day). Heat production for male and female mouse deer, respectively, during eating was the highest (0.44 and 0.43 kJ/kg W(0.75)/min) followed by standing (0.37 and 0.33 kJ/kgW(0.75)/min) and sitting (0.26 and 0.26 kJ/kg W(0.75)/min). The difference in HP per min during standing between male and female was significant (P<0.05). The HP for 08.00-14.00 h and 14.00-20.00 h periods were higher than 20.00-02.00 h and 02.00-08.00 h periods. The overall HP for males during 08.00-14.00 h and 14.00-20.00 h periods were significantly (P<0.05) higher (114.8 and 119.2 kJ/kg W(0.75)) than female (107.5 and 110.4 kJ/kg W(0.75)), respectively.

  18. Eld’s Deer Translocated to Human-Inhabited Areas Become Nocturnal

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Duo; Teng, Liwei; Cui, Fangjie; Zeng, Zhigao; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Yanling

    2010-01-01

    As human populations expand and nonhuman animals decline, understanding the interactions between people and wildlife is essential. For endangered species, appreciating the effect of human disturbance can be important for their conservation. However, a human disturbance angle is often absent from ecological research, despite growing evidence of the negative impact of nonfatal human interference. Here, we monitored Hainan Eld’s deer living within a reserve and translocated animals living amongs...

  19. Spring hunting of European roe deer in Vojvodina: Age structure and trophy value

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Trophies of the European roe deer are the main source of income in Vojvodina hunting grounds managed by hunting associations. The specificity of site conditions (agro-biotope) aggravates the hunting, especially regarding the assessment of the age and trophy value, so the best males are hunted before they reach the culmination of trophy development. The aim of this study is to define reliably the age of males in spring hunting and to analyze their trophy structure. The study results show that,...

  20. Habitat influences distribution of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler S.; Kirchgessner, Megan S.; Eyler, B.; Ryan, Christopher W.; Walter, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that was first detected in 1967 in a captive research facility in Colorado. In the northeastern United States, CWD was first confirmed in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2005. Because CWD is a new and emerging disease with a spatial distribution that had yet to be assessed in the Northeast, we examined demographic, environmental, and spatial effects to determine how each related to this spatial distribution. The objectives of our study were to identify environmental and spatial effects that best described the spatial distribution of CWD in free-ranging white-tailed deer and identify areas that support deer that are at risk for CWD infection in the Northeast. We used Bayesian hierarchical modeling that incorporated demographic covariates, such as sex and age, along with environmental covariates, which included elevation, slope, riparian corridor, percent clay, and 3 landscapes (i.e., developed, forested, open). The model with the most support contained landscape covariates and spatial effects that represented clustering of CWD in adjacent grid cells. Forested landscapes had the strongest relationship with the distribution of CWD, with increased risk of CWD occurring in areas that had lesser amounts of forest. Our results will assist resource managers in understanding the spatial distribution of CWD within the study area, and in surrounding areas where CWD has yet to be found. Efficiency of disease surveillance and containment efforts can be improved by allocating resources used for surveillance in areas with deer populations that are at greatest risk for infection.

  1. First Report of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sika Deer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang; Si-Yuan Qin; Yuan Zhang; Qing-Feng Meng; Jing Jiang; Gui-Lian Yang; Quan Zhao; Xing-Quan Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43%) out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon) were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male a...

  2. B2B marketingová komunikace společnosti John Deere

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this master's thesis is to evaluate the implementation of the B2B marketing strategy of John Deere on a specific example. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on defining the basics of modern marketing communications. Next it deals with defining the concept of B2B marketing and related strategies. The practical part focuses on the characterisation of the agricultural machinery industry and the slovak agricultural sector. Further it includes the introduction of other B2B marke...

  3. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  4. HABITAT SUITABILITY MODELING FOR EXPLORATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF KASHMIR MUSK DEER IN DACHIGAM NATIONAL PARK, KASHMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musk deer are highly important as a medicinal species that are severely exploited throughout their range of occurrence due to the medicinal value of the musk produced only by the male individuals. Methods used for studying the populations and distributions of other ungulates do not work well with musk deer and the presence of a unified methodology for studying musk deer appear to be lacking worldwide. Therefore, the development of a simple predictive model for studying the distribution of the musk deer habitats stands as an important task to be accomplished. Two kinds of research questions were pursued during the present study-examining through field research what kind of habitat musk deer used and mapping the habitat in the park using a GIS and remote sensing environment. The parameters which were found to have a profound influence in predicting the species’s spatial distribution have been used in the modeling of the current habitat suitability for the Kashmir musk deer (Moschus cupreus. The study was conducted at the upper reaches (elevations 2200 m and above of the Dachigam National Park, Kashmir (34°05΄18.40΄΄N-34°06΄04.69΄΄N and 75°03΄32.05΄΄E-75°04΄27.26΄΄E during January 2005-January 2008 to evaluate the characteristics of the musk deer habitats. The environmental attributes which were found to have a profound influence in predicting the species’s spatial distribution included the slope exposures in the range of 293°Northwest -68° Northeast, slope gradients of 25-40° and elevations of 2100 m and above, with the preference ratings of aspect > slope > elevation and, therefore, were considered for the development of the habitat suitability model for prediction of the spatial distribution of the Kashmir musk deer. The current suitable musk deer habitat in Dachigam National Park is estimated in the extent of about 40 sq. km. (~28% area of the national

  5. Superb winter fur insulation in the small Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the morphology and thermal characteristics of winter pelage from two Siberian musk deer Moschus moschiferus (aged 5 and 41 mo.; 5.7 and 9.5 kg and two Eurasian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus (aged >48 mo.; 73 and 79 kg.  The depth of the fur over the back of musk deer was less (approximately 30 mm than in reindeer (approximately 40 mm.  Guard hairs of musk deer were longer (mean = 50.0 mm and had greater diameter at half-length (mean = 314.4 μm than those of reindeer (mean = 38.6mm and = 243.9 μm, respectively.  The thermal characteristics (thermal conductivity and resistance of the winter pelage of the two species were nevertheless similar (0.057 W·m-1·K-1 and 0.79 K·m2·W-1; and 0.037 W·m-1 ·K-1 and 1.00 K·m2·W-1, respectively despite a tenfold difference in their body mass.

  6. Do red deer stags (Cervus elaphus use roar fundamental frequency (F0 to assess rivals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Garcia

    Full Text Available It is well established that in humans, male voices are disproportionately lower pitched than female voices, and recent studies suggest that this dimorphism in fundamental frequency (F0 results from both intrasexual (male competition and intersexual (female mate choice selection for lower pitched voices in men. However, comparative investigations indicate that sexual dimorphism in F0 is not universal in terrestrial mammals. In the highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic Scottish red deer Cervus elaphus scoticus, more successful males give sexually-selected calls (roars with higher minimum F0s, suggesting that high, rather than low F0s advertise quality in this subspecies. While playback experiments demonstrated that oestrous females prefer higher pitched roars, the potential role of roar F0 in male competition remains untested. Here we examined the response of rutting red deer stags to playbacks of re-synthesized male roars with different median F0s. Our results show that stags' responses (latencies and durations of attention, vocal and approach responses were not affected by the F0 of the roar. This suggests that intrasexual selection is unlikely to strongly influence the evolution of roar F0 in Scottish red deer stags, and illustrates how the F0 of terrestrial mammal vocal sexual signals may be subject to different selection pressures across species. Further investigations on species characterized by different F0 profiles are needed to provide a comparative background for evolutionary interpretations of sex differences in mammalian vocalizations.

  7. Prion sequence polymorphisms and chronic wasting disease resistance in Illinois white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy C; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E; Diffendorfer, Jay; Jewell, Emily; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Killefer, John; Shelton, Paul; Beissel, Tom; Novakofski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequences of the prion gene (PRNP) were examined and genotypes compiled for 76 white-tailed deer from northern Illinois, which previously tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), and 120 negative animals selected to control for geographic location and age. Nine nucleotide polymorphisms, seven silent and two coding, were found in the sampled population. All observed polymorphisms except two of very low frequency were observed in both negative and positive animals, although five polymorphic loci had significantly different distributions of alleles between infected and non-infected individuals. Nucleotide base changes 60C/T, 285A/C, 286G/A and 555C/T were observed with higher than expected frequencies in CWD negative animals suggesting disease resistance, while 153C/T was observed more than expected in positive animals, suggesting susceptibility. The two coding polymorphisms, 285A/C (Q95H) and 286G/A (G96S), have been described in white-tailed deer populations sampled in Colorado and Wisconsin. Frequency distributions of coding polymorphisms in Wisconsin and Illinois deer populations were different, an unexpected result considering the sampled areas are less than 150 km apart. The total number of polymorphisms per animal, silent or coding, was negatively correlated to disease status. The potential importance of silent polymorphisms (60C/T, 153C/T, 555C/T), either individually or cumulatively, in CWD disease status has not been previously reported.

  8. Growth and reproductive performance of sambar deer in Sabal Forest Reserve of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Ismail; Dawend, Jiwan

    2013-10-01

    We examined the growth, reproduction, rutting behavior, and health status of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in secondary Acacia mangium plantation. The data were collected over 11 years from a breeding herd of 21 stags and 33 hinds in Sabal Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia. Brody's growth model of the pooled data is Y t  = 148.56 (1 - 0.98e(-0.023t)), which estimates that maximum weights of adults are 184 and 115 kg for males and females respectively. Sambar deer are nonseasonal breeders with the breeding peak in February. Although the earliest age at which a female reached sexual maturity was 11 months, the mean age was 23 ± 7 months. Mean age of first fawning was 32 ± 8 months. Mean gestation period was 259 ± 12 days (n = 82). Stags shed antlers mostly between March and July. Velvet hardens at 103 ± 27 days (n = 23), and velvet harvesting is best at 7-9 weeks when antler length is 25-30 cm. Sambar deer are suitable as a farm species in forest plantations and have a vast potential to uplift rural living standards.

  9. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa)

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    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Ock, Younsung; Kim, Taeil; Choi, Donghag

    2016-01-01

    We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB), Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8–100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds. PMID:27244561

  10. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8-100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds.

  11. Biological and social outcomes of antler point restriction harvest regulations for white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Bret D.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Long, Eric S.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Alt, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Selective harvest criteria, such as antler point restrictions (APRs), have been used to regulate harvest of male ungulates; however, comprehensive evaluation of the biological and social responses to this management strategy is lacking. In 2002, Pennsylvania adopted new APRs for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) that required, depending on wildlife management unit, ≥3 or ≥4 points on 1 antler for legal harvest. Historically, harvest rates of subadult (1.5 yr old) and adult (≥2.5 yr old) antlered males averaged 0.80. Antler point restrictions were designed to protect ≥50% of subadult males from harvest. Most adult males remained legal for harvest. We estimated harvest rates, survival rates, and cause-specific mortality of radio-collared male deer (453 subadults, 103 adults) in 2 wildlife management units (Armstrong and Centre counties) to evaluate biological efficacy of APRs to increase recruitment of adult males during 2002–2005. We administered statewide deer hunter surveys before and after each hunting season over the same 3 years to evaluate hunter attitudes toward APRs. We conducted 2 types of surveys: a simple random sample of all license buyers for each survey and a longitudinal panel of hunters who completed all 6 surveys. At the same time APRs were implemented, the Pennsylvania Game Commission (PGC) increased antlerless harvests to reduce deer density to meet deer management goals.Survival rates varied by month and age but not between study areas or among years after implementation of APRs. Monthly survival rates for subadults ranged from 0.64 to 0.97 during hunting seasons and 0.95 to 0.99 during the non-hunting period. Annual survival of subadults was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.41–0.52). Adult monthly survival rates ranged from 0.36 to 0.95 during hunting seasons and we had no mortalities during the non-hunting period. Annual survival of adults was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.22–0.35). Antler point restrictions successfully reduced harvest

  12. POISONING BY THE SWAINSONINE-CONTAINING PLANT SIDA CARPINIFOLIA IN CAPTIVE SAMBAR DEER (CERVUS UNICOLOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Bruno L; Peixoto, Paulo V; Caldas, Saulo A; Bhaltazar, Daniel; França, Ticiana N; Armién, Aníbal G

    2016-09-01

    Plant intoxications in wildlife are difficult to diagnose, are overlooked, or are sometimes even neglected. Hence, factors that induce wild animals to ingest poisonous plants have not been sufficiently documented. An outbreak of glycoprotein storage disease in sambar deer ( Cervus unicolor ), induced by ingestion of the swainsonine-containing plant, common wireweed (Sida carpinifolia), is reported. Nine out of 55 deer held by a zoo in Brazil were affected. The poisoning was characterized by emaciation and neurologic signs followed by unexpected death in some of the animals. Animals presented abnormal consciousness, posterior paresis, and musculoskeletal weakness; less evident were vestibulo-cerebellar signs. Histologically, there was vacuolation of neurons and epithelial cells of the pancreatic acines, thyroid follicules, and renal tubules. Furthermore, in the central nervous system were axonal degeneration, necrosis, and loss of neurons. Three factors may lead to the ingestion of S. carpinifolia by sambar deer: 1) A grazing field with only S. carpinifolia as a source of forage; 2) a large number of animals kept in this field; and 3) a hierarchy within a cervid group in which dominant males isolated and displaced juvenile and weaker adult males, leaving them with access to only S. carpinifolia.

  13. Relationship Between Behavioral Frequency and Reproductive Potential of Female Alpine Musk Deer in Captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Between June 2005 and February 2006, focal sampling and all occurrence behavior recording were used to quantify the behavioral patterns of captive female alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu Province, China. Copulation success was used to differentiate individuals into two groups (successful and unsuccessful) and to provide a basis for behavioral comparisons, throughout both mating (rut) and non mating seasons. The results indicated significant differences between the behavior patterns of successful and unsuccessful females; however, the reproductive season played an important environmental factor. Pooling results across reproductive seasons, successfully copulating females showed significantly higher frequencies of vigilance and lower frequency of feeding behavior as compared with unsuccessfully copulating females. In the non-mating season, unsuccessfully copulating females had higher frequency of self-directed behavior, environment sniffing, and were less aggressive than successful copulating females. Furthermore, females who were successful at copulating also demonstrated tail-pasting behavior; however, this only occurred during the rut season. The results of this study can improve management practices for musk deer farms through increasing mating success and reducing maintenance costs. Furthermore, variation in behavior may also be used as a predictor of copulation success and reproductive potential, whereby females can be grouped and separated according to their reproductive history and past reproduction success.

  14. Using Pellet Groups To Assess Response Of Elk and Deer to Roads and Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Dzialak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Development and extraction of resources such as oil and gas has directly and indirectly reduced available habitat to wildlife through changes in behavior and resource use. To assess how elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus spp. were spatially distributed relative to roads and coal-bed natural gas well pads, we collected pellet group data during 2 summers in south-central Colorado. We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the relative probability of use of elk and deer in relation to roads and well pads. We found relative probability of use was positively associated with distance from roads, indicating greater use of areas farther away from roads. Relative probability of use was negatively associated with distance to well pads, potentially as a result of plant phenology and reseeding in disturbed areas around well pads. Other factors such as elevation, slope and vegetative security cover also influenced elk and deer spatial distributions. Based on these data, it appears resource use may be driven by forage and security cover more than disturbance features. Pellet group surveys appear to be an appropriate technique for evaluating resource use of populations across large spatial extents when logistical and financial constraints limit the use of more advanced technology such as very high frequency and global positioning system collars.

  15. Investigating public health impacts of deer in a protected drinking water supply watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, K; Stevens, M A; Haydon, S R; Jex, A R; Gasser, R B; Campbell, B E

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Water Safety Plans highlight the need for preventative risk management when managing water contamination risks. As part of this approach, a management framework incorporating multiple barriers is necessary and there is a need to validate those barriers through scientific evidence. This paper reports on a study undertaken to validate the effectiveness, in terms of pathogen numbers, of having protected watersheds. The study aimed to determine if the deer population in a protected watershed carried Cryptosporidium and whether or not it was human infectious. Deer faecal samples were collected from the protected watersheds over a 12 month period and analysed using a new method, developed as part of this project, for genotyping Cryptosporidium. Early results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium, but following a refinement in the method no human infectious Cryptosporidium was detected. The results give some confidence that having protected watersheds is an effective barrier against pathogen contamination. They do not, however, imply that continued monitoring and management of the deer should cease. To maintain compliance with the Water Safety Plans, continual validation of barrier effectiveness is required.

  16. Stereotypic behaviour in the deer mouse: pharmacological validation and relevance for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korff, Schaun; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2008-02-15

    Stereotypy is an important manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD involves disturbed serotonin and dopamine pathways, and demonstrates a selective response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI), with limited to no response to noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRI). Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) engage in various spontaneous stereotypic behaviours, including somersaulting, jumping and pattern running, and has to date not been explored for possible relevance for OCD. We studied the population diversity of spontaneous stereotypy in these animals, followed by assessing behavioural response to chronic high and low dose SRI (viz. fluoxetine) and NRI (viz. desipramine) treatment (both 10 mg/kg; 20 mg/kg x 21 days). We also studied behavioural responses to the 5-HT(2A/C) agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and the D2 agonist, quinpirole (2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg respectively x 4 days). Deer mice showed a distinct separation into high and low stereotypic behaviour populations, with high and low dose fluoxetine, but not desipramine, significantly reducing stereotypic behaviour in both populations. A significant attenuation of stereotypy was also observed in both groups following quinpirole or mCPP challenge. In its response to drug treatment, spontaneous stereotypic behaviour in deer mice demonstrates predictive validity for OCD. States of spontaneous stereotypy are attenuated by 5-HT(2A/C) and dopamine D2 receptor agonists.

  17. Climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in lyme-disease risk.

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    Richard S Ostfeld

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. We assessed the determinants of Lyme-disease risk (density and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of US Lyme disease (Dutchess County, New York. We used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the importance of ambient growing-season temperature, precipitation, two indices of deer (Odocoileus virginianus abundance, and densities of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus, eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus, and acorns (Quercus spp., in both simple and multiple regression models, in predicting entomological risk. Indices of deer abundance had no predictive power, and precipitation in the current year and temperature in the prior year had only weak effects on entomological risk. The strongest predictors of a current year's risk were the prior year's abundance of mice and chipmunks and abundance of acorns 2 y previously. In no case did inclusion of deer or climate variables improve the predictive power of models based on rodents, acorns, or both. We conclude that interannual variation in entomological risk of exposure to Lyme disease is correlated positively with prior abundance of key hosts for the immature stages of the tick vector and with critical food resources for those hosts.

  18. Weather conditions associated with autumn migration by mule deer in Wyoming

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    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining ecological integrity necessitates a proactive approach of identifying and acquiring lands to conserve unfragmented landscapes, as well as evaluating existing mitigation strategies to increase connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The increased use of highway underpasses and overpasses to restore connectivity for wildlife species offers clear conservation benefits, yet also presents a unique opportunity to understand how weather conditions may impact movement of wildlife species. We used remote camera observations (19,480 from an existing wildlife highway underpass in Wyoming and daily meteorological observations to quantify weather conditions associated with autumn migration of mule deer in 2009 and 2010. We identified minimal daily temperature and snow depth as proximate cues associated with mule deer migration to winter range. These weather cues were consistent across does and bucks, but differed slightly by year. Additionally, extreme early season snow depth or cold temperature events appear to be associated with onset of migration. This information will assist wildlife managers and transportation officials as they plan future projects to maintain and enhance migration routes for mule deer.

  19. Antler and Body Size in Black-Tailed Deer: An Analysis of Cohort Effects

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    Johanna C. Thalmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-lived species, environmental factors experienced early in life can have lasting effects persisting into adulthood. Large herbivores can be susceptible to cohort-wide declines in fitness as a result of decreases in forage availability, because of extrinsic factors, including extreme climate or high population densities. To examine effects of cohort-specific extrinsic factors on size of adults, we performed a retrospective analysis on harvest data of 450 male black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus over 19 years in central California, USA. We determined that population density of females had a more dominant effect than did precipitation on body size of males. Harvest of female deer resulted in increases in the overall size of males, even though a 6-year drought occurred during that treatment period. Body size was most influenced by female population density early in life, while antler size was highly affected by both weather early in life and the year directly before harvest. This study provides insights that improve our understanding of the role of cohort effects in body and antler size by cervids; and, in particular, that reduction in female population density can have a profound effect on the body and antler size of male deer.

  20. Spontaneous gallstone formation in deer mice: interaction of cholesterol, bile acids, and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnett, Dorothy A; Theis, Jerold H; Kaneko, J Jerry

    2003-01-01

    A study of the physiologic and ecologic factors involved in a spontaneous seasonal gallstone cycle of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus gambelii) was conducted at the Tulelake National Wildlife Refuge (California, USA) from March 1991 to June 1992. The specific hypothesis examined was whether or not seasonal increases in dietary fiber intake provides the necessary conditions for a solubility defect, or supersaturation mechanism, resulting in precipitation of cholesterol gallstones. Results indicated that in addition to the seasonal gallstone prevalence cycle, these deer mice exhibit significant seasonal cycling in serum cholesterol, serum bile acids, fecal bile acids, and diet composition. These physiologic and dietary cycles were phase-advanced 3 mo over the gallstone prevalence cycle, indicating an approximate 3 mo time period for gallstone formation under field conditions. Further, seasonal dietary fiber (plant material and seeds) was positively correlated with both serum cholesterol and the fecal bile acids. This suggests that in wild deer mice, variations in dietary fiber may significantly affect the resorption of bile acids, thereby providing a potential physiologic and nutritional mechanism for spontaneous cholesterol gallstone formation.