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Sample records for conventional sterilization methods

  1. Effect of Different Sterilization Methods on the Extracted Oil from Oil Palm Fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasimah Kasmin; Hasimah Kasmin; Roila Awang; Azwan Mat Lazim

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization is important process during the processing of oil palm fruits in order to produce crude palm oil (CPO). This process can be carried out using steam (conventional method), dry heating or wet heating method. In this study, the effectiveness of the dry heating and wet heating method for sterilization and solvent extraction were carried out. The sterilization time of these two methods were varied at 30, 60 and 90 min in order to determine their effectiveness on the oil extraction and their quality. Results showed that, at 30 min of sterilization, the wet heating produced a higher percentage of oil extraction compared to the conventional and dry heating, with average of 27.65 %, 19.01 % and 20.21 % respectively. In comparison with the conventional method, both sterilization methods gave better FFA and DOBI results. This can be seen where the average of free fatty acid (FFA) content for proposed sterilization method was between 0.37 % to 0.93 % while, average deterioration of bleach ability index (DOBI) was from 4.89 to 6.12. The average carotene content was in agreement with the conventional method at a range of 644.64 ppm to 764.80 ppm. (author)

  2. Comparative analysis of ampoules and vials in sterile and conventional packaging as to microbial load and sterility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Raphael Ribeiro de Aquino; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2016-05-24

    To compare sterility and microbial (bacteria and fungi) load in the outer part of hyperbaric bupivacaine (Neocaína®) in ampoule and bupivacaine in vial, in conventional and sterile pack formulations. The sterile packs were divided into two groups: G1 (n=16) with ampoules and G2 (n=16) with vials. Conventional formulations were divided into two groups, being G3 (n=16) with ampoules and G4 (n=16) with vials. The ampoules and vials were opened and had their content drawn. The empty bottles were then placed in sterile plastic bags and sent for analysis of microbial load (bacteria and fungi) and sterility testing. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test with Yates correction, and 95% confidence interval. G1 and G2 showed no bacterial growth when compared to conventional groups (pgrupos, sendo que o G1 (n=16) continha as ampolas e o G2 (n=16), os frascos-ampola. As apresentações convencionais foram distribuídas em dois grupos, a saber G3 (n=16) com as ampolas e G4 (n=16) com os frascos-ampola. As ampolas e os frascos-ampolas eram abertos e tinham seu conteúdo aspirado. Os frascos vazios eram, então, acondicionados em sacos plásticos estéreis e enviados para análise quanto à carga microbiana (bactérias e fungos), bem como para o teste de esterilidade. Os dados foram analisados por meio do teste χ2 com correção Yates com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Os grupos G1 e G2 não apresentaram crescimento bacteriano quando comparado aos grupos convencionais (pgrupos. O uso de embalagens estéreis (sterile pack) diminui a carga microbiana dos frascos de envasamentos, o que diminuiria a chance de exposição a uma potencial contaminação da solução anestésica.

  3. Methods of sterilization and monitoring of sterilization across selected dental practices in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.

    2015-01-01

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization. (author)

  4. Radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the application of ionizing radiation to sterilize pharmaceutical products, and the particular advantages of using this mode of sterilization for powders for injection, which cannot be sterilized by more conventional methods, it is important to recognise the possibility of modification of radiation response of bacteria when in close contact with various drug powders. For this study, bacterial spores, which lend themselves to dessication, and which can be dried onto an inert powder matrix, were chosen as the test system. The results of this work indicate that the additives tested have a modest protective effect on the spores. However, when considering a bacterial inactivation for sterilization purposes of between six and ten orders of magnitude, that is, a desired sterility assurance level of an expected maximum probability of a product item being non-sterile of 10 -6 , then the slight protective effect observed in this study approaches insignificance

  5. Quality comparison of continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing versus conventional canning of whole and sliced mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N M; Walker, P N

    2011-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate segmented-flow aseptic processing of particle foods. A pilot-scale continuous steam sterilization unit capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed whole and sliced mushrooms was developed. The system utilized pressurized steam as the heating medium to achieve high temperature-short time processing conditions with high and uniform heat transfer that will enable static temperature penetration studies for process development. Segmented-flow technology produced a narrower residence time distribution than pipe-flow aseptic processing; thus, whole and sliced mushrooms were processed only as long as needed to achieve the target F₀  = 7.0 min and were not overcooked. Continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing produced shelf stable aseptically processed mushrooms of superior quality to conventionally canned mushrooms. When compared to conventionally canned mushrooms, aseptically processed yield (weight basis) increased 6.1% (SD = 2.9%) and 6.6% (SD = 2.2%), whiteness (L) improved 3.1% (SD = 1.9%) and 4.7% (SD = 0.7%), color difference (ΔE) improved 6.0% (SD = 1.3%) and 8.5% (SD = 1.5%), and texture improved 3.9% (SD = 1.7%) and 4.6% (SD = 4.2%), for whole and sliced mushrooms, respectively. Segmented-flow aseptic processing eliminated a separate blanching step, eliminated the unnecessary packaging of water and promoted the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. Segmented-flow aseptic processing is capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed particle foods of superior quality to a conventionally canned product. This unique continuous steam sterilization process eliminates the need for a separate blanching step, reduces or eliminates the need for a liquid carrier, and promotes the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  7. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  8. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  9. Sterilization: new method options, failure rate info.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses new sterilization methods for tubal ligation, failure rates, and risks for ectopic pregnancy in the US. The Filshie clip, which was developed by Femcare, Ltd. in Nottingham, England, and is distributed by Avalon Medical Corp of Vermont, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 1996. The company has provided training sessions at major universities nationwide and exhibited at national professional association meetings. A training video and two more films will be available in 1998. The new clip is considered a more modern approach to a tubal occlusion method, which relies on newer materials and solves prior problems. Physicians usually used Falope rings, which had better failure rates than the Hulka clip and bipolar coagulation methods. There is a need for more long-term and large scale information exchange about the new Filshie clip. Some physicians still use the Falope ring because it is cost effective and well-studied. Physicians are warned to continue to advise women about the potential failure rates up to 10 years after sterilization and the 1 in 3 risk of ectopic pregnancy. Counseling about failure rates and the risk of ectopic pregnancy should target women under 30 years old, who have the highest failure rates, and women 30-34 years old. All sterilized women should be advised to seek a provider immediately if they have pregnancy symptoms following sterilization. Counseling should include the issue of "regrets," since it is a permanent method. All women should know about nonpermanent methods and experience a basic informed consent process. Young women and newly divorced women are particularly vulnerable to the "regrets" syndrome.

  10. Comparative evaluation of four different sterilization methods on contaminated endodontic files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi Yenni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of instruments in the field of endodontics leads to cross infection due to contamination with microbes as the instruments come into direct contact with saliva, blood, and infected tissues. Since microbes are considered to be the major cause of endodontic failures, sterilization of endodontic instruments is mandatory for maintaining asepsis to prevent cross-contamination from one person to other. Hence, the present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of four different methods of sterilizing contaminated endodontic files. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 stainless steel K files were divided into four groups based on the sterilization method followed – Group A: Autoclave, Group B: Glass bead sterilization, Group C: Glutaraldehyde, and Group D: Quitanet Plus (aldehyde-free solution. In all the tested groups, half of the files were contaminated with Escherichia coli and remaining with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, presterilization colony counts were recorded, followed by sterilization through respective methods. Later, the sterilized files were rinsed with distilled water and 100 ul of the diluted concentration was transferred and cultured onto the respective agar plates to determine the total microbial reduction. Results: Autoclave showed complete effectiveness in reducing the microbial count followed by Quitanet Plus, glass bead sterilizer, and glutaraldehyde. Conclusion: Autoclave is considered to be the best sterilization technique to prevent cross infection in endodontic therapy.

  11. Study on irradiation sterilization of medical gauze pad by incremental dosage method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Qing; Huang Min; Deng Wenmin; Wu Ling; Wang Yan; Gao Peng; Du Xiaoying; Xie Yan

    2011-01-01

    To explore the sterilization dose setting method for medical products, the irradiation sterilization dose for medical products was set according to the method 2A of international standard ISO11137 Part 2. The verification dose for medical gauze pad by was set by incremental dose method and with a series of formula. Then the sterilization dose for an SAL of 10 -6 was established by completing the verification dose experiment. The final sterilization dose for medical gauze pad was decided to be 29.7 kGy. This study gives reference for the setting irradiation sterilization dose for medical products which need to adopt the method 2A of international standard ISO11137 Part 2. (authors)

  12. Do women's attitudes towards abortion and contraceptive methods influence their option for sterilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the attitudes of low-income women towards abortion and contraception. A survey was conducted in 1992 with a total of 3,149 childbearing-age women living on the outskirts of the Greater Metropolitan São Paulo Area. The study focuses on a sub-sample of 583 women. Attitudes of sterilized and non-sterilized women are compared. Women, especially those sterilized, found the most important attribute of a contraceptive method to be its effectiveness. Women currently taking the pill were less likely than those sterilized to agree that sterilization was the best method because of its effectiveness. Sterilized women were less likely than non-sterilized women to trust the pill. Sterilized women were more likely than non-sterilized to have reported adverse effects from the pill. Most women found abortion unacceptable except in the case of risk to the woman's life. Women using more effective methods showed stronger negative attitudes towards abortion. The tendency to be sterilized while still young was associated with more negative attitudes towards abortion. Family planning activities in basic health care services should include individual counseling for contraceptive use.

  13. Do women's attitudes towards abortion and contraceptive methods influence their option for sterilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Elisabeth Meloni

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the attitudes of low-income women towards abortion and contraception. A survey was conducted in 1992 with a total of 3,149 childbearing-age women living on the outskirts of the Greater Metropolitan São Paulo Area. The study focuses on a sub-sample of 583 women. Attitudes of sterilized and non-sterilized women are compared. Women, especially those sterilized, found the most important attribute of a contraceptive method to be its effectiveness. Women currently taking the pill were less likely than those sterilized to agree that sterilization was the best method because of its effectiveness. Sterilized women were less likely than non-sterilized women to trust the pill. Sterilized women were more likely than non-sterilized to have reported adverse effects from the pill. Most women found abortion unacceptable except in the case of risk to the woman's life. Women using more effective methods showed stronger negative attitudes towards abortion. The tendency to be sterilized while still young was associated with more negative attitudes towards abortion. Family planning activities in basic health care services should include individual counseling for contraceptive use.

  14. Methods of medical sterilization; Metody sterylizacji medycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Broad review of different (physical, chemical and mechanical) methods commonly used for medical materials sterilization have been performed. Among them the special attention have been played on radiosterilization. The advantages and weaknesses each of the presented method have been pointed out. 1 fig.

  15. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde and glass-bead sterilization. The endodontic file was sterilized by 4 different methods after contaminating it with bacillus stearothermophillus and then checked for sterility by incubating after putting it in test tubes containing thioglycollate medium. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization.

  16. Morphological and chemical changes of dentin after applying different sterilization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Antonio Talge Carvalho

    Full Text Available Aim The present study evaluated the morphological and chemical changes of dentin produced by different sterilization methods, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS analysis. Material and method Five human teeth were sectioned into 4 samples, each divided into 3 specimens. The specimens were separated into sterilization groups, as follows: wet heat under pressure; cobalt 60 gamma radiation; and control (without sterilization. After sterilization, the 60 specimens were analyzed by SEM under 3 magnifications: 1500X, 5000X, and 10000X. The images were analyzed by 3 calibrated examiners, who assigned scores according to the changes observed in the dentinal tubules: 0 = no morphological change; 1, 2 and 3 = slight, medium and complete obliteration of the dentinal tubules. The chemical composition of dentin was assessed by EDS, with 15 kV incidence and 1 μm penetration. Result The data obtained were submitted to the statistical tests of Kruskall-Wallis and ANOVA. It was observed that both sterilization methods – with autoclave and with cobalt 60 gamma radiation – produced no significant changes to the morphology of the dentinal tubules or to the chemical composition of dentin. Conclusion Both methods may thus be used to sterilize teeth for research conducted in vitro.

  17. Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1991-01-01

    The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.)

  18. A general method for identifying major hybrid male sterility genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1995-10-01

    The genes responsible for hybrid male sterility in species crosses are usually identified by introgressing chromosome segments, monitored by visible markers, between closely related species by continuous backcrosses. This commonly used method, however, suffers from two problems. First, it relies on the availability of markers to monitor the introgressed regions and so the portion of the genome examined is limited to the marked regions. Secondly, the introgressed regions are usually large and it is impossible to tell if the effects of the introgressed regions are the result of single (or few) major genes or many minor genes (polygenes). Here we introduce a simple and general method for identifying putative major hybrid male sterility genes which is free of these problems. In this method, the actual hybrid male sterility genes (rather than markers), or tightly linked gene complexes with large effects, are selectively introgressed from one species into the background of another species by repeated backcrosses. This is performed by selectively backcrossing heterozygous (for hybrid male sterility gene or genes) females producing fertile and sterile sons in roughly equal proportions to males of either parental species. As no marker gene is required for this procedure, this method can be used with any species pairs that produce unisexual sterility. With the application of this method, a small X chromosome region of Drosophila mauritiana which produces complete hybrid male sterility (aspermic testes) in the background of D. simulans was identified. Recombination analysis reveals that this region contains a second major hybrid male sterility gene linked to the forked locus located at either 62.7 +/- 0.66 map units or at the centromere region of the X chromosome of D. mauritiana.

  19. Sterilization of microorganisms by the supercritical carbon dioxide micro-bubble method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H; Shimoda, M; Shiratsuchi, H; Osajima, Y

    1995-10-01

    Lactobacillus brevis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were completely sterilized by the supercritical (SC) CO2 micro-bubble method. Gaseous (G) and liquid (LQ) CO2 were used in a similar manner to compare the sterilizing effect. Among the three treatments, the microorganisms were only effectively sterilized by the SC CO2 treatment at 25 MPa and 35 degrees C.

  20. Sterilization Effect of Wet Oxygen Plasma in the Bubbling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamazawa, Kaoru; Shintani, Hideharu; Tamazawa, Yoshinori; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    A new low-temperature sterilization method to replace the ethylene oxide gas sterilization is needed. Strong bactericidal effects of OH and O2H radicals are well known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sterilization effect of wet oxygen ("O2+H2O") plasma in the bubbling method, confirming the effect of humidity. Sterility assurance was confirmed by using a biological indicator (Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC7953, Namsa, USA). One hundred and eight samples (10(5) spores/carrier) were divided into three groups of 36 in each for treatment with a different type of gas (O2, O2+H2O, Air+H2O). Plasma processing was conducted using a plasma ashing apparatus (13.56 MHz, PACK-3(®), Y. A. C., Japan) under various gas pressures (13, 25, 50 Pa) and gas flows (50, 100, 200 sccm). Fixed plasma treatment parameters were power at 150 W, temperature of 60 ℃, treatment time of 10 min. The samples after treatment were incubated in trypticase soy broth at 58 ℃ for 72 h. The negative culture rate in the "O2+H2O" group was significantly (Mantel-Haenszel procedure, pbubbling method which is the method of introducing vapor into the chamber. The bubbling method seems able to generate OH and O2H radicals in a stable way.

  1. A novel steam explosion sterilization improving solid-state fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Traditional sterilization of solid medium (SM) requires lengthy time, degrades nutrients, and even sterilizes inadequately compared with that of liquid medium due to its low thermal conductivity. A novel sterilization strategy, high-temperature and short-time steam explosion (SE), was exploited for SM sterilization in this study. Results showed that SE conditions for complete sterilization were 172 °C for 2 min and 128 °C for 5 min. Glucose and xylose contents in medium after SE sterilization increased by 157% and 93% respectively compared with those after conventional sterilization (121 °C, 20 min) while fermentation inhibitors were not detected. FTIR spectra revealed that the mild SE conditions helped to release monosaccharides from the polysaccharides. Bacillus subtilis fermentation productivity on medium after SE sterilization was 3.83 times of that after conventional sterilization. Therefore, SE shortened sterilization time and improved SM nutrition, which facilitated fermentability of SM and should promote economy of solid-state fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of user input methods for manipulating a tablet personal computer in sterile techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akira; Komatsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kurozumi, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Ueda, Kazuhiko; Kadoya, Masumi

    2017-02-01

    To determine a quick and accurate user input method for manipulating tablet personal computers (PCs) in sterile techniques. We evaluated three different manipulation methods, (1) Computer mouse and sterile system drape, (2) Fingers and sterile system drape, and (3) Digitizer stylus and sterile ultrasound probe cover with a pinhole, in terms of the central processing unit (CPU) performance, manipulation performance, and contactlessness. A significant decrease in CPU score ([Formula: see text]) and an increase in CPU temperature ([Formula: see text]) were observed when a system drape was used. The respective mean times taken to select a target image from an image series (ST) and the mean times for measuring points on an image (MT) were [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] s for the computer mouse method, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] s for the finger method, and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] s for the digitizer stylus method, respectively. The ST for the finger method was significantly longer than for the digitizer stylus method ([Formula: see text]). The MT for the computer mouse method was significantly longer than for the digitizer stylus method ([Formula: see text]). The mean success rate for measuring points on an image was significantly lower for the finger method when the diameter of the target was equal to or smaller than 8 mm than for the other methods. No significant difference in the adenosine triphosphate amount at the surface of the tablet PC was observed before, during, or after manipulation via the digitizer stylus method while wearing starch-powdered sterile gloves ([Formula: see text]). Quick and accurate manipulation of tablet PCs in sterile techniques without CPU load is feasible using a digitizer stylus and sterile ultrasound probe cover with a pinhole.

  3. Improving the sterile sperm identification method for its implementation in the area-wide sterile insect technique program against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan-Blasco, M.; Urbaneja, A.; San Andrés, V.; Sabater-Muñoz, B.; Castañera, P.

    2014-01-01

    The success of sterile males in area-wide sterile insect technique (aw-SIT) programs against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is currently measured by using indirect methods as the wild: sterile male ratio captured in monitoring traps. In the past decade, molecular techniques have been used to improve these methods. The development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism- based method to identify the transfer of sterile sperm to wild females, the target of SIT, was considered a significant step in this direction. This method relies on identification of sperm by detecting the presence of Y chromosomes in spermathecae DNA extract complemented by the identification of the genetic origin of this sperm: Vienna-8 males or wild haplotype. However, the application of this protocol to aw-SIT programs is limited by handling time and personnel cost. The objective of this work was to obtain a high-throughput protocol to facilitate the routine measurement in a pest population of sterile sperm presence in wild females. The polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment-length polymorphism markers previously developed were validated in Mediterranean fruit by samples collected from various locations worldwide. A laboratory protocol previously published was modified to allow for the analysis of more samples at the same time. Preservation methods and preservation times commonly used for Mediterranean fruit by female samples were assessed for their influence on the correct molecular detection of sterile sperm. This high-throughput methodology, as well as the results of sample management presented here, provide a robust, efficient, fast, and economical sterile sperm identification method ready to be used in all Mediterranean fruit by SIT programs. (author)

  4. Attitude toward, acceptance of and knowledge about female sterilization as a method of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlenwein, J; Kundu, S; Schippert, C; Soergel, P; Hillemanns, P; Staboulidou, I

    2015-02-01

    Surgical sterilization via tubal ligation or the disconnection of the tubes is a method of permanent contraception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude, acceptance and knowledge of women about female sterilization as a method of contraception in terms of the social and cultural backgrounds of those women. Prospective study based on an anonymous questionnaire that analyzed background knowledge, attitude, influence factors and motivation regarding sterilization, as well as the reasons for declining. The questionnaire also attempted to evaluate the effects on the self-esteem of the women, as well as the impact of religious dogma and the related beliefs. One thousand, eight hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 1247 women completed the questionnaire—a response rate of 69.3%. There were mainly positive attitudes toward sterilization as a contraceptive method. Cultural background, including religion and faith; the mother's experiences and point of view; knowledge; family planning and the actual life situation have an influence on the attitudes toward and acceptance of sterilization as a contraceptive method and on the final choice of a contraceptive method. Cultural background and present life situation have a great impact on the attitude toward and acceptance of sterilization as a method of contraception, thus influencing the final choice of a contraceptive method. Detailed counselling about this topic is essential and should be improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Galante

    Full Text Available In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation, a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP, with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol. Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  6. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Raquel; Rediguieri, Carolina F; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Vasquez, Pablo A S; Colaço, Rogério; Serro, Ana Paula; Pinto, Terezinha J A

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS) hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation), a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP), with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol). Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  7. [Evaluation of the influence of sterilization method on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose wound dressing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muselík, Jan; Wojnarová, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Sopuch, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose, especially its sodium salt, is a versatile pharmaceutical excipient. From a therapeutic point of view, sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the production of modern wound dressings to allow moist wound healing. Wound dressings must be sterile and stable throughout their shelf life and have to be able to withstand different temperature conditions. At the present time, a number of sterilization methods are available. In the case of polymeric materials, the selected sterilization process must not induce any changes in the polymer structure, such as polymer chains cleavage, changes in cross-linking, etc. This paper evaluates the influence of different sterilization methods (γ-radiation, β-radiation, ethylene oxide) on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose and the results of long-term and accelerated stability testing. Evaluation of samples was performed using size-exclusion chromatography. The obtained results showed that ethylene oxide sterilization was the least aggressive variant of the sterilization methods tested. When the γ-radiation sterilization was used, the changes in the size of the carboxymethyl cellulose molecule occurred. In the course of accelerated and long term stability studies, no further degradation changes were observed, and thus sterilized samples are suitable for long term storage.

  8. Evaluation of two disinfection/sterilization methods on silicon rubber-based composite finishing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Vánia A; Pereira, Leandro O; Hirata JUNIOR, Raphael; Perez, Cesar R

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of disinfection/sterilization methods and their effects on polishing capacity, micomorphology, and composition of two different composite fiishing and polishing instruments. Two brands of finishing and polishing instruments (Jiffy and Optimize), were analyzed. For the antimicrobial test, 60 points (30 of each brand) were used for polishing composite restorations and submitted to three different groups of disinfection/sterilization methods: none (control), autoclaving, and immersion in peracetic acid for 60 minutes. The in vitro tests were performed to evaluate the polishing performance on resin composite disks (Amelogen) using a 3D scanner (Talyscan) and to evaluate the effects on the points' surface composition (XRF) and micromorphology (MEV) after completing a polishing and sterilizing routine five times. Both sterilization/disinfection methods were efficient against oral cultivable organisms and no deleterious modification was observed to point surface.

  9. Toxicity of methods of implant material sterilization on corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.; Boehnke, Mv.; von Domarus, D.; Draeger, J.

    1985-11-01

    The toxicity of different procedures utilized for the sterilization of intraocular implant material was assessed on the endothelium of organ-cultured porcine corneas. Polymethylmethacrylate lenses sterilized by treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, and gamma radiation were added to a culture medium containing normal porcine corneas. Considering the viability of endothelial cells, appearance of intracellular degenerative vacuoles, and denudation of corneal Descemet's membrane as criterion for the evaluation of toxicity of different methods of sterilization, the NaOH-treated lenses were found to be the least toxic to porcine corneal endothelium. Phase-contrast microscopy and vital staining of the endothelium permitted direct viewing of the endothelium aiding in the assessment of toxicity.

  10. Sterilization of health care products - Radiation. Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This part of ISO 11137 describes methods that may be used to establish the sterilization dose in accordance with one of the two approaches specified in 8.2 of ISO 11137-1:2006. The methods used in these approaches are: a) dose setting to obtain a product-specific dose; b) dose substantiation to verify a preselected dose of 25 kGy or 15 kGy. The basis of the dose setting methods described in this part of ISO 11137 (Methods 1 and 2) owe much to the ideas first propounded by Tallentire (Tallentire, 1973 [17]; Tallentire, Dwyer and Ley, 1971 [18]; Tallentire and Khan, 1978 [19]). Subsequently, standardized protocols were developed (Davis et al., 1981 [8]; Davis, Strawderman and Whitby, 1984 [9]) which formed the basis of the dose setting methods detailed in the AAMI Recommended Practice for Sterilization by Gamma Radiation (AAMI 1984, 1991 [4], [6]). Methods 1 and 2 and the associated sterilization dose audit procedures use data derived from the inactivation of the microbial population in its natural state on product. The methods are based on a probability model for the inactivation of microbial populations. The probability model, as applied to bioburden made up of a mixture of various microbial species, assumes that each such species has its own unique D 10 value. In the model, the probability that an item will possess a surviving microorganism after exposure to a given dose of radiation is defined in terms of the initial number of microorganisms on the item prior to irradiation and the D 10 values of the microorganisms. The methods involve performance of tests of sterility on product items that have received doses of radiation lower than the sterilization dose. The outcome of these tests is used to predict the dose needed to achieve a predetermined sterility assurance level, SAL. Methods 1 and 2 may also be used to substantiate 25 kGy if, on performing a dose setting exercise, the derived sterilization dose for an SAL of 10 -6 is u ≤25 kGy. The basis of the method

  11. Evaluation of different sterilization and disinfection methods on commercially made preformed crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Guler, C

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by different sterilization or disinfection methods on the vestibular surface of four commercially made preformed crowns using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preformed crowns (NuSmile Primary Anterior Crown (NSC), Kinder Krowns (KK), Pedo Pearls (PP) and polycarbonate crowns (PC)) were sterilized and/or disinfected by one of the following techniques: no sterilization or disinfection (G1 control group); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 4 min (G2); steam autoclaving at 134 degrees C (30 psi) for 12 min (G3); steam autoclaving at 121 degrees C (15 psi) for 30 min (G4); and ultrasonication in a bath containing 4% Lysetol AF for 5 min at room temperature (chemical disinfection) (G5). Scanning electron micrographs of the crowns were taken before and after their sterilization or disinfection. The changes on the vestibular surface were then scored for the presence or absence of crazing, contour alteration, fracturing, and vestibular surface changes. The data were analyzed statistically using the chi-square test. No changes were observed before and after sterilization or disinfection in the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the vestibular surface of the crowns. However, all methods in which steam autoclaving was used to sterilize the crowns caused significant (P < 0.05) crazing and contour alterations of the vestibular surface of the crowns when they were examined by SEM. Chemical disinfection using an aldehyde-free disinfectant is the preferred method of disinfection for crowns that have been used previously in other dental patients.

  12. [Proposal of a costing method for the provision of sterilization in a public hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauler, S; Combe, C; Piallat, M; Laurencin, C; Hida, H

    2011-07-01

    To refine the billing to institutions whose operations of sterilization are outsourced, a sterilization cost approach was developed. The aim of the study is to determine the value of a sterilization unit (one point "S") evolving according to investments, quantities processed, types of instrumentation or packaging. The time of preparation has been selected from all sub-processes of sterilization to determine the value of one point S. The time of preparation of sterilized large and small containers and pouches were raised. The reference time corresponds to one bag (equal to one point S). Simultaneously, the annual operating cost of sterilization was defined and divided into several areas of expenditure: employees, equipments and building depreciation, supplies, and maintenance. A total of 136 crossing times of containers were measured. Time to prepare a pouch has been estimated at one minute (one S). A small container represents four S and a large container represents 10S. By dividing the operating cost of sterilization by the total number of points of sterilization over a given period, the cost of one S can be determined. This method differs from traditional costing method in sterilizing services, considering each item of expenditure. This point S will be the base for billing of subcontracts to other institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  14. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  15. Factors associated with sterilization use among women leaving a U.S. jail: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Megha; Kelly, Patricia J

    2014-07-31

    Despite the high rates of reported sterilization use among women who have spent time in correctional facilities, little is known about the context in which women in this population choose this option. The objective of our study was to use both quantitative and qualitative methods to understand factors associated with sterilization use among women leaving a U.S. jail. We administered a cross-sectional survey with 102 jailed women who were participating in a study about contraceptive use after release from jail, and then conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 of those women after their release from jail. We used logistic regression and analytic induction to assess factors associated with self-reported sterilization use. In our cross-sectional survey, one-third of our sample reported a history of sterilization use. Controlling for age and past pregnancies, the only factor associated with sterilization use was physical abuse history before age 16. In semi-structured interviews, we found that women's primary motivation for sterilization was the desire to limit childbearing permanently, in some cases where other contraceptive methods had failed them. The decision for sterilization was generally supported by family, partners, and providers. Many women who opted for sterilization expressed financial concern about supporting children and/or reported family histories of sterilization. The decision to use the permanent method of sterilization as a contraceptive method is a complex one. Results from this study suggest that while explicit coercion may not be a factor in women's choice for sterilization, interpersonal relationship histories, negative experiences with contraceptives, and structural constraints, such as financial concerns and ongoing criminal justice involvement, seem to influence sterilization use among the vulnerable group of women with criminal justice histories. Public health programs that connect women to reproductive health services should acknowledge

  16. Effects of sterilization treatments on the analysis of TOC in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yiming; Xu, Lingfeng; Gong, Dongqin; Lu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Decomposition experiments conducted with and without microbial processes are commonly used to study the effects of environmental microorganisms on the degradation of organic pollutants. However, the effects of biological pretreatment (sterilization) on organic matter often have a negative impact on such experiments. Based on the principle of water total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, the effects of physical sterilization treatments on determination of TOC and other water quality parameters were investigated. The results revealed that two conventional physical sterilization treatments, autoclaving and 60Co gamma-radiation sterilization, led to the direct decomposition of some organic pollutants, resulting in remarkable errors in the analysis of TOC in water samples. Furthermore, the extent of the errors varied with the intensity and the duration of sterilization treatments. Accordingly, a novel sterilization method for water samples, 0.45 microm micro-filtration coupled with ultraviolet radiation (MCUR), was developed in the present study. The results indicated that the MCUR method was capable of exerting a high bactericidal effect on the water sample while significantly decreasing the negative impact on the analysis of TOC and other water quality parameters. Before and after sterilization treatments, the relative errors of TOC determination could be controlled to lower than 3% for water samples with different categories and concentrations of organic pollutants by using MCUR.

  17. Effect of the sterilization method on the properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Karina A. [Queensland Eye Institute, 41 Annerley Road, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101 (Australia); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059 (Australia); Shadforth, Audra M.A. [Queensland Eye Institute, 41 Annerley Road, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101 (Australia); Chirila, Traian V., E-mail: traian.chirila@qei.org.au [Queensland Eye Institute, 41 Annerley Road, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101 (Australia); Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072 (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland 4006 (Australia); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Laurent, Matthieu J. [Queensland Eye Institute, 41 Annerley Road, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101 (Australia); Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Luminy (ESIL), Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Luminy case 925 13288, Marseille, Cedex 09 (France); Stephenson, Sally-Anne [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059 (Australia); Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Edwards, Grant A. [Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072 (Australia); Madden, Peter W. [Queensland Eye Institute, 41 Annerley Road, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101 (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland 4006 (Australia); and others

    2013-03-01

    We have compared the effects of different sterilization techniques on the properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin thin films with the view to subsequent use for corneal tissue engineering. The transparency, tensile properties, corneal epithelial cell attachment and degradation of the films were used to evaluate the suitability of certain sterilization techniques including gamma-irradiation (in air or nitrogen), steam treatment and immersion in aqueous ethanol. The investigations showed that gamma-irradiation, performed either in air or in a nitrogen atmosphere, did not significantly alter the properties of films. The films sterilized by gamma-irradiation or by immersion in ethanol had a transparency greater than 98% and tensile properties comparable to human cornea and amniotic membrane, the materials of choice in the reconstruction of ocular surface. Although steam-sterilization produced stronger, stiffer films, they were less transparent, and cell attachment was affected by the variable topography of these films. It was concluded that gamma-irradiation should be considered to be the most suitable method for the sterilization of silk fibroin films, however, the treatment with ethanol is also an acceptable method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of four methods of sterilization on the properties of silk fibroin films were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Steam treatment leads to stiffer films but to lower transparency and variable surface topography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of fibroin is enhanced in the films that were gamma-irradiated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects on mechanical properties are explained through changes in both primary and secondary structure of fibroin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma-irradiation and immersion in aqueous ethanol are suggested as preferred methods of sterilization.

  18. Effect of the sterilization method on the properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Karina A.; Shadforth, Audra M.A.; Chirila, Traian V.; Laurent, Matthieu J.; Stephenson, Sally-Anne; Edwards, Grant A.; Madden, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    We have compared the effects of different sterilization techniques on the properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin thin films with the view to subsequent use for corneal tissue engineering. The transparency, tensile properties, corneal epithelial cell attachment and degradation of the films were used to evaluate the suitability of certain sterilization techniques including gamma-irradiation (in air or nitrogen), steam treatment and immersion in aqueous ethanol. The investigations showed that gamma-irradiation, performed either in air or in a nitrogen atmosphere, did not significantly alter the properties of films. The films sterilized by gamma-irradiation or by immersion in ethanol had a transparency greater than 98% and tensile properties comparable to human cornea and amniotic membrane, the materials of choice in the reconstruction of ocular surface. Although steam-sterilization produced stronger, stiffer films, they were less transparent, and cell attachment was affected by the variable topography of these films. It was concluded that gamma-irradiation should be considered to be the most suitable method for the sterilization of silk fibroin films, however, the treatment with ethanol is also an acceptable method. - Highlights: ► The effects of four methods of sterilization on the properties of silk fibroin films were investigated. ► Steam treatment leads to stiffer films but to lower transparency and variable surface topography. ► Degradation of fibroin is enhanced in the films that were gamma-irradiated. ► The effects on mechanical properties are explained through changes in both primary and secondary structure of fibroin. ► Gamma-irradiation and immersion in aqueous ethanol are suggested as preferred methods of sterilization.

  19. Effectiveness of various sterilization methods of contaminated post-fitted molar band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggia Tridianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molar band as anchoring device may be contaminated during the fitting process. Thus, decontamination process is essential to prevent cross-infection between patients. Purpose: The objective of this research was to determine the amount of bacteria in molar band post-fitted on the patient teeth, after previously undergone pre-sterilization using alcohol and ultrasonic cleaning bath followed by sterilization using dry heat oven and steam autoclave, in order to find the best method in decontamination of post-fitted molar band. Methods: Four molar bands which already fitted on one patient then divided evenly into two groups. The first group was pre-sterilized using alcohol. One of the bands then sterilized using dry heat oven, while the other one was sterilized using steam autoclave. The second group was pre-sterilized using ultrasonic cleaning bath. One band from this group then sterilized using dry heat oven and the other was sterilized using steam autoclave. The next step was to immerse all the bands in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. Using micropipette, the solution was retrieved and dropped upon a petri dish containing Brain Heart Infusion broth. The dish was then stored in an incubator for 24 hours, prior to counting the number of bacteria existed. The same methods were used to the rest of the patients, with total 128 molar bands from 32 patients. Results: There was a profound difference in numbers of bacteria found between those methods of sterilization. However, there was a non significant difference between the two groups which were at the alcohol-steam autoclave group and at the ultrasonic cleaning bath-steam autoclave group. Conclusion: This study showed that steam autoclave is better than for sterilizing molar band, as it left the minimal amount of bacteria in post-fitted molar band.Latar belakang: Molar band merupakan suatu alat penjangkaran yang dapat mengalami kontaminasi selama proses fitting band, sehingga perlu

  20. Trends in sterilization since the introduction of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavell, Valerie I; Abdallah, Mazen E; Shade, George H; Diamond, Michael P; Berman, Jay M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate trends in sterilization in women at the Detroit Medical Center, Michigan (DMC), since the introduction of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient surgery center and university teaching hospitals. Women who underwent interval sterilization procedures at the DMC (Hutzel Women's Hospital, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Berry Center) and postpartum sterilization procedures at Hutzel Women's Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Permanent sterilization procedures including minilaparotomy tubal ligation, laparoscopic sterilization, Essure hysteroscopic sterilization, and postpartum tubal ligation performed at the time of cesarean section or after vaginal delivery. In all, 5509 permanent sterilization procedures were performed in the 6 years between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007, at the DMC facilities analyzed: 2484 interval sterilization procedures at Hutzel Women's Hospital, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Berry Center, and 3025 postpartum tubal ligations at Hutzel Women's Hospital. From 2002 through 2007, the decrease in laparoscopic sterilizations from 97.9% to 48.5% of all interval sterilization procedures corresponded significantly with the increase in Essure hysteroscopic sterilizations from 0.0% to 51.3% (p Essure hysteroscopic sterilizations increased significantly from 0.0% to 51.3% of all procedures. Since the approval of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization in November 2002, this minimally invasive method of hysteroscopic sterilization has increased in popularity at the DMC.

  1. A combination of subcuticular suture and sterile Micropore tape compared with conventional interrupted sutures for skin closure. A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, M.; Porter, R. J.; Lord, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    We have conducted a controlled trial to compare skin closure using conventional interrupted sutures with a combination of subcuticular suture and sterile Micropore tape in 169 patients undergoing appendicectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, or saphenofemoral ligation. We have found that the combination technique consistently gives a better cosmetic result and that the tape acts well as a dressing, is convenient, and is well tolerated by patients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6344732

  2. Radiosterilization and other sterilization methods of medical equipment on Kilmer's conference, Brussels, 12-16 June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Johnson and Johnson Co. organized the scientific conference devoted to different aspects and methods of sterilization of medical equipment and materials. A condensed review of the main problems discussed during the conference has been done. Attention has been paid especially on: actual problems with primary infections control, problems of sterilization in pharmacy, hazards problems, investigations and control methods and radiation sterilization. 2 figs

  3. Radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.; Hussain, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is the best method of sterilization, essentially for single use medical and surgical products. Pakistan has established a commercial gamma irradiation plant for this purpose. This article overviews the advantages and benefits of radiation sterilization to stimulate the interest of industrialists and the users in this technology. This technology can give a better medical care in the country and the growing demand can only be met by bulk sterilization. The radiation sterilized medical products can also compete well with the products sterilized by other methods in the international market, gamma sterilization is accepted internationally and if adopted it can boost our export of medical products. (author)

  4. Audits of radiation sterilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Prabhakar M.

    2001-01-01

    Johnson and Johnson is the world leader in sterilization science and technology. A special group of scientists and technologists are engaged in the development of new methods of sterilization, worldwide monitoring of sterilization processes, equipment and approvals for all types of sterilization processes. Kilmer Conference in the alternate year for the benefit of all those involved in improvement in sterilization science is held. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation for sterilization of medical products on commercial scale is used. This kind of mammoth task can only be achieved through systematic method of planning, auditing, expert review and approval of facilities

  5. Radiation Sterilization of Two Commonly Culture Media Used for Bacterial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hifnawi, H.N.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of culture media used for the cultivation of bacteria by Co-60 gamma ray was investigated. Nutrient agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) media widely used for the propagation of bacteria were sterilized with 15 kGy dose gamma radiation. Seven different bacterial species were grown as well on the radiation sterilized media as on media sterilized by autoclaving in a conventional way

  6. Effect of Gamma Radiation sterilization versus Disinfection on Removable Partial Dentures (Microbiological study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare between the effectiveness of disinfection, using commercially available Fittydent super cleansing tablets versus sterilization, using gamma radiation on candidal growth in maxillary removable partial dentures. Methods: Fourteen partially edentulous subjects were selected according to specific criteria and divided equally and randomly into two groups; Group I: disinfection group and Group II: sterilization group. Conventional maxillary removable partial dentures were constructed for all subjects. The swab technique was used to collect the samples one month after denture delivery, immediately after disinfection/sterilization, and then one week, two weeks, three weeks, four weeks, and five weeks after disinfection/sterilization respectively. Bacteriological candidal colony count was performed using a manual contact colony counter. Results: Both methods (disinfection and sterilization) led to a noticeable decrease in the candidal count. However this decrease was highly and markedly evident in Group II as compared to Group I. Infact, no candidal growth was recorded for group II immediately after strerilization and was maintained for two more weeks. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions: Both methods were effective in decreasing the number of Candida albicans adhering to the denture. However, sterilization using Gamma radiation had a more superior immediate, as well as, long term efficiency as compared to disinfection using Fittydent super cleansing tablets.

  7. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  8. The Effect of Two Different Sterilization Methods on The Surface Topography and Microbial Contamination of Different Types of Endodontic Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, H.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization is an integral part of the dental field. Sterilization should be used for instruments, surgical gloves and other items that come in direct contact with the blood stream or normally sterile tissues. Because sterilization is a process, not a single event, all components must be carried out correctly for sterilization to occur. To be effective, sterilization requires time, contact, temperature and with steam sterilization, high pressure. The effectiveness of any method of sterilization is also dependent upon four other factors: The type of microorganism present, the number of microorganisms present, the amount and type of organic material that protects the microorganisms and the number of cracks and crevices on an instrument that might harbor microorganisms. The most commonly used and standard methods of sterilization is the steam under pressure method using the autoclaves. However, it's not free from drawbacks; where it is not suitable for the heat sensitive equipment's such as the plastics, rubber. Also repeated autoclaving can cause pitting and dulling of cutting edges of instruments which might affect their clinical performance. Another alternative method of sterilization is by gamma rays which have been introduced for the sterilization of heat sensitive equipment's. Therefore conducting a study to investigate the effect of repeated sterilization cycles by either steam under pressure or gamma radiation on the surface topography of root canal enlarging instruments was thought to be valuable. The null hypothesis tested is that there is no difference in the effect of repeated sterilization by either steam under pressure or gamma radiation on the surface topography of root canal enlarging instruments

  9. Improved Sterilization of Sensitive Biomaterials with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide at Low Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bernhardt

    Full Text Available The development of bio-resorbable implant materials is rapidly going on. Sterilization of those materials is inevitable to assure the hygienic requirements for critical medical devices according to the medical device directive (MDD, 93/42/EG. Biopolymer-containing biomaterials are often highly sensitive towards classical sterilization procedures like steam, ethylene oxide treatment or gamma irradiation. Supercritical CO₂ (scCO₂ treatment is a promising strategy for the terminal sterilization of sensitive biomaterials at low temperature. In combination with low amounts of additives scCO₂ treatment effectively inactivates microorganisms including bacterial spores. We established a scCO₂ sterilization procedure under addition of 0.25% water, 0.15% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5% acetic anhydride. The procedure was successfully tested for the inactivation of a wide panel of microorganisms including endospores of different bacterial species, vegetative cells of gram positive and negative bacteria including mycobacteria, fungi including yeast, and bacteriophages. For robust testing of the sterilization effect with regard to later application of implant materials sterilization all microorganisms were embedded in alginate/agarose cylinders that were used as Process Challenge Devices (PCD. These PCD served as surrogate models for bioresorbable 3D scaffolds. Furthermore, the impact of scCO₂ sterilization on mechanical properties of polysaccharide-based hydrogels and collagen-based scaffolds was analyzed. The procedure was shown to be less compromising on mechanical and rheological properties compared to established low-temperature sterilization methods like gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide exposure as well as conventional steam sterilization. Cytocompatibility of alginate gels and scaffolds from mineralized collagen was compared after sterilization with ethylene oxide, gamma irradiation, steam sterilization and scCO₂ treatment. Human

  10. [Cost management: the implementation of the activity-based costing method in sterile processing department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Castilho, Valéria

    2010-09-01

    This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-based Costing (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-based costing of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes.

  11. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  12. Effect of repeated sterilization by different methods on strength of carbon fiber rods used in external fixator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Omer Kays; Poyanli, Oguz Sukru; Unal, Ulku Sur; Mutlu, Hasan Huseyin; Ozkut, Afsar Timucin; Esenkaya, Irfan

    2018-05-16

    We set out to reveal the effects of repeated sterilization, using different methods, on the carbon fiber rods of external fixator systems. We used a randomized set of forty-four unused, unsterilized, and identical carbon fiber rods (11 × 200 mm), randomly assigned to two groups: unsterilized (US) (4 rods) and sterilized (40 rods). The sterilized rods were divided into two groups, those sterilized in an autoclave (AC) and by hydrogen peroxide (HP). These were further divided into five subgroups based on the number of sterilization repetition to which the fibers were subjected (25-50-75-100-200). A bending test was conducted to measure the maximum bending force (MBF), maximum deflection (MD), flexural strength (FS), maximum bending moment (MBM) and bending rigidity (BR). We also measured the surface roughness of the rods. An increase in the number of sterilization repetition led to a decrease in MBF, MBM, FS, BR, but increased MD and surface roughness (p < 0.01). The effect of the number of sterilization repetition was more prominent in the HP group. This study revealed that the sterilization method and number of sterilization repetition influence the strength of the carbon fiber rods. Increasing the number of sterilization repetition degrades the strength and roughness of the rods.

  13. Radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.; Stuglik, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Overview of sterilization methods of medical devices has been given, with the special stress put on radiation sterilization. A typical validation program for radiation sterilization has been shown and also a comparison of European and ISO standards concerning radiation sterilization has been discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Substantiation of 25 kGy (by use of VDmax25 method) as the sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The International standards for radiation sterilization require evidence of the effectiveness of a minimum sterilization dose of 25 kGy but do not provide detailed guidance on how this evidence can be generated. Although many of the procedural elements in method VD m ax are similar to those of Method 1 of ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137-2, there are differences that require elaboration. In this project, test procedure of VD m ax 2 5 method was established and then validated in Radiation Microbiology Laboratory (RML) test conditions. Beside, this method has been applied successfully for two years in order to reply the demand of the manufacturer firms as routine test service. In the near future, RML will be the only accredited laboratory in Turkey on 'validation of radiation sterilization' standard (ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137-2: 2006) that consists of VD m ax 2 5 method

  15. Genetic methods for area-wide management of Lepidopterous pests with emphasis on F1 sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Enormous losses in the production and marketing of food and fiber are caused by larvae of Lepidoptera. Currently, large quantities of insecticides are used to combat these pests. Insecticide resistance, increasing concern over pesticide pollution, and the desire to effectively manage lepidopteran pests on an area-wide basis have motivated scientists to identify and develop new pest management tactics that are compatible with current IPM. Genetic methods have emerged as a promising control strategy for lepidopteran pests. Genetic control as a practical means of pest management was first successfully implemented by Knipling and colleagues in the USA during the 1960's with the sterile insect technique (SIT) program for the screwworm fly. SIT is not a readily adapted for use against Lepidoptera as against Diptera. Radiation-induced inherited sterility (or F 1 sterility) is generally considered the most promising genetic methods for large-scale suppression of lepidopteran populations. This papers discusses four genetic control methods that have been developed and the progress that has been made in integrating sterility with other IPM tactics. (author)

  16. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  17. Radiosterilization or sterilization by steam. Procedures for sterilization of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmbold, J.

    1994-01-01

    The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries

  18. The Plasma Discharge System For Effective Sterilization Of Water And Solid Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senturk, K.

    2010-01-01

    The different areas such as medicine, surgery, food production need efficient sterilization system since they are directly related to human health. In this work a new plasma system is described in order to present its effectiveness in sterilization. This is a different method from conventional methods such as: chemicals and heat addition, UV irradiation etc. The developed plasma system produces cold plasma working under atmospheric pressure. To generate the plasma both AC and DC high voltage power supplies were used. The developed system is cheap and very effective for sterilization. The light emission for both AC and DC coronas for the plasmas were investigated to understand the nature of generated plasma ionization. Different parameters like temperature, voltage, application time were changed during the plasma application and the optimization for killing the micro-organisms were investigated. To understand the biological effect of plasma on the organisms comparisons were done by using the scanning electron microscope and absorption spectrometer. The plasma was applied on the bacteria like Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans , the yeasts such as Candida albicans, and green algae. The efficiency, the non toxic nature, the affordable price make this plasma discharge method a very efficient one for sterilization.

  19. Factors affecting the efficiency of the sterile insect release method for tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the levels of sterility, survival and competitiveness of Glossina males after irradiation with various gamma-ray doses delivered in air or nitrogen. A simple population model helps in the choice of the optimum dose. Field studies of mating competitiveness require a measure of the ratio of sterile to fertile males and of sterile to fertile matings, and both ratio estimates will be subject to sampling error. Data on multiple mating of female Glossina are reviewed. There is some degree of precedence for sperm from the first mating but sterile sperm are fully competitive for fertilization and, following the early death of an embryo, the timing of the next ovulation is only advanced to a slight extent. Thus in an isolated population the occurrence or non-occurrence of female polygamy would be of almost no consequence. Where mated females were immigrating into the release area female polygamy would be advantageous. The low recovery potential of tsetse populations is the main reason for thinking them suitable for control by the introduction of sterility. In trying to measure this recovery potential it is important to distinguish it from natural seasonal increase. If natural population fluctuations are studied to detect density dependent effects it is important not to confuse cause with effect. Non-isolation of the 'target' population is almost certainly the most serious obstacle to practical application of the sterile insect release method, and a steady 'rolling forward' of the release area may be a possible solution. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Penicillium digitatum sterilization using non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Takehiro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Takeda, Keigo; Ohta, Takayuki; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kawase, Kodo; Ito, Masafumi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    Recently, the plasma sterilization has attracted much attention as a new sterilization technique that takes the place of spraying agricultural chemicals. The conventional methods for sterilization evaluation, was demanded to culture the samples for several days after plasma treatment. Then, we focused on Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). At the THz region, vibrational modes of biological molecules and fingerprint spectra of biologically-relevant molecules were also observed. In this study, our purpose was measurement of the fingerprint spectrum of the Penicillium digitatum (PD) spore and establishment of sterilization method by THz-TDS. The sample was 40mg/ml PD spore suspensions which dropped on cover glass. The atmospheric pressure plasma generated under the conditions which Ar gas flow was 3slm, and alternating voltage of 6kV was applied. The samples were exposed the plasma from 10mm distance for 10 minutes. We could obtain the fingerprint spectrum of the PD spore from 0.5 to 0.9THz. This result indicated the possibility of in-situ evaluation for PD sterilization using THz-TDS.

  1. Comparison of different decontaminant delivery methods for sterilizing unoccupied commercial airliner cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Qingyan [National Air Transport Center of Excellence for Research in the Intermodal Transport Environment (RITE), School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Effective decontamination is crucial if an airliner cabin is contaminated by biological contaminants, such as infectious disease viruses or intentionally released biological agents. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method as a tool and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an exemplary decontaminant and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores as a simulant contaminant to investigate three VHP delivery methods for sterilizing two different airliner cabins. The CFD first determined the airflow and the transient distributions of the contaminant and decontaminant in cabins. Auxiliary equations were implemented into the CFD model for evaluating efficacy of the sterilization process. The improved CFD model was validated by the measured airflow and simulated contaminant distributions obtained from a cabin mockup and the measured efficacy data from the literature. The three decontaminant delivery methods were (1) to supply the mixed VHP and air through the environmental control system of a cabin, (2) to send mixed VHP and air through a front door and to extract them from a back door of a cabin, and (3) to send directly VHP to a cabin and enhance the mixing with air in the cabin by fans. The two air cabins studied were a single-aisle and a twin-aisle airliner one. The results show that the second decontaminant delivery method (displacement method) was the best because the VHP distributions in the cabins were most uniform, the sterilization time was moderate, and the corrosion risk was low. The method displaced the existing air by the air/disinfectant solution, rather than dispersive mixing as the other two methods. (author)

  2. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  3. Prospects of radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    Since radiation sterilization was first introduced in the United States in 1956 in the field of disposable medical devices, it has become an indispensable technique for sterilization because of the following reasons: (1) introduction into dialyzers, (2) introduction in medical device makers, (3) development of disposable medical devices associated with developing both high molecular chemistry and cool sterilization, (4) rationality of sterilization process, and (5) problems of sterilization with ethylene oxide gas. To promote the further development of radiation sterilization, the following items are considered necessary: (1) an increase in the number of facilities for radiation sterilization, (2) recommendation of the international standardization of sterilization method, (3) decrease in radiation doses associated with sterilization, (4) development of electron accelerators and bremsstrahlung equipments for radiation sources, and (5) simplification of sterilization process management. Factors precluding the development of radiation sterilization are: (1) development of other methods than radiation sterilization, (2) development of technique for sterile products, (3) high facility cost, (4) high irradiation cost, (5) benefits and limits of sterilization markets, and (6) influences of materials. (N.K.)

  4. Peracetic Acid: A Practical Agent for Sterilizing Heat-Labile Polymeric Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Trahan, William R.; Best, Al M.; Bowlin, Gary L.; Kitten, Todd O.; Moon, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim at fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at the cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed before clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam, and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone, a low melting polymer, and employing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus as biological indicators, we compared ethylene oxide, autoclaving and 80% ethanol to a known chemical sterilant, peracetic acid (PAA), for their ability to sterilize as well as their effects on scaffold properties. PAA diluted in 20% ethanol to 1000 ppm or above sterilized electrospun scaffolds in 15 min at room temperature while maintaining nano-architecture and mechanical properties. Scaffolds treated with PAA at 5000 ppm were rendered hydrophilic, with contact angles reduced to 0°. Therefore, PAA can provide economical, rapid, and effective sterilization of heat-sensitive polymeric electrospun scaffolds that are used in tissue engineering. PMID:24341350

  5. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE.

  6. Currently available devices for female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

    2005-09-01

    Sterilization is now the method of family planning most commonly used in the world. Over the last 150 years, research has evolved in the search for the ideal method of female sterilization. The procedure should ideally have high efficacy, be readily accessible and be personally and culturally acceptable. The method should be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. The most common and effective method for sterilization has, thus far, been via the laparoscopic route. Hysteroscopic sterilization, however, potentially fulfills many of these ideal criteria, but until recently has remained more of a concept than a reality.

  7. Limulus test for pyrogens and radiometric sterility tests on radiopharmaceuticals. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.

    1976-10-01

    Sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals prepared at BARC were carried out using the radiometric technique (Radiometric detection of the metabolic product 14 Co 2 ). Batches of different radiopharmaceuticals were tested for pyrogen using the limulus lysate method and the results were compared with the rabbit method. The results of sterility test on 202 batches of 19 different radiopharmaceuticals show that the radiometric method can be used for sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 35 S, 51 Cr, 57 Co, 59 Fe, 82 Br, 86 Rb, sup(99m)Tc, sup(113m)In, 125 I and 169 Yb. The radiometric test proves to be more rapid than the conventional one for the sterility testing of such radiopharmaceuticals. Detection time is between 6-21 hours. In the case of 131 I-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and in the case of chlormerodrin-Hg-203, it was found an interference due to volatile species (sup(131m)Xe in the case of 131 I and some volatile mercury form in the case of chlormerodrin). In these cases it would be possible to carry out the radiometric sterility test after separation of the microorganisms from the radioactive material (by filtration). The limulus lysate method can be employed for control of various pyrogen-prone raw materials and radiopharmaceuticals. Such method is the only method at present available for detecting the low level pyrogen contamination in intrathecal injections. The limulus test is more rapid than the rabbit test

  8. [Essure--a novel method of sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Ariel; Nadjary, Michel; Shushan, Asher

    2008-02-01

    Essure hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive, outpatient approach to female sterilization, which avoids the possible complications of laparoscopic sterilization. This procedure has been available since 2003 in both Europe and North America. We present our experience of the first 12 cases of the procedure performed in Israel. Women who have completed their family planning were offered to consider Essure as their permanent contraception. The procedure was performed without anesthesia by the vaginoscopic technique at the hospital's outpatient clinic. Patients completed a questionnaire and were discharged immediately following the procedure. A follow-up checkup was completed after three months including three dimensional sonography, abdominal X-ray and occasional hysterosalpingogram. Twelve patients participated in the pilot group at Hadassah. The average age was 40 years (34-45) and the average number of children was 5 (4-8). The average time for the procedure was under 8 minutes. Periostial adhesions required adhesiolysis prior to insertion of the device in one patient. All patients resumed their normal activity on the same day. Our patient satisfaction survey revealed that the procedure was associated with high satisfaction levels. Sonographic and radiographic studies confirmed the good placement of the device. The Essure procedure was well tolerated by patients. The limitation is probably going to be the price of Essure, as this procedure is not covered by the 'health basket' in Israel.

  9. Radiosterilization and gas sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, H.A.; Gruenewald, T.

    1987-01-01

    The book presents a survey of the principles of cold sterilization by radiation or gas, and also of the problems involved. The reader who has to do with sterilization of some kind or other, as e.g. sterilization of medicaments, medical supplies, medical device, drugs, grafts, or food, will find comprehensive information on the various available methods and their effects, as well as on monitoring procedures and techniques, together with proposals for efficient documentation and validation of partial sterilization processes. The introduction summarizes the potentials of sterilization by radiation, and the subsequent by radiation, and the subsequent chapters explain the specific applicabilities of radiosterilization along with the most important criteria for evaluating the sterilizing efficiency. The information on the legal situation and requirements takes into account the second amendment of the Medical Preparations Act. With 38 figs., 14 tabs [de

  10. Packaging materials for plasma sterilization with the flowing afterglow of an N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} discharge: damage assessment and inactivation efficiency of enclosed bacterial spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levif, P; Moisan, M; Soum-Glaude, A [Groupe de Physique des Plasmas, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal H3C 3J7, Quebec (Canada); Seguin, J; Barbeau, J, E-mail: michel.moisan@umontreal.ca [Faculte de Medecine Dentaire, Laboratoire de Controle des Infections, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Montreal H3C 3J7, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-10-12

    In conventional sterilization methods (steam, ozone, gaseous chemicals), after their proper cleaning, medical devices are wrapped/enclosed in adequate packaging materials, then closed/sealed before initiating the sterilization process: these packaging materials thus need to be porous. Gaseous plasma sterilization being still under development, evaluation and comparison of packaging materials have not yet been reported in the literature. To this end, we have subjected various porous packagings used with conventional sterilization systems to the N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} flowing afterglow and also a non-porous one to evaluate and compare their characteristics towards the inactivation of B. atrophaeus endospores deposited on a Petri dish and enclosed in such packagings. Because the sterilization process with the N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} discharge afterglow is conducted under reduced-pressure conditions, non-porous pouches can be sealed only after returning to atmospheric pressure. All the tests were therefore conducted with one end of the packaging freely opened, post-sealing being required. The features of these packaging materials, namely mass loss, resistance, toxicity to human cells as well as some characteristics specific to the plasma method used such as ultraviolet transparency, were examined before and after exposure to the flowing afterglow. All of our results show that the non-porous packaging considered is much more suitable than the conventionally used porous ones as far as ensuring an efficient and low-damage sterilization process with an N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma-afterglow is concerned.

  11. Steam sterilization does not require saturated steam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doornmalen Gomez Hoyos, J. P.C.M.; Paunovic, A.; Kopinga, K.

    2017-01-01

    The most commonly applied method to sterilize re-usable medical devices in hospitals is steam sterilization. The essential conditions for steam sterilization are derived from sterilization in water. Microbiological experiments in aqueous solutions have been used to calculate various time–temperature

  12. Acoustic Method for Testing the Quality of Sterilized Male Tsetse Flies Glossina Pallidipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, H [Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Halsriegelstr. 34, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); Noll, A [Institut fuer Schallforschung, Oe Ak d Wiss, Wohllebengasse 12-14, Vienna A-1040 (Austria); Bolldorf, J [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); Parker, A G [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)

    2012-07-15

    Tsetse flies are able to emit different acoustic signals. An acoustic method to test the quality of sterilized male tsetse flies was developed. Differences in the sound characteristics between males and females, between sterilized and unsterilized males, and between males sterilized in air and nitrogen, were determined. Also, the acoustic parameters (frequency, time, sound pressure level) of the sounds that are useful as criteria for quality control were determined. It was demonstrated that only the so-called 'feeding sounds' can be used as a quality criterion. Both sexes emitted feeding sounds while feeding on a host. These sounds were also used to find sexual partners, and had an effect on male copulation success. An acoustic sound analysis programme was developed; it automatically measured sound activity (only feeding sounds) under standard conditions (random sample, relative humidity, temperature, light intensity). (author)

  13. Why are rates of sterilization in decline? A pilot study designed to explore reasons for declining female sterilization in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong E; Glasier, Anna; Warner, Pamela

    2008-10-01

    In the last decade, female sterilization had been in decline throughout the UK. It is not clear whether fewer women are requesting sterilization or whether the universal enthusiasm for long-acting reversible methods is leading health professionals to discourage women from being sterilized. Since correct and consistent use of alternative, reversible contraceptive methods depends somewhat on their acceptability, it is important to determine whether women are being refused sterilization or whether they are freely choosing other methods. This study aims to explore whether female sterilization is being widely considered as a contraceptive method, the reasons for choosing or rejecting it, and whether women are being discouraged by health professionals from being sterilized. A self-completed questionnaire survey among 205 women aged 30 to 50 years who felt that their family was complete attending a family planning clinic in Scotland. Of the 203 women included in the study, 151 (74.4%) had heard of female sterilization, 90 had discussed it with someone (60%) and 87 (58%) had considered it as a contraceptive option. Of the 56 women who consulted their family doctor about sterilization, almost half (27; 48%) were not referred to a hospital and fewer than one (17, 30.4%) in three of them was eventually sterilized or had arrangements in place to get it done. Free-text comments from the women revealed a variety of reasons for not choosing female sterilization and suggested that some women are being deterred from sterilization. The study suggests that some women are being actively encouraged by health professionals to use long-acting reversible contraceptive methods and discouraged from choosing sterilization. However, other women recognize for themselves the wisdom of keeping their fertility options open.

  14. [Preliminary Study of Lonicera hypoglauca on Germination Conditions of Sand Culture Seeds and Sterilization Method of Sand Culture Seedling Sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mu-xiu; Zeng, Wen-wen; Wei, Peng-xiao; Mo, Qiao-cheng; Pu, Zu-ning; Cen, Xiu-fen; Shi, Feng-hua

    2015-05-01

    To explore the germination conditions of Lonicera hypoglauca sand culture seeds and the effects of sand culture seedlings sterilization. 0.1% HgCl2 with different sterilization time, different illumination time and temperature culture condition were adopted to study the germination conditions of sand culture seeds. Different sterilization treatments and different hardening-seedling days were used to test the sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings. The sterilization effect of the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min on Lonicera hypoglauca seeds was the optimum,with the average pollution rate of 15.56%, and the average germination rate reached 51.11%. The combination of varied temperature-room temperature under light for 12 h/d was the best, with the average germination rate peaked at 75.49%, and the average germination potential reached 68.36%. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash on the part above the hypocotyl, which was sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, showed the best sterilization effect, with the average pollution rate was zero, and the average survival rate peaked at 100.00%. The sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings, which was disinfected after cleaning by detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash after hardening-seeding for 30 days, was the best, with the average pollution rate of 50.00%, and the average survival rate of 100.00%. The best sterilization effect is the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min; Lighting for 12 h/d of varied temperature-room temperature is regarded as the optimum culture condition. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash treatment on the part above the hypocotyl,which is sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, shows the best sterilization effect. For the sand culture seedlings, before inoculated in subculture medium, should be hardening-seedling for some days and sterilized after detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash.

  15. Study of the effects of different sterilization methods on the properties of dense and porous silk fibroin membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weska, Raquel F.; Moraes, Mariana A. de; Beppu, Marisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Silk fibroin has been widely explored for many biomedical applications, due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Sterilization is a fundamental step in biomaterials processing, and it must not alter in a negative way the functionality of medical devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of different sterilization methods in the physical and chemical characteristics of dense silk fibroin membranes. Dense fibroin membranes were sterilized by ultraviolet radiation, 70% ethanol, autoclave, ethylene oxide and gamma radiation, and were analyzed by SEM, FTIR-ATR and XRD. The results for sterilization indicated that the methods didn't cause degradation of the membranes, but the methods that used organic solvent, or increase of humidity and/or temperature (70% ethanol, autoclave and ethylene oxide) altered the molecular conformation of fibroin, increasing the proportion of β-sheet structure, what indicates an increase of crystallinity. This effect may be positive when a slower degradation of the membranes is desired, depending on the application as a bio material. (author)

  16. Male and female sterility in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Pantazis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population measures of sterility are traditionally constructed for women, despite fertility and sterility being conditions of the couple. Estimates of male sterility provide insight into population-level sterility, and complement estimates based solely on women. Objective: This study seeks to estimate male sterility for the Gwembe Tonga of Zambia using male birth histories collected by the Gwembe Tonga Research Project from 1957 to 1995, while providing context by estimating female sterility for the Gwembe Tonga, as well as female sterility in all of Zambia, from Zambian DHS data (1992, 1997, 2001-02, and 2007. Methods: Sterility is measured using the Larson-Menken subsequently infertile indicator. Estimates are produced using discrete time event history analysis. Results: The odds of sterility were higher for women than men, though women's odds of sterility were only 1.5 times that of men's in the middle reproductive years. The odds of sterility increased steadily with age for both men and women, and across all datasets. However, women's sterility increased much more sharply with age than men's did, and women's odds of sterility were higher than men's at all reproductive ages.

  17. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Mizutani, A.; Kato, K.; Nishikimi, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  18. Birth planning and sterilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, S E; Linmao, M; Wentao, Y

    2000-11-01

    Sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception in China. Approximately half of all women of reproductive age report that they or their husbands are sterilized. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey we describe patterns of sterilization in eight Chinese provinces. With a discrete-time event history model we investigate the link between characteristics of local birth planning policy and the risk of sterilization. After controlling for parity, the risk of sterilization is highest in communities where birth planning policy is least strong as measured by exceptions to the one-child policy. These results suggest that couples with more flexibility in family building may have less control over contraceptive method use. Other factors affecting the risk of sterilization are a woman's age, parity, and whether or not she has a son. Our results emphasize the importance of taking into account multiple dimensions of reproductive behaviour when assessing one-child policy changes.

  19. Sterilization of instruments in solar ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjendbo Joergensen, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Noehr, K. [Odense Technical College, Dept. of Metal, Odense (Denmark); Boisen, F. [The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration Funen, Dept. of Microbiology, Odense (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The sterilization of instruments in rural health clinics in less developed countries is an increasing problem because chemical methods can no longer be recommended and wood fuel is becoming more and more scarce. Thus, it seemed obvious to try to utilize solar energy for sterilization purposes. A solar oven was designed and manufactured using local materials and simple tools. The solar oven was tested by physical, chemical, and microbiological methods. A mathematical model for the sterilization effect was developed and programmed into a microprocessor that was connected to a thermocouple. The microprocessor switches on a green light when the sterilization is completed. After successful testing, the oven was built into the west-facing wall of a rural health clinic and used daily for sterilization. The oven was able to generate temperatures above 180 deg. C. On all days with direct sunlight the oven fulfilled the international recommendations for hot air sterilization because no growth could be detected from any of the test bacteria spores. The chemical indicators Brownes tubes types 3 and 5 also changed colours. The solar oven was easy to use for the clinic staff, but during the seasons with low sun position (in Tanzania, December and June) it was difficult to achieve a high enough temperature for sterilization. Therefore, if the method is to be used throughout the year the oven must be moved to collect the sun's rays from several directions, or the clinic must have more than one solar oven facing in different directions. We conclude that the solar oven is a realistic method for sterilization of instruments. (au)

  20. Postpartum Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ052 CONTRACEPTION Postpartum Sterilization • What is sterilization? • What is postpartum sterilization? • How is postpartum sterilization performed? • What kind of anesthesia is used for postpartum sterilization? • How ...

  1. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 1. Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-03-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling

  2. Gamma sterilization of disposable medical products (DMP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinston, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Ten million cubic meters (361 million cubic feet) of disposable medical products (DMP) and related health care items are estimated to be sterilized in the world. In this paper, current conditions and perspectives of gamma sterilization is discussed in comparison with ethylene oxide gas and electron beams. Of the total sterilization estimates for DMP, 2.8 million cubic meters (99 million cubic feet) are sterilized with gamma radiation, with a market share of 27%. Gamma radiation is becoming increased from both general market growth and the introduction of new products, as well as the conversion of product from ethylene oxide gas to cobalt-60. Regulatory pressures, legal considerations, and increasing publicity surrounding ethylene oxide usage are encouraging manufactures to switch to gamma radiation. Gamma's performance features include: no temperature change during the sterilization, high penetration, even through hermetically sealed packages, no residues, and no post-sterilization treatment or quarantine period. Gamma sterilization is economically beneficial in large volumes of product. Cost saving to the end user of gamma sterilization has meant lower minimum dose levels than 25 KGy. Despite of an increasingly accepted gamma radiation, there are still four factors to be considered, including cobalt-60 availability, price, transportation, and disposal. The price of cobalt-60 is based on neutron cost. In the future, cobalt-60 price is expected to be flat and enables gamma processing to become even more competitive with other sterilization methods. Gamma radiation using cobalt-60 has been proven as a safe, effective, and cost-competitive sterilization method for treating DMP and related health care items. It's wide use and many processing advantages will continue to make it a preferred sterilization method. (N.K.)

  3. Using gamma irradiation to improve sterile turf and forage bermudagrasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Georgia Univ., Tifton

    1976-01-01

    The widely-used Tif-series of turf bermudagrasses - Tifgreen, Tifway, and Tifdwarf - are vegetatively propagated sterile triploids that cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Dormant stolons, washed free of soil and cut into one-or two-node sections were treated with varying dosages of EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate) and gamma irradiation ranging from 7 to 12 kR. EMS failed to produce noticeable variants but gamma irradiation from a Cobalt 60 source created 158 mutants. These mutants differed in many characters such as leaf size, hairiness, stem diameter, internode length, basic plant color, herbicide tolerance, spreading rate, and nematode resistance. Attempts to improve the winterhardiness of tetraploid sterile Coastcross-1 forage bermudagrass by exposing over 1,400,000 sprigs (vegetative stems) to 7 kR of gamma rays gave chlorophyll deficient mutants but progress in increasing winterhardiness has not been established. (author)

  4. Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sterilization? Sterilization is a permanent form of birth control. What is tubal sterilization? Sterilization procedures for women are ... is quicker than from other types of sterilization. What are the risks of ... on for birth control. • There is a risk of injury to the ...

  5. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  6. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.; Mehta, K.

    2007-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [es

  7. Pre-sterilization contamination of disposable medical products and the choice of minimum sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, V.; Buriankova, E.

    1975-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was assessed on randomly taken samples of blood-transfusion devices, donor sets, intra-uterine contraceptive devices and inserters, surgical gloves and dressing material prior to sterilization. The quantitative and qualitative efficiency of six nutrient media was compared. The best results were obtained with the enriched ''Universal'' medium. It was confirmed that the contamination of plastic products was low compared with dressing material. Most frequently, Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming rods and Gram-positive cocci were found on non-sterile medical disposable products. A method was tested to obtain a general informative picture of the resistance of bacteria on products. The methods used for choosing the dose for radiation sterilization of medical products are discussed. (author)

  8. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  9. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    and paramedical health services personnel played a significant role in patients' decision to request sterilization. Few women cited mass media as playing a part. Pomeroy and laparoscopic methods were the most popular methods used in Valdivia, 53.8% of the Santiago women were sterilized by the Pomeroy method and the others by Madlener or other methods. Postoperative results of sterilization are divided into clinical problems, postoperative attitude of spouse, and sexual relations. Results indicate that there are no substantial differences between the contraceptive behavior of Catholics and non-Catholics. There is an apparent need for more family planning education in Chile as is evidenced by complications of contraceptive method use. The postoperative consequences of sterilization suggest the need for research and analysis.

  10. Compodock, a new device for sterile docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P. F.; Biekart, F. T.; Pietersz, R. N.; Rebers, S. P.; Reesink, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new device for sterile docking, the Compodock (Fresenius NPBI Transfusion Technology), was developed for connecting PVC tubing for medical use while maintaining sterility. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sterility of the connections was assessed by welding tubing with a heavy exterior

  11. Radiation sterilization of plastic packing materials and aseptic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Keiko

    1986-01-01

    In the present day of 'satiation', quality, not quantity, is emphasized for foods, the consumers being oriented toward raw and healthy foodstuff. Aseptic Packaging is excellent means of conservation. While conventionally chemicals have been used for sterilization of packing materials for aseptic packaging, the sterilization by radiation is used in part recently. The following are described : history of aseptic packaging and its features, sterilization by radiation, γ-ray sterilization of large-sized containers, the development of an aseptic packaging system using electron rays, the occurrence of offensive odors from packing materials (comparison of odors from various materials, volatile substances occurring in irradiated polyethylene, influence of film grade upon the formation of carboxylic acid, influence of the irradiation conditions upon the occurrences of volatile substances, volatile substances occurring in the irradiation of bag-in-box packing materials), changes in properties of the packing materials. (Mori, K.)

  12. Effects of sterilization treatments on bulk and surface properties of nanocomposite biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Punshon, Geoffrey; Darbyshire, Arnold; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-10-01

    With the continuous and expanding use of implantable biomaterials in a clinical setting, this study aims to elucidate the influence of sterilization techniques on the material surface and bulk properties of two polyurethane nanocomposite biomaterials. Both solid samples and porous membranes of nondegradable polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) and a biodegradable poly(caprolactone-urea) urethane (POSS-PCL) were examined. Sterilization techniques included conventional steam sterilization (autoclaving), gamma irradiation, and disinfection via incubating with ethanol (EtOH) for 10 min or 24 h. After treatment, the samples were examined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensiometry. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through the culture of endothelial progenitor cells and the efficacy of sterilization method was determined by incubating each sample in tryptone soya broth and fluid thioglycollate medium for cultivation of microorganisms. Although EtOH did not affect the material properties in any form, the samples were found to be nonsterile with microbial growth detected on each of the samples. Gamma irradiation was not only effective in sterilizing both POSS-PCU and POSS-PCL but also led to minor material degradation and displayed a cytotoxic effect on the cultured cells. Autoclaving was found to be the optimal sterilization technique for both solid and porous membranes of the nondegradable POSS-PCU samples as it was successful in sterilizing the samples, displayed no cytotoxic side effects and did not degrade the material. However, the biodegradable POSS-PCL was not able to withstand the harsh environment during autoclaving, resulting in it losing all structural integrity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  13. Influence of sterilization methods on cell behavior and functionality of osteoblasts cultured on TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seunghan; Brammer, Karla S.; Moon, Kyung-Suk; Bae, Ji-Myung; Jin, Sungho

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic functionality of osteoblasts cultured on titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes in response to different sterilization methods (dry autoclaving vs. wet autoclaving). We prepared various sizes (30-100 nm diameter) of TiO 2 nanotubes on titanium substrates by anodization, sterilized nanotubes by different conditions, and seeded osteoblast cells onto the nanotube surfaces with two different cell seeding densities (10,000 vs. 50,000 cells/well in 12-culture well). The result of this study indicates that the adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts cultured on only the larger 70 and 100 nm TiO 2 nanotube arrays were dramatically changed by the different sterilization conditions at a low cell seeding density. However, with a higher cell seeding density (50,000 cells/well in 12-cell culture well), the results revealed no significant difference among altered nanotube geometry, 30-100 nm diameters, nor sterilization methods. Next, it was revealed that the nanofeatures of proteins adhered on nanotubular TiO 2 morphology are altered by the sterilization method. It was determined that this protein adhesion effect, in combination with the cell density of osteoblasts seeded onto such TiO 2 nanotube surfaces, has profound effects on cell behavior. This study clearly shows that these are some of the important in vitro culture factors that need to be taken into consideration, as well as TiO 2 nanotube diameters which play an important role in the improvement of cell behavior and functionality.

  14. Radiation sterilization of some pharmaceutical preparations and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Makhkamov, Sh.M.; Urinov, Sh.S.; Turaev, A.S.; Sultanov, M.S.; Inagomov, Kh.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In connection with intensive development of pharmacology and medical techniques, use of the products contacting to blood, with the internal environment of an organism, with wound surface, with mucous membranes and skin there were high requirements to sterility of pharmaceutical preparations and medical products. Traditional methods of sterilization (heat treatment, gas processing and processing the ferry) have some restrictions in application, and not insufficient degree of sterilization required for pharmaceutical preparations and medical products. Thermal processing can lead to degradation of structure (medicine), mechanical changes and loss of medical properties. Besides, it is impossible to carry out sterilization of many pharmaceutical preparations by a method of heat treatment. Sterilization of products in packing is very complicated, because sterilization temperature of packing and a product is different. Gas processing is basically applied to sterilization of medical products (syringes, bandage, cotton wools, etc.). However, the degree of sterility is low, because of rather low ability and heterogeneity of sterilizing substance. Sterilization in packing represents special difficulty and demands additional charges related with delivery of the purified gas from abroad. Last years alongside with known technological methods of sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations radiating methods of processing have found wide application. Use of electronic bunches with the moderate energy and various isotopes became a basis for formation and development of a new direction in the medicine, called by 'radiation sterilization'. The radiation technology is highly harmless and economic, not polluting substance and surrounding space. Unlike the specified traditional methods, radiating processing of products by the isotope 60 Co, radiating the gamma quantum, has unique opportunities - high penetrability in substance, providing uniformity of

  15. [Legal statutes on sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, K

    1980-01-01

    Sterilization in Yugoslavia is no population policy measure. Decision about the birth of children is free, a private problem of any individual, a basic right guaranteed by the Constitution. However, according to certain laws in Slovenia and Croatia, sterilization is allowed as a family planning method in persons over 35 year old. Only exceptionally can sterilization be applied in persons younger than 35 years: according to the Slovenian law, in cases when a person lacks the capacity of reasoning and also when there are medical indications, and according to the Croatian law, when there are medical and eugenic reasons (if the child is supposed to be born with negative congenital properties).

  16. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J.

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV

  17. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV.

  18. Sterilization of the artificial blood circulation apparatus with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarevskii, A A; Korukhov, N I.U.; Brazhnikov, E M; Konstantinova, M L; Razumovskii, S D

    1982-01-01

    Presented in this paper is the sterilization method of the assisted circulation unit. The method has been approved by stand testing and then applied for sterilizing the unit Ae, yeK-5 m when experimental implanting artificial heart. According to the method, ozone in concentration of 5 x 10(-3) moles/1 and with flow rate of 0,5 1/min is passed through an internal circuit of the unit during I h and 15 min. Control wash-out samples from lines have demonstrated complete sterility of the internal circuit. The method makes the sterilization process of such units much easier and may be recommended for clinical application.

  19. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiles Herrero, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  20. Cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surface prion contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, G; Dehen, C; Perrin, A; Thomas, V; Igel-Egalon, A; Burke, P A; Deslys, J P; Comoy, E

    2013-12-01

    Prion contamination is a risk during device reprocessing, being difficult to remove and inactivate. Little is known of the combined effects of cleaning, disinfection and sterilization during a typical reprocessing cycle in clinical practice. To investigate the combination of cleaning, disinfection and/or sterilization on reducing the risk of surface prion contamination. In vivo test methods were used to study the impact of cleaning alone and cleaning combined with thermal disinfection and high- or low-temperature sterilization processes. A standardized test method, based on contamination of stainless steel wires with high titres of scrapie-infected brain homogenates, was used to determine infectivity reduction. Traditional chemical methods of surface decontamination against prions were confirmed to be effective, but extended steam sterilization was more variable. Steam sterilization alone reduced the risk of prion contamination under normal or extended exposure conditions, but did show significant variation. Thermal disinfection had no impact in these studies. Cleaning with certain defined formulations in combination with steam sterilization can be an effective prion decontamination process, in particular with alkaline formulations. Low-temperature, gaseous hydrogen peroxide sterilization was also confirmed to reduce infectivity in the presence and absence of cleaning. Prion decontamination is affected by the full reprocessing cycle used on contaminated surfaces. The correct use of defined cleaning, disinfection and sterilization methods as tested in this report in the scrapie infectivity assay can provide a standard precaution against prion contamination. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  2. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  3. Different sterilization methods for overcoming internal bacterial infection in sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taški-Ajduković Ksenija J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During culture of protoplasts in agarose droplets, permanent problem was bacterial infection. It was assumed that the seeds are the origin of infection, so different sterilization methods were tested in order to overcome this problem. Germination, infection of seeds and hypocotyls and their growth were examined. Based on these parameters, the best result was obtained with the combined use of 5% commercial bleach and dry heating at 45°C.

  4. Cryoradiation sterilization - contemporary state and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talrose, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    The new approach of radiation sterilization -cryoradiosterilization with programmed freezing - was developed for pharmaceutical solutions. Both scientific and technical problems are solved, the results are discussed. Programmed freezing of vials with the drug's solutions provides the high stability of soluted components with biological activity at sterilizing irradiation without significant change of sterilization doses. Physical, chemical, biological and pharmacological properties of a lot of drug solutions for injection satisfy official requirements after cryoradiation sterilization treatment. This method seems to be especially important for the protein systems which could be infected by dangerous viruses (VIH, hepatitis B): blood plasma, diagnostic sera, protein preparations manufactured from donor's blood, etc. (Author)

  5. Sterilization processes. Meeting the demands of today's health care technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S

    1993-09-01

    Universal Precautions dictate sterilization for all invasive equipment that break the blood barrier; however, current methods of sterilization, such as steam and ethylene oxide gas (ETO), are not compatible with many of the delicate, heat-sensitive surgical instruments used in modern health care. In addition, traditional sterilization methods are often too time consuming for practical use in the operating room. Clearly, new sterilization processes need to be developed. In this article, the criteria modern sterilization processes must meet and how some manufacturers plan to meet this challenge are discussed. In addition, the pros and cons of using peracetic acid (the newest sterilization process currently available) are examined.

  6. Women plan condom use after sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Sexual sterilization is highly effective in preventing pregnancy, but it does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). People who accept sterilization as their method of family planning therefore need to be encouraged to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS and STDs even after they have been sterilized. Since women return less often to family planning providers following their sterilization procedure, they need to be advised to protect themselves against HIV and STDs before the sterilization is performed. 42% of the 2782 women who underwent tubal sterilizations at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston during 1991-96 indicated their intention in a cross-sectional study to use condoms after sterilization. 20% of all respondents, aged 18-51 years, had a known risk factor for HIV, and almost 25% reported regular condom use for contraception or disease protection during the 3 months before sterilization. Planned condom use increased from 32% in 1991 to 51% in 1996, irrespective of age, marital status, or ethnic background. Of the 646 women who used condoms before being sterilized, almost half indicated no plans to do so after the procedure. The following factors were associated with condom use: relatively younger age, black ethnicity, unmarried status, history of previous STD, no steady partner, having a higher number of previous sex partners, past use of condoms to prevent disease transmission, and lack of partner involvement in the decision to undergo sterilization.

  7. Influence of microwave sterilization on the cutting capacity of carbide burs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; Adabo, Gelson Luis; Silva, Regina Helena Barbosa Tavares da; Marcelo, Caroline Canhizares; Guaglianoni, Dalton Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cutting capacity of carbide burs sterilized with microwaves and traditional sterilization methods. Sixty burs were divided into 5 groups according to the sterilization methods: dry heat (G1), autoclave (G2), microwave irradiation (G3), glutaraldehyde (G4) or control - no sterilization (G5). The burs were used to cut glass plates in a cutting machine set for twelve 2.5-min periods and, after each period, they were sterilized (except G5) following the protocol established for each group. The cutting capacity of the burs was determined by a weight-loss method. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. The means of the cutting amount performed by each group after the 12 periods were G1 = 0.2167 +/- 0.0627 g; G2 = 0.2077 +/- 0.0231 g; G3 = 0.1980 +/- 0.0326 g; G4 = 0.1203 +/- 0.0459 g; G5 = 0.2642 +/- 0.0359 g. There were statistically significant differences among the groups (p<0.05); only dry heat sterilization was similar to the control. Sterilization by dry heat was the method that least affected the cutting capacity of the carbide burs and microwave sterilization was not better than traditional sterilization methods.

  8. Influence of microwave sterilization on the cutting capacity of carbide burs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiza Maria Grassi Fais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the cutting capacity of carbide burs sterilized with microwaves and traditional sterilization methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty burs were divided into 5 groups according to the sterilization methods: dry heat (G1, autoclave (G2, microwave irradiation (G3, glutaraldehyde (G4 or control - no sterilization (G5. The burs were used to cut glass plates in a cutting machine set for twelve 2.5-min periods and, after each period, they were sterilized (except G5 following the protocol established for each group. The cutting capacity of the burs was determined by a weight-loss method. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. RESULTS: The means of the cutting amount performed by each group after the 12 periods were G1 = 0.2167 ± 0.0627 g; G2 = 0.2077 ± 0.0231 g; G3 = 0.1980 ± 0.0326 g; G4 = 0.1203 ± 0.0459 g; G5 = 0.2642 ± 0.0359 g. There were statistically significant differences among the groups (p<0.05; only dry heat sterilization was similar to the control. CONCLUSION: Sterilization by dry heat was the method that least affected the cutting capacity of the carbide burs and microwave sterilization was not better than traditional sterilization methods.

  9. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M.; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from 60 Co or 137 Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a 60 Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  10. Laboratory methods used for testing the effect of radiation sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.

    1999-01-01

    Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation introduced in the mid of 1950s is more and more frequently used in tissue banking practice. The dose of 25 kGy is currently recommended and commonly used by many tissue banks in the world with the exception of the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw where the dose of 33 kGy + 10 % has been routinely used since 1963, and from 1997 the dose of 35 kGy + 10 % has been introduced. To study the effect of radiation-sterilization on bone allografts the interdisciplinary investigations have been undertaken and several techniques have been implemented in our tissue bank. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the amount, origin and stability of free radicals and other paramagnetic entities induced in radiation-sterilized bone allografts. This technique has been also utilized for quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts and for estimation of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation using bone tissue as a dosimeter. A model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis after transplantation of devitalized bone matrix into the muscle (described by Urist in 1965) is very useful in tissue banking practice. It allows one to determine the contribution the graft itself makes to osteogenesis. This model is routinely used in our tissue bank to evaluate the effect of various sterilization and preservation procedures on osteoinductive properties of bone allografts. The solubility in vitro of collagen - a carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPS) and a major constituent of bone and the other connective tissue grafts, has been studied by measuring the amount of extracted neutral, acid and total soluble collagen from bone grafts preserved by different methods at irradiated at vanous experimental conditions. A positive correlation between collagen solubility in vitro and the rate of graft resorption in vivo has been observed. The high doses of

  11. Shelf life prediction of radiation sterilized polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandford, Craig; Woo, Lecon

    1988-01-01

    The functional properties of many polymers employed in medical disposables are unaffected by sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation. However, some materials (PVC, polypropylene, cellulosics, etc.) undergo undesirable changes which continue to occur for the shelf life of the product. In many cases, conventional accelerated aging techniques do not accurately predict the real time properties of the materials. As real time aging is not generally practical, it has become necessary to develop accelerated aging techniques which can predict the functional properties of a material for the shelf life of the product. This presentation will address issues involved in developing these tests. Real time physical property data is compared to data generated by various acceleration methods. (author)

  12. Present studies on the radio-sterilized drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniec, B.; Dettlaff, K.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture presents present status of radiosterilization of drugs and medical materials as compared to other sterilization methods. Literature review is shown on degradation of different kinds of drugs sterilized upon action of the sterilising doses of radiation

  13. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Krishnan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means of controlling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world’s married women use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statistics suggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presents findings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in the use of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligation and an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are more likely to be in the forefront of modern methods of contraception.

  14. Female sterilization in India : The quality and effect of an observed sterilization camp at The Methodist Public Health Centre, Mursan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Wikborg, Pia; Svensk, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Population growth is a big challenge for India, and family planning is highly prioritized by the Government of India. Sterilization is the most common voluntary contraceptive method in India and has for many years been performed in camps. This thesis is based on our observation of a sterilization camp at the Methodist Public Health Centre in Mursan, India and available literature on the subject. We have looked closer at the effect of female sterilization as a method of contraception and t...

  15. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  16. Sterile neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the information on the occurrence of the fields of the sterile neutrinos (the righthanded ones) mixed with the normal neutrinos (the lefthanded ones). Both the Max Plank Radioastronomy Institute and the Los Angeles University assumes that the occurrence of the keV mass sterile neutrinos may explain the dark matter nature, the fast rotation of the observed pulsars and the reionization processes. The issues associated with the possibility to record the sterile neutrinos were analyzed in the course of the Sterile Neutrinos in Astrophysics and Cosmology Workshop (Crans Montana, March 2006 [ru

  17. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60 (20 KGy gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination, Group 2 (70°GL alcohol, Group 3 (autoclave, Group 4 (ultraviolet, Group 5 (peracetic acid and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde. After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL, and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties.

  18. Investigating steam penetration using thermometric methods in dental handpieces with narrow internal lumens during sterilizing processes with non-vacuum or vacuum processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S; Smith, A; Lappin, D; McDonagh, G; Kirk, B

    2017-12-01

    Dental handpieces are required to be sterilized between patient use. Vacuum steam sterilization processes with fractionated pre/post-vacuum phases or unique cycles for specified medical devices are required for hollow instruments with internal lumens to assure successful air removal. Entrapped air will compromise achievement of required sterilization conditions. Many countries and professional organizations still advocate non-vacuum sterilization processes for these devices. To investigate non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization of dental handpieces, using thermometric methods to measure time to achieve sterilization temperature at different handpiece locations. Measurements at different positions within air turbines were undertaken with thermocouples and data loggers. Two examples of widely used UK benchtop steam sterilizers were tested: a non-vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Little Sister 3; Eschmann, Lancing, UK) and a vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Lisa; W&H, Bürmoos, Austria). Each sterilizer cycle was completed with three handpieces and each cycle in triplicate. A total of 140 measurements inside dental handpiece lumens were recorded. The non-vacuum process failed (time range: 0-150 s) to reliably achieve sterilization temperatures within the time limit specified by the international standard (15 s equilibration time). The measurement point at the base of the handpiece failed in all test runs (N = 9) to meet the standard. No failures were detected with the vacuum steam sterilization type B process with fractionated pre-vacuum and post-vacuum phases. Non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization processes are unreliable in achieving sterilization conditions inside dental handpieces, and the base of the handpiece is the site most likely to fail. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sterilization of solutions for parenterals products. Problem analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelys Montes-González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The solutions for the formulation of parenteral products must be sterile before the aseptic formulation process. For this reason, different methods of sterilization referred in the literature are analyzed. Thermodynamic criteria that rule the sterilization are presented. Furthermore, previous experiences in the sterilization of solutions for the formulation of parental products in an autoclave are analyzed, that take large time of processing and only low volumes of solution can be handled. Using jacketed stirred tanks for the sterilization may solve the problem and, therefore, criteria for the design of the later that allow to process high volumes of solution for the formulation of parenteral products are shown.

  20. Current Sterilization Protocols-An Orthodontic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Vinod Korath

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article focuses on the working principles of various methods of sterilization with an appraisalof their effects on orthodontic instruments. Additionally,contributory factors of instrument damage is enumerated to emphasis the importance of adhering to precise protocols and manufacturer recommendations as well as in alleviating some misconceptions about sterilization induced instrument damage.

  1. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique involves the mass-rearing of insects, which are sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source before being released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produce no progeny, and so if enough of these matings occur the pest population can be controlled or even eradicated. A modification of the technique, especially suitable for the suppression of the moths and butterflies, is called the F, or inherited sterility method. In this, lower radiation doses are used such that the released males are only partially sterile (30-60%) and the females are fully sterile. When released males mate with native females some progeny are produced, but they are completely sterile. Thus, full expression of the sterility is delayed by one generation. This article describes the use of the sterile insect technique in controlling the screwworm fly, the tsetse fly, the medfly, the pink bollworm and the melon fly, and of the F 1 sterility method in the eradication of local gypsy moth infestations. 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  2. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, A; Montembault, A; Royaud, I; David, L; Gillet, D; Say, J P; Rouif, S; Bouet, T

    2012-01-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  3. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko

    1998-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  4. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  5. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abid Husain; Mohammad Said Kadis

    1981-01-01

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  6. A standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaska Serge C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-operative fluoroscopy for orthopaedic procedures frequently involves imaging in the horizontal plane, which requires the lower portion of the C-arm (x-ray tube to be rotated from an unsterile zone (beneath the table into the sterile field. To protect the integrity of the sterile field the C-arm must be draped repeatedly throughout the surgical case. The current, un-standardized, practice employs draping procedures which violate the Association of peri-Operative Registered Nurses (AORN Standards and Recommended Practices, waste time and material, and pose an increased risk for surgical site infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Use of a novel sterile C-arm drape (C-armor that maintains the integrity of the sterile field, will improve operating room efficiency and reduce surgical site infection risk factors. This reduction in risk factors may potentially reduce surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgical cases requiring repeated horizontal x-ray imaging. Testing the Hypothesis Savings in time and material and the reduction in surgical site infection risk factors afforded by using C-armor are intuitive to those skilled in the practice of orthopaedic surgery. Testing for a reduction in the number of microorganisms introduced to the surgical site by improved C-arm draping would be challenging due to the multiple confounding factors during a surgical operation. Determination of an absolute reduction in surgical site infections may be possible, but will require accounting for many confounding variables and a large study sample in order to achieve statistical significance. Implications of the Hypothesis Improved intraoperative workflow, healthcare savings and a reduction in surgical site infection risk factors will be achieved by utilizing a standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy.

  7. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a systematic review of the Essure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurskainen, Ritva; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Gissler, Mika; Grahn, Riitta; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Nord-Saari, Merja; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2010-06-01

    To update the evidence of the efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Female sterilization has undergone changes in the last decade. Besides laparoscopic tubal occlusion, the Essure system is now a viable option, with about 200,000 women sterilized using this method. The review is based on the report of the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and completed with systematic literature searches up to April 8, 2008. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program of the Finnish National Research and Development Center for Health and Welfare. Women over 30 years, who had been sterilized by the Essure method. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization using Essure system. Efficacy/effectiveness, adverse events, costs. Sterilization by Essure can be performed under local anesthesia or with oral analgesics in ambulatory settings. However, sterilization is not immediate and women must use additional contraception for 3 months until permanent tubal occlusion is verified by transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosalpingosonography, hysterosalpingography, or pelvic radiography. The evidence on efficacy and safety is mainly available from short follow-up case series but shows good efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Only a few small risks are associated with the procedure. Two economic studies, one of which implemented Essure as an in-office procedure, suggest that Essure could be more cost-effective than laparoscopic sterilization, but more information on the total cost is needed. The Essure system appears to be safe, permanent, irreversible, and a less invasive method of contraception compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a systematic review of the Essure system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurskainen, Ritva; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Gissler, Mika

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence of the efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Female sterilization has undergone changes in the last decade. Besides laparoscopic tubal occlusion, the Essure system is now a viable option, with about 200,000 women sterilized using this method. DESIGN: The review...... in ambulatory settings. However, sterilization is not immediate and women must use additional contraception for 3 months until permanent tubal occlusion is verified by transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosalpingosonography, hysterosalpingography, or pelvic radiography. The evidence on efficacy and safety is mainly...... sterilization, but more information on the total cost is needed. CONCLUSION(S): The Essure system appears to be safe, permanent, irreversible, and a less invasive method of contraception compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published...

  9. Practical problems in radiation sterilization of medical devices made from plasticized PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenen, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The following three methods for sterilizing medical devices made from plasticised PVC are used in the Netherlands. 1. sterilization by steam, steam-air or superheated water. 2. sterilization by electron beam or gamma irradiation. 3. ethylene oxide sterilization. IV-bags, blood bags and other bag types for similar applications made from plasticized PVC are mostly sterilized by steam-air or super heated water, especially when filled or partly filled containers are considered. More complicated products or products with components that cannot resist steam sterilization of 121 0 C are sterilized by ethylene oxide or irradiation. These last two methods also are favoured for sterilizing empty bags where sticking of the surfaces at the sterilization temperature creates a serious handicap. Moreover, steam sterilization may cause a permanent opacity of some plastics. However, we have to add that due to developments in formulations steam sterilization of empty bags is going to be of an increasing importance. proven carcinogenity of the gas ethylene oxide, difficult deaeration and retention of the gas in plasticized PVC has increased the demand for better radiation resistant plastics as an alternative for steam sterilization. (author)

  10. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6 . The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2 . The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  11. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  12. Gamma-irradiation sterilization of lipases for cheese making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskij, M S; Borovkova, Yu A; Odegov, N I [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Maslodel' noj i Syrodel' noj Promyshlennosti, Uglich (USSR)

    1979-03-01

    The possibility of sterilizing the enzyme compounds of lipases from Oospora fragrans strains by gamma irradiation was studied. The enzyme compounds were exposed to gamma irradiation at the doses from 0.1 to 0.8 Mrad with the discreteness of 0.1 Mrad and at the dose of 2.0 Mrad. After the radiation treatment the lipases were investigated for bacterial invasion by the cultivation method and for the lipolytic activity by the titrometrical method. It is shown that the sterilization effect is achieved without losses of lipase activity and the radiation dose necessary for sterilization depends on initial invasion levels in the enzyme compounds.

  13. Practical aspects during sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, L.; Ene, M.; Alexandru, M.; Constantin, M.; Ionita, A.; Zorila, F.; Moise, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The state of being free of living microorganisms is called sterility. The sterility state can be achieved by different means of sterilization. In practice the results of the process cannot be fully verified by tests, so the efficacy of the sterilization process must be validated. ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of product. Each product needs distinct protocol for bioburden determination and sterility testing. During time, the Microbiological Laboratories from Multipurpose Irradiation Center deals with different types of products, mainly for VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. Special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton, packed in large quantities. VD max 25 method can not be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU / pack, no matter which is the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for manufacturer, when choosing other method. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases the bioburden and sterility testing. These are time and money consuming. The costs can be reduced if taking into account some aspects. Reason for performing the bacteriostasis-fungistasis just for sterility testing will be given. The present study puts forward aspects during the validation studies for medical devices (cotton wool, cotton gauze, surgical sutures, dental screws), at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory.

  14. Reliability of Laparoscopic Compared With Hysteroscopic Sterilization at One Year: A Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Aileen M.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the probability of successful sterilization after hysteroscopic or laparoscopic sterilization procedure. METHODS An evidence-based clinical decision analysis using a Markov model was performed to estimate the probability of a successful sterilization procedure using laparoscopic sterilization, hysteroscopic sterilization in the operating room, and hysteroscopic sterilization in the office. Procedure and follow-up testing probabilities for the model were estimated from published sources. RESULTS In the base case analysis, the proportion of women having a successful sterilization procedure on first attempt is 99% for laparoscopic, 88% for hysteroscopic in the operating room and 87% for hysteroscopic in the office. The probability of having a successful sterilization procedure within one year is 99% with laparoscopic, 95% for hysteroscopic in the operating room, and 94% for hysteroscopic in the office. These estimates for hysteroscopic success include approximately 6% of women who attempt hysteroscopically but are ultimately sterilized laparoscopically. Approximately 5% of women who have a failed hysteroscopic attempt decline further sterilization attempts. CONCLUSIONS Women choosing laparoscopic sterilization are more likely than those choosing hysteroscopic sterilization to have a successful sterilization procedure within one year. However, the risk of failed sterilization and subsequent pregnancy must be considered when choosing a method of sterilization. PMID:21775842

  15. Practices of radiation sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations: egyptian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation sterilization involves the application of sufficient ionizing energy furnished by either x-rays, gamma-rays or accelerated electron beams, to render an article free of viable micro-organisms. The method offers a number of advantages which makes it an attractive choice in a number of situations: It is a suitable means of sterilizing many many materials.. Radiation causes no significant temperature rise, thus permits sterilization of heat-sensitive drugs and low melting-point plastics. It is certainly the best, and often the only method of sterilizing biological tissues and preparations of biological origin. due to its high penetrating ability, gamma-radiation reaches all parts of the object to be sterilized. The radiation sterilized products are not subjected to touching or exposure to the outside environment except by the and users. The chemical reactivity of radiation is relatively low as compared with the highly reactive gases. Radiation can be easily adapted for continuous processing as compared with batch operations currently in use with gas sterilization. The radiation process is the most reliable of all competing sterilization methods due to the obsolete certainty that the radiation source emits radiation of known energy and power

  16. Practices of radiation sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations: egyptian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M

    1993-12-31

    Radiation sterilization involves the application of sufficient ionizing energy furnished by either x-rays, gamma-rays or accelerated electron beams, to render an article free of viable micro-organisms. The method offers a number of advantages which makes it an attractive choice in a number of situations: It is a suitable means of sterilizing many many materials.. Radiation causes no significant temperature rise, thus permits sterilization of heat-sensitive drugs and low melting-point plastics. It is certainly the best, and often the only method of sterilizing biological tissues and preparations of biological origin. due to its high penetrating ability, gamma-radiation reaches all parts of the object to be sterilized. The radiation sterilized products are not subjected to touching or exposure to the outside environment except by the and users. The chemical reactivity of radiation is relatively low as compared with the highly reactive gases. Radiation can be easily adapted for continuous processing as compared with batch operations currently in use with gas sterilization. The radiation process is the most reliable of all competing sterilization methods due to the obsolete certainty that the radiation source emits radiation of known energy and power.

  17. Effect of sterilization on the properties of CDHA-OCP-beta-TCP biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreley Morejón-Alonso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the method of sterilization on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of a new bone repairing material was studied. The material was obtained by thermal hydrolysis of beta-tricalcium phosphate/orthophosphoric acid cement and was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate (OCP, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Partial decomposition of the OCP was observed after sterilization for the three methods. Decomposition increased to the following sequence of sterilization methods: ethylene oxide; autoclaving; dry oven. On the other hand, mechanical strength decreased with regard to non sterilized material in the sterilization sequence: ethylene oxide; dry oven; autoclaving. The compressive strength was 8.5 ± 1.0; 9.0 ± 1.2; 8.2 ± 0.8 and 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas diametral tensile strength was 2.1 ± 0.3; 2.5 ± 0.1; 1.9 ± 0.9 and 1.6 ± 0.3 for the material sterilized by ethylene oxide, dry oven, and autoclaving, respectively. Several compositional and microstuctural changes were detected after dry heat and autoclave sterilization. Ethylene oxide sterilization had lesser effect on the chemical composition and strength than dry heat and autoclaving.

  18. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. Radiation sterilization has already demonstrated its advantages over conventional (chemical) methods, with the scale of its application rising. The results of the CRP demonstrated new fields of applications and roles of the process in the decontamination of natural medical herbs, which finds increasing usage worldwide. The process application for synthetic pharmaceuticals sterilization has also been demonstrated. The analytical and processing procedures were elaborated for selected materials. The radiation effects on drugs of different types and on traditional herbal medicine components (e.g.Traditional Chinese Medicines) were investigated, in particular the identification of the products of radiolysis was achieved and evaluation of their role in changing of biological activity of radiation sterilized pharmaceuticals was performed. Some of the methods were introduced to the manufacturer practice. New TC projects in the field were initiated. Despite all these apparent advantages, radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals has to be addressed on a case by case basis. It has been concluded that radiation sterilization of aqueous solutions and suspensions of most organic substances is difficult if not impossible. The trends and opportunities of using radiation processing for sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials and herbs have been evaluated. Proteins and polysaccharides and their formulations and new biotechnology products are currently being considered for radiation sterilization

  19. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. Radiation sterilization has already demonstrated its advantages over conventional (chemical) methods, with the scale of its application rising. The results of the CRP demonstrated new fields of applications and roles of the process in the decontamination of natural medical herbs, which finds increasing usage worldwide. The process application for synthetic pharmaceuticals sterilization has also been demonstrated. The analytical and processing procedures were elaborated for selected materials. The radiation effects on drugs of different types and on traditional herbal medicine components (e.g.Traditional Chinese Medicines) were investigated, in particular the identification of the products of radiolysis was achieved and evaluation of their role in changing of biological activity of radiation sterilized pharmaceuticals was performed. Some of the methods were introduced to the manufacturer practice. New TC projects in the field were initiated. Despite all these apparent advantages, radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals has to be addressed on a case by case basis. It has been concluded that radiation sterilization of aqueous solutions and suspensions of most organic substances is difficult if not impossible. The trends and opportunities of using radiation processing for sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials and herbs have been evaluated. Proteins and polysaccharides and their formulations and new biotechnology products are currently being considered for radiation sterilization.

  20. Male sterility in plants. Induction, isolation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.; Barlow, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    Both induced and spontaneously arising male sterility mutants exist in a number of important plant species. These mutants are somewhat unique in that they effect procedures for breeding improved varieties. They allow for the possibility of easily obtaining large numbers of hybrids, population breeding systems and the production of hybrid varieties. These mutants are normally classified as cytoplasmic mutants or chromosomal mutants, the latter also being referred to as nuclear or genic mutants. Specific examples of these types of sterility are examined in relation to the breeding system of the species and their potential use for varietal development. Male sterility in diploid and polyploid species is compared, with reference to gene duplication in polyploids. The mechanism of male sterility is examined in the various species at the anatomical and biochemical levels. Methods of isolating male sterility mutants are compared and a specific example is outlined for hexaploid wheat. Future use of male sterility mutants for improving varieties of various crops is examined. (author)

  1. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  2. Radiation sterilization: an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas

  3. Sterilization Monitoring management of the integration of the operating room with CSSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-yan XIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Explore the Sterilization Monitoring management of the integration of the operating room with CSSD. Methods: Compare sterilization process monitoring with biological monitoring and chemical monitoring. Results: The management in Biological monitoring, chemical monitoring and sterilization process monitoring is crucial. Conclusion: Sterilization monitoring is to ensure the safe use of sterile goods so as to protect the safety of surgical patients.

  4. The effects of sterilization on the tensile strength of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggers, J A; Margeson, D

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the tensile strength of 0.016" beta-titanium, nickel titanium and stainless steel wires. Three common methods of sterilization--autoclaving, dry heat and ethylene oxide--were evaluated in three test trials involving zero, one and five sterilization cycles. For each of the test trials, five pieces each of 0.016" TMA, 0.016" Sentalloy and 0.016" Tru-chrome stainless steel wires were sterilized using a standard autoclave. Five other pieces of each of the same wires were sterilized in a dryclave, while an additional five pieces of each of the three wire types were sterilized using ethylene oxide. The ultimate tensile strengths of the wires were then determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were compared for statistical differences using analysis of variance. The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased the tensile strength of TMA wires after one cycle, but not after five cycles. Autoclaving and ethylene oxide sterilization did not significantly alter the tensile strength of TMA wires. Dry heat and autoclave sterilization also significantly increased the tensile strength of Sentalloy wires, but the mean strength after five sterilization cycles was not significantly different than after one cycle. Ethylene oxide sterilization of Sentalloy wires did not significantly alter the tensile strengths of that wire. There were no significant differences in the tensile strengths of the stainless steel wires following zero, one or five cycles for any of the sterilization methods.

  5. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VD max 25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given. - Highlights: ► The paper presents aspects and results within the sterilization validation process. ► Critical aspects that can lead to the failure of the process were emphasized. ► Limitation methods were discussed.

  6. Research on dose setting for radiation sterilization of medical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongcheng; Liu Qingfang; Zhong Hongliang; Mi Zhisu; Wang Chunlei; Jiang Jianping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish the radiation sterilization dose for medical devices using data of bioburden on the medical device. Methods: Firstly determination of recovery ratio and correction coefficient of the microbiological test method was used according to ISO11737 standard, then determination of bioburden on the products, finally the dose setting was completed based on the Method 1 in ISO11137 standard. Results: Fifteen kinds of medical devices were tested. Bioburden range was from 8.6-97271.2 CFU/device, recovery ration range 54.6%-100%, correction co-efficiency range 1.00-1.83, D 10 distribution from 1.40 to 2.82 kGy, verification dose (dose at SAL = 10 -2 ) range 5.1-17.6 kGy and sterilization dose (dose at SAL 10 -6 ) range 17.5-32.5 kGy. Conclusion: One hundred samples of each kind of product were exposed to the pre-determined verification dose and then the sterility test was performed. Each sterility test showed positive number was not greater than two. This indicated that the sterilization dose established for each kind of product was statistically acceptable

  7. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  8. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs.

  9. Cold atmospheric air plasma sterilization against spores and other microorganisms of clinical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klämpfl, Tobias G; Isbary, Georg; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Li, Yang-Fang; Zimmermann, Julia L; Stolz, Wilhelm; Schlegel, Jürgen; Morfill, Gregor E; Schmidt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    Physical cold atmospheric surface microdischarge (SMD) plasma operating in ambient air has promising properties for the sterilization of sensitive medical devices where conventional methods are not applicable. Furthermore, SMD plasma could revolutionize the field of disinfection at health care facilities. The antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of clinical relevance, as well as the fungus Candida albicans, were tested. Thirty seconds of plasma treatment led to a 4 to 6 log(10) CFU reduction on agar plates. C. albicans was the hardest to inactivate. The sterilizing effect on standard bioindicators (bacterial endospores) was evaluated on dry test specimens that were wrapped in Tyvek coupons. The experimental D(23)(°)(C) values for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus atrophaeus, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were determined as 0.3 min, 0.5 min, 0.6 min, and 0.9 min, respectively. These decimal reduction times (D values) are distinctly lower than D values obtained with other reference methods. Importantly, the high inactivation rate was independent of the material of the test specimen. Possible inactivation mechanisms for relevant microorganisms are briefly discussed, emphasizing the important role of neutral reactive plasma species and pointing to recent diagnostic methods that will contribute to a better understanding of the strong biocidal effect of SMD air plasma.

  10. Safety and clinical efficacy of some radiation-sterilized medical products and pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, R.D.; Gopal, N.G.S.

    1975-01-01

    Medical products and pharmaceuticals must conform to certain minimum physico-chemical microbiological and biological requirements. The biological requirements comprise principally testing for toxicity, safety, and pyrogens. Besides the above-mentioned criteria, there are two other important characteristics, viz. clinical efficacy and tolerance in animal and/or human beings. These latter requirements, expected from the final product released for general human use, are not carried out routinely. In the present-day pharmaceutical and medical technology, numerous mew products are appearing, many of them requiring radiation sterilization as they are not stable towards the other conventional methods of sterilization. While the post-irradiation physicochemical changes in a product may not be significant, the bio-availability or biological activity of the product may be affected to a more significant extent. Some evidence of this has recently been reported. Hence, it is desirable to carry out studies on safety as well as clinical efficacy on irradiated products. This paper describes some studies on plastic-based medical products, a pharmaceutical raw material, a typical infusion fluid such as normal saline, antibiotics and their ointments. (author)

  11. Bilateral cornual abscess after endometrial ablation following Essure sterilization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Vleugels, M.P.; Kluivers, K.B.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Endometrial ablation is used extensively to treat dysfunctional bleeding. Since the introduction of Essure tubal sterilization, this permanent contraception method has been widely used. Both endometrial ablation and Essure sterilization are procedures reported to have only a few complications. We

  12. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  13. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  14. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-09-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VDmax25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VDmax25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given.

  15. Search for heavy sterile neutrinos in trileptons at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, Claudio O.; Kim, C.S.; Wang, Kechen; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2017-03-01

    We present a search strategy for both Dirac and Majorana sterile neutrinos from the purely leptonic decays of W"±→e"±e"±μ"-"+ν and μ"±μ"±e"-"+ν at the 14 TeV LHC. The discovery and exclusion limits for sterile neutrinos are shown using both the Cut-and-Count (CC) and Multi-Variate Analysis (MVA) methods. We also discriminate between Dirac and Majorana sterile neutrinos by exploiting a set of kinematic observables which differ between the Dirac and Majorana cases. We find that the MVA method, compared to the more common CC method, can greatly enhance the discovery and discrimination limits. Two benchmark points with sterile neutrino mass m_N=20 GeV and 50 GeV are tested. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb"-"1, sterile neutrinos can be found with 5σ significance if heavy-to-light neutrino mixings vertical stroke U_N_e vertical stroke "2∝ vertical stroke U_N_μ vertical stroke "2∝10"-"6, while Majorana vs. Dirac discrimination can be reached if at least one of the mixings is of order 10"-"5.

  16. Mathematical models for the use of sterile insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter begins with a consideration of simple population models. The sterility formulation proposed by Knipling is then included into the population models, and these are elaborated in systematic fashion to include the major biological factors that will affect the success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) control programme. These factors include residual fertility, differential competitive ability of wild and sterilized males, mating patterns, immigration, and various combinations of these features. Also examined are density-dependence, age structure, population aggregation, biotic interactions with other species, and then integration of the SIT with other control methods. It was found that combinations of factors are synergistic: combinations of detrimental factors such as residual fertility and inferior competitive ability put severe limits on the probable success of the control programme, while combinations of control methods are much more likely to succeed than single control methods. This is because each control method needs only to account for a smaller proportion of the total mortality when combined with other methods than when acting alone. (author)

  17. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [18F]fludeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.

    2011-01-01

    [ 18 F]Flu deoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 μm filter membrane is usually adopted for 18 FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for 18 FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. 18 FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, 18 FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of 18 FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure 18 FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of 18 FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for 18 FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. 18 FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine 18 FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  18. Comparison of postoperative surgical site infection after preoperative marking done with non-sterile stationary grade markers versus sterile surgical markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, Z.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the frequencies of post- operative surgical site infection after preoperative marking done with non-sterile stationary. grade markers versus sterile surgical markers in the same patient. Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: The department of Plastic surgery, Mayo hospital, Lahore from August 2013 to August 2014. Methods: This study was conducted after taking approval from the departmental ethical committee. Forty consecutive patients were included. A sterile surgical marker was used to mark one incision site while an alcohol based stationary grade marker was used to mark another incision site on the same patient. A standard preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative protocol was followed. Cultures were performed on swabs taken from the incision sites and surgical site infection was assessed for 30 days. Results: The study included 40 patients; 17 males and 23 females. The mean age of subjects was 25.32 ± 19.69 years with the minimum age being 2 years and the maximum being 63 years. No growth was seen in cultures taken from all the incision sites after skin preparation in the non sterile stationary grade marker group as well as the sterile surgical grade marker group. Also no surgical site infection appeared during the 30 day postoperative observation period in the non sterile stationary grade marker group as well as the sterile surgical grade marker group. (author)

  19. Fuzzy logic control to be conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eker, Ilyas; Torun, Yunis

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demands for flexibility and fast reactions in modern process operation and production methods result in nonlinear system behaviour of partly unknown systems, and this necessitates application of alternative control methods to meet the demands. Fuzzy logic (FL) control can play an important role because knowledge based design rules can easily be implemented in systems with unknown structure, and it is going to be a conventional control method since the control design strategy is simple and practical and is based on linguistic information. Computational complexity is not a limitation any more because the computing power of computers has been significantly improved even for high speed industrial applications. This makes FL control an important alternative method to the conventional PID control method for use in nonlinear industrial systems. This paper presents a practical implementation of the FL control to an electrical drive system. Such drive systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behaviour. For a multi-mass drive system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the operation of the systems. The proposed FL control configuration is based on speed error and change of speed error. The feasibility and effectiveness of the control method are experimentally demonstrated. The results obtained from conventional FL control, fuzzy PID and adaptive FL control are compared with traditional PID control for the dynamic responses of the closed loop drive system

  20. Fuzzy logic control to be conventional method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eker, Ilyas [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Torun, Yunis [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Technical Vocational School of Higher Education

    2006-03-01

    Increasing demands for flexibility and fast reactions in modern process operation and production methods result in nonlinear system behaviour of partly unknown systems, and this necessitates application of alternative control methods to meet the demands. Fuzzy logic (FL) control can play an important role because knowledge based design rules can easily be implemented in systems with unknown structure, and it is going to be a conventional control method since the control design strategy is simple and practical and is based on linguistic information. Computational complexity is not a limitation any more because the computing power of computers has been significantly improved even for high speed industrial applications. This makes FL control an important alternative method to the conventional PID control method for use in nonlinear industrial systems. This paper presents a practical implementation of the FL control to an electrical drive system. Such drive systems used in industry are composed of masses moving under the action of position and velocity dependent forces. These forces exhibit nonlinear behaviour. For a multi-mass drive system, the nonlinearities, like Coulomb friction and dead zone, significantly influence the operation of the systems. The proposed FL control configuration is based on speed error and change of speed error. The feasibility and effectiveness of the control method are experimentally demonstrated. The results obtained from conventional FL control, fuzzy PID and adaptive FL control are compared with traditional PID control for the dynamic responses of the closed loop drive system. (author)

  1. Radiation sterilization of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Oka, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Akira; Ishiwata, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    The bioburden of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze and their physical and chemical characteristics after irradiation are investigated. The survey conducted on contaminants of 1890 cotton samples from 53 lots and 805 gauze samples from 56 lots showed maximum numbers of microbes per g of the cotton and gauze were 859 (an average of 21.4) and 777 (an average of 42.2), respectively. Isolation and microbiological and biochemical tests of representative microbes indicated that all of them, except one, were bacilli. The sterilization dose at 10 -6 of sterlity assurance level was found to be 2.0 Mrad when irradiated the spores loaded on paper strips and examined populations having graded D values from 0.10 to 0.28 Mrad. The sterilization dose would be about 1.5 Mrad if subjected the average numbers of contaminants observed in this study to irradiation. No significant differences were found between the irradiated samples and control up to 2 Mrad in tensile strength, change of color, absorbency, sedimentation rate, soluble substances, and pH of solutions used for immersion and other tests conventionally used. These results indicate that these products can be sterilized by irradiation. (author)

  2. Population suppression in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangan, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods that prevent access of pests to the hosts, may reduce the population or prevent damage. Insecticides have been used widely in direct applications or applied as baits, in traps, or on specific sites where the pest makes contact or reproduces. As sterile insect release does not kill the pest, adult biting pests or fertile mated females of the pests will continue to attack hosts after the release of sterile insects. Thus supplementary pest suppression programmes and quarantine measures are essential to prevent damage or the spread of disease. Eradication or effective pest management requires that the entire population of the pest be treated, or that the programme apply immigration barriers. When supplementary pest control activities benefit the human population in areas being treated, such as in mosquito or screwworm eradication programmes, these activities are usually acceptable to the public, but when the public receives no direct benefit from supplementary control activities such as in fruit fly programmes, social resistance may develop. (author)

  3. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  4. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C. M.

    2007-10-01

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is τdec=2/Γaa, but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where Γaa is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and θm the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the “polarization vector” and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  5. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  6. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Process variation in electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The qualification and control of electron beam sterilization can be improved by the application of proven statistical analysis techniques such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Statistical Tolerance Limits. These statistical techniques can be useful tools in: •Locating and quantifying the minimum and maximum absorbed dose in a product. •Estimating the expected process maximum dose, given a minimum sterilizing dose. •Setting a process minimum dose target, based on an allowance for random measurement and process variation. •Determining the dose relationship between a reference dosimeter and process minimum and maximum doses. This study investigates and demonstrates the application of these tools in qualifying electron beam sterilization, and compares the conclusions obtained with those obtained using practices recommended in Guide for Process Control in Radiation Sterilization. The study supports the following conclusions for electron beam processes: 1.ANOVA is a more effective tool for evaluating the equivalency of absorbed doses than methods suggested in . 2.Process limits computed using statistical tolerance limits more accurately reflect actual process variability than the AAMI method, which applies +/−2 sample standard deviations (s) regardless of sample size. 3.The use of reference dose ratios lends itself to qualification using statistical tolerance limits. The current AAMI recommended approach may result in an overly optimistic estimate of the reference dose adjustment factor, as it is based on application of +/−2(s) tolerances regardless of sample size.

  8. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, K.A.; Bloem, S.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  9. Search for heavy sterile neutrinos in trileptons at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Claudio O. [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). CCTVal y Dept. of Physics; Kim, C.S. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and IPAP; Wang, Kechen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Center for Future High Energy Physics

    2017-03-15

    We present a search strategy for both Dirac and Majorana sterile neutrinos from the purely leptonic decays of W{sup ±}→e{sup ±}e{sup ±}μ{sup -+}ν and μ{sup ±}μ{sup ±}e{sup -+}ν at the 14 TeV LHC. The discovery and exclusion limits for sterile neutrinos are shown using both the Cut-and-Count (CC) and Multi-Variate Analysis (MVA) methods. We also discriminate between Dirac and Majorana sterile neutrinos by exploiting a set of kinematic observables which differ between the Dirac and Majorana cases. We find that the MVA method, compared to the more common CC method, can greatly enhance the discovery and discrimination limits. Two benchmark points with sterile neutrino mass m{sub N}=20 GeV and 50 GeV are tested. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}, sterile neutrinos can be found with 5σ significance if heavy-to-light neutrino mixings vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}∝ vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2}∝10{sup -6}, while Majorana vs. Dirac discrimination can be reached if at least one of the mixings is of order 10{sup -5}.

  10. Electron beam sterilization and composting of sludge and its utilization as fertilizer for greenbelt and farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1988-01-01

    Sludge should be sterilized to exterminate bacteria prior to its application as a fertilizer in greenbelts or farmland. Furthermore, sludge should be converted into compost to prevent odors or breeding of harmful insects. A technique is developed for complete sterilization of sludge and rapid production of compost. Sludge is first sterilized by electron beams and composting is performed under optimum conditions including the fermentation temperature. Typically, about 10 8 - 10 9 bacteria are contained in 1 g of sludge, with coliforms accounting for about 10 percent of the total bacteria. Irradiation of 15 kGy can reduce the total number of bacteria by 6 - 7 orders of magnitude. Irradiation of 2 kGy can almost completely exterminate coliforms, which are highly sensitive to radiations. This indicates that 0.2-second irradiation is sufficient if a dose rate of 10 kGy/sec is used. After the sterilization process, sludge is composted under the following conditions: temperature of 40 - 50 deg C, initial pH of 7 - 8 and particle size of 5 mm or less. Compared with conventional processes, the maximum fermentation rate is greater by 10 times and can be reached 10 times more rapidly. Conventional processes require more than 10 days while the present technique takes only 2 - 3 days until carbon dioxide stops generating. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Effects of sterilization on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) based personalized medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münker, T J A G; van de Vijfeijken, S E C M; Mulder, C S; Vespasiano, V; Becking, A G; Kleverlaan, C J; Becking, A G; Dubois, L; Karssemakers, L H E; Milstein, D M J; van de Vijfeijken, S E C M; Depauw, P R A M; Hoefnagels, F W A; Vandertop, W P; Kleverlaan, C J; Münker, T J A G; Maal, T J J; Nout, E; Riool, M; Zaat, S A J

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, personalized medical devices are frequently used for patients. Due to the manufacturing procedure sterilization is required. How different sterilization methods affect the mechanical behavior of these devices is largely unknown. Three poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based materials (Vertex Self-Curing, Palacos R+G, and NextDent C&B MFH) were sterilized with different sterilization methods: ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, autoclavation, and γ-irradiation. Mechanical properties were determined by testing the flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, and impact strength. The flexural strength of all materials was significantly higher after γ-irradiation compared to the control and other sterilization methods, as tested in a wet environment. NextDent C&B MFH showed the highest flexural and impact strength, Palacos R+G showed the highest maximum stress intensity factor and total fracture work. Autoclave sterilization is not suitable for the sterilization of PMMA-based materials. Ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, and γ-irradiation appear to be suitable techniques to sterilize PMMA-based personalized medical devices. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial growth on Mueller Hinton medium sterilized by. gamma. -radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, E. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq Nuclear Research Center); Bogokowsky, B.; Altmann, G. (Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Medical School)

    1981-12-01

    The possibility of radiosterilization of culture media for the cultivation of bacteria was investigated. Mueller Hinton agar, a medium widely used for the propagation of some fastidious pathogenic bacteria, was sterilized with 1.0 and 1.5 Mrad doses of ..gamma..-radiation. Bacteria belonging to seven different species grew as well on the radiosterilized medium as on medium sterilized by heat in a conventional way. Reduction in colony size was observed on the radiosterilized medium with Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella boydii. Neisseria meningitidis, the most fastidious bacterium tested, did not grow at all. The addition of small amounts of catalase corrected the deleterious radiation effect and all bacteria tested could be successfully grown on irradiated Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with up to 11 Keil units catalase per liter medium.

  13. Bacterial growth on Mueller Hinton medium sterilized by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, E.; Bogokowsky, B.; Altmann, G.; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of radiosterilization of culture media for the cultivation of bacteria was investigated. Mueller Hinton agar, a medium widely used for the propagation of some fastidious pathogenic bacteria, was sterilized with 1.0 and 1.5 Mrad doses of γ-radiation. Bacteria belonging to seven different species grew as well on the radiosterilized medium as on medium sterilized by heat in a conventional way. Reduction in colony size was observed on the radiosterilized medium with Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella boydii. Neisseria meningitidis, the most fastidious bacterium tested, did not grow at all. The addition of small amounts of catalase corrected the deleterious radiation effect and all bacteria tested could be successfully grown on irradiated Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with up to 11 Keil units catalase per liter medium. (author)

  14. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a health economic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. In contrast to the laparoscopic technique, a hysteroscope is used to pass permanent microinserts through the cervix and place them in the fallopian tubes. This procedure does not require local or general anesthesia and can be performed in an office setting. The objective of this analysis was to determine, based on published literature, the cost-effectiveness of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization (HS) compared with laparoscopic tubal ligation (LS) for permanent female sterilization. A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2008, and December 11, 2012. Potentially relevant studies were identified based on the title and abstract. Cost-utility analyses (studies that report outcomes in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life-years) were prioritized for inclusion. When not available, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-consequence analyses were considered. Costing studies were considered in the absence of all other analyses. A total of 33 abstracts were identified. Three cost analyses were included. A retrospective chart review from Canada found that HS was $111 less costly than LS; a prospective activity-based cost management study from Italy reported that it was €337 less costly than LS; and the results of an American decision model showed that HS was $1,178 less costly than LS. All studies had limited applicability to the Ontario health care system due to differences in setting, resource use, and costs. Three cost analyses found that, although the HS procedure was more expensive due to the cost of the microinserts, HS was less costly than LS overall due to the shorter recovery time required. Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional tubal ligation for women who want a permanent method of contraception. Both approaches involve closing off the

  15. Sterile Neutrino Search with the Double Chooz Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, D.; Matsubara, T.; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Double Chooz is a reactor antineutrino disappearance experiment located in Chooz, France. A far detector at a distance of about 1 km from reactor cores is operating since 2011; a near detector of identical design at a distance of about 400 m is operating since begin 2015. Beyond the precise measurement of θ 13, Double Chooz has a strong sensitivity to so called light sterile neutrinos. Sterile neutrinos are neutrino mass states not taking part in weak interactions, but may mix with known neutrino states. In this paper, we present an analysis method to search for sterile neutrinos and the expected sensitivity with the baselines of our detectors.

  16. Quinacrine non-surgical female sterilization in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, S N; Begum, R

    2001-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of transcervical applications of quinacrine along with other adjuvants, such as ampicillin and ibuprofen, for sterilization. The cohort consisted of 750 normal women who requested sterilization and volunteered for this method at the family planning clinic of a tertiary hospital and community clinics in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Several different protocols were followed from October 1989 to April 1999. Each woman received one or two insertions of 180 mg or 252 mg quinacrine with or without adjuvants including 55.5 mg ibuprofen or 125 mg ampicillin. Supplementary contraception was given in the form of combined oral contraceptive pills, barrier methods, or injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for 3 months. Details of each protocol are described in the text. The gross pregnancy failure rate for insertion of 180 mg in 590 women was 3.9% compared to 1.9% for the 160 who received 252 mg. There were no serious complications, and side effects were transient. We conclude that quinacrine non-surgical sterilization is a safe, acceptably effective method when two insertions of 252 mg quinacrine with medroxyprogesterone injection as a supplement is used.

  17. Reason behind wet pack after steam sterilization and its consequences: An overview from Central Sterile Supply Department of a cancer center in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debabrata

    Wet pack after steam sterilization process that means there are surely obtain millions of microorganisms that can breed and multiply rapidly and objects are unsterile and can never be used for further procedure. There are many reasons behind the wet pack occurrences after autoclaving like poor quality of wrapping materials, faulty valves of rigid container, faulty loading and packaging technique, poor steam quality, sterilizer malfunction and may be design related problems in CSSD sterile storage area. Cause of wet pack after steam sterilization processes may occur severe problems because of wasted time and effort, increased work load, increased cost, potentially contaminated instruments, infection risk to the patient, poor patient outcomes and delayed or cancellation of procedures. But such wet pack scenario can be avoided by various methods by using good steam (water) quality, performing periodic maintenance of the Autoclaves, avoidance of sterilizer overloading, allowing adequate post sterilization time to cool down the materials to room temperature, using good quality wrapping materials, properly maintain temperature and humidity of sterile storage area etc. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comparative Study of Ethylene Oxide and Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J. H.; Keller, G. H.

    1967-01-01

    Both radiation and gas sterilization have been widely accepted for the ''cold'' sterilization of disposable medical supplies. Each of these methods offers certain advantages over the other but has characteristics which make it less satisfactory for specific items. This study is especially concerned with the effectiveness of various dosage levels and gassing cycles on known concentrations of test organisms, as well as similar studies on routine production lots on which presterilization counts were made. The experimental methods employ techniques which were developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Planetary Quarantine Program and are now standard procedures for the sterilization and microbiological examination of space equipment. The results are much more meaningful than were obtained with techniques employed earlier. Good manufacturing practice and plant hygiene are essential for the practical application of both these sterilization methods in order that chosen dosage levels and cycles will ensure a factor of safety. Manufacturing methods to ensure a low microbiological count are described. Data is presented on the effect of composition of materials on retention and survival of contaminants and die-off of contaminants on handled materials and components before sterilization. Factors concerning the cost-effectiveness of the two methods and other engineering values are discussed. (author)

  19. Thermal sterilization of heat-sensitive products using high-temperature short-time sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, A; Kiefer, M; Leuenberger, H

    2001-03-01

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) sterilization with a continuous-flow sterilizer, developed for this study, was evaluated. The evaluation was performed with respect to (a) the chemical degradation of two heat-sensitive drugs in HTST range (140-160 degrees C) and (b) the microbiological effect of HTST sterilization. Degradation kinetics of two heat-sensitive drugs showed that a high peak temperature sterilization process resulted in less chemical degradation for the same microbiological effect than a low peak temperature process. Both drugs investigated could be sterilized with acceptable degradation at HTST conditions. For the evaluation of the microbiological effect, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as indicator bacteria. Indicator spore kinetics (D(T), z value, k, and E(a)), were determined in the HTST range. A comparison between the Bigelow model (z value concept) and the Arrhenius model, used to describe the temperature coefficient of the microbial inactivation, demonstrated that the Bigelow model is more accurate in prediction of D(T) values in the HTST range. The temperature coefficient decreased with increasing temperature. The influence of Ca(2+) ions and pH value on the heat resistance of the indicator spores, which is known under typical sterilization conditions, did not change under HTST conditions.

  20. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  1. Laparoscopic tubal sterilization reversal and fertility outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was two-fold. Firstly it was to assess the suitability for tubal recanalization and factors predicting successful laparoscopic recanalization. Secondly, it was to analyze the fertility outcomes and factors affecting the pregnancy rate following laparoscopic tubal recanalization. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of prospectively followed-up 29 women at a tertiary care center seeking tubal sterilization reversal between May 2005 and February 2010 were included. Results: In 14 (48.3% women unilateral tubes were suitable and in only 3 women (10.3% bilateral tubes were suitable. All cases with laparoscopic tubal sterilization were suitable, whereas all cases with fimbriectomy were unsuitable for recanalization. In 6 (20.7% cases salphingostomy was performed as an alternative procedure to tubal reanastomosis. The overall pregnancy rate was 58.8%. In cases with sterilization by Pomeroy′s method, 4 out of 10 (40% conceived, whereas for laparoscopic tubal ligation cases 6 out of 7 (85.7% conceived (P=0.32. None of the patients with final tubal length <5 cm conceived (P=0.03. Comparing the age at recanalization, in women ≤30 years, 71.4% conceived, as compared with 50% when age of women was more than 30 years (P=0.37. Conclusions: The important factors determining the success of recanalization are technique of sterilization and the remaining length of the tube after recanalization. The gynecologist must use an effective technique of sterilization to minimize the failure rates, but at the same time, which causes minimal trauma, and aim at preserving the length of the tube so that reversal is more likely to be successful, should the patient′s circumstances change.

  2. Sterilization of spices through ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heins, H G; Ulmann, R M

    1971-10-01

    Sterilization of spices is discussed in relation to other methods. Efficiency, organoleptic inspection and costs of the treatment are considered. It is concluded that the irradiation method is feasible and acceptable with respect to taste and juridicial requirements. (G.J.P.). 12 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs.

  3. Lessons from the recent rise in use of female sterilization in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobstein, Roy

    2013-03-01

    Although female sterilization is the most widely used modern contraceptive method in the world, most family planning programs in Africa have had difficulty providing it. Malawi, however, despite daunting constraints, has made female sterilization widely and equitably accessible, thereby increasing method choice and helping its citizens better meet their reproductive intentions. Ten percent of currently married Malawian women of reproductive age rely on female sterilization for contraceptive protection, compared with less than 2 percent across Africa, and demand to limit births now exceeds demand to space births. Malawi's female sterilization prevalence surpasses that of some high-resource countries. Key service-delivery factors enabling this achievement include supportive policies, strong public-private partnerships, and mobile services delivered at no cost by dedicated providers. Challenges remain, but Malawi's achievement offers lessons for other countries with low availability of female sterilization and similar resource constraints. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  4. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  5. Regret following female sterilization in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becner, Anja; Turkanović, Anela Bečić; But, Igor

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the regret rate and risk factors for regret among women who have undergone sterilization. A retrospective study was conducted among all women who underwent a sterilization procedure at the University Medical Center Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia, in 2008-2012. Identified women were contacted and asked to complete an online questionnaire assessing regret and symptoms associated with depression. Among 714 identified women, 308 (43.1%) completed the questionnaire. Four (1.3%) participants reported regret, and 9 (2.9%) reported that they would not opt for sterilization again, all of whom had post-sterilization problems. Such problems were significantly associated with participants reporting that they would not opt for sterilization again (P=0.003). Additionally, women who would not choose sterilization again had significantly higher scores on the depressive scale used than did those who would undergo sterilization again (P=0.028). Few women report regret after tubal sterilization in Slovenia. However, an additional consultation on post-sterilization problems and depressive disorder before sterilization might minimize the risk of regret. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Yasuo [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them.

  7. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards...... and documented uncertainty limits of the dose measurements can be used to specify process control limits. This is also useful, for example, when dose setting experiments are carried out according to the methods described in ISO 11137, where product samples shall be irradiated within narrow limits......., the uncertainty of the dose measurement and the environmental influences must be known. This paper discusses how to obtain and maintain traceability and how to document measurement uncertainty. The implications of these requirements in the process control of radiation sterilization are further discussed. Known...

  8. Cytotoxicity of Pd nanostructures supported on PEN: Influence of sterilization on Pd/PEN interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polívková, M., E-mail: polivkoa@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Siegel, J. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Rimpelová, S. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Hubáček, T. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Biology Centre of the AS CR, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Kolská, Z. [Materials Centre of Usti n. L., J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-01-01

    Non-conventional antimicrobial agents, such as palladium nanostructures, have been increasingly used in the medicinal technology. However, experiences uncovering their harmful and damaging effects to human health have begun to appear. In this study, we have focused on in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of Pd nanostructures supported on a biocompatible polymer. Pd nanolayers of variable thicknesses (ranging from 1.1 to 22.4 nm) were sputtered on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). These nanolayers were transformed by low-temperature post-deposition annealing into discrete nanoislands. Samples were characterized by AFM, XPS, ICP-MS and electrokinetic analysis before and after annealing. Sterilization of samples prior to cytotoxicity testing was done by UV irradiation, autoclave and/or ethanol. Among the listed sterilization techniques, we have chosen the gentlest one which had minimal impact on sample morphology, Pd dissolution and overall Pd/PEN interface quality. Cytotoxic response of Pd nanostructures was determined by WST-1 cell viability assay in vitro using three model cell lines: mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and two types of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (L929 and NIH 3T3). Finally, cell morphology in response to Pd/PEN was evaluated by means of fluorescence microscopy. - Highlights: • Annealing of Pd nanolayers on PEN resulted to Pd aggregation and formation of discrete nanoislands. • UV treatment was found as the gentlest sterilization method in term of physicochemical properties of Pd/PEN interface. • Autoclaving and chemical sterilization by ethanol resulted into remarkable changes of Pd/PEN interface. • Cytotoxicity of Pd samples was insignificant. • Pd nanostructures are potentially applicable as health-unobjectionable antibacterial coatings of medical devices.

  9. Production of a sterile species via active-sterile mixing: An exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.

    2007-11-01

    The production of a sterile species via active-sterile mixing in a thermal medium is studied in an exactly solvable model. The exact time evolution of the sterile distribution function is determined by the dispersion relations and damping rates Γ1,2 for the quasiparticle modes. These depend on γ˜=Γaa/2ΔE, with Γaa the interaction rate of the active species in absence of mixing and ΔE the oscillation frequency in the medium without damping. γ˜≪1, γ˜≫1 describe the weak and strong damping limits, respectively. For γ˜≪1, Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where θm is the mixing angle in the medium and the sterile distribution function does not obey a simple rate equation. For γ˜≫1, Γ1=Γaa and Γ2=Γaasin⁡22θm/4γ˜2, is the sterile production rate. In this regime sterile production is suppressed and the oscillation frequency vanishes at an Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance, with a breakdown of adiabaticity. These are consequences of quantum Zeno suppression. For active neutrinos with standard model interactions the strong damping limit is only available near an MSW resonance if sin⁡2θ≪αw with θ the vacuum mixing angle. The full set of quantum kinetic equations for sterile production for arbitrary γ˜ are obtained from the quantum master equation. Cosmological resonant sterile neutrino production is quantum Zeno suppressed relieving potential uncertainties associated with the QCD phase transition.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the essure tubal sterilization procedure and laparoscopic tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, John A; Carson, George D

    2008-07-01

    To analyze the financial implications of establishing a hysteroscopic sterilization program using the Essure micro-insert tubal sterilization system in an ambulatory clinic. A retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification Type II-2), in an ambulatory women's health clinic in a tertiary hospital, of 108 women undergoing Essure coil insertion between 2005 and 2006, and 104 women undergoing laparoscopic tubal sterilization for permanent sterilization between 2001 and 2004. The Essure procedures used a 4 mm single channel operative hysteroscope and conscious sedation (fentanyl and midazolam); the laparoscopic tubal sterilizations were completed under general anaesthesia with a 7 mm laparoscope and either bipolar cautery or Filshie clips. Costs associated with the procedure, follow-up, and management of any complications (including nursing, hospital charges, equipment, and disposables) were tabulated. The Essure coils were successfully placed on the first attempt in 103 of 108 women (95%). Three patients required a second attempt to complete placement and two patients required laparoscopic tubal sterilization after an unsuccessful Essure. All 104 laparoscopic tubals were completed on the first attempt with no complications reported. The total cost for the 108 Essure procedures, including follow-up evaluation, was $138,996 or $1287 per case. The total cost associated with the 104 laparoscopic tubal sterilization procedures was $148,227 or $1398 per case. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $111. The Essure procedure in an ambulatory setting resulted in a statistically significant cost saving of $111 per sterilization procedure. Carrying out the Essure procedure in an ambulatory setting frees space in the operating room for other types of cases, improving access to care for more patients.

  11. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: somafe@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    [{sup 18}F]Flu deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 {mu}m filter membrane is usually adopted for {sup 18}FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for {sup 18}FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. {sup 18}FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, {sup 18}FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of {sup 18}FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure {sup 18}FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of {sup 18}FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for {sup 18}FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. {sup 18}FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine {sup 18}FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  12. Sterilization by ionizing radiation comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, A.; Giuliani, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sterilization of surgical and medical devices by ionizing radiation (gamma or accelerated electron beams) is currently regarded as one of the main industrial-scale applications of radiation technology processes. Considering the most widely utilized chemical-physical methods (i.e. ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and radiation treatment), about 10-12 millions m(3) of surgical and medical devices are estimated to be processed yearly all around the world, of which 7 on beams. Due to the increasing demand for reusable and single-use devices, and the need of assuring their sterility in order to prevent, as much as possible, the diffusion of serious infective diseases (among which for instance Aids), the market of sterilization of these items is considerably expanding. In the general depicted scenario, radiation technologies are expected to gain a leading role, even a part from their economic attractiveness, as an alternative to EtO treatment, which is more and more considered as responsible for increasing environmental, social and public health problems

  13. Methods for intraoperative, sterile pose-setting of patient-specific microstereotactic frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Benjamin; Müller, Samuel; Kundrat, Dennis; Ortmaier, Tobias; Kahrs, Lüder A.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes new methods for a microstereotactic frame based on bone cement fixation. Microstereotactic frames are under investigation for minimal invasive temporal bone surgery, e.g. cochlear implantation, or for deep brain stimulation, where products are already on the market. The correct pose of the microstereotactic frame is either adjusted outside or inside the operating room and the frame is used for e.g. drill or electrode guidance. We present a patientspecific, disposable frame that allows intraoperative, sterile pose-setting. Key idea of our approach is bone cement between two plates that cures while the plates are positioned with a mechatronics system in the desired pose. This paper includes new designs of microstereotactic frames, a system for alignment and first measurements to analyze accuracy and applicable load.

  14. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  15. Sterilization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Deep-Sea Bacteria: Impact on Their Stability and Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Colliec-Jouault

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are highly heat-sensitive macromolecules, so high temperature treatments are greatly destructive and cause considerable damage, such as a great decrease in both viscosity and molecular weight of the polymer. The technical feasibility of the production of exopolysaccharides by deep-sea bacteria Vibrio diabolicus and Alteromonas infernus was previously demonstrated using a bioproduct manufacturing process. The objective of this study was to determine which sterilization method, other than heat sterilization, was the most appropriate for these marine exopolysaccharides and was in accordance with bioprocess engineering requirements. Chemical sterilization using low-temperature ethylene oxide and a mixture of ionized gases (plasmas was compared to the sterilization methods using gamma and beta radiations. The changes to both the physical and chemical properties of the sterilized exopolysaccharides were analyzed. The use of ethylene oxide can be recommended for the sterilization of polysaccharides as a weak effect on both rheological and structural properties was observed. This low-temperature gas sterilizing process is very efficient, giving a good Sterility Assurance Level (SAL, and is also well suited to large-scale compound manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Terminal sterilization of equine-derived decellularized tendons for clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegata, Alessandro F.; Bottagisio, Marta; Boschetti, Federica; Ferroni, Marco; Bortolin, Monica; Drago, Lorenzo; Lovati, Arianna B.

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, the demand for tissue substitutes has increased and decellularized matrices has been widely proposed in the medical field to restore severe damages thanks to high biocompatibility and biomechanical properties similar to the native tissues. However, biological grafts represent a potential source of contamination and disease transmission; thus, there is the need to achieve acceptable levels of sterility. Several sterilization methods have been investigated with no consensus on the outcomes in terms of minimizing structural damages and preserving functional features of the decellularized matrix for transplantation in humans. With the aim of making decellularized tendons safe for clinical use, we evaluated the cytocompatibility, and biochemical, structural and biomechanical variations of decellularized equine tendons sterilized with peracetic acid or β-irradiation and differently wet- or dry- stored at 4 °C or − 80 °C, respectively. Considering that both sterilization and long-term storage are crucial steps that could not be avoided, our results pointed at ionizing β-rays as terminal sterilization method for decellularized grafts followed by frozen dry storage. Indeed, this approach can maintain the integrity of collagen-based structures and can avoid biomechanical changes, thus making xenogeneic decellularized tendons a promising candidate for clinical use. - Highlights: • A decellularized tendon matrix has been generated. • The sterility of the decellularized matrix is mandatory for transplantation. • β-irradiation and cold storage preserve the matrix structure and biomechanics.

  17. Terminal sterilization of equine-derived decellularized tendons for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegata, Alessandro F. [Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering Giulio Natta, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Bottagisio, Marta [Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan (Italy); Boschetti, Federica; Ferroni, Marco [Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering Giulio Natta, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Bortolin, Monica [Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan (Italy); Drago, Lorenzo [Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan (Italy); Department of Biomedical Science for Health, University of Milan, via Luigi Mangiagalli 31, 20133 Milan (Italy); Lovati, Arianna B., E-mail: arianna.lovati@grupposandonato.it [Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    In the last few years, the demand for tissue substitutes has increased and decellularized matrices has been widely proposed in the medical field to restore severe damages thanks to high biocompatibility and biomechanical properties similar to the native tissues. However, biological grafts represent a potential source of contamination and disease transmission; thus, there is the need to achieve acceptable levels of sterility. Several sterilization methods have been investigated with no consensus on the outcomes in terms of minimizing structural damages and preserving functional features of the decellularized matrix for transplantation in humans. With the aim of making decellularized tendons safe for clinical use, we evaluated the cytocompatibility, and biochemical, structural and biomechanical variations of decellularized equine tendons sterilized with peracetic acid or β-irradiation and differently wet- or dry- stored at 4 °C or − 80 °C, respectively. Considering that both sterilization and long-term storage are crucial steps that could not be avoided, our results pointed at ionizing β-rays as terminal sterilization method for decellularized grafts followed by frozen dry storage. Indeed, this approach can maintain the integrity of collagen-based structures and can avoid biomechanical changes, thus making xenogeneic decellularized tendons a promising candidate for clinical use. - Highlights: • A decellularized tendon matrix has been generated. • The sterility of the decellularized matrix is mandatory for transplantation. • β-irradiation and cold storage preserve the matrix structure and biomechanics.

  18. Use of containers with sterilizing filter in autologous serum eyedrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José S; García-Lozano, Isabel

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the use of containers with an adapted sterilizing filter on the contamination of autologous serum eyedrops. Prospective, consecutive, comparative, and randomized study. Thirty patients with Sjögren syndrome. One hundred seventy-six autologous serum containers used in home therapy were studied; 48 of them included an adapted filter (Hyabak; Thea, Clermont-Ferrand, France), and the other 128 were conventional containers. Containers equipped with a filter were tested at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of use, whereas conventional containers were studied after 7 days of use. In addition, testing for contamination was carried out in 14 conventional containers used during in-patient therapy every week for 4 weeks. In all cases, the preparation of the autologous serum was similar. Blood agar and chocolate agar were used as regular culture media for the microbiologic studies, whereas Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol was the medium for fungal studies. Microbiologic contamination of containers with autologous serum eyedrops. Only one of the containers with an adapted sterilizing filter (2.1%) became contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis after 1 month of treatment, whereas the contamination rate among conventional containers reached 28.9% after 7 days of treatment. The most frequent germs found in the samples were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (48.6%). With regard the containers used in the in-patient setting, 2 (14.3%) became contaminated after 2 weeks, 5 (35.7%) became contaminated after 3 weeks, and 5 (50%) became contaminated after 4 weeks, leaving 7 (50%) that did not become contaminated after 1 month of treatment. Using containers with an adapted filter significantly reduces the contamination rates in autologous serum eyedrops, thus extending the use of such container by the patients for up to 4 weeks with virtually no contamination risks. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them. (Kaihara, S.)

  20. Studies on mating competitiveness of sterile oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.; Segsarnviriya, S.

    1998-01-01

    An essential prerequisite for insect control by the sterile insect technique releasing method is mass rearing and sterilizing that do not have adverse effects on longevity and mating behavior of the released males. But many laboratory studies have shown that males irradiated at the completely sterility dose often could not compete with untreated males in mating. This paper studies the effects of gamma radiation at the sterile dose on mating, sexual and sperm competitiveness of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) under the laboratory condition. It is found that irradiation at the completely sterility dose (90 Gy) had reduced the mating and sperm competition ability of the males. Though the sexual competition was not

  1. Sterilization of health care products - Radiation. Part 1: Requirements for development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    in documented work programmes designed to demonstrate that the radiation process will consi stently yield sterile products on treatment with doses falling within the predetermined limits. The requirements are the normative parts of this part of ISO 11137 with which compliance is claimed. The guidance given in the informative annexes is not normative and is not provided as a checklist for auditors. The guidance provides explanations and methods that are regarded as being a suitable means for complying with the requirements. Methods other than those given in the guidance may be used, if they are effective in achieving compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 11137. The development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process comprise a number of discrete but interrelated activities; e.g. calibration, maintenance, product definition, process definition, installation qualification, operational qualification and performance qualification. While the activities required by this part of ISO 11137 have been grouped together and are presented in a particular order, this part of ISO 11137 does not require that the activities be performed in the order that they are presented. The activities required are not necessarily sequential, as the programme of development and validation may be iterative. It is possible that performing these different activities will involve a number of separate individuals and/or organizations, each of whom undertake one or more of these activities. This part of ISO 11137 does not specify the particular individuals or organizations to carry out the activities

  2. Multilevel Perspectives on Female Sterilization in Low-Income Communities in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marie A; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Jadhav, Kalpita

    2016-09-01

    Surgical sterilization is the primary method of contraception among low-income women in India. This article, using qualitative analysis of key informant, in-depth interviews, and quantitative analyses, examines the antecedents, process, and outcomes of sterilization for women in a low-income area in Mumbai, India. Family planning policies, socioeconomic factors, and gender roles constrain women's reproductive choices. Procedures for sterilization rarely follow protocol, particularly during pre-procedure counseling and consent. Women who choose sterilization often marry early, begin conceiving soon after marriage, and reach or exceed ideal family size early due to problems in accessing reversible contraceptives. Despite these constraints, this study indicates that from the perspective of women, the decision to undergo sterilization is empowering, as they have fulfilled their reproductive duties and can effectively exercise control over their fertility and sexuality. This empowerment results in little post-sterilization regret, improved emotional health, and improved sexual relationships following sterilization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Effect of sterilization procedures on properties of plasma polymers relevant to biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemenko, A.; Kylián, O.; Choukourov, A.; Gordeev, I.; Petr, M.; Vandrovcová, M.; Polonskyi, O.; Bačáková, L.; Slavinska, D.; Biederman, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the evaluation of resistance of plasma polymers toward common sterilization techniques, i.e. property important for possible use of such materials in biomedical applications. Three kinds of plasma polymers having different bioadhesive natures were studied: plasma polymerized poly(ethylene oxide), fluorocarbon plasma polymers, and nitrogen-rich plasma polymers. These plasma polymers were subjected to dry heat, autoclave and UV radiation treatment. Their physical, chemical and bioresponsive properties were determined by means of different techniques (ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, wettability measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and biological tests with osteoblast-like cells MG63). The results clearly show that properties of thin films of plasma polymers may be significantly altered by a sterilization process. Moreover, observed changes induced by selected sterilization methods were found to depend strongly on the sterilized plasma polymer. - Highlights: ► Effect of common sterilization methods on three kinds of plasma polymers is studied. ► Physical, chemical and bioresponsive properties of plasma polymers are analyzed. ► Changes induced by sterilization depend strongly on type of the plasma polymer.

  4. Sterility and meeting competitiveness of medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taein-Tun; Molly-Maung-Maung

    2001-01-01

    The basic methodology in the determination of sterilising dosage in male med flies and mating competitiveness with the normal males was carried out in the laboratory. Application of the Sterile Insect Technique (S.I.T.) by three irradiation dosages on Seib-6096 pupae results in sterility when dosage increased. A lower mating competitiveness was observed with the increase in sterility value. This value was determined from the corrected egg hatch percent. The resulting data showed that irradiation dosage of γ 10.0 Krad gave a good advantage to suppress the population in the next generation. The method suggested a good application in the control and eradication of fruit flies. (author)

  5. The Rise of Female Sterilization: A Closer Look at Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Beatriz M; Betstadt, Sarah; Li, Dongmei; Whaley, Natalie

    2017-09-01

    Objective In the 1970s, OCPs and IUDs were the most popular contraceptive methods in Colombia. According to data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), sterilization has become the most common form of birth control in Colombia. This study aims to examine the characteristics of Colombian women desiring long-acting contraception. Methods This study uses the 2005 and 2010 Colombian DHS dataset. Women who choose long-acting contraception were divided into those using female sterilization and those using long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to compare demographic and social determinants of contraceptive choice among reproductive age women seeking long-acting contraception between the years 2005 and 2010. Results Among women using a long-acting contraceptive method in 2010, compared to 2005, women were significantly more likely to be sterilized (1.14 OR, 95% CI 1.09-1.18) and less likely to use LARC (0.88 OR, 95% CI 0.85-0.92). Of women seeking long-acting contraception, those exposed to a family planning provider were less likely to undergo sterilization (0.54 OR, 95% CI 0.51-0.58) and more likely to use LARC (1.84 OR, 95% CI 1.73-1.96). When compared to all contraceptive users, younger women and women with less than two children were more likely to use LARC than sterilization. Conclusion Between 2005 and 2010, an increase in the proportion of contracepting women being sterilized in Colombia occurred. Our findings suggest that exposure to a family planning provider and appropriate contraceptive counseling appears to be key determinants of long-acting contraceptive choice. To improve use of long-acting, effective contraception, efforts should be made to increase access to family planning providers.

  6. Study on blood compatibility of the radiation sterilized disposable burette transfusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guochong; Liu Wen; Liu Qingfang

    2011-01-01

    The blood compatibility of the radiation sterilized disposable burette transfusion apparatus was investigated to provide evidence for the safety of radiation sterilized medical devices. The initial bacteria burden of the disposable burette transfusion apparatus was examined according to the ISO11737 standard, and the whole blood clotting time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and hemolysis rate of the samples were determined. There was no significant difference between the radiation sterilized samples and negative controls on WBCT, PT and PTT (p>0.05). Haemolysis test showed that the haemolysis rate of the sample sterilized by irradiation was 1.38%, which was coincidence with the criteria of the medical devices. After sterilization by irradiation, disposable burette transfusion apparatus show good blood compatibility, which could be considered that radiation sterilization is a biologically safe method for the medical apparatus. (authors)

  7. Temperature Effects on Free Radicals in Gamma-sterilized Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, S. I.; Jahan, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    Gamma irradiation has become the method of choice for sterilizing frozen meat and their products to reduce levels of food-borne pathogens and to extend shelf life. In this report we have employed ESR technique for detection of free radicals in sterilized and non-sterilized dry beef without bone. We have also determined the heating effects on free radicals at temperatures 176^°C and 250^°C. Meat samples were dried in a food dehydrator at 60^°C and were packaged in dry N_2. They were then sterilized by γ-irradiation (2.5 MRad), ground into powder, and placed in ESR sample tubes. Non-sterilized powder samples were used as control. While all powder samples, sterilized or not, produced a broad single line in the ESR spectra with (Δ H_pp ~ 9 G) and g = 2.013, the radical concentration in the sterilized samples increased by a factor of five. Heat treatment at 176^°C produced similar radicals. But, when samples were heated 250^°C different radical species were formed which are characterized by narrow width (Δ H_pp ~ 6 G) and lower g-value (g =2.010). In contrast with previous work, where free radicals in chicken bones were reduced by heating [1], we observed an increase in concentration. Results of structural analyses of the radicals will be presented. Ref.[1]: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 49, 477-481, 1997. Work supported by Grants from the University of Memphis

  8. Field trials for the control of the Mediterranean fruit-fly by radiation induced sterility. Part of a coordinated programme on fruit-fly eradication of control by the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, L.; Arroyo, M.; Jimenez, A.; Ros, P.; Caballero, F.; Vargas, C.

    1975-12-01

    More than 50 million insects were used in field trials in which the applicability of the sterile insects release method to the control of Ceratitis capitata in Spain was tested. The areas concerned were Santa Fe, Purchil and Armilla. Whereas the infestation of untreated areas (controls) was 92 %, chemically treated areas (using Lebaycid and other insecticides) ranged from 1.2 to 17 %, and areas over which sterile insects had been released showed less than 1.3 % infestation. The economic aspects and advantages of the sterile insect method compared with chemical control measures are pointed out

  9. Development and Validation of Sterility Systems for Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Steve; Shevchenko, Olga; Ma, Caiping (Cathleen)

    2007-03-30

    The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate sterility systems in poplar with the ultimate goal of fulfilling the basic requirements for commercial use. For this, sterility must be complete and stable over multiple growing seasons, cause no detrimental effects on vegetative growth, and successful transformation events must be identifiable via molecular tests when trees are still juvenile. Because of the inherent difficulties in achieving and demonstrating complete sterility in trees, our approach was to study alternate sterility systems in Arabidopsis and/or early-flowering tree systems. The public benefit from this work is the capacity for containment of genes or exotic forms of trees so they can be of benefit for industry for production of wood, energy, and renewable products, while having minimal impact on wild populations of trees. We tested three methods for engineering sterility: dominant negative mutant (DNM) proteins, floral tissue ablation, and RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress the expression of several floral regulatory genes. The ultimate goal of this work was to produce a number of transgenic poplars that could be outplanted to enable future assessments of the effectiveness of these transgenic sterility methods. Our attempts to produce ablation constructs that did not interfere with tree health were partially successful. Using the poplar LEAFY gene promoter and the barnase/barstar system, we were able to regenerate plants that grew well in the greenhouse, but they showed poor health in the field. Four of seven DNM genes tested were considered promising enough, based on results in Arabidopsis, to produce transgenic poplars. Single, double, and triple RNAi genes were produced and transformed into poplar. Over all, we produced 1,964 PCR-confirmed transgenic events with 19 different kinds of sterility genes and several kinds of control genes. We propagated 5,640, 6,820, and 7,055 trees for each of three test poplar genotypes, and field

  10. Studies on the male sterility-fertility restoration system of AE. Kotschyi 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Junyuan; Sun Guoqing; Liu Luxiang; Zhao Linshu; Lu Xiuxia

    1996-01-01

    Sterile plants were obtained from the distant hybridization between Ae. Kotschyi 19 as the female parent and the Chinese Spring and T. yunnanense King as the male parent. Common wheat lines were used to testcross and backcross with the F 1 sterile plants successively. Male sterile line K-19 with Ae. Kotschyi cytoplasm and common wheat nucleus was bred. Over 10 K-19 MS lines were obtained. They are steady without monoploid. 7 restorers were obtained with the restoring ability from 88.2% to 96.9% according to the domestic method, from 116.4% to 150.4% according to the international method

  11. International standard (ISO) of radiation sterilization and issues in the sterilization dose setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Masaaki

    1995-01-01

    The ISO dose setting method 1 uses bioburden and verification by sublethal sterility test. Current devices produced in clean environmental have low bioburden, however, sensitivity of verification test declines at low bioburden. Validation of verification in this region should be further studied. A dose setting using D 10 of bioburden isolates should be reevaluated and included in the ISO. (author)

  12. The context and limitations of female sterilization services in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha; Abbas, Khadija; Tirmizi, Syed Farhan Ali; ul Islam, Zia

    2013-04-01

    Female sterilization has long been the most popular method of family planning (FP) in Pakistan, and yet most public health experts feel it contributes little to controlling family size or to population welfare. We used Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) data to understand the role female sterilization plays in the overall context of FP in Pakistan. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the PDHS 1990-1 and 2006-7 to study factors that lead to sterilization and trends in the use of the procedure. In addition, census data were multiplied by proportions from PDHS data to estimate the number of women availing sterilization services. Around 1.9 million women in Pakistan are currently sterilized--up from 0.55 million in 1990-1, and around 173,867 undergo the procedure, annually. Women usually receive sterilization after 30 years of age (mean = 39) and after six children. The probability of sterilization increases with age, family size, and urban residence, and is unaffected by poverty, province of residence, or the woman or her husband's education. Most sterilizationis conducted in public sector facilities. Sterilization in Pakistan may be common, but occurs too late to have any significant effect on family size or benefit public health. Future avenues to make this option more useful to women and society would be to improve the repertoire and access and quality of FP services that are available, and to address governance issues that limit the performance and utility of government facilities.

  13. Design of convergent pierce electron gun of accelerator for radiation sterilization by the method of synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiaoxiao; Li Quanfeng

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis technique for the preliminary design of convergent Pierce electron guns is introduced briefly which has a series of advantages over the traditional methods. A thermal cathode electron gun used in the accelerator for radiation sterilization with the synthesis method is redesigned, and the validity of this method is proved. Based on the preliminary design parameters given by the synthesis method, a simulating calculation program, EGUN, was used in the numerical figure design of the focusing electrode and the anode. The final results can meet the engineering requirement as the current being 1A, the normalized emittance being less than 4 mm·mrad, and the final current density showing uniformity

  14. Soft electron processor for surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Takashi; Kaneko, Hiromi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    As frozen or chilled foods have become popular nowadays, it has become very important to provide raw materials with lower level microbial contamination to food processing companies. Consequently, the sterilization of food material is one of the major topics for food processing. Dried materials like grains, beans and spices, etc., are not typically deeply contaminated by microorganisms, which reside on the surfaces of materials, so it is very useful to take low energetic, lower than 300 keV, electrons with small penetration power (Soft-Electrons), as a sterilization method for such materials. Soft-Electrons is researched and named by Dr. Hayashi et al. This is a non-thermal method, so one can keep foods hygienic without serious deterioration. It is also a physical method, so is free from residues of chemicals in foods. Recently, Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd. have developed and manufactured equipment for commercial use of Soft-Electrons (Soft Electron Processor), which can process 500 kg/h of grains. This report introduces the Soft Electron Processor and shows the results of sterilization of wheat and brown rice by the equipment

  15. Sexual courtship of steriles males of Ceratitis Capitata (WIED) in SIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhel, Salma

    2008-01-01

    In the SIT programme, the success of sterile males to compete with the fertile males is an important parameter for assuring efficiency. In this study, two methods are tested to improve the sterile male quality: the first is the exposure of sterile males to different concentrations of Ginger Root Oil (GRO) (0, 20, 50 and 80 μl), the second is the exposure of males to different irradiation doses (80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 145 Gy). The comparison of these methods depends to study of quality parameters (emergence, flight ability, survival) and courtship behaviour of sterile males (sperm production, mating competitiveness, sperm transfer). The 80μl concentration of GRO improves the mating competitiveness of males to compare with the Control (respectively: 68% and 46%). The 80 Gy irradiation dose assure the same result then the Control. (Author)

  16. Male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D. (Station d' Amelioration des Plantes de l' I.N.R.A., Dijon (France))

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined.

  17. Glass bead sterilizer comprehensively defeats hot air oven in orthodontic clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Vasudev Jakati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary to ′try in′ several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control. Aim and Objectives: To determine whether such bands could be successfully decontaminated with Glass bead sterilization so that they could be re-used without a cross-infection risk. Materials: Custom made molar bands were taken and buccal tubes,lingual sheath and lingual cleat were welded under strict aseptic conditions. Methods: Samples were divided into 2 groups i.e. A and B, based on mode for sterilization. Sterilized attachments were placed in each of 2 conical flask. The bacteria spores were inoculated into both flask under strict aseptic conditions. Bacteria Bacillus subtillis and Staphylococcus albus species were allowed to multiply in individual flasks filled with BHI broth for 24 hours. Bands from 1st group were placed in a glass bead sterilizer. For the 2 nd group i.e. hot air oven group, all bands were placed together. After sterilization bands were removed and placed in freshly sterilized 500ml conical flask containing BHI broth for 24 hours in the incubator. The following day randomly 4 attachments were selected from each group and streaked on blood agar culture plates. Results: After sterilization and on further incubation in BHI broth for 24 and 48 hrs. Respectively no growth was seen. Conclusion: 1 hr. of Hot Air Oven sterilization (excluding pre sterilization heat up time and post sterilization cooling time at 190°C is as effective as 3 min of Chair side Glass Bead sterilization.

  18. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu; National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo

    1995-01-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  19. History of sterile compounding in U.S. hospitals: learning from the tragic lessons of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Charles E

    2013-08-15

    The evolution of sterile compounding in the context of hospital patient care, the evolution of related technology, past incidents of morbidity and mortality associated with preparations compounded in various settings, and efforts over the years to improve compounding practices are reviewed. Tightened United States Pharmacopeial Convention standards (since 2004) for sterile compounding made it difficult for hospitals to achieve all of the sterile compounding necessary for patient care. Shortages of manufactured injections added to the need for compounding. Non-hospital-based compounding pharmacies increased sterile compounding to meet the needs. Gaps in federal and state laws and regulations about compounding pharmacies led to deficiencies in their regulation. Lapses in sterility led to injuries and deaths. Perspectives offered include potential actions, including changes in practitioner education, better surveillance of sterile compounding, regulatory reforms, reexamination of the causes of drug shortages, and the development of new technologies. Over the years, there have been numerous exhortations for voluntary better performance in sterile compounding. In addition, professional leadership has been vigorous and extensive in the form of guidance, publications, education, enforceable standards, and development of various associations and organizations dealing with safe compounding practices. Yet problems continue to occur. We must engage in diligent learning from the injuries and tragedies that have occurred. Assuming that we are already doing all we can to avoid problems would be an abdication of the professional mission of pharmacists. It would be wrong thinking to assume that the recent problems in large-scale compounding pharmacies are the only problems that warrant attention. It is time for a systematic assessment of the nature and the dimensions of the problems in every type of setting where sterile compounding occurs. It also is time for some innovative

  20. Surface roughness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials following chemical disinfection, autoclave and microwave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Autoclave sterilization and microwave sterilization has been suggested as the effective methods for the disinfection of elastomeric impressions, but subjecting elastomeric impressions to extreme temperature may have adverse effects on critical properties of the elastomers. To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfection as well as autoclave and microwave sterilization on the surface roughness of elastomeric impression materials. The surface roughness of five commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Coltene President, Affinis Perfect impression, Aquasil, 3M ESPE Express and GC Exafast) were evaluated after subjecting them to chemical disinfection, autoclaving and microwave sterilization using a Talysurf Intra 50 instrument. Twenty specimens from each material were fabricated and divided into four equal groups, three experimental and one control (n=25). The differences in the mean surface roughness between the treatment groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. No statistically significant increase in the surface roughness was observed when the specimens were subjected to chemical disinfection and autoclave sterilization, increase in roughness and discoloration was observed in all the materials when specimens were subjected to microwave sterilization. Chemical disinfection did not have a significant effect but, since it is less effective, autoclave sterilization can be considered effective and autoclaving did not show any specimen discoloration as in microwave sterilization. Microwave sterilization may be considered when impressions are used to make diagnostic casts. A significant increase in surface roughness may produce rougher casts, resulting in rougher tissue surfaces for denture and cast restorations. Autoclave sterilization of vinyl polysiloxane elastomeric impressions for 5 minutes at 134°C at 20 psi may be considered an effective method over chemical disinfection and microwave sterilization, because chemical disinfection does

  1. Utilization of ionizing radiation for the sterilization of membraneous connective tissue allografts. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafyllou, N.

    1978-05-01

    The work carried out, covered several aspects of radiation sterilization of membraneous allografts. In general the findings show that the sterilization of biological membranes with gamma irradiation using doses of up to 3 Mrads is a very satisfactory method for the sterilization of the material, since it does not seriously alter the biological properties of allografts. As for the changes of the mechanical properties, this is not considered to be a serious draw back, because the membraneous allografts cover surgical needs where the mechanical strength is not of paramount importance

  2. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Tiago de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This research aims to investigate the socioeconomic factors determining the choices for alternative contraceptive choices against the dominant preference for sterilization among married women in India. METHODS: Data for this study are drawn from the 2005-06 National Family Health Surveys focusing on a sample of married women who reported having used a method of contraception in the five years preceding the survey. A multilevel multinomial logit regression is used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic factors on contraceptive choices, differentiating temporary modern or traditional methods versus sterilization. FINDINGS: Religious affiliation, women's education and occupation had overarching influence on method choices amongst recent users. Muslim women were at higher odds of choosing a traditional or modern temporary method than sterilization. Higher level of women's education increased the odds of modern temporary method choices but the education effect on traditional method choices was only marginally significant. Recent users belonging to wealthier households had higher odds of choosing modern methods over sterilization. Exposure to family planning messages through radio had a positive effect on modern and traditional method choices. Community variations in method choices were highly significant. CONCLUSION: The persistent dominance of sterilization in the Indian family planning programme is largely determined by socioeconomic conditions. Reproductive health programmes should address the socioeconomic barriers

  3. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Namaky, R; van Oort, P A J

    2017-12-01

    There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two EGMS lines tested here, it was not clear if one or more recessive gene(s) were causing male sterility. This was tested by studying sterility segregation of the F2 populations. Daylength (photoperiod) and minimum temperatures during the period from panicle initiation to flowering had significant effects on male sterility. Results clearly showed that only one recessive gene was involved in causing male sterility. The model was applied to determine the set of sowing dates of two different EGMS lines such that both would flower at the same time the pollen would be completely sterile. In the same time the local popular variety (Sahel 108, the male pollen donor) being sufficiently fertile to produce the hybrid seeds. The model was applied to investigate the viability of the two line breeding system in the same location with climate change (+2oC) and in two other potential locations: in M'Be in Ivory Coast and in the Nile delta in Egypt. Apart from giving new insights in the relation between environment and EGMS, this study shows that these insights can be used to assess safe sowing windows and assess the suitability of sterility and fertility period of different environments for a two line hybrid rice production system.

  4. Materials Surfaces and sterility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.

    2001-04-01

    A question of great interest in sterile and clean room technology is how can we devise a standard for the guarantee of sterility? Sterility is of widespread importance: it gives the life-time of our daily milk or yogurt, dominates the nature of food packing, and determines the feasibility of the miniaturization of biotechnology plants. All these phenomena are based on the principle of bioadhesion. Bioadhesion is also the basis of the biomimetic material technologies, like the attachment of selected protein layers that can be used for nanomasking. (orig.)

  5. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Gamma radiations an effective way of monoclonal antibodies sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenay Barrera Barroso, Lenay; Otero Abreu, Isabel; Rodriguez Napoles, Dania; Bulte Ocanna, Dubhe; Caballero, Idania

    2006-01-01

    The sterilization for radiations of pharmaceutical products is an effective, sure and reliable procedure; that it have been proving technically and grateful for different pharmacopoeia. The Monoclonal Antibodies (Acm) produced in the Center of Molecular Immunology (CIM) are products parenteral for the one which results indispensable that they complete the requirements of established sterility. The radio sterilization result the method more recommend for the sterilization of the Acm deep drying, due to the contained first floor of humidity remnant that minimizes the formation of sub-product that they affect their properties. With the objective of proposing a good dose of irradiation for the sterilization, we were carried out a study of the radius sensibility so much of the product like of the polluting of greater frequency of isolation of the clean area of the CIM. The characterization of the radius sensibility of the different micro- organisms was determined by D 10 characteristic of each isolated strains. From the developed studies the Gram-positive rods endospore-forming were the most resistant strains at the deep drying, the radiations and they were of the greater frequency of apparition in the carried out isolations. We could conclude that utilizing a dose of 10 kGy it is possible to eliminate of the pollution more radio resistant, assuring the sterility required in the product, and without inducing effects under desire radiolytic in the same

  7. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-01

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1 st of June 2013 to 30 th of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen

  8. Disinfection/sterilization of extracted teeth for dental student use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, J T; Eleazer, P D; Clark, S J; Staat, R H; Scheetz, J P

    2001-11-01

    Extracted human teeth are used in many preclinical courses. While there has been no report of disease transmission with extracted teeth, sterilization of teeth used in the teaching laboratory should be a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth using Bacillus stearothermophilus, a bacteria resistant to heat and frequently used to test sterilizers. In this study, 110 extracted molars with no carious lesions were collected and stored in buffered saline. An endodontic occlusal access preparation was cut into the pulp chamber of each tooth. Pulp tissue in the chamber was removed with a broach. Approximately 1 x 10(5) B. stearothermophilus endospores in culture medium were injected into the pulp chamber, sealed with Cavit G, and then placed in sterile saline for twelve hours. Ten teeth were placed into each of eleven groups. Seven groups were immersed for one week in one of the following solutions: a) sterile saline (control group), b) 5.25% NaOCl, c) 2.6% NaOCl, d) 1% NaOCl, e) 10% buffered formalin, f) 2% gluteraldehyde, g) 0.28% quaternary ammonium. Four additional groups were treated by h) 10% formalin for two days, i) 10% formalin for four days, j) autoclaving at 240 degrees F and 20 psi for twenty minutes, and k) autoclaving at 240 degrees F and twenty psi for forty minutes. Each tooth was then aseptically split and placed in an individual test tube with growth medium. Samples were examined for evidence of growth (turbidity) at forty-eight hours. Only autoclaving for forty minutes at 240 degrees F and 20 psi or soaking in 10 percent formalin for one week were 100 percent effective in preventing growth. A chi-square analysis of the data indicates these two methods were significantly better than all other methods (p<0.001).

  9. Effect of sterilization procedures on properties of plasma polymers relevant to biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemenko, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Macromolecular Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Kylian, O., E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Macromolecular Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Choukourov, A.; Gordeev, I.; Petr, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Macromolecular Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Vandrovcova, M. [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Department of Growth and Differentiation of Cell Populations, Videnska 1083, 142 20, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Polonskyi, O. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Macromolecular Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Bacakova, L. [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Department of Growth and Differentiation of Cell Populations, Videnska 1083, 142 20, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Slavinska, D.; Biederman, H. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Macromolecular Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    This study is focused on the evaluation of resistance of plasma polymers toward common sterilization techniques, i.e. property important for possible use of such materials in biomedical applications. Three kinds of plasma polymers having different bioadhesive natures were studied: plasma polymerized poly(ethylene oxide), fluorocarbon plasma polymers, and nitrogen-rich plasma polymers. These plasma polymers were subjected to dry heat, autoclave and UV radiation treatment. Their physical, chemical and bioresponsive properties were determined by means of different techniques (ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, wettability measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and biological tests with osteoblast-like cells MG63). The results clearly show that properties of thin films of plasma polymers may be significantly altered by a sterilization process. Moreover, observed changes induced by selected sterilization methods were found to depend strongly on the sterilized plasma polymer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of common sterilization methods on three kinds of plasma polymers is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical, chemical and bioresponsive properties of plasma polymers are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes induced by sterilization depend strongly on type of the plasma polymer.

  10. Provision of female sterilization in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Elisabeth Meloni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty percent of Brazilian married women from 15 to 49 years of age have undergone surgical sterilization. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution states that all scientifically proven contraceptive methods should be available to all citizens, but it was only in 1997 that specific family planning legislation was approved. This study examines physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the current provision of female sterilization and its legal implications, as well as women's experience with obtaining and undergoing sterilization. The study design included: (1 an investigation of the hospitals and health professionals and (2 a survey of women sterilized in combination with cesarean delivery in 1998. The survey showed they had a median of 3 living children, 60.0% had been sterilized between 30 and 39 years of age, and 61.0% had paid for the procedure. Many women reported previous method failure and adverse effects with hormonal contraceptives. Women with less schooling and lower socioeconomic status had more children and had begun childbearing and had been sterilized at younger ages than women with more schooling and higher socioeconomic status. Inequalities related to reproduction were strongly associated with teenage pregnancy and inadequate knowledge about contraceptives.

  11. Provision of female sterilization in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty percent of Brazilian married women from 15 to 49 years of age have undergone surgical sterilization. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution states that all scientifically proven contraceptive methods should be available to all citizens, but it was only in 1997 that specific family planning legislation was approved. This study examines physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the current provision of female sterilization and its legal implications, as well as women's experience with obtaining and undergoing sterilization. The study design included: (1 an investigation of the hospitals and health professionals and (2 a survey of women sterilized in combination with cesarean delivery in 1998. The survey showed they had a median of 3 living children, 60.0% had been sterilized between 30 and 39 years of age, and 61.0% had paid for the procedure. Many women reported previous method failure and adverse effects with hormonal contraceptives. Women with less schooling and lower socioeconomic status had more children and had begun childbearing and had been sterilized at younger ages than women with more schooling and higher socioeconomic status. Inequalities related to reproduction were strongly associated with teenage pregnancy and inadequate knowledge about contraceptives.

  12. Providing Re-Essure-ance to the Nickel-Allergic Patient Considering Hysteroscopic Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew; Tyson, Adam; Thurston, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Essure is a popular method of permanent sterilization that offers a minimally invasive approach that avoids the risks of traditional sterilization procedures in the operating room. Despite the rarity of complications, there has been concern in the popular media over the safety of Essure. We describe the third reported case of systemic contact dermatitis due to the nickel component of the device, with a resolution of symptoms following surgical removal of the inserts. Despite these cases, we believe that extremely rare complications such as this should not dissuade patients from choosing this safe, effective method of sterilization. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Toward Higher QA: From Parametric Release of Sterile Parenteral Products to PAT for Other Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Sia Chong; Constance, Neo Xue Rui; Wah, Chan Lai

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are generally subjected to end-product batch testing as a means of quality control. Due to the inherent limitations of conventional batch testing, this is not the most ideal approach for determining the pharmaceutical quality of the finished dosage form. In the case of terminally sterilized parenteral products, the limitations of conventional batch testing have been successfully addressed with the application of parametric release (the release of a product based on control of process parameters instead of batch sterility testing at the end of the manufacturing process). Consequently, there has been an increasing interest in applying parametric release to other pharmaceutical dosage forms, beyond terminally sterilized parenteral products. For parametric release to be possible, manufacturers must be capable of designing quality into the product, monitoring the manufacturing processes, and controlling the quality of intermediates and finished products in real-time. Process analytical technology (PAT) has been thought to be capable of contributing to these prerequisites. It is believed that the appropriate use of PAT tools can eventually lead to the possibility of real-time release of other pharmaceutical dosage forms, by-passing the need for end-product batch testing. Hence, this literature review attempts to present the basic principles of PAT, introduce the various PAT tools that are currently available, present their recent applications to pharmaceutical processing, and explain the potential benefits that PAT can bring to conventional ways of processing and quality assurance of pharmaceutical products. Last but not least, current regulations governing the use of PAT and the manufacturing challenges associated with PAT implementation are also discussed. Pharmaceutical products are generally subjected to end-product batch testing as a means of quality control. Due to the inherent limitations of conventional batch testing, this is not the most

  14. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Isabel Tiago; Dias, José G; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-01-01

    The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This research aims to investigate the socioeconomic factors determining the choices for alternative contraceptive choices against the dominant preference for sterilization among married women in India. Data for this study are drawn from the 2005-06 National Family Health Surveys focusing on a sample of married women who reported having used a method of contraception in the five years preceding the survey. A multilevel multinomial logit regression is used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic factors on contraceptive choices, differentiating temporary modern or traditional methods versus sterilization. Religious affiliation, women's education and occupation had overarching influence on method choices amongst recent users. Muslim women were at higher odds of choosing a traditional or modern temporary method than sterilization. Higher level of women's education increased the odds of modern temporary method choices but the education effect on traditional method choices was only marginally significant. Recent users belonging to wealthier households had higher odds of choosing modern methods over sterilization. Exposure to family planning messages through radio had a positive effect on modern and traditional method choices. Community variations in method choices were highly significant. The persistent dominance of sterilization in the Indian family planning programme is largely determined by socioeconomic conditions. Reproductive health programmes should address the socioeconomic barriers and consider multiple cost-effective strategies such as mass

  15. Which is the best method of sterilization for recycled bone autograft in limb salvage surgery: a radiological, biomechanical and histopathological study in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nor Faissal; Ajit Singh, Vivek; Saad, Marniza; Omar, Effat

    2015-04-15

    Limb salvage surgery is a treatment of choice for sarcomas of the extremities. One of the options in skeletal reconstruction after tumour resection is by using a recycled bone autograft. The present accepted methods of recycling bone autografts include autoclaving, pasteurization and irradiation. At the moment there is lack of studies that compare the effectiveness of various sterilization methods used for recycling bone autografts and their effects in terms of bone incorporation. This study was performed to determine the effects of different methods of sterilization on bone autografts in rabbit by radiological, biomechanical and histopathological evaluations. Fresh rabbit cortical bone is harvested from the tibial diaphysis and sterilized extracorporeally by pasteurization (n = 6), autoclaving (n = 6), irradiation (n = 6) and normal saline as control group (n = 6). The cortical bones were immediately reimplanted after the sterilization process. The subsequent process of graft incorporation was examined over a period of 12 weeks by serial radiographs, biomechanical and histopathological evaluations. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) was performed on these results. Significance level (α) and power (β) were set to 0.05 and 0.90, respectively. Radiographic analysis showed that irradiation group has higher score in bony union compared to other sterilization groups (p = 0.041). ANOVA analysis of 'failure stress', 'modulus' and 'strain to failure' demonstrated no significant differences (p = 0.389) between treated and untreated specimens under mechanical loading. In macroscopic histopathological analysis, the irradiated group has the highest percentage of bony union (91.7 percent). However in microscopic analysis of union, the pasteurization group has significantly higher score (p = 0.041) in callus formation, osteocytes percentage and bone marrow cellularity at the end of the study indicating good union potential. This experimental study shown that both irradiation and

  16. Sterilization by pure oxygen plasma and by oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma: an efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, M R; Moreira, A J; Mansano, R D; Kikuchi, I S; Pinto, T J A

    2008-04-02

    Plasma is an innovative sterilization method characterized by a low toxicity to operators and patients, and also by its operation at temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of different parameters for this method of sterilization and the corresponding results were analyzed in this study. A low-pressure inductive discharge was used to study the plasma sterilization processes. Oxygen and a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were used as plasma source gases. The efficacy of the processes using different combinations of parameters such as plasma-generation method, type of gas, pressure, gas flow rate, temperature, power, and exposure time was evaluated. Two phases were developed for the processes, one using pure oxygen and the other a mixture of gases. Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 (Bacillus atrophaeus) spores inoculated on glass coverslips were used as biological indicators to evaluate the efficacy of the processes. All cycles were carried out in triplicate for different sublethal exposure times to calculate the D value by the enumeration method. The pour-plate technique was used to quantify the spores. D values of between 8 and 3 min were obtained. Best results were achieved at high power levels (350 and 400 W) using pure oxygen, showing that plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to other sterilization methods.

  17. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-22

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  18. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  19. Insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, A.W.

    1963-01-01

    The successful use of the sterile male technique to eradicate the screw worm fly from the Southeastern part of the United States showed that a new biological method using radiation-sterilized insects could not only control but also eradicate harmful insect pests. A panel of experts met at the IAEA in Vienna in October 1962 to discuss the various aspects and applications of this new technique and to assess its usefulness and limitations. This report summarizes the panel proceedings. 42 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  20. Insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, A W

    1963-10-01

    The successful use of the sterile male technique to eradicate the screw worm fly from the Southeastern part of the United States showed that a new biological method using radiation-sterilized insects could not only control but also eradicate harmful insect pests. A panel of experts met at the IAEA in Vienna in October 1962 to discuss the various aspects and applications of this new technique and to assess its usefulness and limitations. This report summarizes the panel proceedings. 42 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab.

  1. Contraceptive behavior of couples undergoing sterilization in an Eastern State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatarao Epari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a part of a larger study for evaluating the effectiveness of a community-based family welfare program, this study assessed the contraceptive behavior of couples preceding sterilization and termination of pregnancies, if any during the interim period. Methods: During May–June 2013, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in three districts of Odisha, an eastern state of India with poor maternal health indicators. Using a 15 × 14 cluster design with probability proportionate to size sampling 15 village clusters from each district were selected. Seven beneficiaries from the catchment area of two Accredited Social Health Activist of the selected villages were interviewed (14 respondents from each village using a pretested predesigned questionnaire. Results: A total of 630 clients with either of the partner having undergone sterilization were interviewed. Male partner having undergone vasectomy was < 1% (n = 3. The mean age (standard error mean [SEM] of the respondent women was 34.54 ± 0.26 years. The mean age of the women at the time of sterilization was 27.12 (standard deviation [SD], 3.8, SEM 0.15 and median 26.83 years years. Women as young as 22 years had undergone sterilization. Average family size was 2.81 with about 29 respondents (4.5% having 5 or more children. The average duration between the last childbirth (LCB to the date of sterilization was 18.37 months (range: 1–142 months, SD: 24 months, SE: 10 months. Seventy-two percent of the respondents did not use any method of contraception during this period. Methods adopted for contraception among the users was pill (20% followed by condom (7%, and intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD was least used (0.2%. Ten percent of the women had undergone abortion before sterilization either once (7.9% or more than once (2.1%. Conclusion: There was a gross delay in sterilization after LCB. Postpartum sterilization or IUCD were also not used frequently.

  2. Effect Of Ethylene Oxide, Autoclave and Ultra Violet Sterilizations On Surface Topography Of Pet Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem DUZYER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the effects of different sterilization methods on electrospun polyester. Ethylene oxide (EO, autoclave (AU and ultraviolet (UV sterilization methods were applied to electrospun fibers produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET solutions with concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 wt.%. The surface characteristics of the fibers were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, surface pore size studies and contact angle measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC tests were carried out to characterize the thermal properties. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR tests were performed to analyze the micro structural properties. SEM studies showed that different sterilization methods made significant changes on the surfaces of the fibers depending on the PET concentration. Although the effects were decreased with the increasing polymer concentration, the fiber structure was damaged especially with the EO sterilization. The contact angle values were decreased with the UV sterilization method the most.

  3. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  4. Laparoscopic Filshie clip sterilization and selective use of the methylene blue dye test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh; Yoong, Wai

    2004-01-01

    In laparoscopic Filshie clip sterilization, difficulties may arise in identifying the length of the fallopian tube, with the possibility of failure of sterilization. This article describes a novel intraoperative method of demonstrating adequate tubal closure.

  5. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-01-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services-industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006

  6. The use of bacteriological preparates to test processes in radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, L.; Igali, S.; Kovacs, A.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental factors influencing the irradiation sensitivity of micro-organisms, bacterium stocks being suitable for biological checking up and spore test organism used nowadays are reviewed. According to the tests made on Bacillus pumilus E601 and Bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A stockes with Noratom, PX-γ-30 and 60 Co radiation sources the irradiation sensitivity of the same products irradiated with the same dose can differ in the function of the radiation source and the dose rate. It seems necessary to produce the test preparates in the same way in a central laboratory and to calibrate them to single radiation sources. It is advisable to check up the factual microbicidal effect of the nominal dosage by a biological dosimeter. The method reviewed potentiates a much higher confidence than that of conventional sterility tests and its additional advantage is the cheapness. (K.A.)

  7. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  8. Geographic Variation in Characteristics of Postpartum Women Using Female Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Potter, Joseph E; Zite, Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Southern states have higher rates of female sterilization compared with other areas of the United States, and the reasons for this are not well understood. We examined whether low-income and racial/ethnic minority women, who were previous targets of coercive practices, disproportionately report using sterilization in the South. We used data from 12 states participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System that collected information on women's contraceptive method use between 2006 and 2009. We categorized states according to geographic region: South, Midwest/West, and Northeast. Within each region, we computed the percentage of women using sterilization according to their demographic and obstetric characteristics and estimated multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios to evaluate whether the same characteristics were associated with sterilization use. The percentage of postpartum women using sterilization ranged from 5.0% to 9.9% in the Northeast, 8.9% to 10.6% in the Midwest/West, and 11.6% to 22.4% in the South. Women in nearly all subgroups in Southern states were more likely to use sterilization than women in the Northeast. After multivariable adjustment, there were no differences in the prevalence of sterilization for Blacks compared with Whites in the Northeast (0.76; 95% CI, 0.55-1.06), Midwest/West (0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.04), and South (0.96; 95% CI, 0.85-1.07). Women with Medicaid-paid deliveries (vs. private insurance) had a higher prevalence of sterilization in all regions (p sterilization at disproportionately higher rates compared with other regions, and suggest that other differences, such as social norms and family planning policies, may contribute to this geographic variation. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  10. Seeking sterile neutrinos in Finslerian cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-11-15

    For the first time, to search for sterile neutrinos in the framework of Finler geometry, we constrain four cosmological models using the most stringent constraint we can provide so far. We find that the Finslerian massless sterile neutrino model can, respectively, give a better cosmological fit to data and alleviate the current H{sub 0} tension more effectively than the other three models. For the Finslerian massless sterile neutrino model, we obtain the constraint N{sub eff} = 3.237{sup +0.092}{sub -0.185}, which is consistent with ΔN{sub eff} > 0 at the 1.03σ confidence level (CL). This gives a very weak hint of massless sterile neutrinos and may imply the non-existence of massless sterile neutrinos in the Finslerian cosmological setting. For the Finslerian massive sterile neutrino model, we obtain the constraints N{sub eff} = 3.143{sup +0.064}{sub -0.066}, which favors ΔN{sub eff} > 0 at the 1.47σ CL, and m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.121 eV at the 2σ CL which is much tighter than the Planck results. This very tight restriction appears to indicate the massive sterile neutrinos are also non-existent in the Finslerian scenarios. Consequently, one may conclude that the sterile neutrinos are possibly non-existent in the Finslerian universe. Our results are compatible with the recent results of the neutrino oscillation experiments implemented by the Daya Bay and MINOS collaborations and the cosmic ray one carried out by the IceCube collaboration. (orig.)

  11. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  12. Control of anoplophora glabripennis by releasing sterile insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Zhang Shuyong; Wang Endong; Lu Daguang

    2003-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the effect of released sterile insects on reproduction of natural A. glabripennis population was conducted at a 30-hectare poplar tree forest in Ying County of Shanxi Province from July 10 to August 29, 2001. Though the releasing ratio was only about 2-5, results from different methods showed that the reproduction of natural A. glabripennis population was suppressed effectively by releasing sterile insects, and that hatch ratio of eggs laid by parent generation was about 20% and survival ratio of F1 progeny about 27%. (authors)

  13. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungana, Adhish; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. Materials and Methods: This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area o...

  14. Sterilization can change properties of bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmann, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bioceramics made of bioinert alumina or zirconia and bioactive hydroxyapatite are well established implant materials. Implants have to be cleaned and sterilized. When sterilized some bioceramics change their color. This may effect their properties. No decrease of mechanical strength is observed when sterilizing alumina and the novel ceramic biocomposite AMC (Alumina Matrix Composite) with steam or Co 60 Gamma irradiation. When sterilizing Y-TZP zirconia with steam a decrease of strength is observed. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  15. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  16. Increased recovery of touch DNA evidence using FTA paper compared to conventional collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Irina A; Calloway, Cassandra

    2017-04-01

    Tape lifting and FTA paper scraping methods were directly compared to traditional double swabbing for collecting touch DNA from car steering wheels (n = 70 cars). Touch DNA was collected from the left or right side of each steering wheel (randomized) using two sterile cotton swabs, while the other side was sampled using water-soluble tape or FTA paper cards. DNA was extracted and quantified in duplicate using qPCR. Quantifiable amounts of DNA were detected for 100% of the samples (n = 140) collected independent of the method. However, the DNA collection yield was dependent on the collection method. A statistically significant difference in DNA yield was observed between FTA scraping and double swabbing methods (p = 0.0051), with FTA paper collecting a two-fold higher amount. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in DNA yields between the double swabbing and tape lifting techniques (p = 0.21). Based on the DNA concentration required for 1 ng input, 47% of the samples collected using FTA paper would be expected to yield a short tandem repeat (STR) profile compared to 30% and 23% using double swabbing or tape, respectively. Further, 55% and 77% of the samples collected using double swabbing or tape, respectively, did not yield a high enough DNA concentration for the 0.5 ng of DNA input recommended for conventional STR kits and would be expected to result in a partial or no profile compared to 35% of the samples collected using FTA paper. STR analysis was conducted for a subset of the higher concentrated samples to confirm that the DNA collected from the steering wheel was from the driver. 32 samples were selected with DNA amounts of at least 1 ng total DNA (100 pg/μl when concentrated if required). A mixed STR profile was observed for 26 samples (88%) and the last driver was the major DNA contributor for 29 samples (94%). For one sample, the last driver was the minor DNA contributor. A full STR profile of the last driver was observed for

  17. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear male sterility is common in flowering plants, but its application in hybrid breeding and seed production is limited because of the inability to propagate a pure male sterile line for commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we characterized a rice nuclear gene essential for sporophytic male fertility and constructed a male sterility system that can propagate the pure male sterile seeds on a large scale. This system is fundamentally advantageous over the current cytoplasmic male steril...

  18. Validation of radiation sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented

  19. Laparoscopic female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filshie, G M

    1989-09-01

    An overview of laparoscopic sterilization techniques from a historical and practical viewpoint includes instrumentation, operative techniques, mechanical occlusive devices, anesthesia, failure rates, morbidity and mortality. Laparoscope was first reported in 1893, but was developed simultaneously in France, Great Britain, Canada and the US in the 1960s. There are smaller laparoscopes for double-puncture procedures, and larger, single-puncture laparoscopes. To use a ring or clip, a much larger operating channel, up to 8 mm is needed. Insufflating gas may be CO2, which does not support combustion, but is more uncomfortable, NO2, which is also an anesthetic, and room air often used in developing countries. Unipolar electrocautery is now rarely used, in fact most third party payers do not allow it. Bipolar cautery, thermal coagulation and laser photocoagulation are safer methods. Falope rings, Hulka-Clemens, Filshie, Bleier, Weck and Tupla clips are described and illustrated. General anesthesia, usually a short acting agent with a muscle relaxant, causes 33% of the mortality of laparoscope, often due to cardiac arrest and arrhythmias, preventable with atropine. Local anesthesia is safer and cheaper and often used in developing countries. Failure rates of the various laparoscopic tubal sterilization methods are reviewed: most result from fistula formation. Mortality and morbidity can be caused by bowel damage, injury or infection, pre- existing pelvic infection, hemorrhage, gas embolism (avoidable by the saline drip test), and other rare events.

  20. The male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D.

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined [fr

  1. Effect of sterilization on the properties of CDHA-OCP-beta-TCP biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Morejón-Alonso,Loreley; Carrodeguas,Raúl García; García-Menocal,José Ángel Delgado; Pérez,José Antonio Alonso; Manent,Salvador Martínez

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the method of sterilization on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of a new bone repairing material was studied. The material was obtained by thermal hydrolysis of beta-tricalcium phosphate/orthophosphoric acid cement and was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Partial decomposition of the OCP was observed after sterilization for the three methods. Decomposition increased to the following sequence...

  2. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and biomedical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, R.; Iddon, B.; Moore, J.S.; Phillips, G.O.; Power, D.M.; Woodward, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    Sterilization of pharmaceuticals by radiation is accompanied by chemical degradation which must be eliminated or minimised if the method is to be successfully applied. In order to devise ways in which the pharmaceutical can be protected it is necessary to know the yield and nature of the decomposition products, the mechanisms by which degradation occurs, and the rate constants for the reactions involved. We have obtained such data for a variety of pharmaceutical compounds, viz. vitamin B12, benzyl penicillin, sulphonamides, indoles, heparin, alginates and phenylmercurics, both in the solid state and in aqueous solution. The scope and limitations of radiation sterilization are discussed in the light of these results. (author)

  3. On the difficulties of discriminating between major and minor hybrid male sterility factors in Drosophila by examining the segregation ratio of sterile and fertile sons in backcrossing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maside, X R; Naveira, H F

    1996-10-01

    The observation of segregation ratios of sterile and fertile males in offspring samples from backcrossed hybrid females is, in principle, a valid method to unveil the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila. When the female parent is heterozygous (hybrid) for a sterility factor with major effects, equal proportions of fertile and sterile sons are expected in her offspring. However, intact (not recombined) chromosome segments of considerable length are expected to give segregation ratios that can not be easily differentiated from the 1:1 ratio expected from a single factor. When the phenotypic character under analysis can be determined by combinations of minor factors from the donor species spanning a certain chromosome length, very large offspring samples may be needed to test this alternative hypothesis against the null hypothesis of a single major factor. This is particularly the case of hybrid male sterility determinants in Drosophila.

  4. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-15

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1{sup st} of June 2013 to 30{sup th} of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen.

  5. Sterilization of collagen scaffolds designed for peripheral nerve regeneration: Effect on microstructure, degradation and cellular colonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, Graziana; Cholas, Rahmatullah; Salvatore, Luca; Madaghiele, Marta; Sannino, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of three different sterilization methods, dry heat (DHS), ethylene oxide (EtO) and electron beam radiation (β), on the properties of cylindrical collagen scaffolds with longitudinally oriented pore channels, specifically designed for peripheral nerve regeneration. Scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, quantification of primary amines, differential scanning calorimetry and enzymatic degradation were performed to analyze possible structural and chemical changes induced by the sterilization. Moreover, in vitro proliferation and infiltration of the rat Schwann cell line RSC96 within the scaffolds was evaluated, up to 10 days of culture. No major differences in morphology and compressive stiffness were observed among scaffolds sterilized by the different methods, as all samples showed approximately the same structure and stiffness as the unsterilized control. Proliferation, infiltration, distribution and morphology of RSC96 cells within the scaffolds were also comparable throughout the duration of the cell culture study, regardless of the sterilization treatment. However, we found a slight increase of chemical crosslinking upon sterilization (EtO < DHS < β), together with an enhanced resistance to denaturation of the EtO treated scaffolds and a significantly accelerated enzymatic degradation of the β sterilized scaffolds. The results demonstrated that β irradiation impaired the scaffold properties to a greater extent, whereas EtO exposure appeared as the most suitable method for the sterilization of the proposed scaffolds. - Highlights: • Production of longitudinally oriented collagen scaffolds for nerve regeneration • Control of pore structure and crosslinking • Impact of terminal sterilization on the scaffold properties • Proliferation and infiltration of Schwann cells within the sterilized scaffolds

  6. Sterilization of collagen scaffolds designed for peripheral nerve regeneration: Effect on microstructure, degradation and cellular colonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaco, Graziana [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Dhitech Scarl – Distretto Tecnologico High Tech, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cholas, Rahmatullah; Salvatore, Luca [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Madaghiele, Marta, E-mail: marta.madaghiele@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Sannino, Alessandro [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of three different sterilization methods, dry heat (DHS), ethylene oxide (EtO) and electron beam radiation (β), on the properties of cylindrical collagen scaffolds with longitudinally oriented pore channels, specifically designed for peripheral nerve regeneration. Scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, quantification of primary amines, differential scanning calorimetry and enzymatic degradation were performed to analyze possible structural and chemical changes induced by the sterilization. Moreover, in vitro proliferation and infiltration of the rat Schwann cell line RSC96 within the scaffolds was evaluated, up to 10 days of culture. No major differences in morphology and compressive stiffness were observed among scaffolds sterilized by the different methods, as all samples showed approximately the same structure and stiffness as the unsterilized control. Proliferation, infiltration, distribution and morphology of RSC96 cells within the scaffolds were also comparable throughout the duration of the cell culture study, regardless of the sterilization treatment. However, we found a slight increase of chemical crosslinking upon sterilization (EtO < DHS < β), together with an enhanced resistance to denaturation of the EtO treated scaffolds and a significantly accelerated enzymatic degradation of the β sterilized scaffolds. The results demonstrated that β irradiation impaired the scaffold properties to a greater extent, whereas EtO exposure appeared as the most suitable method for the sterilization of the proposed scaffolds. - Highlights: • Production of longitudinally oriented collagen scaffolds for nerve regeneration • Control of pore structure and crosslinking • Impact of terminal sterilization on the scaffold properties • Proliferation and infiltration of Schwann cells within the sterilized scaffolds.

  7. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  8. Exploring factors in the decision to choose sterilization vs alternatives in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam L; Holland, Erica; Monterroza, Maritza; Duran, Sonia; Singh, Rameet; Terbell, Heather; Edelman, Alison

    2008-01-01

    To explore the factors that influence rural Salvadoran women to undergo tubal sterilization versus opting for alternative methods of family planning. A moderator fluent in English and Spanish conducted eleven 90-minute focus groups consisting of 5-10 women each. Eligible women in the municipality of San Pedro Perulapan, El Salvador, were identified and recruited by local health workers. Participant demographics and information about family planning decisions were collected through detailed notes and tape-recorded sessions. The tapes were transcribed verbatim, and all data were analyzed using grounded theory procedures to identify common themes. Eighty women aged 24-45 years who had previously been sterilized participated in the study. Three major themes influenced a woman's decision to undergo sterilization instead of opting for alternative forms of family planning: (1) availability: tubal sterilization is readily available, (2) fears about side effects of other methods: these women associated negative side effects with other forms of family planning, (3) effectiveness: the women in these focus groups thought sterilization was more effective than other forms of family planning. This study shows that there is a lack of information, and misinformation, about other effective methods of contraception, especially the intrauterine device and oral contraceptives. Reproductive health education projects, especially those providing services in locations similar to rural El Salvador, should focus on providing accurate information about all forms of contraception, including tubal sterilization.

  9. Evaluation of conventional therapeutic methods versus maggot therapy in the evolution of healing of tegumental injuries in Wistar rats with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Larval therapy consists on the application of sterilized carrion flies larvae, reared in laboratory, on acute, chronic, and/or infected wounds in order to promote healing. Conventional methods for treating injuries include mechanical debridement or silver-based dressings; however, they are not always effective for wound healing. Larval therapy is a feasible and safe treatment for therapeutic application and, in many cases, the only and the most recommended alternative for difficult healing injuries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the competence of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a suitable species for therapeutic application and evaluate time and effectiveness of the types of treatments most commonly used to treat integumental injuries. C. macellaria eggs were obtained from colonies established in laboratory and sterilized prior to application. Twenty-five larvae were applied for each centimeter squared of lesion. Lesions were induced in 24 Wistar rats; type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 12 of them. Animals were divided in four groups with three individuals each, being denominated: larval therapy, larval therapy associated with foam dressing with silver release, mechanical debridement with foam dressing silver and control group, without treatment. All treatments were applied once and held for 24 h. Medical application of larvae was found to be safe, as only dead tissue was removed, and efficient to accelerate healing process when compared to other treatments.

  10. Electron sterilization validation techniques using the controlled depth of sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleghorn, D.A.; Nablo, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical products, especially parenteral drugs, cannot be sterilized with gamma rays or high energy electrons due to the concomitant product degradation. In view of the well-controlled electron energy spectrum available in modern electron processors, it is practical to deliver sterilizing doses over depths considerably less than those defining the thickness of blister-pack constructions or pharmaceutical containers. Because bremsstrahlung and X-ray production are minimized at these low electron energies and in these low Z materials, very high electron: penetrating X-ray dose ratios are possible for the application of the technique. Thin film dosimetric techniques have been developed utilizing radiochromic film in the 10-60 g/m 2 range for determining the surface dose distribution in occluded surface areas where direct electron illumination is not possible. Procedures for validation of the process using dried spore inoculum on the product as well as in good geometry are employed to determine the process lethality and its dependence on product surface geometry. Applications of the process to labile pharmaceuticals in glass and polystyrene syringes are reviewed. It has been applied to the sterilization of commercial sterile products since 1987, and the advantages and the natural limitations of the technique are discussed. (author)

  11. Development of sterilization and storage processes of Xeno-skins by gamma irradiation for the Industrialization as dressing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Hum; Sung, Nak Yun; Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Jeong Soo

    2011-08-01

    Allografts have been increased in concerns as treatment methods to be use in replacement and reconstruction procedures of tissue. The major concern about tissue and bone transplantation is the risk of transferring bacteria, viruses from recipient to the donors, especially from different species. To avoid these risks, tissue and bone banks use many different sterilization methods such as a deep-frozenness, freeze-drying ethylene oxide-sterilization and gamma-irradiation. Among these methods, gamma-irradiation has been widely used to sterilize the tissue for allograft and xenograft safety. Gamma irradiation could be an effective method for sterilization of soft tissue for the development of xenografts. Also, this study suggests the potential of development as tissue graft with the improved mechanical property of the structural stability and protection of tissue materials by antioxidant on porcine skin irradiated for sterilization and storage process

  12. Comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.C.; Knudsen, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Part I contains a comprehensive treatment of the comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods. The conventional methods chosen for comparison were: (a) the polygon method, (b) the inverse of the distance squared method, and (c) a method similar to (b) but allowing different weights in different directions. Briefly, the overall result from this comparative study is in favor of the use of geostatistics in most cases because the method has lived up to its theoretical claims. A good exposition on the theory of geostatistics, the adopted study procedures, conclusions and recommended future research are given in Part I. Part II of this report contains the results of the second and the third study objectives, which are to assess the potential benefits that can be derived by the introduction of the geostatistical method to the current state-of-the-art in uranium reserve estimation method and to be instrumental in generating the acceptance of the new method by practitioners through illustrative examples, assuming its superiority and practicality. These are given in the form of illustrative examples on the use of geostatistics and the accompanying computer program user's guide

  13. Male sterility in chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  14. Probabilistic model for sterilization of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepurko, V.V.; Malinovskij, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    The probabilistic model for radiation sterilization is proposed based on the followng suppositions: (1) initial contamination of a volume unit of the sterilized product m is described by the distribution of the probabilities q(m), (2) inactivation of the population from m of microorganisms is approximated by Bernoulli test scheme, and (3) contamination of unit of the sterilized product is independent. The possibility of approximation q(m) by Poisson distribution is demonstrated. The diagrams are presented permitting to evaluate the dose which provides the defined reliability of sterilization of food for chicken-gnotobionts

  15. IPPF re-affirms its policy on sterilization: a free, informed and unpressured choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The IPPF has re-affirmed its policy on sterilization that individuals have the right to voluntarily choose a contraceptive method. A sterilization acceptor should understand all the implications and that the procedure should be considered irreversible, although medical techniques should be used to give the greatest chance of reversibility. An individual should know of alternative contraceptive methods and the risks and benefits involved with each. Incentives for family planning programs should ensure that benefits be in addition to the benefits and services which are entitled to everyone; likewise, any disincentives should not conflict with basic human rights. Family planning education should promote informed decisions on contraceptive use including sterilization procedures.

  16. Forced sterilization of women as discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti

    2017-01-01

    There has been a long history of subjecting marginalized women to forced and coerced sterilization. In recent years, the practice has been documented in countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. It has targeted women who are ethnic and racial minorities, women with disabilities, women living with HIV, and poor women. A handful of courts have issued decisions on the recent forced sterilization of marginalized women finding that such actions violate the women's rights. However, they have all failed to address the women's claims of discrimination. The failure to acknowledge that forced sterilization is at its core a violation of the prohibition of discrimination undermines efforts to eradicate the practice. It further fails to recognize that coerced and forced sterilization fundamentally seeks to deny women deemed as "unworthy" the ability to procreate. Four key principles outlined in the human rights in patient care framework highlight the importance of a finding that the prohibition of discrimination was violated in cases of forced sterilization: the need to highlight the vulnerability of marginalized populations to discrimination in health care settings; the importance of the rights of medical providers; the role of the state in addressing systemic human rights violations in health care settings; and the application of human rights to patient care. Based on these principles, it is clear that finding a violation of the prohibition of discrimination in forced sterilization cases is critical in addressing the systemic nature of the practice, acknowledging the marginalization of specific groups and effectively ending forced sterilization through addressing the underlying purpose of the practice. If litigators, non-governmental organizations and judicial officers are mindful of these principles when dealing with cases of forced sterilization, it is likely that they will be better able to eradicate forced sterilization.

  17. Two Light Sterile Neutrinos that Mix Maximally with Each Other and Moderately with Three Active Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 3+1 neutrino models with one light sterile neutrino turn out to be not very effective, at least two light sterile neutrinos may be needed to reconcile the solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments with the LSND result, if this is confirmed by the ongoing MiniBooNE experiment (and when the CPT invariance is assumed to hold for neutrino oscillations). We present an attractive 3+2 neutrino model, where two light sterile neutrinos mix maximally with each other, in analogy to the observed maximal mixing of muon and tauon active neutrinos. But, while the mixing of ν e and (ν μ - ν τ )/√2 is observed as large (though not maximal), the mixing of ν e with the corresponding combination of two light sterile neutrinos is expected to be only moderate because of the reported smallness of LSND oscillation amplitude. The presented model turns out, however, not to be more effective in explaining the hypothetic LSND result than the simplest 3+1 neutrino model. On the other hand, in the considered 3+2 model, the deviations from conventional oscillations of three active neutrinos appear to be minimal within a larger class of 3+2 models. (author)

  18. Sterility induction in tsetse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C F [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK); Langley, P A [Bristol Univ. (UK)

    1982-01-01

    The first laboratory and field experiments on genetic control were with tsetse flies, and they made use of the sterility in crosses and hybrids between closely related species of the Glossina morsitans complex. Backcrosses indicate that there are two separate sterility mechanisms involved: (a) genetic incompatibility between a mother and the products of alien genes in the embryo or larva in the uterus; (b) inability of hybrid males to inseminate due to incompatibility of their X-chromosomes with an alien Y or autosomes. The two largest sterile male release programmes have been in Tanzania and Upper Volta, and have used irradiation at the pupal or adult stage, respectively, for the production of sterility. Male tsetse are remarkably resistant to radiosterilization and, with the doses required to induce dominant lethals in more than 95% of sperms, premature senescence and lethargic behaviour of the males tends to result. With G. morsitans irradiated at the puparial stage these effects can be alleviated by the use of a nitrogen atmosphere during irradiation. If the puparia are then transferred to air at 11/sup 0/C for transport to the release site, immediate emergence occurs on re-warming after arrival. This advantageous procedure was used for the releases in Tanzania. In addition to dominant lethals, irradiation also produces chromosome translocations which cause inherited partial sterility. A homozygous translocation line was selected but this example did not have sufficient fitness to be used in a mass rearing programme. Chemosterilants can be applied by pupal dipping, adult contact with deposits or in aerosols. Studies are now in progress on their use in association with odour-baited traps or pheromone-baited decoys as a means of sterilizing the wild population and thus avoiding the costly and difficult process of mass rearing tsetse.

  19. Modular ionizing sterilizer (MIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, Jose L.

    1999-01-01

    A transportable device designed to sterilize medical material and wastes by gamma irradiation is described. The sterilizer is formed by three modules: one of the modules contains the gamma source and can be removed to transport and transfer the source, the other modules are designed to introduce and draw out the materials to be irradiated

  20. Release of bound residues of atrazine from soils through autoclaving and gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, L.E.; Andréa, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The sterilization methods are particularly important to study the influence of microorganisms on the pesticide dissipation in soils. This study, conducted in the laboratories of the Instituto Biológico of São Paulo in august 1996, tested the influence of two methods of soil sterilization - moist heat (autoclaving) and γ radiation - on the release of nonextractable or bound residues. It was studied, as example, bound residues of the herbicide atrazine in two types of soil (gley humic and dark red latosol). In the soil samples submitted to the moist heat sterilization, the recovery of the previously bound residues as reextractable residues was 5.6 and 5.9 times higher than in the control soils, not submitted to any sterilization process. Therefore, the method itself released the residues, indicating that the autoclaving is not the most appropriate method for studies on the influence of microorganisms on the release of bound residues. Otherwise, the γ radiation did not modify the residues recovery when compared to the controls. (author) [pt

  1. The possibility of gamma ray sterilization by using ITU TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilge, A.N.; Tugrul, B.; Yavuz, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma rays are one of the effective method for sterilization which is preferred for a long time. Generally Co-60 radioisotope sources betatrons or accelerators are used for the sterilization. In this work, it was aimed to find the possibilities of the sterilization by gamma rays obtained in ITU TRIGA Mark-II radial tube. Radiation dosages are measured in the radial tube and several medical products are irradiated. Irradiation is arranged according to the desired dosages. Irradiated sterilized goods (mainly medical products) tested and checked at the Governmental Medical Health Center and results compared with literature. It can be seen that this kind of irradiation is a good tool for sterilization. Unfortunately, because of the stability of the radial tube and impracticality of the system it is rather difficult to compete with industrial system using Co-60 and accelerators. Nevertheless, this type of irradiation is also applicable for the purpose of the sterilization by using ITU TRIGA Mark II. (author)

  2. Low temperature gamma sterilization of a bioresorbable polymer, PLGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Lisa; Themistou, Efrosyni; Buchanan, Fraser; Cunningham, Eoin

    2018-02-01

    Medical devices destined for insertion into the body must be sterilised before implantation to prevent infection or other complications. Emerging biomaterials, for example bioresorbable polymers, can experience changes in their properties due to standard industrial sterilization processes. Gamma irradiation is one of the most reliable, large scale sterilization methods, however it can induce chain scission, cross-linking or oxidation reactions in polymers. sterilization at low temperature or in an inert atmosphere has been reported to reduce the negative effects of gamma irradiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of low temperature sterilization (at -80 °C) when compared to sterilization at ambient temperature (25 °C) both in inert atmospheric conditions of nitrogen gas, on poly(lactide co-glycolide) (PLGA). PLGA was irradiated at -80 and 25 °C at 40 kGy in a nitrogen atmosphere. Samples were characterised using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results showed that the molecular weight was significantly reduced as was the glass transition temperature, an indication of chain scission. FTIR showed small changes in chemical structure in the methyl and carbonyl groups after irradiation. Glass transition temperature was significantly different between irradiation at -80 °C and irradiation at 25 °C, however this was a difference of only 1 °C. Ultimately, the results indicate that the sterilization temperature used does not affect PLGA when carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere.

  3. Dynamic sterilization of titanium implants with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Schaaf, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    All implantable devices must be sterile. However, autoclaves produce poor surface properties that jeopardize the integration process. The application of a modified ultraviolet light source has proven to enhance bioreactivity by controlling surface properties, but it lacks validation of its sterilization capabilities. Forty-eight titanium implants were contaminated with spores of the biological indicator Bacillus stearothermophilus and subjected to dynamic sterilization by ultraviolet light. Forty-seven of the implants were successfully sterilized, as indicated by not producing turbidity in a suitable growth medium. This sterilization technique only requires a 20-second exposure to achieve sterility

  4. Microbial Evaluation of Some Non-sterile Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the type and incidence of predominant microorganisms in certain non-sterile pharmaceuticals immediately after collection and one year later. Methods: All pharmaceutical samples were subjected to the following examinations: total bacterial count and presence of microbial pathogens, using ...

  5. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  6. Early puerperal laparoscopic sterilization--a new technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parulekar S

    1985-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of 23 cases of puerperal laparoscopic sterilization performed within 72 hours of delivery. A new method was employed to avoid injury to the uterine fundus and to make the tubes more accessible. Before insertion of the Veress needle, the anterior and posterior lips of the cervix were held with forceps and Hulka′s uterine manipulator was introduced into the uterine cavity. The uterus was pulled down toward the introitus by applying traction to the sponge-holding forceps. Pneumoperitoneum of 3-4 liters was induced through use of a Veress needle, followed by introduction of a Storz single puncture operative laparoscope through an incision in the lower umbilical fold. Tubal occlusion was achieved with silastic bands. The average time required for sterilization from induction of general anesthesia was 6 minutes. There was no instance of injury to the uterine fundus, nor were there any cases of uterine perforation, injury to other pelvic structures, laceration of the cervix, or puerperal sepsis. At the time of follow-up 15 days after the procedure, all patients were in satisfactory condition. It is concluded that this method can enhance postpartum family planning programs. Since it can be carried out within the 1st 48 hours after delivery, the routine hospital stay of 3 days does not have to be prolonged as a result of sterilization.

  7. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females died: one likely related to the capture procedure, the other of a peritonitis unrelated to the surgery. One wolf had a litter. None of the wolves have shown changes in behavioral patterns. Surgical sterilization can be effective, but other, less invasive, fertility control techniques should be investigated.

  8. Radiation Sterilization of Naturual Rubber Examination Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, S.; Na-Ranong, N.; Kajornchaiyakul, V.

    1998-01-01

    The sterilization dose setting by ISO 11137 method 1 was conducted for natural rubber examination gloves provided by a local factory. The suitable sterilization dose for an average product bioburden falls between 20 - 25 kilogray. Maximum dose of 25 or 50 kilogray results in no changes of tensile s and elongation at break. Samples of examination glove were irradiated using various doses between 10 - 50 kilogray. Analysis of soluble protein content using modified Lowry method was carried out and the results revealed that irradiation did not affect the decrement of soluble protein content in this case. However, thin film samples were prepared in laboratory and treated in the same procedure. The results were also the same. The results did not show any correlation. Two factors are possibly presumed : un consistency of samples and the irradiation of finished products could not affect those soluble proteins in rubber gloves

  9. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  10. Inheritance of sterility in Dysdercus koenigii F. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwalkar, M.R.; Rahalkar, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that for the control of Lepidopterous populations, release of fully competitive partially sterile males would be more advantageous than the release of completely sterile males. This suggestion is based on the fact, elucidated in many studies, that partially sterilized males mated to normal females produce totally sterile or partially sterile progeny. In Hemiptera too, F 1 progeny of partially sterile males has been shown to inherit sterility. Individual impact of sterility inherited by either sex of the F 1 progeny on population growth has been studied in an hemipteran insect Dysdercus koenigii. A dose of 7 krad induces near-complete sterility in males. When males irradiated with substerilizing doses of 1,2 and 3 krad were crossed with normal females, F 1 progeny of both sexes was partially sterile : the female being more sterile than the males. When the F 1 progeny was intercrossed, there was enhanced reduction in progeny production. (auth.)

  11. Present studies on the radio-sterilized drugs; Aktualny stan badan nad lekami sterylizowanymi radiacyjnie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciniec, B; Dettlaff, K [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    Lecture presents present status of radiosterilization of drugs and medical materials as compared to other sterilization methods. Literature review is shown on degradation of different kinds of drugs sterilized upon action of the sterilising doses of radiation.

  12. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  13. The possibilities of sterilization of media and medium ingredients by ionizing gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogany, I.

    1979-01-01

    The thermoshock originated from sterilization by heat can occasionally destroy the media to such an extent that the growth can start only at dilutions 2 to 3 power less than in control media sterilized by glass filtration. There are some ingredients which could be produced by an aseptic procedure only - e.g. egg yolk extract - as they are not sterilizable by filtration or heat. Solid and liquid culture media prepared from natural substances and ingredients such as serum or egg yolk extract, etc. can successfully be sterilized by 1 Mrad integrated dose in 500 ml volume irrespective of dispension. In the culture media prepared with substances from natural sources it was impossible to demonstrate any radiochemical destroying effect using colony counting method, and these media were so sensitive as if they had been sterilized by glass filtration. With these substances sterilization by irradiation proved to be an applicable method in industry. Radiochemical effect was demonstrable in two cases only: the phenol-red indicator has decolorized and after a long period of storage it showed inclination to recombine, and potassium-tellurite has been precipitated owing to the above mentioned dose of irradiation. (author)

  14. "Forgotten" Chapters in the History of Transcervical Sterilization: Carl Clauberg and Hans-Joachim Lindemann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine; Benedict, Susan; Miller, Erin; Gaffney, Michael; Grodin, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    Transcervical sterilization is a non-surgical method of permanent female sterilization that is widely used and critically discussed. A review of the historiography of the method reveals that instances of its coercive use are not included in the historical account. This study offers a reexamination of the work of Carl Clauberg and Hans-Joachim Lindemann, to more deeply contextualize within the framework of current usage the coercive use of transcervical sterilization during the Third Reich and in postwar Germany. This inquiry is based on postwar criminal trial records on Clauberg, and on archival documents detailing Lindemann's activities in 1979. A comparative analysis examines arguments by medical historian Karl-Heinz Roth, and identifies shared characteristics and differences between Clauberg and Lindemann, their methods and scientific connections. The results demonstrate that the technique of transcervical sterilization has an abusive potential that may be explained as a function of the person of the physician, of the scientific method itself, and of societal and political influences. The analysis supports the argument that insights from the cases of Clauberg and Lindemann are transferrable geographically and over time, and have the potential to inform current medical practice, such as transcervical sterilization with the Essure device, whose historiographic exploration remains a desideratum. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  16. "We never thought of a vasectomy": a qualitative study of men and women's counseling around sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Grace; Dubé, Kate; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Sterilization is the most commonly used method of contraception in the United States; however, little is known about how providers counsel about these procedures or the information patients desire. In this study, we explore male and female experiences of sterilization counseling and their perspectives on ideal sterilization counseling. In-depth individual and group interviews were conducted with 37 heterosexual couples between the ages of 25 and 55 years. Each couple had reached their desired family size. Interviews were recorded and transcribed using NVivo software and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Men and women differed in their experiences of sterilization counseling. Women commonly received counseling on female sterilization but not vasectomy, while men rarely discussed either form of sterilization with their providers. Both men and women desired more information about sterilization. Contraceptive counseling of couples who have completed childbearing does not routinely include men or the option of vasectomy, despite the advantages of this method with respect to safety, efficacy and cost. Family planning and primary care providers have an important role in ensuring that couples are aware of all their options and can make an informed decision about their contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2006-06-01

    Understanding genetic mechanisms underlying hybrid male sterility is one of the most challenging problems in evolutionary biology especially speciation. By using the interspecific hybridization method roles of Y chromosome, Major Hybrid Sterility (MHS) genes and cytoplasm in sterility of hybrid males have been investigated in a promising group, the Drosophila bipectinata species complex that consists of four closely related species: D. pseudoananassae, D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana. The interspecific introgression analyses show that neither cytoplasm nor MHS genes are involved but X-Y interactions may be playing major role in hybrid male sterility between D. pseudoananassae and the other three species. The results of interspecific introgression analyses also show considerable decrease in the number of males in the backcross offspring and all males have atrophied testes. There is a significant positive correlation between sex - ratio distortion and severity of sterility in backcross males. These findings provide evidence that D. pseudoananassae is remotely related with other three species of the D. bipectinata species complex.

  18. Pink bollworm integrated management using sterile insects under field trial conditions, Imperial Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.L.; Staten, R.T.; Roberson, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The pink bollworm moth (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) feeds almost exclusively on cotton (Gossypium spp.) and causes economic loss (Pfadt 1978). The pink bollworm (PBW) is often the key pest of cotton in Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The larvae (immature stages) bore into the developing cotton fruit, where they feed on the cotton lint and seeds, causing significant damage and dramatically reducing the yield of cotton lint (Pfadt 1978). The PBW is difficult to control with conventional means (insecticides) because it spends the destructive larval phase inside the cotton boll where it is well protected from control measures. Cultural controls, such as a short growing season, have successfully decreased the population in the Imperial Valley (Chu et al. 1992) to the point where eradication may be possible using sterile insects and genetically engineered cotton. Because the PBW is an introduced insect, with few plant hosts other than cultivated cotton, its eradication from continental USA is a desirable and economically attractive alternative to the continued use of pesticides and/or further loss to the pest. Mass releases of sterile insects began in earnest in 1970 in the San Joaquin Valley, California, in order to inhibit normal reproduction and to eradicate the pest in an environmentally responsible manner. Sterile release involves mass production and sexual sterilisation using irradiation (20 krad for PBW adults). This was accomplished by building a rearing facility in Phoenix, AZ. The facility has 6,410 square metres of permanent laboratories, rearing and irradiation chambers and insect packing rooms. The facility operates the year round but with a variable production rate, that is, maximal during the cotton growing season (May through September). Sterile insect technology is based on the monitoring of the native and sterile populations in the field and the subsequent release of appropriate numbers of sterile insects in order to

  19. Issues in identifying germ tube positive yeasts by conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Atta; Khaithir, Tzar Mohd Nizam

    2014-01-01

    Candida speciation is vital for epidemiology and management of candidiasis. Nonmolecular conventional methods often fail to identify closely related germ tube positive yeasts from clinical specimens. The present study was conducted to identify these yeasts and to highlight issues in conventional versus molecular methods of identification. A total of 98 germ tube positive yeasts from high vaginal swabs were studied over a 12-month period. Isolates were examined with various methods including growth at 42 °C and 45 °C on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), color development on CHROMagar Candida medium, chlamydospore production on corn meal agar at 25 °C, carbohydrate assimilation using ID 32C system, and polymerase chain reaction using a single pair of primers targeting the hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1) gene. Of all the isolates studied, 97 were molecularly confirmed as C. albicans and one isolate was identified as C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was detected in this study. The molecular method used in our study was an accurate and useful tool for discriminating C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. africana. The conventional methods, however, were less accurate and riddled with many issues that will be discussed in further details. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Investigation of Industrialised Building System Performance in Comparison to Conventional Construction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional construction methods are still widely practised, although many researches have indicated that this method is less effective compared to the IBS construction method. The existence of the IBS has added to the many techniques within the construction industry. This study is aimed at making comparisons between the two construction approaches. Case studies were conducted at four sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Two projects were IBS-based while the remaining two deployed the conventional method of construction. Based on an analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the IBS approach has more to offer compared to the conventional method. Among these advantages are shorter construction periods, reduced overall costs, less labour needs, better site conditions and the production of higher quality components.

  1. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-07-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today's global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males' longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  2. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-01-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose

  3. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Jacob, E-mail: jurquidi@nmsu.edu; Brar, Ramaninder K. [X-ray and Neutron Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo [Molecular Vector Physiology Lab, Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  4. Maria Sklodowska Curie - the precursor of radiation sterilization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluszewski, Wojciech; Zagorski, Zbigniew P. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Tran, Quoc Khoi; Cortella, Laurent [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, Atelier Regional de Conservation, Grenoble (France)

    2011-06-15

    A resolution of the 63rd Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the year 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry. The coordinators of the event are UNESCO and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The patroness of this event is Marie Curie, nee Sklodowska. Among women scientists, she was the first recipient of the Novel Prize, and among all scientists, she is the only one who has received this award in different scientific fields (in 1903 in the field of physics with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, in 1911 in the field of chemistry). Considering the former Polish nationality of Marie Curie, the year 2011 has been proposed by the Polish Parliament as her year, using the name Maria Sklodowska Curie, under which she is known in Poland. Celebrating the International Year of Chemistry is a good opportunity to remember the importance of the work of Maria Sklodowska Curie for the emergence and development of many fields of science. This article is an attempt to present a view of science, as taught through modern applications of the radiation chemistry of polymetric materials and radiation sterilization. Although the real development of both ''cold'' sterilization and polymer technology occurred in the 1950's long after the death of Marie Curie Sklodowska, the original ideas go back to ther work performed in the 1920s. Sometimes, and that is the present case, a single scientist creates a new field, in spite of the fact that at the time of discovery there are no applications. The parallel development of other branches of science and technology helps the application of the original idea. (orig.)

  5. Maria Sklodowska Curie - the precursor of radiation sterilization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluszewski, Wojciech; Zagorski, Zbigniew P.; Tran, Quoc Khoi; Cortella, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    A resolution of the 63rd Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the year 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry. The coordinators of the event are UNESCO and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The patroness of this event is Marie Curie, nee Sklodowska. Among women scientists, she was the first recipient of the Novel Prize, and among all scientists, she is the only one who has received this award in different scientific fields (in 1903 in the field of physics with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, in 1911 in the field of chemistry). Considering the former Polish nationality of Marie Curie, the year 2011 has been proposed by the Polish Parliament as her year, using the name Maria Sklodowska Curie, under which she is known in Poland. Celebrating the International Year of Chemistry is a good opportunity to remember the importance of the work of Maria Sklodowska Curie for the emergence and development of many fields of science. This article is an attempt to present a view of science, as taught through modern applications of the radiation chemistry of polymetric materials and radiation sterilization. Although the real development of both ''cold'' sterilization and polymer technology occurred in the 1950's long after the death of Marie Curie Sklodowska, the original ideas go back to ther work performed in the 1920s. Sometimes, and that is the present case, a single scientist creates a new field, in spite of the fact that at the time of discovery there are no applications. The parallel development of other branches of science and technology helps the application of the original idea. (orig.)

  6. Steam sterilization and automatic dispensing of [18F]fludeoxyglucose (FDG) for injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwath, Pascal; Sartor, Johannes; Gries, Wolfgang; Wodarski, Christine; Dittmar, Claus; Biersack, Hans J.; Guhlke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of implementing steam sterilization of 2-[ 18 F]FDG (FDG) in the final container into routine production, we have validated and established a fully automated dispensing and sterilization system, thereby considerably reducing the radiation burden to the personnel. Methods: The commercially available system combines aseptic dispensing of the product solution under a miniaturized laminar flow unit with subsequent steam sterilization, realized by heating of the product in the final containers by an autoclave included in the dispensing unit, thus incorporating current pharmaceutical manufacturing standards for the production of parental radiopharmaceuticals. The efficiency of the used sterilization cycle, the stability of FDG under the conditions of sterilization and the stability of the final product towards radiolysis was investigated with respect to various pH-formulations. Results: The system was found to be fully valid for filling of vials in a laminar flow class A (US-class 100) environment and for sterilization of FDG in the final container. The pH for sterilizing FDG solutions must be slightly acidic to avoid decomposition. A pH of 5.5 appears to be optimal and gives FDG of very high radiochemical purity (∼99%). In addition, radiolysis of FDG in solutions of high activity concentration was significantly lower at pH 5.5 than at neutral pH. Conclusion: Terminal sterilization enables the production of FDG in full compliance with GMP-regulations even in Class C or D (US class 10,000 or 100,000) laboratories

  7. Validation of the sterile manufacture of the AAEC MARK III molybdenum-99/techtnetium-99m generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.T.; Drummond, C.M.; Harrison, M.A.

    1982-07-01

    The Mark II molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator now supplied to hospitals by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is a non-sterile elution system. The Mark III version will be supplied as a sterile elution system. A validation study has been undertaken to assess the capability of the new production facility, to evaluate up-to-date procedures for manufacturing sterile generators and to demonstrate that a sterile radionuclide generator can be made. Generator manufacturing procedures and a time study of the validation are described. Microbiological methods for monitoring in-process aspects of manufacture, disinfectant efficacy and generator sterility are defined

  8. A Sterile-Neutrino Search with the MINOS Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the the NuMI beamline at Fermilab, USA. Using a near detector at 1 km distance from the neutrino production target, and a far detector at 735 km from the target, it is designed primarily to measure the disappearance of muon neutrinos. This thesis presents an analysis using MINOS data of the possibility of oscil- lation of the neutrinos in the NuMI beam to a hypothetical sterile flavour, which would have no Standard Model couplings. Such oscillations would result in a deficit in the neutral current interaction rate in the MINOS far detector relative to the expectation derived from the near detector data. The method used to identify neutral current and charged current events in the MINOS detectors is described and a new method of predicting and fitting the far detector spectrum presented, along with the effects of systematic uncertainties on the sterile neutrino oscillation analysis. Using this analysis, the fraction f s of the disappearing neutrinos that go to steriles is constrained to be below 0.15 at the 90% confidence level in the absence of electron neutrino appearance in the NuMI beam. With electron appearance at the CHOOZ limit, f s < 0.41 at 90% C.L.

  9. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  10. Development and application of radiation sterilization method in Federal Medical and Biophysical centre n.a. A.I. Burnazyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov V.V.

    2014-12-01

    was carried out in order to determine the sterilizing doses; to determine the maximum permissible doses of treatment; to develop irradiation technology; to develop normative and methodological base. The given study presents the results of practical work from 2000 to 2009 on radiation sterilization of MP and works to improve the methodological support of the production of such products. The scope of work was performed on the irradiation of products and conduct its microbiological control. The results of for analysis of the practice are overviewed. There were shown the basic documents for methodological support of production and the organization's role as a scientific and methodological expertise and nationwide center for radiation sterilization of MP, developed by the organization. There was presented the current status of logistical support and other features of the organization for participation in the works on radiation sterilization of MP, radiation processing of food and other materials that require microbiological decontamination.

  11. Sterilization of single-use helical stone baskets: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cely Barreto da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To experimentally evaluate the efficacy of a standard sterilization protocol employed during reuse of disposable helical stone baskets. Methods: Study performed on 20 helical stone baskets: 10 were used in the initial validation process, contaminated with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and imprinted on Müeller-Hinton media; 10 catheters were contaminated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, processed, inoculated in TSB and incubated in a water bath at a temperature of 55ºC. Bacterial growth was evaluated after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. After sterilization, stone baskets were also opened and closed 40 times to check for functional problems. All plastic and basket parts were carefully checked for damages. Results: After the 72-hour incubation period, there was growth of E. coli ATCC 25922 in 100% of imprints. After the sterilization process and up to 7 days incubation period on a blood agar plate, there was no growth of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 or any other bacteria. There were no functional problems or damage to baskets after the sterilization process. Conclusion: The ethylene oxide system is efficacious and safe for sterilization of disposable helical stone baskets. However, further clinical studies are required and should provide more safety information.

  12. Microbiological criteria for evaluating the sterility of objects of medical use and drugs: past and present state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorakova, V.

    1976-01-01

    The past and present status of microbiological criteria for radiosterilization is surveyed, outlining microbiological procedures proposed or used for selecting sterilizing doses, controlling sterilization, and checking sterility. Differences of opinion on questions of international standardization are noted and a possible method of dealing with checklists is proposed. (author)

  13. Comparison of Different Recruitment Methods for Sexual and Reproductive Health Research: Social Media-Based Versus Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Yoko; Miyagi, Etsuko; Taguri, Masataka; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takayuki; Wark, John Dennis; Garland, Suzanne Marie

    2017-03-10

    Prior research about the sexual and reproductive health of young women has relied mostly on self-reported survey studies. Thus, participant recruitment using Web-based methods can improve sexual and reproductive health research about cervical cancer prevention. In our prior study, we reported that Facebook is a promising way to reach young women for sexual and reproductive health research. However, it remains unknown whether Web-based or other conventional recruitment methods (ie, face-to-face or flyer distribution) yield comparable survey responses from similar participants. We conducted a survey to determine whether there was a difference in the sexual and reproductive health survey responses of young Japanese women based on recruitment methods: social media-based and conventional methods. From July 2012 to March 2013 (9 months), we invited women of ages 16-35 years in Kanagawa, Japan, to complete a Web-based questionnaire. They were recruited through either a social media-based (social networking site, SNS, group) or by conventional methods (conventional group). All participants enrolled were required to fill out and submit their responses through a Web-based questionnaire about their sexual and reproductive health for cervical cancer prevention. Of the 243 participants, 52.3% (127/243) were recruited by SNS, whereas 47.7% (116/243) were recruited by conventional methods. We found no differences between recruitment methods in responses to behaviors and attitudes to sexual and reproductive health survey, although more participants from the conventional group (15%, 14/95) chose not to answer the age of first intercourse compared with those from the SNS group (5.2%, 6/116; P=.03). No differences were found between recruitment methods in the responses of young Japanese women to a Web-based sexual and reproductive health survey. ©Yoko Motoki, Etsuko Miyagi, Masataka Taguri, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Takayuki Enomoto, John Dennis Wark, Suzanne Marie Garland. Originally

  14. Revision of the ISO and EN radiation sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hansen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards, ISO 11137 and EN 552, are now being revised under "ISO lead", with the aim of producing only one international standard, although in four parts: (1) requirements. (2) dose-setting methods, (3) dose-substantiation methods and (4) dosimetry. Several aspects...

  15. Effect of sterilization process on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of pure Mg and MgCa alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.L.; Zhou, W.R.; Wu, Y.H.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various sterilization methods on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of MgCa alloy, with pure Mg as a comparison, including steam autoclave sterilization (SA), ethylene oxide steam sterilization (EO), glutaraldehyde sterilization (GD), dry heat sterilization (DH) and Co60 γ ray radiation sterilization (R) technologies. The surface characterizations were performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, water contact angle and surface free energy measurement, whereas the cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility were evaluated by cellular adhesive experiment, platelet adhesion and hemolysis test. The results showed that the five sterilization processes caused more changes on the surface of MgCa alloy than that on the surface of pure Mg. The GD sterilization caused the most obvious changes on the surface of the pure Mg, and the SA sterilization made the largest alteration on the MgCa alloy surface. The GD and DH sterilization processes could cause increases on surface free energy for both pure Mg and MgCa alloys, while the other three sterilization processes reduced the surface free energy. The DH and GD sterilization processes caused the least alteration on the cell adhesion on pure Mg surface, whereas the EO sterilization performed the greatest impact on the cell adhesion on the Mg–Ca alloy surface. The hemolysis percentage of pure Mg and MgCa alloys were reduced by SA sterilization, meanwhile the other four sterilization processes increased their hemolysis percentages significantly, especially for the EO sterilization. - Highlights: • The effect of sterilization on surface chemistry and biocompatibility was studied. • Sterilization caused more surface changes on MgCa alloy than pure Mg. • Co60 γ ray radiation is the most appropriate sterilization process

  16. Application of thermal sterilization regimes simulation for improvement of canned foods quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolyanov A.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of comparison of optimization methods of thermal sterilization temperature-time regimes have been described. It has been shown that due to simulation the final canned foods’ quality factors are significantly improved, sterilization process time is decreased and energy consumption is reduced without sacrificing actual final lethality value

  17. Pest persistence and eradication conditions in a deterministic model for sterile insect release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    The release of sterile insects is an environment friendly pest control method used in integrated pest management programmes. Difference or differential equations based on Knipling's model often provide satisfactory qualitative descriptions of pest populations subject to sterile release at relatively high densities with large mating encounter rates, but fail otherwise. In this paper, I derive and explore numerically deterministic population models that include sterile release together with scarce mating encounters in the particular case of species with long lifespan and multiple matings. The differential equations account separately the effects of mating failure due to sterile male release and the frequency of mating encounters. When insects spatial spread is incorporated through diffusion terms, computations reveal the possibility of steady pest persistence in finite size patches. In the presence of density dependence regulation, it is observed that sterile release might contribute to induce sudden suppression of the pest population.

  18. Area-wide integrated pest management and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) focuses on the preventive management of pest populations throughout the ecosystem. It seeks to treat all habitats of the pest population so that none produces migrants to re-establish significant infestations in areas of concern. In contrast, the conventional strategy focuses narrowly on defending the valued entity (crop, livestock, people, buildings, etc.) from direct attack by pests. AW-IPM requires multiyear planning, and an organization dedicated exclusively to its implementation, whereas conventional pest management involves minimal forward planning, tends to be reactive, and is implemented independently by individual producers, businesses, or households. AW-IPM tends to utilize advanced technologies, whereas the conventional strategy tends to rely on traditional tactics and tools. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a species-specific form of birth control imposed on the pest population. It is a powerful tool for 'mopping up' sparse pest populations, and is most efficient when applied as a tactic in a system deployed on an area-wide basis. On environmental, economic and biological grounds, the case for the SIT is compelling. (author)

  19. Sensitivity of viruses to radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic Goclawska; A

    1999-01-01

    The hazard of infectious disease transmission with tissue allografts is a major concern in tissue banking practice. Microorganisms can be introduced into grafts during tissue collection, processing and storage, but even when all these procedures are performed under a septic conditions, the possibility of fungal, bacterial or viral disease transmission of donor origin can not be excluded. Therefore, in order to minimize the risk of infectious disease transmission, several steps should be undertaken, including a careful donor screening, proper tissue processing and sterilization of tissue allografts. The risk of transmission of viral infections such as hepatitis B, C, other viruses and particularly HIV with tissue allografts is of great significance and the search for sterilizing methods which inactivate and/or highly reduce viral infectivity continues. Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation (introduced in the mid of 1950s) is increasingly used in tissue banking practice. The effectiveness of the radiation-sterilization procedure depends on the amount of energy transferred, the number of contaminating microorganisms and their resistance to ionizing radiation (initial contamination, bioburden). Usually, spores are more resistant than vegetative forms of bacteria, some fungi may be as resistant as bacterial spores, and viruses are, in general, more resistant than bacteria. Dita concerning effectiveness of ionizing radiation to inactivate viruses (e.g. such as HBV, HCV or HIV) in tissue allografts collected from cadavers are scarce. It has been found that the dose of irradiation needed to reduce HIV load by I log10 unit (D10) is about 4.0 kGy or even 5.6 kGy. The level of infectious HIV in plasma is usually evaluated by titration of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/ml). Taking into consideration the recommended sterility assurance level (SAL) 10-6, assuming the HIV bioburden to be 103 TCID50/ml for the state of acute infection and D10 value of 4

  20. Radiation sterilization of triple sugar iron agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, G.; Eisenberg, E.; Bogokowsky, B.

    1979-01-01

    Triple sugar iron agar (TSI), a medium used for the identification of enteric bacteria, was sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation doses of 750-2000 krad. The radio-sterilized medium, slightly modified by increasing its Phenol Red content, performed well when tested with different enterobacteriaceae and other gram negative bacteria. Growth, change of indicator reaction in slant and butt and formation of gas and H 2 S were equal in irradiated and autoclaved TSI. Slants of irradiated TSI in stoppered plastic tubes kept their diagnostic properties during storage for at least 4 months. Gamma irradiation appears to be an attractive and economical method of sterilising nutrient media in sealed tubes or other containers, avoiding the risk of contamination during processing. (author)

  1. The sterile-insect technique for the control of fruit flies: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some advantages of the sterile-insect technique (SIT) are its minimum contribution to environmental pollution and its minimum adverse effect on non-target organisms. A review is made of the melon fly and sterile Mediterranean fruit fly release programmes, the accomplishments, and the implications. Recommendations are made for research leading to development of methods for practical use of the SIT. (author)

  2. Non-surgical female sterilization with quinacrine-induced tubal occlusion: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last 35 years, quinacrine has been used to sterilize more than 150,000 women in 40 countries, first in the form of slurry and now in the form of cylindrical pellets. Some studies confirmed the tubal occlusion by hysterosalpyngo-graphy, but this method increases the chance of failure. Only a few studies on tubal occlusion have used transvaginal sonography for confirmation, and there were some doubts about the effect of quinacrine on the endometrium. We performed this study to evaluate the tubal scar and endometrial pattern by ultrasound and to determine the feasibility, acceptance, and side effects of quinacrine sterilization (QS in Iranian women. Methods: This prospective clinical trial was done at the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences between April 2005 and July 2006. One hundred sexually active women ranging from 30 to 47 years of age, who had at least two children above two years old, requesting sterilization, were sterilized by this method. By the end of menstrual bleeding, seven pellets, each containing 36mg quinacrine, were inserted in the uterine fundal area via the cervical canal. The procedure was repeated one month later. Three cycles after the first step, transvaginal sonography was performed to visualize the tubal scar and determine the endometrial pattern. Patients were followed at one and three years after initiation of the procedure. Results: All women were satisfied with the procedure. There were no side effects. No pregnancies had occurred, nor were there endometrial thickness abnormalities. Scar formation was visible in the tubes. "nConclusion: Quinacrine sterilization is a useful method for women and can be recommended to family planning services as an ambulatory procedure due to its efficacy, simplicity, acceptance and cost effectiveness.

  3. Sterilization of heparinized cuprophan hemodialysis membranes

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sterilization of dry heparinized Cuprophan hemodialysis membranes by means of ethylene oxide (EtO) exposure, gamma irradiation, or steam on the anticoagulant activity and chemical characteristics of immobilized heparin and the permeability of the membrane were investigated. Sterilization did not result in a release of heparin or heparin fragments from heparinized Cuprophan. Sterilization of heparinized Cuprophan by means of EtO exposure and gamma irradiation induced a slight, i...

  4. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Namaky, R.; Oort, van P.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two

  5. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  6. Comparative mating and reproductive performance of radiation sterilized and radiation induced F1 sterile males of Earias vittella (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantharam, K.; Tamhankar, A.J.; Harwalkar, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted on mating behaviour and reproductive performance of a) Earias vittella (F.) males rendered sterile by exposing them to 300 Gy gamma rays and b) F 1 sterile males obtained by exposing parent male to 100 Gy gamma rays. For the study, males were allowed only one mating with a normal female. Results revealed that premating period, period in copula and per cent insects mating were not adversely affected in case of both types of sterile males and fecundity also remained unaffected. However, in both types of sterile males, incidence of spermatophore transfer without sperm was very large and such an occurrence (including reduced spermatophore transfer) was significantly higher in case of radiation sterilized males compared to the F 1 sterile males. Inability to produce and transfer spermatophore and/or sperm appeared to be a major cause behind the reduced mating competitiveness of both types of males. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Influence of ∼7 keV sterile neutrino dark matter on the process of reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakovskyi, Anton; Iakubovskyi, Dmytro

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of a weak unidentified emission line at ∼3.5 keV found in spectra of several matter-dominated objects may give a clue to resolve the long-standing problem of dark matter. One of the best physically motivated particle candidate able to produce such an extra line is sterile neutrino with the mass of ∼7 keV . Previous works show that sterile neutrino dark matter with parameters consistent with the new line measurement modestly affects structure formation compared to conventional cold dark matter scenario. In this work, we concentrate for the first time on contribution of the sterile neutrino dark matter able to produce the observed line at ∼3.5 keV, to the process of reionization. By incorporating dark matter power spectra for ∼7 keV sterile neutrinos into extended semi-analytical 'bubble' model of reionization we obtain that such sterile neutrino dark matter would produce significantly sharper reionization compared to widely used cold dark matter models, impossible to 'imitate' within the cold dark matter scenario under any reasonable choice of our model parameters, and would have a clear tendency of lowering both the redshift of reionization and the electron scattering optical depth (although the difference is still below the existing model uncertainties). Further dedicated studies of reionization (such as 21 cm measurements or studies of kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect) will thus be essential for reconstruction of particle candidate responsible the ∼3.5 keV line.

  8. Alcohol production from sterilized and non-sterilized molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on brewer's spent grains in two types of continuous bioreactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Bosnea, Loulouda; Bekatorou, Argyro; Tzia, Constantina; Kanellaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this work an integrated cost effective system for continuous alcoholic fermentation of a cheap raw material (molasses) is described, involving yeast immobilized by a simple method on brewer's spent grains, able to ferment in the temperature range 30–40 °C, and two types of bioreactors, a Multistage Fixed Bed Tower (MFBT) and a Packed Bed reactor (PB). The MFBT bioreactor gave better results regarding ethanol concentration, productivity and conversion. Furthermore, the use of sterilized and non-sterilized molasses, fed in two similar MFBT bioreactors, showed that ethanol concentration (kg m −3 ) was significantly (p −3 at 35 °C and 44.2–48.2 kg m −3 at 40 °C), compared to sterilized molasses, where ethanol concentration ranged from 35.6 to 46.6 kg m −3 at 35 °C and 30.8–44.2 kg m −3 at 40 °C. During 32 days of continuous operation using non-sterilized molasses no contamination was observed. Industrialization of the proposed system seems to have a potential, mainly due to its high fermentation efficiency and the obtained high operational stability. -- Highlights: ► An integrated cost effective system for continuous alcoholic fermentation. ► Efficient conversion of non-sterilized molasses to ethanol. ► No need for additional treatments to prevent contamination. ► Results showed high fermentation efficiency and high operational stability.

  9. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-12-06

    The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks. Here, we constructed a rice male sterility system using a nuclear gene named Oryza sativa No Pollen 1 (OsNP1). OsNP1 encodes a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase regulating tapetum degeneration and pollen exine formation; it is specifically expressed in the tapetum and miscrospores. The osnp1 mutant plant displays normal vegetative growth but complete male sterility insensitive to environmental conditions. OsNP1 was coupled with an α-amylase gene to devitalize transgenic pollen and the red fluorescence protein (DsRed) gene to mark transgenic seed and transformed into the osnp1 mutant. Self-pollination of the transgenic plant carrying a single hemizygous transgene produced nontransgenic male sterile and transgenic fertile seeds in 1:1 ratio that can be sorted out based on the red fluorescence coded by DsRed Cross-pollination of the fertile transgenic plants to the nontransgenic male sterile plants propagated the male sterile seeds of high purity. The male sterile line was crossed with ∼1,200 individual rice germplasms available. Approximately 85% of the F1s outperformed their parents in per plant yield, and 10% out-yielded the best local cultivars, indicating that the technology is promising in hybrid rice breeding and production.

  10. Analysis and protective measures of sharp instrument injury causes of sterilization and supply center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua YANG

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the causes of sharp injury in the sterilization and supply center, take protective measures, effectively avoid sharp instrument injury, and guarantee staff safety. Methods: Adopt a retrospective survey method, summarize sharp instrument injury data of sterilization and supply center in 2013, analyze the reasons of the occurrence of sharp instrument injury, and make protective countermeasures. Results: Sharp instrument injuries occurred mainly in the device classification, manual cleaning and device packaging process. Conclusion: Poor consciousness of occupational protection of the staff in the sterilization and supply center, nonstandard operation, and lack of training and supervision in place are the main reasons of occurrence of sharp instrument injury.

  11. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  12. Microbiological method for radiation sterilization (I). General knowledge and handling technique for bacterial identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    2004-01-01

    The part I in this title series describes the basic knowledge and technique for identification of bacteria in the radiation sterilization of medical devices, where the radiation dose can be decided from the number and radio-resistance of the bioburden (bacteria on the device). Four essential, actual technologies for identification are described: isolation and storage of bacteria; decision of bacterial natures, involving 3 Gram staining methods, morphology by microscopy and/or phase-contrast microscopy, spore-forming bacteria, and size measurement by micrometry; Other test items for identification of genus, involving motility, oxygen demand, catalase, oxidase, acid production from glucose, and OF (oxidation or fermentation for glucose degradation) test; and colony observation. Media, identification kits and record forms for these are presented. (N.I.)

  13. Effect of autoclaving on the surfaces of TiN -coated and conventional nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, G; Ametrano, G; D'Antò, V; Rengo, C; Simeone, M; Riccitiello, F; Amato, M

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of repeated autoclave sterilization cycles on surface topography of conventional nickel-titanium ( NiTi ) and titanium nitride ( TiN )-coated rotary instruments. A total of 60 NiTi rotary instruments, 30 ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer) and 30 TiN -coated AlphaKite (Komet/Gebr. Brasseler), were analysed. Instruments were evaluated in the as-received condition and after 1, 5 and 10 sterilization cycles. After sterilization, the samples were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface chemical analysis was performed on each instrument with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, the samples were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square value (RMS) of the scanned surface profiles were recorded. Data were analysed by means of anova followed by Tukey's test. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the presence of pitting and deep milling marks in all instruments. EDS analysis confirmed that both types of instruments were composed mainly of nickel and titanium, whilst AlphaKite had additional nitride. After multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, SEM examinations revealed an increase in surface alterations, and EDS values indicated changes in chemical surface composition in all instruments. Ra and RMS values of ProTaper significantly increased after 5 (P = 0.006) and 10 cycles (P = 0.002) with respect to the as-received instruments, whilst AlphaKite showed significant differences compared with the controls after 10 cycles (P = 0.03). Multiple autoclave sterilization cycles modified the surface topography and chemical composition of conventional and TiN -coated NiTi rotary instruments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  14. Exploiting novel sterilization techniques for porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Porous polyurethane (PU) structures raise increasing interest as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is mandatory to assess their potential use in the clinical practice. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of two innovative sterilization techniques (i.e. plasma, Sterrad(®) system, and ozone) on the morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of a PU foam synthesized by gas foaming, using water as expanding agent. In addition, possible toxic effects of the sterilization were evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Plasma sterilization did not affect the morphological and mechanical properties of the PU foam, but caused at some extent degradative phenomena, as detected by infrared spectroscopy. Ozone sterilization had a major effect on foam morphology, causing the formation of new small pores, and stronger degradation and oxidation on the structure of the material. These modifications affected the mechanical properties of the sterilized PU foam too. Even though, no cytotoxic effects were observed after both plasma and ozone sterilization, as confirmed by the good values of cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results here obtained can help in understanding the effects of sterilization procedures on porous polymeric scaffolds, and how the scaffold morphology, in particular porosity, can influence the effects of sterilization, and viceversa.

  15. The Effect of Sterilization on Size and Shape of Fat Globules in Model Processed Cheese Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tremlová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Model cheese samples from 4 independent productions were heat sterilized (117 °C, 20 minutes after the melting process and packing with an aim to prolong their durability. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the size and shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization by using image analysis methods. The study included a selection of suitable methods of preparation mounts, taking microphotographs and making overlays for automatic processing of photographs by image analyser, ascertaining parameters to determine the size and shape of fat globules and statistical analysis of results obtained. The results of the experiment suggest that changes in shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization are not unequivocal. We found that the size of fat globules was significantly increased (p < 0.01 due to heat sterilization (117 °C, 20 min, and the shares of small fat globules (up to 500 μm2, or 100 μm2 in the samples of heat sterilized processed cheese were decreased. The results imply that the image analysis method is very useful when assessing the effect of technological process on the quality of processed cheese quality.

  16. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  17. Application of radiation sterilization to bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youchen; Li Baoxing; Sun Shiquan

    2003-01-01

    With prominent features of high penetration, no temperature increases, no harm residues and easy dose control, radiation sterilization technology is widely used in the sterilization of bone allografts. During the radiation sterilization of bone allografts, the irradiation dose should be optimized to ensure sterilization of grafts and preservation of biological properties of bone. The immunogenicity of allografts is decreased by irradiation. IAEA devoted great efforts to generalization of the radiation sterilization of tissue allografts in developing countries since 1986. Tissue Bank of China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) was initially established in 1988 with the support of IAEA, afterwards restructured into Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank (SPTB). The SPTB, as the first manufacturer of the irradiated bone allografts in the country, was granted production license by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The SPTB sponsored IAEA/RCA Training Courses, National Symposium on Bone Grafting, and National Training Course on Bone Banking. Technique of radiation sterilization for bone grafts has become popularized in China after these activities. (authors)

  18. Application of 265-nm UVC LED Lighting to Sterilization of Typical Gram Negative and Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Wook; Yoon, Hyung Do; Park, Jae-Hyoun; Ryu, Uh-Chan

    2018-05-01

    UV LED lightings have been displacing conventional UV lamps due to their high efficiency, long lifetime, etc. A sterilizing lighting was prepared by assembling a UV LED module composed of 265-nm UVC LEDs and a silica lens array with a driver module comprised of a driver IC controlling pulse width modulation and constant current. The silica lens array was designed and fabricated to focus UV beam and simultaneously to give a uniform light distribution over specimens. Then pasteurizing effect of the lighting was analyzed for four kinds of bacteria and one yeast which are dangerous to people with low immunity. Sterilizing tests on these germs were carried out at the both exposure distances of 10 and 100 mm for various exposure durations up to 600 s.

  19. Construction of a multicontrol sterility system for a maize male-sterile line and hybrid seed production based on the ZmMs7 gene encoding a PHD-finger transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wu, Suowei; An, Xueli; Xie, Ke; Dong, Zhenying; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Liwen; Fang, Wen; Liu, Shensi; Liu, Shuangshuang; Zhu, Taotao; Li, Jinping; Rao, Liqun; Zhao, Jiuran; Wan, Xiangyuan

    2018-02-01

    Although hundreds of genetic male sterility (GMS) mutants have been identified in maize, few are commercially used due to a lack of effective methods to produce large quantities of pure male-sterile seeds. Here, we develop a multicontrol sterility (MCS) system based on the maize male sterility 7 (ms7) mutant and its wild-type Zea mays Male sterility 7 (ZmMs7) gene via a transgenic strategy, leading to the utilization of GMS in hybrid seed production. ZmMs7 is isolated by a map-based cloning approach and encodes a PHD-finger transcription factor orthologous to rice PTC1 and Arabidopsis MS1. The MCS transgenic maintainer lines are developed based on the ms7-6007 mutant transformed with MCS constructs containing the (i) ZmMs7 gene to restore fertility, (ii) α-amylase gene ZmAA and/or (iii) DNA adenine methylase gene Dam to devitalize transgenic pollen, (iv) red fluorescence protein gene DsRed2 or mCherry to mark transgenic seeds and (v) herbicide-resistant gene Bar for transgenic seed selection. Self-pollination of the MCS transgenic maintainer line produces transgenic red fluorescent seeds and nontransgenic normal colour seeds at a 1:1 ratio. Among them, all the fluorescent seeds are male fertile, but the seeds with a normal colour are male sterile. Cross-pollination of the transgenic plants to male-sterile plants propagates male-sterile seeds with high purity. Moreover, the transgene transmission rate through pollen of transgenic plants harbouring two pollen-disrupted genes is lower than that containing one pollen-disrupted gene. The MCS system has great potential to enhance the efficiency of maize male-sterile line propagation and commercial hybrid seed production. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Sterile-Neutrino Search with the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Philip [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the the NuMI beamline at Fermilab, USA. Using a near detector at 1 km distance from the neutrino production target, and a far detector at 735 km from the target, it is designed primarily to measure the disappearance of muon neutrinos. This thesis presents an analysis using MINOS data of the possibility of oscil- lation of the neutrinos in the NuMI beam to a hypothetical sterile flavour, which would have no Standard Model couplings. Such oscillations would result in a deficit in the neutral current interaction rate in the MINOS far detector relative to the expectation derived from the near detector data. The method used to identify neutral current and charged current events in the MINOS detectors is described and a new method of predicting and fitting the far detector spectrum presented, along with the effects of systematic uncertainties on the sterile neutrino oscillation analysis. Using this analysis, the fraction fs of the disappearing neutrinos that go to steriles is constrained to be below 0.15 at the 90% confidence level in the absence of electron neutrino appearance in the NuMI beam. With electron appearance at the CHOOZ limit, fs < 0.41 at 90% C.L.

  1. Steam sterilization and automatic dispensing of [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose (FDG) for injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwath, Pascal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany) and MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Sartor, Johannes [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Gries, Wolfgang [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Wodarski, Christine [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Dittmar, Claus [MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany); Biersack, Hans J [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Guhlke, Stefan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany) and MC-Pharma GmbH (MCP), Bonn (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    For the purpose of implementing steam sterilization of 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG (FDG) in the final container into routine production, we have validated and established a fully automated dispensing and sterilization system, thereby considerably reducing the radiation burden to the personnel. Methods: The commercially available system combines aseptic dispensing of the product solution under a miniaturized laminar flow unit with subsequent steam sterilization, realized by heating of the product in the final containers by an autoclave included in the dispensing unit, thus incorporating current pharmaceutical manufacturing standards for the production of parental radiopharmaceuticals. The efficiency of the used sterilization cycle, the stability of FDG under the conditions of sterilization and the stability of the final product towards radiolysis was investigated with respect to various pH-formulations. Results: The system was found to be fully valid for filling of vials in a laminar flow class A (US-class 100) environment and for sterilization of FDG in the final container. The pH for sterilizing FDG solutions must be slightly acidic to avoid decomposition. A pH of 5.5 appears to be optimal and gives FDG of very high radiochemical purity ({approx}99%). In addition, radiolysis of FDG in solutions of high activity concentration was significantly lower at pH 5.5 than at neutral pH. Conclusion: Terminal sterilization enables the production of FDG in full compliance with GMP-regulations even in Class C or D (US class 10,000 or 100,000) laboratories.

  2. Baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfect home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Dana; Callan, Deborah A; Farrel, Patricia A; Egan, Marie E; Murray, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of bacterial infection but no single method is universally accepted for disinfection. We hypothesized that baby-bottle steam sterilizers effectively disinfect home nebulizers. Home nebulizers were inoculated with the common CF respiratory pathogens methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, mucoid and non mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nebulizers were swabbed for bacterial growth, treated with either the AVENT (Philips), the NUK Quick & Ready (Gerber) or DRY-POD (Camera Baby) baby bottle steam sterilizer and reswabbed for bacterial growth. All steam sterilizers were effective at disinfecting all home nebulizers. Viable bacteria were not recovered from any inoculated site after steam treatment, under any conditions tested. Steam treatment is an effective disinfection method. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether these results are applicable to the clinical setting. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An experimental study on sterilized barium sulfate (BaSO4) for vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Long; Ni Caifang; Ding Yi; Wang Yijin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To search the proper sterilization method of barium for vertebroplasty. Methods: Perfusion agents were classified into two groups with ratio of powder/liquid(g/ml) as 3:2, and the percentage of BsSO 4 in powder was 20%. The barium powder in one group was sterilized by dry-heat and by ethylene oxide in the other. The barium powder of each group was germicultured and the polymerization time, CT value, strength and stiffness were measured respectively including 6 samples. Two independent-samples t text was used for analysis. Results: The germiculture in each group was negative. The difference in polmerization time and CT value of each group were not significant (P>0.05), while the strength and stiffness were significantly different (P<0.05). Conclusions: Sterilized effects of two groups were satisfied but the dry-heat barium sulfate is superior, more suitable for vertebroplasty. (authors)

  4. Recommendations for the safety preparation of sterile medicines in medical wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M.ª Martín de Rosales Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a recommendations guide about the preparation of sterile medicines in medical wards, and to figure out the current situation of different Spanish hospitals, regarding the preparation of sterile medicines outside the pharmacy. Methods: The autors reviewed the available international guidelines in order to summarize the main quality recommendations. To know about the current situation in Spanish hospitals, a 30 questions survey was designed and spread to 500 different hospitals. Answers were analysed with Survey monkey® platform in the period February-July 2012. Results: Based on the literature review, the authors agreed a recommendations list for the safe preparation of sterile medicines in medical wards, which was structured in 8 sections. Regarding the survey results, 8.4% of the hospitals answered, showing a great variability among centres in the quality requirements for sterile compounding outside the pharmacy. It should be pointed out the lack of assigned areas for drug preparation in wards, the lack of protocols to discern which kind of medicines can be compounded in wards as well as the poor recommendations about garment and aseptic technique. Conclusions: The authors confirm the absence of qualified practice standards to be applied in the preparation of sterile medicines in medical wards, as well as the great variability of diary practice. The implementation of quality and safety recommendations in the preparation of sterile medicines in medical wards may contribute to improve patient safety.

  5. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  6. Male perceptions on female sterilization: a community-based study in rural Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija

    2009-09-01

    Use of modern contraceptive methods has increased fourfold in India since the 1970s, characterized by a predominance of female sterilization. There has been considerable investigation about women's choice of female sterilization, but little from the male perspective. Seven focus group discussions were conducted among 58 men currently married to women aged 15-45, followed by a cross-sectional survey among 793 men currently married to same-aged women. Bivariate analysis was used for the survey data, and content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Men's primary source of reproductive health information was mass media, although they expressed interest in getting information through discussion with knowledgeable sources. Men understood family planning and contraception to be two separate issues: Men viewed "family planning" as synonymous with female sterilization, whereas they saw "contraception" as referring to spacing methods, knowledge of which was limited. Thirty-four percent of men reported that their wives had been sterilized; 79% of men who did not rely on any permanent method said they wanted their wives to be sterilized. In focus group discussions, most men reported themselves as their family's sole decision maker about reproductive health; however, only one-third of survey respondents did so. Men are interested in acquiring family planning information, but lack knowledge about available information sources, which hampers their ability to make informed family planning choices. Family planning service providers and program planners need to be aware of males' knowledge and perceptions pertaining to family planning, and make appropriate modifications to communication strategies.

  7. [Determinants of sterilization among married couples in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hee; Chung, Woojin; Lee, Sunmi; Suh, Moonhee; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of sterilization in South Korea. This study was based on the data from the Korea National Fertility Survey carried out in the year 2000 by the Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs. The subjects of the analysis were 4,604 women and their husbands who were in their first marriage, in the age group of 15-49 years. The data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, the woman's age and the number of total children increased the likelihood of sterilization. In addition, the year of marriage had a strong positive association with sterilization. Interestingly, the number of surviving sons tended to increase the likelihood of sterilization, whereas the woman's education level and age at the time of marriage showed a negative association with sterilization. Religion, place of residence, son preference, and the husband's education level, age and type of occupation were not significant determinants of sterilization. The sex of previous children and lower level of education are distinct determinants of sterilization among women in South Korea. More studies are needed in order to determine the associations between sterilization rate and decreased fertility.

  8. Comparison of the lysis centrifugation method with the conventional blood culture method in cases of sepsis in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-07-01

    Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Two hundred nonduplicate blood cultures from cases of sepsis were analyzed using two blood culture methods concurrently for recovery of bacteria from patients diagnosed clinically with sepsis - the conventional blood culture method using trypticase soy broth and the lysis centrifugation method using saponin by centrifuging at 3000 g for 30 minutes. Overall bacteria recovered from 200 blood cultures were 17.5%. The conventional blood culture method had a higher yield of organisms, especially Gram positive cocci. The lysis centrifugation method was comparable with the former method with respect to Gram negative bacilli. The sensitivity of lysis centrifugation method in comparison to conventional blood culture method was 49.75% in this study, specificity was 98.21% and diagnostic accuracy was 89.5%. In almost every instance, the time required for detection of the growth was earlier by lysis centrifugation method, which was statistically significant. Contamination by lysis centrifugation was minimal, while that by conventional method was high. Time to growth by the lysis centrifugation method was highly significant (P value 0.000) as compared to time to growth by the conventional blood culture method. For the diagnosis of sepsis, combination of the lysis centrifugation method and the conventional blood culture method with trypticase soy broth or biphasic media is advocable, in order to achieve faster recovery and a better yield of microorganisms.

  9. Studies on induced mutation of sesame male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingde; Feng Xiangyun; Zhao Yingzhong

    2001-01-01

    The dry seeds of the high yielding cultivar, Yuzhi-4, were irradiated with 300, 500 and 700 Gy of 60 Co- gamma rays. 3277 M 1 plants were harvested separately as single plants and also in bulk, by doses. In M 2 , the single plant seeds were grown in progeny rows and the bulked seeds were grown as bulks. 25 male sterile plants were screened from M 2 . 10 of the 25 male sterile plants were from the progenies of the single plant seeds and 15 were from the progenies of the bulked seeds. In further genetic research of the 25 male sterile plants in M 3 and M 4 , 6 separate genic male sterile (GMS) lines were identified. Their male sterility was stable and was controlled by a pair of alleles, male fertility being dominant to sterility. (author)

  10. A see-saw mechanism with light sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.; Garbutt, M.; Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.

    2001-01-01

    The usual see-saw mechanism for the generation of light neutrino masses is based on the assumption that all of the flavours of right-handed (more properly, sterile) neutrinos are heavy. If the sterile Majorana mass matrix is singular, one or more of the sterile neutrinos will have zero mass before mixing with the active (left-handed) neutrinos and be light after that mixing is introduced In particular, a rank 1 sterile mass matrix leads naturally to two pseudo-Dirac pairs, one very light active Majorana neutrino and one heavy sterile Majorana neutrino. For any pattern of Dirac masses, there exists a region of parameter space in which the two pseudo-Dirac pairs are nearly degenerate in mass. This, in turn, leads to large amplitude mixing of active states as well as mixing into sterile states

  11. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, J.; Hannestad, S.; Raffelt, G.G.; Tamborra, I.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile neutrino states from the most recent cosmological data. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if ms is in the sub-eV range.

  12. Radiation dose setting for sterilization of health care items in relation to product microbiological quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Nagi Marsit; Asnah Hassan

    1997-01-01

    Radiation dose of 25 k gray is no longer a generally accepted dose for sterilization. ISO document no. 11137 stated that a manufacturer can decide the dose to sterilize his product depending on the product's microbiological quality (number and type of the contaminants) and the sterility assurance level (SAL) should attain in relation to its usage. Five health care products were selected for the microbiological studies including bio burden counts, identification of most commonly found microorganisms and the radioresistance (D sub 10 value) of the selected isolates. Radiation dose was then determined by two methods, namely Method for Dose Validation of ISO 11137, and calculation based on log survival or population cycle reduction. At a given SAL of 10 sup -6 the radiation sterilization dose obtained by both methods was influenced by microbiological quality of the product. Sterilization dose set by the ISO Method I (Cotton Ball 19.4 kGy, Syringe 20.4 kGy, Suture 15. 0 kGy, Surgical Glove 24.9 kGy and Amnion 17.8 kGy) was higher than the dose calculated according to the log cycle reduction concept in all the products (Cotton Ball 14. 0 kGy, Syringe 15.5 kGy, Suture 11. 6 kGy, Surgical Glove 18. 0 kGy and Amnion 12.6 kGy). The ISO method has limitation on bio products such as amnion and other high valued products which are produced in small number with low bio burden and microorganism spectrum different from those commonly found on medical items

  13. Sterilization of Fusarium oxysporum by treatment of non-thermalequilibrium plasma in nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Shinji; Seki, Satoshi; Yoshida, Ryohei; Shoji, Kazuhiro; Terazoe, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of spinach due to F. oxysporum infection is one of the most destructive root diseases in hydroponics in factories using the nutrient film technique. We investigated new technologies for the sterilization of microconidia of F. oxysporum by using a non-thermalequilibrium plasma treatment method in nutrient solution. Specifically, we investigated the sterilization capabilities of five types of gas (air, O2, N2, He, and Ar) used for plasma generation. The highest sterilization capability was achieved by using O2 plasma. However, ozone, which causes growth inhibition, was then generated and released into the atmosphere. The sterilization capability was lower when N2 or air plasma was used in the nutrient solution. It was confirmed that sterilization can be achieved by plasma treatment using inert gases that do not generate ozone; therefore, we determined that Ar plasma is the most preferable. In addition, we investigated the sterilization capabilities of other factors associated with Ar plasma generation, without direct plasma treatment. However, none of these other factors, which included Ar bubbling, pH reduction, increased temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, and UV radiation, could completely reproduce the results of direct plasma treatment. We assume that radicals such as O or OH may contribute significantly to the sterilization of microconidia of F. oxysporum in a nutrient solution.

  14. The effect of endoscopic sterilization on reproductive behavior and pair bond maintenance of feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderich, E; Failing, K; Lierz, M; Schildger, B

    2016-01-01

    Problems related to feral pigeons (Columba livia) in cities mainly result from their large numbers due to uncontrolled population growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether endoscopic guided sterilization affects the reproductive behavior of feral pigeons under experimental conditions, with the intention of assessing this technique as a potential method for feral pigeon population control. Five groups of four pairs of feral pigeons each were studied from 8 weeks before, to 7 weeks after sterilization. Both the male and female of the first pair of each group were sterilized, in the second pair only the female and in the third pair only the male was sterilized. The fourth pair acted as a control. All eggs laid were candled to assess fertility. Surgical sterilization had minimal effects on behavior and therefore seems not to have impact on possible field application for population control. All pairs maintained their pair bonds and continued to defend their nesting sites against other pigeons. Only one female copulated with a foreign fertile male while her primary partner was debilitated due to surgery, but returned to him as soon as he recovered. All eggs laid more than 5 days after male sterilization were infertile, whereas all control pairs had fertile eggs. Only one fertile clutch was produced, 5 days after the male's sterilization. Therefore it is assumed that males remain fertile for a limited period of time. Endoscopic sterilization seems to be a promising method for field control of feral pigeon populations and sterilization of the male only seems sufficient.

  15. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  16. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824); Esterilizacao de Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) para aplicacao da tecnica do inseto esteril no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jamuga@cena.usp.br; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a {sup 60}Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  17. Searching for Sterile Neutrinos with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Ashley [Manchester U.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results for a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using the $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target data set taken from 2005 - 2012. By searching for oscillations driven by a large mass splitting, MINOS is sensitive to the existence of sterile neutrinos through any energy dependent deviations using a charged current sample, as well as looking at any relative deficit between neutral current events between the far and near detectors. This document will discuss the novel analysis that enabled a search for sterile neutrinos setting a limit in the previously unexplored regions in the parameter space $\\{\\Delta m^{2}_{41}, \\sin^2\\theta_{24}\\}$. The results presented can be compared to the parameter space suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE and complements other previous experimental searches for sterile neutrinos in the electron neutrino appearance channel.

  18. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S K; Raghevendrarao, M K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Library and Technical Information Section

    1975-10-01

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products.

  19. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  20. A preliminary evaluation of a reusable digital sterilization indicator prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaiah, R; Griggs, J; D'Onofrio, M

    2014-09-01

    Sterilization of critical and semicritical instruments used in patient care must undergo a terminal process of sterilization. Use of chemical and physical indicators are important in providing information on the sterilizer's performance during each cycle. Regular and periodic monitoring of sterilizers using biological indicators is necessary in periodically validating performance of sterilizers. Data loggers or independent digital parametric indicators are innovative devices that provide more information than various classes chemical indicators. In this study we evaluated a prototype of an independent digital parametric indicator's use in autoclaves. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an independent digital indicator/data logger prototype (DS1922F) that could be used for multiple cycles within an autoclave.MG Materials and methods: Three batches of the DS1922F (150 samples) were used in this study that was conducted in a series. The first batch was challenged with 300 sterilization cycles within an autoclave and the data loggers evaluated to study failures and the reason for failure, make corrections and improve the prototype design. After changes made based on studying the first batch, the second batch of the prototype (150 samples) were challenged once again with 300 sterilization cycles within an autoclave and failure studied again in further improvement of the prototype. The final batch (3rd batch) of the prototype (150 samples) was challenged again but with 600 cycles to see how long they would last. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis analyses of all three batches was conducted (α = 0.05) and failed samples qualitatively studied in understanding the variables involved in the failure of the prototype, and in improving quality. Each tested batch provided crucial information on device failure and helped in improvement of the prototype. Mean lifetime survival of the final batch (Batch 3) of prototype was 498 (480, 516) sterilization cycles

  1. Evaluation of positional plagiocephaly: Conventional anthropometric measurement versus laser scanning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahles, Susanne; Klein, Martin; Yacoub, Anke; Neyer, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of plagiocephaly has increased in the 25 years since the "Back to Sleep" campaign in 1991 to prevent sudden infant death. Plagiocephaly is not considered to be a pathological condition. It is more of an esthetic impairment and could have potentially negative psychological or psychosocial consequences; therefore, treatment is recommended. The aim of this study is to compare conventional anthropometry and laser scanning - two different measurement methods - as diagnostic instruments for plagiocephaly. The present study also tests the measurement time of both methods and whether one method is easier on the patient than the other. A total of 44 children (21 girls, 23 boys) with a mean age of 8.8 months were involved in the present study. Of all patients, the following parameters were routinely evaluated using a standard protocol with the conventional anthropometric method and the scan method: head circumference, head length, head width, head diagonals, and distances ex-t. Furthermore, the time required to obtain measurements and the behavior of the children during measurement were documented. For statistical analysis, a t-test and a Wilcoxon test were used to analyze differences between the two methods. The results for head circumference showed a mean of 441.5 mm for the anthropometric measurements and 441.6 mm for the scan method, with no significant difference between the two methods. A significant difference was found regarding the head width, head length, diagonals, and distance ex-t. The measurement process using the scan method needed a mean of 579.6 s in contrast to the manual anthropometric method, which required a mean time of 180.5 s. In comparison with the conventional anthropometric method, measurements made with a 3D laser scanner yield inconsistent results. Moreover, the current state of technology of 3D cephalometry has no advantages compared with the conventional anthropometric method. Disadvantages worth mentioning appear to be the

  2. One-step formation and sterilization of gellan and hyaluronan nanohydrogels using autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Elita; De Rugeriis, Maria Cristina; Di Meo, Chiara; Censi, Roberta; Coviello, Tommasina; Alhaique, Franco; Matricardi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The sterilization of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is one of the challenges that must be faced in the development of nanoparticulate systems. Usually, autoclave sterilization cannot be applied because of stability concerns when polymeric nanoparticles are involved. This paper describes an innovative method which allows to obtain, using a single step autoclave procedure, the preparation and, at the same time, the sterilization of self-assembling nanohydrogels (NHs) obtained with cholesterol-derivatized gellan and hyaluronic acid. Moreover, by using this approach, NHs, while formed in the autoclave, can be easily loaded with drugs. The obtained NHs dispersion can be lyophilized in the presence of a cryoprotectant, leading to the original NHs after re-dispersion in water.

  3. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation, in the form of high energy electrons as well as gamma radiation, has featured in the last 15 yr as a promising sterilization agent for many heat sensitive and ethylene oxide incompatible pharmaceuticals and polymers of medical usage. This article deals with (i) a comparison of the various methods of sterilization and their shortcomings, (ii) modes of interaction of radiation with matter, (iii) the types of radiation sources in common use, (iv) dosimetry, (v) dose rate effect, (vi) a literature survey of the radiation effect on pharmaceuticals in solid form as well as in aqueous solution and on polymers in the form of plastic medical products and (vii) the evaluation of the irradiated products. The effect of dose rate on the stability of these materials is emphasized. Either very little work has been done on the dose rate effect or the published information is scanty. The literature survey covers the recent period of 5 to 6 years. (author)

  4. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by the...

  5. Retrospective cost analysis comparing Essure hysteroscopic sterilization and laparoscopic bilateral tubal coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Matthew R; Creedon, Douglas J; Wagie, Amy E; Williams, Arthur R; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2007-01-01

    To compare the institutional cost of permanent female sterilization by Essure hysteroscopic sterilization and laparoscopic bilateral coagulation. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Midwestern academic medical center. Women of reproductive age who elected for permanent contraception by the Essure method (n = 43) or by laparoscopic tubal coagulation (n = 44) during the time frame studied. Placement of the Essure inserts according to the manufacturer's instructions or laparoscopic tubal sterilization using bipolar forceps according to standard techniques of open or closed laparoscopy. Cost-center data for the institutional cost of the procedure was abstracted for each patient included in the study. In addition, demographic data and procedural information were obtained and compared for the patient populations. The Essure system of hysteroscopic sterilization had a significantly decreased cost compared with laparoscopic tubal sterilization when both procedures were performed in an operating room setting. The decrease per patient in institutional cost was 180 dollars (p = .038). This included the cost of the confirmatory hysterosalpingogram 3 months after Essure placement and the cost of laparoscopic tubal occlusion by Filshie clip if the Essure micro-inserts could not be placed. The majority of the cost was related to hospital costs as opposed to physician costs. The Essure procedure had higher costs for disposable equipment (p Essure hysteroscopic sterilization had significant cost savings compared with laparoscopic tubal sterilization (p = .038). We believe that our data represent the minimum of potential savings using this approach, and future developments will only increase the cost difference found in our study.

  6. Marital status and female and male contraceptive sterilization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke Carine Wim

    2015-06-01

    To examine female and male sterilization patterns in the United States based on marital status, and to determine if sociodemographic characteristics explain these patterns. Survival analysis of cross-sectional data from the female and male samples from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Not applicable. The survey is designed to be representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population, ages 15-44 years. None. Vasectomy and tubal sterilization. In the United States, vasectomy is the near-exclusive domain of married men. Never-married and ever-married single men, and never-married cohabiting men, had a low relative risk (RR) of vasectomy (RR = 0.1, 0.3, and 0.0, respectively), compared with men in first marriages. Tubal sterilization was not limited to currently married, or even to ever-married women, although it was less common among never-married single women (RR = 0.2) and more common among women in higher-order marriages (RR = 1.8), compared with women in first marriages. In contrast to vasectomy, differential use of tubal sterilization by marital status was driven in large part by differences in parity. This study shows that being unmarried at the time of sterilization--an important risk factor for poststerilization regret--was much more common among women than men. In addition to contributing to the predominance of female, vs. male, sterilization, this pattern highlights the importance of educating women on the permanency of sterilization, and the opportunity to increase reliance on long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Sepsityper Kit™ for the direct identification of organisms from sterile body fluids in a Canadian pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Manal; Petrich, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used to identify bacteria directly from positive blood and sterile fluid cultures. The authors evaluated a commercially available kit - the Sepsityper Kit (Bruker Daltonik, Germany) - and MALDI-TOF MS for the rapid identification of organisms from 80 flagged positive blood culture broths, of which 73 (91.2%) were blood culture specimens and seven (8.7%) were cerebrospinal fluid specimens, in comparison with conventional identification methods. Correct identification to the genus and species levels was obtained in 75 of 80 (93.8%) and 39 of 50 (78%) blood culture broths, respectively. Applying the blood culture analysis module, a newly developed software tool, improved the species identification of Gram-negative organisms from 94.7% to 100% and of Gram-positive organisms from 66.7% to 70%. MALDI-TOF MS is a promising tool for the direct identification of organisms cultured from sterile sites.

  8. 60Co-irradiation as an alternate method for sterilization of penicillin G, neomycin, novobiocin, and dihydrostreptomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Rahn, P.D.; Steindler, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the use of 60Co-irradiation to sterilize antibiotics were evaluated. The antibiotic powders were only occasionally contaminated with microorganisms. The D-values of the products and environmental isolates were 0.028, 0.027, 0.015, 0.046, 0.15, 0.018, and 0.19 Mrads for Aspergillus species (UC 7297, 7298), A. fumigatus (UC 7299), Rhodotorula species (UC 7300), Penicillium oxalicum (UC 7269), Pseudomonas maltophilia (UC 6855), and a biological indicator microorganism, Bacillus pumilus spores (ATCC 27142). An irradiation dose of 1.14 Mrads, therefore, was sufficient to achieve a six-log cycle destruction of B. pumilus spores. Based on the bioburden data, a minimum irradiation dose of 1.05 Mrads was calculated to be sufficient to obtain a 10(-6) probability of sterilizing the most radioresistant isolate, Pen. oxalicum. To determine the radiolytic degradation scheme and the stability of the antibiotics following irradiation, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed. The resulting rates of degradation for the antibiotics were 0.6, 1.2, 2.3, and 0.95%/Mrad for penicillin G, neomycin, novobiocin, and dihydrostreptomycin, respectively. Furthermore, radiolytic degradation pathways for the antibiotics were identified and found to be similar to those commonly encountered when antibiotics are subjected to acidic, basic, hydrolytic, or oxidative treatments. No radiolytic compounds unique to 60Co-irradiation were found

  9. Role of population genetics in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafsur, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and analysis of genetic variation in natural and laboratory populations are reviewed. The application of population genetic methods and theory can help to plan and evaluate the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the sterile insect technique (SIT). Population genetic studies can play an important role in estimating dispersal rates and thus gene flow among target populations, determining if sibling species exist, establishing the origin of outbreaks or reintroductions, and supporting the quality control of mass-reared colonies. The target's population history may be examined, in terms of 'bottlenecks', range fragmentations, and expansions. Genetic methods can be helpful in distinguishing wild insects from released sterile or substerile ones, and in ascertaining, together with mating cross-compatibility studies, the compatibility of mass-reared colonies with target wild insects. (author)

  10. Ozone--the latest advance in sterilization of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lorna

    2006-06-01

    How many times have procedures in your operating rooms been delayed because the instruments needed were still in the sterilizer? As Perioperative nurses you are likely to be quite familiar with the constant pressure to ensure that scarce instrumentation is available when needed. In 2003, a Canadian company developed a unique sterilization process employing ozone as the sterilizing agent. This technology is a safe, rapid and economical alternative to other low temperature sterilization modalities and may relieve some of the pressure experienced when instruments in short supply are in high demand. This article will discuss the principles of the sterilizer and the cycle and will explore the advantages of using this sterilization technology.

  11. In vitro sterilization technique on embryo of black Toraja rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, F.; Riadi, M.; Rafiuddin; Sjahril, R.; Muchlis, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Toraja black rice has a high anthocyanin content, a water-soluble pigments, with antioxidant activity. Toraja black rice has a variety of seeds colour in one panicles such as full black (the outside and inside the rice), medium black (the outside and slightly inside rice) and a little black (only the outside of rice). Embryo culture in vitro is one way to grow plants in sterile conditions. The presence of contamination and the death of the embryo require in vitro embryo culture. The sterilization technique is a very important first step to eliminate contamination and the death of embryos. This research aims to determine the right material composition for sterilization of black rice’s embryo. The experiment was done by growing black rice on half strength MS media with the treatment of three method of sterilization, i.e.: S1 (70% alcohol for 5 minutes, 3% and 2% Chlorox each for 10 minutes,), S2 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes, 2% Clorox for 10 minutes) and S3 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes and 1% Clorox for 15 minutes). The materials used are rice seedlings that have been cut in two and opened the pericarp of paddy grain, leaving a piece of rice that has a complete embryo. The best sterilization for Toraja black rice embryo culture was using the S3 composition. Best germination was seen on the seeds with full and medium black color.

  12. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Requirements for validation and routine control. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    These recommendations for the radiation sterilization of tissue allografts adopt the principles that the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) applies to the radiation sterilization of health care products. The approach has been adapted to take into account the special features associated with human tissues and the features that distinguish them from industrially produced sterile health care products. The approach as described here is not applicable if viral contamination is identified. Thus it is emphasized that the human donors of the tissues must be medically and serologically screened. To further support this screening it is recommended that autopsy reports be reviewed if available. This adaptation of established ISO methods can thus only be applied to sterilization of tissue allografts if the radiation sterilization described here is the terminal stage of a careful, detailed, documented sequence of procedures involving: donor selection; tissue retrieval; tissue banking general procedures; specific processing procedures; labelling; and distribution. The methods proposed here for the establishment of a sterilization dose are based on statistical approaches used for the sterilization of health care products and modified appropriately for the low numbers of tissue allograft samples typically available. This code of practice will be useful to tissue banking staff, surgeons using tissues for transplantation, regulators who oversee the safety of transplantation and radiation sterilization procedures, members of tissue banking associations, health service personnel in hospitals in which tissue transplantations are performed and inter-governmental organizations involved in transplantation issues, for example the World Health Organization. This publication was discussed extensively at an international meeting in Wrexham in the United Kingdom and was approved by the Technical Advisory Committee of the relevant IAEA project, which included the Chairpersons

  13. Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J H; Shahid, M Q; Li, Y J; Guo, H B; Cheng, X A; Liu, X D; Lu, Y G

    2011-08-01

    The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F(1) pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F(1) sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F(1) pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids. © 2011 The Author(s).

  14. Effect of ethylene oxide sterilization on the osteoinductivity of demineralized allograft bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Reza Aghayan; Babak Arjmand; Mehdi Golestani; Farokh Tirgari

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ethylene oxide has been widely used for secondary sterilization of bone allograft to reduce the risk of infection and associated complications. In this study we investigate the effects of ethylene oxide gas sterilization on the osteoinductivity of demineralized bone Powder. Eighteen rats received two separate implants consisting of 30 mg aseptically prepared and 30 mg ethylene oxide-sterilized demineralized bone powder. The demineralized bone powder from each group was placed into two separate muscle pouch created in the paravertebral muscles of each rat. After 4 weeks each implantation site was removed with 0.5 cm normal tissue around the implant. Histological examination was done to determine the presence or absence of osteoinduction. All except one of eighteen aseptically prepared demineralized bone powder sites histologically contained new bone elements (94.4%) and fourteen (77.7%) of ethylene oxide sterilized demineralized bone powder sites showed evidence of new bone elements (p>0.05). There is no significant difference in osteoblast formation in two groups. We concluded that ethylene oxide sterilization in 42 degree C did not significantly reduce the osteoinductivity of demineralized bone powder. So ethylene oxide can be considered as a suitable but not perfect method for secondary sterilization of demineralized bone powder. (Author)

  15. Determination of sterilizing dose of lincocine drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adawi, M.A.; Shamma, M.; Al-Mousa, A.

    1998-01-01

    There are too many antibiotics that have been studied on their dry solid state to determine their safe sterilizing dose by decreasing their bio burden in order to reach the sterility assurance level (SAL) needed. The sterilizing radiating dose of lincocine was determined according to information about their bio burden and radiating sensitivity at the sterility assurance level 10-6. The study of bio burden has shown that the contamination was fungal (Pemicillium sp.) and by applying the same tests to the raw materials of lincocine it came out that the cause of contamination was bad storage and that the radiating dose required to decrease the bio burden was 5.5 kGy. (author)

  16. Papain incorporated chitin dressings for wound debridement sterilized by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Wound debridement is essential for the removal of necrotic or nonviable tissue from the wound surface to create an environment conducive to healing. Nonsurgical enzymatic debridement is an attractive method due to its effectiveness and ease of use. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the fruit of Carica papaya and is capable of breaking down a variety of necrotic tissue substrates. The present study was focused on the use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain dressing with wound debriding activity. Membranes with papain were prepared using 0.5% chitin in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent and sterilized by gamma radiation. Fluid absorption capacity of chitin–papain membranes without glycerol was 14.30±6.57% in 6 h. Incorporation of glycerol resulted in significant (p 2 /24 h at 24 h. Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings. Infrared (IR) spectral scanning has shown that papain was stable on gamma irradiation at 25–35 kGy. The irradiated chitin–papain membranes were impermeable to different bacterial strains and also exhibited strong bactericidal action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluid handling characteristics and the antimicrobial properties of chitin–papain membranes sterilized by gamma radiation were found suitable for use as wound dressing with debriding activity. - Highlight: ► Use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain wound dressing was studied. ► Fluid handling and antimicrobial properties of irradiated dressings was evaluated. ► Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings.

  17. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam sterilization treatment schedules. 305.23... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period (minutes) Directions T303-b-1 10 lbs 20 Use 28″ vacuum. Steam sterilization is not practical for treatment...

  18. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  19. Radio-sterilization and processing of frozen human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld G, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The Laboratory of Radio-sterilized Biological Tissues Processing (LPTR) belonging to the Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency have played a paramount role in our country, concerning the biological tissue processing, which can be radio-sterilized as human skin, pig skin, amniotic membrane, human bone and bovine bone. The frozen radio.-sterilized human skin processing began in 2001, by means of putting into practice the knowledge acquired in training courses through the IAEA and the experience transferred by experts who visited our laboratory. The human skin processing of dead donor can be divided into 6 stages: a) Profuse washing with physiological sterilized serum in to remove the microorganisms, chemical and pharmacological compounds; b) immersion in glycerol solution at 10% to better keep the stored tissues; c) packing, to avoid post manipulation of the sterilized tissue; d) microbiological controls which allow and guarantee a sterility assurance level of 10 6 ; e) radio-sterilization, technique that consists of exposing the grafts to electromagnetic gamma waves which eliminate the microorganisms of the tissue, f) and finally, dispatching and liberation of the frozen sterilized human skin for its clinical use in different centers that take care of burned people. The LPTR receives feedback from surgeons who have used these tissues in order to improve the processing stages based in an integral quality system ISO 9001.2000. The State Health System in our country counts on limited and scarce resources to implement synthetic substitutes that is why It is considered necessary to spread the use of these noble tissues which have sterility assurance and they are processed at low price

  20. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile ...

  1. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO HYBRIDS BASED ON FEMALE PARENTS FORMS WITH FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of variability of functional male sterility (ps–2 depending on year of study, genotype and age of the plant is shown. The efficiency of the method of forced ejection of pollen from intact anthers to increase the degree of sterility is shown. The five tomato hybrids developed based on selected lines were submitted for the state variety trial of Moldova.

  3. Influence of endodontic instrument-holder on sterilization efficacy. A pilot in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Carrizo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is crucial in dentistry and various methods have been designed to assure its efficacy. However, little information exists regarding the influence it could have the instrument-holder of endodontic files. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of three instruments-holders on sterilization efficacy of endodontic files. Methods: A pilot in-vitro study. 60 endodontic files were contaminated by biomechanical preparation of extracted molars with periapical abscess, then processed according to the standard washing method. The endodontic files were divided into 3 groups (n=20 and assigned to 3 instrument-holders: Metallic box (MB, surgical gauze (SG and synthetic sponge (SS. Then, the files were packaged and sterilized by autoclaving (134°C/45min. Microbiological culture was performed in thioglycolate solution for each endodontic file (37ºC/5days. Results: The overall sterilization efficacy was 91.7%, 80% for MB, 100% for SS, and 95% for SG, with no statistically significant differences (p=0.06 between the groups. Conclusions: The lack of differences in the efficacy of sterilization may be due to the reduced sample; therefore, a full-size study is necessary to confirm this outcomes. The results of this study discourage the use of the MB as instrument-holder until a full-size study can confirm this data.

  4. Radiation: A means of sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, R N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Life Sciences, Radiation Biology Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1975-12-15

    The sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation is a well-established industrial process in a number of technologically advanced countries. It is indeed encouraging to note the rate of growth experienced during the past fifteen years. Starting with the first commercial plant in the early sixties in the USA there are to date more than sixty large facilities of this kind located in USA, Canada, Australia and the countries of Europe including USSR. The geographical distribution of these sterilization plants is rather unbalanced. In this respect Europe is far ahead of the other continents of the world, with about 65% of all sterilization plants, followed by North and South America with 17%, Asia with 8%, Australia and New Zealand with 9% and Africa with only 1%. During the last 10 years the IAEA has actively contributed to the development of radiation sterilization practices and technology in the Member States, with particular emphasis on the developing countries. Such promotional efforts have been made by (a) supporting co-ordinated research to accumulate relevant technical information, (b) organizing scientific meetings and training courses, (c) providing technical expertise in the form of fellowships and expert services, (d) providing technical assistance to conduct market surveys and economic feasibility assessment, (e) scientific publications, including technical manuals and proceedings reports, and (f) assistance in the formulation of an international 'Code of Practice' for standardization of the manufacturing practices for radiation sterilized medical products to meet the specified requirements of the various national Pharmacopoeias and of the international consumer market.

  5. Reionization in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the process of reionization in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models, the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionizing photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionize the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionization from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionizing photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  6. Managing feral cats on a university's campuses: how many are there and is sterilization having an effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda L; Downs, Colleen T

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide domestic and feral cat (Felis catus) numbers have increased. Concerns regarding high populations of feral cats in urban areas include wildlife predation, public nuisance, and disease. This study aimed to estimate the size of the feral cat population on 5 campuses of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether sterilization has an effect and to make management recommendations. The study used both the total count and mark-recapture methods to estimate the feral cat population on each campus. The study chose a noninvasive method of taking photographs to "mark" individuals and record those who were sterilized. The study estimated a total of 186 cats on all campuses and density at 161 cats km(-2). There was a negative relationship between sterilization and numbers. Sites with higher sterilization showed a lower proportion of younger cats. At the average sterilization of 55%, the population, according to predictions, would remain stable at fecundity, survival, and immigration rates reported by cat caretakers. However, caretakers underestimated cat abundance by 7 ± 37 SD%. Caretakers' feral cat sterilization and feeding programs appear to provide a service to the university community. Key management recommendations were to increase sterilization to 90% to reduce the population over the long term and to raise funds to support the costs incurred by voluntary cat caretakers.

  7. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Aaron C. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Martínez, Enrique Fernández [Departamento and Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT), UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lattanzi, Massimiliano, E-mail: aaron.vincent@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: enrique.fernandez-martinez@uam.es, E-mail: m.pilar.hernandez@uv.es, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Science della Terra, Università di Ferrara and INFN, sezione di Ferrara, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico, Edificio C Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter R{sub CMB} and the sound horizon r{sub s} from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin{sup 2}θ ∼< 0.026 (m{sub s}/eV){sup −2}.

  8. Selecting the patients for morning report sessions: case-based vs. conventional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Mehdi; Saeidi, Masumeh; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Amin, Sakineh Mohebi; Ahanchian, Hamid; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Kianifar, Hamidreza

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in morning report sessions is the number of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the number of cases reported in the morning report sessions in terms of case-based and conventional methods from the perspective of pediatric residents of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The present study was conducted on 24 pediatric residents of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2014-2015. In this survey, the residents replied to a 20-question researcher-made questionnaire that had been designed to measure the views of residents regarding the number of patients in the morning report sessions using case-based and conventional methods. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts' views and its reliability by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Data were analyzed by t-test analysis. The mean age of the residents was 30.852 ± 2.506, and 66.6% of them were female. The results showed that there was no significant relationship among the variables of academic year, gender, and residents' perspective to choosing the number of patients in the morning report sessions (P > 0.05). T-test analysis showed a significant relationship among the average scores of residents in the selection of the case-based method in comparison to the conventional method (P case-based morning report was preferred compared to the conventional method. This method makes residents pay more attention to the details of patients' issues and therefore helps them to better plan how to address patient problems and improve their differential diagnosis skills.

  9. Comparison of multimedia system and conventional method in patients’ selecting prosthetic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghai R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Selecting an appropriate treatment plan is one of the most critical aspects of dental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare multimedia system and conventional method in patients' selecting prosthetic treatment and the time consumed."nMaterials and Methods: Ninety patients were randomly divided into three groups. Patients in group A, once were instructed using the conventional method of dental office and once multimedia system and time was measured in seconds from the beginning of the instruction till the patient had came to decision. The patients were asked about the satisfaction of the method used for them. In group B, patients were only instructed using the conventional method, whereas they were only exposed to soft ware in group C. The data were analyzed with Paired-T-test"n(in group A and T-test and Mann-Whitney test (in groups B and C."nResult: There was a significant difference between multimedia system and conventional method in group A and also between groups B and C (P<0.001. In group A and between groups B and C, patient's satisfaction about multimedia system was better. However, in comparison between groups B and C, multimedia system did not have a significant effect in treatment selection score (P=0.08."nConclusion: Using multimedia system is recommended due to its high ability in giving answers to a large number of patient's questions as well as in terms of marketing.

  10. Model business plan for a sterile insect production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For over 50 years the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy which has been used for eradication, and more recently for suppression, containment and prevention, of unwanted insect pest populations. Examples of successful applications of SIT, almost always applied in conjunction with other control methods in an area-wide integrated approach, are available from around the world. The development and application of SIT has relied overwhelmingly on public or donor initiative and funding throughout its history, although the private sector has always been involved as participants, cooperators or partners in funding. The demand for SIT, and therefore the market for sterile insects, has increased in recent years. This increase coincides with the introduction of new pests through the expansion of global trade and, at the same time, widespread pressure to find alternatives to pesticides. Recent improvements in the technology supporting SIT facilitate its application and suggest lower costs can be achieved. The conditions are therefore met for a greater commercialization of the technique to bring it in line with other pest control approaches that are fully integrated into a market approach. Several challenges arise, however, in pursuing sterile insect production as a commercial venture, ranging from intellectual property protection to pricing of the product. Routine insurance requirements, for instance, are complicated by the biological aspects of the business. This report is aimed at facilitating private sector involvement in the production of sterile insects for use in pest control. It provides guidelines and tools to support the development of specific business plans for a new SIT venture. By providing an international perspective on such issues as initial capital costs and recurring operational expenditures for a sterile insect facility, it may be used to evaluate the feasibility of proceeding with the construction or expansion of a sterile insect

  11. Status and potential of F1 sterility for control of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, I.; Barbulescu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In certain lepidopterous insects partially gamma-ray-sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. Inherited sterility has been observed in numerous pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. The most important discoveries contributing the development of this techniques are reviewed. The studies on the European corn borer have revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when pupae have been irradiated with a low dose of 100 or 150 Gy. Data on the growth, development and behaviour of F 1 individuals indicate that the treated insects are highly competitive with the normal insects. Field tests of the inherited sterility technique in isolated O. nubilalis infestations have indicated that this method is effective and a small eradication has been done. These studies are continuing. (author)

  12. The sterile insect technique [videorecording]: An environment-friendly method of insect pest suppression and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Using graphic displays and clips of actual laboratory and field activities related to the sterile insect technique (SIT), the video covers various topics on the principles and applications of this technique

  13. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  14. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO) to...

  15. Infection rate of toxoplasma gondii and age distribution in female patients with sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuhong; Dai Pei; Cui Liming; Zong Shan; Zuo Wenjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the relationship between the infection of Toxoplasma gondii and female sterility. Methods: Toxoplasma gondii serum antibody were determined in 882 women with sterility (experimental group) and 107 normal bearing women (control group) by using ELISA. At the same time the differences of the infection with Toxoplasma gondii between the ages of the sterility women were analyzed. Results: The positive rate in experimental group was 15.87% (140/882), the positive rate in control group was 5.61% (6/107), remarkable difference was found between two groups (P<0.01). The infection rate in the different age groups (20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40) is 5.63%, 15.24%, 17.91%, 19.44% and 15.38%. Conclusion: Toxoplasma gondii infection may be one of the factors which can cause sterility, and the infection rates at different ages have no instinct differences. (authors)

  16. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Adhish; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-03-01

    Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area of Kathmandu valley. Two hundred and forty currently married women with at least one child of any age were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. More than four-fifth of the respondents intended to undergo sterilization. Almost two-third of them wanted to limit their family size by taking this option. More than one-third of women not-intending to undergo sterilization feared weakness after sterilization. Age of the respondents, duration of marriage, and number of living children were significantly associated with intention to undergo sterilization. 15-24 years age group were six times more likely to have the intention for sterilization (OR 6.79, CI 2.28-20.19) compared to age 35 years and above group. Mothers with less than 3 living children are about three times more likely to have the intention to undergo sterilization (OR 2.87, CI 1.3-6.33) compared to women with more than 2 living children. Women married for 6 to 10 years were three times more likely to have the intention (OR 3.0, CI 1.09-8.27). However, gender of the living children was not associated with intention to undergo sterilization. There were significant numbers of women intending to undergo sterilization. Age of the mother, number of living children and the duration of marriage were found to be significantly influencing the intention to undergo sterilization. However, as intention refers to future plan, the respondents' intention may change over time. The national family planning program also needs to identify the key factors in

  17. Sterilization of health care products - Ethylene oxide - Part 1: Requirements for development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This part of ISO 11135 describes requirements that, if met, will provide an ethylene oxide sterilization process intended to sterilize medical devices, which has appropriate microbicidal activity. Furthermore, compliance with the requirements ensures that this activity is both reliable and reproducible so that it can be predicted, with reasonable confidence, that there is a low level of probability of there being a viable microorganism present on product after sterilization. Specification of this probability is a matter for regulatory authorities and may vary from country to country. The paper provides information on scope, normative references, terms and definitions, quality management systems, sterilizing agent characterization, process and equipment characterization, product definition, process definition, validation, routine monitoring and control, product release from sterilization and maintaining process effectiveness followed by Annex A (Determination of lethal rate of the sterilization process - Biological indicator/bioburden approach), Annex B (Conservative determination of lethal rate of the sterilization process - Overkill approach, annex C (General guidance) and a bibliography.

  18. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  19. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sogo Begoña

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.

  20. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa'alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O'Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander; Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  1. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C; Condon, Kirsty C; Dafa' alla, Tarig H; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M; Nimmo, Derric D; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S; Epton, Matthew J; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  2. Sterilization of Lung Matrices by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Liu, Angela; Gard, Ashley L; Huie, Janet; Blatt, Kelly M S; Schwan, Jonas; Zhao, Liping; Broekelmann, Tom J; Mecham, Robert P; Wilcox, Elise C; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-03-01

    Lung engineering is a potential alternative to transplantation for patients with end-stage pulmonary failure. Two challenges critical to the successful development of an engineered lung developed from a decellularized scaffold include (i) the suppression of resident infectious bioburden in the lung matrix, and (ii) the ability to sterilize decellularized tissues while preserving the essential biological and mechanical features intact. To date, the majority of lungs are sterilized using high concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) depletion. These mechanically altered tissues have little to no storage potential. In this study, we report a sterilizing technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) that can achieve a sterility assurance level 10(-6) in decellularized lung matrix. The effects of ScCO2 treatment on the histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the sterile decellularized lung were evaluated and compared with those of freshly decellularized lung matrix and with PAA-treated acellular lung. Exposure of the decellularized tissue to ScCO2 did not significantly alter tissue architecture, ECM content or organization (glycosaminoglycans, elastin, collagen, and laminin), observations of cell engraftment, or mechanical integrity of the tissue. Furthermore, these attributes of lung matrix did not change after 6 months in sterile buffer following sterilization with ScCO2, indicating that ScCO2 produces a matrix that is stable during storage. The current study's results indicate that ScCO2 can be used to sterilize acellular lung tissue while simultaneously preserving key biological components required for the function of the scaffold for regenerative medicine purposes.

  3. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  4. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  5. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, J L; Gupta, R K [Department of Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India)

    1988-07-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M{sub 2} male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M{sub 3}, open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  6. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocha, J.L.; Gupta, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M 2 male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M 3 , open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  7. Sterilization and disinfection: the prevailing indifference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals towards the process of sterilization and disinfection, and to check the adequacy of the reading material accessible to them. The study comprised of three components. In the first part, sections devoted to this subject in the popular books read by the students of operation theatre assistant course and students of diploma in general nursing were examined for adequacy and authenticity of information. In the second part, standard operating procedures were examined regarding sterilization of textile, rubber tubes of suction units and diathermy hand pieces of 20 operation theatres of three teaching hospital attached to undergraduate medical college of Punjab. In the third part of the study, working knowledge of 64 practicing operation theatre assistants and 57 practicing nurses was assessed through a questionnaire. It was found that popular books either did not contain the required information or the information provided was misleading or incorrect. Standard operating procedures for sterilization of selected items of all the operation theatres studied fell much below the standard of practice desired in the light of current knowledge and contemporary practices. Finally the working knowledge of the professionals studied was much below the bare minimum expected by the profession. There is a dire need for upgrading the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals regarding sterilization, besides improving the operation theatres sterilization procedures. (author)

  8. Baby bottle steam sterilizers for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, D; Callan, D A; Lamprea, C; Murray, T S

    2016-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMb), present in environmental water sources, can contribute to respiratory infection in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of respiratory infection. Treatment with baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfects home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial pathogens but whether this method works for disinfection of NTMb is unclear. Baby bottle steam sterilization was compared with vigorous water washing for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with NTMb mixed with cystic fibrosis sputum. No NTMb was recovered from any nebulizers after steam treatment whereas viable NTMb grew after water washing, demonstrating that steam sterilization effectively disinfects NTMb-inoculated nebulizers. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mirei; Hamamoto, Akiko; Takahashi, Akira; Nakano, Masayuki; Wakikawa, Noriko; Tachibana, Satoko; Ikehara, Toshitaka; Nakaya, Yutaka; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke

    2007-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is an effective disinfection method. In sterilization equipment, a low-pressure mercury lamp emitting an effective germicidal UVC (254 nm) is used as the light source. However, the lamp, which contains mercury, must be disposed of at the end of its lifetime or following damage due to physical shock or vibration. We investigated the suitability of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode at an output wavelength of 365 nm (UVA-LED) as a sterilization device, comparing with the other wavelength irradiation such as 254 nm (a low-pressure mercury lam) and 405 nm (LED). We used a commercially available UVA-LED that emitted light at the shortest wavelength and at the highest output energy. The new sterilization system using the UVA-LED was able to inactivate bacteria, such as Escherichia coli DH5 alpha, Enteropathogenic E. coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The inactivations of the bacteria were dependent on the accumulation of UVA irradiation. Taking advantage of the safety and compact size of LED devices, we expect that the UVA-LED sterilization device can be developed as a new type of water sterilization device.

  10. Status of radiation sterilization of healthcare products in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Nankang; Wang Chunlei; Teng Weifang

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the status of 60 Co radiation facilities both in service and under construction in China and examines the future market for radiation sterilization of healthcare products. Policies for developing the industry of radiation sterilization are also put forward; these include implementation of appropriate quality systems, scale-up and merging of existing radiation facilities, development of electron beam radiation for sterilization purposes and increasing awareness of the technology of radiation sterilization

  11. Acute sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal bevacizumab: case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Hernández, Axel; Ortega-Larrocea, Ximena; Sánchez-Bermúdez, Gustavo; García-Aguirre, Gerardo; Cantón, Virgilio Morales; Velez-Montoya, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the ophthalmological community adopted the use of intravitreal bevacizumab as an accepted off-label treatment for neovascular diseases, the amount of knowledge regarding its effects and properties has been increasing continually. In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of reports about sterile intraocular inflammation and intraocular pressure elevations after intravitreal bevacizumab. In the following case series, we describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of ten consecutive cases of patients developing mild-to-severe sterile intraocular inflammation after intravitreal bevacizumab and their management. Methods This report presents a retrospective case series. We reviewed the medical records of ten consecutive patients from a group of 46, in whom repackaged bevacizumab in individual aliquots from two vials from the same batch were used. All surgical procedures were performed using standard sterile techniques in the operating room. At each follow-up visit, patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including visual acuity assessment, intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and posterior fundus examination. Results Ten patients presented sterile endophthalmitis with an onset time of 3.5±1.95 days. The clinical characteristics were mild pain, slight visual loss, conjunctival hyperemia, and various degrees of intraocular inflammation with microhypopyon. All cultures were negative. All patients were managed with topical steroids and antibiotics, except two, in whom, due to severe vitreous cells, intravitreal antibiotics were used. Three patients showed a transient elevation of intraocular pressure. Only 50% of the patients regained a visual acuity equal or better to the baseline visual acuity on file. Conclusion The increasing number of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab applied every day, due to its widespread acceptance, might be one reason why the number of cases of sterile endophthalmitis is rising. Fast

  12. Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han

    2016-04-15

    Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Current status and future prospect of electron beam sterilization in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Ichiro

    1998-01-01

    It seems that electron beam sterilization is being current topic among all applications in Japan and that this tendency will continue until when major companies interested in the technology complete introducing electron beam. Since the Ministry of Health and Welfare(MOHW) officially issued revised regulation on GMP for medical devices in 1995, EtO has become the method regarded as time and money consuming one. On the contrary, electron beam has become as relatively economical and desirable method to achieve same result by its characteristics such as high productivity, rather easy validation and consequent cost reduction, although less penetration limit the kind of products to be treated. Status and prospect of electron beam sterilization in Japan will be presented in the paper along with accelerator related technologies

  14. Microbial quality evaluation of pasteurized and sterilized marketing milks in Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Dobaradaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a valuable source of nutrients that microorganisms can grow in favorable conditions on it. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized and sterilized marketing milks in Bushehr. Material and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the autumn and early winter 2011. In this study 11 brands including 6 pasteurized, 5 sterilized brands and in total 160 samples were elevauted. Microbial tests included heterotrophic bacteria (HPC, total coliform and Escherichia coli (E.coli were conducted according to standard methods. Results: results of this study showed that from 98 pasteurized samples, 35/7% and HPC and 15/2% of samples were contaminated by HPC and total coliform, respectively. There was no microbial contamination in all 62 sterilized samples. Mean heterotrophic bacteria in pasteurized milk was much more than Iranian national standard. Conclusion: In this research the relationship between heterotrophic and coliform bacterial growth with temperature and time variation between production date and sampling date (maintenance period were measured and the results showed that bacterial growth had direct and significant association with temperature but there was no statistically significant association with maintenance period.

  15. Studies on the ecology of insects sterilized artificially (gamma radiation), 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoku, Masao; Tsukuda, Ritsuko

    1974-01-01

    Larvae of an oriental fruit fly line introduced, from Amami-Oshima island were reared using an artificial medium prepared with the base ingredient as corn-flour. When pupae were irradiated with a dose of 8 kR from the 137 Cs as gamma-rays source two days before emerging, both male and female adults emerged showed complete sterility. Percentage in emergence, however, was not significantly reduced. In an experiment that two hundred sterilized plus ten normal males were confined with ten normal females in a mating cage, the sterilized males were fully competitive with normal ones in mating to the normal females. Longevity of the sterilized adult males, however, tended to be slightly shorter than that of the normal ones when compared in the survival curves. When less than one hundred and fifty sterilized males were confined, however, few larvae were able to grow to adults. These progeny adult males and females showed the inherited sterility. When dose was 6 kR there was neither significant difference in the longevity between sterilized and normal adults, nor the complete sterility. Besides, the inherited sterility in offspring was not shown clearly. When more than two hundred sterilized plus ten normal males were combined with ten normal females, however, a considerable sterility was found. Causes of the sterility were investigated by dissection of the testes and spermathecae in females mated with 8 kR-sterilized males. (author)

  16. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods of obtaining complete-arch dental impressions

    OpenAIRE

    Ender, Andreas; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2016-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Digital impression systems have undergone significant development in recent years, but few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo, particularly compared with conventional impression techniques. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the precision of conventional and digital methods for complete-arch impressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Complete-arch impressions were obtained using 5 conventional (polyether, POE; vinylsilox...

  17. High-spatial-resolution isotropic three-dimensional fast-recovery fast spin-echo magnetic resonance dacryocystography combined with topical administration of sterile saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Zhang; Lang, Chen; Qiu-Xia, Wang; Rong, Liu; Xin, Luo; Wen-Zhen, Zhu; Li-Ming, Xia; Jian-Pin, Qi; He, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the clinical performance of three-dimensional (3D) fast-recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) magnetic resonance dacryocystography (MRD) with topical administration of sterile saline solution for the assessment of the lacrimal drainage system (LDS). Methods: A total of 13 healthy volunteers underwent both 3D-FRFSE MRD and two-dimensional (2D)-impulse recovery (IR)-single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) MRD after topical administration of sterile saline solution, and 31 patients affected by primary LDS outflow impairment or postsurgical recurrent epiphora underwent 3D-FRFSE MRD and conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences. All patients underwent lacrimal endoscopy or surgery, which served as a standard of reference for confirming the MRD findings. Results: 3D-FRFSE MRD detected more visualized superior and inferior canaliculi and nasolacrimal duct than 2D-IR-SSFSE MRD. Compared with 2D-IR-SSFSE MRD, 3D-FRFSE MRD showed more visualized segments per LDS, although the difference was not statistically significant. Significant improvements in the inferior canaliculus and nasolacrimal duct visibility grades were achieved using 3D-FRFSE MRD. 3D-FRFSE MRD had 100% sensitivity and 63.6% specificity for detecting LDS obstruction. In 51 out of the 62 LDSs that were assessed, a 90% agreement was noted between the findings of 3D-FRFSE MRD and lacrimal endoscopy in detecting the obstruction level. Conclusion: 3D-FRFSE MRD combined with topical administration of sterile saline solution is a simple and noninvasive method of obtaining detailed morphological and functional information on the LDS. Overall, 3D-FRFSE MRD could be used as a reliable diagnostic method in many patients with epiphora prior to surgery

  18. The comparative evaluation of patients′ body dry weight under hemodialysis using two methods: Bioelectrical impedance analysis and conventional method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Alijanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dry weight (DW is an important concept related to patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conventional method seems to be time consuming and operator dependent. Bio impedance analysis (BIA is a new and simple method reported to be an accurate way for estimating DW. In this study, we aimed to compare the conventional estimation of DW with measuring DW by BIA. Materials and Methods: This study involved 130 uremic patients, performed in Isfahan, Iran. DW was calculated by both conventional (CDW and BIA (BIADW method and results were compared based on different grouping factors including sex, underlying cause of renal failure (RF (diabetic RF and non-diabetic RF, body mass index (BMI status, and sessions of hemodialysis. We also calculated the difference between DWs of 2 methods (DW diff = CDW-BIADW. Results: The mean of BIADW was significantly lower than CDW (57.20 ± 1.82 vs 59.36 ± 1.77, P value < 0.001. After grouping cases according to the underlying cause, BMI, sex, and dialysis sessions BIADW was significantly lower than CDW. Conclusion: Based on the combination of problems with CDW measurement which are corrected by BIA, and more clinical reliability of CDW, we concluded that although conventional method is a time-consuming and operator-dependent way to assess DW, DW could be estimated by combining both of these methods by finding the mathematic correlation between these methods.

  19. Dark matter relic abundance and light sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yi-Lei [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Shou-hua [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics & State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-09

    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass ≲100 GeV in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such a case, if the Yukawa coupling y{sub N} between the Higgs and the sterile neutrino is small, this process gives rise to a larger Ω{sub DM}h{sup 2} so we need a larger coupling between the dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  20. Effect of the sterilization process on physical and mechanical properties of the bonacryl bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morejon, L.; Delgado, J.A.; Aguero, L.; Rapado, M.; Ginebra, M.P.; Gil, F.J.; Mendizabal, E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of bone cements of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to fix artificial prosthesis to the human body is a habitual method in orthopedic surgery. The hip and the knee joints have a very complex biomechanics and support high loads, for these reasons, acrylic bone cements have to comply with international standards in order to secure the biofuncionality and durability of the implant. In this work we report the effect of sterilization by ethylene oxide or gamma radiation on the BONACRYL Cuban cement. We determined how sterilization methods affect the molecular weight of the polymer as well as its quasi-static mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the gamma radiation modifies the molecular weight of the PMMA although the compression and bending strength were not affected by the sterilization process applied. (authors)

  1. Conventional cable testing methods: strengths, weaknesses and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews the major conventional methods that can be used to test power plant cables. It assesses their usefulness in diagnosing the condition of the insulation of the cable and then proposes some possible directions for innovation. The methods examined are dc insulation resistance measurement, ac signal injection for continuous monitoring and fault location, and the ac measurement of capacitance and loss angle. Specific subjects considered are the effects of temperature, cable construction and installation, and the validity of insulation resistance or loss angle measurement. The innovative proposals refer to the use of automation in the measurement and of computer-based Expert Systems for the evaluation of the results

  2. submitter Prospects of Sterile Neutrino Search with the FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Bay Nielsen, Sissel

    A proposed future circular e + e − collider, the FCC-ee, is suggested to search for sterile neutrinos. The Neutrino Minimal Standard Model, νMSM, is a model of sterile neutrinos, that accommodates explanations for several phenomena of physics beyond the Standard Model. This thesis presents an overview of the theoretical motivation for νMSM, an outline of the experimental conditions at the FCC-ee, and a review of previous accelerator bounds for sterile neutrinos. Two studies of sterile neutrinos with masses at the electroweak scale are introduced, an analysis of long lived sterile neutrinos, and an analysis of short lived sterile neutrinos. Both analyses include background studies and sensitivity estimates for the FCC-ee detector. The study of long lived sterile neutrinos is based on a search for detectable displaced vertices with 1012 Z decays, obtaining a search reach on the mixing angle |θ| 2 as small as 10−11. The study of short lived sterile neutrinos is a Monte Carlo study with a cut-based analysi...

  3. Study of fieldbus technology confiability when applied in a Sterilization plant control and safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karma, D.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Several sterilization processes have been used in these years for treatment of countless products. Some processes use high temperatures, thermal shocks and chemical agents. With the discovery of the ionizing radiation and its posterior technological developments turned possible the application of that process, in 1960, also in the sterilization, denominated radiation sterilization. This process became also applied in another areas of health and industrial as food conservation, gemstones enhancement and others. The radiation sterilization requests an effective control and it needs a high level of safety. The commercial use of the computers applied in industrial automation provides and the domain of new technologies in this field provides news applications then new designs now is possible. The Fieldbus technology, a new digital communication protocol, like a Local Area Network, can be an alternative in the cobalt-60 irradiation plant. This paper show preliminary study about confiability in systems using Fieldbus technology. This technology was simulated in sterilization plant control and safety systems and the fail probability was quantified using Fail Tree Analysis Method. Fieldbus technology can be used in sterilization plants because the confiability in this systems is like PLCs and relays systems, was the conclusion

  4. Dark radiation sterile neutrino candidates after Planck data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentino, Eleonora Di; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department and INFN, Università di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Mena, Olga, E-mail: eleonora.divalentino@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, 46071, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results from the Planck satellite, combined with previous CMB data and Hubble constant measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, provide a constraint on the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom 3.62{sup +0.50}{sub −0.48} at 95% CL. New Planck data provide a unique opportunity to place limits on models containing relativistic species at the decoupling epoch. We present here the bounds on sterile neutrino models combining Planck data with galaxy clustering information. Assuming N{sub eff} active plus sterile massive neutrino species, in the case of a Planck+WP+HighL+HST analysis we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.36 eV and 3.14 < N{sub eff} < 4.15 at 95% CL, while using Planck+WP+HighL data in combination with the full shape of the galaxy power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey BOSS Data Relase 9 measurements, we find that 3.30 < N{sub eff} < 4.43 and m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.33 eV both at 95% CL with the three active neutrinos having the minimum mass allowed in the normal hierarchy scheme, i.e. ∑m{sub ν} ∼ 0.06 eV. These values compromise the viability of the (3+2) massive sterile neutrino models for the parameter region indicated by global fits of neutrino oscillation data. Within the (3+1) massive sterile neutrino scenario, we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.34 eV at 95% CL. While the existence of one extra sterile massive neutrino state is compatible with current oscillation data, the values for the sterile neutrino mass preferred by oscillation analyses are significantly higher than the current cosmological bound. We review as well the bounds on extended dark sectors with additional light species based on the latest Planck CMB observations.

  5. A Conceptual Design and Analysis Method for Conventional and Unconventional Airplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmendorp, R.J.M.; Vos, R.; La Rocca, G.

    2014-01-01

    A design method is presented that has been implemented in a software program to investigate the merits of conventional and unconventional transport airplanes. Design and analysis methods are implemented in a design tool capable of creating a conceptual design based on a set of toplevel requirements.

  6. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin 2 2θ 24 ≤ 0.02 at m 2 ~ 0.3 eV 2 , and the LSND and MiniBooNE allowed regions are excluded at

  7. Effects of sterile neutrino and extra-dimension on big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dukjae; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    2018-04-01

    We study effects of the sterile neutrino in the five-dimensional universe on the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Since the five-dimensional universe model leads to an additional term in the Friedmann equation and the energy density of the sterile neutrino increases the total energy density, this model can affect the primordial abundance via changing the cosmic expansion rate. The energy density of the sterile neutrino can be determined by a rate equation for production of the sterile neutrino. We show that not only the mixing angle and the mass of the sterile neutrino, but also a resonant effect in the oscillation between sterile and active neutrinos is important to determine a relic abundance of the sterile neutrino. In this study, we also investigate how the sterile neutrino in extra-dimensional model can affect the BBN, and constrain the parameters related to the above properties of the sterile neutrino by using the observational primordial abundances of light elements.

  8. Comparative transcript profiling of fertile and sterile flower buds from multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Liu, Zhiyong; Ji, Ruiqin; Feng, Hui

    2017-10-01

    We studied the underlying causes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to pollen sterility between fertile and sterile flower buds. In this work, we verified the stages of sterility microscopically and then performed transcriptome analysis of mRNA isolated from fertile and sterile buds using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform sequencing. Approximately 80% of ~229 million high-quality paired-end reads were uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In sterile buds, 699 genes were significantly up-regulated and 4096 genes were down-regulated. Among the DEGs, 28 pollen cell wall-related genes, 54 transcription factor genes, 45 phytohormone-related genes, 20 anther and pollen-related genes, 212 specifically expressed transcripts, and 417 DEGs located on linkage group A07 were identified. Six transcription factor genes BrAMS, BrMS1, BrbHLH089, BrbHLH091, BrAtMYB103, and BrANAC025 were identified as putative sterility-related genes. The weak auxin signal that is regulated by BrABP1 may be one of the key factors causing pollen sterility observed here. Moreover, several significantly enriched GO terms such as "cell wall organization or biogenesis" (GO:0071554), "intrinsic to membrane" (GO:0031224), "integral to membrane" (GO:0016021), "hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds" (GO:0016788), and one significantly enriched pathway "starch and sucrose metabolism" (ath00500) were identified in this work. qRT-PCR, PCR, and in situ hybridization experiments validated our RNA-seq transcriptome analysis as accurate and reliable. This study will lay the foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) that underly sterility and provide valuable information for studying multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in the Chinese cabbage line 'AB01'.

  9. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  10. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan, Vijaya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishPrior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means ofcontrolling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world's marriedwomen use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statisticssuggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presentsfindings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in theuse of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligationand an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are morelikely to be in the forefront of modern methdos of contraception.FrenchAvant les années 1970, les méthodes traditionnelles représentaient le principalmoyen de contrôler et d’espacer le nombre de naissances. De nos jours, onestime que 57 pour cent des femmes mariées dans le monde entier utilisent unmoyen contraceptif et la moitié utilise des méthodes modernes telles que lastérilisation. Les dernières statistiques indiquent que le Canada compte le tauxde stérilisations le plus élevé dans le monde occidental. Cet article présente lesconclusions de recherches portant sur les tendances en matière de stérilisation auCanada en ce qui concerne les modèles changeants d’utilisation de moyens decontraception modernes et ce, à partir de données de l’Enquête canadienne sur lafécondité de 1984 et de l’Enquête sociale générale (ESG de 1995. La principaleconclusion qui en est ressortie est une réduction de la ligature des trompes etune augmentation du nombre d’hystérectomies de 1984 à 1995. Les femmesmoins éduquées sont plus portées à se trouver au premier plan des méthodes decontraception modernes.

  11. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-01-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm 2 . An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Δm s 2 ~ 1 eV 2 . The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  12. Study on a New Ultraviolet Sterilizer to the Surface Disinfection of the Ultrasound Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui Qiu; Chen, Yu Hao; Yi, Liang; Yin, Jin; Gao, Qiong; Song, Jiang Nan; Li, Shi Kang; Chen, Pei Hou; Guo, Gui Ping

    2018-02-01

    We studied the disinfection effect of a new ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer and its utilization on ultrasound probe surfaces. Carrier quantitative germicidal tests, simulated on-the-spot trials, and organic substance influence tests were used to carry out experimental observation. Artificially infected probes were disinfected using the sterilizer or a germicidal lamp for comparison. The total number and types of bacteria were determined and identified. Our results demonstrated the sterilizer had the best disinfection effect among three different disinfection methods in hospital. The sterilizer has been used in a hospital setting for 2 years with no notable damage to the ultrasound probe instrument. It has the advantages of fast disinfection, high disinfection effect, and good compatibility with the ultrasound instrument, worthy of being a promoted application in medical institutions. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  14. [Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization with Essure® devices: a retrospective descriptive study and evaluation of hypnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchotte, E; Masias, C; Bogusz, N; Koebele, A

    2011-06-01

    The Essure(®) system is a hysteroscopic sterilization method. The aim of our study is to retrospectively evaluate the sterilization procedure with Essure(®) devices, with and without anesthesia, and in particular with hypnosis. The descriptive study includes all tubal sterilization with Essure(®) performed during the year 2009 at the Maternité régionale de Nancy. Hypnosis efficiency is retrospectively evaluated with Verbal Numeric Rating Scale (VNRS) for peroperative pain, and analgesic medication use for postoperative pain. Ninety-four sterilizations are performed, 85% (85/94) of them without anesthesia. The mean VNRS is 3.0. The mean operative time is 8.7 minutes, positively correlated with the VNRS (P=0.0005). The rate of successful insertion is 94%. At 3 months, 91% of the implants have a correct location. Inadequate locations are more frequent when anesthesia have been performed (37% vs 4%, P=0.016). There is no significant difference between groups with and without hypnosis for the VNRS, the failure rate and the use of analgesic medication. Tubal sterilization with the Essure(®) system is a quick and efficient method. Our study does not demonstrate efficiency of hypnosis in pain control. This remains to be explored with a prospective study, including others parameters, such as anxiety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Confirmation test for hysteroscopic sterilization: a descriptive study of patient tolerability and impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapa HO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hector O Chapa, Gonzalo VenegasDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Methodist Medical and Women’s Specialty Center, Dallas, TX, USABackground: This retrospective descriptive study describes patient follow-up and tolerability of the post-hysteroscopic sterilization confirmation test.Methods: Recruitment for the original sterilization procedure was from January 2008 to March 2009; subsequent confirmation test (hysterosalpingogram capture was from March 2008 to July 2009. Patients were given a 10 cm visual analog pain scale during the hysteroscopic sterilization procedure, and took the scale with them as a take-home sheet. Following hysterosalpingography (HSG, patients received a follow-up phone call within 24 hours, and were asked to rate their pain during the hysterosalpingogram as well as during the first 2 hours following the test.Results: Eighty-nine hysteroscopic sterilizations were performed under local paracervical block and oral nonsteroidal medication. The median immediate post-sterilization visual analog pain score was 1.9 (range 1.7–2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.5. Of the 89 sterilization procedures, 79% (n = 70 patients underwent a confirmation test using HSG. Ten percent (n = 7 of the hysterosalpinograms were performed at least 3 months after sterilization (mean 17 [range 14–20] weeks. Median intratest visual analog pain score overall (n = 70 was 1.8 (range 1.6–1.9, 95% CI 1.5–1.9. Following the test, the median visual analog pain score was 1.7 (range 1.6–1.9, 95% CI 1.4–0.18. Of the 70 patients who participated in visual analog pain score capture, 64 had a paper copy of the scale had six had it via email. Of the 19 who did not complete hysterosalpinography, five were lost to follow-up. Reasons given by the remaining 14 for noncompliance with hysterosalpinography were: a busy schedule/childcare issues (62%, fear of the test (13%, trust in the sterilization procedure alone (13%, and forgetting the

  16. Radiation sterilization of enzyme hybrids with biodegradable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiations, which have already been utilized for the sterilization of medical supplies as well as gas fumigation, should be the final candidate to decontaminate 'hybrid' biomaterials containing bio-active materials including enzymes because irradiation induces neither heat nor substances affecting the quality of the materials and our health. In order to check the feasibility of 60 Co-gamma rays on these materials, we selected commercial proteases including papain and bromelain hybridized with commercial activated chitosan beads and demonstrated that these enzyme-hybrids suspended in water showed the significant radiation durability of more than twice as much as free enzyme solution at 25-kGy irradiation. Enhanced thermal and storage stability of the enzyme hybrids were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation, either, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method is applicable to enzyme hybrids without modification

  17. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, N.D.; Canh, T.T.; Thuy, T.T.

    1995-01-01

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance. (Author)

  18. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, N.D.; Canh, T.T.; Thuy, T.T. [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1995-10-01

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance. (Author).

  19. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic male-sterility in diploid dandelions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for

  20. Nuclear-cytoplasmic male-sterility in diploid dandelions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.; van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for male

  1. Study of sexual functioning and disorder in women before and after tubal sterilization (tubectomy)

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkeri, Shweta Patil; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual relationship is a basis for mental health and continuity of the healthy generation. There are very few studies on the female sexual functioning, especially in India. Sterilization being the most common contraceptive method, sexual functioning in women undergoing this surgical intervention has not been adequately explored. Available studies have found conflicting results; some have reported that sterilization has positive effects on sexual functioning since anxiety of gett...

  2. Autoclave Sterilization of PEDOT:PSS Electrophysiology Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Ilke; Ganji, Mehran; Hama, Adel; Tanaka, Atsunori; Inal, Sahika; Youssef, Ahmed; Owens, Roisin M; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ghestem, Antoine; Bernard, Christophe; Dayeh, Shadi A; Malliaras, George G

    2016-12-01

    Autoclaving, the most widely available sterilization method, is applied to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrophysiology devices. The process does not harm morphology or electrical properties, while it effectively kills E. coli intentionally cultured on the devices. This finding paves the way to widespread introduction of PEDOT:PSS electrophysiology devices to the clinic. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  4. Sterilization of Normal Human Plasma and Some of its Fractions by Means of Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Martínez de Alva, L.; Crespo, Y M.

    1967-01-01

    Owing to the frequency with which normal human plasma transmits hepatitis, various methods of sterilization have been tried. The method most used, but which has been shown to be ineffective, is sterilization of the liquid plasma with ultraviolet rays. The other method is the use of ß-propiolactone, but this has also been discontinued because of the changes it produces in the structure of plasma proteins. The object of the present study, which should be regarded as a preliminary report, is to present the results obtained by sterilizing, by means of gamma rays ( 60 Co, 1.3316 MeV) at doses of 2, 2. 5 and 3 Mrad, a substance which, like plasma, contains highly labile proteins easily able to undergo structural changes under irradiation. Pure fibrinogen, pure gamma globulin, and albumin of human origin were subjected to the same doses; the results were very satisfactory, in that no appreciable change could be demonstrated as regards the structure, solubility or chemical characteristics of the substances concerned. It was shown by means of simple coagulation tests that some of the proteins involved in this mechanism, such as prothrombin, die Power-Stuart factor and the Hageman factor, were practically unchanged. All the plasma samples and the various proteins were previously lyophilized to give a maximum moisture content of 0.034%, in order to avoid ionizing the water content into oxygenated water, which would modify and oxidize the proteins. It was shown that lyophilized plasmas initially contaminated with different strains and viruses remained sterile with doses as low as 2 Mrad. Finally, it was shown that this method is simple and practical, since sterilization can be checked in the final packaging. (author) [es

  5. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females...

  6. Radiation Induced F-1 Sterility For The Control Of Cotton Bollworm , Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner) In Pilot Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segsarnviriya, Suchada; Pransopon, Prapon; Kongratarpon, Titima; Vongcheeree, Satit

    2005-10-01

    Pilot trials of radiation induced F-1 sterility for the control of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) were studied for 3 cotton crop seasons in 3 locations at Amphor Takfa, Nakornsawan province in 2002, 2003 and 2004. Irradiated male pupae at a sub sterilizing dose of 150 Gy were released : approximately 11,170 42,900 and 36,400 pupae from July to December of 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively. The insecticide plots were maintained as a comparison to determine the efficiency of this method. Checking of larvae on cotton plants by the systematic random sampling method and the cotton yield were used to evaluate the impact of the pupal release. It was found that the releasing plots and the insecticide plots gave similar results in terms of the number of larvae and the cotton yield. Therefore, the F-1 sterility method was a possible method for the control of cotton bollworm

  7. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  8. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them to the at......We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them...

  9. Method of sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.L.; Waites, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    A method of sterilisation of food packaging is described which comprises treating microorganisms with an ultraviolet irradiated solution of hydrogen peroxide to render the microorganisms non-viable. The wavelength of ultraviolet radiation used is wholly or predominantly below 325 nm and the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide is no greater than 10% by weight. The method is applicable to a wide variety of microorganisms including moulds, yeasts, bacteria, viruses and protozoa and finds particular application in the destruction of spore-forming bacteria, especially those which are dairy contaminants. (U.K.)

  10. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  11. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods of obtaining complete-arch dental impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andreas; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Digital impression systems have undergone significant development in recent years, but few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo, particularly compared with conventional impression techniques. The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the precision of conventional and digital methods for complete-arch impressions. Complete-arch impressions were obtained using 5 conventional (polyether, POE; vinylsiloxanether, VSE; direct scannable vinylsiloxanether, VSES; digitized scannable vinylsiloxanether, VSES-D; and irreversible hydrocolloid, ALG) and 7 digital (CEREC Bluecam, CER; CEREC Omnicam, OC; Cadent iTero, ITE; Lava COS, LAV; Lava True Definition Scanner, T-Def; 3Shape Trios, TRI; and 3Shape Trios Color, TRC) techniques. Impressions were made 3 times each in 5 participants (N=15). The impressions were then compared within and between the test groups. The cast surfaces were measured point-to-point using the signed nearest neighbor method. Precision was calculated from the (90%-10%)/2 percentile value. The precision ranged from 12.3 μm (VSE) to 167.2 μm (ALG), with the highest precision in the VSE and VSES groups. The deviation pattern varied distinctly according to the impression method. Conventional impressions showed the highest accuracy across the complete dental arch in all groups, except for the ALG group. Conventional and digital impression methods differ significantly in the complete-arch accuracy. Digital impression systems had higher local deviations within the complete arch cast; however, they achieve equal and higher precision than some conventional impression materials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION. IN DENTAL PRACTICE. W.H. van Palenstein Helderman. Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Introduction. Sterilization is defined as the destruction of all forms of life ...

  13. Gamma ray induced male sterility mutant in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Yadav, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Male sterility refers to the failure of pollen grains to bring about effective fertilization, either due to structural default or physiological disfunctioning and has special significance in hybridization programmes. Male steriles have been produced in a number of crop plants like red gram, pigeon pea, mung bean, khesari and lentil. A completely male sterile mutant was isolated in Lens culinaris Medik, after seed treatment with 100 Gy dose of gamma rays. The male sterile mutant showed 100% pollen sterility but was morphologically more vigorous than the parent plants. It showed more branches and its leaves were bigger, more oblong and dark green. The number of flowers borne by the mutant was significantly higher than any other plant of the treatment. The size of the flowers was also increased but the anthers were smaller in size. Pollen grains were few in number, round in shape but empty and did not take up any stain, indicating that normal microsporogenesis had not taken place. This male sterile mutant was used as the female parent and pollinated with pollen of a parent. Four pods with one seed in each were formed indicating that the mutant was female fertile. The seeds were smaller than those of the parent variety and also dark coloured. The mutant showed increased vigour and flower number as compared to parental plants. Lentil is an important pulse crop and induction of variability in its germplasm is necessary for its improvement. Male steriles can be used conveniently in lentil hybridization programmes. (author)

  14. Role of population and behavioural ecology in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Yamamura, K.

    2005-01-01

    The principles of population and behavioural ecology in relation to the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for eradication of a pest are explained. These include: (1) a logistic population model for estimation of the population fluctuation of target animals and the number of sterile males to be released for successful eradication, (2) mark-recapture estimations of density and mortality rate of the target population, especially for remote areas, where repeated releases and recaptures are difficult, (3) models of dispersal to assess dispersal distance of target animals, and (4) equations for estimating the decrease of sexual competitiveness of mass-reared strains under field conditions. The method to estimate dispersal distance curves when attraction areas of traps are overlapping, and changes in mate-choice of wild females resulting from inadvertent selection when the SIT is applied, are explained. The necessity of field estimation of sexual competitiveness of released sterile males is also emphasized. (author)

  15. Sterilization of ready to eat meals destined to immunocompromised by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhouma, Hiba

    2011-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients who have a dysfunction in one or more components of the immune system must follow a diet low in bacteria. Several methods are used to obtain this type of system such as pasteurization (65-10 degree), wet sterilization (120 degree - 140 degree UHT) or dry ( 180 degree), heating in the oven convection ((250 degree) and radappertization). In Tunisia, the CNGMO uses sterilization in a forced air oven 120 degree for 20 min. Of high radiation doses 5, 10 and 15 KGy were used in this study to achieve sterilization of Couscous. The dose of 5 KGy improves the bacteriological quality (reduce the microbial load of 2048 to 1 log CFU/g) of this dish while preserving the organoleptic qualities. The comparison sample irradiated 5 KGy and the heat-treated seems to be very close during the various tests. except that the heat-treated has a high oxidation state (TBARS value of 7900.90 mg / kg).

  16. A study on the spreading ability of radiation-sterilized male moth of bombyx mandarin in field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Xia Darong; Gu Weiping; Zhang Yanjun

    1998-01-01

    The mulberry wild silkworm (MWS), belong to the Bombycidae of Lepidoptera, is serious pest of sericulture. The female moth of MWS is sterile and the male moth is sub-sterile when they were treated with 250 Gy 60 Co γ-ray (dose rate: 1.05 Gy/min), and their filial generations was sterile. The spreading ability of male moth of MWS in field and retrieving the marked MWS male moth with the trapping method was studied. The trapping solution was composed of sugar, vinegar, wine and alive female moth. The retrieving rate of MWS male moth amounted to 12.6%∼13.5% of released moth in field. The spreading range in 24 hours for sterile MWS male moth reached to 700 m, and 90.8% of MWS male moth was in an area of 5 m radius from the releasing centre. It is concluded that thirty releasing centres per hectare are needed to make the irradiated sterilized insects spread for controlling the MWS in field

  17. A comparative study of the corrosion of wire used in urological treatment under sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Walke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the tests was to determine whether and how sterilization process of samples made of AISI 316L stainless steel with different strain impacts their corrosion resistance. Tests were made on steel samples that had been electrochemically polished in order to assure proper surface roughness. In order to evaluate the influence of sterilization on physical and chemical properties of steel surface, tests of corrosion resistance were made by means of potentiodynamical method. The tests were made in alternative solution simulating human urine. Recorded anodic polarization curves created the ground for determination of typical parameters describing pitting corrosion resistance, that enabled to evaluate steel wire corrosion behavior under sterilization conditions.

  18. Development of the microbiological control aspects of radiation sterilization of medical supplies. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation sterilization of medical and biological products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, V.

    1978-06-01

    The variability and extent of microbial contamination of such medical supplies as hydrophilic gauze swabs and dermo-epidermal grafts were investigated. Gross bacterial contamination was observed in the swabs, with a relative absence of water. It was concluded that medical disposable products under dried aerobic conditions can be sterilized by a minimum dose of 25 kJ/kg/2.5 Mrad if the mean value of pre-sterilization bacterial counts does not exceed 100. Products contaminated by 10,000 or more bacteria prior to sterilization must be considered ''decontaminated'' after irradiation but as rather than ''sterile'', as accepted pharmaceutically. The author recommends that the efficacy of the sterilization dose used be evaluated, assuming the decrease in contaminated items to follow the exponential law, with constants estimated as n=1.98 and k=0.44, and that the sterilization process to be controlled dosimetrically. In general, sub-process doses should be used before actual sterilization by ionizing radiation, in order to estimate the constants characterizing the decrease in contamination under given conditions. In skin grafts a dose of 25 kJ/kg was found to give a high guarantee of sterility. A minimum sterilizing dose of 20 kJ/kg was recommended, provided the mean value of microorganisms on 1 cm 2 of the disinfected and freeze-dried skin grafts from human cadavres was 100, without exceeding an upper limit of 130

  19. Sterile Neutrino Search in the NOvA Far Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edayath, Sijith [Cochin U.; Aurisano, Adam [Cincinnati U.; Sousa, Alexandre [Cincinnati U.; Davies, Gavin [Indiana U.; Suter, Louise [Fermilab; Yang, Shaokai [Cincinnati U.

    2017-10-03

    The majority of neutrino oscillation experiments have obtained evidence for neutrino oscillations that are compatible with the three-flavor model. Explaining anomalous results from short-baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, in terms of neutrino oscillations requires the existence of sterile neutrinos. The search for sterile neutrino mixing conducted in NOvA uses a long baseline of 810 km between Near Detector (ND) at Fermilab and Far Detector (FD) in Minnesota. The signal for sterile neutrino oscillations is a deficit of neutral-current neutrino interactions at the FD with respect to the ND prediction. In this document, We will present the analysis improvements that we are implementing for future NC sterile neutrino searches with NOvA. These include: improved modelling of our detector response; the inclusion of NC 2p2h interaction modelling; implementing a better energy reconstruction techniques; and including possible oscillation due to sterile neutrinos in the ND . This improvements enable us to do a simultaneous ND-FD shape fit of the NC energy spectrum covering a wider sterile mass range than previous analyses.

  20. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50.207 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207...

  1. [Characteristics and follow-up of sterilized women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, R; López, I

    1982-02-01

    In order to gain insight into the characteristics of sterilized women evaluating at the same time the effects of sterilization, 70 patients who underwent sterilization in an Obstetrics Unit were studied. The clinical records were analyzed and a questionnaire comprising general knowledge, attitudes, and conduct was applied. Women over 30 and with a parity of 4 or more predominated. There was a low frequency of abortions reported but this information is not reliable. The educational level was lower than the average for the Metropolitan Region and pointed to a more precocious initiation in sexual relationships than was found in a previous similar study. Religion proved to be no obstacle for sterilization nor was attendance to church subsequently diminished. A negative moral feeling towards the operation nearly disappeared following surgery. The fear of sexual dissatisfaction in husbands decreased following surgery and a similar effect was seen with regard to negative self-image. There were no changes in marital relations nor in their satisfaction. (author's modified)

  2. Research on determination of bio-burden for radiation sterilization of health care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qinfang

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide data of bio-burden for dose setting in radiation sterilization, determination of bio-burden on 148 kinds of health care products from 52 manufacturers were carried out. The culture of microorganisms, different elution technology, and correction coefficient of the microbiological methods have been used for determination of bio-burden. Frequent distribution of bio-burden was established. 5 kinds of elution processes were checked. Actual data of bio-burden for dose setting in radiation sterilization was gotten. (authors)

  3. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  4. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  5. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  6. Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of culture media and glassware used during rooting of micropropagated Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre. Two experiments were carried out. In the first ...

  7. Radiation sterilization of medical products- current trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.

    1997-01-01

    In medical practice use of sterile pharmaceuticals and single use disposable medical devices is steadily increasing. Sterile pharmaceuticals like injections and ophthalmic ointments are required for therapy. Medical devices are employed for diagnostic, drug administration or corrective purposes, and as implants for temporary, short term or long term residence in the human system. All these products are made available in sterile form by treating them to a suitable process of sterilization i.e. dry/wet heat, ethylene oxide (EtO) gas or ionizing radiation. In this paper current trends and future prospects of radiation sterilization of medical products are given in detail. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  8. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Cai Zhijun; Liang Kangjing; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60 Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F 1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F 2 . Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  9. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AtashKhoii Simin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tubal sterilization is the method of family planning most commonly used. The existence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities has been the subject of debate for decades. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 112 women with the history of Pomeroy type of tubal ligation achieved by minilaparatomy as the case group and 288 women with no previous tubal ligation as the control group were assessed for menstrual abnormalities. Results Menstrual abnormalities were not significantly different between the case and control groups (p = 0.824. The abnormal uterine bleeding frequency differences in two different age groups (30–39 and 40–45 years old were statistically significant (p = 0.0176. Conclusion Tubal sterilization does not cause menstrual irregularities.

  10. The Sterile Insect Technique:Current and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALRubeai, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the importance of the Key insect pests and their potential for economic and environmental impact, such species are the targets for area-wide approaches including in some cases the use of SIT. At the heart of the SIT is genetic sterility that is introduced into the target population by releasing large numbers of sterile insects . The development of an SIT package for a Key pest, involving mass rearing and aerial dispersion, as well as field monitoring and a suppression system. Losses caused by insect pests throughout the developing world will continue to be unacceptably high in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the economic feasibility of non-chemical pest control tools, including biologically -based methods such as SIT, will become increasingly apparent . This study include an overview of the basic scientific principles of SIT , is successful applications and related mass rearing and irradiation facilities over the world. (author)

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals strong mitochondrial involvement in cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinju; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Qing; Sun, Limin; Wang, Hongyu; Wang, Yutong; Kao, Lina; Li, Yanan; Qiu, Tuoyu; Yang, Wencai; Shen, Huolin

    2017-09-25

    Although cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used for developing pepper hybrids, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a high-throughput proteomics method called label-free to compare protein abundance across a pepper CMS line (A-line) and its isogenic maintainer line (B-line). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006104. Approximately 324 differentially abundant protein species were identified and quantified; among which, 47 were up-accumulated and 140 were down-accumulated in the A-line; additionally, 75 and 62 protein species were specifically accumulated in the A-line and B-line, respectively. Protein species involved in pollen exine formation, pyruvate metabolic processes, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and oxidative stress response were observed to be differentially accumulated between A-line and B-line, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of pepper pollen abortion. Based on our data, we proposed a potential regulatory network for pepper CMS that unifies these processes. Artificial emasculation is a major obstacle in pepper hybrid breeding for its high labor cost and poor seed purity. While the use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid system is seriously frustrated because a long time is needed to cultivate male sterility line and its isogenic restore line. Transgenic technology is an effective and rapid method to obtain male sterility lines and its widely application has very important significance in speeding up breeding process in pepper. Although numerous studies have been conducted to select the genes related to male sterility, the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper remains unknown. In this study, we used the high-throughput proteomic method called "label-free", coupled with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to perform a novel comparison of expression profiles in a CMS pepper line

  12. Changing perspective on tissue processing - comparison of microwave histoprocessing method with the conventional method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathological examination of tissues requires sliver of formalin fixed tissue that has been chemically processed and then stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. The time honored conventional method of tissue processing, which requires 12 to 13 hours for completion, is employed at majority of laboratories but is now seeing the

  13. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F{sub 1} Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F{sub 1} progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F{sub 1} sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F{sub 1} sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are

  14. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F 1 progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F 1 sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F 1 sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are under way in Tunisia

  15. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  16. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Enkerlin, Walther

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities. (author)

  17. Lack of insurance and parity influence choice between long-acting reversible contraception and sterilization in women postpregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Maureen K; Rodriguez, Maria I; Edelman, Alison B

    2012-07-01

    Disparities in postpregnancy contraception utilization exist, with low-income women disproportionately undergoing sterilization. We assessed the impact of increased intrauterine device (IUD) availability on rates of female sterilization. Hospital billing records were used to identify women with an IUD placement or sterilization within 1 year of a pregnancy at a university hospital between Oct 2005 and Jun 2007. Demographic data were compared between women receiving either an IUD or sterilization. There were 365 sterilizations and 223 IUD placements during the study period. IUD placements doubled over the study period from 6% to 12% of all deliveries, while sterilizations remained stable at 11% (pwomen with either public or private insurance who had financial access to both sterilization (n=253) and IUD (n=223). Women receiving sterilization were slightly older (mean age 31 years versus 30 years, p=.03), of higher parity (median three versus two, pwomen who received IUD. Approximately 45% of women delivering in Oregon in 2007 were publicly insured (2010 Maternal and Child Health Update: States Make Progress Towards Improving Systems of Care. National Governor's Association, Table 6. Available at http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/MCHUPDATE2010.PDF, accessed Nov 2011). After adjusting for age, parity and type of delivery, women choosing sterilization were more likely to have public insurance than women choosing IUD (odds ratio 8.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7-14.9, pWomen choosing sterilization are more likely to have public insurance than women choosing IUD and may represent a continued trend toward nonreversible contraception among women of lower socioeconomic status despite available long-acting reversible methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of sterilization dose for disposable hypodermic needles manufactured under ultra-clean condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabei, Masae; Sekiguchi, Masayuki

    1995-01-01

    Relationship between characteristics of bioburden and sterilization dose setting for disposable hypodermic needles, produced on same manufacturing lines, is presented in this study. The number of bioburden for 512 needles (18 lots) was changed from 0 to 6 and its distribution was extremely shifted to 0. Most of isolates (401 strains) were Gram positive cocci (60.3 %) and spore forming bacteria (31.7 %). The distribution of gamma radiation resistances (D 10 ) showed two peaks at about 1.1 kGy and 0.4 kGy. The sterilization doses estimated by Japan log formula method on the basis of above data became higher than those by AAMI B2 (UDS) and B3 methods. (author)

  19. Objections to tubal sterilization: what reversibility can and cannot overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, R N

    1980-09-01

    In a study of 1074 women, 696 and 338 subjects would not seriously consider permanent and hypothetically reversible sterilization, respectively; they were asked to explain their feelings. The reason accounting for most objections to permanent sterilization (65%) was irreversibility and of the subjects who would not consider reversible sterilization or were unsure, 42.7% attributed their principal objection to unnecessary surgery, a factor at least currently intrinsic to the procedure and not readily overcome by education. Many of the remaining objections to both permanent and reversible sterilization may be amenable to change either through education or financial subsidies. In response to a question concerning female attractiveness subsequent to permanent sterilization, 3% of the sample felt attractiveness would decrease and 17.5% were unsure of the surgery's effect. Unsure responses were largely negative in character. This issue is important because of its relationship to intention to undergo sterilization</