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Sample records for conventional mechanical orthosis

  1. A functional comparison of conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses and a microprocessor-controlled leg orthosis system based on biomechanical parameters.

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    Schmalz, Thomas; Pröbsting, Eva; Auberger, Roland; Siewert, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    The microprocessor-controlled leg orthosis C-Brace enables patients with paretic or paralysed lower limb muscles to use dampened knee flexion under weight-bearing and speed-adapted control of the swing phase. The objective of the present study was to investigate the new technical functions of the C-Brace orthosis, based on biomechanical parameters. The study enrolled six patients. The C-Brace orthosis is compared with conventional leg orthoses (four stance control orthoses, two locked knee-ankle-foot orthoses) using biomechanical parameters of level walking, descending ramps and descending stairs. Ground reaction forces, joint moments and kinematic parameters were measured for level walking as well as ascending and descending ramps and stairs. With the C-Brace, a nearly natural stance phase knee flexion was measured during level walking (mean value 11° ± 5.6°). The maximum swing phase knee flexion angle of the C-Brace approached the normal value of 65° more closely than the stance control orthoses (66° ± 8.5° vs 74° ± 6.4°). No significant differences in the joint moments were found between the C-Brace and stance control orthosis conditions. In contrast to the conventional orthoses, all patients were able to ambulate ramps and stairs using a step-over-step technique with C-Brace (flexion angle 64.6° ± 8.2° and 70.5° ± 12.4°). The results show that the functions of the C-Brace for situation-dependent knee flexion under weight bearing have been used by patients with a high level of confidence. The functional benefits of the C-Brace in comparison with the conventional orthotic mechanisms could be demonstrated most clearly for descending ramps and stairs. The C-Brace orthosis is able to combine improved orthotic function with sustained orthotic safety. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  2. Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis.

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    Gordon, Keith E; Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    We developed a powered ankle-foot orthosis that uses artificial pneumatic muscles to produce active plantar flexor torque. The purpose of this study was to quantify the mechanical performance of the orthosis during human walking. Three subjects walked at a range of speeds wearing ankle-foot orthoses with either one or two artificial muscles working in parallel. The orthosis produced similar total peak plantar flexor torque and network across speeds independent of the number of muscles used. The orthosis generated approximately 57% of the peak ankle plantar flexor torque during stance and performed approximately 70% of the positive plantar flexor work done during normal walking. Artificial muscle bandwidth and force-length properties were the two primary factors limiting torque production. The lack of peak force and work differences between single and double muscle conditions can be explained by force-length properties. Subjects altered their ankle kinematics between conditions resulting in changes in artificial muscle length. In the double muscle condition greater plantar flexion yielded shorter artificial muscles lengths and decreased muscle forces. This finding emphasizes the importance of human testing in the design and development of robotic exoskeleton devices for assisting human movement. The results of this study outline the mechanical performance limitations of an ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles. This orthosis could be valuable for gait rehabilitation and for studies investigating neuromechanical control of human walking.

  3. The influence of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: A pilot study.

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    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Moradi, Alireza; Samadian, Mohammad; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Hutchins, Stephen W; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the anatomical knee joint is locked in extension when walking with a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine differences of the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis in kinematic data and temporospatial parameters during ambulation. Quasi-experimental design. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n = 7) volunteered for this study and undertook gait analysis with both the powered and the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Three trials per orthosis were collected while each subject walked along a 6-m walkway using a calibrated six-camera three-dimensional video-based motion analysis system. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis resulted in a significant reduction in both walking speed and step length (both 18%), but a significant increase in stance phase percentage compared to walking with the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Cadence was not significantly different between the two test conditions (p = 0.751). There was significantly higher knee flexion during swing phase and increased hip hiking when using the powered orthosis. The new powered orthosis permitted improved knee joint kinematic for knee-ankle-foot orthosis users while providing knee support in stance and active knee motion in swing in the gait cycle. Therefore, the new powered orthosis provided more natural knee flexion during swing for orthosis users compared to the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. This orthosis has the potential to improve knee joint kinematics and gait pattern in poliomyelitis subjects during walking activities. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  4. Prototyping of Individual Ankle Orthosis Using Additive Manufacturing Technologies

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    Natalia Wierzbicka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents design and manufacturing process of an individualized ankle orthosis using additive manufacturing technologies and reverse engineering. Conventional processes of manufacturing of orthosesareexpensive and time consuming -an alternative method was proposed. The patient’s leg was 3D scanned and the orthosis was designed using a CAD system. It was then manufactured using the Fused Deposition Modelling technology, assembled and fully tested. Positive results were obtained.

  5. Simulations and experimental evaluation of an active orthosis for interaction in virtual environments

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    Tsveov Mihail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of a human arm active orthosis is presented. The orthosis is designed primarily for training and rehabilitation in virtual environments.The orthosis system is intended for embodiment in virtual reality where it is allowing human to perceive forces at different body parts or the weight of lifted objects. In the paper the choice of a mechanical structure is shown equivalent to the structure of the human arm. A mechanical model of the orthosis arm as haptic device is built, where kinematic and dynamic parameters are evaluated. Impedance control scheme is selected as the most suitable for force refection at the hand or arm. An open-loop impedance controller is presented in the paper. Computer experiments are carried out using the dimensions of a real arm orthosis. Computer experiments have been carried out to provide force reflection by VR, according to virtual scenario. The conducted simulations show the range of the forces on the operator hand, orthosis can provide. The results of additional measurements and experimental evaluations of physical quantities in the interaction in a virtual environment are revealed in the paper.

  6. Effect of New Kypho-Remainder Orthosis on Curve Intensity in Adults With Postural Hyper Kyphosis

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    Omid Torkaman

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion Considering the importance of maintaining a proper posture to optimize the muscles activity in preventing deformity and orthosis with a bio-feedback mechanism may be the solution. The long-term effect of using a bio-feedback orthosis indicated that kypho-remainder orthosis can significantly improve the kyphosis curve in individuals with postural hyper-kyphosis. 

  7. Locomotor adaptation to a powered ankle-foot orthosis depends on control method

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    Gordon Keith E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied human locomotor adaptation to powered ankle-foot orthoses with the intent of identifying differences between two different orthosis control methods. The first orthosis control method used a footswitch to provide bang-bang control (a kinematic control and the second orthosis control method used a proportional myoelectric signal from the soleus (a physiological control. Both controllers activated an artificial pneumatic muscle providing plantar flexion torque. Methods Subjects walked on a treadmill for two thirty-minute sessions spaced three days apart under either footswitch control (n = 6 or myoelectric control (n = 6. We recorded lower limb electromyography (EMG, joint kinematics, and orthosis kinetics. We compared stance phase EMG amplitudes, correlation of joint angle patterns, and mechanical work performed by the powered orthosis between the two controllers over time. Results During steady state at the end of the second session, subjects using proportional myoelectric control had much lower soleus and gastrocnemius activation than the subjects using footswitch control. The substantial decrease in triceps surae recruitment allowed the proportional myoelectric control subjects to walk with ankle kinematics close to normal and reduce negative work performed by the orthosis. The footswitch control subjects walked with substantially perturbed ankle kinematics and performed more negative work with the orthosis. Conclusion These results provide evidence that the choice of orthosis control method can greatly alter how humans adapt to powered orthosis assistance during walking. Specifically, proportional myoelectric control results in larger reductions in muscle activation and gait kinematics more similar to normal compared to footswitch control.

  8. The effect of a knee ankle foot orthosis incorporating an active knee mechanism on gait of a person with poliomyelitis.

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    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Chitsazan, Ahmad; Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Ghomshe, Farhad Tabatabai; Hutchins, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this case study was to identify the effect of a powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis on the kinematics and temporospatial parameters of walking by a person with poliomyelitis when compared to a knee ankle foot orthosis. A knee ankle foot orthosis was initially manufactured by incorporating drop lock knee joints and custom molded ankle foot orthoses and fitted to a person with poliomyelitis. The orthosis was then adapted by adding electrically activated powered knee joints to provide knee extension torque during stance and also flexion torque in swing phase. Lower limb kinematic and kinetic data plus data for temporospatial parameters were acquired from three test walks using each orthosis. Walking speed, step length, and vertical and horizontal displacement of the pelvis decreased when walking with the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis compared to the knee ankle foot orthosis. When using the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis, the knee flexion achieved during swing and also the overall pattern of walking more closely matched that of normal human walking. The reduced walking speed may have caused the smaller compensatory motions detected when the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis was used. The new powered SCKAFO facilitated controlled knee flexion and extension during ambulation for a volunteer poliomyelitis person.

  9. Hip orthosis powered by pneumatic artificial muscle: voluntary activation in absence of myoelectrical signal.

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    do Nascimento, Breno Gontijo; Vimieiro, Claysson Bruno Santos; Nagem, Danilo Alves Pinto; Pinotti, Marcos

    2008-04-01

    Powered orthosis is a special class of gait assist device that employs a mechanical or electromechanical actuator to enhance movement of hip, knee, or ankle articulations. Pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) has been suggested as a pneumatic actuator because its performance is similar to biological muscle. The electromyography (EMG) signal interpretation is the most popular and simplest method to establish the patient voluntary control of the orthosis. However, this technique is not suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. For those cases, an alternative control strategy should be provided. The aim of the present study is to develop a gait assistance orthosis for lower limb powered by PAMs controlled by a voluntary activation method based on the angular behavior of hip joint. In the present study, an orthosis that has been molded in a patient was employed and, by taking her anthropometric parameters and movement constraints, the adaptation of the existing orthosis to the powered orthosis was planned. A control system was devised allowing voluntary control of a powered orthosis suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. A pilot clinical study was reported where a patient, victim of poliovirus, successfully tested a hip orthosis especially modified for the gait test evaluation in the parallel bar system. The hip orthosis design and the control circuitry parameters were able to be set to provide satisfactory and comfortable use of the orthosis during the gait cycle.

  10. Modelling of the Human Knee Joint Supported by Active Orthosis

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    Musalimov, V.; Monahov, Y.; Tamre, M.; Rõbak, D.; Sivitski, A.; Aryassov, G.; Penkov, I.

    2018-02-01

    The article discusses motion of a healthy knee joint in the sagittal plane and motion of an injured knee joint supported by an active orthosis. A kinematic scheme of a mechanism for the simulation of a knee joint motion is developed and motion of healthy and injured knee joints are modelled in Matlab. Angles between links, which simulate the femur and tibia are controlled by Simulink block of Model predictive control (MPC). The results of simulation have been compared with several samples of real motion of the human knee joint obtained from motion capture systems. On the basis of these analyses and also of the analysis of the forces in human lower limbs created at motion, an active smart orthosis is developed. The orthosis design was optimized to achieve an energy saving system with sufficient anatomy, necessary reliability, easy exploitation and low cost. With the orthosis it is possible to unload the knee joint, and also partially or fully compensate muscle forces required for the bending of the lower limb.

  11. Modelling of the Human Knee Joint Supported by Active Orthosis

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    Musalimov V.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses motion of a healthy knee joint in the sagittal plane and motion of an injured knee joint supported by an active orthosis. A kinematic scheme of a mechanism for the simulation of a knee joint motion is developed and motion of healthy and injured knee joints are modelled in Matlab. Angles between links, which simulate the femur and tibia are controlled by Simulink block of Model predictive control (MPC. The results of simulation have been compared with several samples of real motion of the human knee joint obtained from motion capture systems. On the basis of these analyses and also of the analysis of the forces in human lower limbs created at motion, an active smart orthosis is developed. The orthosis design was optimized to achieve an energy saving system with sufficient anatomy, necessary reliability, easy exploitation and low cost. With the orthosis it is possible to unload the knee joint, and also partially or fully compensate muscle forces required for the bending of the lower limb.

  12. iGrab: hand orthosis powered by twisted and coiled polymer muscles

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    Saharan, Lokesh; de Andrade, Monica Jung; Saleem, Wahaj; Baughman, Ray H.; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-10-01

    Several works have been reported in powered hand orthosis in the last ten years for assistive or rehabilitative purposes. However, most of these approaches uses conventional actuators such as servo motors to power orthosis. In this work, we demonstrate the recently reported twisted and coiled polymeric (TCP) muscles to drive a compact, light, inexpensive and wearable upper extremity device, iGrab. A 3D printed orthotic hand module was designed, developed and tested for the performance. The device has six 2-ply muscles of diameter 1.35 mm with a length of 380 mm. We used a single 2-ply muscle for each finger and two 2-ply muscles for the thumb. Pulsed actuation of the muscles at 1.8 A current for 25 s with 7% duty cycle under natural cooling showed full flexion of the fingers within 2 s. Modeling and simulation were performed on the device using standard Euler-Lagrangian equations. Our artificial muscles powered hand orthosis demonstrated the capability of pinching and picking objects of different shapes, weights, and sizes.

  13. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis

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    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. Objectives To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Results Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one). PMID:28180116

  14. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis.

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    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one).

  15. An ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles.

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    Ferris, Daniel P; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Hannaford, Blake

    2005-05-01

    We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  16. Effect of an ankle-foot orthosis on knee joint mechanics: a novel conservative treatment for knee osteoarthritis.

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    Fantini Pagani, Cynthia H; Willwacher, Steffen; Benker, Rita; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Several conservative treatments for medial knee osteoarthritis such as knee orthosis and laterally wedged insoles have been shown to reduce the load in the medial knee compartment. However, those treatments also present limitations such as patient compliance and inconsistent results regarding the treatment success. To analyze the effect of an ankle-foot orthosis on the knee adduction moment and knee joint alignment in the frontal plane in subjects with knee varus alignment. Controlled laboratory study, repeated measurements. In total, 14 healthy subjects with knee varus alignment were analyzed in five different conditions: without orthotic, with laterally wedged insoles, and with an ankle-foot orthosis in three different adjustments. Three-dimensional kinetic and kinematic data were collected during gait analysis. Significant decreases in knee adduction moment, knee lever arm, and joint alignment in the frontal plane were observed with the ankle-foot orthosis in all three different adjustments. No significant differences could be found in any parameter while using the laterally wedged insoles. The ankle-foot orthosis was effective in reducing the knee adduction moment. The decreases in this parameter seem to be achieved by changing the knee joint alignment and thereby reducing the knee lever arm in the frontal plane. This study presents a novel approach for reducing the load in the medial knee compartment, which could be developed as a new treatment option for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  17. A pneumatically powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO with myoelectric activation and inhibition

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    Ferris Daniel P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to test the mechanical performance of a prototype knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO powered by artificial pneumatic muscles during human walking. We had previously built a powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO and used it effectively in studies on human motor adaptation, locomotion energetics, and gait rehabilitation. Extending the previous AFO to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the force-length properties of the artificial pneumatic muscles and the presence of multiple antagonistic artificial pneumatic muscle pairs. Methods Three healthy males were fitted with custom KAFOs equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and knee extension/flexion. Subjects walked over ground at 1.25 m/s under four conditions without extensive practice: 1 without wearing the orthosis, 2 wearing the orthosis with artificial muscles turned off, 3 wearing the orthosis activated under direct proportional myoelectric control, and 4 wearing the orthosis activated under proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation. We collected joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, electromyography, and orthosis kinetics. Results The KAFO produced ~22%–33% of the peak knee flexor moment, ~15%–33% of the peak extensor moment, ~42%–46% of the peak plantar flexor moment, and ~83%–129% of the peak dorsiflexor moment during normal walking. With flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation, ankle (Pearson r-value = 0.74 ± 0.04 and knee ( r = 0.95 ± 0.04 joint kinematic profiles were more similar to the without orthosis condition compared to when there was no flexor inhibition (r = 0.49 ± 0.13 for ankle, p = 0.05, and r = 0.90 ± 0.03 for knee, p = 0.17. Conclusion The proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition allowed for a more normal gait than direct proportional myoelectric control. The current

  18. A pneumatically powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) with myoelectric activation and inhibition

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    Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to test the mechanical performance of a prototype knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) powered by artificial pneumatic muscles during human walking. We had previously built a powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and used it effectively in studies on human motor adaptation, locomotion energetics, and gait rehabilitation. Extending the previous AFO to a KAFO presented additional challenges related to the force-length properties of the artificial pneumatic muscles and the presence of multiple antagonistic artificial pneumatic muscle pairs. Methods Three healthy males were fitted with custom KAFOs equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and knee extension/flexion. Subjects walked over ground at 1.25 m/s under four conditions without extensive practice: 1) without wearing the orthosis, 2) wearing the orthosis with artificial muscles turned off, 3) wearing the orthosis activated under direct proportional myoelectric control, and 4) wearing the orthosis activated under proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation. We collected joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, electromyography, and orthosis kinetics. Results The KAFO produced ~22%–33% of the peak knee flexor moment, ~15%–33% of the peak extensor moment, ~42%–46% of the peak plantar flexor moment, and ~83%–129% of the peak dorsiflexor moment during normal walking. With flexor inhibition produced by leg extensor muscle activation, ankle (Pearson r-value = 0.74 ± 0.04) and knee ( r = 0.95 ± 0.04) joint kinematic profiles were more similar to the without orthosis condition compared to when there was no flexor inhibition (r = 0.49 ± 0.13 for ankle, p = 0.05, and r = 0.90 ± 0.03 for knee, p = 0.17). Conclusion The proportional myoelectric control with flexor inhibition allowed for a more normal gait than direct proportional myoelectric control. The current orthosis design

  19. A Motor Learning Oriented, Compliant and Mobile Gait Orthosis

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    A. Calanca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available People affected by Cerebral Palsy suffer from physical disabilities due to irreversible neural impairment since the very beginning of their life. Difficulties in motor control and coordination often relegate these patients to the use of a wheelchair and to the unavoidable upcoming of disuse syndromes. As pointed out in recent literature Damiano [7] physical exercise, especially in young ages, can have a deep impact on the patient health and quality of life. For training purposes is very important to keep an upright position, although in some severe cases this is not trivial. Many commercial mobile orthoses are designed to facilitate the standing, but not all the patients are able to deploy them. ARGO, the Active Reciprocated Gait Orthosis we developed, is a device that overcomes some of the limitations of these devices. It is an active device that is realized starting from a commercial reciprocated Gait Orthosis applying sensors and actuators to it. With ARGO we aim to develop a device for helping limbs in a non-coercive way accordingly to user’s intention. In this way patients can drive the orthosis by themselves, deploying augmented biofeedback over movements. In fact Cerebral Palsy patients usually have weak biofeedback mechanisms and consequently are hardly inclined to learn movements. To achieve this behavior ARGO deploys a torque planning algorithm and a force control system. Data collected from a single case of study shows benefits of the orthosis. We will show that our test patient reaches complete autonomous walking after few hour of training with prototype.

  20. A Novel Approach For Ankle Foot Orthosis Developed By Three Dimensional Technologies

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    Belokar, R. M.; Banga, H. K.; Kumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a novel approach for testing mechanical properties of medical orthosis developed by three dimensional (3D) technologies. A hand-held type 3D laser scanner is used for generating 3D mesh geometry directly from patient’s limb. Subsequently 3D printable orthotic design is produced from crude input model by means of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies is used to fabricate the 3D printable Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) prototype in order to test the mechanical properties on printout. According to test results, printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) AFO prototype has sufficient elasticity modulus and durability for patient-specific medical device manufactured by the 3D technologies.

  1. Weight transfer analysis in adults with hemiplegia using ankle foot orthosis.

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    Nolan, Karen J; Yarossi, Mathew

    2011-03-01

    Identifying and understanding the changes in transfer of momentum that are directly affected by orthotic intervention are significant factors related to the improvement of mobility in individuals with hemiplegia. The purpose of this investigation was to use a novel analysis technique to objectively measure weight transfer during double support (DS) in healthy individuals and individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke with and without an ankle foot orthosis. Prospective, Repeated measures, case-controlled trial. Participants included 25 adults with stroke-related hemiplegia >6 months using a prescribed ankle foot orthosis and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Main outcome measures included the weight transfer point timing (WTP, %DS), maximum total force timing (MTF, %DS), timing difference between WTP and MTF (MTF-WTP, %DS) and the linearity of loading (LOL, R(2)) during the DS phase of the gait cycle. The WTP and LOL were significantly different between conditions with and without the ankle foot orthosis for the affected and unaffected limb in post-stroke individuals, p ≤ 0.01. The MTF and difference in timing between MTF-WTP were significantly different during affected limb loading with and without the ankle foot orthosis in the stroke group, p ≤ 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively. MTF, MTF-WTP and LOL were significantly different between individuals with stroke (during affected limb loading) and healthy controls (during right limb loading). This research established a systematic method for analysing weight transfer during walking to evaluate the effect of an ankle foot orthosis on loading during double support in hemiplegic gait. This novel method can be used to elucidate biomechanical mechanisms behind orthosis-mediated changes in gait patterns and quantify functional mobility outcomes in rehabilitation. This novel approach to orthotic assessment will provide the clinician with needed objective evidence to select the most effective orthotic

  2. Single DoF Hand Orthosis for Rehabilitation of Stroke and SCI Patients

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    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Apuroop, K. G. S.; Boddupalli, Sricharan

    2017-08-01

    Many stroke and spinal cord injury patients suffer from paralysis which range from severe to nominal. Some of them, after therapy, could regain most of the motor control, particularly in hands if the severity level is not so high. In this paper we propose a hand orthosis for such patients whose stroke and spinal cord injury severity is nominal and the motor control in hands can be regained by therapy as part of their rehabilitation process. The patients can wear this orthosis and the therapy can be done with simple Human Computer Interface. The physicians, the physiotherapists and the patients themselves can carry out the therapy with the help of this device. The tests conducted in the lab and the results obtained are very promising that this can be an effective mechanism for stroke and spinal cord injury patients in their rehabilitation process. The hand orthosis is designed and fabricated locally so that it can be made available to such patients at an affordable cost.

  3. Active lower limb orthosis with one degree of freedom for people with paraplegia.

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    Gloger, Michal; Obinata, Goro; Genda, Eiichi; Babjak, Jan; Pei, Yanling

    2017-07-01

    The main challenges of designing devices for paraplegic walking can be summarized into three groups, stability and comfort, high efficiency or low energy consumption, dimensions and weight. A new economical device for people with paraplegia which tackles all problems of the three groups is introduced in this paper. The main idea of this device is based on HALO mechanism. HALO is compact passive medial hip joint orthosis with contralateral hip and ankle linkage, which keeps the feet always parallel to the ground and assists swinging the leg. The medial hip joint is equipped with one actuator in the new design and the new orthosis is called @halo. Due to this update, we can achieve more stable and smoother walking patterns with decreased energy consumption of the users, yet maintain its compact and lightweight features. It is proven by the results from preliminary experiments with able-bodied subjects during which the same device with and without actuator was evaluated. Waddling and excessive vertical elevation of the center of gravity were decreased by 40% with significantly smaller standard deviations in case of the active orthosis. There was 52% less energy spent by the user wearing @halo which was calculated from the vertical excursion difference. There was measured 38.5% bigger impulse in crutches while using passive orthosis. The new @halo device is the first active orthosis for lower limbs with just one actuated degree of freedom for users with paraplegia.

  4. A Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Providing Legged Mobility in Paraplegic Individuals.

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    Quintero, Hugo A; Farris, Ryan J; Hartigan, Clare; Clesson, Ismari; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a powered lower limb orthosis intended to provide legged mobility (with the use of a stability aid, such as forearm crutches) to paraplegic individuals. The orthosis contains electric motors at both hip and both knee joints, which in conjunction with ankle-foot orthoses, provides appropriate joint kinematics for legged locomotion. The paper describes the orthosis and the nature of the controller that enables the SCI patient to command the device, and presents data from preliminary trials that indicate the efficacy of the orthosis and controller in providing legged mobility.

  5. The effects of a new designed forearm orthosis in treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

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    Forogh, Bijan; Khalighi, Mohsen; Javanshir, Mohammad Ali; Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Kamali, Mohammad; Raissi, Gholamreza

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing of a new designed forearm orthosis and explores its efficacious in comparison to the standard counterforce orthosis in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this assessor-blinded clinical trial and randomly assigned to two parallel treatment groups. The measures of pain and function, the pain threshold and grip strength were compared using patient rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) form, algometer and dynamometer respectively at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Paired and independent t-test statistical methods recruited for within and between groups comparisons respectively. The both orthoses, counterforce and new-designed, significantly relieved pain, and improved function, pain threshold and grip strength of all patients after 4 weeks application. The new-designed orthosis seemed to be more effective than the counterforce orthosis in pain relief, but there was not any significant difference in efficacious of two types of orthoses regarding function. The new-designed orthosis can significantly relieve pain, improve function, increase pain threshold and grip strength after application. This orthosis seemed to be more effective than counterforce orthosis in relieving pain and increasing the pain threshold probably due to the limitation of forearm supination.

  6. Mesh three-dimensional arm orthosis with built-in ultrasound physiotherapy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapova, R. M.; Kashapov, R. N.; Kashapova, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using the built-in ultrasound physiotherapy system of the hand orthosis is explored in the work. The individual mesh orthosis from nylon 12 was manufactured by the 3D prototyping method on the installation of selective laser sintering SLS SPro 60HD. The applied technology of three-dimensional scanning made it possible to obtain a model of the patient’s hand and on the basis of it to build a virtual model of the mesh frame. In the course of the research, the developed system of ultrasound exposure was installed on the orthosis and its tests were carried out. As a result, the acceleration of the healing process and the reduction in the time of wearing orthosis were found.

  7. A Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Providing Legged Mobility in Paraplegic Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Hugo A.; Farris, Ryan J.; Hartigan, Clare; Clesson, Ismari; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a powered lower limb orthosis intended to provide legged mobility (with the use of a stability aid, such as forearm crutches) to paraplegic individuals. The orthosis contains electric motors at both hip and both knee joints, which in conjunction with ankle-foot orthoses, provides appropriate joint kinematics for legged locomotion. The paper describes the orthosis and the nature of the controller that enables the SCI patient to comm...

  8. Ankle-Foot Orthosis Made by 3D Printing Technique and Automated Design Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ho Cha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We described 3D printing technique and automated design software and clinical results after the application of this AFO to a patient with a foot drop. After acquiring a 3D modelling file of a patient’s lower leg with peroneal neuropathy by a 3D scanner, we loaded this file on the automated orthosis software and created the “STL” file. The designed AFO was printed using a fused filament fabrication type 3D printer, and a mechanical stress test was performed. The patient alternated between the 3D-printed and conventional AFOs for 2 months. There was no crack or damage, and the shape and stiffness of the AFO did not change after the durability test. The gait speed increased after wearing the conventional AFO (56.5 cm/sec and 3D-printed AFO (56.5 cm/sec compared to that without an AFO (42.2 cm/sec. The patient was more satisfied with the 3D-printed AFO than the conventional AFO in terms of the weight and ease of use. The 3D-printed AFO exhibited similar functionality as the conventional AFO and considerably satisfied the patient in terms of the weight and ease of use. We suggest the possibility of the individualized AFO with 3D printing techniques and automated design software.

  9. Scoliosis curve analysis with Milwaukee orthosis based on Open SIMM modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scoliosis is a three-dimensional spinal deformity characterized by lateral curvature and rotational deformity of the spine. Various methods have been used to investigate the performance of the subjects during walking with an orthosis, but nobody study the biomechanics of orthotic use by understanding the length of the muscles and the force produced by them. Therefore, the aim of this research is to test the effect of the orthosis on the muscular force, tendon length during walking with and without orthosis. Materials and Methods: A 12-year-old scoliosis subject was recruited in this study. The forces produced by trunk musculature, joint reaction force, length of trunk musculature were some parameters selected in this study. Open SIMM and Visual 3D software were used to model the subject. Results: The results of this research showed that the length of erector spine muscles increased follow the use of orthosis. Moreover, the force produced by trunk muscles differed during walking with and without orthosis and also between right and left sides. Discussion: It seems that Open SIMM software can be used to predict the length of muscles, active-passive forces produced by muscles in scoliotic subjects. Therefore, it is recommended this research be done on more number of subjects.

  10. Scoliosis curve analysis with Milwaukee orthosis based on Open SIMM modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Kavyani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional spinal deformity characterized by lateral curvature and rotational deformity of the spine. Various methods have been used to investigate the performance of the subjects during walking with an orthosis, but nobody study the biomechanics of orthotic use by understanding the length of the muscles and the force produced by them. Therefore, the aim of this research is to test the effect of the orthosis on the muscular force, tendon length during walking with and without orthosis. A 12-year-old scoliosis subject was recruited in this study. The forces produced by trunk musculature, joint reaction force, length of trunk musculature were some parameters selected in this study. Open SIMM and Visual 3D software were used to model the subject. The results of this research showed that the length of erector spine muscles increased follow the use of orthosis. Moreover, the force produced by trunk muscles differed during walking with and without orthosis and also between right and left sides. It seems that Open SIMM software can be used to predict the length of muscles, active-passive forces produced by muscles in scoliotic subjects. Therefore, it is recommended this research be done on more number of subjects.

  11. Exoskeleton Technology in Rehabilitation: Towards an EMG-Based Orthosis System for Upper Limb Neuromotor Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel Vaca Benitez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation of patients should not only be limited to the first phases during intense hospital care but also support and therapy should be guaranteed in later stages, especially during daily life activities if the patient’s state requires this. However, aid should only be given to the patient if needed and as much as it is required. To allow this, automatic self-initiated movement support and patient-cooperative control strategies have to be developed and integrated into assistive systems. In this work, we first give an overview of different kinds of neuromuscular diseases, review different forms of therapy, and explain possible fields of rehabilitation and benefits of robotic aided rehabilitation. Next, the mechanical design and control scheme of an upper limb orthosis for rehabilitation are presented. Two control models for the orthosis are explained which compute the triggering function and the level of assistance provided by the device. As input to the model fused sensor data from the orthosis and physiology data in terms of electromyography (EMG signals are used.

  12. Development of an assistive motorized hip orthosis: kinematics analysis and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jeremy; Bouri, Mohamed; Ortlieb, Amalric; Bleuler, Hannes; Clavel, Reymond

    2013-06-01

    With the increase of life expectancy, a higher number of elderly need assistance to maintain their mobility and their independance. The hip joint is crucial for walking and is problematic for a large number of aged people. In this paper we present a novel design of a motorized hip orthosis to assist elderly people while walking, stair climbing and during the sit-to-stand transistions. The kinematics was developed based on biomechanics considerations. To be able to achieve a large assistance rate, velocity and torques of the hip joint were studied from the literature. In order to fit with these requirements, an amplification mechanism inspired by excavators was developed and implemented. Comfort considerations were also taken into account and a custom interface was designed with the collaboration of a professional orthopaedic technician. First tests with the prototype showed that the workspace is sufficient for walking, for stair climbing as well as for sit-to-stand transitions. The assistance rate can go up to 30% for a 70 kg subject during walking at a cadence of 100 steps/min. The comfort is guaranteed despite the important weight (4.3 kg) of this first prototype.

  13. Design a New Orthosis and Assessment of Its Effects on Knee Joint Kinetics and Kinematics During Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kamali

    2015-12-01

    Methods: Ten subjects without any neuromuscular disease participated in this study. New orhosis with the same structure of Scottish rite orthosis was designed. Qualysis system analyses with seven cameras as well as a Kistler force plate were used to measure the kinematics and kinetics variables during the gait with and without orthosis. For statistical analysis independent student-t test was used. The significance level was set at p0.05. There was significant difference between peak medio-lateral forces applied on knee during walking with and without orthosis (p<0.05. Conclusion: The new orthosis decreases the adductor moment on knee joint therefore, it can decrease the forces applied on medial compartment of the knee joint. This orthosis improves walking because it does not let inferior transition. This orthosis can improve femur alignment. It is recommended that physiotherapist prescribe this orthosis in order to decrease pain in patients with OA.

  14. [Effect of abducens orthosis combined with walker on developmental dysplasia of the hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Yongqiang; Liang, Jieyu; Li, Kanghua; Liao, Qiande

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of abducens orthosis combined with walker on developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). A total of 126 patients (224 hips) with DDH aged 6-36 months in Xiangya Hospital was randomly divided into 2 groups: an orthosis combined with walker group and an improved hip frog cast fixation group. Seventy patients (130 hips) were treated by the orthosis combined with walker and 56 patients (94 hips) were treated by the improved hip frog cast fixation. We compared the effect and complications of the 2 groups. The fineness rates of the orthosis combined with walker group and the improved hip frog cast fixation group were 89.2% and 90.4%, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05). The rate of femoral head osteonecrosis in the orthosis combined with walker group was significantly lower than that in the improved hip frog cast fixation group (1.5% vs. 5.3%,Pwalker has a lower proportion of femoral head osteonecrosis, but a higher proportion of re-dislocation.

  15. Ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning: an investigation into common clinical practice in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddison, Nicola; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Osborne, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Ankle foot orthoses are used to treat a wide variety of gait pathologies. Ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning should be routine clinical practice when prescribing an ankle foot orthosis. Current research suggests that failure to tune ankle foot orthosis-footwear combinations can lead to immediate detrimental effect on function, and in the longer term, it may actually contribute to deterioration. The purpose of this preliminary study was to identify the current level of knowledge clinicians have in the United Kingdom regarding ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning and to investigate common clinical practice regarding ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning among UK orthotists. Cross-sectional survey. A prospective study employing a multi-item questionnaire was sent out to registered orthotists and uploaded on to the official website of British Association of Prosthetists and Orthotists to be accessed by their members. A total of 41 completed questionnaires were received. The results demonstrate that only 50% of participants use ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning as standard clinical practice. The most prevalent factors preventing participants from carrying out ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning are a lack of access to three-dimensional gait analysis equipment (37%) and a lack of time available in their clinics (27%). Although, ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning has been identified as an essential aspect of the prescription of ankle foot orthoses, the results of this study show a lack of understanding of the key principles behind ankle foot orthosis-footwear combination tuning. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  16. Design and Evaluation of the AIRGAIT Exoskeleton: Leg Orthosis Control for Assistive Gait Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the body weight support gait training system known as the AIRGAIT exoskeleton and delves into the design and evaluation of its leg orthosis control algorithm. The implementation of the mono- and biarticular pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs as the actuation system was initiated to generate more power and precisely control the leg orthosis. This research proposes a simple paradigm for controlling the mono- and bi-articular actuator movements cocontractively by introducing a cocontraction model. Three tests were performed. The first test involved control of the orthosis with monoarticular actuators alone without a subject (WO/S; the second involved control of the orthosis with mono- and bi-articular actuators tested WO/S; and the third test involved control of the orthosis with mono- and bi-articular actuators tested with a subject (W/S. Full body weight support (BWS was implemented in this study during the test W/S as the load supported by the orthosis was at its maximum capacity. This assessment will optimize the control system strategy so that the system operates to its full capacity. The results revealed that the proposed control strategy was able to co-contractively actuate the mono- and bi-articular actuators simultaneously and increase stiffness at both hip and knee joints.

  17. COMPARISON BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL COST INDEX IN HEALTHY NORMAL CHILDREN AS AGAINST AMBULATORY SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY (WITH AND WITHOUT ORTHOSIS IN THE AGE GROUP 6 TO 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swatia Bhise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy of rehabilitation program for subjects with orthosis with objective measurement. The study aiming to objectively compare the PCI and walking speed of normal children with ambulatory spastic diaplegic. Also we aimed to analyze whether BMIhad impact on energy cost. Methods: 41 normal children and 41 community walking spastic diaplegic aged between 6 to 18 yrs. were assessed to compare the PCI. Speed of walking and heart rate were checked constantlyboth barefoot and in shoes in normal children and with and without conventional AFO in children with spastic diaplegic at their chosen velocities over four consecutive lengths of a 12.5m walkway i.e. total 50m.,Pre and Post readings are taken. Heart rate is affected by speed; PCI with speed of walking and heart rate was calculated for each child. Results: The mean PCI in shoes and barefoot was same in normal children i.e. 0.05 ±0.039beats/meter. The PCI for children with pathological gait i.e. spastic diaplegic without orthosis and with orthosis is 0.199 ±0.176 and 0.104± 0.093beats/meter appreciably greater than that for normal children(p less than 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that walking with orthosis in spastic diplegic CP children showed higher costs of energy and slower walking speed compared normal children with age matched. The PCI of walking, with orthosis in children with spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy is less as compared to without orthosis i.e. gait is more energy efficient with orthosis. BMI doesn’t show any correlation with PCI further study may require.

  18. Performance of spinal cord injury individuals while standing with the Mohammad Taghi Karimi reciprocal gait orthosis (MTK-RGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Amiri, Pouya; Esrafilian, Amir; Sedigh, Jafar; Fatoye, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Most patients with spinal cord injury use a wheelchair to transfer from place to place, however they need to stand and walk with orthosis to improve their health status. Although many orthoses have been designed for paraplegic patients, they have experienced various problems while in use. A new type of reciprocal gait orthosis was designed in the Bioengineering Unit of Strathclyde University to solve the problems of the available orthoses. Since there was no research undertaken regarding testing of the new orthosis on paraplegic subjects, this study was aimed to evaluate the new orthosis during standing of paraplegic subjects. Five paraplegic patients with lesion level between T12 and L1 and aged matched normal subjects were recruited into this study. The stability of subjects was evaluated during quiet standing and while undertaking hand tasks during standing with the new orthosis and the knee ankle foot orthosis (KAFO). The difference between the performances of paraplegic subjects while standing with both orthoses, and between the function of normal and paraplegic subjects were compared using the paired t test and independent sample t test, respectively. The stability of paraplegic subjects in standing with the new orthosis was better than that of the KAFO orthosis (p < 0.05). Moreover, the force applied on the crutch differed between the orthoses. The functional performance of paraplegic subjects was better with the new orthosis compared with normal subjects. The performance of paraplegic subjects while standing with the new orthosis was better than the KAFO. Therefore, the new orthosis may be useful to improve standing and walking in patients with paraplegia.

  19. Biomechanics of an orthosis-managed cranial cruciate ligament-deficient canine stifle joint predicted by use of a computer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, Gina E; Brown, Nathan P; Mich, Patrice M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of an orthosis on biomechanics of a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient canine stifle joint by use of a 3-D quasistatic rigid-body pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to investigate influences of orthosis hinge stiffness (durometer). SAMPLE A previously developed computer simulation model for a healthy 33-kg 5-year-old neutered Golden Retriever. PROCEDURES A custom stifle joint orthosis was implemented in the CrCL-deficient pelvic limb computer simulation model. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation in the orthosis-stabilized stifle joint (baseline scenario; high-durometer hinge]) were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of orthosis hinge stiffness on model outcome measures. RESULTS The orthosis decreased loads placed on the caudal cruciate and lateral collateral ligaments and increased load placed on the medial collateral ligament, compared with loads for the CrCL-intact stifle joint. Ligament loads were decreased in the orthosis-managed CrCL-deficient stifle joint, compared with loads for the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial translation and rotation decreased but were not eliminated after orthosis management. Increased orthosis hinge stiffness reduced tibial translation and rotation, whereas decreased hinge stiffness increased internal tibial rotation, compared with values for the baseline scenario. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Stifle joint biomechanics were improved following orthosis implementation, compared with biomechanics of the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Orthosis hinge stiffness influenced stifle joint biomechanics. An orthosis may be a viable option to stabilize a CrCL-deficient canine stifle joint.

  20. Counterforce Orthosis In The Management Of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellilappilly, Daison Varghese; Rai, Heroor Ravindranath; Varghese, Jaison; Renjith, Vishnu

    2017-01-01

    Lateral Epicondylitis (LE), is a condition characterized by the pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. LE is commonly seen among people who are involved in sports such as tennis and golf. Any activity that repeatedly overstrains the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon can lead to LE. The management of lateral epicondylitis generally involves the use of counterforce orthosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of counterforce orthoses on the clinical outcomes of patients with lateral epicondylitis. The PubMed, Ovid, and ProQuest databases were searched for potential studies which explored the use of counterforce orthosis in the management of lateral epicondylitis. To have a better understanding of the effectiveness of various types of orthoses, the review is organized into four sections. The first section explores the use of a single orthotic device, the second section focuses on the combined use of orthotic devices, the third section explore studies that compared the effect of local steroid injection along with orthosis and the last section narrate the studies that compared various types of orthotic devices. The studies support the use of orthotic devices as a treatment modality for lateral epicondylitis. There is rising evidence which supports the use of a comprehensive approach, (by combining routine physiotherapy with orthotic devices) in the management of LE. Orthosis alone or in combination with routine physical therapy can be considered as an evidence-based treatment strategy for patients with lateral epicondylitis. However, on the basis of the literature review conducted, the authors recommend that further high-quality clinical trials regarding the management of lateral epicondylitis are necessary to strengthen the evidence-based physiotherapy practice.

  1. FY1995 development of rehabilitation system for promoting social integration of people with disabilities. Development of a robotic orthosis assisting motion capabilities; 1995 nendo shogaino aru hito no shakai shinshutsu wo sokushinsuru rehabilitation system no kaihatsu. Rehabilitation kino wo yusuru doryoku sogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    People with slight disabilities on motion. capability can be active in daily life using properly designed motion-assisting devices. Using these device in various cases would help the disabled participate in production activities, and would promote social integration of the disabled as rehabilitation in a broad sense. This research aims at developing such a device capable to help human motion by forearm based on technology and science in robotics. Two different methods are discussed in this research in order to develop robotic orthosis with good performance for assisting human motion by forearm. The first method is constructing a robotic orthosis with electronic motors and force sensors to produce a desired mechanical impedance. This orthosis was carefully designed such that mechanical safety for human is realized. The validity of the mechanism is illustrated by several experiments. The second method is constructing a low cost robotic orthosis with pneumatic actuators. A new type of pneumatic actuator is developed to realize this orthosis. Experimental results show that physical therapy can be performed effectively using this orthosis operated by direct teaching. (NEDO)

  2. Use and tolerability of a side pole static ankle foot orthosis in children with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvert, Céline; Rippert, Pascal; Margirier, Françoise; Vadot, Jean-Pierre; Bérard, Carole; Poirot, Isabelle; Vuillerot, Carole

    2017-04-01

    Transverse-plane foot deformities are a frequently encountered issue in children with neurological disorders. They are the source of many symptoms, such as pain and walking difficulties, making their prevention very important. We aim to describe the use and tolerability of a side pole static ankle foot orthosis used to prevent transverse-plane foot deformities in children with neurologic disorders. Monocentric, retrospective, observational study. Medical data were collected from 103 children with transverse-plane foot deformities in one or both feet caused by a neurological impairment. All children were braced between 2001 and 2010. Unilateral orthosis was prescribed for 32 children and bilateral orthosis for 71. Transverse-plane foot deformities were varus in 66% of the cases and an equinus was associated in 59.2% of the cases. Mean age for the first prescription was 8.6 years. For the 23 patients present at the 4-year visit, 84.8% still wore the orthosis daily, and 64.7% wore the orthosis more than 6 h per day. The rate of permanent discontinuation of wearing the orthosis was 14.7%. The side pole static ankle foot orthosis is well tolerated with very few side effects, which promotes regular wearing and observance. Clinical relevance Side pole static ankle foot orthoses are well tolerated and can be safely used for children with foot abnormalities in the frontal plane that have a neurological pathology origin.

  3. Effects of joint alignment and type on mechanical properties of thermoplastic articulated ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Carlton, William; Kapp, Susan

    2011-06-01

    Articulated or hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) allow more range of motion. However, quantitative investigation on articulated AFO is still sparse. The objective of the study was to quantitatively investigate effects of alignment and joint types on mechanical properties of the thermoplastic articulated AFO. Tamarack dorsiflexion assist flexure joints with three durometers (75, 85 and 95) and free motion joint were tested. The AFO joint was aligned with the center of the motor shaft (surrogate ankle joint), 10 mm superior, inferior, anterior and posterior with respect to the motor shaft center. The AFO was passively moved from 20° plantar flexion to 15° dorsiflexion at a speed of 10°/s using a motorized device. Mechanical properties including index of hysteresis, passive resistance torque and quasi-static stiffness (at neutral, 5°, 10° and 15° in plantar flexion) were quantified. Significant effects of joint types and joint alignment on the mechanical properties of an articulated thermoplastic AFO were revealed. Specifically, center alignment showed minimum resistance and stiffness while anterior and posterior alignment showed significantly higher resistance and stiffness. The dorsiflexion assist torques at neutral position ranged from 0.69 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.10 Nm. Anterior and posterior alignment should be avoided as much as possible. The current study suggested that anterior and posterior alignment be avoided as much as possible in clinical practice due to potential skin irritation and increase in stress around the ankle joint.

  4. The physiological cost index of walking with a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis in subjects with poliomyelitis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Samadian, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Hutchins, Stephen W; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Curran, Sarah; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-08-01

    A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine its effect on the physiological cost index, walking speed and the distance walked in people with poliomyelitis compared to when walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. Quasi experimental study. Seven subjects with poliomyelitis volunteered for the study and undertook gait analysis with both types of knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis significantly reduced walking speed (p = 0.015) and the distance walked (p = 0.004), and also, it did not improve physiological cost index values (p = 0.009) compared to walking with the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Using a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis did not significantly improve any of the primary outcome measures during walking for poliomyelitis subjects. This powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis design did not improve the physiological cost index of walking for people with poliomyelitis when compared to walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. This may have been due to the short training period used or the bulky design and additional weight of the powered orthosis. Further research is therefore warranted. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  5. Design and Development of Effective Transmission Mechanisms on a Tendon Driven Hand Orthosis for Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sangwoo; Weber, Lynne; Bishop, Lauri; Stein, Joel; Ciocarlie, Matei

    2018-01-01

    Tendon-driven hand orthoses have advantages over exoskeletons with respect to wearability and safety because of their low-profile design and ability to fit a range of patients without requiring custom joint alignment. However, no existing study on a wearable tendon-driven hand orthosis for stroke patients presents evidence that such devices can overcome spasticity given repeated use and fatigue, or discusses transmission efficiency. In this study, we propose two designs that provide effective...

  6. The effect of ankle foot orthosis stiffness on the energy cost of walking: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, D J J; van der Krogt, M M; de Groot, V; Harlaar, J; Wisse, M; Collins, S H

    2011-11-01

    In stroke and multiple sclerosis patients, gait is frequently hampered by a reduced ability to push-off with the ankle caused by weakness of the plantar-flexor muscles. To enhance ankle push-off and to decrease the high energy cost of walking, spring-like carbon-composite Ankle Foot Orthoses are frequently prescribed. However, it is unknown what Ankle Foot Orthoses stiffness should be used to obtain the most efficient gait. The aim of this simulation study was to gain insights into the effect of variation in Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness on the amount of energy stored in the Ankle Foot Orthosis and the energy cost of walking. We developed a two-dimensional forward-dynamic walking model with a passive spring at the ankle representing the Ankle Foot Orthosis and two constant torques at the hip for propulsion. We varied Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness while keeping speed and step length constant. We found an optimal stiffness, at which the energy delivered at the hip joint was minimal. Energy cost decreased with increasing energy storage in the ankle foot orthosis, but the most efficient gait did not occur with maximal energy storage. With maximum storage, push-off occurred too late to reduce the impact of the contralateral leg with the floor. Maximum return prior to foot strike was also suboptimal, as push-off occurred too early and its effects were subsequently counteracted by gravity. The optimal Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness resulted in significant push-off timed just prior to foot strike and led to greater ankle plantar-flexion velocity just before contralateral foot strike. Our results suggest that patient energy cost might be reduced by the proper choice of Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of gait performance of a participant with Perthes disease while walking with and without a Scottish-Rite orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Sedigh, Jafar; Fatoye, Francis

    2013-06-01

    Scottish-Rite orthosis is one of the conservative methods used to treat Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. As there was not enough evidence to show the effects of using this orthosis on reducing the loads applied on the limb, this research aimed to find the influence of this orthosis. A participant with Perthes disease on the left hip joint was recruited into this study to walk with and without the orthosis. The kinetic and kinematic parameters were collected by a motion analysis system and a Kistler force platform. No significant differences were noted between the hip joint flexion/extension range of motion and the moments between the sound side and the side affected by Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. It may be concluded that use of orthosis may not have any positive effects to decrease the loads or to improve the alignment of the hip joint in participants with Perthes disease, as expected. The use of Scottish-Rite orthosis not only does not improve the containment of the hip joint, but also does not have any significant influence on loads applied on the joint during walking of the subject with Perthes disease. The results of this research can be used by clinicians involved in treatment of patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  8. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month......Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures...

  9. Application of the Superelastic NiTi Spring in Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO to Create Normal Ankle Joint Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhesam Amerinatanzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hinge-based Ankle Foot Orthosis (HAFO is one of the most common non-surgical solutions for the foot drop. In conventional HAFOs, the ankle joint is almost locked, and plantar flexion is restricted due to the high stiffness of the hinge mechanism. This often leads to a rigid walking gate cycle, poor muscle activity, and muscle atrophy. Since the ankle torque-angle loop has a non-linear profile, the use of a superelastic NiTi spring within the hinge, due to its nonlinear behavior, could recreate a close-to-normal stiffness of the normal ankle joint, which, in turn, could create a more natural walk. The focus of this study is to evaluate the performance of a superelastic NiTi spring versus a conventional Stainless Steel spring in a hinge mechanism of a custom-fit HAFO. To this aim, a custom-fit HAFO was fabricated via the fast casting technique. Then, motion analysis was performed for two healthy subjects (Case I and Case II: (i subjects with bare foot; (ii subjects wearing a conventional HAFO with no spring; (iii subjects wearing a conventional Stainless Steel-based HAFO; and (iv subjects wearing a NiTi spring-based HAFO. The data related to the ankle angle and the amount of moment applied to the ankle during walking were recorded using Cortex software and used for the evaluations. Finally, Finite Element Analysis (FEA was performed to evaluate the safety of the designed HAFO. The NiTi spring offers a higher range of motion (7.9 versus 4.14 degree and an increased level of moment (0.55 versus 0.36 N·m/kg. Furthermore, a NiTi spring offers an ankle torque-angle loop closer to that of the healthy subjects.

  10. Application of the Superelastic NiTi Spring in Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) to Create Normal Ankle Joint Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Zamanian, Hashem; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Jahadakbar, Ahmadreza; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2017-12-07

    Hinge-based Ankle Foot Orthosis (HAFO) is one of the most common non-surgical solutions for the foot drop. In conventional HAFOs, the ankle joint is almost locked, and plantar flexion is restricted due to the high stiffness of the hinge mechanism. This often leads to a rigid walking gate cycle, poor muscle activity, and muscle atrophy. Since the ankle torque-angle loop has a non-linear profile, the use of a superelastic NiTi spring within the hinge, due to its nonlinear behavior, could recreate a close-to-normal stiffness of the normal ankle joint, which, in turn, could create a more natural walk. The focus of this study is to evaluate the performance of a superelastic NiTi spring versus a conventional Stainless Steel spring in a hinge mechanism of a custom-fit HAFO. To this aim, a custom-fit HAFO was fabricated via the fast casting technique. Then, motion analysis was performed for two healthy subjects (Case I and Case II): (i) subjects with bare foot; (ii) subjects wearing a conventional HAFO with no spring; (iii) subjects wearing a conventional Stainless Steel-based HAFO; and (iv) subjects wearing a NiTi spring-based HAFO. The data related to the ankle angle and the amount of moment applied to the ankle during walking were recorded using Cortex software and used for the evaluations. Finally, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to evaluate the safety of the designed HAFO. The NiTi spring offers a higher range of motion (7.9 versus 4.14 degree) and an increased level of moment (0.55 versus 0.36 N·m/kg). Furthermore, a NiTi spring offers an ankle torque-angle loop closer to that of the healthy subjects.

  11. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  12. Three dimensional design, simulation and optimization of a novel, universal diabetic foot offloading orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Chand; Ramachandran, K. I.

    2016-09-01

    Leg amputation is a major consequence of aggregated foot ulceration in diabetic patients. A common sense based treatment approach for diabetic foot ulceration is foot offloading where the patient is required to wear a foot offloading orthosis during the entire treatment course. Removable walker is an excellent foot offloading modality compared to the golden standard solution - total contact cast and felt padding. Commercially available foot offloaders are generally customized with huge cost and less patient compliance. This work suggests an optimized 3D model of a new type light weight removable foot offloading orthosis for diabetic patients. The device has simple adjustable features which make this suitable for wide range of patients with weight of 35 to 74 kg and height of 137 to 180 cm. Foot plate of this orthosis is unisexual, with a size adjustability of (US size) 6 to 10. Materials like Aluminum alloy 6061-T6, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polyurethane acted as the key player in reducing weight of the device to 0.804 kg. Static analysis of this device indicated that maximum stress developed in this device under a load of 1000 N is only 37.8 MPa, with a small deflection of 0.150 cm and factor of safety of 3.28, keeping the safety limits, whereas dynamic analysis results assures the load bearing capacity of this device. Thus, the proposed device can be safely used as an orthosis for offloading diabetic ulcerated foot.

  13. Immediate effect of a functional wrist orthosis for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Lannin, Natasha; Galea, Claire

    2017-10-28

    Two-group randomized controlled trial. Upper limb orthoses worn during functional tasks are commonly used in pediatric neurologic rehabilitation, despite a paucity of high-level evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a customized functional wrist orthosis, when placed on the limb, leads to an immediate improvement in hand function for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury. A 2-group randomized controlled trial involving 30 children was conducted. Participants were randomized to either receive a customized functional wrist orthosis (experimental, n = 15) or not receive an orthosis (control, n = 15). The box and blocks test was administered at baseline and repeated 1 hour after experimental intervention, with the orthosis on if randomized to the orthotic group. After intervention, there were no significant differences on the box and blocks test between the orthotic group (mean, 10.13; standard deviation, 11.476) and the no orthotic group (mean, 14.07; standard deviation, 11.106; t[28], -0.954; P = .348; and 95% confidence interval, -12.380 to 4.513). In contrast to the findings of previous studies, our results suggest that a functional wrist orthosis, when supporting the joint in a 'typical' position, may not lead to an immediate improvement in hand function. Wearing a functional wrist orthosis did not lead to an immediate improvement in the ability of children with cerebral palsy or brain injury to grasp and release. Further research is needed combining upper limb orthoses with task-specific training and measuring outcomes over the medium to long term. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of the reciprocal hip joint link in the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis on standing performance in paraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, G.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Boom, H.B.K.; Zilvold, G.; Zilvold, G.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of reciprocally linking the hip hinges of a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis on standing performance was studied in a comparative trial of the Advanced Reciprocating Gait Orthosis (ARGO) and an ARGO in which the Bowden cable was removed (A_GO). Six male subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI)

  15. Can an ankle-foot orthosis change hearts and minds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Blanck, Ryan V; Owens, Johnny G; Wilken, Jason M; Blair, James A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    The current military conflicts of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom have been characterized by high-energy explosive wounding patterns, with the majority affecting the extremities. While many injuries have resulted in amputation, surgical advances have allowed the orthopaedic surgeon to pursue limb salvage in the face of injuries once considered unsalvageable. The military limb salvage patient is frequently highly active and motivated and expresses significant frustration with the slow nature of limb salvage rehabilitation and continued functional deficits. Inspired by these patients, efforts at this institution began to provide them with a more dynamic orthosis. Utilizing techniques and technology resulting from cerebral palsy, stroke, and amputation research, the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis was created. To date, this device has significantly improved the functional capabilities of the limb salvage wounded warrior population when combined with a high-intensity rehabilitation program. Clinical and biomechanical research is currently underway at this institution in order to fully characterize the device, its effect on patients, and what can be done to modify future generations of the device to best serve the combat-wounded limb salvage population.

  16. Assist-as-Needed Control of a Robotic Orthosis Actuated by Pneumatic Artificial Muscle for Gait Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy-Thinh Dao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation robots are designed to help patients improve their recovery from injury by supporting them to perform repetitive and systematic training sessions. These robots are not only able to guide the subjects’ lower-limb to a designate trajectory, but also estimate their disability and adapt the compliance accordingly. In this research, a new control strategy for a high compliant lower-limb rehabilitation orthosis system named AIRGAIT is developed. The AIRGAIT orthosis is powered by pneumatic artificial muscle actuators. The trajectory tracking controller based on a modified computed torque control which employs a fractional derivative is proposed for the tracking purpose. In addition, a new method is proposed for compliance control of the robotic orthosis which results in the successful implementation of the assist-as-needed training strategy. Finally, various subject-based experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the developed control system.

  17. Gastrocnemius tendon strain in a dog treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, J Brad; Palmer, Ross; Valdes-Martinez, Alex; Egger, Erick L; Haussler, Kevin K

    2013-05-01

    To report clinical findings and outcome in a dog with gastrocnemius tendon strain treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis. Clinical report. A 4-year-old spayed female Border Collie. Bone-marrow derived, autologous mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the tendon core lesion. A custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis was fit to the tarsus. Serial orthopedic examinations and ultrasonography as well as long-term force-plate gait analysis were utilized for follow up. Lameness subjectively resolved and peak vertical force increased from 43% to 92% of the contralateral pelvic limb. Serial ultrasonographic examinations revealed improved but incomplete restoration of normal linear fiber pattern of the gastrocnemius tendon. Findings suggest that autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation with custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis may be a viable, minimally invasive technique for treatment of calcaneal tendon injuries in dogs. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Foot loading with an ankle-foot orthosis: the accuracy of an integrated physical strain trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauser, Johannes; Jendrissek, Andreas; Brem, Matthias; Gelse, Kolja; Swoboda, Bernd; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the value of a built-in physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing with an ankle-foot orthosis. 12 healthy volunteers were asked to perform three trials. Plantar peak pressure values from normal gait (trial one) were defined as 100% (baseline). The following trials were performed with the Vacoped® dynamic vacuum ankle orthosis worn in a neutral position with full weight bearing (trial two) and a restriction to 10% body weight (BW) (trial three), as monitored with an integrated physical strain trainer. Peak plantar pressure values were obtained using the pedar® X system. Peak pressure values were statistically significantly reduced wearing the Vacoped® shoe with full weight bearing for the hindfoot to 68% of the baseline (normal gait) and for the midfoot and forefoot to 83% and 60%, respectively. Limited weight bearing with 10% BW as controlled by physical strain trainer further reduced plantar peak pressure values for the hindfoot to 19%, for the midfoot to 43% of the baseline and the forefoot to 22% of the baseline. The Vacoped® vacuum ankle orthosis significantly reduces plantar peak pressure. The integrated physical strain trainer seems unsuitable to monitor a limitation to 10% BW adequately for the total foot. The concept of controlling partial weight bearing with the hindfoot-addressing device within the orthosis seems debatable but may be useful when the hindfoot in particular must be off-loaded.

  19. Design of a 3D printed lightweight orthotic device based on twisted and coiled polymer muscle: iGrab hand orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Lokesh; Sharma, Ashvath; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Baughman, Ray H.; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-04-01

    Partial or total upper extremity impairment affects the quality of life of a vast number of people due to stroke, neuromuscular disease, or trauma. Many researchers have presented hand orthosis to address the needs of rehabilitation or assistance on upper extremity function. Most of the devices available commercially and in literature are powered by conventional actuators such as DC motors, servomotors or pneumatic actuators. Some prototypes are developed based on shape memory alloy (SMA) and dielectric elastomers (DE). This study presents a customizable, 3D printed, a lightweight exoskeleton (iGrab) based on recently reported Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) muscles, which are lightweight, provide high power to weight ratio and large stroke. We used silver coated nylon 6, 6 threads to make the TCP muscles, which can be easily actuated electrothermally. We reviewed briefly hand orthosis created with various actuation technologies and present our design of tendon-driven exoskeleton with the muscles confined in the forearm area. A single muscle is used to facilitate the motion of all three joints namely DIP (Distal interphalangeal), PIP (Proximal Interphalangeal) and MCP (Metacarpophalangeal) using passive tendons though circular rings. The grasping capabilities, along with TCP muscle properties utilized in the design such as life cycle, actuation under load and power inputs are discussed.

  20. Development of an orthosis for walking assistance using pneumatic artificial muscle: a quantitative assessment of the effect of assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, T; Takanaka, K; Nakamura, T; Osumi, H

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, there is an increase in the number of people that require support during walking as a result of a decrease in the leg muscle strength accompanying aging. An important index for evaluating walking ability is step length. A key cause for a decrease in step length is the loss of muscle strength in the legs. Many researchers have designed and developed orthoses for walking assistance. In this study, we advanced the design of an orthosis for walking assistance that assists the forward swing of the leg to increase step length. We employed a pneumatic artificial muscle as the actuator so that flexible assistance with low rigidity can be achieved. To evaluate the performance of the system, we measured the effect of assistance quantitatively. In this study, we constructed a prototype of the orthosis and measure EMG and step length on fitting it to a healthy subject so as to determine the effect of assistance, noting the increase in the obtained step length. Although there was an increase in EMG stemming from the need to maintain body balance during the stance phase, we observed that the EMG of the sartorius muscle, which helps swing the leg forward, decreased, and the strength of the semitendinosus muscle, which restrains the leg against over-assistance, did not increase but decreased. Our experiments showed that the assistance force provided by the developed orthosis is not adequate for the intended task, and the development of a mechanism that provides appropriate assistance is required in the future.

  1. Effect of Ankle-foot Orthosis on Lower Limb Muscle Activities and Static Balance of Stroke Patients Authors’ Names

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Youngmin; Her, Jin Gang; Choi, Youngeun; Kim, Heesoo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of an ankle-foot orthosis worn during balance training on lower limb muscle activity and static balance of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were twenty-five inpatients receiving physical therapy for chronic stroke. [Methods] The chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: thirteen patients were assigned to the ankle-foot orthosis group, while the remaining twelve patients wore only their shoes. Each group performed balance tr...

  2. Assessment of the Sheffield Support Snood, an innovative cervical orthosis designed for people affected by neck muscle weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Pancani, Silvia; Rowson, Jennifer; Tindale, Wendy; Heron, Nicola; Langley, Joe; McCarthy, Avril D.; Quinn, Ann; Reed, Heath; Stanton, Andrew; Shaw, Pamela J.; McDermott, Christopher J.; Mazzà, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the biomechanical features of the Sheffield Support Snood (SSS), a cervical orthosis specifically designed for patients with neck weakness. The orthosis is designed to be adaptable to a patient’s level of functional limitation using adjustable removable supports, which contribute support and restrict movement only in desired anatomical planes. \\ud Methods: The SSS was evaluated along with two commercially available orthoses, the Vista and Headmaster. The ...

  3. Role of three side support ankle–foot orthosis in improving the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous group of permanent, non-progressive motor disorders of movement and posture. Ankle–foot orthoses (AFOs) are frequently prescribed to correct skeletal misalignments in spastic CP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the three side support ankle–foot orthosis on ...

  4. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baronio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  5. One- or Two-Legged Standing: What Is the More Suitable Protocol to Assess the Postural Effects of the Rigid Ankle Orthosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Patrice; Genthon, Nicolas; Gallois-Montbrun, Thibault; Brugiere, Steve; Bouvat, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To highlight the capacity of one- and two-legged standing protocols when assessing postural behavior induced by a rigid ankle orthosis, 14 healthy individuals stood upright barefoot and wore either an elastic stocking on the preferred leg or a rigid orthosis with or without additional taping in one- or two-legged (TL) conditions. Traditional…

  6. Effect of medial arch support foot orthosis on plantar pressure distribution in females with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus after one month of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadi, Maede; Safaeepour, Zahra; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Saeedi, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Higher plantar pressures at the medial forefoot are reported in hallux valgus. Foot orthoses with medial arch support are considered as an intervention in this pathology. However, little is known about the effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution in hallux valgus. To investigate the effect of a foot orthosis with medial arch support on pressure distribution in females with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus. Quasi-experimental. Sixteen female volunteers with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus participated in this study and used a medial arch support foot orthosis for 4 weeks. Plantar pressure for each participant was assessed using the Pedar-X(®) in-shoe system in four conditions including shoe-only and foot orthosis before and after the intervention. The use of the foot orthosis for 1 month led to a decrease in peak pressure and maximum force under the hallux, first metatarsal, and metatarsals 3-5 (p hallux and the first metatarsal head by transferring the load to the other regions. It would appear that this type of foot orthosis can be an effective method of intervention in this pathology. Findings of this study will improve the clinical knowledge about the effect of the medial arch support foot orthosis used on plantar pressure distribution in hallux valgus pathology. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  7. Case report on the use of a functional electrical orthosis in rehabilitation of upper limb function in a chronic stroke patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Moghioroiu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The increasing incidence of strokes and their occurrence in younger active people require the development of solutions that allow participation, despite the debilitating deficit that is not always solved by rehabilitation. The present report shows such a potential solution. Objective. In this presentation we will show the effects of using a functional electric orthosis, the high number of repetitions and daily electrostimulation in a young stroke patient with motor deficit in the upper limb, the difficulties encountered in attempting to use orthosis, the results and the course of its recovery over the years. Materials and Methods. The present report shows the evolution of a 31-year-old female patient with hemiplegia, resulting from a hemorrhagic stroke, from the moment of surgery to the moment of purchasing a functional electrical orthosis and a few months later, highlighting a 3-week period when the training method focused on performing a large number of repetitions of a single exercise helped by the orthosis – 3 weekly physical therapy sessions, with a duration of one hour and 15 minutes, plus 2 electrostimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each and 100 elbow extension, daily, 6 times a week. The patient was evaluated and filmed at the beginning and end of the 3 week period. The patient's consent was obtained for the use of the data and images presented. Results. Invalidating motor deficiency and problems specific to the use of upper limb functional electrostimulation in patients with stroke sequelae (flexion synergy, exaggeration of reflex response, wrist position during stimulation, etc. made it impossible to use orthosis in functional activities within ADL although it allowed the achievement of a single task. Evaluation on the FuglMayer assessment does not show any quantifiable progress, although it is possible to have slightly improved the control of the shoulder and elbow and increased the speed of task execution

  8. Gait comparison of subjects with hemiplegia walking unbraced, with ankle-foot orthosis, and with Air-Stirrup brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, R G; Borello-France, D; Blatchly, C; Potter, C

    1988-08-01

    The effects of the Air-Stirrup (AS) standard ankle brace on the gait of 19 subjects with hemiplegia resulting from a cerebrovascular accident who exhibited excessive subtalar joint motion were studied. Videotaped trials and footprint analyses were used to measure subjects' hip, knee, and ankle sagittal plane angles; inversion and eversion of the calcaneus; and time-distance gait characteristics. A one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare the gait of 19 subjects with the AS brace and unbraced and 11 subjects with the AS brace, unbraced, and with an ankle-foot orthosis. The AS brace was associated with more calcaneal stability during standing than the unbraced condition. The ankle-foot orthosis was associated with less plantar flexion at foot-strike than either the AS brace or unbraced condition. Both the AS brace and the ankle-foot orthosis were associated with less mid-swing plantar flexion and increased step length on the paretic side compared with no brace. These results support the effectiveness of the AS brace in controlling inversion and eversion instability in patients with hemiplegia.

  9. On the road to a neuroprosthetic hand: a novel hand grasp orthosis based on functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Robert; Gubler, Miguel; Tavella, Michele; Miller, Heather; Del Millan, Jose R

    2010-01-01

    To patients who have lost the functionality of their hands as a result of a severe spinal cord injury or brain stroke, the development of new techniques for grasping is indispensable for reintegration and independency in daily life. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of residual muscles can reproduce the most dominant grasping tasks and can be initialized by brain signals. However, due to the very complex hand anatomy and current limitations in FES-technology with surface electrodes, these grasp patterns cannot be smoothly executed. In this paper, we present an adaptable passive hand orthosis which is capable of producing natural and smooth movements when coupled with FES. It evenly synchronizes the grasping movements and applied forces on all fingers, allowing for naturalistic gestures and functional grasps of everyday objects. The orthosis is also equipped with a lock, which allows it to remain in the desired position without the need for long-term stimulation. Furthermore, we quantify improvements offered by the orthosis compare them with natural grasps on healthy subjects.

  10. Design and Evaluation of a New Type of Knee Orthosis to Align the Mediolateral Angle of the Knee Joint with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esrafilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is a disease which influences the performance of the knee joint. Moreover, the force and moments applied on the joint increase in contrast to normal subjects. Various types of knee orthoses have been designed to solve the mentioned problems. However, there are other problems in terms of distal migration during walking and the alignment of the orthosis which cannot be changed following the use of brace. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to design an orthosis to solve the aforementioned problems. Method. A new type of knee orthosis was designed with a modular structure. Two patients with knee OA participated in this research project. The force applied on the foot, moment transmitted through the knee joint, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured by use of a motion analysis system. Results. The results of the research showed that the adduction moment applied on the knee joint decreased while subjects walked with the new knee orthosis (P-value < 0.05. Conclusion. The new design of the knee brace can be used as an effective treatment to decrease the loads applied on the knee joint and to improve the alignment whilst walking.

  11. Mina: A Sensorimotor Robotic Orthosis for Mobility Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While most mobility options for persons with paraplegia or paraparesis employ wheeled solutions, significant adverse health, psychological, and social consequences result from wheelchair confinement. Modern robotic exoskeleton devices for gait assistance and rehabilitation, however, can support legged locomotion systems for those with lower extremity weakness or paralysis. The Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC has developed the Mina, a prototype sensorimotor robotic orthosis for mobility assistance that provides mobility capability for paraplegic and paraparetic users. This paper describes the initial concept, design goals, and methods of this wearable overground robotic mobility device, which uses compliant actuation to power the hip and knee joints. Paralyzed users can balance and walk using the device over level terrain with the assistance of forearm crutches employing a quadrupedal gait. We have initiated sensory substitution feedback mechanisms to augment user sensory perception of his or her lower extremities. Using this sensory feedback, we hypothesize that users will ambulate with a more natural, upright gait and will be able to directly control the gait parameters and respond to perturbations. This may allow bipedal (with minimal support gait in future prototypes.

  12. The influence of ankle joint mobility when using an orthosis on stability in patients with spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, M; Bani, M A; Hutchins, S W; Curran, S; Javanshir, M A

    2013-10-01

    Perceived risk of falling is an important factor for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated the influence of ankle joint motion on postural stability and walking in people with SCI when using an orthosis. Volunteer subjects with SCI (n=5) participated in this study. Each subject was fitted with an advanced reciprocating gait orthosis (ARGO) equipped with either solid or dorsiflexion-assist type ankle-foot orthosis (AFOs) and walked at their self-selected speed along a flat walkway to enable the comparison of walking speed, cadence and endurance. A force plate system and a modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) were utilized to measure postural sway and the perceived fear of falling, respectively. There were significant differences in the mean MFES scores between two types of orthosis (P=0.023). When using two crutches, there was no significant difference in static standing postural sway in the medio-lateral (M/L) direction (P=0.799), but significant difference in the antero-posterior (A/P) direction (P=0.014). However, during single crutch support, there was a significant difference in both M/L (P=0.019) and A/P (P=0.022) directions. Walking speed (7%) and endurance (5%) significantly increased when using the ARGO with dorsi flexion assisted AFOs. There was no significant deference between two types of orthoses in cadence (P=0.54). Using an ARGO with dorsiflexion-assisted AFOs increased the fear of falling, but improved static postural stability and increased walking speed and endurance, and should therefore be considered as an effective orthosis during the rehabilitation of people with SCI.

  13. Effect of pneumatic compressing powered orthosis in stroke patients: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Yoon, Yong-Soon; Sohn, Min Kyun; Kwak, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Jong Ho; Oh, Ji Sun

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles (PKAFO). Twenty-three hemiplegic patients (age, 59.6±13.7 years) were assessed 19.7±36.6 months after brain lesion. The 10-m walking time was measured as a gait parameter while the individual walked on a treadmill. Walking speed (m/s), step cycle (cycle/s), and step length (m) were also measured on a treadmill with and without PKAFO, and before and after gait training. Clinical parameters measured before and after gait training included Korean version of Modified Bathel Index (K-MBI), manual muscle test (MMT), and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) of hemiplegic ankle. Gait training comprised treadmill walking for 20 minutes, 5 days a week for 3 weeks at a comfortable speed. The 10-m walking time, walking speed, step length, and step cycle were significantly greater with PKAFO than without PKAFO, and after gait training (both p<0.05). K-MBI was improved after gait training (p<0.05), but MMT and MAS were not. PKAFO may improve gait function in hemiplegic patients. It can be a useful orthosis for gait training in hemiplegic patients.

  14. [Influence of spinal orthosis on gait and physical functioning in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Hübscher, M; Vogt, L; Klinkmüller, U; Hildebrandt, H D; Fink, M; Banzer, W

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread chronic bone disease leading to an increased risk of bone fractures. The most common clinical consequences are back pain, hyperkyphosis, limitations of physical functioning and activities of daily living as well as reduced quality of life. Furthermore, osteoporosis is associated with decreased strength and deficits of gait and balance, all together resulting in an increased risk of falls and a subsequent aggravation of fracture risk. Besides pharmaceutical and exercise therapy, back orthoses are increasingly being used in the therapy of osteoporosis and rehabilitation after vertebral fractures. Previous studies have shown that wearing a spinal orthosis results in a reduction of pain as well as improvements of posture and back extensor strength. To date there is no study that has evaluated the effects of a spinal orthosis on gait stability and physical functioning in patients with osteoporosis. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a spinal orthosis on gait and pain-induced limitations of activities of daily living (ADL) in women with osteoporosis. A total of 69 postmenopausal osteoporotic women with and without vertebral fractures were randomly assigned to receive either a spinal orthosis (Thämert Osteo-med intervention group n=35; average age 74 ± 8.3 years, height 158.3 ± 6.3 cm, weight 62.8 ± 9.6 kg, t-score -2.6  ± 1.0, number of vertebral fractures 1.4 ± 2.0) or to a waiting list control group (n= 34, age 74.1 ± 7.7 years, height 159.6 ± 5.9 cm, weight 65.4 ± 11.3 kg, t-score -2.9± 0.8, number of vertebral fractures: 0.9 ± 1.2). The following outcome measures were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months follow-up: gait parameters including gait analysis: velocity, stride length and width, double support time (% of gait cycle) and perceived limitations in activities of daily living (numeric rating scale 1-10; 1=best, 10= worst situation). The ANCOVA indicated a

  15. Characteristics of the muscle activities of the elderly for various pressures in the pneumatic actuator of lower limb orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong; Yu, Chang-Ho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Hong, Chul-Un; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2005-12-01

    There developed a lower limb orthosis with a pneumatic rubber actuator, which can assist and improve the muscular activities in the lower limb of the elderly. For this purpose, the characteristics of the lower limbs muscle activities for various pressures in the pneumatic actuator for the lower limb orthosis was investigated. To find out the characteristics of the muscle activities for various pneumatic pressures, it analyzed the flexing and extending movement of the knees, and measured the lower limbs muscular power. The subjects wearing the lower limbs orthosis were instructed to perform flexing and extending movement of the knees. The variation in the air pressure of the pneumatic actuator was varies from one kgf/cm2 to four kgf/cm2. The muscular power was measured by monitoring electromyogram using MP100 (BIOPAC Systems, Inc.) and detailed three-dimensional motions of the lower limbs were collected by APAS 3D Motion Analysis system. Through this study, it expected to find the most suitable air pressure for the improvement of the muscular power of the aged.

  16. Guillain-Barre Syndrome – rehabilitation outcome, residual deficits and requirement of lower limb orthosis for locomotion at 1 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B; Srivastava, Abhishek; Murali, Thyloth

    2010-01-01

    To analyse long-term functional recovery, deficits and requirement of lower limb orthosis (LLO) for locomotion in patients with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Neurological Rehabilitation unit of university hospital. Sixty-nine patients of GBS admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Thirty-five patients (M:F, 19:16) reporting after 1 year follow-up (50.72%) were included in study (between September 2005 and July 2009). Their residual deficits and requirement of LLO were recorded and analysed. Age ranged from 4 to 65 year (29.74 ± 15.75). Twenty-seven patients had typical GBS and eight patients had acute motor axonal neuropathy variant. Twenty-eight patients (80%) had neuropathic pain needing medication with 11 required more than one drug. Twenty-one patients (60%) had foot drop and advised ankle-foot orthosis-AFO (20 bilateral AFO). Thirty patients (85.71%) needed assistive devices also for locomotion at discharge. After 1 year, foot drop was still present in 12 patients (34.28%) using orthosis. Modified Barthel Index scores, Modified Rankin Scale and Hughes Disability Scale were used to assess functional disabilities. Significant recovery was observed at the time of discharge and after 1 year (p < 0.001 each). Patients with GBS continue to show significant functional recovery for long period. They have residual deficits even after 1 year with requirement of orthosis in large number of patients.

  17. Defining the mechanical properties of a spring-hinged ankle foot orthosis to assess its potential use in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkum, Yvette L; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap

    2014-12-01

    A rigid ventral shelf ankle foot orthosis (AFO) may improve gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) whose gait is characterized by excessive knee flexion in stance. However, these AFOs can also impede ankle range of motion (ROM) and thereby inhibit push-off power. A more spring-like AFO can enhance push-off and may potentially reduce walking energy cost. The recent development of an adjustable spring-hinged AFO now allows adjustment of AFO stiffness, enabling tuning toward optimal gait performance. This study aims to quantify the mechanical properties of this spring-hinged AFO for each of its springs and settings. Using an AFO stiffness tester, two AFO hinges and their accompanying springs were measured. The springs showed a stiffness range of 0.01-1.82 N · m · deg(-1). The moment-threshold increased with increasing stiffness (1.13-12.1 N · m), while ROM decreased (4.91-16.5°). Energy was returned by all springs (11.5-116.3 J). These results suggest that the two stiffest available springs should improve joint kinematics and enhance push-off in children with SCP walking with excessive knee flexion.

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND OUT IMMEDIATE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOVEMENT WITH MOBILIZATION VERSUS ELBOW ORTHOSIS ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH IN LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS IN HOUSEWIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Kakati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various studies using Mulligan’s MWM with or without combining with electrotherapy modalities and proved the efficacy of the technique in immediately decreasing pain and improving grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Orthotic as a treatment is also proved to be beneficial in decreasing pain and improving grip strength. There is evidence that housewives are prone to develop lateral epicondylitis due to their routine household work. But there is lack of evidence which compare initial effects of MWM and orthosis in housewives bringing up better outcome measures. The purpose of this study is to compare the initial effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis on pain and grip strength in housewives with lateral epicondylitis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM technique versus counterforce elbow orthosis in immediately reducing pain and improving grip strength in lateral epicondylitis in housewives. Methodos: All subjects underwent a pre-treatment examination to assess pain and pain free hand grip strength with the help of outcome measures. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, A and B respectively; having 25 subjects in each group. Group A was treated with one session of Mulligan’s MWM technique. Group B was treated with Counterforce elbow strap orthosis. Data was assessed pre-treatment and immediately after treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hand grip on Hand Grip Dynamometer (HGD were used as outcome measures. Results: Independent t-test was performed to see the effectiveness between Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis. For VAS, t = - 2.243 which is significant at 5% level of significance. It has been inferred that VAS decreases more when Mulligan’s MWM was applied. For HGD, t = 0.878 which is not significant implying that increase in HGD do not differ remarkably for the two treatments. Conclusion: It has been recorded from the study that

  19. A new approach to implement a customized anatomic insole in orthopaedic footwear of lower limb orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, J.; Flores, P.; Souto, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper concerns the development of a new approach for orthopaedic footwear to apply in KAFO orthosis (acronym for Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis). This procedure starts with full characterization of the problem with the purpose to characterize a plantar of a patient’s foot with polio. A 3D Scanner was used to collect their feet’s data to produce an anatomic insole. After this step, the patient performs a study of his gait using a static and dynamic study with the aim of characterizing the parameters to improve quality in the footwear. The insole was produced using a 3D printing technology. It was essential to optimize manufacturing processes and it was developed a footwear prototype with innovative characteristics, which is 25% lighter, allowing the user to consume less energy in daily routines.

  20. Effectiveness of an Articulated Knee Hyperextension Orthosis in Genu Recurvatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul ASRM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genu Recurvatum is a deformity of knee joint that tends to push it backwards by excessive extension in tibio-femoral joints. This poses a significant challenge because of technical difficulties and a high incidence of recurrence. This report describes a 63 years old male diagnosed as post-polio residual paralysis who showed excessive genu recurvatum of his left knee during long standing and walking. An Articulated Knee Hyperextension Orthosis (KAFO was tried to check its effectiveness in terms of gait and energy expenditure.

  1. Clinical practice guidelines for rest orthosis, knee sleeves, and unloading knee braces in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreuil, Johann; Bendaya, Samy; Faucher, Marc; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Ribinik, Patricia; Revel, Michel; Rannou, François

    2009-12-01

    To develop clinical practice guidelines concerning the use of bracing--rest orthosis, knee sleeves and unloading knee braces--for knee osteoarthritis. The French Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Society (SOFMER) methodology, associating a systematic literature review, collection of everyday clinical practice, and external review by multidisciplinary expert panel, was used. Few high-level studies of bracing for knee osteoarthritis were found. No evidence exists for the effectiveness of rest orthosis. Evidence for knee sleeves suggests that they decrease pain in knee osteoarthritis, and their use is associated with subjective improvement. These actions do not appear to depend on a local thermal effect. The effectiveness of knee sleeves for disability is not demonstrated for knee osteoarthritis. Short- and mid-term follow-up indicates that valgus knee bracing decreases pain and disability in medial knee osteoarthritis, appears to be more effective than knee sleeves, and improves quality of life, knee proprioception, quadriceps strength, and gait symmetry, and decreases compressive loads in the medial femoro-tibial compartment. However, results of response to valgus knee bracing remain inconsistent; discomfort and side effects can result. Thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs has been reported with the braces. Braces, whatever kind, are infrequently prescribed in clinical practice for osteoarthritis of the lower limbs. Modest evidence exists for the effectiveness of bracing--rest orthosis, knee sleeves and unloading knee braces--for knee osteoarthritis, with only low level recommendations for its use. Braces are prescribed infrequently in French clinical practice for osteoarthritis of the knee. Randomized clinical trials concerning bracing in knee osteoarthritis are still necessary.

  2. Development of Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO Using Pneumatic Artificial Muscle for Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak N.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankle foot orthosis (AFO are commonly used to correct the instabilities and joint weakness of lower limb. In this research, AFO was developed by using pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM to prevent plantarflexion to occur and also to correct the foot from the inversion syndrome. The research started with designing the AFO by using SolidWorks software based on anthropometry measurement data (n=5, age=12 years old. The mechanical simulation was conducted by using Autodesk Inventor software to obtain a safety factor before the fabrication process was conducted. The AFO was fabricated using 3D printer and the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE rubber was selected as the material. PAM was tested by using test bed machine to generate the force and contraction by muscle. The result shows that the PAM was suitable for low speed as the displacement was greater. The AFO could be valuable for the gait rehabilitation.

  3. Early functional postoperative therapy of distal radius fracture with a dynamic orthosis: results of a prospective randomized cross-over comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Stuby

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12.Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006097.

  4. Noise measurements during high-frequency oscillatory and conventional mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, R J; Weigle, C G

    1995-10-01

    To evaluate the noise levels with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation. An observational, prospective study. Pediatric intensive care unit. The caretakers and environment of the pediatric intensive care unit. High-frequency oscillatory and conventional mechanical ventilation. Caretakers evaluated noise using a visual analog scale. Noise was measured with a decibel meter and an octave band frequency filter. There was twice as much noise perceived by the caretakers and as measured on the decibel A scale. All measures showed significantly greater noise, especially at low frequencies, with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation exposes the patient to twice as much noise as does the use of conventional mechanical ventilation.

  5. Technical report on micro-mechanical versus conventional modelling in non-linear fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    While conventional fracture mechanics is capable of predicting crack growth behaviour if sufficient experimental observations are available, micro-mechanical modelling can both increase the accuracy of these predictions and model phenomena that are inaccessible by the conventional theory such as the ductile-cleavage temperature transition. A common argument against micro-mechanical modelling is that it is too complicated for use in routine engineering applications. This is both a computational and an educational problem. That micro-mechanical modelling is unnecessarily complicated is certainly true in many situations. The on-going development of micro-mechanical models, computational algorithms and computer speed will however most probably diminish the computational problem rather rapidly. Compare for instance the rate of development of computational methods for structural analysis. Meanwhile micro-mechanical modelling may serve as a tool by which more simplified engineering methods can be validated. The process of receiving a wide acceptance of the new methods is probably much slower. This involves many steps. First the research community must be in reasonable agreement on the methods and their use. Then the methods have to be implemented into computer software and into code procedures. The development and acceptance of conventional fracture mechanics may serve as an historical example of the time required before a new methodology has received a wide usage. The CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing (IAGE) decided to carry out a report on micro-mechanical modeling to promote this promising and valuable technique. The report presents a comparison with non-linear fracture mechanics and highlights key aspects that could lead to a better knowledge and accurate predictions. Content: - 1. Introduction; - 2. Concepts of non-linear fracture mechanics with point crack tip modelling; - 3. Micro-mechanical models for cleavage fracture; - 4, Micro-mechanical modelling of

  6. Effects on foot external rotation of the modified ankle-foot orthosis on post-stroke hemiparetic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Hong Min; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of heel-opened ankle foot orthosis (HOAFO) on hemiparetic gait after stroke, especially on external foot rotation, and to compare the effects of HOAFO with conventional plastic-AFO (pAFO) and barefoot during gait. This cross-over observational study involved 15 hemiparetic patients with external rotation of the affected foot. All subjects were able to walk independently, regardless of their usual use of a single cane, and had a less than fair-grade in ankle dorsiflexion power. Each patient was asked to walk in three conditions with randomized sequences: 1) barefoot, 2) with a pAFO, and 3) with an HOAFO. Their gait patterns were analyzed using a motion analysis system. Fifteen patients consisted of nine males and six females. On gait analysis, hip and foot external rotation were significantly greater in pAFO (-3.35° and -23.68°) than in barefoot and HOAFO conditions (pexternal rotation compared with pAFO; although there was no significant difference between HOAFO and barefoot walking. Walking speed and percentage of single limb support were significantly greater for HOAFO than in barefoot walking. HOAFO was superior to pAFO in reducing hip and foot external rotation during the stance phase in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. HOAFO may, therefore, be useful in patients with excessive external rotation of the foot during conventional pAFO.

  7. Comparison of custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints and off-the-shelf ankle braces in preventing ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winson C C; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Choy, Barton T S; Leung, Aaron K L

    2012-06-01

    A custom moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints potentially offers a better control over the subtalar joint and the ankle joint during lateral cutting movements, due to total contact design and increase in material strength. To test the above hypothesis by comparing it to three other available orthoses. Repeated measures. Eight subjects with a history of ankle sprains (Grade 2), and 11 subjects without such history performed lateral cutting movements in four test conditions: 1) non-orthotic, 2) custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges, 3) Sport-Stirrup, and 4) elastic ankle sleeve with plastic support. A VICON motion analysis system was used to study the motions at the ankle and subtalar joints. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis significantly lowered the inversion angle at initial contact (p = 0.006) and the peak inversion angle (p = 0.000) during lateral cutting movements in comparison to non-orthotic condition, while the other two orthoses did not. The three orthoses did not affect the plantarflexion motions, which had been suggested by previous studies to be important in shock wave attenuation. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges could better control inversion and thus expected to better prevent ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. Custom-moulded ankle orthoses are not commonly used in preventing ankle sprains. This study raises the awareness of the use of custom-moulded ankle orthoses which are expected to better prevent ankle sprains.

  8. Design and analysis of an original powered foot clearance creator mechanism for walking in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Maryam; Badri, Samaneh; Shayestehepour, Hamed; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Farahmand, Farzam; Mousavi, Mohamad Ebrahim; Abdolahi, Ehsan; Farkhondeh, Hasan; Head, John S; Golchin, Navid; Mardani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of an original powered foot clearance creator (PFCC) mechanism worn in conjunction with an isocentric reciprocal gait orthosis (IRGO) and evaluate its effect on trunk compensatory movements and spatiotemporal parameters in nine healthy subjects. A PFCC motorized mechanism was designed that incorporated twin sole plates, the movements of which enabled increased toe to floor clearance during swing phase. A prototype was constructed in combination with an IRGO, and hence was re-named as an IRGO-PFCC orthosis. The effects of IRGO-PFCC usage on the spatiotemporal parameters and trunk compensatory movements during walking were then analyzed under two conditions, firstly with the PFCC 'active' i.e., with the motorized device functioning, and secondly inactive, where floor clearance was standard. Ambulating with IRGO-PFCC orthosis resulted in reduction in the spatiotemporal parameters of gait (speed of walking, cadence and stride length) in nine healthy subjects. Walking with IRGO-PFCC orthosis led to significant differences in lateral (p = .007) and vertical (p = .008) trunk compensatory movements. In other words, through using IRGO-PFCC orthosis, the lateral and vertical trunk compensatory movements decreased by 51.32% and 42.7%, respectively. An adapted PFCC mechanism, with a relatively small motor and power supply could effectively increase toe to floor clearance during swing phase and thereby decrease trunk compensatory motions and potentially improve energy consumption. Implications for rehabilitations •The High rejection rates of reciprocal gait orthoses are related to the increasing in energy expenditure and burden loads on the upper limb joints during walking following trunk compensatory movements.•An original powered foot clearance creator mechanism was designed and constructed to assisting floor clearance capability and reduce trunk compensatory movements in subjects with spinal cord injury during

  9. Pneumatic Muscles Actuated Lower-Limb Orthosis Model Verification with Actual Human Muscle Activation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzahir M.A.M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review study was conducted on existing lower-limb orthosis systems for rehabilitation which implemented pneumatic muscle type of actuators with the aim to clarify the current and on-going research in this field. The implementation of pneumatic artificial muscle will play an important role for the development of the advanced robotic system. In this research a derivation model for the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles using pneumatic artificial muscles of a lower limb orthosis will be verified with actual human’s muscle activities models. A healthy and young male 29 years old subject with height 174cm and weight 68kg was used as a test subject. Two mono-articular muscles Vastus Medialis (VM and Vastus Lateralis (VL were selected to verify the mono-articular muscle models and muscle synergy between anterior muscles. Two biarticular muscles Rectus Femoris (RF and Bicep Femoris (BF were selected to verify the bi-articular muscle models and muscle co-contraction between anterior-posterior muscles. The test was carried out on a treadmill with a speed of 4.0 km/h, which approximately around 1.25 m/s for completing one cycle of walking motion. The data was collected for about one minute on a treadmill and 20 complete cycles of walking motion were successfully recorded. For the evaluations, the mathematical model obtained from the derivation and the actual human muscle activation patterns obtained using the surface electromyography (sEMG system were compared and analysed. The results shown that, high correlation values ranging from 0.83 up to 0.93 were obtained in between the derivation model and the actual human muscle’s model for both mono- and biarticular muscles. As a conclusion, based on the verification with the sEMG muscle activities data and its correlation values, the proposed derivation models of the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles were suitable to simulate and controls the pneumatic muscles actuated lower limb

  10. The effectiveness of combined prescription of ankle–foot orthosis and stretching program for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab A.E. Sallam

    2016-01-01

    Combined prescription of night-stretch ankle–foot orthosis and stretching exercises for plantar flexors and fascia had greater therapeutic effects compared with each treatment alone. Stretching exercises alone are not beneficial in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.

  11. The smart Peano fluidic muscle: a low profile flexible orthosis actuator that feels pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Allan J.; Anderson, Iain A.; Xie, Shane Q.

    2015-03-01

    Robotic orthoses have the potential to provide effective rehabilitation while overcoming the availability and cost constraints of therapists. These orthoses must be characterized by the naturally safe, reliable, and controlled motion of a human therapist's muscles. Such characteristics are only possible in the natural kingdom through the pain sensing realized by the interaction of an intelligent nervous system and muscles' embedded sensing organs. McKibben fluidic muscles or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) are a popular orthosis actuator because of their inherent compliance, high force, and muscle-like load-displacement characteristics. However, the circular cross-section of PMA increases their profile. PMA are also notoriously unreliable and difficult to control, lacking the intelligent pain sensing systems of their biological muscle counterparts. Here the Peano fluidic muscle, a new low profile yet high-force soft actuator is introduced. This muscle is smart, featuring bioinspired embedded pressure and soft capacitive strain sensors. Given this pressure and strain feedback, experimental validation shows that a lumped parameter model based on the muscle geometry and material parameters can be used to predict its force for quasistatic motion with an average error of 10 - 15N. Combining this with a force threshold pain sensing algorithm sets a precedent for flexible orthosis actuation that uses embedded sensors to prevent damage to the actuator and its environment.

  12. Evaluation of the magnitude of hip joint deformation in subjects with avascular necrosis of the hip joint during walking with and without Scottish Rite orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; McGarry, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    The femoral head in subjects with leg calve perthes disease (LCPD) is generally considerably deformed. It is debatable whether this deformation is due to an increase in applied loads, a decrease in bone mineral density or a change in containment of articular surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of these factors on deformation of the femoral head. Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study. Subject motion and the forces applied on the affected leg were recorded using a motion analysis system (Qualsis TM ) and a Kistler force plate. OpenSim software was used to determine joint contact force of the hip joint whilst walking with and without a Scottish Rite orthosis. 3D Models of hip joints of both subjects were produced by Mimics software. The deformation of femoral bone was determined by Abaqus. Mean values of the force applied on the leg increased while walking with the orthosis. There was no difference between bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral bone of normal and LCPD sides (p-value>0.05) and no difference between hip joint contact force of normal and LCPD sides. Hip joint containment appeared to decrease follow the use of the orthosis. It can be concluded that the deformation of femoral head in LCPD may not be due to change in BMD or applied load. Although the Scottish Rite orthosis is used mostly to increase hip joint containment, it appears to reduce hip joint contact area. It is recommended that a similar study is conducted using a higher number of subjects. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and simulation of a passive upper extremity orthosis for amyoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Føge; Raunsbæk, Joakim; Lund, Jan Nørgaard

    2018-01-01

    Introduction People who are born with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita are typically not able to perform activities of daily living (ADL) due to decreased muscle mass, joint contractures and unnatural upper extremity positioning. They are, therefore, potential users of an assistive device capable....... Results For a given configuration using a mono- and a bi-articular spring, the simulations showed that spring stiffnesses of 400?Nm?1 and of 1029?Nm?1, respectively, were able to lower the maximal muscle activity estimated by the musculoskeletal model to a level in which the 10 postures can be realized....... Conclusion By augmenting residual muscle strength with a partially gravity-balanced passive orthosis, ADLs may be achievable for people with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita....

  14. Recent Trends in Lower-Limb Robotic Rehabilitation Orthosis: Control Scheme and Strategy for Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Gait Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a general assumption that pneumatic muscle-type actuators will play an important role in the development of an assistive rehabilitation robotics system. In the last decade, the development of a pneumatic muscle actuated lower-limb leg orthosis has been rather slow compared to other types of actuated leg orthoses that use AC motors, DC motors, pneumatic cylinders, linear actuators, series elastic actuators (SEA and brushless servomotors. However, recent years have shown that the interest in this field has grown exponentially, mainly due to the demand for a more compliant and interactive human-robotics system. This paper presents a survey of existing lower-limb leg orthoses for rehabilitation, which implement pneumatic muscle-type actuators, such as McKibben artificial muscles, rubbertuators, air muscles, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMA. It reviews all the currently existing lower-limb rehabilitation orthosis systems in terms of comparison and evaluation of the design, as well as the control scheme and strategy, with the aim of clarifying the current and on-going research in the lower-limb robotic rehabilitation field.

  15. Orthodontic intrusion : Conventional and mini-implant assisted intrusion mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Belludi

    2012-01-01

    intrusion has revolutionized orthodontic anchorage and biomechanics by making anchorage perfectly stable. This article addresses various conventional clinical intrusion mechanics and especially intrusion using mini-implants that have proven effective over the years for intrusion of maxillary anteriors.

  16. Polymer optical fiber strain gauge for human-robot interaction forces assessment on an active knee orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; Marques, Carlos; Sánchez, Manuel R. A.; Botelho, Thomaz R.; Segatto, Marcelo V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of a polymer optical fiber (POF) strain gauge based on the light coupling principle, which the power attenuation is created by the misalignment between two POFs. The misalignment, in this case, is proportional to the strain on the structure that the fibers are attached. This principle has the advantages of low cost, ease of implementation, temperature insensitiveness, electromagnetic fields immunity and simplicity on the sensor interrogation and signal processing. Such advantages make the proposed solution an interesting alternative to the electronic strain gauges. For this reason, an analytical model for the POF strain gauge is proposed and validated. Furthermore, the proposed POF sensor is applied on an active orthosis for knee rehabilitation exercises through flexion/extension cycles. The controller of the orthosis provides 10 different levels of robotic assistance on the flexion/extension movement. The POF strain gauge is tested at each one of these levels. Results show good correlation between the optical and electronic strain gauges with root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of 1.87 Nm when all cycles are analyzed, which represents a deviation of less than 8%. For the application, the proposed sensor presented higher stability than the electronic one, which can provide advantages on the rehabilitation exercises and on the inner controller of the device.

  17. Effect of Posture Training with Weighted Kypho-Orthosis (WKO) on Improving Balance in Women with Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Pournajaf, Safura; Vahab Kashani, Reza; Sadeghi, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the effect of weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO) on improving balance in women with osteoporosis. In this nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, 31 patients with osteoporosis were included. The patients were assigned to two groups: (1) control group who received 4-week home-based daily exercise program including weight bearing, back strengthening, and balance exercises and (2) intervention group (WKO) who performed aforementioned exercises and wore WKO for one hour twice...

  18. Powered Upper Limb Orthosis Actuation System Based on Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarov, Dimitar; Veneva, Ivanka; Tsveov, Mihail; Venev, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    The actuation system of a powered upper limb orthosis is studied in the work. To create natural safety in the mutual "man-robot" interaction, an actuation system based on pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) is selected. Experimentally obtained force/contraction diagrams for bundles, consisting of different number of muscles are shown in the paper. The pooling force and the stiffness of the pneumatic actuators is assessed as a function of the number of muscles in the bundle and the supply pressure. Joint motion and torque is achieved by antagonistic actions through pulleys, driven by bundles of pneumatic muscles. Joint stiffness and joint torques are determined on condition of a power balance, as a function of the joint position, pressure, number of muscles and muscles

  19. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting of...

  20. Development of body weight support gait training system using pneumatic Mckibben actuators -control of lower extremity orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Dzahir, M A; Nobutomo, T; Yamamoto, S I

    2013-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, the control system of lower extremity orthosis for the body weight support gait training system which implements pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) is proposed. The hip and knee joint angles of the gait orthosis system are controlled based on the PAM coordinates information from the simulation. This information provides the contraction data for the mono- and bi-articular PAMs that are arranged as posterior and anterior actuators to simulate the human walking motion. The proposed control system estimates the actuators' contraction as a function of hip and knee joint angles. Based on the contraction model obtained, input pressures for each actuators are measured. The control system are performed at different gait cycles and two PMA settings for the mono- and bi-articular actuators are evaluated in this research. The results showed that the system was able to achieve the maximum muscle moment at the joints, and able to perform the heel contact movement. This explained that the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators worked effectively.

  1. A comparison study on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of gelcast vs conventionally formed B4C sintered conventionally and by microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menchhofer, P.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Morrow, M.S.; Schechter, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The utilization of microwave energy for reaching high temperatures necessary to densify B 4 C powder is compared with conventional means of sintering by evaluating the mechanical properties after densification. Microwave energy has been shown to be an effective means for achieving high sintered densities, even though temperatures of ∼ 2,250 C are required. In this study, green preforms of B 4 C specimens were sintered by both conventional and microwave heating. This study also utilized an advanced forming method called ''Gelcasting'' developed at ORNL. Gelcasting is a fluid forming process whereby high solids suspensions of powders containing dissolved monomers are cast into a mold, then polymerized or ''gelled'' in situ. This investigation compares microstructures and mechanical properties of both Gelcast B 4 C and ''conventionally'' die-pressed B 4 C. The microstructures and final mechanical properties of B 4 C specimens are discussed

  2. Gauge transformations and quantum mechanics. III. The conventional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.H.

    1976-08-01

    The gauge problem of the conventional interpretation of quantum mechanics is examined carefully within the framework of treating electromagnetic fields as classical and external quantities. It is found that the conventional interpretation not only is gauge dependent but also does not allow the degree of freedom of choosing a gauge in the Schroedinger equation. The fundamental approach to the gauge problem adopted is Lamb's criterion which states that the ''interaction'' Hamiltonian in a gauge can represent the true physical interaction if and only if the theoretical probabilities constructed ''in the usual way'' in the same gauge are the physically true probabilities. Imposition of necessary conditions of an observable on the theoretically constructed probabilities leads to constraints on the gauge in the Schroedinger equation. In particular, consideration of causality excludes the complete α-Lorentz gauge (defined by nabla A + 1/α 2 c delta phi/delta t = 0) with α not equal to 1 and consideration of the conservation laws excludes the Lorentz gauge

  3. Ankle-foot orthosis bending axis influences running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Ranz, Ellyn C; Schmidtbauer, Kelly A; Neptune, Richard R; Wilken, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    Passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to improve locomotion for people with lower limb musculoskeletal weakness. The clinical prescription and design process are typically qualitative and based on observational assessment and experience. Prior work examining the effect of AFO design characteristics generally excludes higher impact activities such as running, providing clinicians and researchers limited information to guide the development of objective prescription guidelines. The proximal location of the bending axis may directly influence energy storage and return and resulting running mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine if the location of an AFO's bending axis influences running mechanics. Marker and force data were recorded as 12 participants with lower extremity weakness ran overground while wearing a passive-dynamic AFO with posterior struts manufactured with central (middle) and off-centered (high and low) bending axes. Lower extremity joint angles, moments, powers, and ground reaction forces were calculated and compared between limbs and across bending axis conditions. Bending axis produced relatively small but significant changes. Ankle range of motion increased as the bending axis shifted distally (pbenefits during running, although individual preference and physical ability should also be considered. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Motor Imagery-Based Brain-Computer Interface Coupled to a Robotic Hand Orthosis Aimed for Neurorehabilitation of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cantillo-Negrete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI have shown potential for the rehabilitation of stroke patients; however, low performance has restricted their application in clinical environments. Therefore, this work presents the implementation of a BCI system, coupled to a robotic hand orthosis and driven by hand motor imagery of healthy subjects and the paralysed hand of stroke patients. A novel processing stage was designed using a bank of temporal filters, the common spatial pattern algorithm for feature extraction and particle swarm optimisation for feature selection. Offline tests were performed for testing the proposed processing stage, and results were compared with those computed with common spatial patterns. Afterwards, online tests with healthy subjects were performed in which the orthosis was activated by the system. Stroke patients’ average performance was 74.1 ± 11%. For 4 out of 6 patients, the proposed method showed a statistically significant higher performance than the common spatial pattern method. Healthy subjects’ average offline and online performances were of 76.2 ± 7.6% and 70 ± 6.7, respectively. For 3 out of 8 healthy subjects, the proposed method showed a statistically significant higher performance than the common spatial pattern method. System’s performance showed that it has a potential to be used for hand rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  5. Development of an Active Ankle Foot Orthosis to Prevent Foot Drop and Toe Drag in Hemiplegic Patients: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyoon Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO that controls dorsiflexion/plantarflexion of the ankle joint to prevent foot drop and toe drag during hemiplegic walking. To prevent foot slap after initial contact, the ankle joint must remain active to minimize forefoot collision against the ground. During late stance, the ankle joint must also remain active to provide toe clearance and to aid with push-off. We implemented a series elastic actuator in our AAFO to induce ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The activator was controlled by signals from force sensing register (FSR sensors that detected gait events. Three dimensional gait analyses were performed for three hemiplegic patients under three different gait conditions: gait without AFO (NAFO, gait with a conventional hinged AFO that did not control the ankle joint (HAFO, and gait with the newly-developed AFO (AAFO. Our results demonstrate that our newly-developed AAFO not only prevents foot drop by inducing plantarflexion during loading response, but also prevents toe drag by facilitating plantarflexion during pre-swing and dorsiflexion during swing phase, leading to improvement in most temporal-spatial parameters. However, only three hemiplegic patients were included in this gait analysis. Studies including more subjects will be required to evaluate the functionality of our newly developed AAFO.

  6. Design and evaluation of Mina: a robotic orthosis for paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Peter D; Noorden, Jerryll H; Craig, Travis J; Torres, Tecalote; Kirschbaum, Justin; Pratt, Jerry E

    2011-01-01

    Mobility options for persons suffering from paraplegia or paraparesis are limited to mainly wheeled devices. There are significant health, psychological, and social consequences related to being confined to a wheelchair. We present the Mina, a robotic orthosis for assisting mobility, which offers a legged mobility option for these persons. Mina is an overground robotic device that is worn on the back and around the legs to provide mobility assistance for people suffering from paraplegia or paraparesis. Mina uses compliant actuation to power the hip and knee joints. For paralyzed users, balance is provided with the assistance of forearm crutches. This paper presents the evaluation of Mina with two paraplegics (SCI ASIA-A). We confirmed that with a few hours of training and practice, Mina is currently able to provide paraplegics walking mobility at speeds of up to 0.20 m/s. We further confirmed that using Mina is not physically taxing and requires little cognitive effort, allowing the user to converse and maintain eye contact while walking. © 2011 IEEE

  7. Comparison of airway pressure release ventilation to conventional mechanical ventilation in the early management of smoke inhalation injury in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchinsky, Andriy I; Burkett, Samuel E; Zanders, Thomas B; Chung, Kevin K; Regn, Dara D; Jordan, Bryan S; Necsoiu, Corina; Nguyen, Ruth; Hanson, Margaret A; Morris, Michael J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2011-10-01

    The role of airway pressure release ventilation in the management of early smoke inhalation injury has not been studied. We compared the effects of airway pressure release ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation on oxygenation in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by wood smoke inhalation. Prospective animal study. Government laboratory animal intensive care unit. Thirty-three Yorkshire pigs. Smoke inhalation injury. Anesthetized female Yorkshire pigs (n = 33) inhaled room-temperature pine-bark smoke. Before injury, the pigs were randomized to receive conventional mechanical ventilation (n = 15) or airway pressure release ventilation (n = 12) for 48 hrs after smoke inhalation. As acute respiratory distress syndrome developed (PaO2/Fio2 ratio conventional mechanical ventilation for 48 hrs and served as time controls. Changes in PaO2/Fio2 ratio, tidal volume, respiratory rate, mean airway pressure, plateau pressure, and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. PaO2/Fio2 ratio was lower in airway pressure release ventilation vs. conventional mechanical ventilation pigs at 12, 18, and 24 hrs (p conventional mechanical ventilation animals between 30 and 48 hrs post injury (p animals between 6 and 48 hrs (p conventional mechanical ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation pigs. In this model of acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by severe smoke inhalation in swine, airway pressure release ventilation-treated animals developed acute respiratory distress syndrome faster than conventional mechanical ventilation-treated animals, showing a lower PaO2/Fio2 ratio at 12, 18, and 24 hrs after injury. At other time points, PaO2/Fio2 ratio was not different between conventional mechanical ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation.

  8. Is transcutaneous peroneal stimulation beneficial to patients with chronic stroke using an ankle-foot orthosis? A within-subjects study of patients' satisfaction, walking speed and physical activity level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swigchem, R. van; Vloothuis, J.; Boer, J. de; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether community-dwelling chronic stroke patients wearing an ankle-foot orthosis would benefit from changing to functional electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve. METHODS: In 26 community-dwelling chronic (> 6 months post-onset) patients after

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANUFACTURING POSSIBILITY OF SPECIAL ANKLE FOOT ORTHOSIS COMPONENTS BY OMPARISON BETWEEN THE REQUIRED PRECISION AND THE VAILABLE PRECISION ON A VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER PROGRAMED WITH TOPSOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STANIMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of different solutions adopted to achieve new ankle foot orthosis involves among others their prototyping. In these paper we developed a representative part for two axis machining that requires the use of the main features of TopSolid Cad and Cam modules, and that assumes the use of the main manufacturing processes that usually may be met on a vertical machining center. Also, in order to determine the dimensional and geometrical deviations of the part this was done on the YMC 1050 machining center. After comparing the measured deviations with the requirements of various components of orthesis, we concluded that the available precision meets the requirements and that the machining center with TopSolid software that we have will enable us to realize special ankle foot orthosis of quality, for experimental research .

  10. Comparison between conventional protective mechanical ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation associated with the prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretto, José Roberto; Klefens, Susiane Oliveira; Pires, Rafaelle Fernandes; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Carpi, Mario Ferreira; Bonatto, Rossano César; Moraes, Marcos Aurélio; Ronchi, Carlos Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional protective mechanical ventilation associated with the prone position on oxygenation, histology and pulmonary oxidative damage in an experimental model of acute lung injury. Forty-five rabbits with tracheostomy and vascular access were underwent mechanical ventilation. Acute lung injury was induced by tracheal infusion of warm saline. Three experimental groups were formed: healthy animals + conventional protective mechanical ventilation, supine position (Control Group; n = 15); animals with acute lung injury + conventional protective mechanical ventilation, prone position (CMVG; n = 15); and animals with acute lung injury + high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, prone position (HFOG; n = 15). Ten minutes after the beginning of the specific ventilation of each group, arterial gasometry was collected, with this timepoint being called time zero, after which the animal was placed in prone position and remained in this position for 4 hours. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the total antioxidant performance assay. Pulmonary tissue injury was determined by histopathological score. The level of significance was 5%. Both groups with acute lung injury showed worsening of oxygenation after induction of injury compared with the Control Group. After 4 hours, there was a significant improvement in oxygenation in the HFOG group compared with CMVG. Analysis of total antioxidant performance in plasma showed greater protection in HFOG. HFOG had a lower histopathological lesion score in lung tissue than CMVG. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation, associated with prone position, improves oxygenation and attenuates oxidative damage and histopathological lung injury compared with conventional protective mechanical ventilation.

  11. Ambulatory Function and Perception of Confidence in Persons with Stroke with a Custom-Made Hinged versus a Standard Ankle Foot Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Slijper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to compare walking with an individually designed dynamic hinged ankle foot orthosis (DAFO and a standard carbon composite ankle foot orthosis (C-AFO. Methods. Twelve participants, mean age 56 years (range 26–72, with hemiparesis due to stroke were included in the study. During the six-minute walk test (6MW, walking velocity, the Physiological Cost Index (PCI, and the degree of experienced exertion were measured with a DAFO and C-AFO, respectively, followed by a Stairs Test velocity and perceived confidence was rated. Results. The mean differences in favor for the DAFO were in 6MW 24.3 m (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.90, 43.76, PCI −0.09 beats/m (95% CI −0.27, 0.95, velocity 0.04 m/s (95% CI −0.01, 0.097, and in the Stairs Test −11.8 s (95% CI −19.05, −4.48. All participants except one perceived the degree of experienced exertion lower and felt more confident when walking with the DAFO. Conclusions. Wearing a DAFO resulted in longer walking distance and faster stair climbing compared to walking with a C-AFO. Eleven of twelve participants felt more confident with the DAFO, which may be more important than speed and distance and the most important reason for prescribing an AFO.

  12. How can push-off be preserved during use of an ankle foot orthosis in children with hemiplegia? A prospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Van Gestel, Leen; Huenaerts, Catherine; Van Campenhout, Anja; Callewaert, Barbara; Van De Walle, Patricia; Seyler, J

    2006-01-01

    Several studies indicated that walking with an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) impaired third rocker. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two types of orthoses, with similar goal settings, on gait, in a homogeneous group of children, using both barefoot and shoe walking as control conditions. Fifteen children with hemiplegia, aged between 4 and 10 years, received two types of individually tuned AFOs: common posterior leaf-spring (PLS) and Dual Carbon Fiber Spring AFO (CFO) (wit...

  13. Avaliação das propriedades mecânicas de atadura gessada de três diferentes fabricantes, utilizada para confecção de órteses Evaluation of the mechanical properties of plaster bandages used for orthosis manufacture, marketed by three different manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cardoso Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados testes mecânicos com atadura gessada de três diferentes fabricantes, utilizada para confecção de órteses. Para isso, foram confeccionados corpos de provas (CDPs na forma de placas e de cilindros. Os CDPs foram submetidos a dois tipos de ensaios mecânicos: para o grupo das placas foi realizado ensaio de flexão em três pontos e para o grupo dos cilindros, ensaio de compressão. Os ensaios mecânicos foram realizados na Máquina Universal de Ensaios EMIC®. Três propriedades mecânicas foram avaliadas após os ensaios: carga no limite máximo, carga no limite de proporcionalidade e rigidez. Os resultados mostraram que um fabricante foi superior aos demais para as propriedades avaliadas.Mechanical tests have been performed in plaster bandages used in orthosis supplied by three different manufacturers. For this, bodies of evidence (BOEs were made with plates and cylinders shapes. BOEs were submitted to two kinds of mechanical assays: for the plate group, a flexion assay was performed at three points, and, for the cylinder group, a compression assay was performed. Mechanical assays were performed on the Universal Assay Machine EMIC®. Three mechanical properties were assessed after assays: maximum limit load, proportional limit load and stiffness. Results show that a manufacturer was superior over the others for the properties assessed.

  14. Physical human-robot interaction of an active pelvis orthosis: toward ergonomic assessment of wearable robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elia, Nicolò; Vanetti, Federica; Cempini, Marco; Pasquini, Guido; Parri, Andrea; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-04-14

    In human-centered robotics, exoskeletons are becoming relevant for addressing needs in the healthcare and industrial domains. Owing to their close interaction with the user, the safety and ergonomics of these systems are critical design features that require systematic evaluation methodologies. Proper transfer of mechanical power requires optimal tuning of the kinematic coupling between the robotic and anatomical joint rotation axes. We present the methods and results of an experimental evaluation of the physical interaction with an active pelvis orthosis (APO). This device was designed to effectively assist in hip flexion-extension during locomotion with a minimum impact on the physiological human kinematics, owing to a set of passive degrees of freedom for self-alignment of the human and robotic hip flexion-extension axes. Five healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at different speeds without and with the APO under different levels of assistance. The user-APO physical interaction was evaluated in terms of: (i) the deviation of human lower-limb joint kinematics when wearing the APO with respect to the physiological behavior (i.e., without the APO); (ii) relative displacements between the APO orthotic shells and the corresponding body segments; and (iii) the discrepancy between the kinematics of the APO and the wearer's hip joints. The results show: (i) negligible interference of the APO in human kinematics under all the experimented conditions; (ii) small (i.e., ergonomics assessment of wearable robots.

  15. Clinical application of the modified medially-mounted motor-driven hip gear joint for paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, S; Imahori, R; Saitoh, E; Tomita, Y; Domen, K; Chino, N

    2000-04-15

    This paper describes a motor-driven orthosis for paraplegics which has been developed. This orthosis is composed of a medially-mounted motor-driven hip joint and bilateral knee-ankle-foot orthosis. With the gear mechanism, the virtual axis of the hip joint of this orthosis is almost as high as the anatomical hip joint. A paraplegic patient with an injury level of T10/11 walked using bilateral lofstrand crutches and this new orthosis with or without the motor system. The motor is initiated by pushing a button attached at the edge of the grab of the crutches. Faster cadence and speed and smaller rotation angle of the trunk was obtained in motor walking compared with non-motor walking. The patient did not feel fearful of falling. The benefit of motor orthosis is that it can be used even in patients with lower motor lesions and that it provides stable regulation of hip flexion movement in spastic patients. In conclusion, this motor orthosis will enhance paraplegic walking.

  16. Robotic gait trainer in water: development of an underwater gait-training orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2008-01-01

    To develop a robotic gait trainer that can be used in water (RGTW) and achieve repetitive physiological gait patterns to improve the movement dysfunctions. The RGTW is a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis with pneumatic actuators; the control software was developed on the basis of the angular motions of the hip and knee joint of a healthy subject as he walked in water. Three-dimensional motions and electromyographic (EMG) activities were recorded in nine healthy subjects to evaluate the efficacy of using the RGTW while walking on a treadmill in water. The device could preserve the angular displacement patterns of the hip and knee and foot trajectories under all experimental conditions. The tibialis anterior EMG activities in the late swing phase and the biceps femoris throughout the stance phase were reduced whose joint torques were assisted by the RGTW while walking on a treadmill in water. Using the RGTW could expect not only the effect of the hydrotherapy but also the standard treadmill gait training, in particular, and may be particularly effective for treating individuals with hip joint movement dysfunction.

  17. Mechanical behavior of M-Wire and conventional NiTi wire used to manufacture rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erika S J; Gomes, Renata O; Leroy, Agnès M F; Singh, Rupinderpal; Peters, Ove A; Bahia, Maria G A; Buono, Vicente T L

    2013-12-01

    Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of one conventional and a new NiTi wire, which had received an additional thermomechanical treatment. Specimens of both conventional (NiTi) and the new type of wire, called M-Wire (MW), were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests, Vickers microhardness measurements, and to rotating-bending fatigue tests at a strain-controlled level of 6%. Fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the non-deformed microstructures by transmission electron microscopy. The thermomechanical treatment applied to produce the M-Wire apparently increased the tensile strength and Vickers microhardness of the material, but its apparent Young modulus was smaller than that of conventionally treated NiTi. The three-point bending tests showed a higher flexibility for MW which also exhibited a significantly higher number of cycles to failure. M-Wire presented mechanical properties that can render endodontic instruments more flexible and fatigue resistant than those made with conventionally processed NiTi wires. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-06

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  19. Fully embedded myoelectric control for a wearable robotic hand orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Franziska; Butzer, Tobias; Held, Jeremia P; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2017-07-01

    To prevent learned non-use of the affected hand in chronic stroke survivors, rehabilitative training should be continued after discharge from the hospital. Robotic hand orthoses are a promising approach for home rehabilitation. When combined with intuitive control based on electromyography, the therapy outcome can be improved. However, such systems often require extensive cabling, experience in electrode placement and connection to external computers. This paper presents the framework for a stand-alone, fully wearable and real-time myoelectric intention detection system based on the Myo armband. The hard and software for real-time gesture classification were developed and combined with a routine to train and customize the classifier, leading to a unique ease of use. The system including training of the classifier can be set up within less than one minute. Results demonstrated that: (1) the proposed algorithm can classify five gestures with an accuracy of 98%, (2) the final system can online classify three gestures with an accuracy of 94.3% and, in a preliminary test, (3) classify three gestures from data acquired from mildly to severely impaired stroke survivors with an accuracy of over 78.8%. These results highlight the potential of the presented system for electromyography-based intention detection for stroke survivors and, with the integration of the system into a robotic hand orthosis, the potential for a wearable platform for all day robot-assisted home rehabilitation.

  20. How can push-off be preserved during use of an ankle foot orthosis in children with hemiplegia? A prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Van Gestel, Leen; Huenaerts, Catherine; Van Campenhout, Anja; Callewaert, Barbara; Van de Walle, Patricia; Seyler, J

    2006-10-01

    Several studies indicated that walking with an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) impaired third rocker. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two types of orthoses, with similar goal settings, on gait, in a homogeneous group of children, using both barefoot and shoe walking as control conditions. Fifteen children with hemiplegia, aged between 4 and 10 years, received two types of individually tuned AFOs: common posterior leaf-spring (PLS) and Dual Carbon Fiber Spring AFO (CFO) (with carbon fibre at the dorsal part of the orthosis). Both orthoses were expected to prevent plantar flexion, thus improving first rocker, allowing dorsiflexion to improve second rocker, absorbing energy during second rocker, and returning it during the third rocker. The effect of the AFOs was studied using objective gait analysis, including 3D kinematics, and kinetics in four conditions: barefoot, shoes without AFO, and PLS and CFO combined with shoes. Several gait parameters significantly changed in shoe walking compared to barefoot walking (cadence, ankle ROM and velocity, knee shock absorption, and knee angle in swing). The CFO produced a significantly larger ankle ROM and ankle velocity during push-off, and an increased plantar flexion moment and power generation at pre-swing compared to the PLS (<0.01). The results of this study further support the findings of previous studies indicating that orthoses improve specific gait parameters compared to barefoot walking (velocity, step length, first and second ankle rocker, sagittal knee and hip ROM). However, compared to shoes, not all improvements were statistically significant.

  1. Comparison between mechanical freezer and conventional freezing using liquid nitrogen in normozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahana, A R; Ng, S P; Leong, C F; Rahimah, M D

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of human semen cryopreservation using an ultra-low temperature technique with a mechanical freezer at -85°C as an alternative method to the conventional liquid nitrogen technique at -196°C. This was a prospective experimental study conducted in the Medically Assisted Conception unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University Hospital, Malaysia from January 1, 2006 to April 30, 2007. All normozoospermic semen samples were included in the study. The concentration, motility and percentage of intact DNA of each semen sample were assessed before and after freezing and thawing on Days 7 and 30 post freezing. Sperm cryopreservation at -85°C was comparable to the conventional liquid nitrogen technique for a period of up to 30 days in a normozoospermic sample. There was no statistical difference in concentration (Day 7 p-value is 0.1, Day 30 p-value is 0.2), motility (Day 7 p-value is 0.9, Day 30 p-value is 0.5) and proportion of intact DNA (Day 7 p-value is 0.1, Day 30 p-value is 0.2) between the ultra-low temperature technique and conventional liquid nitrogen cryopreservation at Days 7 and 30 post thawing. This study clearly demonstrates that short-term storage of sperm at -85°C could be a viable alternative to conventional liquid nitrogen cryopreservation at -196°C due to their comparable post-thaw results.

  2. Mechanical Behaviour of Conventional Materials at Experimental Conditions of Deep Drawing Technological Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, N.; Pashkouleva, D.; Kavardzhikov, V.

    2012-09-01

    The paper deals with experimental investigations on the mechanical behaviour of body-centred-cubic (BCC) and face-centred-cubic (FCC)-conventionally structured sheet metalic-metalic materials under stress-strain conditions of a deep drawing process determined by a coefficient close to the limiting one for Steel 08 and punch diameter of 50 mm. The mechanical characteristics of the investigated materials are identified by one-dimensional tension tests. The materials' responses, as results of identical loading conditions, are described by the change of blank sizes and characteristics of the forming processes. The chosen deformation path ensures obtaining a qualitative steel piece and leads to failures of aluminium and brass blanks. The reported results could be useful for investigations and predictions of the mechanical responses of such type metallic structures applying microscopic instrumented observations and numerical simulations.

  3. In vitro mechanical stimulation facilitates stress dissipation and sealing ability at the conventional glass ionomer cement-dentin interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Cabello, Inmaculada; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the induced changes in the chemical and mechanical performance at the glass-ionomer cement-dentin interface after mechanical load application. A conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) (Ketac Bond), and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Vitrebond Plus) were used. Bonded interfaces were stored in simulated body fluid, and then tested or submitted to the mechanical loading challenge. Different loading waveforms were applied: No cycling, 24 h cycled in sine or loaded in sustained hold waveforms. The cement-dentin interface was evaluated using a nano-dynamic mechanical analysis, estimating the complex modulus and tan δ. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging, Raman analysis and dye assisted confocal microscopy evaluation (CLSM) were also performed. The complex modulus was lower and tan delta was higher at interfaces promoted with the GIC if compared to the RMGIC unloaded. The conventional GIC attained evident reduction of nanoleakage. Mechanical loading favored remineralization and promoted higher complex modulus and lower tan delta values at interfaces with RMGIC, where porosity, micropermeability and nanoleakage were more abundant. Mechanical stimuli diminished the resistance to deformation and increased the stored energy at the GIC-dentin interface. The conventional GIC induced less porosity and nanoleakage than RMGIC. The RMGIC increased nanoleakage at the porous interface, and dye sorption appeared within the cement. Both cements created amorphous and crystalline apatites at the interface depending on the type of mechanical loading. Remineralization, lower stress concentration and resistance to deformation after mechanical loading improved the sealing of the GIC-dentin interface. In vitro oral function will favor high levels of accumulated energy and permits micropermeability at the RMGIC-dentin interface which will become remineralized. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECTS OF CORE STABILIZATION PROGRAM AND CONVENTIONAL EXERCISES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC MECHANICAL LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Babu Reddy .A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional back care exercises are advocated to treat the pain and to strengthen the involved muscles. There will be possibility of the pain getting recurred due to disproportionate balance and stability in the muscles. The core stabilization is major trend in rehabilitation, it aims at improving stability during functional activities, balance, flexibility, strength training and effectively manage the pain as well. Objective: To find the efficacy of the concept of core stabilization when compared to conventional back care exercises in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain. Methods: Forty patients with chronic Mechanical Low back pain were selected through purposive sampling and were randomly assigned into control group who received conventional back exercises and SWD (n=20, experimental group who received core stabilization and SWD (n=20. Both the groups received SWD, along with conventional back exercises for one group and core stabilization for the other group three days a week for 6 weeks. The treatment outcome was assessed using visual analogue scale, Rolland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Lumbar range of motion using goniometer. Results: After a 6 weeks training period the core stabilization group scored significantly higher than the conventional group for VAS (p=0.05 RMDQ (p=0.05 whereas ROM improved higher in conventional group (p=0.05. Conclusion: After the treatment sessions Core stabilization group registered a significant improvement when compared to conventional back care exercises in improving function and in relieving pain.

  5. Resistant metatarsus adductus: prospective randomized trial of casting versus orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzenberg, John E; Burghardt, Rolf D

    2014-03-01

    Metatarsus adductus is a common pediatric foot deformity related to intrauterine molding. It is usually a mild deformity that responds well to simple observation or minimal treatment with a home program of stretching. Resistant cases may need a more aggressive approach such as serial casting or special bracing to avoid the need for surgical intervention. We compared clinical outcomes using serial casting with orthoses for resistant metatarsus adductus. We prospectively treated 27 infants (43 feet) between the ages 3 and 9 months who failed home stretching treatment. Patients were randomized to either serial plaster casting or Bebax orthoses. Footprints and simulated weight-bearing anteroposterior and lateral view radiographs were made at entry and follow-up. There was no statistical difference between casting and Bebax for the following parameters: age at study entry, length of treatment, number of clinic visits, follow-up, and follow-up maintenance treatments. Both groups showed improvement in footprint and radiographic measurements post-treatment, without worsening of heel valgus. The Bebax group had greater improvement in the footprint heel bisector measurement than the casting group. The Bebax treatment requires more active parental cooperation. A simulated cost analysis of materials and office visit charges, however, revealed that Bebax treatment was significantly less expensive, about half the cost of casting. Because of the cost savings and virtually identical clinical results, we recommend the Bebax orthosis for resistant metatarsus in pre-walking infants with parents who are compliant. Other considerations include specific insurance plans, which may pay for casts but not orthoses.

  6. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses on mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  7. Beyond conventional quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, C.

    1991-10-01

    The author reviews some recent attempts to overcome the conceptual difficulties encountered by trying to interpret quantum mechanics as giving a complete, objective and unified description of natural phenomena. 38 refs

  8. Self-ligating vs conventional twin brackets during en-masse space closure with sliding mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Peter G

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rate of en-masse space closure with sliding mechanics between passive self-ligating SmartClip brackets (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and conventional twin brackets ligated with stainless steel ligatures. Nineteen patients including 20 arches participated in this prospective trial with 0.018-in slot brackets. All patients had first premolar extractions in at least 1 arch, with the second premolar and the first molar distal to the extraction site bonded with SmartClip brackets on 1 side and conventional twin brackets on the other. The sides were alternated with each consecutive patient. Space closure was achieved on 0.016 x 0.022-in stainless steel wires with nickel-titanium coil springs activated 6 to 9 mm. The patients were recalled every 5 weeks until 1 side had closed. The distances from the mesial aspect of the canine bracket to the distal aspect of the first molar bracket were recorded before and after space closure, and an average rate of space closure per month was calculated. Thirteen patients completed the trial (14 arches); the median rates of tooth movement for the SmartClip bracket side (1.1 mm per month) and the conventional twin bracket side (1.2 mm per month) were not significantly different (P = .86). There was no significant difference in the rate of en-masse space closure between passive SmartClip brackets and conventional twin brackets tied with stainless steel ligatures.

  9. Continuous positive airway pressure and conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, J P

    2008-12-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a complex syndrome that ranges in severity from mild respiratory distress to severe respiratory failure, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and sometimes death. Understanding of the syndrome's complicated pathophysiology will help determine the appropriate treatment strategy, including the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and other therapies. Approximately 30 to 50% of infants diagnosed with MAS will require CPAP or mechanical ventilation. The optimum modes of ventilation for MAS are not known. Very few studies have been conducted to determine 'best' ventilatory strategies. Despite the introduction, over the last two decades, of innovative ventilatory treatments for this disease (for example, surfactant, high-frequency ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), the majority of infants can be successfully managed with CPAP or mechanical ventilation alone.

  10. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation is not superior to conventional mechanical ventilation in surfactant-treated rabbits with lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); A. Hartog (Anneke); R. Schnabel; A. de Jaegere (Anne); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to compare high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) with and without surfactant in the treatment of surfactant-deficient rabbits. A previously described saline lung lavage model of

  11. Effect of ankle-foot orthosis on postural control after stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Padilla, M; Molina Rueda, F; Alguacil Diego, I M

    2014-09-01

    Stroke is currently the main cause of permanent disability in adults. The impairments are a combination of sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional changes that result in restrictions on the ability to perform basic activities of daily living (BADL). Postural control is affected and causes problems with static and dynamic balance, thus increasing the risk of falls and secondary injuries. The purpose of this review was to compile the literature to date, and assess the impact of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on postural control and gait in individuals who have suffered a stroke. The review included randomised and controlled trials that examined the effects of AFO in stroke patients between 18 and 80 years old, with acute or chronic evolution. No search limits on the date of the studies were included, and the search lasted until April 2011. The following databases were used: Pubmed, Trip Database, Cochrane library, Embase, ISI Web Knowledge, CINHAL and PEDro. Intervention succeeded in improving some gait parameters, such as speed and cadence. However it is not clear if there was improvement in the symmetry, postural sway or balance. Because of the limitations of this systematic review, due to the clinical diversity of the studies and the methodological limitations, 0these results should be considered with caution. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. NAEP 1996 Trends in Writing: Fluency and Writing Conventions. Holistic and Mechanics Scores in 1984 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballator, Nada; Farnum, Marisa; Kaplan, Bruce

    Supplementary to "NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress," this report describes two aspects of writing for which change has been measured since 1984: writing fluency as determined by holistic scoring; and mastery of the conventions of written English as determined by mechanics scoring. The introduction discusses the layout and means of…

  13. Alignment efficiency of standard versus tandem wire mechanics using conventional and self-ligating brackets: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficiency of 0.018″/0.022″ slot self-ligating (SL bracket system (standard and tandem mechanics in terms of rate of alignment by comparing it with a 0.022″ slot conventional ligating appliance system (MBT. Settings and Sample Population: The Department of Orthodontics. Materials and Methods: The pilot study was carried out using randomized controlled trial design. Forty patients having Little's irregularity index (II of 6–15 mm, treated by all first premolars extractions, were randomly allocated to 0.022″ slot conventional ligating bracket system, 0.018″ slot SL bracket system, 0.018″ slot SL bracket system (tandem archwires, 0.022″ slot SL bracket system, and 0.022″ slot SL bracket system (tandem archwires. The rate of alignment for each bracket system was measured from the difference in the II of serial casts taken at pretreatment and at the end of alignment, divided by the number of days between the two measurements. A one-way ANOVA model with post hoc Bonferroni multiple comparison procedures was used to identify intergroup differences. Results: The mean value of alignment efficiency was not found to be statistically significant in any of the five groups using digital models (P = 0.104. Conclusions: Alignment efficiency was not different between SL versus conventional ligating group, the 0.018″ slot versus 0.022″ slot and tandem versus standard mechanics.

  14. Effect of Posture Training with Weighted Kypho-Orthosis (WKO on Improving Balance in Women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the effect of weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO on improving balance in women with osteoporosis. In this nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, 31 patients with osteoporosis were included. The patients were assigned to two groups: (1 control group who received 4-week home-based daily exercise program including weight bearing, back strengthening, and balance exercises and (2 intervention group (WKO who performed aforementioned exercises and wore WKO for one hour twice a day. Patients were assessed using clinical balance tests (timed up and go test, functional reach test, and unilateral balance test before and 4 weeks after start of treatment. Results. Functional reach and timed up and go test were improved significantly in both groups compared to baseline. The improvement in intervention group was more significant in comparison to control group (P<0.05. Discussion. Posture training with WKO together with exercise program improved two clinical balance tests in women with osteoporosis. Conclusion. Posture training support (PTS applied as WKO together with back extension exercises can be prescribed as an intervention in elderly women in order to reduce the risk of falling.

  15. The Effect of Rocker Bar Ankle Foot Orthosis on Functional Mobility in Post-Stroke Hemiplegic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Farmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ankle Foot Orthoses (AFOs are widely utilized to improve walking ability in hemiplegic patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Rocker bar Ankle Foot Orthosis (RAFO on functional mobility in post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Methods: Fifteen hemiplegic patients (men and women who were at least 6-months post-stroke and able to walk without assistive device for at least 10 meters voluntarily participated in this study. The patients were examined with and without RAFO. Their functional mobility was evaluated through 10-meter walk test and Timed Up and Go (TUG test. Also, paired t-test was used to analyze obtained data. Results: When patients used RAFO, their gait speed significantly increased (P<0.05. Also, the time of performing TUG test experienced a significant decrease using RAFO compared with utilizing shoe only (P<0.05. Discussion: RAFO led to a significant improvement in functional mobility in hemiplegic patient’s secondary to stroke. It seems that, it has been due to the positive effect of rocker modification on improving push off and transferring weight during stance phase of gait.

  16. 30 CFR 75.206 - Conventional roof support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.206 Conventional roof support. (a) Except in anthracite mines using non-mechanized mining systems, when conventional roof support... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conventional roof support. 75.206 Section 75...

  17. Comparison of INSURE method with conventional mechanical ventilation after surfactant administration in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: therapeutic challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Administration of endotracheal surfactant is potentially the main treatment for neonates suffering from RDS (Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which is followed by mechanical ventilation. Late and severe complications may develop as a consequence of using mechanical ventilation. In this study, conventional methods for treatment of RDS are compared with surfactant administration, use of mechanical ventilation for a brief period and NCPAP (Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, (INSURE method ((Intubation, Surfactant administration and extubation. A randomized clinical trial study was performed, including all newborn infants with diagnosed RDS and a gestational age of 35 weeks or less, who were admitted in NICU of Valiasr hospital. The patients were then divided randomly into two CMV (Conventional Mechanical Ventilation and INSURE groups. Surfactant administration and consequent long-term mechanical ventilation were done in the first group (CMV group. In the second group (INSURE group, surfactant was administered followed by a short-term period of mechanical ventilation. The infants were then extubated, and NCPAP was embedded. The comparison included crucial duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, IVH (Intraventricular Hemorrhage, PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus, air-leak syndromes, BPD (Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia and mortality rate. The need for mechanical ventilation in 5th day of admission was 43% decreased (P=0.005 in INSURE group in comparison to CMV group. A decline (P=0.01 in the incidence of IVH and PDA was also achieved. Pneumothorax, chronic pulmonary disease and mortality rates, were not significantly different among two groups. (P=0.25, P=0.14, P=0.25, respectively. This study indicated that INSURE method in the treatment of RDS decreases the need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen-therapy in preterm neonates. Moreover, relevant complications as IVH and PDA were observed to be reduced. Thus, it seems rationale to

  18. Probing dynamics and mechanism of exchange process of quaternary ammonium dimeric surfactants, 14-s-14, in the presence of conventional surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Hong; Mao, Shi Zhen; Du, You Ru; Liu, Mai Li

    2012-12-27

    In this Article, we investigated effects of different types of conventional surfactants on exchange dynamics of quaternary ammonium dimeric surfactants, with chemical formula C(14)H(29)N(+)(CH(3))(2)- (CH(2))(s)-N(+)(CH(3))(2)C(14)H(29)·2Br(-), or 14-s-14 for short. Two nonionic surfactants, TritonX-100 (TX-100) and polyethylene glycol (23) laurylether (Brij-35), and one cationic surfactant, n-tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and one ionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were chosen as typical conventional surfactants. Exchange rates of 14-s-14 (s = 2, 3, and 4) between the micelle form and monomer in solution were detected by two NMR methods: one-dimensional (1D) line shape analysis and two-dimensional (2D) exchange spectroscopy (EXSY). Results show that the nonionic surfactants (TX-100 and Brij-35), the cationic surfactant (TTAB), and the ionic surfactant (SDS) respectively accelerated, barely influenced, and slowed the exchange rate of 14-s-14. The effect mechanism was investigated by the self-diffusion experiment, relaxation time measurements (T(2)/T(1)), the fluorescence experiment (I(1)/I(3)) and observed chemical shift variations. Results reveal that, nonionic conventional surfactants (TX-100 and Brij-35) loosened the molecule arrangement and decreased hydrophobic interactions in the micelle, and thus accelerated the exchange rate of 14-s-14. The cationic conventional surfactant (TTAB) barely changed the molecule arrangement and thus barely influenced the exchange rate of 14-s-14. The ionic conventional surfactant (SDS) introduced the electrostatic attraction effect, tightened the molecule arrangement, and increased hydrophobic interactions in the micelle, and thus slowed down the exchange rate of 14-s-14. Additionally, the two-step exchange mechanism of 14-s-14 in the mixed solution was revealed through interesting variation tendencies of exchange rates of 14-s-14.

  19. Mechanism of chromium poisoning the conventional cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Guangsen; Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Xiao, Shuhao; Li, Baihai; Li, Tingshuai; Andersson, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Chromium poisoning the La0.875Sr0.125MnO3 (LSM) cathode for solid oxide fuel cells is a critical issue that can strongly affect the stability. In this study, we evaluate the temperature distribution in a SOFC based on a 3D model and then combine conductivity test and material computation to reveal the effects of chromium in SUS430 stainless steels on LSM conductivities. The starch concentration in LSM pellets and the applied pressure on the contact with interconnect materials show close relationships with the chromium poisoning behavior. The density functional theory (DFT) computing results indicate that chromium atoms preferably adsorb on the MnO2-terminated and La (Sr)-O-terminated (001) surfaces. The resulting conclusions are expected to deeply understand mechanism of chromium deactivating conventional cathodes at some typical operational conditions, and offer crucial information to optimize the structure to avoid the poisoning effect.

  20. Synthesis and mechanical properties of conventionally cast icosahedral particle-reinforced Al-Mn(-Cu)-Be-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, E.; Chang, H.J.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, W.T.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure of the Al-Mn(-Cu)-Be-Si alloys analyzed by X-ray diffraction and TEM consisted of icosahedral (i) quasicrystal particles embedded in α Al matrix. The conjoint addition of Si and Be elements enabled the i-phase formation in diameter 10 mm specimens prepared by conventional casting technique. The size, volume fraction and stability of the i-phase were found to be dependent on the Mn content. The addition of 2 at.% Cu did not affect the formation and stability of the i-phase but contributed significantly to the enhancement of the mechanical properties. (orig.)

  1. The evaluation of off-loading using a new removable oRTHOsis in DIABetic foot (ORTHODIAB) randomized controlled trial: study design and rational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedi, Kamel; Potier, Louis; François, Maud; Dardari, Dured; Feron, Marilyne; Nobecourt-Dupuy, Estelle; Dolz, Manuel; Ducloux, Roxane; Chibani, Abdelkader; Eveno, Dominique-François; Crea Avila, Teresa; Sultan, Ariane; Baillet-Blanco, Laurence; Rigalleau, Vincent; Velho, Gilberto; Tubach, Florence; Roussel, Ronan; Dupré, Jean-Claude; Malgrange, Dominique; Marre, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Off-loading is essential for diabetic foot management, but remains understudied. The evaluation of Off-loading using a new removable oRTHOsis in DIABetic foot (ORTHODIAB) trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of a new removable device "Orthèse Diabète" in the healing of diabetic foot. ORTHODIAB is a French multi-centre randomized, open label trial, with a blinded end points evaluation by an adjudication committee according to the Prospective Randomized Open Blinded End-point. Main endpoints are adjudicated based on the analysis of diabetic foot photographs. Orthèse Diabète is a new removable off-loading orthosis (PROTEOR, France) allowing innovative functions including real-time evaluation of off-loading and estimation of patients' adherence. Diabetic patients with neuropathic plantar ulcer or amputation wounds (toes or transmetatarsal) are assigned to one of 2 parallel-groups: Orthèse Diabète or control group (any removable device) according to a central computer-based randomization. Study visits are scheduled for 6 months (days D7 and D14, and months M1, M2, M3, and M6). The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients whose principal ulcer is healed at M3. Secondary endpoints are: the proportion of patients whose principal ulcer is healed at M1, M2 and M6; the proportion of patients whose initial ulcers are all healed at M1, M2, M3, and M6; principal ulcer area reduction; time-related ulcer-free survival; development of new ulcers; new lower-extremity amputation; infectious complications; off-loading adherence; and patient satisfaction. The study protocol was approved by the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety, and by the ethics committee of Saint-Louis Hospital (Paris). Comprehensive study information including a Patient Information Sheet has been provided to each patient who must give written informed consent before enrolment. Monitoring, data management, and statistical analyses are providing by UMANIS Life Science (Paris

  2. Push-off mechanics in speed skating with conventional skates and klapskates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdijk, H; de Koning, J J; de Groot, G; Bobbert, M F; And; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    2000-03-01

    Personal and world records in speed skating improved tremendously after the introduction of the klapskate, which allows the foot to plantar flex at the end of the push-off while the full blade continues to glide on the ice. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the differences in skating technique with conventional versus klapskates and to unveil the source of power enhancement using klapskates. Ten elite speed skaters skated four 400-m laps at maximal effort with both conventional and klapskates. On the straight high-speed film, push-off force and EMG data were collected. An inverse dynamics analysis was performed in the moving reference plane through hip, knee, and ankle. Skating velocity increased 5% as a result of an increase in mean power output of 25 W when klapskates were used instead of conventional skates. The increase in mean power output was achieved through an 11-J increase in work per stroke and an increase in stroke frequency from 1.30 to 1.36 strokes x s(-1). The difference in work per stroke occurs during the final 50 ms of the push-off. This is the result of the ineffective way in which push-off forces are generated with conventional skates when the foot rotates about the long front end of the blade. No differences in muscle coordination were observed from EMG. A hinge under the ball of the foot enhances the effectiveness of plantar flexion during the final 50 ms of the push off with klapskates and increases work per stroke and mean power output.

  3. Detection of Gait Modes Using an Artificial Neural Network during Walking with a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, for use with a Portable Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis (i.e., PPAFO) that can automatically detect changes in gait modes (level ground, ascent and descent of stairs or ramps), thus allowing for appropriate ankle actuation control during swing phase. An artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm used input signals from an inertial measurement unit and foot switches, that is, vertical velocity and segment angle of the foot. Output from the ANN was filtered and adjusted to generate a final data set used to classify different gait modes. Five healthy male subjects walked with the PPAFO on the right leg for two test scenarios (walking over level ground and up and down stairs or a ramp; three trials per scenario). Success rate was quantified by the number of correctly classified steps with respect to the total number of steps. The results indicated that the proposed algorithm's success rate was high (99.3%, 100%, and 98.3% for level, ascent, and descent modes in the stairs scenario, respectively; 98.9%, 97.8%, and 100% in the ramp scenario). The proposed algorithm continuously detected each step's gait mode with faster timing and higher accuracy compared to a previous algorithm that used a decision tree based on maximizing the reliability of the mode recognition. PMID:28070188

  4. Non-invasive measure of respiratory mechanics and conventional respiratory parameters in conscious large animals by high frequency Airwave Oscillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Leanne; Troncy, Eric; Robichaud, Annette; Schuessler, Thomas F; Pouliot, Mylène; Ascah, Alexis; Authier, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A number of drugs in clinical trials are discontinued due to potentially life-threatening airway obstruction. As some drugs may not cause changes in core battery parameters such as tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (RR) or minute ventilation (MV), including measurements of respiratory mechanics in safety pharmacology studies represents an opportunity for design refinement. The present study aimed to test a novel non-invasive methodology to concomitantly measure respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and conventional respiratory parameters (Vt, RR, MV) in conscious Beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys. An Airwave Oscillometry system (tremoFlo; THORASYS Inc., Montreal, Canada) was used to concomitantly assess Rrs and conventional respiratory parameters before and after intravenous treatment with a bronchoactive agent. Respiratory mechanics measurements were performed by applying a short (i.e. 16s) single high frequency (19Hz) waveform at the subject's airway opening via a face mask. During measurements, pressure and flow signals were recorded. After collection of baseline measurements, methacholine was administered intravenously to Beagle dogs (n=6) and cynomolgus monkeys (n=4) at 8 and 68μg/kg, respectively. In dogs, methacholine induced significant increases in Vt, RR and MV while in monkeys, it only augmented RR. A significant increase in Rrs was observed after methacholine administration in both species with mean percentage peak increases from baseline of 88 (53)% for dogs and 28 (16)% for cynomolgus monkeys. Airwave Oscillometry appears to be a promising non-invasive methodology to enable respiratory mechanics measurements in conscious large animals, a valuable refinement in respiratory safety pharmacology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Augmenting Locomotion in an Anthropomorphic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wight

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A powered orthosis has applications ranging from assisting the elderly to augmenting astronauts. An assistive control scheme is developed that uses the force from a slave actuator to augment the force of a master actuator. This can be used to augment a closed-loop control scheme applied to the master actuator. Initially, actuator augmentation is explored both theoretically and experimentally using a simple mechanical system. The control scheme is then applied to a scale model of human lower limbs on a stationary bicycle to investigate the feasibility of a powered orthosis using pneumatic muscle actuators.

  6. Examination of a muscular activity estimation model using a Bayesian network for the influence of an ankle foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun; Kawamura, Kazuya; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine the appropriateness of a new model to examine the activity of the foot in gait. We developed an estimation model for foot-ankle muscular activity in the design of an ankle-foot orthosis by means of a statistical method. We chose three muscles for measuring muscular activity and built a Bayesian network model to confirm the appropriateness of the estimation model. We experimentally examined the normal gait of a non-disabled subject. We measured the muscular activity of the lower foot muscles using electromyography, the joint angles, and the pressure on each part of the sole. From these data, we obtained the causal relationship at every 10% level for these factors and built models for the stance phase, control term, and propulsive term. Our model has three advantages. First, it can express the influences that change during gait because we use 10% level nodes for each factor. Second, it can express the influences of factors that differ for low and high muscular-activity levels. Third, we created divided models that are able to reflect the actual features of gait. In evaluating the new model, we confirmed it is able to estimate all muscular activity level with an accuracy of over 90%.

  7. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Porous 60NiTi Prepared by Conventional Press-and-sinter Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanlari Khashayar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, 60NiTi, comprised of approximately 60 wt.% Ni and 40 wt.% Ti, contains a broad combination of physical and mechanical properties such as high hardness, low elastic modulus, resistance to aqueous corrosion and good biocompatibility. These unique combinations make this alloy an attractive candidate for medical components such as implants and prosthesis, where biocompatible materials with high hardness and low stiffness are typically used. The conventional press-and-sinter method which represents the least complex, most flexible and economic powder metallurgy method was used to produce porous 60NiTi parts suitable for biomedical applications. The effect of sintering holding time on the microstructure and mechanical properties is investigated. The structure of the as sintered parts is quite porous which is beneficial based on the medical point of view. The ultimate compressive strength of the samples is higher than that of the compact human bone and can, therefore, meet the strength demand of implants for general bone replacement applications.

  8. The 1 Repetition Maximum Mechanics of a High-Handle Hexagonal Bar Deadlift Compared With a Conventional Deadlift as Measured by a Linear Position Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Risso, Fabrice G; Liu, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Torne, Ibett A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J; Callaghan, Samuel J

    2018-01-01

    Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Lazar, A, Risso, FG, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Torne, IA, Stokes, JJ, Giuliano, DV, Davis, DL, Orjalo, AJ, and Callaghan, SJ. The 1 repetition maximum mechanics of a high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift compared with a conventional deadlift as measured by a linear position transducer. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 150-161, 2018-The high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD), a variation of the conventional deadlift (CD), is said to reduce the lift range of motion, which may change the mechanics of the lift. However, no research has investigated this. This study compared the mechanics between a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) CD and HHBD. Thirty-one strength-trained subjects (21 men, 10 women) completed a 1RM CD and HHBD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance, duration, and work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. The presence of a sticking region (SR) was determined for each lift. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated differences between 1RM CD and HHBD mechanics. A one-way ANOVA compared the mechanics of each lift between subjects who exhibited an SR or not, and the SR between the CD and HHBD. Significance was set at p mechanics between subjects with or without an SR, and no differences in SR region distance or duration between the CD and HHBD. Greater force can be generated in the HHBD, which could have implications for strength-training adaptations over time.

  9. Dark retweets: investigating non-conventional retweeting patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Azman, Norhidayah; Millard, David E.; Weal, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Retweets are an important mechanism for recognising propagation of information on the Twitter social media platform. However, many retweets do not use the official retweet mechanism, or even community established conventions, and these "dark retweets" are not accounted for in many existing analysis. In this paper, a comprehensive matrix of tweet propagation is presented to show the different nuances of retweeting, based on seven characteristics: whether it is proprietary, the mechanism used, ...

  10. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    1998-01-01

    In the first stage of the revision process, the only goal was to amend certain provisions of the Vienna Convention. Later, in what might be called the second stage, the question was seriously raised of establishing a new supplementary convention by which additional funds were to be provided by the international community of States. Most experts felt that the nuclear liability regime of the Vienna Convention, as amended, would really serve the interests of potential victims of nuclear incidents only if it were supported by an international supplementary fund providing additional compensation for nuclear damage to that provided by the operator. Thus, the Standing Committee started to consider the establishment, under the Vienna Convention, of a mechanism for mobilizing additional funds for compensation of nuclear damage. During the negotiations it was deemed necessary to establish a separate treaty for such a supplementary fund, and indeed, efforts were undertaken to draw up such an instrument concurrently with the revision of the Vienna Convention. (K.A.)

  11. Development of body weight support gait training system using antagonistic bi-articular muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury. This system consists of a powered orthosis, treadmill and equipment of body weight support. Attachment of the powered orthosis is able to fit subject who has difference of body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuator. Actuators are arranged as pair of antagonistic bi-articular muscle model and two pairs of antagonistic mono-articular muscle model like human musculoskeletal system. Part of the equipment of body weight support suspend subject by wire harness, and body weight of subject is supported continuously by counter weight. The powered orthosis is attached equipment of body weight support by parallel linkage, and movement of the powered orthosis is limited at sagittal plane. Weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by parallel linkage with gas-spring. In this study, we developed system that has orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and equipment of body weight support. We report detail of our developed body weight support gait training system.

  12. Comparison Of Conventional And Recycled “Green” Office Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Možina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To confront with the market need, we have to find alternative in respond to enormous necessity and application ofoffice paper. Therefore, one way in dealing with the problem is to replace or just decrease the use of paper madeentirely from primary components, mainly wood fibbers (deciduous and conifer. We analysed mechanical, optical,structural and microscopic properties. Experiments were performed on three conventional and three recycled officepapers reachable on the market. Results, obtained from measurements, confirm presumption, that mechanical andsurface properties of recycled office paper can be collated and they discern from conventional office paper.

  13. An investigation into the effects of conventional heat treatments on mechanical characteristics of new hot working tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, M. L.; Athmani, M.; Khelfaoui, Y.; Khettache, A.

    2012-02-01

    The effects of conventional heat treatments, i.e. quenching and tempering, on the mechanical characteristics of non standard hot work tool steel, close to either AISI-H11/H13 are investigated. The major elemental composition differences are in carbon, silicon and vanadium. The objective of the carried heat treatments is to obtain an efficient tool performance in terms of hardness, wear resistance and mechanical strength. Experimental results allow an explanation of the surface properties depending mainly on both chemical composition and optimised preheating parameters. After austenitizing at 1050 °C for 15 min, the as-quenched steel in oil bath exhibited the fully martensitic structure (without bainite) connected to a small fraction of retained austenite and complex carbides mainly of M23C6 type. Twice tempering at 500 °C and 600 °C resulted in initiating the precipitation processes and the secondary hardness effect. As a result, carbide content amounted to 3% while the retained austenite content decreased to 0%. Accordingly, the required mechanical properties in terms of hardness and wear are fulfilled and are adequately favourable in handling both shocks and pressures for the expected tool life. Induced microstructures are revealed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Phase compositions are assessed by means of X-ray diffraction technique while mechanical characteristics are investigated based on hardness and abrasive wear standard tests.

  14. A simple idea for reducing the cost and weight of plaster-cast orthoses Uma ideia simples para diminuir custo e peso das talas gessadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Esmanhotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reduce the cost and weight of plaster molded orthosis (increasing patient comfort, keeping the same resistance. METHODS: 22 plaster orthosis were analysed, 11 with conventional shape and 11 with pyramidal shape. It was compared, in theory (mathematcally and practice, the change of weight (and consequently cost and flexion resistance between conventional shape and pyramidal shape. RESULTS: Theorical analysis: weight and cost decrease of 26.7%-38.9%, according to the layers disposition of the cast. Laboratorial analysis: cast´s weight decrease of 34.5% (p = 0.000005 and resistance increase of 26.7% (p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: plaster molded orthosis made in a pyramidal shape, have a statistically significant decrease of weight (and consequently cost and statistically significant increase of resistance if compared with traditional shape. OBJETIVO: Diminuir o custo e o peso (aumentando o conforto para o paciente das talas gessadas, mantendo resistência semelhante. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 22 talas de gesso, 11 com formato convencional e 11 com formato piramidal. Foi feita comparação, teórica (matemática e prática, entre as talas convencionais e as piramidais quanto à mudança de peso (e consequentemente de custo e à resistência à flexão. RESULTADOS: Análise matemática – diminuição peso e custo entre 26,7% e 38,9%, variando conforme a disposição das camadas da tala. Análise prática – diminuição do peso em 34,5% (p = 0,000005 e resistência aumentada em 26,7% (p = 0,03. CONCLUSÃO: A tala gessada com formato piramidal apresenta diminuição estatisticamente significativa de peso (e consequentemente de custo, com aumento estatisticamente significativo da resistência, se comparada à tala de formato convencional.

  15. Financing options to develop non-conventional reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricoli, C.

    1997-01-01

    The economics of non-conventional natural gas reserves such as coalbed methane, gas shales and tight gas were discussed, with special reference to financing options to develop such reserves. Before 1992, tax credits were used to stimulate the development of non-conventional gas. The requirements for section 29 tax credits, the objectives of investors and producers, and the methods used to monetize section 29 tax credits, such as public royalty trusts, partnership structures, and up-front payment mechanisms were described. The capital gains implications of gas sales were also reviewed. It was noted that in the absence of tax credits, financing the development of non-conventional reserves must undergo the same economic scrutiny as any other oil and gas project

  16. Effect of toe-spread-out exercise on hallux valgus angle and cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis muscle in subjects with hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Jung, Do-Young; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the toe-spread-out exercise affects the hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects with hallux valgus were randomly assigned to orthosis and orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise groups. The orthosis group wore the orthosis for 8 weeks, while the orthosis plus toe-spread-out group also performed the toe-spread-out exercise. The hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction were measured initially and after 8 weeks by radiography and ultrasonography. [Results] While there were no significant changes in the three parameters in the orthosis group, there were significant differences in the orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise group after 8 weeks. In addition there were significant differences in the three measures between the two groups. [Conclusion] The toe-spread-out exercise reduces the hallux valgus angle and hallux valgus angle during active abduction, and increases the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle. The toe-spread-out exercise is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus.

  17. Morphostructural characterization of soil conventionally tilled with mechanized and animal traction with and without cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural stability and restructuring ability of a soil are related to the methods of crop management and soil preparation. A recommended strategy to reduce the effects of soil preparation is to use crop rotation and cover crops that help conserve and restore the soil structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the homogeneous morphological units in soil under conventional mechanized tillage and animal traction, as well as to assess the effect on the soil structure of intercropping with jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.. Profiles were analyzed in April of 2006, in five counties in the Southern-Central region of Paraná State (Brazil, on family farms producing maize (Zea mays L., sometimes intercropped with jack bean. The current structures in the crop profile were analyzed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and subsequently principal component analysis (PCA to generate statistics. Morphostructural soil analysis showed a predominance of compact units in areas of high-intensity cultivation under mechanized traction. The cover crop did not improve the structure of the soil with low porosity and compact units that hamper the root system growth. In areas exposed to animal traction, a predominance of cracked units was observed, where roots grew around the clods and along the gaps between them.

  18. Comparison of the CoaguChek XS handheld coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory methods measuring international normalised ratio (INR) values during the time to therapeutic range after mechanical valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakci, Hasmet; Altıntaş, Garip; Çiçek, Omer Faruk; Kervan, Umit; Yilmaz, Sevinc; Kaplan, Sadi; Birincioglu, Cemal Levent

    2013-05-01

    To compare the international normalised ratio (INR) value of patients evaluated using the CoaguChek XS versus conventional laboratory methods, in the period after open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement until a therapeutic range is achieved using vitamin K antagonists (VKA) together with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). One hundred and five patients undergoing open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from patients before surgery, and on the second and fifth postoperative days, simultaneously for both the point of care device and conventional laboratory techniques. Patients were administered VKA together with LMWH at therapeutic doses (enoxaparin 100 IU/kg twice daily) subcutaneously, until an effective range was achieved on approximately the fifth day after surgery. The mean INR values using the CoaguChek XS preoperatively and on the second and fifth days postoperatively were 1.20 (SD ± 0.09), 1.82 (SD ± 0.45), and 2.55 (SD ± 0.55), respectively. Corresponding results obtained using conventional laboratory techniques were 1.18 (SD ± 0.1), 1.81 (SD ± 0.43), and 2.51 (SD ± 0.58). The correlation coefficient was r = 0.77 preoperatively, r = 0.981 on postoperative day 2, and r = 0.983 on postoperative day 5. Results using the CoaguChek XS Handheld Coagulation Analyzer correlated strongly with conventional laboratory methods, in the bridging period between open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement and the achievement of a therapeutic range on warfarin and LMWH. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The nuclear safety convention. Results for Argentine as contracting party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    A powerful mechanism for increasing safety worldwide is through the development and adoption of legally binding Safety Conventions. Since 1986 four Conventions were ratified in the areas of Nuclear, Radiation and Waste Safety. The Nuclear Safety Convention establishes an international co-operation mechanism to maintain safety nuclear installations, focused on: to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation including, where appropriate, safety-related technical co-operation; to establish and maintain effective defences in nuclear installations against potential radiological hazards in order to protect individuals, society and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation from such installations and to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate such consequences should they occur. Each contracting party shall take, within the framework of its national law, the legislative, regulatory and administrative measures and other steps necessary for implementing its obligations under this Convention. Moreover, each contracting parties shall submit for review prior to each review meeting, a National Report on the measures it has taken to implement each of the obligations of the Convention. The contracting parties concluded that the review process had proven to be of great value to their national nuclear safety programmes. (author)

  20. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation or Conventional Mechanical Ventilation for Neonatal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the success rate of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV for treatment of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP failure and prevention of conventional ventilation (CV in preterm neonates. Methods: Since November 2012 to April 2013, a total number of 55 consecutive newborns with gestational ages of 26-35 weeks who had CPAP failure were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. The NIPPV group received NIPPV with the initial peak inspiratory pressure (PIP of 16-20 cmH 2 O and frequency of 40-60 breaths/min. The CV group received PIP of 12-20 cmH 2 O and frequency of 40-60 breaths/min. Results: About 74% of newborns who received NIPPV for management of CPAP failure responded to NIPPV and did not need intubation and mechanical ventilation. Newborns with lower postnatal age at entry to the study and lower 5 min Apgar score more likely had NIPPV failure. In addition, treatment failure was higher in newborns who needed more frequent doses of surfactant. Duration of oxygen therapy was 9.28 days in CV group and 7.77 days in NIPPV group (P = 0.050. Length of hospital stay in CV group and NIPPV groups were 48.7 and 41.7 days, respectively (P = 0.097. Conclusions: NIPPV could decrease the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants with CPAP failure.

  1. The impact of conventional and novel metaphor in news on issue viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeynaems, A.; Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Metaphors are often used to frame news. Different types of metaphor (conventional, novel) can affect issue viewpoint via different underlying mechanisms (cognitive and affective text perception). We conducted a single-factor (type of expression: conventional metaphor, novel metaphor, nonmetaphorical

  2. The impact of conventional and novel metaphors in news on issue viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeynaems, A.; Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Metaphors are often used to frame news. Different types of metaphor (conventional, novel) can affect issue viewpoint via different underlying mechanisms (cognitive and affective text perception). We conducted a single-factor (type of expression: conventional metaphor, novel metaphor, nonmetaphorical

  3. Conventional and in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil for the production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgogianni, K.G.; Kontominas, M.G.; Pomonis, P.J. [Section of Industrial and Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina 45110-Ioannina (Greece); Avlonitis, D. [Department of Petroleum Technology, TEI of Chalkida, 34600-Kavala (Greece); Gergis, V. [Department of Food Technology, TEI of Athens, 12210-Egaleo (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    In the present work the alkaline transesterification of sunflower seed oil with methanol and ethanol, for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Both conventional and in situ transesterification were investigated using low frequency ultrasonication (24 kHz) and mechanical stirring (600 rpm). Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with methanol gave high yields of methyl esters (95%) after a short reaction time (20 min) similar to those using mechanical stirring. Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with ethanol gave similar yields to those using mechanical stirring but significantly lower than respective yields using methanol. In the in situ transesterification the use of ultrasonication and mechanical stirring led to similar high yields (95%) of methyl esters after approximately 20 min of reaction time. In the presence of ethanol use of ultrasonication led to high ester yields (98%) in only 40 min of reaction time while use of mechanical stirring gave lower yields (88%) even after 4 h of reaction time. In situ transesterification gave similar ester yields to those obtained by conventional transesterification being an alternative, efficient and economical process. In all cases a concentration of 2.0% NaOH gave higher ester yields. Reaction rate constants were calculated, using first order reaction kinetics, to be equal to 3.1 x 10{sup -} {sup 3} s{sup -} {sup 1} for conventional transesterification using methanol and 2.0% NaOH, and 9.5 x 10{sup -} {sup 4} s{sup -} {sup 1} using ethanol. (author)

  4. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Uhlig, Christopher; Bluth, Thomas; Kiss, Thomas; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo

    2014-05-02

    General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. The PROtective VARiable ventilation trial ('PROVAR') is a single center, randomized controlled trial enrolling 50 patients who are planning for open abdominal surgery expected to last longer than 3 hours. PROVAR compares conventional (non-variable) lung protective ventilation (CV) with variable lung protective ventilation (VV) regarding pulmonary function and inflammatory response. The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. Secondary endpoints include further lung function tests, plasma cytokine levels, spatial distribution of ventilation assessed by means of electrical impedance tomography and postoperative pulmonary complications. We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. PROVAR is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at intra- and postoperative effects of VV on lung function. This study may help to define the role of VV during general anesthesia requiring mechanical ventilation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01683578 (registered on September 3 3012).

  5. Regulatory inspection practices for industrial safety (electrical, mechanical, material handling and conventional aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory Inspection (RI) of BARC facilities and projects are carried out under the guidance of BARC Safety Council (BSC) Secretariat. Basically facilities and projects have been divided into two board categories viz. radiological facilities and non-radiological facilities. The Rls of radiological facilities should be carried out under OPSRC and of non-radiological facilities under CFSRC. Periodicity of inspection shall be at least once in a year. The RI of projects is carried out under concerned DSRC. RI practices with industrial safety which includes electrical, mechanical, material handling and conventional aspect for these facilities starts with check lists. The inspection areas are prepared in the form of checklists which includes availability of approved documents, compliance status of previous RIT and various safety committee's recommendations, radiological status of facilities, prompt reporting of safety related unusual occurrences, major incident, site visit for verification of actual status of system/plant. The practices for inspection in the area of electrical safety shall include checking of maintenance procedure for all critical class IV system equipment's such as HT panel, LT panel, transformer and motors. Load testing of Class III system such as D.G. set etc. shall be carried out as technical specification surveillance schedule. Status of aviation lights, number of qualified staff, availability of qualified staff etc. shall be form of inspection

  6. Prototype of a mechanical assistance device for the wrists' flexion-extension movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politti, Julio C; Puglisi, Lisandro J; Farfan, Fernando D

    2007-01-01

    Using CMU actuators, a Prototype of Mechanical Assistance Device for the Wrist's Flexion Movement (PMA) was developed and probed in a mechanical model, in order to be implemented in a future as a dynamic powered orthosis or as a rehabilitation assistant instrument. Two Mayor Actuators conformed by three CMU actuators arranged in a series configuration, allows to an artificial hand to be placed in four predefined positions: 0 0 , 20 0 , 40 0 and 60 0 . The synchronism and control of the actuators is achieved with the Programmable Control Module (PCM). It is capable to drive up to six CMU actuators, and possess two different modes of execution: a Manual mode and an Exercise mode. In the Manual Mode, the position of the hand responds directly to the commands of the keyboard of the front panel, and in the Exercise mode, the hand realizes a repetitive and programmed movement. The prototype was tested in 100 positions in the Manual Mode and for 225 works cycles in the Exercise Mode. The relative repetition error was less than 5% for both test. This prototype only consumes 4,15W, which makes it possible to be powered by small rechargeable batteries, allowing its use as a portable device

  7. Effect of arch support insole on plantar pressure distribution in females with mild and moderate hallux valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Farzadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hallux Valgus is one of the most foot deformities which increase plantar pressure beneath big toe and first metatarsal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foot orthosis on plantar pressure distribution in subjects with mild and moderate Hallux Valgus. Materials & Methods: in this quasi-experimental study, females 16 with Hallux Valgus were recruited. Plantar pressure in 8 area of foot was measured by Pedar-X insole when wearing standard shoe only shoe with foot orthosis and shoe with foot orthosis after a month of using orthosis. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance test. Results: using foot orthosis for a month leaded to decrease pressure in the big toe (P<0/019 first metatarsal and 3-5 metatarsals (P<0.001 and also increased pressure in medial mid foot (P<0.001. Conclusion: Foot orthosis decreased peak pressure in fore foot and increased it in medial mid foot. Therefore redistribute plantar pressure to the more normal pattern in Hallux Valgus subjects. So it could be one of the effective methods to prevent the progression of this deformity in its initial steps of formation.

  8. The effect of combined conventional and modified ultrafiltration on mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic changes in congenital heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziyaeifard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased fluid accumulation around the heart which influences pulmonary and cardiac diastolic function. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of modified ultrafiltration (MUF versus conventional ultrafiltration (CUF on duration of mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic status in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 46 pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass throughout their congenital heart surgery. Arteriovenous MUF plus CUF was performed in 23 patients (intervention group and sole CUF was performed for other 23 patients (control group. In MUF group, arterial cannula was linked to the filter inlet through the arterial line, and for 10 min, 10 ml/kg/min of blood was filtered and returned via cardioplegia line to the right atrium. Different parameters including hemodynamic variables, length of mechanical ventilation, Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay, and inotrope requirement were compared between the two groups. Results: At immediate post-MUF phase, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05 only in the study group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in time of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.004 and ICU stay (P = 0.007 between the two groups. Inotropes including milrinone (P = 0.04, epinephrine (P = 0.001, and dobutamine (P = 0.002 were used significantly less frequently for patients in the intervention than the control group. Conclusion: Administration of MUF following surgery improves hemodynamic status of patients and also significantly decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation and inotrope requirement within 48 h after surgery.

  9. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  10. Novel Deployment Mechanism for Conventional Solar Array Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgetts Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mechanism is described, by which flexible blankets could be deployed from existing solar panel designs. These blankets could be covered with flexible cells, or they could be reflective films to form a concentrator array. Either way, the performance of an existing array design could be enhanced.

  11. Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management Systems on the Performance and Carcass Yield of Broiler Chickens. ... TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or ...

  12. Influence of Porous Spherical-Shaped Hydroxyapatite on Mechanical Strength and Bioactive Function of Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Yu Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ionomer-cement (GIC is helpful in Minimal Intervention Dentistry because it releases fluoride ions and is highly biocompatible. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms by which hydroxyapatite (HAp improves the mechanical strength and bioactive functioning of GIC when these materials are combined to make apatite ionomer cement (AIC. A conventional GIC powder was mixed with porous, spherical-HAp particles (HApS, crystalline HAp (HAp200 or one of two types of cellulose. The micro-compressive strengths of the additive particles were measured, and various specimens were evaluated with regard to their compressive strengths (CS, fluoride release concentrations (fluoride electrode and multi-element release concentrations. The AIC was found to release higher concentrations of fluoride (1.2 times and strontium ions (1.5 times compared to the control GIC. It was detected the more release of calcium originated from HApS than HAp200 in AIC. The CS of the AIC incorporating an optimum level of HAp was also significantly higher than that of the GIC. These results suggest that adding HAp can increase the release concentration of ions required for remineralization while maintaining the CS of the GIC. This effect does not result from a physical phenomenon, but rather from chemical reactions between the HAp and polyacrylic acid of GIC.

  13. Multicenter comparative study of conventional mechanical gas ventilation to tidal liquid ventilation in oleic acid injured sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Marla R; Hirschl, Ronald B; Jackson, J Craig; Gauvin, France; Foley, David S; Lamm, Wayne J E; Gaughan, John; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    We performed a multicenter study to test the hypothesis that tidal liquid ventilation (TLV) would improve cardiopulmonary, lung histomorphological, and inflammatory profiles compared with conventional mechanical gas ventilation (CMV). Sheep were studied using the same volume-controlled, pressure-limited ventilator systems, protocols, and treatment strategies in three independent laboratories. Following baseline measurements, oleic acid lung injury was induced and animals were randomized to 4 hours of CMV or TLV targeted to "best PaO2" and PaCO2 35 to 60 mm Hg. The following were significantly higher (p ventilation, physiologic shunt, plasma lactate, lung interleukin-6, interleukin-8, myeloperoxidase, and composite total injury score. No significant laboratories by treatment group interactions were found. In summary, TLV resulted in improved cardiopulmonary physiology at lower ventilatory requirements with more favorable histological and inflammatory profiles than CMV. As such, TLV offers a feasible ventilatory alternative as a lung protective strategy in this model of acute lung injury.

  14. Comparing Amazon's Mechanical Turk Platform to Conventional Data Collection Methods in the Health and Medical Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Karoline; Hughes, Taylor L

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this article is to conduct an assessment of the peer-reviewed primary literature with study objectives to analyze Amazon.com 's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as a research tool in a health services research and medical context. Searches of Google Scholar and PubMed databases were conducted in February 2017. We screened article titles and abstracts to identify relevant articles that compare data from MTurk samples in a health and medical context to another sample, expert opinion, or other gold standard. Full-text manuscript reviews were conducted for the 35 articles that met the study criteria. The vast majority of the studies supported the use of MTurk for a variety of academic purposes. The literature overwhelmingly concludes that MTurk is an efficient, reliable, cost-effective tool for generating sample responses that are largely comparable to those collected via more conventional means. Caveats include survey responses may not be generalizable to the US population.

  15. Porous calcium polyphosphate bone substitutes: additive manufacturing versus conventional gravity sinter processing-effect on structure and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youxin; Shanjani, Yaser; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Grynpas, Marc; Wang, Rizhi; Pilliar, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) structures proposed as bone-substitute implants and made by sintering CPP powders to form bending test samples of approximately 35 vol % porosity were machined from preformed blocks made either by additive manufacturing (AM) or conventional gravity sintering (CS) methods and the structure and mechanical characteristics of samples so made were compared. AM-made samples displayed higher bending strengths (≈1.2-1.4 times greater than CS-made samples), whereas elastic constant (i.e., effective elastic modulus of the porous structures) that is determined by material elastic modulus and structural geometry of the samples was ≈1.9-2.3 times greater for AM-made samples. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that samples made by either method displayed the same crystal structure forming β-CPP after sinter annealing. The material elastic modulus, E, determined using nanoindentation tests also showed the same value for both sample types (i.e., E ≈ 64 GPa). Examination of the porous structures indicated that significantly larger sinter necks resulted in the AM-made samples which presumably resulted in the higher mechanical properties. The development of mechanical properties was attributed to the different sinter anneal procedures required to make 35 vol % porous samples by the two methods. A primary objective of the present study, in addition to reporting on bending strength and sample stiffness (elastic constant) characteristics, was to determine why the two processes resulted in the observed mechanical property differences for samples of equivalent volume percentage of porosity. An understanding of the fundamental reason(s) for the observed effect is considered important for developing improved processes for preparation of porous CPP implants as bone substitutes for use in high load-bearing skeletal sites. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Modeling and analysis of conventional and heat-integrated distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2015-01-01

    A generic model that can cover diabatic and adiabatic distillation column configurations is presented, with the aim ofproviding a consistent basis for comparison of alternative distillation column technologies. Both a static and a dynamic formulation of the model, together with a model catalogue...... consisting of the conventional, the heat-integrated and the mechanical vapor recompression distillation columns are presented. The solution procedure of the model is outlined and illustrated in three case studies. One case study being a benchmark study demonstrating the size of the model and the static...... properties of two different heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) schemes and the mechanical vapor recompression column. The second case study exemplifies the difference between a HIDiC and a conventional distillation column in the composition profiles within a multicomponent separation, whereas...

  17. Effect of incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on mechanical properties of conventional glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Aghaee, Mohammadamin; Hasani, Elham; Safa, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the physical properties of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GICs) compared to GICs supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofiller particles at 5% (w/w). In this in vitro study, ZnO nanoparticles of different morphologies (nanospherical, nanorod, and nanoflower) were incorporated to glass ionomer powder. The samples were subjected to the flexural strength ( n = 20) and surface hardness test ( n = 12) using a universal testing machine and a Vickers hardness machine, respectively. Surface analysis and crystal structure of samples were performed with scanning electron microscope and X-radiation diffraction, respectively. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk, and Tukey's tests ( P glass ionomer containing nanoparticles was not significantly different from the control group ( P > 0.05). The surface hardness of the glass ionomer containing nanospherical or nanoflower ZnO was significantly lower than the control group ( P glass ionomer containing nanorod ZnO was not significantly different from the control group ( P = 0.868). Incorporation of nanospherical and nanoflower ZnO to glass ionomer decreased their surface hardness, without any changes on their flexural strength. Incorporation of nanorod ZnO particles caused no effect on the mechanical properties.

  18. Gait COP trajectory of left side hip-dislocation and scoliotic patient using ankle-foot orthoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Albert K.; Alrikabi, Redha; Milburn, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Plantar pressure-sensing mats and insole plantar sensor pads are ideal low-cost alternatives to force plates for capturing plantar COP excursion during gait. The acquired COP traces, in the form of pedobarographic images are favored by many clinicians and allied health professionals for evaluation of foot loading and balance in relation to foot biomechanics, foot injury, foot deformation, and foot ulceration. Researchers have recommended the use of COP trace for the biomechanical study of the deformed foot and lower-limb to improve orthosis design and testing. A correctly designed orthoses improves mobility and reduces pain in the foot, lower limb and lower spine region during gait. The research was carried out to evaluate the performance of two types of orthosis, namely: a custom-molded orthosis and an over-the-counter molded orthosis to determine the quality of gait of an adult scoliotic patient. COP trace patterns were compared with those of a healthy adult and showed the design of the custom-molded orthosis resulted in an improved quality of movements and provided enhanced stability for the deformed left foot during gait.

  19. A proposed structure for an international convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitze, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author recommends a framework convention that will stimulate policy changes without expensive emission reductions in the short term. A central task for a climate convention will be to provide the international community with a permanent mechanism for coordinating its efforts to deal with climate change. The convention should go beyond organizational structure to establish a process for updating the parties' understanding of the science and potential impacts of climate change and for building consensus on policy responses. Each party must then be required to prepare and distribute its own national plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for adapting to future change while achieving its development objectives. A set of targets and timetables for the reduction of greenhouse gas reductions is presented

  20. A three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatone, Stefania; Johnson, William Brett; Tucker, Kerice

    2016-04-01

    Misalignment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis joint axis with the anatomic joint axis may lead to discomfort, alterations in gait, and tissue damage. Theoretical, two-dimensional models describe the consequences of misalignments, but cannot capture the three-dimensional behavior of ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this project was to develop a model to describe the effects of ankle-foot orthosis ankle joint misalignment in three dimensions. Computational simulation. Three-dimensional scans of a leg and ankle-foot orthosis were incorporated into a link segment model where the ankle-foot orthosis joint axis could be misaligned with the anatomic ankle joint axis. The leg/ankle-foot orthosis interface was modeled as a network of nodes connected by springs to estimate interface pressure. Motion between the leg and ankle-foot orthosis was calculated as the ankle joint moved through a gait cycle. While the three-dimensional model corroborated predictions of the previously published two-dimensional model that misalignments in the anterior -posterior direction would result in greater relative motion compared to misalignments in the proximal -distal direction, it provided greater insight showing that misalignments have asymmetrical effects. The three-dimensional model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist others in understanding the consequences of joint misalignments. Models and simulations can be used to gain insight into functioning of systems of interest. We have developed a three-dimensional model to assess the effect of ankle joint axis misalignments in ankle-foot orthoses. The model has been incorporated into a freely available computer program to assist understanding of trainees and others interested in orthotics. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  1. Effect of conventional and subzero treating on the mechanical properties of aged martensitic Fe-12 wt.% Ni-X wt.% Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedjad, S. Hossein; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Mahmudi, R.; Farhangi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn maraging alloys are suffering from sever embrittlement after aging. Mechanism of the embrittelement has not been well understood yet. Segregation of Mn atoms or formation of Austenite particles at prior Austenite grain boundaries (PAGBs) have been reported as embrittelement mechanisms while it remains controversial now. For better understanding of embrittelement behavior, effect of subzero treating after aging, double aging and modification of alloy composition on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior were investigated. Alloys of chemical compositions Fe-11.9 wt.% Ni-6.3 wt.% Mn and Fe-10.5 wt.% Ni-5.8 wt.% Mo-3 wt.% Mn were studied. Double solution annealing was performed at 1223 and 1093 K for 3.6 ks followed by water quenching. After aging at 723 K for 0.9 ks (under aging) and 172.8 ks (over aging), tensile properties of specimens heat treated conventionally and cryogenically were measured. Double aging was done at 623 K for 3.6 ks followed by a step aging at 753, 783 and 803 K. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10.5 wt.% Ni-5.8 wt.% Mo-3 wt.% Mn were investigated after aging at 773 K. Results showed that alloy modification yields reasonable tensile properties while subzero treatment and double aging couldn't improve tensile properties. An insight toward more investigation of the embrittelement mechanism was made on the basis of this study

  2. Effects of Conventional Mechanical Ventilation Performed by Two Neonatal Ventilators on the Lung Functions of Rabbits with Meconium-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokra D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS in the neonates often requires a ventilatory support. As a method of choice, a conventional mechanical ventilation with small tidal volumes (VT<6 ml/kg and appropriate ventilatory pressures is used. The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effects of the small-volume CMV performed by two neonatal ventilators: Aura V (Chirana Stara Tura a.s., Slovakia and SLE5000 (SLE Ltd., UK on the lung functions of rabbits with experimentally-induced MAS and to estimate whether the newly developed neonatal version of the ventilator Aura V is suitable for ventilation of the animals with MAS.

  3. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  4. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  5. Development of a tilting system for electric multiple unit to speed up on conventional lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sung Il; Kim, Nam Po; Lee, Soo Gil; Kim, Seok Won

    2008-01-01

    An advanced tilting system for KTT (Korean Tilting Train) was developed and a performance test of the system has been completed. KTT has been constructed to speed up and promise a significant enhancement in service quality on a conventional line. KTT is an electric multiple unit composed of 6 cars running at the design speed of 200 km/h. The tilting system is the core technology of KTT and combined with the conventional bogie system. It has a self-steering mechanism and a swing link. The self-steering mechanism of Z-bar type is free to rotate on the curve and stable to run on a straight line. The swing link mechanism of the bolster enables the carbody to tilt up to 8 .deg.. A tilting control system detects a curve with sensors and commands the electro-mechanical actuators to move the bolster through the computer network system. GPS collaborates with the tilting system to perceive the curve previously and enables gradual tilting so as not to violate passenger comfort. The performance of the tilting system has been verified by a trial test running of KTT on a commercial conventional line. The tilting system is ready for commercial use

  6. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  7. Pricing linkage between Islamic banking and conventional banking: The case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwar Uddin Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking is based on profit and loss mechanism where the use of interest is prohibited.  Unlike conventional banks, these banks do not charge a specific rate of interest, rather provides financing in exchange for profit sharing.  However, there are studies claiming that, in practice, Islamic banking is same as conventional banking with regard to the use of interest. It is also claimed that, Islamic deposits are not interest-free, but are closely attached to conventional deposits.   On this background, the objective of this study is to examine the relationship between pricing in Islamic banks vis-à-vis conventional banks by taking the case of Bangladesh. We have used monthly data during the period of 2009-2013. The findings of the study showed that, there is no statistically significant difference between the monthly average lending rates of Islamic banks and conventional banks. However, there is significant difference between deposit rates. The existence of causal relationship was inconclusive, and requires further analysis.

  8. Navigated versus conventional total knee arthroplasty: A prospective study at three years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, C; Sanz-Sainz, M; Revenga-Giertych, C; Hernández-Vaquero, D; Fernández-Carreira, J M; Albareda-Albareda, J; Castillo-Palacios, A; Ranera-Garcia, M

    2018-03-28

    Computer-assisted surgery application in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has shown more accurate implant alignment compared with conventional instrumentation and is associated with more homogeneous alignment results. Although longer implant survival and superior clinical outcomes should be expected from navigated TKA, currently available evidence does not support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to compare navigated TKA with conventional TKA regarding clinical and radiological outcomes after a 3-year follow-up under the hypothesis that navigated TKA would provide better outcomes than conventional TKA. In a prospective multicentre study, 119 patients underwent navigated TKA and 80 patients received conventional instrumentation. Patients were evaluated at the baseline and at postoperative months 3, 12, 24, and 36. Analysis included the American Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short Form-12 (SF12) Health Survey, and radiographic assessment. All clinical scores improved significantly for all patients during the follow-up but were significantly better in the navigation group. The percentage of patients showing a mechanical axis between 3° of varus and 3° of valgus was significantly higher in the ATR group (93%) than in the conventional TKA group (71%) (P<.01). The use of computer-assisted surgery in TKA provides more accurate mechanical alignment and superior short-term functional outcomes compared to conventional TKA. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical and thermal properties of conventional and microcellular injection molded poly (lactic acid)/poly (ε-caprolactone) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haibin; Zhao, Guoqun

    2016-01-01

    In view of their complementary properties, blending polylactide (PLA) with poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) becomes a good choice to improve PLA's properties without compromising its biodegradability. A series of blends of biodegradable PLA and PCL with different mass fraction were prepared by melt mixing. Standard tensile bars were produced by both conventional and microcellular injection molding to study their mechanical and thermal properties. With the increase in PCL content, the blend showed decreased tensile strength and modulus; however, elongation was dramatically increased. With the addition of PCL, the failure mode changed from brittle fracture of the neat PLA to ductile fracture of the blend as demonstrated by tensile test. Various theoretical models based on dispersion and interface adhesion were used to predict the Young's modulus and the results shows the experimental data are consistent with the predictions of the foam model and Kerner-Uemura-Takayangi model. The thermal behavior of the blends was investigated by DSC and TGA. The melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PCL in the PLA/PCL did not significantly change with the PCL content increasing in the whole range of blends composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical Weapons Convention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  11. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA) [fr

  12. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  13. Biomechanics of the immediate impact of wearing a rigid thoracolumbar corset on gait kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiar Redha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corset support is a device classified as orthosis. It compensates a functional deficiency with means of protection, recovery, correction, maintenance, and support or contention. There are two types of orthosis 1 rest orthosis and 2 corrective orthosis. Rest orthosis maintains joints in a defined position to avoid deformities or to relieve a pain at joints. Corrective orthosis adjusts joint deformity either passively or actively. Corset is used in various pathological use, thoracic-lumbar fracture, scoliosis, Scheuermann’s disease or spinal dystrophy. The purpose of this study was 1 to determine the immediate impact of wearing a semi-rigid thoracolumbar corset, the Lombax® Dorso on gait kinematics and 2 spatiotemporal parameters in 6 adults. These parameters were recorded using the optoelectronic system Vicon® on treadmill gait subjects with and without corset for the comparison. The results showed that wearing a corset significantly decrease the rotation amplitudes of the scapular and pelvic girdles (p<0.05 in the frontal plane. The movement of the pelvis and hip in this same plane was decreased also when comparing with and without a corset effects (p<0.05. The corset significantly increased the range of flexion-extension of the hip during the gait cycle. At the conclusion of this study the discriminate parameters of wearing a corset was quantified. The results and in association with manufacturer will help to improve materials for better optimization support. Comparable perspectives and after improvement of materials will aim to experiment with patients on real daily life situation.

  14. Mechanisms of conventional and high Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.L.; Morawitz, H.; Wolf, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book gives a careful and objective review of theories of superconductivity in traditional superconductors, organics, and high Tc cuprates. Of course, the authors do still present their own theories of cuprate superconductivity, but only in the final chapter after other possibilities have been discussed. The book should be especially useful for researchers entering the field of high Tc superconductivity. The reviews of photon mediated pairing and strong coupling theory are very welcome, since much of this material has not been reviewed since the classic 1969 volume edited by Parks. In particular the authors dispel the various myths that phonon mediated pairing leads to upper bounds on Tc. In addition to phonon mediated pairing the book discussed in detail pairing due to exchange of acoustic (demon) plasmons, excitons, or magnetic fluctuations. There have been so many diverse mechanisms based on strong correlation and large U Hubbard models that a book like this can only discuss a limited selection of the main contenders. In particular here the emphasis on Fermi liquid based models no doubt reflects the authors' own point of view. A whole chapter discusses the concepts of induced superconductivity, in the proximity effect, and its application to materials with several different electronic subsystems

  15. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  16. 9th Structural Engineering Convention 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents research papers presented by academicians, researchers, and practicing structural engineers from India and abroad in the recently held Structural Engineering Convention (SEC) 2014 at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi during 22 – 24 December 2014. The book is divided into three volumes and encompasses multidisciplinary areas within structural engineering, such as earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, structural mechanics, finite element methods, structural vibration control, advanced cementitious and composite materials, bridge engineering, and soil-structure interaction. Advances in Structural Engineering is a useful reference material for structural engineering fraternity including undergraduate and postgraduate students, academicians, researchers and practicing engineers.

  17. The Aarhus Convention: A new regional convention on citizens' environmental rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wates, J.

    2000-01-01

    The UN ECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters had been adopted at Arhus, Denmark, at the Fourth Ministerial Conference in the 'Environment for Europe' process, and signed by thirty-five countries and the European Community. This paper summarises the main features of the Convention and briefly discusses its relevance to radioactive waste management issues. It then describes some of the activities currently being undertaken under the auspices of the Convention. (author)

  18. Human Walk Modeled by PCPG to Control a Lower Limb Neuroprosthesis by High-Level Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Duvinage

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current active leg prostheses do not integrate the most recent advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI and bipedal robotics. Moreover, their actuators are seldom driven by the subject’s intention. This paper aims at showing a summary of our current results in the field of human gait rehabilitation. In a first prototype, the main focus was on people suffering from foot drop problems, i.e. people who are unable to lift their feet. However, current work is focusing on a full active ankle orthosis. The approach is threefold: a BCI system, a gait model and an orthosis. Thanks to the BCI system, patients are able to generate high-level commands. Typically, a command could represent a speed modification. Then, a gait model based on a programmable central pattern generator is used to generate the adequate kinematics. Finally, the orthosis is tracking this kinematics when the foot is in the air, whereas, the orthosis is mimicking a spring when the foot is on the ground.

  19. Comparison of the monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained low carbon steels processed by continuous and conventional equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niendorf, T.; Böhner, A.; Höppel, H.W.; Göken, M.; Valiev, R.Z.; Maier, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► UFG low-carbon steel was successfully processed by continuous ECAP-Conform. ► Continuously processed UFG steel shows high performance. ► High monotonic strength and good ductility. ► Microstructural stability under cyclic loading in the LCF regime. ► Established concepts can be used for predicting the properties. - Abstract: In the current study the mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained low carbon steel processed by conventional equal channel angular pressing and a continuous equal channel angular pressing-Conform process were investigated. Both monotonic and cyclic properties were determined for the steel in either condition and found to be very similar. Microstructural analyses employing electron backscatter diffraction were used for comparison of the low carbon steels processed by either technique. Both steels feature very similar grain sizes and misorientation angle distributions. With respect to fatigue life the low carbon steel investigated shows properties similar to ultra-fine grained interstitial-free steel processed by conventional equal channel angular pressing, and thus, the general fatigue behavior can be addressed following the same routines as proposed for interstitial-free steel. In conclusion, the continuously processed material exhibits very promising properties, and thus, equal channel angular pressing-Conform is a promising tool for production of ultra-fine grained steels in a large quantity

  20. Early functional outcome of two different orthotic concepts in ankle sprains: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Raymond; Böhle, Caroline; Schiffer, Thorsten; Petersen, Wolf; Ellermann, Andree; Brueggemann, Gert Peter; Liebau, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Purpose of the study was the evaluation of the early functional outcome of patients with an acute ankle sprain treated either with a semirigid, variable, phase-adapted modular ankle orthosis or an invariable orthotic reference device. Forty-seven patients with acute ankle sprain grade II or more were included. In addition, 77 healthy controls as a reference were investigated. The injured subjects were treated with one of the two devices by random for 6 weeks. Ankle scores (FAOS, AOFAS) were taken at baseline after injury, 1 and 3 months after injury. Functional performance tests (balance platform, zig zag run, shuttle run, vertical drop jump) were performed at 1 and 3 months after injury. No significant score differences could be found between the two intervention groups except for achieving a preinjury activity level after 3 months only in the modular orthosis group. Postural functional performances (balance test) also showed no significant differences whereas the results of the agility tests revealed small but significant better results in the modular orthosis group in comparison to the invariable orthosis group. Cohen's effect sizes were high. Differences between the two intervention groups were marginal and very small but significant and--regarding Cohen's effect sizes--effective. Especially relating to functional performance, this might be a careful indication that a more effective strategy for promoting a protected, rapid recovery to physical activity after ankle sprains might be achieved by applying a phase-adapted ankle orthosis. Especially in athletic patients, phase-adapted orthosis should be further investigated and considered to ensure fully protected ligament healing as well as to regain early functional recovery.

  1. Slow release coating remedy for nitrogen loss from conventional urea: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2016-03-10

    Developing countries are consuming major part of the global urea production with an anticipated nitrogen use efficiency of 20 to 35%. The release of excess nitrogen in the soil is not only detrimental to the environment but also lessens the efficiency of the conventional urea. The urea performance can be enhanced by encapsulating it with slow release coating materials and synchronizing the nutrients' release with the plant up-taking. However, the present cost of most of the coated fertilizers is considerably higher than the conventional fertilizers. The high cost factor prevents their widespread use in mainstream agriculture. This paper documents a review of literature related to the global urea market, issues pertaining to the conventional urea use, natural and synthetic materials for slow release urea and fluidized bed spray coating process. The aim of the current review is to develop technical understanding of the conventional and non-conventional coating materials and associated spray coating mechanism for slow release urea production. The study also investigated the potential of starch as the coating material in relation to the coatings tested previously for controlled release fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress towards a convention on the safe management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Jankowitsch, O.

    1996-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was prepared during the period 1992 to 1994 and after consideration by a diplomatic conference in June 1994 was opened for signature at the general conference of the IAEA in September 1994. The matter of the safety of radioactive waste was discussed many times during the development of the convention but it was eventually decided to restrict the coverage to matters concerned with nuclear safety of land-based civil nuclear power plants and those aspects of radioactive waste management directly connected with and carried out on the same site as the power plant. In the preamble to the convention, however, item (ix) affirms 'the need to begin promptly the development of an international convention on the safety of radioactive waste management as soon as the ongoing process to develop waste management safety fundamentals has resulted in broad international agreement'. In September 1994, the general conference of the IAEA also passed a resolution inviting the board of governors and the director general to commence preparations for a convention on the safety of radioactive waste management. The director general therefore organized a preparatory meeting of experts from member states to discuss the basic concepts and the possible scope of such a convention and to examine working methods and the procedures for its preparation. This meeting which took place in February 1995 prepared a paper entitled 'Inventory of Issues Raised' and proposed that the appropriate mechanism would be the setting up of an open-ended group of legal and technical experts to prepare the convention. The Safety Series document at the fundamentals level on the principles of radioactive waste management was approved by the Board of Governors in March 1995 and all the initial preconditions for starting work on the convention were then fulfilled. (author)

  3. A comparison of conventional mechanical testing techniques with innovative testing techniques for the evaluation of mechanical properties of NPP structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, P.A.; Kopriva, R.

    2015-01-01

    The innovative testing methods of Small Punch (SP) and Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) tests are based on the determination of material properties from sub-sized samples. These methods are promising to evaluate the components of nuclear power plants since they preserve the structural integrity of the component. The SP test is a semi-destructive method that employs miniaturised plate-shaped samples of various geometries. The method is based on the penetration of a sample with a semi-spherical punch. The sample deflection is measured throughout the test. The ABI test is a fully automatic test based on multiple indentations at a single penetration location on a polished sample surface with a spherical indenter of various diameters. The purpose of the test is to determine the tensile properties of materials in a non-destructive and localised fashion. A comparison has been made between SP, ABI and conventional tensile tests on the measurement of yield strength for the A533B (JRQ) ferritic steel which is a base metal of the pressure vessels of western PWR. The results show an excellent correlation for both innovative methods and the conventional tensile tests

  4. Development of conventional fatigue database for structure materials of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bing

    2002-01-01

    Management system of the conventional fatigue database for structure materials of nuclear power plant (NPP) is developed. The database included the parameters of design curves, i.e., the stress-life, survival probability-stress-life, strain-life, survival probability-strain-life, stress-strain and survival probability-stress-strain curves, and corresponding information of materials and testing conditions. Two ways, by materials name or by the inter-bounds of material mechanical properties, are constructed to search the database. From the searched information it can be conveniently performed of the conventional fatigue design analysis and reliability assessment of structures

  5. A new and efficient mechanism for spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadloo, M.S.; Poultangari, R.; Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, M.Y.; Rashidi, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new slider–crank mechanism, with superior performance is presented. • Thermodynamic processes as well as vibration and internal forces have been modeled. • Comparison with the conventional four-stroke spark ignition engines is made. • Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mechanism are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper a new symmetrical crank and slider mechanism is proposed and a zero dimensional model is utilized to study its combustion performance enhancement in a four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. The main features of this new mechanism are superior thermodynamic efficiency, lower internal frictions, and lower pollutants. Comparison is made between its performance and that of the conventional four-stroke SI engines. Presented mechanism is designed to provide better fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. These advantages over standard engine are achieved through synthesis of new mechanism. Numerical calculation have been performed for several cases of different mechanism parameters, compression ratio and engine speed. A comprehensive comparison between their thermodynamic processes as well as vibration and internal forces has been done. Calculated efficiency and power diagrams are plotted and compared with performance of a conventional SI engine. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mechanism are discussed in details

  6. IKO: A Five Actuated DoF Upper Limb Exoskeleton Oriented to Workplace Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IKerlan’s Orthosis (IKO is an upper limb exoskeleton oriented to increasing human force during routine activity at the workplace. Therefore, it can be considered as a force-amplification device conceived to work in collaboration with the human arm and implementing biomimetic principles. The aim of the proposed design is to find the best compromise between maximum reachable workspace and minimum moving mass, which are the key factors for obtaining an ergonomic, wearable exoskeleton. It consists of five actuated degree of freedom (DoF to move the human arm and three non-actuated DoF between the back and shoulder to allow relative displacement of the sterno-clavicular joint. Conventional electrical motors are used for most of the DoF and pneumatic muscles for one of them (forearm rotation. Power transmission is based on Bowden cables. This paper presents the IKO design, the mechanical structure of a first prototype and the redesign process from an aesthetic point of view. Controller set-up and control strategies are also shown, together with dynamic performance from experimental results.

  7. Comparison of energy efficiency between Wearable Power-Assist Locomotor (WPAL) and two types of knee-ankle-foot orthoses with a medial single hip joint (MSH-KAFO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuya, Kanan; Hirano, Satoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Eguchi, Masayuki; Katoh, Masaki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Uno, Akito; Kagaya, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    To compare the energy efficiency of Wearable Power-Assist Locomotor (WPAL) with conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses (MSH-KAFO) such as Hip and Ankle Linked Orthosis (HALO) or Primewalk. Cross over case-series. Chubu Rosai Hospital, Aichi, Japan, which is affiliated with the Japan Organization of Occupational Health and Safety. Six patients were trained with MSH-KAFO (either HALO or Primewalk) and WPAL. They underwent 6-minute walk tests with each orthosis. Energy efficiency was estimated using physiological cost index (PCI) as well as heart rate (HR) and modified Borg score. Trial energy efficiency with MSH-KAFO was compared with WPAL to assess if differences in PCI became greater between MSH-KAFO and WPAL as time goes on during the 6-minute walk. Spearman correlation coefficient of time (range: 0.5-6.0 minutes) with the difference was calculated. The same statistical procedures were repeated for HR and modified Borg score. Greater energy efficiency, representing a lower gait demand, was observed in trials with WPAL compared with MSH-KAFO (Spearman correlation coefficients for PCI, HR and modified Borg were 0.93, 0.90 and 0.97, respectively, all P energy efficient type of robotics that may be used by patients with paraplegia.

  8. Results of treatment of clubfoot by Ponseti′s technique in 40 cases : Pitfalls and problems in the Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Atul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Though described long back, there has been a renewed interest towards Ponseti method of conservative treatment of clubfoot recently. Methods : Forty children with idiopathic clubfeet were treated by Ponseti technique. The median age at presentation was 9 days. Twenty-six children with bilateral and 12 children with unilateral clubfeet were graded by the Pirani method at the commencement of treatment and then at the final follow-up. Feet were graded as excellent if the Pirani score was zero, fair, if the sum of mid-foot and hind-foot score was one or less and poor, if the score was more than one. Thirty four children need a heel cord tenotomy and all children received conventional ankle-foot orthosis (AFO and foot-abduction orthosis (FAO to maintain correction. Results : Twenty-eight children had excellent correction, four had a fair outcome and eight cases had relapse in their deformity. Poor splint compliance and fitting along with incomplete correction of the deformity were identified as the chief causes leading to a poor result. Conclusion : A strict protocol and parent education can improve the outcome for all cases with the Ponseti technique. Key-words: Clubfoot; Congenital talipes equinovarus; Ponseti technique.

  9. Debris and friction of self-ligating and conventional orthodontic brackets after clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Raíssa Costa; Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; Araujo, Adriana Monteiro de; Normando, David

    2015-07-01

    To compare the degree of debris and friction of conventional and self-ligating orthodontic brackets before and after clinical use. Two sets of three conventional and self-ligating brackets were bonded from the first molar to the first premolar in eight individuals, for a total of 16 sets per type of brackets. A passive segment of 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was inserted into each group of brackets. Frictional force and debris level were evaluated as received and after 8 weeks of intraoral exposure. Two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were applied at P brackets (P brackets showed a higher amount of debris compared with the conventional brackets. The frictional force in conventional brackets was significantly higher when compared with self-ligating brackets before clinical use (P brackets, when exposed to the intraoral environment, showed a significant increase in frictional force during the sliding mechanics. Debris accumulation was higher for the self-ligating system.

  10. Application of the Aarhus Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention has been adopted in 1998 and entered into force three years later. It envisages three elements for strengthening democratic procedures in decision-making: access to information, public participation and access to justice. At the first meeting of the Member States the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee was founded. The European Union is a party of the Convention and it has implemented the provisions in its legal order. After entering into force of the Convention, several Directives that regulate these issues in the EU have been enacted. Republic of Serbia has ratified the Convention in 2009 and it is currently in the process of its implementation by involving private subjects in decision-making on environmental issues.

  11. Analysis of Interrelationships among Voluntary and Prosthetic Leg Joint Parameters Using Cyclograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasni, Farahiyah; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Mohd Syah, Nor Elleeiana; Chung, Tze Y; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2017-01-01

    The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design. To develop the cyclogram model, 20 healthy able-bodied subjects and 25 prosthesis and orthosis users (10 transtibial amputees, 5 transfemoral amputees, and 10 different pathological profiles of orthosis users) walked at their comfortable speed in a 3D motion analysis lab setting. The gait parameters (i.e., angle, moment and power for the ankle, knee and hip joints) were coupled to form 36 cyclograms relationship. The model was validated by quantifying the gait disparities of all the pathological walking by analyzing each cyclograms pairs using feed-forward neural network with backpropagation. Subsequently, the cyclogram pairs that contributed to the highest gait disparity of each gait phase were manipulated by replacing it with normal values and re-analyzed. The manipulated cyclograms relationship that showed highest improvement in terms of gait disparity calculation suggested that they are the most dominant parameters in powered-knee control. In case of transfemoral amputee walking, it was identified using this approach that at each gait sub-phase, the knee variables most responsible for closest to normal walking were: knee power during loading response and mid-stance, knee moment and knee angle during terminal stance phase, knee angle and knee power during pre-swing, knee angle at initial swing, and knee power at terminal swing. No variable was dominant during mid-swing phase implying natural pendulum effect of the lower limb between

  12. Analysis of Interrelationships among Voluntary and Prosthetic Leg Joint Parameters Using Cyclograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azah Hamzaid

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design. To develop the cyclogram model, 20 healthy able-bodied subjects and 25 prosthesis and orthosis users (10 transtibial amputees, 5 transfemoral amputees, and 10 different pathological profiles of orthosis users walked at their comfortable speed in a 3D motion analysis lab setting. The gait parameters (i.e., angle, moment and power for the ankle, knee and hip joints were coupled to form 36 cyclograms relationship. The model was validated by quantifying the gait disparities of all the pathological walking by analyzing each cyclograms pairs using feed-forward neural network with backpropagation. Subsequently, the cyclogram pairs that contributed to the highest gait disparity of each gait phase were manipulated by replacing it with normal values and re-analyzed. The manipulated cyclograms relationship that showed highest improvement in terms of gait disparity calculation suggested that they are the most dominant parameters in powered-knee control. In case of transfemoral amputee walking, it was identified using this approach that at each gait sub-phase, the knee variables most responsible for closest to normal walking were: knee power during loading response and mid-stance, knee moment and knee angle during terminal stance phase, knee angle and knee power during pre-swing, knee angle at initial swing, and knee power at terminal swing. No variable was dominant during mid-swing phase implying natural pendulum effect of the

  13. Nuclear liability: Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol

  14. A review on the performance of conventional and energy-absorbing rockbolts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie C. Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a review paper on the performances of both conventional and energy-absorbing rockbolts manifested in laboratory tests. Characteristic parameters such as ultimate load, displacement and energy absorption are reported, in addition to load–displacement graphs for every type of rockbolt. Conventional rockbolts refer to mechanical rockbolts, fully-grouted rebars and frictional rockbolts. According to the test results, under static pull loading a mechanical rockbolt usually fails at the plate; a fully-grouted rebar bolt fails in the bolt shank at an ultimate load equal to the strength of the steel after a small amount of displacement; and a frictional rockbolt is subjected to large displacement at a low yield load. Under shear loading, all types of bolts fail in the shank. Energy-absorbing rockbolts are developed aiming to combat instability problems in burst-prone and squeezing rock conditions. They absorb deformation energy either through ploughing/slippage at predefined load levels or through stretching of the steel bolt. An energy-absorbing rockbolt can carry a high load and also accommodate significant rock displacement, and thus its energy-absorbing capacity is high. The test results show that the energy absorption of the energy-absorbing bolts is much larger than that of all conventional bolts. The dynamic load capacity is smaller than the static load capacity for the energy-absorbing bolts displacing based on ploughing/slippage while they are approximately the same for the D-Bolt that displaces based on steel stretching.

  15. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-01-01

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  16. Survey report on smart-tribo-mechanics; Smart tribo mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey results of smart-tribo-mechanics are described. For the smart-tribo-mechanics differing from the conventional tribology, an intelligent system is constructed by making full use of various science and technology ranging from basic to application, to solve problems. Self-diagnosis and self-remediation, active control, passive control, and smart-biotribo-mechanics are typical methods. Electronics, telecommunication, healthcare, and new biotechnology are new and advanced application areas. In these areas, tribology to control and act to the material surface in the atomic and molecular scale should be the key technology. In addition, the smart-tribo-mechanics is expected to be used for sustaining basic industry, such as material, transportation, and life industries. 101 refs., 67 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Órtese dinâmica integrando manufatura aditiva e robótica cooperativa/Dynamic orders integrating additive manufacture and cooperative robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Meirelles Carril Elui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A evolução da artrite reumatoide (AR leva a perda da capacidade se estender ativamente os dedos. Nos casos avançados uma órtese mecânica passiva pode não ser satisfatória. Este trabalho apresenta a integração com um sistema motor aumentando o alcance da órtese na funcionalidade de indivíduo. Foi desenvolvido um projeto conceito de órtese assistida por servo motor que após otimizações avaliadas em bancada e com portador da deformidade apresentou resultados promissores quanto ao controle do motor e opinião positiva quanto ao uso da mão. Abstract The evolution of rheumatoid arthritis (RA leads to loss of the ability to actively extend the fingers. In advanced cases the mechanical orthosis may not be satisfactory. This work presents the integration with a motor system increasing the reach of the orthosis in the individual functionality. It was developed a concept project of servo-assisted orthosis that after optimizations evaluated in the bench and with deformity bearer presented promising results regarding the motor control and positive opinion regarding the use of the hand.Keywords: Orthosis, 3D Printing, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Servo motor, Rehabilitation ResumenLa evolución de la artritis reumatoide (AR lleva a la pérdida de la capacidad de extender activamente los dedos. En los casos avanzados la órtesis mecánica puede no ser satisfactoria. Este trabajo presenta la integración con un sistema motor aumentando el alcance de la órtesis en la funcionalidad de individuo. Se desarrolló un proyecto concepto de órtesis asistida por servo motor que después de optimizaciones evaluadas en bancada y con portador de la deformidad presentó resultados prometedores en cuanto al control del motor y opinión positiva en cuanto al uso de la mano.Palabras clave: Órtesis, Impresión 3D, Artritis reumatoide, Servo motor, Rehabilitación.

  18. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Kuzmin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for conventional long-range ET mechanism, especially for endergonic reactions, and provides the possibility for medium reorganization concatenated to gradual charge shift in contrast to conventional preliminary medium and reactants reorganization. Experimental criteria for transient exciplex formation (concatenated mechanism of excited-state electron transfer are considered. Available experimental data show that this mechanism dominates for endergonic ET reactions and provides a natural explanation for a lot of known paradoxes of ET reactions.

  19. One-Dimensional Mass-Spring Chains Supporting Elastic Waves with Non-Conventional Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two classes of phononic structures that can support elastic waves with non-conventional topology, namely intrinsic and extrinsic systems. The non-conventional topology of elastic wave results from breaking time reversal symmetry (T-symmetry of wave propagation. In extrinsic systems, energy is injected into the phononic structure to break T-symmetry. In intrinsic systems symmetry is broken through the medium microstructure that may lead to internal resonances. Mass-spring composite structures are introduced as metaphors for more complex phononic crystals with non-conventional topology. The elastic wave equation of motion of an intrinsic phononic structure composed of two coupled one-dimensional (1D harmonic chains can be factored into a Dirac-like equation, leading to antisymmetric modes that have spinor character and therefore non-conventional topology in wave number space. The topology of the elastic waves can be further modified by subjecting phononic structures to externally-induced spatio-temporal modulation of their elastic properties. Such modulations can be actuated through photo-elastic effects, magneto-elastic effects, piezo-electric effects or external mechanical effects. We also uncover an analogy between a combined intrinsic-extrinsic systems composed of a simple one-dimensional harmonic chain coupled to a rigid substrate subjected to a spatio-temporal modulation of the side spring stiffness and the Dirac equation in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The modulation is shown to be able to tune the spinor part of the elastic wave function and therefore its topology. This analogy between classical mechanics and quantum phenomena offers new modalities for developing more complex functions of phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials.

  20. A Modelling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of hydrocarbons such as separations of equimolar mixtures of benzene/toluene or propane/propene described by simple models, a generic, modular, model framework is presented in this work. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column, a mechanical vapor recompression column......Diabatic operation of distillation columns can lead to signicant reductions in energy utilization and operation cost compared to conventional (adiabatic) distillation columns, at an expense of an increased complexity of design and operation. The earliest diabatic distillation conguration dates back...... to the late 70s, and various dierent congurations have appeared since. However, at present, no full-scale diabatic distillation columns are currently operating in the industry. Current studies related to alternative distillation congurations report very dierent gures for potential energy savings which...

  1. Effects of ultrasonication and conventional mechanical homogenization processes on the structures and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Hatice Zehra; Aydin, Zeki; Yilmaz, Onur; Turgut, Selvin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of the homogenization process on the structures and dielectric properties of pure and Nb-doped BaTiO 3 ceramics have been investigated using an ultrasonic homogenization and conventional mechanical methods. The reagents were homogenized using an ultrasonic processor with high-intensity ultrasonic waves and using a compact mixer-shaker. The components and crystal types of the powders were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The complex permittivity (ε ' , ε″) and AC conductivity (σ') of the samples were analyzed in a wide frequency range of 20Hz to 2MHz at room temperature. The structures and dielectric properties of pure and Nb-doped BaTiO 3 ceramics strongly depend on the homogenization process in a solid-state reaction method. Using an ultrasonic processor with high-intensity ultrasonic waves based on acoustic cavitation phenomena can make a significant improvement in producing high-purity BaTiO 3 ceramics without carbonate impurities with a small dielectric loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the mechanical properties of rotary instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium wire, M-wire, or nickel-titanium alloy in R-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Gambarra-Soares, Thaiane; Elias, Carlos N; Siqueira, José F; Inojosa, Inês F J; Lopes, Weber S P; Vieira, Victor T L

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the mechanical properties of endodontic instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire (K(3) and Revo-S SU), M-Wire (ProFile Vortex), or NiTi alloy in R-phase (K(3)XF). The test instruments were subjected to mechanical tests to evaluate resistance to bending (flexibility), cyclic fatigue, and torsional load in clockwise rotation. Data were statistically evaluated by the analysis of variance test and the Student-Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons. In the bending resistance test, flexibility decreased in the following order: K(3)XF > Revo-S SU > ProFile Vortex > K(3). The ranking in the fatigue resistance test was the following: K(3)XF > K(3) > ProFile Vortex > Revo-S SU. In the torsional assay, the angular deflection at failure decreased in the following order: K(3)XF > Revo-S SU > K(3) > ProFile Vortex. For the maximum torque values, the ranking was K(3) > K(3)XF > ProFile Vortex > Revo-S SU. The results showed that the K(3)XF instrument, which is made of NiTi alloy in R-phase, had the overall best performance in terms of flexibility, angular deflection at failure, and cyclic fatigue resistance. In addition to the alloy from which the instrument is manufactured, the design and dimensions are important determinants of the mechanical performance of endodontic instruments. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An EMG-Controlled SMA Device for the Rehabilitation of the Ankle Joint in Post-Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.

    2011-07-01

    The capacity of flexing one's ankle is an indispensible segment of gait re-learning, as imbalance, wrong compensatory use of other joints and risk of falling may depend on the so-called drop-foot. The rehabilitation of ankle dorsiflexion may be achieved through active exercising of the relevant musculature (especially tibialis anterior, TA). This can be troublesome for patients affected by weakness and flaccid paresis. Thus, as needs evolve during patient's improvements, a therapeutic device should be able to guide and sustain gradual recovery by providing commensurate aid. This includes exploiting even initial attempts at voluntary motion and turns those into effective workout. An active orthosis powered by two rotary actuators containing NiTi wire was designed to obtain ankle dorsiflexion. A computer routine that analyzes the electromyographic (sEMG) signal from TA muscle is used to control the orthosis and trigger its activation. The software also provides instructions and feed-back for the patient. Tests on the orthosis proved that it can produce strokes up to 36° against resisting torques exceeding 180 Ncm. Three healthy subjects were able to control the orthosis by modulating their TA sEMG activity. The movement produced in the preliminary tests is interesting for lower limb rehabilitation, and will be further improved by optimizing body-orthosis interface. It is hoped that this device will enhance early rehabilitation and recovery of ankle mobility in stroke patients.

  4. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  5. Conventional and Non-Conventional Yeasts in Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Capece

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of beer relies on the activity of fermenting yeasts, not only for their good fermentation yield-efficiency, but also for their influence on beer aroma, since most of the aromatic compounds are intermediate metabolites and by-products of yeast metabolism. Beer production is a traditional process, in which Saccharomyces is the sole microbial component, and any deviation is considered a flaw. However, nowadays the brewing sector is faced with an increasing demand for innovative products, and it is diffusing the use of uncharacterized autochthonous starter cultures, spontaneous fermentation, or non-Saccharomyces starters, which leads to the production of distinctive and unusual products. Attempts to obtain products with more complex sensory characteristics have led one to prospect for non-conventional yeasts, i.e., non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These generally are characterized by low fermentation yields and are more sensitive to ethanol stress, but they provide a distinctive aroma and flavor. Furthermore, non-conventional yeasts can be used for the production of low-alcohol/non-alcoholic and light beers. This review aims to present the main findings about the role of traditional and non-conventional yeasts in brewing, demonstrating the wide choice of available yeasts, which represents a new biotechnological approach with which to target the characteristics of beer and to produce different or even totally new beer styles.

  6. Perceived Conventionality in Co-speech Gestures Involves the Fronto-Temporal Language Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhana Wolf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Face-to-face communication is multimodal; it encompasses spoken words, facial expressions, gaze, and co-speech gestures. In contrast to linguistic symbols (e.g., spoken words or signs in sign language relying on mostly explicit conventions, gestures vary in their degree of conventionality. Bodily signs may have a general accepted or conventionalized meaning (e.g., a head shake or less so (e.g., self-grooming. We hypothesized that subjective perception of conventionality in co-speech gestures relies on the classical language network, i.e., the left hemispheric inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca's area and the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, Wernicke's area and studied 36 subjects watching video-recorded story retellings during a behavioral and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment. It is well documented that neural correlates of such naturalistic videos emerge as intersubject covariance (ISC in fMRI even without involving a stimulus (model-free analysis. The subjects attended either to perceived conventionality or to a control condition (any hand movements or gesture-speech relations. Such tasks modulate ISC in contributing neural structures and thus we studied ISC changes to task demands in language networks. Indeed, the conventionality task significantly increased covariance of the button press time series and neuronal synchronization in the left IFG over the comparison with other tasks. In the left IFG, synchronous activity was observed during the conventionality task only. In contrast, the left pSTG exhibited correlated activation patterns during all conditions with an increase in the conventionality task at the trend level only. Conceivably, the left IFG can be considered a core region for the processing of perceived conventionality in co-speech gestures similar to spoken language. In general, the interpretation of conventionalized signs may rely on neural mechanisms that engage during language comprehension.

  7. Do CAD/CAM dentures really release less monomer than conventional dentures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca; Wiedemair, Verena; Huck, Christian; Klaunzer, Florian; Steinmassl, Otto; Grunert, Ingrid; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) dentures are assumed to have more favourable material properties than conventionally fabricated dentures, among them a lower methacrylate monomer release. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. CAD/CAM dentures were generated from ten different master casts by using four different CAD/CAM systems. Conventional, heat-polymerised dentures served as control group. Denture weight and volume were measured; the density was calculated, and the denture surface area was assessed digitally. The monomer release after 7 days of water storage was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Whole You Nexteeth and Wieland Digital Dentures had significantly lower mean volume and weight than conventional dentures. Baltic Denture System and Whole You Nexteeth had a significantly increased density. Baltic Denture System had a significantly smaller surface area. None of the CAD/CAM dentures released significantly less monomer than the control group. All tested dentures released very low amounts of methacrylate monomer, but not significantly less than conventional dentures. A statistically significant difference might nevertheless exist in comparison to other, less recommendable denture base materials, such as the frequently used autopolymerising resins. CAD/CAM denture fabrication has numerous advantages. It enables the fabrication of dentures with lower resin volume and lower denture weight. Both could increase the patient comfort. Dentures with higher density might exhibit more favourable mechanical properties. The hypothesis that CAD/CAM dentures release less monomer than conventional dentures could, however, not be verified.

  8. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing

  9. Microstructural examination by TEM of WC/Co composites prepared by conventional and Microwave processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, D.; Cheng, J.; Papworth, A.J.; Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, significant developments and advances have taken place in the field of microwave processing of ceramics, composites and metals. Microwave sintering technology of WC/Co based hard metal parts has been now developed for commercial products. Microwave processed WC/Co parts reportedly have exhibited superior performance over standard parts. Additionally, the microwave process requires only one tenth of the total cycle time employed in a conventional process. Laboratory corrosion and impact resistance tests have proved that microwave processed WC/Co parts are several times more resistant than the conventional parts of the same composition. The scanning transmission electron microscopic (STEM) examination conducted an conventionally and microwave sintered WC/Co samples exhibited remarkable difference in the chemistry of cobalt binder phase. It is understood that the superior mechanical properties of microwave sintered part are due to the pure cobalt phase present at the grain boundary of WC grains, while the conventionally sintered part showed there was substantial inter-alloying of Co with tungsten. (author)

  10. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  11. Lectures on statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, M G

    1982-01-01

    Anyone dissatisfied with the almost ritual dullness of many 'standard' texts in statistical mechanics will be grateful for the lucid explanation and generally reassuring tone. Aimed at securing firm foundations for equilibrium statistical mechanics, topics of great subtlety are presented transparently and enthusiastically. Very little mathematical preparation is required beyond elementary calculus and prerequisites in physics are limited to some elementary classical thermodynamics. Suitable as a basis for a first course in statistical mechanics, the book is an ideal supplement to more convent

  12. The economics of developing non-conventional reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A fact-based perspective on the economics of non-conventional natural gas reserves such as coalbed methane, gas shales and tight gas was presented. Traditionally, tax credits stimulate the development of non-conventional gas. Although tax credits for non-conventional gas development stopped at the end of 1992, because of improved technologies, improved finding rates and well productivities, non-conventional reserves continue to play a major role in the U.S. gas drilling development. Non-conventional reserves account for three out of five gas wells drilled in the U.S. The non-conventional gas industry competes directly with the conventional natural gas industry. This paper examined how well non-conventional gas compares to the current replacement costs of conventional natural gas. Investment costs for a non-conventional operation were studied, illustrated by an overview of the costs and economics of non-conventional reserves in the San Juan coal basin, the Piceance tight gas basin and the Michigan and Ft. Worth gas shales basins. 9 tabs

  13. Outcomes of the First Review Meeting of the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    2003-01-01

    The First Review Meeting of the Joint Convention was held from 3 to 14 November 2003 in Vienna. It was attended by representatives of 33 Contracting Parties (350 persons registered). The scope of applications includes: Waste and spent fuel from the operation of NPPs; Waste from use of radionuclides in medicine and industry; Spent sealed sources; Discharges from regulated nuclear facilities; Waste from mining and processing of uranium. The content of the Joint Convention and obligation of the Contracting Parties are reviewed in the report. The review process is also described. The effectiveness of review mechanism is discussed. Some technical issues are also discussed, such as: the wide variety of long term spent fuel and radioactive waste management policies; clearance; decommissioning; regulatory independence; discharges to the environment; Management of disused sealed sources etc. Some good practices have been identified and comments are given

  14. Actual versus theoretical torsional play in conventional and self-ligating bracket systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalstra, Michel; Eriksen, Henrik; Bergamini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the amount of torsional play in 32 commercially available self-ligating and conventional 0·018-inch and 0·022-inch bracket systems in relation to 0·017×0·022-inch and 0·019×0·025-inch stainless steel wires, respectively, and compare...... the results with the theoretical amount of play for the given bracket/wire combinations. Methods: Torque moments were measured in a mechanical force testing system by twisting straight pieces of stainless steel wire seated in the bracket slot in increments of 0·5° until a full torsional expression...... and the inability of self-ligation brackets to press the archwire into the bottom of the slot. In conventional brackets, the initial torque moment is generated by the steel ligatures pressing the arch wire against the bottom of the slot. The oversize of the slot is thus less critical in relation to the conventional...

  15. Chiral ligand exchange high-speed countercurrent chromatography: mechanism, application and comparison with conventional liquid chromatography in enantioseparation of aromatic α-hydroxyl acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Cheng, Dongping; Ito, Yoichiro; Yan, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    This work concentrates on the separation mechanism and application of chiral ligand exchange high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) in enantioseparations, and comparison with traditional chiral ligand exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The enantioseparation of ten aromatic α-hydroxyl acids were performed by these two chromatographic methods. Results showed that five of the racemates were successfully enantioseparated by HSCCC while only three of the racemates could be enantioseparated by HPLC using a suitable chiral ligand mobile phase additive. For HSCCC, the two-phase solvent system was composed of butanol-water (1:1, v/v), to which N-n-dodecyl-L-proline was added in the organic phase as chiral ligand and cupric acetate was added in the aqueous phase as a transition metal ion. Various operation parameters in HSCCC were optimized by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction. Based on the results of the present studies the separation mechanism for HSCCC was proposed. For HPLC, the optimized mobile phase composed of aqueous solution containing 6 mmol L−1 L-phenylalanine and 3 mmol L−1 cupric sulfate and methanol was used for enantioseparation. Among three ligands tested on a conventional reverse stationary phase column, only one was found to be effective. In the present studies HSCCC presented unique advantages due to its high versatility of two-phase solvent systems and it could be used as an alternative method for enantioseparations. PMID:25087742

  16. New mechanical chemical equilibrium in the copper-zinc alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianez, M.J; Criado, J.M; Donoso, E; Diaz, G

    2006-01-01

    A series of copper zinc alloys have been synthesized in the entire composition range Cu10Zn to Cu70Zn respectively, by mechanical alloying at room temperature in a planetary high-energy mill. A mechanism is proposed for the mechanical alloying reaction of the copper and zinc. It is made clear that the mechanical treatment considerably extends the range of composition of the α phase up to a content of 41% zinc, instead of the 36% accepted by the conventional phase diagrams. Exact determinations of the phase α reticular parameter were carried out as a function of its composition which can be used to determine the zinc content of the brass α. The results show that a brass phase α may be obtained containing 49% zinc in samples that include a mixture of phases α and β' after reaching stationary state as a function of the milling time. The stability field of phases β' and γ also displace noticeably higher values than those expected from the conventional binary Cu-Zn diagram. This behavior has been explained as a function of the nanometric texture generated by the milling (CW)

  17. Impact of beryllium additions on thermal and mechanical properties of conventionally solidified and melt-spun Al–4.5 wt.%Mn–x wt.%Be (x = 0, 1, 3, 5) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öz, Turan; Karaköse, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal and mechanical properties of Al–Mn–Be alloys were investigated. • IQC Al–Mn–Be alloys were synthesized by the CS and MS techniques. • The volume fraction of IQC increases continuously with Be content. • The melting points of the QC i-phase were determined between 652 °C and 675 °C. • The maximum H V and σ values were found to be 124 kg/mm 2 and 458 MPa with the addition of 5% Be. - Abstract: The influence of beryllium (Be) addition on the quasicrystal-forming ability, thermal and mechanical properties of Al–4.5 wt.%Mn–x wt.%Be (x = 0, 1, 3, 5) alloys was investigated in this study. Quasicrystalline Al–Mn–Be alloys were synthesized by the conventionally casting and melt spinning techniques. The microstructures of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the phase composition was identified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The phase transition during the solidification process was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) under an Ar atmosphere. The mechanical properties of the conventionally solidified (CS) and melt-spun (MS) samples were measured by a Vickers micro-hardness indenter and tensile-strength tests. The Al–4.5 wt.%Mn alloy has a hexagonal structure and minor dendritic icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (IQC) precipitates surrounded by an α-Al matrix. Addition of Be into the Al–4.5 wt.%Mn alloy generates intermetallic Be 4 AlMn and IQC phases with the extinction of the hexagonal phase, and the fraction of IQC increases continuously with the increase in Be content. A considerable improvement in microhardness and tensile strength values was observed due to the addition of Be in different percentages into the composition

  18. A Cohort Study of the Natural History of Odontoid Pseudoarthrosis Managed Nonoperatively in Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jennifer; Zaman, Rifat; Coy, Shannon; Pastel, David; Simmons, Nathan; Ball, Perry; Mirza, Sohail; Abdu, William; Pearson, Adam; Lollis, S Scott

    2018-06-01

    Although the primary goal of treatment of type II odontoid fracture is bony union, some advocate continued nonsurgical management of minimally symptomatic older patients who have fibrous union or minimal fracture motion. The risk of this strategy is unknown. We reviewed our long-term outcomes after dens nonunion to define the natural history of Type II odontoid fractures in elderly patients managed nonoperatively. A retrospective chart review of 50 consecutive adults aged 65 or older with Type II odontoid fracture initially managed nonsurgically from 1998 to 2012 at a single tertiary care institution was conducted. Particular attention was paid to patients who had orthosis removal despite absent bony fusion. Patients were contacted prospectively by telephone and followed until death, surgical intervention, or last known contact. Fifty patients initially were managed nonsurgically; of these, 21 (42.0%) proceeded to bony fusion, 3 (6%) underwent delayed surgery for persistent instability, and 26 (52%) had orthosis removal despite the lack of solid arthrodesis on imaging. The last group had a median follow-up of 25 months (range 4-158 months), with 20 of 26 (76.9%) followed until death. Of these patients, 1 patient developed progressive quadriplegia and dysphagia 11 months after initial injury. Compared with patients with spontaneous union, patients with nonunion had shorter life expectancy, despite no significant differences between the groups with respect to age, sex, injury mechanism, radiographic variables, or follow-up duration. Orthosis removal despite fracture nonunion may be reasonable in elderly patients with Type II dens fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Orthosis-Shaped Sandals Are as Efficacious as In-Shoe Orthoses and Better than Flat Sandals for Plantar Heel Pain: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Vicenzino

    Full Text Available To investigate efficacy of a contoured sandal being marketed for plantar heel pain with comparison to a flat flip-flop and contoured in-shoe insert/orthosis.150 volunteers aged 50 (SD: 12 years with plantar heel pain (>4 weeks were enrolled after responding to advertisements and eligibility determined by telephone and at first visit. Participants were randomly allocated to receive commercially available contoured sandals (n = 49, flat flip-flops (n = 50 or over the counter, pre-fabricated full-length foot orthotics (n = 51. Primary outcomes were a 15-point Global Rating of Change scale (GROC: 1 = a very great deal worse, 15 = a very great deal better, 13 to 15 representing an improvement and the 20-item Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS on which participants rate 20 common weight bearing activities and activities of daily living on a 5-point scale (0 = extreme difficulty, 4 = no difficulty. Secondary outcomes were worst level of heel pain in the preceding week, and the foot and ankle ability measure. Outcomes were collected blind to allocation. Analyses were done on an intention to treat basis with 12 weeks being the primary outcome time of interest.The contoured sandal was 68% more likely to report improvement in terms of GROC compared to flat flip-flop. On the LEFS the contoured sandal was 61% more likely than flat flip-flop to report improvement. The secondary outcomes in the main reflected the primary outcomes, and there were no differences between contoured sandal and shoe insert.Physicians can have confidence in supporting a patient's decision to wear contoured sandals or in-shoe orthoses as one of the first and simple strategies to manage their heel pain.The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000463875.

  20. Schrodinger's mechanics interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David B

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics has been in dispute for nearly a century with no sign of a resolution. Using a careful examination of the relationship between the final form of classical particle mechanics (the Hamilton–Jacobi Equation) and Schrödinger's mechanics, this book presents a coherent way of addressing the problems and paradoxes that emerge through conventional interpretations.Schrödinger's Mechanics critiques the popular way of giving physical interpretation to the various terms in perturbation theory and other technologies and places an emphasis on development of the theory and not on an axiomatic approach. When this interpretation is made, the extension of Schrödinger's mechanics in relation to other areas, including spin, relativity and fields, is investigated and new conclusions are reached.

  1. New insights into non-conventional epitopes as T cell targets: The missing link for breaking immune tolerance in autoimmune disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbige, James; Eichmann, Martin; Peakman, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The mechanism by which immune tolerance is breached in autoimmune disease is poorly understood. One possibility is that post-translational modification of self-antigens leads to peripheral recognition of neo-epitopes against which central and peripheral tolerance is inadequate. Accumulating evidence points to multiple mechanisms through which non-germline encoded sequences can give rise to these non-conventional epitopes which in turn engage the immune system as T cell targets. In particular, where these modifications alter the rules of epitope engagement with MHC molecules, such non-conventional epitopes offer a persuasive explanation for associations between specific HLA alleles and autoimmune diseases. In this review article, we discuss current understanding of mechanisms through which non-conventional epitopes may be generated, focusing on several recently described pathways that can transpose germline-encoded sequences. We contextualise these discoveries around type 1 diabetes, the prototypic organ-specific autoimmune disease in which specific HLA-DQ molecules confer high risk. Non-conventional epitopes have the potential to act as tolerance breakers or disease drivers in type 1 diabetes, prompting a timely re-evaluation of models of a etiopathogenesis. Future studies are required to elucidate the disease-relevance of a range of potential non-germline epitopes and their relationship to the natural peptide repertoire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  3. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING AND SOFT ORTHOSIS APPLICATION ON THE PAIN AND FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY IN LUMBAR REGION PATHOLOGIES WITHOUT NEUROLOGICAL DEFICITS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu TALU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Back pain caused by lumbar region pathologies is a condition that leads to loss of productivity and physical disability, with high costs of diagnosis and treatment. This study was planned to investigate the effect of taping and soft orthosis application on the pain and functional disability in the pathology of lumbar region without neurological deficit. Methods: This study is randomized controlled trial. Sixty-three volunteer patients were randomly divided into three groups of 21 people. Group I, soft orthotics and stabilization exercise program; Group II, Kinesio taping and stabilization exercise program; Group III, stabilization exercise program was applied. After obtaining demographic data of the participants; patients were evaluated in terms of range of motion and muscle strength. We used visual analog scale for pain level assessment, sit and reach test for flexibility assessment, timed up and go test (TUG for functional ambulation and balance, modified Schober test for lumbar spine flexibility, Oswestry Disability Index in the assessment of functional disability. They were assessed at the pretreatment, third (post treatment and six week (home programs and follow-up. Results: The results showed that significant differences (p<0.05 occurred over time in the study parameters such as functional ambulation, flexibility, lumbar flexibility, functional disability, pain, strength, range of motion in all groups. In comparisons between groups, there was a difference mainly in favor of Group II (p<0.05. Conclusions: We have concluded that in lumbar region pathologies without neurological deficits, stabilization exercises combined with orthotics and Kinesio taping applications reduces pain and functional disability.

  4. Spinal Orthoses: The Crucial Role of Comfort on Compliance of Wearing - Monocentric Prospective Pilot Study of Randomized Cross-Over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, G W; Patermann, S; Strohm, P C; Zwingmann, J; Eichelberger, P; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Various spine disorders are regularly treated by orthoses, and success of treatment depends on wearing these devices. In this study we examined the compliance, wear comfort, subjective stabilization and side effects associated with spinal orthoses using an individualized questionnaire and the Compact Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). MATERIAL AND METHODS In this prospective pilot study of randomized cross-over design, twelve healthy volunteers with a mean age of 31.2 years wore three different types of orthoses, each for one week: A hyperextension brace (HB), a custom-made semirigid orthosis (SO) and a custom-made rigid orthosis (RO). The daily duration of wearing the orthosis was defined as primary endpoint; contentment was measured using an individualized questionnaire and the standardized SF-12. RESULTS In the study population calculated probability of wearing the HB and RO was between 0.2 und 38.5% (95% confidence interval). No volunteer wore the SO orthosis for the predefined time. The SO and RO each displayed high subjective stabilization, while the RO was more often associated with side effects like skin pressure marks than the SO. The need for rework due to discomfort was mainly necessary with the RO. We observed no substantial differences in feeling compression and sweating. Noteworthy, eight of 12 subjects complained of uncomfortable sternal pressure due to the upper pad of the HB. The SF-12: scores ranged from 52.1 to 48.6 on the physical (PCS), and from 53.7 to 50.8 on the mental component score (MCS), demonstrating an influence on QoL. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The design as well as the orthosis itself influence the compliance of wearing and exert a moderate negative, but acceptable impact on QoL. The SO appeared to correlate with the best overall compromise between comfort and subjective stabilization. Further investigations are necessary in patients with spinal diseases, for whom the effect of orthosis wearing may surpass the

  5. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction φ of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 - φ). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system

  6. Conventional versus computer-navigated TKA: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesca, Alessandro; Garro, Luca; Penna, Massimo; Bejui-Hugues, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the midterm results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implanted with a specific computer navigation system in a group of patients (NAV) and to assess the same prosthesis implanted with the conventional technique in another group (CON); we hypothesized that computer navigation surgery would improve implant alignment, functional scores and survival of the implant compared to the conventional technique. From 2008 to 2009, 225 patients were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned in CON and NAV groups; 240 consecutive mobile-bearing ultra-congruent score (Amplitude, Valence, France) TKAs were performed by a single surgeon, 117 using the conventional method and 123 using the computer-navigated approach. Clinical outcome assessment was based on the Knee Society Score (KSS), the Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score and the Western Ontario Mac Master University Index score. Component survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Median follow-up was 6.4 years (range 6-7 years). Two patients were lost to follow-up. No differences were seen between the two groups in age, sex, BMI and side of implantation. Three patients of CON group referred feelings of instability during walking, but clinical tests were all negative. NAV group showed statistical significant better KSS Score and wider ROM and fewer outliers from neutral mechanical axis, lateral distal femoral angle, medial proximal tibial angle and tibial slope in post-operative radiographic assessment. There was one case of early post-operative superficial infection (caused by Staph. Aureus) successfully treated with antibiotics. No mechanical loosening, mobile-bearing dislocation or patellofemoral complication was seen. At 7 years of follow-up, component survival in relation to the risk of aseptic loosening or other complications was 100 %. There were no implant revisions. This study demonstrates superior accuracy in implant positioning and statistical significant

  7. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  8. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  9. Reframing less conventional speech to disrupt conventions of "compulsory fluency": A conversation analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Duque

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to illuminate compliances with, and resistances to, what we are calling "compulsory fluency" which we define as conventions for what constitutes competent speech. We achieve our purpose through a study of day-to-day communication between a woman with less conventional speech and her support providing family members and friends. Drawing from McRuer's (2006 compulsory ablebodiedness and Kafer's (2013 compulsory able-mindedness, we use "compulsory fluency" to refer to a form of articulation that is standardized and idealized and imposed on all speakers including those whose speech is less conventional. We see compulsory fluency as central to North American conceptions of personhood which are tied to individual ability to speak for one's self (Brueggemann, 2005. In this paper, we trace some North American principles for linguistic competence to outline widely held ideals of receptive and expressive language use, namely, conventions for how language should be understood and expressed. Using Critical Disability Studies (Goodley, 2013; McRuer, 2006 together with a feminist framework of relational autonomy (Nedelsky, 1989, our goal is to focus on experiences of people with less conventional speech and draw attention to power in communication as it flows in idiosyncratic and intersubjective fashion (Mackenzie & Stoljar, 2000; Westlund, 2009. In other words, we use a critical disability and feminist framing to call attention to less conventional forms of communication competence and, in this process, we challenge assumptions about what constitutes competent speech. As part of a larger qualitative study, we conduct a conversation analysis informed by Rapley and Antaki (1996 to examine day-to-day verbal, vocal and non-verbal communications of a young woman who self identifies as "having autism" - pseudonym Addison - in interaction with her support-providing family members and friends. We illustrate a multitude of Addison's compliances with

  10. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  11. Design of compliant mechanisms with selective compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasse, Alexander; Campanile, Lucio Flavio

    2009-01-01

    Conventional mechanisms provide a defined mobility, which expresses the number of degrees of freedom of the mechanism. This allows the system to be driven by a low number of control outputs. This property is virtually retained in the case of compliant mechanisms with lumped compliance, which are obtained by replacing the conventional hinges by solid-state ones. Compliant mechanisms with distributed compliance have, in general, an infinite number of degrees of freedom and therefore cannot guarantee defined kinematics. In this paper the concept of compliant mechanisms with selective compliance is introduced. This special class of compliant mechanisms combines the advantages of distributed compliance with the easy controllability of systems with defined kinematics. The task is accomplished by introducing a new design criterion based on a modal formulation. After this design criterion has been implemented in an optimization formulation for a formal optimization procedure, mechanisms are obtained in which a freely chosen deformation pattern is associated with a low deformation energy while other deformation patterns are considerably stiffer. Besides the description of the modal design criterion and the associated objective function, the sensitivity analysis of the objective function is presented and an application example is shown

  12. Preliminary assessment on the differences of nuclear terrorism convention from the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material and amendment to the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midiana Ariethia; Muhamad Ilman A A; Mas Pungky Hendrawijaya

    2011-01-01

    The threat of acts of nuclear terrorism in all its forms and manifestations create the urgent need to enhance international cooperation between countries in designing and following practical and effective measures for the prevention of acts of terrorism and to counter and punish its offenders. Several United Nations Security Council Resolutions, such as UNSCR Number 1373 (2001), and UNSCR Number 1540 (2005), and the result of Nuclear Security Summit in 2010 that encourage the member countries of IAEA to ratify nuclear conventions as soon as possible, are the reasons that the Indonesian Government planning on ratifying The International Convention for The Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (Nuclear Terrorism Convention). Nuclear Terrorism Convention is one of the 16 (sixteen) international instruments that must be ratified by the member countries of IAEA. Of the 16 (sixteen) international instruments, 3 (three) conventions are related to nuclear; Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, dan Nuclear Terrorism Convention. This paper presents the preliminary assessment on the differences of Nuclear Terrorism Convention to The Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Amendment to The Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This assessment is important due to the plan of the Indonesian Government to ratify the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. The result of this assessment could be used by BAPETEN in the ratification process of the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. The method used in this assessment is references assessment. (author)

  13. Study on a mechanical snubber with an adjustment mechanism for resisting force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmata, Kenichiro; Miyanaga, Hiroyuki.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical snubber is an earthquakeproof device for a piping system under particular circumstances such as high temperature and radioactivity. It restrains the piping system by a strong resisting force during an earthquake. This strong force can cause elastic failure of grooves on a brake disk, where steel balls are placed. In this report, an improved mechanical snubber having an adjustment mechanism for resisting force is proposed in order to obtain a mechanical snubber which has almost the same restraint effect and less resisting force in comparison with a conventional mechanical snubber. The resisting force characteristics and the restraint effect of the improved mechanical snubber applied to a simple beam are discussed both numerically and experimentally. The digital simulations are carried out using the Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL). (author)

  14. The Effects of Fabrication Techniques and Storage Methods on the Dimensional Stability of Removable Acrylic Resin Orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Bruxism : a report and a case report. J. Dent. Med., 9:189-199, 1954. 138. Super, S: A modified occlusal splint for segmental osteotomy fixation. J. Oral...minimize linear dimensional change prior to the clinical use of a removable acrylic resin orthosis. . .. . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS Title...distortion and clinical use of an orthosis having a precise and accurate fit. V % N II. LITERATURE REVIEW A. Terminology The therapeutic use of interocclusal

  15. Comparison between conventional and protective one-lung ventilation for ventilator-assisted thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H J; Kim, J A; Yang, M; Shim, W S; Park, K J; Lee, J J

    2012-09-01

    Recent papers suggest protective ventilation (PV) as a primary ventilation strategy during one-lung ventilation (OLV) to reduce postoperative pulmonary morbidity. However, data regarding the advantage of the PV strategy in patients with normal preoperative pulmonary function are inconsistent, especially in the case of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Therefore we compared conventional OLV (VT 10 ml/kg, FiO2 1.0, zero PEEP) to protective OLV (VT 6 ml/kg, FiO2 0.5, PEEP 5 cmH2O) in patients with normal preoperative pulmonary function tests undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery. Oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, plasma interleukin-6 and malondialdehyde levels were measured at baseline, 15 and 60 minutes after OLV and 15 minutes after restoration of two-lung ventilation. PaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 were higher in conventional OLV than in protective OLV (PProtective ventilation did not provide advantages over conventional ventilation for video-assisted thoracic surgery in this group of patients with normal lung function.

  16. Design and Sensor-Based Control for Hyper-Redundant Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choset, Howie

    2002-01-01

    Toxic materials in DOE sites pose a significant threat to DOE personnel who must inspect these locations. Working in confined spaces further complicates the situation especially when the workers must wear heavy and cumbersome protective suits. A robot or conventional mechanism can clearly bypass the danger and perhaps expedite the characterization process because the person is removed from the site and neither the site nor the person require preparation. However, conventional robots are not suitable for these inspection tasks because they are not flexible enough to pass through and into target DOE inspection sites. This effort is developing an articulated probe, called a hyper redundant mechanism, which is a snake-like device that can exploit its many internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes transmitting images and data from remote locations inaccessible to conventional robots and people. This effort contains two parts: mechanism development and control of the device

  17. Design and Sensor-Based Control for Hyper-Redundant Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choset, Howie

    2003-01-01

    Toxic materials in DOE sites pose a significant threat to DOE personnel who must inspect these locations. Working in confined spaces further complicates the situation especially when the workers must wear heavy and cumbersome protective suits. A robot or conventional mechanism can clearly bypass the danger and perhaps expedite the characterization process because the person is removed from the site and neither the site nor the person require preparation. However, conventional robots are not suitable for these inspection tasks because they are not flexible enough to pass through and into target DOE inspection sites. This effort is developing an articulated probe, called a hyper redundant mechanism, which is a snake-like device that can exploit its many internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes transmitting images and data from remote locations inaccessible to conventional robots and people. This effort contains two parts: mechanism development and control of the device

  18. Planning, design and technological criteria of conventional and nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoon, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis aims to establish a special criteria for building the shelters in two types. The conventional and nuclear, in respect to planning design and technological aspects, and finally establishing a special reference of planning, design and technology for Iraq which can be used when planning or designing a conventional or nuclear shelter. The thesis included four chapters, the first chapter included definition of shelters, and explanation of the effects of all types of weapons on buildings, and the second chapter included definition of planning and design concepts of shelters in its two types and analytical studies for international examples. The third chapter covered definition for technologies of structural, mechanical, electrical and sanitary systems. The fourth chapter included details of a case study in order to approach the results of research which included the conclusions, recommendations, criteria and prospects of planning design and technological aspects. 51 tabs.; 180 figs.; 32 refs.; 15 apps

  19. H2S and polysulfide metabolism: Conventional and unconventional pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kenneth R

    2018-03-01

    It is now well established that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an effector of a wide variety of physiological processes. It is also clear that many of the effects of H 2 S are mediated through reactions with cysteine sulfur on regulatory proteins and most of these are not mediated directly by H 2 S but require prior oxidation of H 2 S and the formation of per- and polysulfides (H 2 S n , n = 2-8). Attendant with understanding the regulatory functions of H 2 S and H 2 S n is an appreciation of the mechanisms that control, i.e., both increase and decrease, their production and catabolism. Although a number of standard "conventional" pathways have been described and well characterized, novel "unconventional" pathways are continuously being identified. This review summarizes our current knowledge of both the conventional and unconventional. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An investigation of the properties of conventional and severe shot peened low alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang Trung, Pham; Butler, David Lee; Win Khun, Nay

    2017-07-01

    The effects of the conventional shot peening and severe shot peening process on the mechanical and tribological properties of shot peened AISI 4340 high strength steel were systematically investigated. Compared with the conventional shot peened sample, the ultrafine grain surface layer with a depth of about 20 µm generated by the severe shot peening process can enhance the hardness and wear resistance of the treated material. However, deeper dimples generated by the high media velocity in the severe shot peening process resulted in a higher surface roughness, which is considered as a side effect of this method reducing the fatigue life of the material. Applying a smaller shot size with an appropriate intensity can be used to peen the severe shot peened samples to not only reduce the surface roughness and friction coefficient but also improve the wear resistance for these samples. This work was presented in the shot peening section during ‘The 30th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies, 2016, Milan, Italy’ (SMT30, ID 61, entitled ‘Comparison of the effects of conventional shot peening and severe shot peening processes on the mechanical and tribological properties of shot peened AISI 4340’) and the authors were encouraged to submit a manuscript to the Materials Research Express journal after adding some nessesary information.

  1. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    -defined metaphors of individual learning and social imitation processes, from which a revised theory of convention may be erected (see Sugden 2004, Binmore 1993 and Young 1998). This paper makes a general argument in support of the evolutionary turn in the theory of convention by a progressive exposition of its...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around......Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...

  2. Minamata Convention on Mercury. Reporting obligations of the Parties to the Convention and the sources of data existing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecka-Jastrząb Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After that, when more than 60 years ago in the Japanese city of Minamata there was caused a mass poisoning of residents by seafood contaminated with mercury, Minamata Convention on Mercury came into force on August 16, 2017. To date, the Convention has been signed by 128 States, the signatories of the Convention and ratified by 83 States - Parties to the Convention. The Convention imposes a number of obligations on the Parties to the Convention, including the reporting obligation. The paper analyses the reporting obligations of the Parties to the Convention, which are in force after the entry into force of the Convention, pursuant to the provisions contained therein. In addition, the existing sources of quantitative data on mercury in Poland are characterized.

  3. Shape-matching soft mechanical metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaali Mazandarani, M.; Janbaz, S.; Strano, M.; Vergani, L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Architectured materials with rationally designed geometries could be used to create mechanical metamaterials with unprecedented or rare properties and functionalities. Here, we introduce "shape-matching" metamaterials where the geometry of cellular structures comprising auxetic and conventional

  4. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA) [fr

  5. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  6. An Independent Review and Accountability Mechanism for the Sustainable Development Goals: The Possibilities of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric A

    2016-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), a proposed global treaty to be rooted in the right to health and aimed at health equity, could establish a nuanced, layered, and multi-faceted regime of compliance with, and accountability to, the right to health. In so doing, it would significantly strengthen accountability for the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which it would encompass. Legally binding, the FCGH could facilitate accountability through the courts and catalyze comprehensive domestic accountability regimes, requiring national strategies that include transparency, community and national mechanisms for accountability and participation and an enabling environment for social empowerment. A "Right to Health Capacity Fund" could ensure resources to implement these strategies. Inclusive national processes could establish targets, benchmarks, and indicators consistent with FCGH guidance, with regular reporting to a treaty body, which could also hear individual cases. State reports could be required to include plans to overcome implementation gaps, subjecting poorly complying states to penalties and targeted capacity building measures. Regional special rapporteurs could facilitate compliance through regular country visits, while also responding to serious violations. And reaching beyond government compliance, from capacity building to the courts and contractual obligations, the FCGH could establish nationally enforceable right to health obligations on the private sector.

  7. Comparison of Nannochloropsis sp. cells disruption between hydrodynamic cavitation and conventional extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Martomo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from microalgae is one of the solution of the future energy problem, but its production cost is still high. One of the costly stages of this process is the lipid extraction process. It can be reduced by microalgae cell disruption. One of the mechanical method to cell disruption with the lowest energy requirement is hydrodynamic cavitation. This aim of this study is to evaluate the distribution coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient value of lipid extraction of Nannochloropsis sp. assisted by hydrodynamic cavitation and compare with conventional extraction. The hydrodynamic cavitation extraction was done at 34 °C, 1 atm. The conventional extraction was done at 34 °C, 1 atm with stirring speed 260 and 1000 rpm. The experimental result shows that the distribution coefficient dependent on the temperature with the values for 50, 44, 38 and 34 °C were 0.502, 0.394, 0.349, and 0.314 respectively. And it was according to Van’ Hoff equation with the values of ΔH° was 20.718 kJ/mol and ΔS° was 58.05 J/mol/K. The hydrodynamic cavitation extraction was faster than conventional. The mass transfer coefficient values for hydrodynamic cavitation, conventional 260 rpm and 1000 rpm were 7.373, 0.534 and 0.121 1/s respectively.

  8. The evolution of development conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stefano Erber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual view on development and its translation into development policies. It argues that society's perception of development is structured by conventions, which provide a view of the past, present and future and, at the same time, allows a certain hierarchy of problems and solutions to such problems. The prevalence of a specific convention depends on the international conditions faced by this society and on the distribution of economic and political power within that society. Therefore, in complex societies there is always a struggle for hegemony between competing development conventions.

  9. Overview of the IAEA Joint Convention and Implementation Status of the Obligation as the Contracting Party of the 5th Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ken; Lee, Youn Keun; Ahn, Sang Myeon

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) was adopted on 5 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Joint Convention was opened for signature at Vienna in September 1997 and will remain open for signature until its entry into force. Korean government signed the Joint Convention in 1997 and this Convention was effective in 2002 as the Convention No. 1612. This paper will show overview of the Joint Convention and implementation status of the obligation as a Contracting Party of the 5th Joint Convention. The Joint Convention is the inter-national convention organized by the IAEA. All contracting parties shall comply with rules of the Joint Convention and conduct the obligation of this convention. Korean government successfully conducted all obligation (attending Organization Meeting and Review Meeting, submitting paper including National Report, question paper and answer paper) of the 5th Joint Convention from May 2014 to May 2015, and will prepare the obligation of the 6th Joint Convention

  10. CORE STABILIZATION PROGRAM AND CONVENTIONAL EXERCISES IN THE PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Venkata Naga Prahalada Karnati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional back care exercises are advocated to treat the pain and to strengthen the involved muscles. There will always be the possibility of the pain getting recurred due to disproportionate balance and stability in the muscles. The core stabilization is major trend in rehabilitation. It aims at improving stability during functional activities, balance, flexibility, strength training and effectively manage the pain as well. Methods: Forty patients with chronic Mechanical Low back pain were randomly assigned into control group that received conventional back exercises and SWD (n=20, experimental group received core stabilization and SWD (n=20. Both the groups received SWD, along with conventional back exercises for one-group and core stabilization for the other group 3 days a week for 6 weeks .The treatment outcome was assessed using visual analogue scale, Rolland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Lumbar range of motion by using goniometer. Results: After a 6 week training period the core stabilization group scored significantly higher than the conventional group for VAS (p=0.05 and RMDQ (p=0.05 where as ROM improved higher in conventional group (p=0.05 Conclusion: After the treatment sessions Core stabilization group registered a significant improvement when compared to conventional back care exercises in improving function and in relieving pain.

  11. Conventional and novel control designs for direct driven PMSG wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuhui; Haskew, Timothy A.; Xu, Ling [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama, 317 Houser Hall, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    With the advance of power electronic technology, direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) have increasingly drawn interests to wind turbine manufactures. This paper studies and compares conventional and a novel control designs for a direct driven PMSG wind turbine. The paper presents transient and steady-state models of a PMSG system in a d-q reference frame. Then, general PMSG characteristics are investigated in the rotor-flux-oriented frame. A shortage of conventional control mechanisms is studied analytically and through computer simulation. A novel direct-current based d-q vector control technique is proposed by integrating fuzzy, adaptive and traditional PID control technologies in an optimal control configuration. Comparison study demonstrates that the proposed control approach, having superior performance in various aspects, is effective not only in achieving desired PMSG control objectives but also in improving the optimal performance of the overall system. (author)

  12. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A philosophical Study (Lewis 1969). Besides exciting the logical community by providing the seminal analysis work on common knowledge, it also laid the foundations for the formal approach to the study of social conventions by means of game the...

  13. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  14. Development and evaluation of a passive trunk support system for Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohammad Nauzef; Peeters, Laura H C; Paalman, Micha; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2018-03-14

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy gradually lose the ability to use different muscles of their body. Consequently, they lose the ability to stabilize their trunk against gravity. This hinders them to effectively perform different daily activities. In this paper, we describe the design, realization and evaluation of a trunk orthosis for these patients that should allow them to move their trunk and maintain stability. This study aimed to primarily assess the effectiveness of the trunk support system in terms of unloading of trunk muscles, so only healthy participants were recruited for this phase of the study. Measurements were done on 10 healthy participants (23.4±2.07 [M±SD] years old, average body weight 68.42±24.22 [M±SD] kg). The experiment comprised maintaining a constant trunk posture in three different device conditions (control without orthosis and two conditions with different configurations of the orthosis), at four different flexion angles (10°, 20°, 30°, 40°) for each device condition and for two load conditions (with and without stretching the arms). Electromyography (EMG) signals from the trunk muscles were measured to estimate activation levels of the trunk muscles (iliocostalis, longissimus, external oblique and rectus abdominis) and a motion capture system was used to record the movement of the participants during the experiment. Wearing the orthosis caused reductions in longissimus and iliocostalis activity. The average muscle activity level was 5%-10% of maximum voluntary contraction in the unsupported conditions for those particular muscles. This level was reduced to 3%-9% of maximal voluntary contraction for the supported conditions. No effect on external oblique and rectus abdominis activity was observed. Moreover, no pain or discomfort was reported by any of the participants during the experiment. The results from the current experiment also suggests the necessity of lumber stabilizing systems while using trunk orthosis. The

  15. Comparison of Frictional Forces Generated by a New Ceramic Bracket with the Conventional Brackets using Unconventional and Conventional Ligation System and the Self-ligating Brackets: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Azam; Vishwakarma, Swati; Narayan, Anjali; Vinay, K; Shetty, Smitha V; Roy, Partha Pratim

    2015-09-01

    Fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy is associated with friction between the bracket - wire - ligature interfaces during the sliding mechanics. A sound knowledge of the various factors affecting the magnitude of friction is of paramount importance. The present study was done to analyze and compare the frictional forces generated by a new ceramic (Clarity Advanced) bracket with the conventional, (metal and ceramic) brackets using unconventional and conventional ligation system, and the self-ligating (metal and ceramic) brackets in the dry condition. The various bracket wire ligation combinations were tested in dry condition. The brackets used were of 0.022″ × 0.028″ nominal slot dimension of MBT prescription: Stainless steel (SS) self-ligating bracket (SLB) of (SmartClip), SS Conventional bracket (CB) (Victory series), Ceramic SLB (Clarity SL), Conventional Ceramic bracket with metal slot (Clarity Bracket), Clarity Advanced Ceramic Brackets (Clarity(™) ADVANCED, 3M Unitek). These brackets were used with two types of elastomeric ligatures: Conventional Elastomeric Ligatures (CEL) (Clear medium mini modules) and Unconventional Elastomeric Ligatures (UEL) (Clear medium slide ligatures, Leone orthodontic products). The aligning and the retraction wires were used, i.e., 0.014″ nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.019″ × 0.025″ SS wires, respectively. A universal strength testing machine was used to measure the friction produced between the different bracket, archwires, and ligation combination. This was done with the use of a custom-made jig being in position. Mean, standard deviation, and range were computed for the frictional values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. The frictional resistance observed in the new Clarity Advanced bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature was almost similar with the Clarity metal slot bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature. When using the UEL, the Clarity Advanced bracket

  16. Warrior Transition Leader: Medical Rehabilitation Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    meter medley relay, swimming the anchor . After observing athletes with one leg competing in track during the 1996 Paralympics, Register was fitted with...down to the toes. Shoes, inserts, ankle –foot orthotics, ankle braces, and knee braces are some of the devices commonly prescribed for various...conditions. Lower limb orthotics can be functional, accommodative, or corrective. The ankle –foot orthosis fi g u r E 8-5. Wrist–hand orthosis. aSSiStivE

  17. Enhancement of mechanical properties and failure mechanism of electron beam welded 300M ultrahigh strength steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guodong; Yang, Xinqi; He, Xinlong; Li, Jinwei; Hu, Haichao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Normalizing at 970 °C plus quenching and tempering cannot refine the columnar grains. ► Ductility and toughness of conventional quenched and tempered joint are very low. ► An optimum combination of strength and ductility was obtained for the welded joints. ► Intergranular cracked columnar dendritic grains were found on the fracture surface. -- Abstract: In this study, four post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) schedules were selected to enhance the mechanical properties of electron beam welded 300M ultrahigh strength steel joints. The microstructure, mechanical properties and fractography of specimens under the four post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions were investigated and also compared with the base metal (BM) specimens treated by conventional quenching and tempering (QT). Results of macro and microstructures indicate that all of the four PWHT procedures did not eliminate the coarse columnar dendritic grains in weld metal (WM). Whereas, the morphology of the weld centerline and the boundaries of the columnar dendritic grains in WM of weld joint specimens subjected to the PWHT procedure of normalizing at 970 °C for 1 h followed by conventional quenching and tempering (W-N2QT) are indistinct. The width of martensite lath in WM of W-N2QT is narrower than that of specimens subjected to other PWHT procedures. Experimental results indicate that the ductility and toughness of conventional quenched and tempered joints are very low compared with the BM specimens treated by conventional QT. However, the strength and impact toughness of the W-N2QT specimens are superior to those of the BM specimen treated by conventional QT, and the ductility is only slightly inferior to that of the latter.

  18. The prospect of conventional disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, O.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of conventional disarmament in Europe holds out great consequences not only for the continent but also for the entire world. The arms race both in its nuclear and conventional aspects has been the single most important element of the destabilizing factors in international relations since 1945. Though initially borne out of the ideological division of Europe and the consequent quest for strategic military superiority, it soon developed a technological momentum of its own, becoming more the cause than the effect of the distrust in the relationship of the two alliances. The issue of conventional weapons was raised for negotiations side by side with that of nuclear weapons when the United Nations took up the question of disarmament in 1946. Due, however, to the unforeseen and most dangerous advance in nuclear weaponry, the fear engendered shifted all attention at the multilateral level to nuclear weapons. Except in Europe where the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction Talks in Central Europe were initiated, conventional weapons disarmament did not attract multilateral attention again until the First Special Session of the United nations General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament in 1978. The Final Document of the Special Session did accord highest priority to negotiations on nuclear weapons. However, it also affirmed that side by side with negotiations on nuclear weapons, the limitation and gradual reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons should be resolutely pursued within the framework of general and complete disarmament. States with the largest military arsenals, it was stated, had a special responsibility in pursuing conventional armaments reduction. Underscoring the central role of Europe further, the Final Document postulated that the achievement of a more stable situation at a lower level of military potential would contribute toward strengthening of security in Europe and constitute a significant step toward international peace and security

  19. Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard; Bucher, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A mechanism has been designed to apply the loads (the stirring and the resection forces and torques) in self-reacted friction stir welding. This mechanism differs somewhat from mechanisms used in conventional friction stir welding, as described below. The tooling needed to apply the large reaction loads in conventional friction stir welding can be complex. Self-reacted friction stir welding has become popular in the solid-state welding community as a means of reducing the complexity of tooling and to reduce costs. The main problems inherent in self-reacted friction stir welding originate in the high stresses encountered by the pin-and-shoulder assembly that produces the weld. The design of the present mechanism solves the problems. The mechanism includes a redesigned pin-and-shoulder assembly. The welding torque is transmitted into the welding pin by a square pin that fits into a square bushing with set-screws. The opposite or back shoulder is held in place by a Woodruff key and high-strength nut on a threaded shaft. The Woodruff key reacts the torque, while the nut reacts the tensile load on the shaft.

  20. Kohn singularity and Kohn anomaly in conventional superconductors—role of pairing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, Ranjan; Das, Mukunda P

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the Kohn singularity and Kohn anomaly in the superconducting phase of a three-dimensional metallic system. We show that a phonon mechanism-based Cooper pairing in a Fermi liquid metal can lead to these phenomena quite naturally. The results are discussed against the background of some recent experimental findings. (fast track communication)

  1. The lambda mechanism of the 0nbb-decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimkovic, Fedor; Štefánik, Dušan; Dvornický, Rastislav

    2017-11-01

    The lambda mechanism (WL-WR exchange) of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0nbb-decay), which has origin in left-right symmetric model with right-handed gauge boson at TeV scale, is investigated. The revisited formalism of the 0nbb-decay, which includes higher order terms of nucleon current, is exploited. The corresponding nuclear matrix elements are calculated within quasiparticle random phase approximation with partial restoration of the isospin symmetry for nuclei of experimental interest. A possibility to distinguish between the conventional light neutrino mass (WL-WL exchange) and lambda mechanisms by observation of the 0nbb-decay in several nuclei is discussed. A qualitative comparison of effective lepton number violating couplings associated with these two mechanisms is performed. By making viable assumption about the seesaw type mixing of light and heavy neutrinos it is concluded that there is a dominance of the conventional light neutrino mass mechanism in the decay rate.

  2. Neutron scattering and the search for mechanisms of superconductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aeppli, G.; Bishop, D.J.; Broholm, C.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron scattering is a direct probe of mass and magnetization density in solids. We start with a brief review of experimental strategies for determining the mechanisms of superconductivity and how neutron scattering contributed towards our understanding of conventional superconductors. The remai......Neutron scattering is a direct probe of mass and magnetization density in solids. We start with a brief review of experimental strategies for determining the mechanisms of superconductivity and how neutron scattering contributed towards our understanding of conventional superconductors....... The remainder of the article gives examples of neutron results with impact on the search for the mechanism of superconductivity in more recently discovered, 'exotic', materials, namely the heavy fermion compounds and the layered cuprates, (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  4. Transient heat transport studies in JET conventional and advanced tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P.; Coffey, I.; Dux, R.

    2003-01-01

    Transient transport studies are a valuable complement to steady-state analysis for the understanding of transport mechanisms and the validation of physics-based transport models. This paper presents results from transient heat transport experiments in JET and their modelling. Edge cold pulses and modulation of ICRH (in mode conversion scheme) have been used to provide detectable electron and ion temperature perturbations. The experiments have been performed in conventional L-mode plasmas or in Advanced Tokamak regimes, in the presence of an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB). In conventional plasmas, the issues of stiffness and non-locality have been addressed. Cold pulse propagation in ITB plasmas has provided useful insight into the physics of ITB formation. The use of edge perturbations for ITB triggering has been explored. Modelling of the experimental results has been performed using both empirical models and physics-based models. Results of cold pulse experiments in ITBs have also been compared with turbulence simulations. (author)

  5. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining "1H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  6. Adult soft tissue sarcomas: conventional therapies and molecularly targeted approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo R; Brandes, Alba; Nitti, Donato

    2006-02-01

    The therapeutic approach to soft tissue sarcomas (STS) has evolved over the past two decades based on the results from randomized controlled trials, which are guiding physicians in the treatment decision-making process. Despite significant improvements in the control of local disease, a significant number of patients ultimately die of recurrent/metastatic disease following radical surgery due to a lack of effective adjuvant treatments. In addition, the characteristic chemoresistance of STS has compromised the therapeutic value of conventional antineoplastic agents in cases of unresectable advanced/metastatic disease. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the prognosis of patients with STS. Recent advances in STS biology are paving the way to the development of molecularly targeted therapeutic strategies, the efficacy of which relies not only on the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development/progression but also on the personalization of the therapeutic regimen according to the molecular features of individual tumours. In this work, we review the state-of-the-art of conventional treatments for STS and summarize the most promising findings in the development of molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches.

  7. Human rights and conventionality control in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azul América Aguiar-Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The protection of human rights in Mexico has, de jure, suffered an important change in the last years, given a new judicial interpretation delivered by the National Supreme Court of Justice that allows the use of conventionality control, which means, that it allows federal and state judges to verify the conformity of domestic laws with those established in the Inter-American Convention of Human Rights. To what extent domestic actors are protecting human rights using this new legal tool called conventionality control? In this article I explore whom and how is conventionality control being used in Mexico. Using N-Vivo Software I reviewed concluded decisions delivered by intermediate level courts (Collegiate Circuit Courts in three Mexican states. The evidence points that conventionality control is a very useful tool especially to defenders, who appear in sentences claiming compliance with the commitments Mexico has acquired when this country ratified the Convention.

  8. An adaptive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method for the infrared spectrum of water: incorporation of the quantum effect between solute and solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi C; Banno, Misa; Sakurai, Minoru

    2016-03-14

    Quantum effects in solute-solvent interactions, such as the many-body effect and the dipole-induced dipole, are known to be critical factors influencing the infrared spectra of species in the liquid phase. For accurate spectrum evaluation, the surrounding solvent molecules, in addition to the solute of interest, should be treated using a quantum mechanical method. However, conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods cannot handle free QM solvent molecules during molecular dynamics (MD) simulation because of the diffusion problem. To deal with this problem, we have previously proposed an adaptive QM/MM "size-consistent multipartitioning (SCMP) method". In the present study, as the first application of the SCMP method, we demonstrate the reproduction of the infrared spectrum of liquid-phase water, and evaluate the quantum effect in comparison with conventional QM/MM simulations.

  9. Determining the Mechanical Properties of Lattice Block Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Lattice block structures and shape memory alloys possess several traits ideal for solving intriguing new engineering problems in industries such as aerospace, military, and transportation. Recent testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center has investigated the material properties of lattice block structures cast from a conventional aerospace titanium alloy as well as lattice block structures cast from nickel-titanium shape memory alloy. The lattice block structures for both materials were sectioned into smaller subelements for tension and compression testing. The results from the cast conventional titanium material showed that the expected mechanical properties were maintained. The shape memory alloy material was found to be extremely brittle from the casting process and only compression testing was completed. Future shape memory alloy lattice block structures will utilize an adjusted material composition that will provide a better quality casting. The testing effort resulted in baseline mechanical property data from the conventional titanium material for comparison to shape memory alloy materials once suitable castings are available.

  10. Fiscal 2000 report on results of R and D of welfare techno-system in Shiga Prefecture; 2000 nendo walfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Shiga) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on systems and technology for realizing desirable at-home nursing care in the coming super aging society, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In the development of a muscle using type walking frame, a device was developed using mechanism of the functional element. As a result, it was found that the device was operable through a normal movement pattern, and that the torque generating by the human body side was uniformly reducible, enabling the load to be alleviated physiologically. In the development of a lower extremity orthosis for self-sustained movement, a rising motion from a seated position was observed, with a transfer motion analyzed, leading to the examination of the supporting method and the design/manufacturing of an orthosis for transfer movement. In the development of a monitor system for a long-term behavior and physical condition, an uninvasive unrestrictive earring type pulse wave sensor system was experimentally manufactured as a monitor for heart activity, particularly, for heartbeat fluctuation. This monitor was integrated with the physical activity monitoring device developed in the previous year, with a simultaneous measuring experiment performed for elderly people in their daily life. (NEDO)

  11. Novel versus conventional antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R C

    1996-01-01

    Novel antipsychotic agents differ from conventional ones in several key characteristics, including effectiveness, adverse reactions, and receptor-binding profile. Most of the newer agents have an affinity for the serotonin 5HT2 receptor that is at least 10 times greater than that for the dopamine D2 receptor. This increased affinity for the serotonin receptor may be responsible for another distinguishing characteristic of novel antipsychotic agents--decreased frequency of extrapyramidal side effects. These side effects, which include pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystonias, and akathisia, frequently are the reason for noncompliance with conventional drug therapy. The newer drugs are often effective in patients resistant to treatment with conventional agents. They also appear to reduce the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in many patients.

  12. Visuomotor adaptation in head-mounted virtual reality versus conventional training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, J. M.; Sugiyama, T.; Liew, S.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Immersive, head-mounted virtual reality (HMD-VR) provides a unique opportunity to understand how changes in sensory environments affect motor learning. However, potential differences in mechanisms of motor learning and adaptation in HMD-VR versus a conventional training (CT) environment have not been extensively explored. Here, we investigated whether adaptation on a visuomotor rotation task in HMD-VR yields similar adaptation effects in CT and whether these effects are achieved through similar mechanisms. Specifically, recent work has shown that visuomotor adaptation may occur via both an implicit, error-based internal model and a more cognitive, explicit strategic component. We sought to measure both overall adaptation and balance between implicit and explicit mechanisms in HMD-VR versus CT. Twenty-four healthy individuals were placed in either HMD-VR or CT and trained on an identical visuomotor adaptation task that measured both implicit and explicit components. Our results showed that the overall timecourse of adaption was similar in both HMD-VR and CT. However, HMD-VR participants utilized a greater cognitive strategy than CT, while CT participants engaged in greater implicit learning. These results suggest that while both conditions produce similar results in overall adaptation, the mechanisms by which visuomotor adaption occurs in HMD-VR appear to be more reliant on cognitive strategies. PMID:28374808

  13. A study of pressureless microwave sintering, microwave-assisted hot press sintering and conventional hot pressing on properties of aluminium/alumina nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinzadeh, Reza; Safavi, Seyed Mohsen; Karimzadeh, Fathallah [Isfahan University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Bulk Al/4wt-%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared by consolidating nanocomposite powders using pressureless microwave sintering, microwave-assisted hot press sintering and conventional hot pressing techniques. Microstructural observations revealed that the microwave-assisted hot press sintering at different sintering temperatures of 400.deg.C and 500.deg.C resulted in more densification and smaller grain size for Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite as compared with the conventional hot pressing. Moreover, the application of pressure in microwave sintering process led to more densification and grain growth. Mechanical properties resulting from microhardness and nanoindentation tests were also compared between three-method processed samples. It was found that the microwave-assisted hot-pressed sample exhibited higher hardness and elastic modulus in comparison with microwave-sintered and conventional hot-pressed samples. The improvement in the mechanical properties can be ascribed to lower porosity of microwave-assisted hot-pressed sample.

  14. Targeting chemotherapy-resistant leukemia by combining DNT cellular therapy with conventional chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Branson; Lee, Jong Bok; Kang, Hyeonjeong; Minden, Mark D; Zhang, Li

    2018-04-24

    While conventional chemotherapy is effective at eliminating the bulk of leukemic cells, chemotherapy resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a prevalent problem that hinders conventional therapies and contributes to disease relapse, and ultimately patient death. We have recently shown that allogeneic double negative T cells (DNTs) are able to target the majority of primary AML blasts in vitro and in patient-derived xenograft models. However, some primary AML blast samples are resistant to DNT cell therapy. Given the differences in the modes of action of DNTs and chemotherapy, we hypothesize that DNT therapy can be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy to further improve their anti-leukemic effects and to target chemotherapy-resistant disease. Drug titration assays and flow-based cytotoxicity assays using ex vivo expanded allogeneic DNTs were performed on multiple AML cell lines to identify therapy-resistance. Primary AML samples were also tested to validate our in vitro findings. Further, a xenograft model was employed to demonstrate the feasibility of combining conventional chemotherapy and adoptive DNT therapy to target therapy-resistant AML. Lastly, blocking assays with neutralizing antibodies were employed to determine the mechanism by which chemotherapy increases the susceptibility of AML to DNT-mediated cytotoxicity. Here, we demonstrate that KG1a, a stem-like AML cell line that is resistant to DNTs and chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-resistant primary AML samples both became more susceptible to DNT-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro following pre-treatment with daunorubicin. Moreover, chemotherapy treatment followed by adoptive DNT cell therapy significantly decreased bone marrow engraftment of KG1a in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, daunorubicin increased the expression of NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands on KG1a; blocking of these pathways attenuated DNT-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of using DNTs as

  15. Conventions and workflows for using Situs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wriggers, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments of the Situs software suite for multi-scale modeling are reviewed. Typical workflows and conventions encountered during processing of biophysical data from electron microscopy, tomography or small-angle X-ray scattering are described. Situs is a modular program package for the multi-scale modeling of atomic resolution structures and low-resolution biophysical data from electron microscopy, tomography or small-angle X-ray scattering. This article provides an overview of recent developments in the Situs package, with an emphasis on workflows and conventions that are important for practical applications. The modular design of the programs facilitates scripting in the bash shell that allows specific programs to be combined in creative ways that go beyond the original intent of the developers. Several scripting-enabled functionalities, such as flexible transformations of data type, the use of symmetry constraints or the creation of two-dimensional projection images, are described. The processing of low-resolution biophysical maps in such workflows follows not only first principles but often relies on implicit conventions. Situs conventions related to map formats, resolution, correlation functions and feature detection are reviewed and summarized. The compatibility of the Situs workflow with CCP4 conventions and programs is discussed

  16. BioMot exoskeleton - Towards a smart wearable robot for symbiotic human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacek, Tomislav; Moltedo, Marta; Langlois, Kevin; Prieto, Guillermo Asin; Sanchez-Villamanan, Maria Carmen; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Moreno, Juan C

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents design of a novel modular lower-limb gait exoskeleton built within the FP7 BioMot project. Exoskeleton employs a variable stiffness actuator in all 6 joints, a directional-flexibility structure and a novel physical humanrobot interfacing, which allows it to deliver the required output while minimally constraining user's gait by providing passive degrees of freedom. Due to modularity, the exoskeleton can be used as a full lower-limb orthosis, a single-joint orthosis in any of the three joints, and a two-joint orthosis in a combination of any of the two joints. By employing a simple torque control strategy, the exoskeleton can be used to deliver user-specific assistance, both in gait rehabilitation and in assisting people suffering musculoskeletal impairments. The result of the presented BioMot efforts is a low-footprint exoskeleton with powerful compliant actuators, simple, yet effective torque controller and easily adjustable flexible structure.

  17. Efficacy of kilohertz-frequency and conventional spinal cord stimulation in rat models of different pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiyang; Viisanen, Hanna; Meyerson, Björn A; Pertovaara, Antti; Linderoth, Bengt

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of high-frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) at subparesthetic intensity with conventional SCS in rat models of different types of pain. In addition, microrecordings of afferent activity in the dorsal columns during both types of SCS were performed to elucidate their mode of action. Miniature SCS electrodes were implanted in all rats. One group was submitted to the spared nerve injury procedure (SNI) and another to inflammatory pain after carrageenan injection into a hind paw. All animals were tested for hypersensitivity to normally innocuous tactile and thermal stimuli. One group of normal healthy rats was submitted to acute nociceptive (pinch, heat) pain. Microrecording of afferent activity in the gracile nucleus (GN) was performed in a group of nerve-lesioned rats responding to conventional SCS. HF-SCS at 500, 1,000, or 10,000 Hz at subparesthetic amplitudes produced similar reductions in hypersensitivity due to nerve lesion as did conventional SCS at 50 Hz. HF-SCS showed no effect on thermal pain. A trial to rescue non-responders to conventional SCS using HF-SCS was not successful. There were no effects either of conventional or of HF-SCS on acute or inflammatory pain. Conventional SCS produced massive activation in the GN but no activation during HF-SCS, though normal peripherally evoked afferent activity remained. Conventional SCS proved equally effective to HF-SCS in various pain models. As no activity is conveyed rostrally in subparesthetic HF-SCS, we hypothesize that its mechanisms of action are primarily segmental. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  18. International antiterrorist conventions concerning the safety of air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek BARCIK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the international law regulations are presented concerning the civilian safety of the air transport. The history concerning air terrorism and international antiterrorist conventions was described in detail, involving The Chicago Convention, The Tokyo Convention, The Hague Convention and Montreal Convention.

  19. The climate change convention and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, E J

    1995-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at Rio in June 1992, is intended to minimize climate change and its impact. Much of its text is ambiguous and it is not specifically directed to health considerations. It is, however, recognized that adverse effects of climate change on health are a concern of humankind, and health is an integral part of the Convention. The Convention includes commitments by the developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and to increase public awareness of these commitments. The significance of the Convention in these respects is discussed critically and future developments considered.

  20. Environmental impact of non-conventional energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema; Nipaney, P.C.; Ramasamy, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Whereas the global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources, only a few studies have been conducted on the clean environment image of the non-conventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones. The question whether the non-conventional sources are really as benign as they are made out to be is addressed in the present paper in the background of a classical paradigm developed by Lovin which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then assesses the likely environmental impacts of several major non-conventional energy sources and comes up with the note of caution that in many cases the adverse impacts may not be insubstantial; indeed in some cases they can be as strongly negative as the impacts of the conventional energy sources. (author). 31 refs

  1. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  2. International nuclear liability conventions: status and possible changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, Patrick.

    1978-01-01

    The table of ratifications and accessions annexed to this paper shows that despite the considerable progress achieved these past years and the entry into force of the Vienna Convention, the number of Contracting Parties to the Nuclear Civil Liability Conventions remains insufficient. The adaptation of the first of these Conventions - the Paris Convention - as well as its Brussels Supplementary Convention to the technical and economic developments which have taken place since their adoption should provide the means for encouraging their implementation at international level. The main amendments which are envisaged are replacement of the present unit of account by the Special Drawing Right, the increase of the amounts of liability and compensation and finally, the technical scope of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  3. 7 CFR 58.316 - Conventional churns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conventional churns. 58.316 Section 58.316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....316 Conventional churns. Churns shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless steel or equally corrosion...

  4. Mechanical niobium doping in barium titanate electroceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Davalos, I.A., E-mail: ivan.velascodavalos@gmail.com [Departmento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, 07338 México D.F. (Mexico); INRS-EMT, 1650 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ruediger, A. [INRS-EMT, 1650 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes J3X 1S2 (Canada); Cruz-Rivera, J.J. [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Sierra Leona 550, Lomas, 78210 S.L.P. (Mexico); Gomez-Yanez, C. [Departmento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Zacatenco, 07338 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •We demonstrate a new doping procedure by Mechanical Alloying (MA). •For small dopant concentrations, charge compensation of Nb is primarily attributed to free electrons. •At higher Nb concentrations cation vacancies prevail as compensation mechanism. -- Abstract: Niobium is a well-established donor dopant for semi-conducting BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics. The conventional procedure to dissolve Nb into BaTiO{sub 3} relies on thermal activation at high temperatures (up to 1500 °C) and even then, large dwell times are necessary due to the small diffusion coefficients of Nb{sup 5+}. In this work, we demonstrate a new doping procedure by Mechanical Alloying (MA), which has already proven its potential for the fabrication of conductive electroceramics. In a planetary mill, powders of BaTiO{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} were mixed for up to 540 min. The BaTiO{sub 3} unit cell volume increases with increasing Nb concentration. The electrical properties of conventional and mechanical alloyed samples as a function of Nb concentration are similar, however the mechanically alloyed samples shows a large conductivity that we attribute to a better homogeneity in the structure of MA-processed samples. For small dopant concentrations, charge compensation of the pentavalent Nb is primarily attributed to free electrons. At higher Nb concentrations cation vacancies prevail as compensation mechanism.

  5. Evaluation of friction produced by self-ligating, conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Antonio BARBOSA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Barbosa Versatile bracket design may provide lower frictional force and greater sliding. However, no in vitro studies have shown its sliding mechanisms and frictional resistance, particularly in comparison with other self-ligating or conventional brackets. Objective To compare the frictional resistance among self-ligating brackets (EasyClip/ Aditek, Damon MX/ Ormco and In Ovation R/ GAC; conventional brackets (Balance Roth/ GAC, and Roth Monobloc/ Morelli; and Barbosa Versatile bracket (Barbosa Versatile/ GAC with different angles and arch wires. Material and method Brackets were tested with the 0.014", 0.018", 0.019"×0.025" and 0.021"×0.025" stainless steel wires, with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 degree angulations. Tying was performed with elastomeric ligature for conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets, or with a built-in clip system of the self-ligating brackets. A universal testing machine was used to obtain sliding strength and friction value readouts between brackets and wires. Result Three-way factorial ANOVA 4×5×6 (brackets × angulation × wire and Tukey tests showed statistically significant differences for all factors and all interactions (p<0.0001. Static frictional resistance showed a lower rate for Barbosa Versatile bracket and higher rates for Roth Monobloc and Balance brackets. Conclusion The lowest frictional resistance was obtained with the Barbosa Versatile bracket and self-ligating brackets in comparison with the conventional type. Increasing the diameter of the wires increased the frictional resistance. Smaller angles produced less frictional resistance.

  6. Quantifying Attachment and Antibiotic Resistance of from Conventional and Organic Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwonitzer, Martha R; Soupir, Michelle L; Jarboe, Laura R; Smith, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often administered to swine, contributing to the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in their manure. During land application, the bacteria in swine manure preferentially attach to particles in the soil, affecting their transport in overland flow. However, a quantitative understanding of these attachment mechanisms is lacking, and their relationship to antibiotic resistance is unknown. The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between antibiotic resistance and attachment to very fine silica sand in collected from swine manure. A total of 556 isolates were collected from six farms, two organic and four conventional (antibiotics fed prophylactically). Antibiotic resistance was quantified using 13 antibiotics at three minimum inhibitory concentrations: resistant, intermediate, and susceptible. Of the 556 isolates used in the antibiotic resistance assays, 491 were subjected to an attachment assay. Results show that isolates from conventional systems were significantly more resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chlortetracycline, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and tylosin ( < 0.001). Results also indicate that isolated from conventional systems attached to very fine silica sand at significantly higher levels than those from organic systems ( < 0.001). Statistical analysis showed that a significant relationship did not exist between antibiotic resistance levels and attachment in from conventional systems but did for organic systems ( < 0.001). Better quantification of these relationships is critical to understanding the behavior of in the environment and preventing exposure of human populations to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappello, Tiziana, E-mail: tcappello@unime.it [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brandão, Fátima, E-mail: fatimabrandao@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Canário, João [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instítuto Superíor Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  8. 3 July 1985: Convention signed in Brussels on 31 January 1963, supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Act approving the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Act refers to the Brussels Supplementary Convention approved by Belgium in 1966 and ratified on 20 August 1985 and approves ratification of the Protocols of 16 November 1982 to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention respectively. The Protocols are reproduced in French, Dutch and German. (NEA) [fr

  9. Conventional and Piecewise Growth Modeling Techniques: Applications and Implications for Investigating Head Start Children's Early Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…

  10. Conflict and convention in dynamic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael; Forber, Patrick; Smead, Rory; Riedl, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    An important way to resolve games of conflict (snowdrift, hawk-dove, chicken) involves adopting a convention: a correlated equilibrium that avoids any conflict between aggressive strategies. Dynamic networks allow individuals to resolve conflict via their network connections rather than changing their strategy. Exploring how behavioural strategies coevolve with social networks reveals new dynamics that can help explain the origins and robustness of conventions. Here, we model the emergence of conventions as correlated equilibria in dynamic networks. Our results show that networks have the tendency to break the symmetry between the two conventional solutions in a strongly biased way. Rather than the correlated equilibrium associated with ownership norms (play aggressive at home, not away), we usually see the opposite host-guest norm (play aggressive away, not at home) evolve on dynamic networks, a phenomenon common to human interaction. We also show that learning to avoid conflict can produce realistic network structures in a way different than preferential attachment models. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Digital vs. conventional implant impressions: efficiency outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J; Gallucci, German O

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficiency, difficulty and operator's preference of a digital impression compared with a conventional impression for single implant restorations. Thirty HSDM second year dental students performed conventional and digital implant impressions on a customized model presenting a single implant. The outcome of the impressions was evaluated under an acceptance criteria and the need for retake/rescan was decided. The efficiency of both impression techniques was evaluated by measuring the preparation, working, and retake/scan time (m/s) and the number of retakes/rescans. Participants' perception on the level of difficulty for the both impressions was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire. Multiple questionnaires were obtained to assess the participants' perception on preference, effectiveness and proficiency. Mean total treatment time was of 24:42 m/s for conventional and 12:29 m/s for digital impressions (P impressions (P impression (P impression technique and 30.63 (±17.57) for digital impression technique (P = 0.006). Sixty percent of the participants preferred the digital impression, 7% the conventional impression technique and 33% preferred either technique. Digital impressions resulted in a more efficient technique than conventional impressions. Longer preparation, working, and retake time were consumed to complete an acceptable conventional impression. Difficulty was lower for the digital impression compared with the conventional ones when performed by inexperienced second year dental students. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTEIRO, Maria Regina Guerra; da SILVA, Licinio Esmeraldo; ELIAS, Carlos Nelson; VILELLA, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material. PMID:25025564

  13. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Guerra MONTEIRO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods: Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M. The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil. The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results: Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion: even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material.

  14. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  15. numerical assessment of conventional regulation effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benkoussas B, Djedjig R, and Vauquelin O

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... The effectiveness of an underground smoke control system mainly depends on fire safety engineering that is ... In the same context, this work aims firstly, at investigating the effectiveness of conventional regulation applied to .... 5a). Fig.4. Station smoke behavior for conventional ventilation regulation. Fig.5a.

  16. The incentive concept as developed in the nuclear safety conventions and its possible extension to other sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, T. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the incentive concept, initially adopted in the C.N.S. (convention on nuclear safety) and later developed in the Joint Convention, as the innovation credited with encouraging both participation in , and compliance with, the nuclear safety conventions. It then seeks to examine the possibilities for the introduction of that concept into other sectors of international law. In the first part of the paper, the essential features of the concept and the mechanisms used in the conventions to bring it into effect will be discussed. the second part of the paper will focus on the different aspects of the conventions which have been described as integral to the concept. The third part of the paper will identify certain apprehensions regarding the effectiveness of such 'soft' treaty provisions and explain why the ' incentive' concept may be particularly well suited to certain specific situations. The final part of the paper will address the potential application of the concept and related treaty provisions to other fields of law, particularly to international environmental law. in addition, some suggestions will be made as to how provisions implementing the incentive concept into a treaty may be slightly modified to increase their effectiveness. (N.C.)

  17. Compact Ignition Tokamak conventional facilities optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commander, J.C.; Spang, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    A high-field ignition machine with liquid-nitrogen-cooled copper coils, designated the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), is proposed for the next phase of the United States magnetically confined fusion program. A team of national laboratory, university, and industrial participants completed the conceptual design for the CIT machine, support systems and conventional facilities. Following conceptual design, optimization studies were conducted with the goal of improving machine performance, support systems design, and conventional facilities configuration. This paper deals primarily with the conceptual design configuration of the CIT conventional facilities, the changes that evolved during optimization studies, and the revised changes resulting from functional and operational requirements (F and ORs). The CIT conventional facilities conceptual design is based on two premises: (1) satisfaction of the F and ORs developed in the CIT building and utilities requirements document, and (2) the assumption that the CIT project will be sited at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in order that maximum utilization can be made of existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) buildings and utilities. The optimization studies required reevaluation of the F and ORs and a second look at TFTR buildings and utilities. Some of the high-cost-impact optimization studies are discussed, including the evaluation criteria for a change from the conceptual design baseline configuration. The revised conventional facilities configuration are described and the estimated cost impact is summarized

  18. Performance analysis of conventional PSS and fuzzy controller for damping power system oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, Hasan UI; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro; Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Ying, Shaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Electro-mechanical oscillations are produced, in the machines of an interconnected power network, followed by a disturbance or due to high power transfer through weak tie lines. These oscillations should be damped as quickly as possible to ensure the reliable and stable operation of the network. To damp these oscillations different controllers, based on local or wide area signals, have been the subject of many papers. This paper presents the analysis of the performance of Conventional Power S...

  19. Pesticide Residues in Food: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Misconceptions among Conventional and Organic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are

  20. The role of regional pollution conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywar, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last 12 years a number of regional pollution conventions and action plans have been negotiated to protect the world's seas from pollution. This paper traces the development of this activity and points out the specific role of regional, as opposed to global, pollution conventions. Chief among the functions of regional conventions is the specific legal framework they provide for a particular geographical region. They also provide a forum for neighboring states to develop a coherent policy for a particular regional sea, as well as being the means of establishing regional control over potentially polluting activities. Regional agreements also constitute a suitable framework for monitoring the input of pollutants to the marine environment and assessing their effects. In addition, they provide a forum for the exchange of scientific and technical information and for developing cooperation between states. The paper concludes by summarizing the most important functions of a regional convention and suggesting that, with increasing industrialization and pollution stress, there will continue to be a need for action to be taken at the regional level

  1. Mechanical design in embryos: mechanical signalling, robustness and developmental defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lance A

    2017-05-19

    Embryos are shaped by the precise application of force against the resistant structures of multicellular tissues. Forces may be generated, guided and resisted by cells, extracellular matrix, interstitial fluids, and how they are organized and bound within the tissue's architecture. In this review, we summarize our current thoughts on the multiple roles of mechanics in direct shaping, mechanical signalling and robustness of development. Genetic programmes of development interact with environmental cues to direct the composition of the early embryo and endow cells with active force production. Biophysical advances now provide experimental tools to measure mechanical resistance and collective forces during morphogenesis and are allowing integration of this field with studies of signalling and patterning during development. We focus this review on concepts that highlight this integration, and how the unique contributions of mechanical cues and gradients might be tested side by side with conventional signalling systems. We conclude with speculation on the integration of large-scale programmes of development, and how mechanical responses may ensure robust development and serve as constraints on programmes of tissue self-assembly.This article is part of the themed issue 'Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Coherent and conventional gravidynamic quantum 1/f noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Peter H.; George, Thomas F.

    2008-04-01

    Quantum 1/f noise is a fundamental fluctuation of currents, physical cross sections or process rates, caused by infrared coupling of the current carriers to very low frequency (soft) quanta, also known as infraquanta. The latter are soft gravitons in the gravidynamic case with the coupling constant g= pGM2/Nch considered here -- soft photons in the electrodynamic case and soft transversal piezo-phonons in the lattice-dynamical case. Here p=3.14 and F=psi. Quantum 1/f noise is a new aspect of quantum mechanics expressed mainly through the coherent quantum 1/f effect 2g/pf derived here for large systems, and mainly through the conventional quantum 1/f effect for small systems or individual particles. Both effects are present in general, and their effects are superposed in a first approximation with the help of a coherence (weight) parameter s" that will be derived elsewhere for the gravitational case. The spectral density of fractional fluctuations S(dj/j,f) for j=e(hk/2pm)|F|2 is S(F2,f)/ = S(j,f)/2 = [4ps"/(1+s")]GM2/pfNch = 4.4 10E9 M2/(pfNgram2). Here s" = 2N'GM/c2=N'rs, where N' is the number of particles of mass M per unit length of the current, rs their Schwarzschild radius, and s" is our coherence (weight) parameter giving the ratio of coherent to conventional quantum 1/f contributions.

  3. Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Part I: Status lists as of 31 December 1996. A. Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (Notification Convention). B. Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention). PART II: Texts of reservations/declarations made upon or following expressing consent to be bound and objections thereto Part III: Texts of reservations/declarations made upon signature

  4. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  5. Antagonistic Mono- and Bi-Articular Lower-Limb Muscle Activities’ Model Characterization at Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzahir M.A.M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, medical rehabilitation system has become a requirement due to increment in national rehabilitation centres and medical hospitals. An assistive rehabilitation orthosis becomes essential and was used for rehabilitation therapy, condition monitoring, and physical strengthening. This study focused on the lower limb assistive rehabilitation orthosis development using pneumatic artificial muscle. To successfully control this orthosis system which consists of antagonistic mono- and biarticular muscle actuators, it is necessary to construct a reliable control algorithm. The suitable control scheme and strategy to manoeuvre this orthosis system similar to human musculoskeletal system have yet to be fully developed and established. Based on the review study, it is said that the co-contraction controls of anterior-posterior pneumatic muscles was able to improve the joint stiffness and stability of the orthosis as well as good manoeuvrability. Therefore, a characterization model of an antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles activities of human's lowerlimb during walking motion will be necessary. A healthy young male subject was used as test subject to obtain the sEMG muscle activities for antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles (i.e., Vastus Medialis-VM, Vastus Lateralis-VL, Rectus Femoris-RF, and Bicep Femoris-BF. The tests were carried out at different speeds of 2km/h, 3km/h, and 4km/h for one minute walking motion on a treadmill. Then, the patterns of the sEMG muscle activities were modelled and characterised using fifth order polynomial equation. Based on the results, it is shown that the anterior and posterior muscles were exhibited a muscle synergy in-between multiple anterior or posterior muscles and muscle co-contraction between anteriorposterior muscles in order to control the movements at the joints during walking motion. As conclusion, it is proven that the sEMG muscle activities of the antagonistic mono- and bi

  6. Comparative analysis of electro-mechanical characteristic of a three-phase induction motor with 1,5 CV with high performance and conventional one; Analise comparativa das caracteristicas eletromecanicas entre um motor de inducao trifasico de 1,5CV de alto-rendimento e convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendieta, J.C.V. [Dalkia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bertoleti, P.H.F.; Magalhaes Sobrinho, P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LAMOTRIZ/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Otimizacao de Sistemas Motrizes Industriais; Souza, T.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, the electric power consumed by three-phase induction motors corresponding to approximately 55% of total electric power consumed by the industrial sector. Therefore, a thorough analysis of this type of engine under the questions of energy saving, economic viability and electro-mechanical characteristics are needed. This work deals with the comparative analysis for two motors three-phase induction, one conventional and another with high performance (manufacturer WEG and IP55 protection grade), aiming to obtain the necessary relationships to do an economical and electro-mechanical analysis.

  7. Nanoparticles as Efflux Pump and Biofilm Inhibitor to Rejuvenate Bactericidal Effect of Conventional Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Singh, Ajeet; Khan, Asad U.

    2017-07-01

    The universal problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotic reflects a serious threat for physicians to control infections. Evolution in bacteria results in the development of various complex resistance mechanisms to neutralize the bactericidal effect of antibiotics, like drug amelioration, target modification, membrane permeability reduction, and drug extrusion through efflux pumps. Efflux pumps acquire a wide range of substrate specificity and also the tremendous efficacy for drug molecule extrusion outside bacterial cells. Hindrance in the functioning of efflux pumps may rejuvenate the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics. Efflux pumps also play an important role in the exclusion or inclusion of quorum-sensing biomolecules responsible for biofilm formation in bacterial cells. This transit movement of quorum-sensing biomolecules inside or outside the bacterial cells may get interrupted by impeding the functioning of efflux pumps. Metallic nanoparticles represent a potential candidate to block efflux pumps of bacterial cells. The application of nanoparticles as efflux pump inhibitors will not only help to revive the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics but will also assist to reduce biofilm-forming capacity of microbes. This review focuses on a novel and fascinating application of metallic nanoparticles in synergy with conventional antibiotics for efflux pump inhibition.

  8. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  9. Trends, Fashions, Patterns, Norms, Conventions...and Hypertext Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Einat

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the theory behind the formation of language conventions, then reveals conventions evolving in the community of people writing hypertext on the Web. Demonstrates how these conventions can be used to augment and shift the meaning of already published hypertexts. Describes the system called InCommonSense, which reuses particular hypertext…

  10. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...

  11. Technologies for the future : conventional recovery enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This conference presentation examined Alberta's oil production and water use; global finding and development costs across continents; and current trends for conventional oil. The presentation examined opportunities for testing new technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and provided several tables of data on EOR production in the United States. The evolution of United States EOR production, and the number of EOR projects in Canada were also addressed. The presentation also discussed where EOR goes from here as well as the different EOR mechanisms to alter phase behaviour and to alter relative flow. It also discussed chemical methods and major challenges for chemical EOR and examined EOR technologies needing a major push in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Lessons learned from the Joffre site regarding carbon dioxide miscible flood were revealed along with how coal gasification produces substitute natural gas and carbon dioxide for EOR. Suggestions for research and technology and enhanced water management were included. tabs., figs.

  12. [Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). A new mode of assisted mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerer, O; Barwing, J; Quintel, M

    2008-10-01

    The aim of mechanical ventilation is to assure gas exchange while efficiently unloading the respiratory muscles and mechanical ventilation is an integral part of the care of patients with acute respiratory failure. Modern lung protective strategies of mechanical ventilation include low-tidal-volume ventilation and the continuation of spontaneous breathing which has been shown to be beneficial in reducing atelectasis and improving oxygenation. Poor patient-ventilator interaction is a major issue during conventional assisted ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) is a new mode of mechanical ventilation that uses the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) to control the ventilator. First experimental studies showed an improved patient-ventilator synchrony and an efficient unloading of the respiratory muscles. Future clinical studies will have to show that NAVA is of clinical advantage when compared to conventional modes of assisted mechanical ventilation. This review characterizes NAVA according to current publications on this topic.

  13. Manufacturing of kevlar/polyester composite by resin transfer moulding using conventional and microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, I.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave heating was incorporated into the resin transfer moulding technique. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mould was used to cure the composite panel. Through the use of microwave heating, the mechanical and physical properties of produced Kevlar fibre/polyester composites were compared to those manufactured by conventional resin transfer moulding. The flexural modulus and flexural strength of 6-ply conventionally cured composites was 45% and 9% higher than the flexural modulus and flexural strength of 6-ply microwaved cured composites, respectively. However, 19% increase in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and 2% increase in compressive strength was observed in 6-ply microwave cured composites. This enhancement in ILSS and compressive strength is attributed to the better interfacial bonding of polyester resin with Kevlar fibres in microwaved cured composite, which was also confirmed via electron microscopy scanning. Furthermore, the microwave cured composite yielded maximum void contents (3%). (author)

  14. Measurement theory in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, G.

    1980-01-01

    It is assumed that consciousness, memory and liberty (within the limits of the quantum mechanics indeterminism) are fundamental properties of elementary particles. Then, using this assumption it is shown how measurements and observers may be introduced in a natural way in the quantum mechanics theory. There are no longer fundamental differences between macroscopic and microscopic objects, between classical and quantum objects, between observer and object. Thus, discrepancies and paradoxes have disappeared from the conventional quantum mechanics theory. One consequence of the cumulative memory of the particles is that the sum of negentropy plus information is a constant. Using this theory it is also possible to explain the 'paranormal' phenomena and what is their difference from the 'normal' ones [fr

  15. Mechanical efficiency of two commercial lever-propulsion mechanisms for manual wheelchair locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Jordon; MacGillivray, Megan K; Sheel, A William; Jeyasurya, Jeswin; Sadeghi, Mahsa; Sawatzky, Bonita Jean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the mechanical efficiency (ME) of two commercially available lever-propulsion mechanisms for wheelchairs and (2) compare the ME of lever propulsion with hand rim propulsion within the same wheelchair. Of the two mechanisms, one contained a torsion spring while the other used a roller clutch design. We hypothesized that the torsion spring mechanism would increase the ME of propulsion due to a passive recovery stroke enabled by the mechanism. Ten nondisabled male participants with no prior manual wheeling experience performed submaximal exercise tests using both lever-propulsion mechanisms and hand rim propulsion on two different wheelchairs. Cardiopulmonary parameters including oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure (En) were determined. Total external power (Pext) was measured using a drag test protocol. ME was determined by the ratio of Pext to En. Results indicated no significant effect of lever-propulsion mechanism for all physiological measures tested. This suggests that the torsion spring did not result in a physiological benefit compared with the roller clutch mechanism. However, both lever-propulsion mechanisms showed decreased VO2 and HR and increased ME (as a function of slope) compared with hand rim propulsion (p propulsion mechanisms tested are more mechanically efficient than conventional hand rim propulsion, especially when slopes are encountered.

  16. Lung-protective mechanical ventilation does not protect against acute kidney injury in patients without lung injury at onset of mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortjens, Bart; Royakkers, Annick A N M; Determann, Rogier M; van Suijlen, Jeroen D E; Kamphuis, Stephan S; Foppen, Jannetje; de Boer, Anita; Wieland, Cathrien W; Spronk, Peter E; Schultz, Marcus J; Bouman, Catherine S C

    2012-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that mechanical ventilation contributes to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI), particularly in the setting of lung-injurious ventilator strategies. To determine whether ventilator settings in critically ill patients without acute lung injury (ALI) at onset of mechanical ventilation affect the development of AKI. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (N = 150), comparing conventional tidal volume (V(T), 10 mL/kg) with low tidal volume (V(T), 6 mL/kg) mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients without ALI at randomization. During the first 5 days of mechanical ventilation, the RIFLE class was determined daily, whereas neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C levels were measured in plasma collected on days 0, 2, and 4. Eighty-six patients had no AKI at inclusion, and 18 patients (21%) subsequently developed AKI, but without significant difference between ventilation strategies. (Cumulative hazard, 0.26 vs 0.23; P = .88.) The courses of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C plasma levels did not differ significantly between randomization groups. In the present study in critically patients without ALI at onset of mechanical ventilation, lower tidal volume ventilation did not reduce the development or worsening of AKI compared with conventional tidal volume ventilation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heat treatments in a conventional steel to reproduce the microstructure of a nuclear grade steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosalio G, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ferritic steels used in the manufacture of pressurized vessels of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) suffer degradation in their mechanical properties due to damage caused by the neutron fluxes of high energy bigger to a Mega electron volt (E> 1 MeV) generated in the reactor core. The materials with which the pressurized vessels of nuclear reactors cooled by light water are built correspond to low alloy ferritic steels. The effect of neutron irradiation on these steels is manifested as an increase in hardness, mechanical strength, with the consequent decrease in ductility, fracture toughness and an increase in temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The life of a BWR is 40 years, its design must be considered sufficient margin of safety because pressure forces experienced during operation, maintenance and testing of postulated accident conditions. It is necessary that under these conditions the vessel to behave ductile and likely to propagate a fracture is minimized. The vessels of light water nuclear reactors have a bainite microstructure. Specifically, the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Veracruz, Mexico) are made of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1. At present they are carrying out some welding tests for the construction of a model of a BWR, however, to use nuclear grade steel such as Astm A-533 to carry out some of the welding tests, is very expensive; perform these in a conventional material provides basic information. Although the microstructure present in the conventional material does not correspond exactly to the degree of nuclear material, it can take of reference. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a pilot study to establish the thermal treatment that reproduces the microstructure of nuclear grade steel, in conventional steel. The resulting properties of the conventional steel samples will be compared to a JRQ steel, that is a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1, provided by IAEA. (Author)

  18. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  19. Cation solvation with quantum chemical effects modeled by a size-consistent multi-partitioning quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi C; Kubillus, Maximilian; Kubař, Tomáš; Stach, Robert; Mizaikoff, Boris; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2017-07-21

    In the condensed phase, quantum chemical properties such as many-body effects and intermolecular charge fluctuations are critical determinants of the solvation structure and dynamics. Thus, a quantum mechanical (QM) molecular description is required for both solute and solvent to incorporate these properties. However, it is challenging to conduct molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for condensed systems of sufficient scale when adapting QM potentials. To overcome this problem, we recently developed the size-consistent multi-partitioning (SCMP) quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method and realized stable and accurate MD simulations, using the QM potential to a benchmark system. In the present study, as the first application of the SCMP method, we have investigated the structures and dynamics of Na + , K + , and Ca 2+ solutions based on nanosecond-scale sampling, a sampling 100-times longer than that of conventional QM-based samplings. Furthermore, we have evaluated two dynamic properties, the diffusion coefficient and difference spectra, with high statistical certainty. Furthermore the calculation of these properties has not previously been possible within the conventional QM/MM framework. Based on our analysis, we have quantitatively evaluated the quantum chemical solvation effects, which show distinct differences between the cations.

  20. Vienna Convention and Its Revision and convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage on September 12, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soljan, V.

    1998-01-01

    After Chernobyl, the perception of common interest in modernization of the international regime that regulate various aspects of nuclear energy, has been evident among states with nuclear power plants as well as those likely to be involved in or affected by a nuclear incident. The adoption of the protocol Amending the Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage, 1963 and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear damage in September 1997, represents important part of the entire result that has been achieved from the 1986. This article gives a brief survey on the background of the process of modernization of the international regime of liability for nuclear damage and examines solutions contained in the provisions of the conventions. (author)

  1. SU-8 Based Piezoresistive Mechanical Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jacob; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Vestergaard, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first SU-8 based piezoresistive mechanical sensor. Conventionally, silicon has been used as a piezoresistive material due to its high gauge factor and thereby high sensitivity to strain changes in a sensor. By using the fact that SU-8 is much softer than silicon and that a gold...

  2. Comparative study of conventional and ultrasonically-assisted bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, K; Ahmed, Naseer; Silberschmidt, V V

    2014-01-01

    Bone drilling is a well-known surgical procedure in orthopaedics and dentistry for fracture treatment and reconstruction. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of the drill-bone interaction is necessary to overcome challenges associated with the process and related postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of a novel drilling technique, ultrasonically-assisted drilling (UAD), and its possible utilization in orthopaedic surgeries. The study was performed by conducting experiments to understand the basic mechanics of the drilling process using high speed filming of the drilling zone followed by measurements to quantify thrust force, surface roughness and cracking of the bone near the immediate vicinity of the hole with and without ultrasonic assistance. Compared to the spiral chips produced during conventional drilling (CD), UAD was found to break the chips in small pieces which facilitated their fast evacuation from the cutting region. In UAD, lower drilling force and better surface roughness was measured in drilling in the radial and longitudinal axis of the bone. UAD produced crack-free holes which will enhance postoperative performance of fixative devices anchoring the bone. UAD may be used as a possible substitute for CD in orthopaedic clinics.

  3. Technical mechanics in constructional reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthees, W.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor safety is based on close cooperation between a number of technical and scientific disciplines; most problems of reactor technology can be solved with the aid of technical mechanics. At the 5th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (5th SMIRT), one of the biggest conferences in the field of applied technical mechanics, about 800 papers were read giving the latest state of knowledge in the field of constructional reactor safety. The main subject of the conference was the analysis of material behaviour under high loads; the information and methods of these analysis go far beyond what is required in the conventional field. (orig./UA) [de

  4. The mechanical behavior of microcellular foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkul, M.H.; Mark, J.E. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA)); Aubert, J.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of microcellular open-cell foams prepared by a thermally induced phase separation process are investigated. The foams studied were prepared from isotactic polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (rigid foams), and polyurethane and Lycra (elastomeric foams). Their densities were in the range 0.04--0.27 g/cm3. Conventional polystyrene foams were used for comparison. The moduli and collapse stresses of these foams were measured in compression and compared with the current constitutive laws which relate mechanical properties to densities. A reinforcement technique based on the in-situ precipitation of silica was used to improve the mechanical properties. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Should Indonesia Accede to The 1951 Refugee Convention and Its 1967 Protocol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Liliansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being a non-party to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“1951 Refugee Convention” and 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol”, Indonesia does not have legal obligations to provide permanent resettlement for asylum seeker and/or refugee. However, as a transit country for those seeking shelter in Australia, Indonesia undergoes a myriad of issues resulting from illegal entrance by asylum seeker and/or refugee. Besides having neither legal framework nor domestic mechanism to handle asylum seekers and/or refugee, Indonesia’s immigration law identifies every foreigner including asylum seeker and refugee who unlawfully enter Indonesia’s territory into the same box as illegal migrant. It then leads to the arrest of asylum seeker and/or refugee to be put in an over-capacity detention center or other places. This paper will analyze various issues related to asylum seeker and refugee in Indonesia and to weigh whether it is indispensable for Indonesia to accede to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol.

  6. Comparison of community managed projects and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of community managed projects and conventional approaches in rural water supply of Ethiopia. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... This study aimed to compare Community Managed Projects (CMP) approach with the conventional approaches (Non-CMP) in the case of Ethiopia.

  7. Evidence-Based Evaluation of Physiological Effects of Standing and Walking in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Karimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal Cord Injury (SCI is damage to spinal cord, which is categorized according to the extent of functional loss, sensation loss and inability of the subjects to stand and walk. The patients use two transportation systems including orthosis and wheelchair. It was claimed that standing and walking bring some benefits such as decreasing bone osteoporosis, prevention of pressure sores, and improvement of the function of the digestive system for SCI patients. Nevertheless, the question of wether or not there is enough evidence to support the effect of walking with orthosis on the health status of the subjects with SCI remains unanswered. In order to answer this question a review of the relevant literature was carried out. The review of the literature showed that evidence reported in the literature regarding the effectiveness of orthoses for improving the health condition of SCI patients was controversial. Many investigators had only used the comments of the users of orthoses. The benefits mentioned in various research studies regarding the use of orthosis included decreasing bone osteoprosis, preventing joint deformity, improving bowl and bladder function, improving digestive system function, decreasing muscle spasm, improving independent living, and improving respiratory and cardiovascular systems function. The findings of the studies reviewed also showed that improving the independent living and physiological health of the subjects were the only two benefits, which were supported by strong evidence. The review of the literature suggests that most published studies are in fact surveys, which collected questionnaire-based information from the users of orthosis

  8. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, M.; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options

  9. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M. E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options.

  10. Conventional and unconventional political participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    A non-recursive model is proposed and empirically tested with data of opponents of nuclear power. In explaining conventional and unconventional participation the theory of collective action is applied and modified in two respects: the perceived influence on the elimination of collective evils are taken into account; the selective incentives considered are non-material ones. These modifications proved to be valid: the collective good variables and non-material incentives were important determinants for the two forms of participation. Another result was that there is a reciprocal causal relationship between conventional and unconventional participation. (orig./PW) [de

  11. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved......The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...

  12. Kinematic synthesis of adjustable robotic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenchom, Thatchai

    1993-01-01

    Conventional hard automation, such as a linkage-based or a cam-driven system, provides high speed capability and repeatability but not the flexibility required in many industrial applications. The conventional mechanisms, that are typically single-degree-of-freedom systems, are being increasingly replaced by multi-degree-of-freedom multi-actuators driven by logic controllers. Although this new trend in sophistication provides greatly enhanced flexibility, there are many instances where the flexibility needs are exaggerated and the associated complexity is unnecessary. Traditional mechanism-based hard automation, on the other hand, neither can fulfill multi-task requirements nor are cost-effective mainly due to lack of methods and tools to design-in flexibility. This dissertation attempts to bridge this technological gap by developing Adjustable Robotic Mechanisms (ARM's) or 'programmable mechanisms' as a middle ground between high speed hard automation and expensive serial jointed-arm robots. This research introduces the concept of adjustable robotic mechanisms towards cost-effective manufacturing automation. A generalized analytical synthesis technique has been developed to support the computational design of ARM's that lays the theoretical foundation for synthesis of adjustable mechanisms. The synthesis method developed in this dissertation, called generalized adjustable dyad and triad synthesis, advances the well-known Burmester theory in kinematics to a new level. While this method provides planar solutions, a novel patented scheme is utilized for converting prescribed three-dimensional motion specifications into sets of planar projections. This provides an analytical and a computational tool for designing adjustable mechanisms that satisfy multiple sets of three-dimensional motion specifications. Several design issues were addressed, including adjustable parameter identification, branching defect, and mechanical errors. An efficient mathematical scheme for

  13. Proceedings of the sixth structural engineering convention. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Nagesh R.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Samuel Knight, G.M.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the developments taking place at present in India and abroad in the field of structural engineering have been captured in this sixth Structural Engineering Convention. The areas covered are: (i) Advances in Concrete Structures, (ii) Advances in Steel Structures, (iii) Advances in Computational Structural Mechanics, (iv) Testing and Evaluation of Structures/Structural components, (v) New Materials of Construction, (vi) Analysis and Design of Structures against Natural Hazards, (vii) Health Monitoring of Structures, (viii) Repair, Retrofit and Rehabilitation of Structures, (ix) Advances in Construction Techniques/Practices and Guidelines and Codal Recommendations (x) Behaviour of Structures under Blast/Impact Loading and (xi) Fatigue and Fracture. About 200 papers that include contributory, invited, keynote and plenary papers are included in the proceedings. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. Amendment of APPRE for Ratification of the International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ho

    2010-01-01

    Both the international community and the IAEA have been making efforts to strengthen the global regime on nuclear security. As a result of these efforts, two conventions regarding nuclear security were issued by the UN and IAEA. The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (NTC) and the Amendment to Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNMNF). The NTC entered into force in 2007, but the CPPNMNF still has not yet been enacted. In the work plan released after the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (which was held in Washington D.C) these conventions were mentioned as important tools against nuclear terrorism. The purpose of these conventions was to prevent malicious acts against radioactive materials and nuclear facilities. The article also specifies strong penal provisions. Many countries which had ratified these conventions had to revise or change their domestic acts or laws in order conform to these new international regimes. The ROK signed these two conventions in 2005: however, it has not ratified them yet. The government has a plan to ratify them before the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, which will be held in the ROK. Each article in the conventions should be reviewed thoroughly in terms of their effects on the domestic legal and institutional systems. The penal provisions regulating the conventions should especially be carefully scrutinized since their effects are considerable. In this paper, we compared the penal provisions in the conventions with the ROK's laws and selected the provisions that are not specified in the ROK's legal system. The proposed articles for amendment to the APPRE are also suggested

  15. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  16. Manin's quantum spaces and standard quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    Manin's non-commutative coordinate algebra of quantum groups is shown to be identical, for unitary coordinates, with the conventional operator algebras of quantum mechanics. The deformation parameter q is a pure phase for unitary coordinates. When q is a root of unity. Manin's algebra becomes the matrix algebra of quantum mechanics for a discretized and finite phase space. Implications for quantum groups and the associated non-commutative differential calculus of Wess and Zumino are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Uncertainty, Conventions and Co-ordination in the Business Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The paper presents the basic propositions of convention theory with special consideration to the analysis of uncertainty, the role of institutions and conventions, and the implications this perspective has for the analysis of the business enterprise......The paper presents the basic propositions of convention theory with special consideration to the analysis of uncertainty, the role of institutions and conventions, and the implications this perspective has for the analysis of the business enterprise...

  18. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  19. Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter techniques on shear force, drip and cooking loss of beef. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... force values for meat samples from cattle slaughtered by the Kosher method compared to those from cattle slaughtered by the conventional slaughter method.

  20. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomised controlled trial. D. A. A. VERKUYL, C. A. CROWTHER .Abstract This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients ...

  1. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    . But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses...... the introduction of the metaphor to it was established as an entire network of interrelated conventional metaphors. Not only do the strategies in communicating the metaphor change as the metaphor becomes more established within the discourse, but the genres in which the metaphor is developed and interpreted...

  2. Comparison of single-port and conventional laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Rosenstock, Steffen; Bulut, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    with conventional laparoscopy and 12 with SP surgery. RESULTS: Patients' characteristics were in general comparable, but patients in the conventional laparoscopy-group had a significantly higher American Society of Anesthesiologists-score. The operative time was slightly shorter in the conventional laparoscopy...

  3. New mechanism of cluster-field evaporation in rf breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Insepov

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple field evaporation model and molecular dynamics simulations of nanoscale copper tip evolution in a high electric field gradient typical for linacs, we have studied a new mechanism for rf-field evaporation. The mechanism consists of simultaneous (collective field evaporation of a large group of tip atoms in high-gradient fields. Thus, evaporation of large clusters is energetically more favorable when compared with the conventional, “one-by-one” mechanism. The studied mechanism could also be considered a new mechanism for the triggering of rf-vacuum breakdown. This paper discusses the mechanism and the experimental data available for electric field evaporation of field-emission microscopy tips.

  4. A mechanized gait trainer for restoring gait in nonambulatory subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Werner, C; Bardeleben, A

    2000-09-01

    To construct an advanced mechanized gait trainer to enable patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement without overstraining therapists. DEVICE: Prototype gait trainer that simulates the phases of gait (by generating a ratio of 40% to 60% between swing and stance phases), supports the subjects according to their ability (lifts the foot during swing phase), and controls the center of mass in the vertical and horizontal directions. Two nonambulatory, hemiparetic patients who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old man, both of whom had a first-time ischemic stroke. Four weeks of training, five times a week, each session 20 minutes long. Functional ambulation category (FAC, levels 0-5) to assess gait ability and ground level walking velocity. Rivermead motor assessment score (RMAS, 0-13) to assess gross motor function. Patient 1: At the end of treatment, she was able to walk independently on level ground with use of a walking stick. Her walking velocity had improved from .29m/sec to .59m/sec. Her RMAS score increased from 4 to 10, meaning she could walk at least 40 meters outside, pick up objects from floor, and climb stairs independently. Patient 2: At end of 4-week training, he could walk independently on even surfaces (FAC level 4), using an ankle-foot orthosis and a walking stick. His walking velocity improved from .14m/sec to .63m/sec. His RMAS increased from 3 to 10. The gait trainer enabled severely affected patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement. Future studies may elucidate its value in gait rehabilitation of nonambulatory subjects.

  5. Determination of the protonation state of the Asp dyad: conventional molecular dynamics versus thermodynamic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Yali; Sun, Bin; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Junjun

    2016-03-01

    The protonation state of the Asp dyad is important as it can reveal enzymatic mechanisms, and the information this provides can be used in the development of drugs for proteins such as memapsin 2 (BACE-1), HIV-1 protease, and rennin. Conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been successfully used to determine the preferred protonation state of the Asp dyad. In the present work, we demonstrate that the results obtained from conventional MD simulations can be greatly influenced by the particular force field applied or the values used for control parameters. In principle, free-energy changes between possible protonation states can be used to determine the protonation state. We show that protonation state prediction by the thermodynamic integration (TI) method is insensitive to force field version or to the cutoff for calculating nonbonded interactions (a control parameter). In the present study, the protonation state of the Asp dyad predicted by TI calculations was the same regardless of the force field and cutoff value applied. Contrary to the intuition that conventional MD is more efficient, our results clearly show that the TI method is actually more efficient and more reliable for determining the protonation state of the Asp dyad.

  6. The Clean Development Mechanism: Institutionalizing New Power Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B.F. Wittneben (Bettina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe differences in the way climate change mitigation projects are facilitated under the Kyoto Protocol as compared to the financial mechanism of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) demonstrate institutional change processes that evolved from global climate

  7. Comparison of conventional straight and swan-neck straight catheters inserted by percutaneous method for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shivendra; Prakash, Jai; Singh, R G; Dole, P K; Pant, Pragya

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the incidence of mechanical and infectious complications of conventional straight catheter (SC) versus swan-neck straight catheter (SNSC) implanted by percutaneous method. We retrospectively analyzed 45 catheter insertions being done by percutaneous method from January 1, 2011, to May 31, 2014. SC was inserted in 24 patients, and SNSC was inserted in 21 patients. Baseline characteristics for the two groups were similar with respect to age, sex and diabetic nephropathy as the cause for end-stage renal disease. Incidence of mechanical and infectious complications in SNSC group was found to be low as compared to the SC group and was statistically significant (1 in 11.6 patient months vs. 1 in 14.4 patient months, p = 0.02). Catheter migration was found to be the most common mechanical complication (20 %), and peritonitis was found to be the most common infectious complication in conventional SC group (27 episodes in 420 patient months vs. 11 episodes in 333 patient months, p = 0.03). The incidence of exit site and tunnel infection rates revealed no difference between the groups. SNSC insertion by percutaneous method is associated with low mechanical and infectious complications.

  8. The European Convention on bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1993-03-01

    Benefiting from a widely recognised experience of the field of bioethics, the Council of Europe which represents all the democratic countries of Europe, has embarked on the ambitious task of drafting a European Convention on bioethics. The purpose of this text is to set out fundamental values, such as respect for human dignity, free informed consent and non-commercialisation of the human body. In addition to this task, protocols will provide specific standards for the different fields concerned with the application of biomedical sciences. The convention and the first two protocols (human experiments and organ transplants) are due to be ready for signature by mid 1994.

  9. Stakeholder involvement in international conventions governing civil nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerechts, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Mr Emmerechts explained that international conventions have varying positions on stakeholders and their involvement depending upon the intent of the legislator and the field they cover, ranging from a narrow to a broad interpretation. He addressed stakeholder involvement in two other international conventions governing civil nuclear activities, namely the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention), both concluded under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). He noted that the Convention on Nuclear Safety remains a 'traditional' international legal instrument, focusing on governments and governmental bodies as the main stakeholders and limiting obligations regarding the involvement of the public and intergovernmental organisations to their receiving information and observing. Likewise, the Joint Convention limits obligations regarding public involvement to access to information, notably as to the siting of proposed facilities. However, he noted that in the European Union, the Directive on Nuclear Safety (2014/87/Euratom) and the Directive for the Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste (2011/70/Euratom) have more advanced public participation requirements in nuclear decision making. Mr Emmerechts explained that the substantial differences between nuclear legislation and the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions with regards to public involvement requirements could partly be explained by the technicality of nuclear information and by issues related to nuclear security

  10. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing; U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute

    2000-01-01

    The Contracting parties recognize the importance of the measures provided in the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third party liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as well as in national legislation on compensation for nuclear damage consistent with the principles of these conventions. The Contracting parties desire to establish a worldwide liability regime to supplement and enhance these measures with a view to increasing the amount of compensation for nuclear damage and encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principle of international partnership and solidarity

  11. National report of Brazil. Nuclear Safety Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  12. U.S. Perspectives on the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.; Federline, M.; Camper, L.; Abu-Eid, R.; Gnugnoli, G.; Gorn, J.; Bubar, P.; Tonkay, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) is an international convention, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It is a companion to a suite of international conventions on nuclear safety and physical security, which serve to promote a global culture for the safe use of radioactive materials. Although the U.S. was the first nation to sign the Joint Convention on September 29, 1997, the ratification process was a challenging experience for the U.S., in the face of legislative priorities dominated by concerns for national security and threats from terrorism after September 11, 2001. Notwithstanding these prevailing circumstances, the U.S. ratified the Joint Convention in 2003, just prior to the First Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties, and participated fully therein. For the United States, participation as a Contracting Party provides many benefits. These range from working with other Parties to harmonize international approaches to achieve strong and effective nuclear safety programs on a global scale, to stimulating initiatives to improve safety systems within our own domestic programs, to learning about technical innovations by other Parties that can be useful to U.S. licensees, utilities, and industry in managing safety and its associated costs in our waste management activities. The Joint Convention process also provides opportunities to identify future areas of bilateral and multilateral technical and regulatory cooperation with other Parties, as well as an opportunity for U.S. vendors and suppliers to broaden their market to include foreign clients for safety improvement equipment and services. The Joint Convention is consistent with U.S. foreign policy considerations to support, as a priority, the strengthening of the worldwide safety culture in the use of nuclear energy. Because of its many benefits, we believe it is important to take

  13. Ambiguities and conventions in the perception of visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamassian, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Vision perception is ambiguous and visual arts play with these ambiguities. While perceptual ambiguities are resolved with prior constraints, artistic ambiguities are resolved by conventions. Is there a relationship between priors and conventions? This review surveys recent work related to these ambiguities in composition, spatial scale, illumination and color, three-dimensional layout, shape, and movement. While most conventions seem to have their roots in perceptual constraints, those conventions that differ from priors may help us appreciate how visual arts differ from everyday perception.

  14. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  15. Medan Convention & Exhibition Center (Arsitektur Ekspresionisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Nurul Auni

    2015-01-01

    Medan is one of the third largest city in Indonesia, which is currently being developed, and a city with lots of activities. In the city of Medan has a high investment opportunities for a convention, because of its strategic position in Southeast Asia and also supported by the facility and the potential for tourism in North Sumatra, Medan city has the potential for industrial MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition). The construction of Medan Convention & Exhibition Cente...

  16. Technical Efficiency Performance of Conventional Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Endri, Endri

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to measure the performance of the technical efficiency of the conventional commercial banks during the period 2008-2009 by using non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Test results showed that the total of all conventional commercial banks during the period 2008-2009 has not shown that optimal performance in which the level of technical efficiency is still below 100 percent. Appalling conditions, the efficiency of national banks experienced a decline of 73.5...

  17. Indonesia Interest in International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention No.189

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Anugrah, Debora Panca

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to analyze, Indonesia Interest in ILO convention No. 189 on Decent Works for Domestic Workers. Indonesia has massive number of domestic workers caused by low quality of education. Therefore, Indonesia agreed on creation of ILO Convention No.189 in protecting their society that works as domestic workers. However, in the early of ILO Convention No.189 agreement creation in 2011, Indonesia has not ratified this Convention to 2013. If Indonesia has ratified this convention prev...

  18. A Direct Mechanism of Ultrafast Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Pentacene Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    Queisser limit of solar power conversion efficiency. In conventional materials, the mechanism of SF is an intermolecular process (xSF), which is mediated by...property for materials used in third-generation solar cells and photodetectors, among other optoelectronic devices.1−3 Unfortunately, techno- logical...mixing. Previous work investigating the mechanism of xSF unfavorably compared the direct coupling mechanism against superexchange mediated by high

  19. Prerequisites for a nuclear weapons convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, W.

    1999-01-01

    A Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC) would prohibit the research, development, production, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use and threat of use of nuclear weapons and would serve their total elimination.' In this fashion it follows the model laid out by the biological and chemical weapons conventions. The NWC would encompass a few other treaties and while replacing them should learn from their experiences. The Nuclear Weapons Convention should at some given point in the future replace the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and so resolve its contradictions and shortcomings. The main objectives of an NWC Would be: reduction of the nuclear arsenals of the 'five' nuclear weapons powers down to zero within a set of fixed periods of time; elimination of stockpiles of weapons-usable materials and, where existent, nuclear warheads in de-facto nuclear weapon and threshold states; providing assurance that all states will retain their non-nuclear status forever

  20. Differentiated Brand Marketing Strategy for China’s Conventional Aquatic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; LIANG; Zhongming; SHEN

    2015-01-01

    The volume of production and marketing of China’s conventional aquatic products is increasing. Compared with price of livestock and poultry products,price of conventional aquatic products is relatively low. Differentiated brand marketing for China’s conventional aquatic products is a key approach for increasing market demand for conventional aquatic products and increasing value of conventional aquatic products. The differentiated brand marketing is an inevitable trend of market development and also a powerful arm for market competition. China’s conventional aquatic products can take differentiated brand marketing strategies such as brand orientation,brand concept,brand culture,and place name brand,to better keep market competitive edge and increase economic benefits.

  1. Quantum mechanics new approaches to selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1973-01-01

    Acclaimed as ""excellent"" (Nature) and ""very original and refreshing"" (Physics Today), this collection of self-contained studies is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Its broad selection of topics includes the Mössbauer effect, many-body quantum mechanics, scattering theory, Feynman diagrams, and relativistic quantum mechanics.Author Harry J. Lipkin, a well-known teacher at Israel's Weizmann Institute, takes an unusual approach by introducing many interesting physical problems and mathematical techniques at a much earlier point than in conventional texts. This meth

  2. Uncertainty and complementarity in axiomatic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle is carried through. The physical content of these principles and their representation in the conventional Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics forms a natural starting point. Thereafter is presented more general axiomatic framework for quantum mechanics, namely, a probability function formulation of the theory. Two extra axioms are stated, reflecting the ideas of the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle, respectively. The quantal features of these axioms are explicated. (author)

  3. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  4. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention.

  5. The Burning Plasma Experiment conventional facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commander, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Burning Program Plasma Experiment (BPX) is phased to start construction of conventional facilities in July 1994, in conjunction with the conclusion of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project. This paper deals with the conceptual design of the BPX Conventional Facilities, for which Functional and Operational Requirements (F ampersand ORs) were developed. Existing TFTR buildings and utilities will be adapted and used to satisfy the BPX Project F ampersand ORs to the maximum extent possible. However, new conventional facilities will be required to support the BPX project. These facilities include: The BPX building; Site improvements and utilities; the Field Coil Power Conversion (FCPC) building; the TFTR modifications; the Motor Generation (MG) building; Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2 ) building; and the associated Instrumentation and Control (I ampersand C) systems. The BPX building will provide for safe and efficient shielding, housing, operation, handling, maintenance and decontamination of the BPX and its support systems. Site improvements and utilities will feature a utility tunnel which will provide a space for utility services--including pulse power duct banks and liquid nitrogen coolant lines. The FCPC building will house eight additional power supplied for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The MG building will house the two MG sets larger than the existing TFTR MG sets. This paper also addresses the conventional facility cost estimating methodology and the rationale for the construction schedule developed. 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. U.S. Continuing Involvement with the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.; Tonkay, D.; Regnier, E.; Schultheisz, D.; Gnugnoli, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) is an international convention, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It is a companion to a suite of international conventions on nuclear safety and physical security, which serve to promote a global culture for the safe use of radioactive materials. The Joint Convention is an official international treaty, and as such, there are obligations on the part of the United States. Those nations having ratified the Joint Convention are designated as 'Contracting Parties.' Nations that are not IAEA Member States may also become Contracting Parties to the Joint Convention, although none has done so. The primary obligations are threefold. The first is to prepare a national report, which addresses the national safety program in radioactive waste management, spent nuclear fuel management, and disused sealed sources. As the U.S. prepares a national report, other Contracting Parties to the Joint Convention also prepare their national reports, which leads to the second obligation on the part of the Contracting Parties. This is the obligation to review other countries' national reports. The last specific obligation is to actively participate in the triennial peer review meeting, referred to as the Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties. The U.S. ratified the Joint Convention in 2003, just prior to the First Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties, and has participated fully therein in the ensuing Review Meetings. Because of the benefits in active participation, it is important for the U.S. to maintain its leadership role in promoting its ratification in the global setting, as well as in more focused regions. Because of the important benefits associated with active participation, the U.S. has strongly supported a Regional Conference Initiative outreach program to increase membership. To launch the Initiative, the U

  7. The Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, often referred to as the New York Convention, has established itself as a regulatory and enforcement instrument which is crucial to international trade. This is evident from the fact that more than 150 countries have so far ratified the convention.

  8. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  9. Non conventional energy sources and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno M, F.

    1995-01-01

    Geographically speaking, Mexico is in an enviable position. Sun, water, biomass and geothermal fields main non conventional energy sources with commercial applications, are presents and in some cases plentiful in national territory. Moreover the coastal tidal power which is in research stage in several countries. Non conventional energy sources are an alternative which allow us to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons or any other type of primary energetic, are not by oneself choices for the energy conservation, but energy replacements. At the beginning of this year, CONAE created the Direction of Non conventional Energy Sources, which main objective is to promote and impulse programs inclined towards the application of systems based in renewable energy sources. The research centers represent a technological and consultative support for the CONAE. They have an infrastructure developed along several years of continuous work. The non conventional energy sources will be a reality at the same time that their cost be equal or lower than the cost for the traditional generating systems. CONAE (National Commission for Energy Conservation). (Author)

  10. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cobanoglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic broiler chicken production has recently received more attention worldwide. This study carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. In this study, 400 slow-growing broilers (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system and the same number of fast-growing broilers (Ross-308 were reared in a conventional system. Profitability was deduced from an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was €0.75, which is 180% higher compared with the conventional system (€0.27; however, organic broiler meat was sold at a twice as high price than the conventional one. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more economical than conventional rearing.

  11. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  12. The dependence of Islamic and conventional stocks: A copula approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have found that Islamic stocks are dependent on conventional stocks and they appear to be more risky. In Asia, particularly in Islamic countries, research on dependence involving Islamic and non-Islamic stock markets is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependence between financial times stock exchange Hijrah Shariah index and conventional stocks (EMAS and KLCI indices). Using the copula approach and a time series model for each marginal distribution function, the copula parameters were estimated. The Elliptical copula was selected to present the dependence structure of each pairing of the Islamic stock and conventional stock. Specifically, the Islamic versus conventional stocks (Shariah-EMAS and Shariah-KLCI) had lower dependence compared to conventional versus conventional stocks (EMAS-KLCI). These findings suggest that the occurrence of shocks in a conventional stock will not have strong impact on the Islamic stock.

  13. The framework convention on climate change a convention for sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassing, P.; Mendis, M.S.; Menezes, L.M.; Gowen, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, over 165 countries signed the United Nation`s Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). These countries have implicitly agreed to alter their `anthropogenic activities` that increase the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere and deplete the natural sinks for these same greenhouse gases. The energy sector is the major source of the primary anthropogenic GHGs, notably carbon dioxide and methane. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries presently account for the major share of GHG emissions from the energy sector. However, the developing countries are also rapidly increasing their contribution to global GHG emissions as a result of their growing consumption of fossil-based energy. Implementation of this global climate change convention, if seriously undertaken by the signatory countries, will necessitate changes in the energy mix and production processes in both the OECD and developing countries. International actions also will be needed to put the world on a sustainable energy path. By adoption of the FCCC, representatives of the world`s populations have indicated their desire to move toward such a path. The Conference of Parties to the Convention has just concluded its second meeting, at which the Parties endorsed a U.S. proposal that legally binding and enforceable emissions targets be adopted. It is clearly evident that the FCCC, as presently operating, cannot achieve the objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere unless it adopts a major protocol to significantly reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. As demonstrated here, a good starting point in determining the steps the Parties to the FCCC should take in designing a protocol is to remember that the primary source of anthropogenic GHG emissions is the consumption of fossil fuels and the future growth of GHG emissions will derive primarily from the ever-increasing demand for and consumption of these fuels.

  14. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs, also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs, or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions.

  15. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs. PMID:21999509

  16. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Townsend, Joe A; Adams, Sam E; Phadungsukanan, Weerapong; Thomas, Jens

    2011-10-14

    The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs.

  17. Quantitative Study of Nanoscale Contact and Pre-Contact Mechanics Using Force Modulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Asif, S. A; Wahl, K. J; Colton, R. J

    1999-01-01

    .... However cantilever instability, conventional force detection and displacement sensing make contact area measurement difficult, hence the measured mechanical properties are usually only qualitative...

  18. Effects of fibre content on mechanical properties and fracture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    cost. The most important factors that affect the short fibres reinforcement are ... made with conventional techniques, including single or twin screw extruding (Li et al 2005), wet ball-milling mixing (Song et al 2002) and high-speed mechanical.

  19. National nuclear safety report 1998. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine Republic subscribed the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved by a Diplomatic Conference in Vienna, Austria, in June 17th, 1994. According to the provisions in Section 5th of the Convention, each Contracting Party shall submit for its examination a National Nuclear Safety Report about the measures adopted to comply with the corresponding obligations. This Report describes the actions that the Argentine Republic is carrying on since the beginning of its nuclear activities, showing that it complies with the obligations derived from the Convention, in accordance with the provisions of its Article 4. The analysis of the compliance with such obligations is based on the legislation in force, the applicable regulatory standards and procedures, the issued licenses, and other regulatory decisions. The corresponding information is described in the analysis of each of the Convention Articles constituting this Report. The present National Report has been performed in order to comply with Article 5 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and has been prepared as much as possible following the Guidelines Regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved in the Preparatory Meeting of the Contracting Parties, held in Vienna in April 1997. This means that the Report has been ordered according to the Articles of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the contents indicated in the guidelines. The information contained in the articles, which are part of the Report shows the compliance of the Argentine Republic, as a contracting party of such Convention, with the obligations assumed

  20. Orthotic treatment of positional brachycephaly associated with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Carolina G; Schreen, Gerd; Lago-Rizzardi, Camilla D do; Peccin, Maria Stella; Pinto, Fernando Cg

    2017-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited disorder of the connective tissue characterized primarily by fractures with no or small causal antecedents and extremely variable clinical presentation. The disorder requires a global and, therefore, multidisciplinary therapeutic approach that should aim, among other aspects, at the prevention and treatment of deformities resulting from osteogenesis imperfecta. Due to limitations related to bony deformities, it can be difficult to place these infants in a variety of positions that would help remediate skull deformities, so a cranial orthosis becomes the therapy of choice. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the results obtained during treatment with a cranial remolding orthosis (helmet) in babies with osteogenesis imperfecta. Case Description and Methods: For the first time in the scientific literature, this study describes the use of a cranial orthosis for the treatment of infants with osteogenesis imperfecta. Both children had severe asymmetrical brachycephaly documented by laser digital scanning and were submitted to treatment with a cranial remolding orthosis. Outcomes and Conclusion: The study showed that there was a significant improvement in cranial proportion and symmetry, with a reduction in the cephalic index at reevaluation. It is concluded that the orthotic therapy is an effective therapeutic modality to improve the proportion and minimize the asymmetry in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. Clinical relevance The clinical relevance of such a description is that children with osteogenesis imperfecta may have numerous deformities and minimizing them can be an important factor. This report showed a beneficial result as the orthotic therapy modality improved the proportions and minimized the asymmetry. This treatment offers too high levels of satisfaction to parents and brings these children closer to normal indices.

  1. Strategy for identification & characterization of Bartonella henselae with conventional & molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Diddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bartonella henselae is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium usually causing self limiting infections in immunocompetent individuals but often causes potentially life threatening infection, such as bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised patients. Both diagnosis of infections and research into molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have been hindered by lack of appropriate and reliable diagnostic techniques. We undertook this study to standardize methods to characterize B. henselae in clinical samples to diagnose Bartonella infection correctly. Methods: B. henselae ATCC 49882 strain was procured from American type culture collection, USA. This strain was revived and maintained in the laboratory, and identification and characterization of this strain was done by conventional and molecular techniques, which included culture on various media, staining by different methods including electron microscopy, biochemical analysis by conventional methods and API, polymerase chain reaction (PCR for amplification of citrate synthase gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Results: This organism was biochemically inert due to slow growth and generated unique identification code with API. The amplification of the citrate-synthase gene with primers yielded a 381 bp product followed by specific RFLP profile for B. henselae. Interpretation & conclusions: Bartonella is fastidious and fragile organism and should be handled carefully. Extra effort and careful observation are required to isolate and characterize this organism.

  2. Can quantum mechanics be an emergent phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Scardigli, Fabio

    2009-06-01

    We raise the issue whether conventional quantum mechanics, which is not a hidden variable theory in the usual Jauch-Piron's sense, might nevertheless be a hidden variable theory in the sense recently conjectured by G. 't Hooft in his pre-quantization scheme. We find that quantum mechanics might indeed have a fully deterministic underpinning by showing that Born's rule naturally emerges (i.e., it is not postulated) when 't Hooft's Hamiltonian for be-ables is combined with Koopmann-von Neumann operatorial formulation of classical physics.

  3. Can quantum mechanics be an emergent phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Scardigli, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We raise the issue whether conventional quantum mechanics, which is not a hidden variable theory in the usual Jauch-Piron's sense, might nevertheless be a hidden variable theory in the sense recently conjectured by G. 't Hooft in his pre-quantization scheme. We find that quantum mechanics might indeed have a fully deterministic underpinning by showing that Born's rule naturally emerges (i.e., it is not postulated) when 't Hooft's Hamiltonian for be-ables is combined with Koopmann-von Neumann operatorial formulation of classical physics.

  4. Revision of the Paris and Brussels Conventions of Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Contracting Parties to the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and to the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, have concluded this Spring four years of negotiation on the revision of these instruments. This exercise was itself started as a logical consequence of the adoption in 1997 of a revised Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The Contracting Parties have concluded that the existing regime established by these Conventions remains viable and sound but that it also warrants improvements to ensure that greater financial security will be available to compensate a potentially larger number of victims in respect of a broader range of nuclear damage. A number of more technical amendments have also been agreed, in particular to ensure compatibility with other existing Conventions in this field. When the revised Paris and Brussels Conventions come into force, the total amount of funds available for compensation, provided by the liable nuclear operator and by the States concerned, will be 1.5 billion euros. (author)

  5. Orthotic intervention incorporating the dart-thrower's motion as part of conservative management guidelines for treatment of scapholunate injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hamish; Hoy, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Case series. This paper describes conservative guidelines for the management of scapho-lunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) injury including fabrication of an orthosis that restricts active wrist movement to the dart-throwers (DTM) plane. The dart throwers' orthosis (DTO) was designed as a response to biomechanical studies suggesting that restraining motion to the DTM would off-load a deficient SLIL. After six weeks of wearing the DTO, the 5 patients in this case series initiated an exercise program that incorporated wrist proprioceptive training and specific muscle strengthening. The DTO was designed to incorporate controlled movement in order to better integrate the secondary wrist stabilizers in wrists that had a deficient SLIL. The orthosis and the exercise program harnessed proprioceptive influences using active motion within the DTM plane, and stimulated mechanoreceptors so as to enhance stability. All patients demonstrated improvement in subjective and objective outcomes including self-reported pain and function. Orthotic intervention that controls motion within the DTM, combined with an appropriate proprioceptive rehabilitation program, may provide a viable conservative treatment option for patients with a similar clinical presentation. 4. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Choledochal cyst: Comparison of MR and conventional cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Lim, J.H.; Yoon, H.-K.; Han, B.K.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, Y.I.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiography versus conventional cholangiography in patients with choledochal cyst and to determine whether MR cholangiography can be considered an alternative to conventional cholangiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with choledochal cyst were examined by MR cholangiography and conventional cholangiograms. Magnetic resonance cholangiography employed T2-weighted axial and coronal fast spin-echo, single and multislab single-shot fast spin-echo sequences, including source images with maximum intensity projections. The diagnostic value of MR cholangiography and conventional cholangiograms was assessed and compared using the criteria of depiction of morphology, anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct union and demonstration of complications such as stones. A four-point diagnostic scale was applied to the delineation of the ductal anatomy with the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and McNemar's test used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The depiction of the choledochal cyst was significantly better with MR cholangiography than with conventional cholangiography (P 0.03). The detection rate of an anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct union was not significantly different with either method (P = 0.641), nor was the detection rate of bile duct stones (P = 0.375). CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance cholangiography provides data equivalent to or superior to those from conventional cholangiography in evaluating choledochal cyst. Magnetic resonance cholangiography is recommended as a non-invasive examination of choice for the evaluation of choledochal cyst. Kim, S.H. (2000). Clinical Radiology 55, 378-383

  7. HMB-45 reactivity in conventional uterine leiomyosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Karen W; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    We studied the human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45) reactivity in 25 uterine leiomyosarcomas including 23 conventional and 2 myxoid variants. Eleven tumors were poorly differentiated, and 14 were well to moderately differentiated. Nine uterine leiomyosarcomas labeled with HMB-45 in 10% or less of the tumor cells. Six were poorly differentiated and 3 were well differentiated. Our study indicates that 36% of conventional leiomyosarcomas focally express HMB-45. HMB-45 reactivity was more common in the poorly differentiated than in the well-differentiated group of leiomyosarcomas. In light of our findings and of those recently reported in the literature, we believe that the term PEComa should not be used for uterine leiomyosarcomas with clear cells or for conventional leiomyosarcomas that stain positively with HMB-45.

  8. Alberta's conventional oil supply: How much? How long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the future conventional crude oil supply potential in Alberta, a modelling system was designed with the capacity to determine the fraction of existing and potential reserves which could prove technically, economically and/or commercially viable over time. The reference case analysis described assumed constant real oil prices and fiscal burdens, capital and operating costs. Reserve additions from new pool discoveries were summed with reserves from existing pools to arrive at an estimate of the potential supply of established reserves in each play area. The established reserves from all plays were then totalled to provide the provincial conventional oil resource potential. Alberta's recoverable conventional crude oil reserves were shown to be declining at about 2 percent per year. However, even with declining recoverable reserves and relatively low prices, the results of the study indicated that the conventional oil industry remained a major revenue generator for the province and would continue to be so over the next 15 to 20 years. Improved operating efficiencies, cost reductions, reasonable prices and cooperation between industry and government were shown to be necessary to assure the continued viability of Alberta's conventional oil industry. figs., tabs., 11 refs

  9. A Meta-Analysis Examining Differences in Short-Term Outcomes Between Sutureless and Conventional Aortic Valve Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Eoghan T; O'Sullivan, Katie E; Segurado, Ricardo; Hurley, John P

    2015-01-01

    Sutureless aortic valve prostheses are anchored by radial force in a mechanism similar to that of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is associated with an increased permanent pacemaker (PPM) requirement in a significant proportion of patients. We undertook a meta-analysis to examine the incidence of PPM insertion associated with sutureless compared with conventional surgical aortic valve replacement. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Prisma guidelines. All searches were performed on August 10, 2014. Studies between 2007 and 2014 were included in the search. A total of 832 patients were included in the sutureless group and 3,740 in the conventional group. Aortic cross-clamp (39.8 vs 62.4 minutes; P < 0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass (64.9 vs 86.7 minutes; P = 0.002) times were shorter in the sutureless group. Permanent pacemaker implantation rate was higher in the sutureless cohort (9.1% vs 2.4%; P = 0.025). Sutureless aortic valve prostheses are associated with significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and a higher incidence of PPM insertion than conventional. Further investigation of the prognostic significance is required.

  10. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cobanoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, organic broiler chicken production has received more attention worldwide. This study has carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. To achieve this goal, 400 slow-growing broiler chickens (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system, and the same number of fast-growing birds (Ross-308 in a conventional system. The profitability was deduced with an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was € 0.75, which is 180% higher than chicken meat grown in a conventional system (€ 0.27; however, the price of organic broiler meat sold in the present study was twice as high as that obtained for conventional broilers. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more profitable than conventional rearing.

  11. The 1928 draft convention for the prevention of double taxation in the special matter of succession duties. The conventions concluded by Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. ŞCHIOPU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania has concluded two conventions for the avoidance of double taxation on estate and inheritance tax during the interwar period. Since one of these conventions is still in force and the difficulties caused by the burdens resulting from inheritance tax in cross-border situations are of great importance to the proper functioning of the EU and of the internal market, this short article aims to compare the solutions proposed by the 1928 Draft Convention for the Prevention of Double Taxation in the Special Matter of Succession Duties and the conventions concluded by Romania in 1932 and 1934, considering that at some point our legislator may want to reintroduce an inheritance tax.

  12. Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident. Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The document refers to the Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident (INFCIRC-335) and to the Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency (INFCIRC-336). Part I contains reservations/declarations made upon or following signature and Part II contains reservations/declarations made upon or following deposit of instrument expressing consent to be bound. The status of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by States or organizations as of 31 July 1989 for the conventions is presented in two attachments

  13. Convention on nuclear safety. Final act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Diplomatic Conference, which was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994, adopted the Convention on Nuclear Safety reproduced in document INFCIRC/449 and the Final Act of the Conference. The text of the Final Act of the Conference, including an annexed document entitled ''Some clarification with respect to procedural and financial arrangements, national reports, and the conduct of review meetings, envisaged in the Convention on Nuclear Safety'', is reproduced in the Attachment hereto for the information of all Member States

  14. Diode laser surgery. Ab interno and ab externo versus conventional surgery in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, C L; Higginbotham, E J; Edward, D P; Musch, D C

    1993-10-01

    Fibroblastic proliferation of subconjunctival tissues remains a primary mechanism of failure in filtration surgery. Minimizing the surgical manipulation of episcleral tissues may reduce scarring. Laser sclerostomy surgery involves minimal tissue dissection, and is gaining attention as a method of potentially improving filter duration in high-risk cases. Twenty-five New Zealand rabbits underwent filtration surgery in one eye, and the fellow eye remained as the unoperated control. Ten rabbits underwent ab externo diode laser sclerostomy surgery, ten underwent ab interno diode sclerostomy surgery, and five had posterior sclerostomy procedures. Filtration failure was defined as a less-than-4-mmHg intraocular pressure (IOP) difference between the operative and control eyes. The mean time to failure for the ab externo, ab interno, and conventional posterior sclerostomy techniques measured 17.4 +/- 11.5, 13.1 +/- 6.7, and 6.0 +/- 3.1 days, respectively. In a comparison of the laser-treated groups with the conventional procedure, the time to failure was significantly longer (P = 0.02) for the ab externo filter. The mean ab interno sclerostomy duration was longer than the posterior lip procedure, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.15). The overall level of IOP reduction was similar in the three groups. These data suggest that diode laser sclerostomy is a feasible technique in rabbits, and the ab externo approach resulted in longer filter duration than the conventional posterior lip procedure in this model.

  15. Quantum Backaction Evading Measurement of Collective Mechanical Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockeloen-Korppi, C F; Damskägg, E; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Clerk, A A; Woolley, M J; Sillanpää, M A

    2016-09-30

    The standard quantum limit constrains the precision of an oscillator position measurement. It arises from a balance between the imprecision and the quantum backaction of the measurement. However, a measurement of only a single quadrature of the oscillator can evade the backaction and be made with arbitrary precision. Here we demonstrate quantum backaction evading measurements of a collective quadrature of two mechanical oscillators, both coupled to a common microwave cavity. The work allows for quantum state tomography of two mechanical oscillators, and provides a foundation for macroscopic mechanical entanglement and force sensing beyond conventional quantum limits.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  17. Research on Non-Similarity about Thermal Deformation Error of Mechanical Parts in High-accuracy Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Z; Fei, Y T

    2006-01-01

    Expanding with heat and contracting with cold are common physical phenomenon in the nature. The conventional theories and calculations of thermal deformation are approximate and linear, can only be applied in normal or low precision field. The thermal deformation error of mechanical parts doesn't follow the conventional linear formula, it relates to all physical dimension of the mechanical part, and the deformation can be indicated by a nonlinear formula of physical dimensions. A theory on non-similarity about thermal deformation error of mechanical parts is presented. Studies on some common mechanical parts in precision technology have went on and the mathematical models have been set up, hollow piece, gear and cube are included. The experimental results also make it clear that these models are more logical than traditional models

  18. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  19. Digital Versus Conventional Impressions in Fixed Prosthodontics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlholm, Pekka; Sipilä, Kirsi; Vallittu, Pekka; Jakonen, Minna; Kotiranta, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of possible benefits and accuracy of digital impression techniques vs. conventional impression techniques. Reports of digital impression techniques versus conventional impression techniques were systematically searched for in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science. A combination of controlled vocabulary, free-text words, and well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria guided the search. Digital impression accuracy is at the same level as conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression accuracy is clinically acceptable. In full-arch impressions, conventional impression methods resulted in better accuracy compared to digital impressions. Digital impression techniques are a clinically acceptable alternative to conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short FDPs. For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression systems also result in clinically acceptable fit. Digital impression techniques are faster and can shorten the operation time. Based on this study, the conventional impression technique is still recommended for full-arch impressions. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Proceedings of the sixth structural engineering convent ion. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Nagesh R.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Samuel Knight, G.M.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the developments taking place at present in India and abroad in the field of structural engineering have been captured in this sixth Structural Engineering Convention. The areas covered are: (i) Advances in Concrete Structures, (ii) Advances in Steel Structures, (iii) Advances in Computational Structural Mechanics, (iv) Testing and Evaluation of Structures/Structural components, (v) New Materials of Construction, (vi) Analysis and Design of Structures against Natural Hazards, (vii) Health Monitoring of Structures, (viii) Repair, Retrofit and Rehabilitation of Structures, (ix) Advances in Construction Techniques/Practices and Guidelines and Codal Recommendations (x) Behaviour of Structures under Blast/Impact Loading and (xi) Fatigue and Fracture. About 200 papers that include contributory, invited, keynote and plenary papers are included in the proceedings. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. PSA methodology including new design, operational and safety factors, 'Level of recognition of phenomena with a presumed dominant influence upon operational safety' (failures of conventional as well as non-conventional passive components, dependent failures, influence of operator, fires and external threats, digital control, organizational factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    2001-10-01

    The document represents a specific type of discussion of existing methodologies for the creation and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in light of the EUR document summarizing requirements placed by Western European NPP operators on the future design of nuclear power plants. A partial goal of this discussion consists in mapping, from the PSA point of view, those selected design, operational and/or safety factors of future NPPs that may be entirely new or, at least, newly addressed. Therefore, the terms of reference for this stage were formulated as follows: Assess current level of knowledge and procedures in the analysis of factors and phenomena with a dominant influence upon operational safety of new generation reactors, especially in the following areas: (1) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of conventional passive safety system components; (2) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of non-conventional passive components of newly designed safety systems; (3) Phenomenology of types and mechanisms of dependent failures; (4) Human factor role in new generation reactors and its effect upon safety; (5) Fire safety and other external threats to new nuclear installations; (6) Reliability of the digital systems of the I and C system and their effect upon safety; and (7) Organizational factors in new nuclear installations. (P.A.)

  2. Physico-mechanical characteristics of commercially available bulk-fill composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, Julian G; Palin, William M; Vanacker, Julie; Sabbagh, Joseph; Devaux, Jacques; Leloup, Gaetane

    2014-08-01

    Bulk-fill composites have emerged, arguably, as a new "class" of resin-based composites, which are claimed to enable restoration in thick layers, up to 4mm. The objective of this work was to compare, under optimal curing conditions, the physico-mechanical properties of most currently available bulk-fill composites to those of two conventional composite materials chosen as references, one highly filled and one flowable "nano-hybrid" composite. Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus-Kulzer), SDR (Dentsply), X-tra Fil (VOCO), X-tra Base (VOCO), Sonic Fill (Kerr), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M-Espe), Xenius (GC) were compared to the two reference materials. The materials were light-cured for 40s in a 2mm×2mm×25mm Teflon mould. Degree of conversion was measured by Raman spectroscopy, Elastic modulus and flexural strength were evaluated by three point bending, surface hardness using Vickers microindentation before and after 24h ethanol storage, and filler weight content by thermogravimetric analysis. The ratio of surface hardness before and after ethanol storage was considered as an evaluation of polymer softening. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mechanical properties of the bulk-fill composites were mostly lower compared with the conventional high viscosity material, and, at best, comparable to the conventional flowable composite. Linear correlations of the mechanical properties investigated were poor with degree of conversion (0.090.8). Softening in ethanol revealed differences in polymer network density between material types. The reduction of time and improvement of convenience associated with bulk-fill materials is a clear advantage of this particular material class. However, a compromise with mechanical properties compared with more conventional commercially-available nano-hybrid materials was demonstrated by the present work. Given the lower mechanical properties of most bulk-fill materials

  3. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  4. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  5. Can quantum mechanics be an emergent phenomenon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, DMI, Universita di Salerno, Fisciano - 84084 (Italy); Jizba, Petr [ITP, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14 D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Scardigli, Fabio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i, E-mail: jizba@physik.fu-berlin.d, E-mail: fabio@phys.ntu.edu.t [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2009-06-01

    We raise the issue whether conventional quantum mechanics, which is not a hidden variable theory in the usual Jauch-Piron's sense, might nevertheless be a hidden variable theory in the sense recently conjectured by G. 't Hooft in his pre-quantization scheme. We find that quantum mechanics might indeed have a fully deterministic underpinning by showing that Born's rule naturally emerges (i.e., it is not postulated) when 't Hooft's Hamiltonian for be-ables is combined with Koopmann-von Neumann operatorial formulation of classical physics.

  6. Slow walking model for children with multiple disabilities via an application of humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZeFeng; Peyrodie, Laurent; Cao, Hua; Agnani, Olivier; Watelain, Eric; Wang, HaoPing

    2016-02-01

    Walk training research with children having multiple disabilities is presented. Orthosis aid in walking for children with multiple disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy continues to be a clinical and technological challenge. In order to reduce pain and improve treatment strategies, an intermediate structure - humanoid robot NAO - is proposed as an assay platform to study walking training models, to be transferred to future special exoskeletons for children. A suitable and stable walking model is proposed for walk training. It would be simulated and tested on NAO. This comparative study of zero moment point (ZMP) supports polygons and energy consumption validates the model as more stable than the conventional NAO. Accordingly direction variation of the center of mass and the slopes of linear regression knee/ankle angles, the Slow Walk model faithfully emulates the gait pattern of children.

  7. Sutureless versus Conventional Aortic Valve Replacement: Outcomes in 70 High-Risk Patients Undergoing Concomitant Cardiac Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanedan, Muhammet Onur; Yuruk, Mehmet Ali; Parlar, Ali Ihsan; Ziyrek, Ugur; Arslan, Ali Kemal; Sayar, Ufuk; Mataraci, Ilker

    2018-02-01

    In elderly, high-risk surgical patients, sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR) can often be an alternative to conventional AVR; shorter aortic cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times are the chief advantages. We compared the outcomes of sutureless AVR with those of conventional AVR in 70 elderly patients who underwent concomitant cardiac surgical procedures. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 42 men and 28 women (mean age, 70.4 ± 10.3 yr; range, 34-93 yr) who underwent cardiac operations plus AVR with either a sutureless valve (group 1, n=38) or a conventional bioprosthetic or mechanical valve (group 2, n=32). Baseline patient characteristics were similar except for worse New York Heart Association functional status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in group 1. In group 1, the operative, cross-clamp, and cardiopulmonary bypass times were shorter (all P =0.001), postoperative drainage amounts were lower ( P =0.009), hospital stays were shorter ( P =0.004), and less red blood cell transfusion was needed ( P =0.037). Echocardiograms before patients' discharge from the hospital showed lower peak and mean aortic gradients in group 1 (mean transvalvular gradient, 8.4 ± 2.8 vs 12.2 ± 5.2 mmHg; P =0.012). We found that elderly, high-risk patients who underwent multiple cardiac surgical procedures and sutureless AVR had better hemodynamic outcomes and shorter ischemic times than did patients who underwent conventional AVR.

  8. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  9. The 1968 Brussels convention and liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, Ph.; Galizzi, P.

    2000-01-01

    The legal regime governing civil liability for transboundary nuclear damage is expressly addressed by two instruments adopted in the 1960's: the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage These establish particular rules governing the jurisdiction of national courts and other matters, including channelling of liability to nuclear operators, definitions of nuclear damage, the applicable standard of care, and limitations on liability. Another instrument - the 1968 Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgements in Civil and Commercial Matters (hereinafter referred to as 'the Brussels Convention') - which is not often mentioned in the nuclear context will nevertheless also be applicable in certain cases. It is premised upon different rules as to forum and applicable law, and presents an alternate vision of the appropriate arrangements governing civil liability for nuclear damage. In this paper we consider the relative merits and demerits of the Brussels Convention from the perspective of non-nuclear states which might suffer damage as a result of a nuclear accident in another state. We conclude that in the context of the applicability of the Brussels Convention the dedicated nuclear liability conventions present few attractions to non-nuclear states in Europe. We focus in particular on issues relating to jurisdiction and applicable law, and do so by reference to a hypothetical accident in the United Kingdom which has transboundary effects in Ireland. (author)

  10. The history of double tax conventions in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Arbutina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a short introduction, the authors briefly describe the national experience in handling the problems of international double taxation through double tax conventions. This chapter is divided according to stages in the history of double tax conventions identified. The authors analyse the goals of tax treaty policies in differentiated stages with a survey of the economic implications. Special focus is placed on inter-country influences and the impact on and of international institutions and organisations through an examination of the influence of bilateral tax treaties on model tax conventions and vice versa. The fifth chapter presents concluding observations.

  11. Implications of the Law of the Sea Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, W.C. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that protection and preservation of the marine environment from wastes and toxic substances was an early concern of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, and the subject is extensively dealt with in the text of the Convention, adopted on 30 April 1982. The environmental provisions of the Convention are intended to serve as an umbrella treaty that states general goals, delimits the power and geographical jurisdiction of states in dealing with environmental problems, and requires states to cooperate through regional and global organizations in the development of standards. The most complex provisions of the environmental text deal with vessel discharges, reflecting the high degree of public interest in oil pollution, whereas the ocean dumping provisions rely largely on the standards of the London Dumping Convention. Pollution carried by air and rivers and wastes from seabed mining within national jurisdiction are treated briefly. The International Seabed Authority, created elsewhere in the Convention to regulate seabed mining, is granted power to regulate pollution from such mining beyond national jurisdiction. Overall, the most important contribution made by the Law of the Sea Convention to the protection of the marine environment is the obligation of states to bring national marine pollution laws up to global standards

  12. Effect of Shoes on Stiffness and Energy Efficiency of Ankle-Foot Orthosis: Bench Testing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Gao, Fan; LeCursi, Nicholas; Foreman, K Bo; Orendurff, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) is important to maximize their benefit for those with movement disorders during gait. Though mechanical properties such as stiffness and/or energy efficiency of AFOs have been extensively studied, it remains unknown how and to what extent shoes influence their properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes on stiffness and energy efficiency of an AFO using a custom mechanical testing device. Stiffness and energy efficiency of the AFO were measured in the plantar flexion and dorsiflexion range, respectively, under AFO-alone and AFO-Shoe combination conditions. The results of this study demonstrated that the stiffness of the AFO-Shoe combination was significantly decreased compared to the AFO-alone condition, but no significant differences were found in energy efficiency. From the results, we recommend that shoes used with AFOs should be carefully selected not only based on their effect on alignment of the lower limb, but also their effects on overall mechanical properties of the AFO-Shoe combination. Further study is needed to clarify the effects of differences in shoe designs on AFO-Shoe combination mechanical properties.

  13. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage. Final act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the Final Act of the Diplomatic Conference held in Vienna between 8-12 September 1997 which adopted the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  14. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage. Final act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-23

    The document reproduces the Final Act of the Diplomatic Conference held in Vienna between 8-12 September 1997 which adopted the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  15. Statistical mechanics and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The theory of statistical mechanics is studied in the presence of Lorentz-violating background fields. The analysis is performed using the Standard-Model Extension (SME) together with a Jaynesian formulation of statistical inference. Conventional laws of thermodynamics are obtained in the presence of a perturbed hamiltonian that contains the Lorentz-violating terms. As an example, properties of the nonrelativistic ideal gas are calculated in detail. To lowest order in Lorentz violation, the scalar thermodynamic variables are only corrected by a rotationally invariant combination of parameters that mimics a (frame dependent) effective mass. Spin-couplings can induce a temperature-independent polarization in the classical gas that is not present in the conventional case. Precision measurements in the residual expectation values of the magnetic moment of Fermi gases in the limit of high temperature may provide interesting limits on these parameters

  16. Profit-based conventional resource scheduling with renewable energy penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Srikanth; Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-08-01

    Technological breakthroughs in renewable energy technologies (RETs) enabled them to attain grid parity thereby making them potential contenders for existing conventional resources. To examine the market participation of RETs, this paper formulates a scheduling problem accommodating energy market participation of wind- and solar-independent power producers (IPPs) treating both conventional and RETs as identical entities. Furthermore, constraints pertaining to penetration and curtailments of RETs are restructured. Additionally, an appropriate objective function for profit incurred by conventional resource IPPs through reserve market participation as a function of renewable energy curtailment is also proposed. The proposed concept is simulated with a test system comprising 10 conventional generation units in conjunction with solar photovoltaic (SPV) and wind energy generators (WEG). The simulation results indicate that renewable energy integration and its curtailment limits influence the market participation or scheduling strategies of conventional resources in both energy and reserve markets. Furthermore, load and reliability parameters are also affected.

  17. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers’ perceptions of birds’ interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers’ knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas. PMID:27243222

  18. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Andrade, Horasa Lima; de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  19. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horasa Lima Silva-Andrade

    Full Text Available Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  20. The raw milk quality from organic and conventional agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment the parameters of milk quality from organic and conventional dairy farm were analyzed. The number of somatic cells was 219. 103 . ml−1 in the organic milk and 242. 103 . ml−1 in the conventional milk. It seems that conditions of organic farming could be able to have a positive effect of health of mammary gland. We found the highest number of somatic cells at the end of the year (336.103 . ml−1 in organic milk in December, respectively 336.103 . ml−1 in conventional milk in November. The total bacteria count was higher in organic milk (86.103 CFU . ml−1 than conventional (51.103 CFU . ml−1 likewise the number of coliform bacteria. Number of coliform bacteria was by conventional milk under 1000 CFU . ml−1 for all samples. The highest number of coliform bacteria in organic milk was achieved in February (1000 CFU . ml−1. We found higher content of fat (4.23 g . 100g−1 and protein (3.41 g . 100g−1 by organic milk in comparison with the conventional milk (4.11 g . 100g−1, resp. 3.39 g . 100g−1. The higher content of protein and fat in organic milk and the higher protein content in conventional milk were determined in December. The heat resistance was determined by 96 % ethanol required to coagulation of 2 ml of milk. The conventional milk has significantly lower heat resistance (1.38 ml than the organic one (1.86 ml. Better heat stability by organic milk and higher content of Ca (144.29 mg . 100g−1 correspond with higher technological quality of organic milk.

  1. Burning properties and mechanical integrity of aged gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, C.A. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2017-01-01

    Conventional gun propellants exhibit the phenomenon of nitrocellulose (NC) decomposition. Besides an effect on thermal stability of propellants, decomposition of NC has an effect on the mechanical integrity of the propellant grains. Enhanced grain fracture may lead to unacceptable changes of the

  2. Archaeology and the World Heritage Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cleere

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available International efforts to designate outstanding examples of the world's cultural and natural heritage began after the Second World War. The World Heritage Convention was signed at the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972 and the first cultural sites were selected in 1978. Now over 600 have been inscribed on the World Heritage List. The author, who is an honorary visiting professor at the Institute, acted as an advisor to the World Heritage Committee from 1992 to 2002 and here describes how the Convention came into being and discusses the representation of archaeological sites on the List.

  3. Defect Detectability Improvement for Conventional Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of defect detectability via phased array ultrasound technology in conventional friction stir welds by comparing conventionally prepped post weld surfaces to a machined surface finish. A machined surface is hypothesized to improve defect detectability and increase material strength.

  4. 19 CFR 114.2 - Customs Conventions and Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs Conventions and Agreements. 114.2 Section 114.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS General Provisions § 114.2 Customs Conventions and Agreements. The...

  5. Comparison between Conventional Mechanical Fixation and Use of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Wound Beds Prior to Resurfacing with Split Thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Waiker, Veena; Shivalingappa, Shanthakumar

    2015-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma is known for its hemostatic, adhesive and healing properties in view of the multiple growth factors released from the platelets to the site of wound. The primary objective of this study was to use autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in wound beds for anchorage of skin grafts instead of conventional methods like sutures, staplers or glue. In a single center based randomized controlled prospective study of nine months duration, 200 patients with wounds were divided into two equal groups. Autologous PRP was applied on wound beds in PRP group and conventional methods like staples/sutures used to anchor the skin grafts in a control group. Instant graft adherence to wound bed was statistically significant in the PRP group. Time of first post-graft inspection was delayed, and hematoma, graft edema, discharge from graft site, frequency of dressings and duration of stay in plastic surgery unit were significantly less in the PRP group. Autologous PRP ensured instant skin graft adherence to wound bed in comparison to conventional methods of anchorage. Hence, we recommend the use of autologous PRP routinely on wounds prior to resurfacing to ensure the benefits of early healing.

  6. The effect of surgery on lung volume and conventional monitoring parameters in ventilated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proquitté, H; Freiberger, O; Yilmaz, S; Bamberg, C; Degenhardt, P; Roehr, C C; Wauer, R R; Schmalisch, G

    2010-05-01

    In newborn infants, thoraco-abdominal surgery is a serious intervention with respect to gas exchange and lung mechanics. This prospective clinical study compared surgery-induced changes in functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) indices with changes in conventional monitoring parameters. Of 29 ventilated newborns (mean weight 2,770+/-864 g at surgery), 13, nine and seven underwent thoracic, abdominal or congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) surgery, respectively. The multiple breath washout (MBWO) technique using heptafluoropropane as tracer gas (Babylog 8000; Dräger, Lübeck, Germany) was performed ventilatory monitoring parameters. FRC decreased in non-CDH infants, while FRC increased and VI indices decreased in CDH infants. Despite improvements, the differences in FRC and VI between CDH and non-CDH infants indicated persistent impaired lung function in CHD infants. MBWO can be advantageously used to measure the effect of surgery on the lung. While FRC and VI indices changed following surgery, conventional monitoring parameters did not.

  7. Construction Management for Conventional Facilities of Proton Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Cho, Jin Sam; Lee, Jae Sang

    2008-05-01

    Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We reviewed the basic design and made a detail design of conventional facilities. Preparation for construction license, site improvement and access road construction is fulfilled. Also, we made the technical support for project host as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management

  8. Supersymmetric hadronic mechanics and procedures for isosupersymmetrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntibashirakandi, L.; Callebaut, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the Lie-Santilli lifting of Witten's one-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanical model within the context of supersymmetric hadronic mechanics and extended it to three dimensions. They show that the model describes the motion of a spin one-half particle in a central isosuperpotential. Choosing this isosuperpotential within the specific isosupersymmetrization procedure, their theory produces the model of hadronic harmonic oscillator plus isotopic spin-orbit couplings. They finally indicate that their model describes a particle under conventional potentials plus nonlocal-nonhamiltonian corrections expected in deep penetrations of the wavepackets. As such, the model appears to be significant for the recently proposed chemical synthesis of unstable hadrons via lighter hadrons, which is prohibited by quantum mechanics, but permitted by the covering hadronic mechanics. 16 refs

  9. Probing Formability Improvement of Ultra-thin Ferritic Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate of PEMFC in Non-conventional Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Hyuk Jong; Barlat, Frédéric; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Formability increase in non-conventional forming profiles programmed in the servo-press was investigated using finite element analysis. As an application, forming experiment on a 0.15-mm-thick ferritic stainless steel sheet for a bipolar plate, a primary component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, was conducted. Four different forming profiles were considered to investigate the effects of forming profiles on formability and shape accuracy. The four motions included conventional V motion, holding motion, W motion, and oscillating motion. Among the four motions, the holding motion, in which the slide was held for a certain period at the bottom dead point, led to the best formability. Finite element simulations were conducted to validate the experimental results and to probe the formability improvement in the non-conventional forming profiles. A creep model to address stress relaxation effect along with tool elastic recovery was implemented using a user-material subroutine, CREEP in ABAQUS finite element software. The stress relaxation and variable contact conditions during the holding and oscillating profiles were found to be the main mechanism of formability improvement.

  10. Randomized controlled within-subject evaluation of digital and conventional workflows for the fabrication of lithium disilicate single crowns. Part I: digital versus conventional unilateral impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benic, Goran I; Mühlemann, Sven; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2016-11-01

    Trials comparing the overall performance of fully digital and conventional workflows in reconstructive dentistry are needed. The purpose of the first part of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine whether optical impressions produce different results from conventional impressions with respect to time efficiency and patient and operator perceptions of the clinical workflow. Three digital impressions and 1 conventional impression were made in each of 10 participants according to a randomly generated sequence. The digital systems were Lava COS, iTero, and Cerec Bluecam. The conventional impression was made with the closed-mouth technique and polyvinyl siloxane material. The time needed for powdering, impressions, and interocclusal record was recorded. Patient and clinician perceptions of the procedures were rated by means of visual analog scales. The paired t test with Bonferroni correction was applied to detect differences (α=.05/6=.0083). The mean total working time ±standard deviation amounted to 260 ±66 seconds for the conventional impression, 493 ±193 seconds for Lava, 372 ±126 seconds for iTero, and 357 ±55 seconds for Cerec. The total working time for the conventional impression was significantly lower than that for Lava and Cerec. With regard to the working time without powdering, the differences between the methods were not statistically significant. The patient rating (very uncomfortable=0; comfortable=100) measured 61 ±34 for conventional impression, 71 ±18 for Lava, 66 ±20 for iTero, and 48 ±18 for Cerec. The differences were not statistically significant. The clinician rating (simple=0; very difficult=100) was 13 ±13 for the conventional impression, 54 ±27 for Lava, 22 ±11 for iTero, and 36 ±23 for Cerec. The differences between the conventional impression and Lava and between iTero and Lava were statistically significant. The conventional impression was more time-effective than the digital impressions. In terms of

  11. Revision of the Paris Convention from the German point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlmann, Wilfried.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the revision of the Paris Convention from the German point of view and states how this country has used the possibilities for exceptions provided under the Convention so that German nuclear third party liability legislation differs somewhat from the standards laid down in the Convention. This is explained by a desire to provide increased financial security for the population concerned. After describing various proposed procedures for increasing liability amounts in the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention the author concludes that his country would welcome a revision of the Conventions which would provide increased financial security for the public. (NEA) [fr

  12. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Kessler, T.; Lange, T.; Overbeck, J.; Fiebich, M.; Peters, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients' follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 μm. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ''inter-observer analysis'' was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  13. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention [es

  14. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention

  15. Tritium and OSPAR convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The missions and the organisation of the OSPAR convention on protection of the NE Atlantic marine environment are given. The OSPAR strategy for the radioactive substances is stated. The results of work programme of the radioactive Substances committee are described and the consensus reached by contracting parties on the appropriate arrangements for this radionuclide is presented. (authors)

  16. 7 CFR 7.10 - Conduct of county convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of county convention. 7.10 Section 7.10 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND... other purpose. (e) The county committee shall give advance public notice of the county convention which...

  17. The Vienna Conventions on Early Notification and Assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the IAEA established and opened for signature on 26th September 1986 two Conventions, on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency respectively. This chapter describes the Conventions and their origins (NEA) [fr

  18. Determination of Mechanical and Surface Properties of Semicrystalline Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Laura E; Marchant, Darrell; Grabow, Wade W; Lee, Andre Y; Mabry, Joseph M

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: (1) Nanomodification of semicrystalline polymers -- unequalled thermal, mechanical and surface properties at low volume fractions that cannot be obtained using conventional fillers; (2...

  19. Patient radiation dose in conventional and xerographic cephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copley, R.L.; Glaze, S.A.; Bushong, S.C.; West, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation doses for xeroradiographic and conventional film screen cephalography was made. Alderson tissue-equivalent phantoms were used for patient simulation. An optimum technique in terms of patient dose and image quality indicated that the dose for the Xerox process ranged from five to eleven times greater than that for the conventional process for entrance and exit exposures, respectively. This dose, however, falls within an acceptable range for other dental and medical radiation doses. It is recommended that conventional cephalography be used for routine purposes and that xeroradiography be reserved for situations requiring the increased image quality that the process affords

  20. The role of civil organizations in monitoring the convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction: a proposal for a cooperative compliance mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseberg, LS.

    1998-01-01

    On December 2, 1997, approximately 100 government representatives will gather in Ottawa, Canada to sign a treaty banning the production, use or stockpiling of landmines. Both the speed with which this treaty was negotiated, and the extent to which it is a product of genuine cooperation between like-minded governments and non-governmental organizations (especially the International Campaign to Ban Landmines) make it a landmark document. Nonetheless, when the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on their Destruction (hereinafter, the APM Treaty) is reviewed in the context of other arms control agreements, it is clear that the 'compliance mechanism' is extremely soft. There are no sanctions against states who do not live up to the obligations they assume on signing the APM Treaty, although (under Article 8), States Parties may authorize a fact-finding mission to clarify a question regarding alleged non-compliance. This notwithstanding, the primary compliance mechanism is the provision that states voluntarily report once a year on measures they have taken to implement the treaty. (author)

  1. Digital luminescence radiography and conventional radiography in abdominal contrast examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Harnischmacher, U.; Krahe, T.; Fischbach, R.; Altenburg, A.; Krings, F.

    1995-01-01

    In 326 patients abdominal contrast radiographs were compared to digital luminescence radiographs (DLR) and conventional screen-film system ones. The digital exposure dose was 50% of the conventional. In DLR, 2 different types of postprocessed images were obtained from each data set. A display with low spatial frequency enhancement filtered to look like a conventional radiograph was compared to a display with high spatial frequency enhancement. Conventional and DLR images were evaluated randomly and separately by 4 radiologists by means of a questionnaire. DLR proved to be diagnostically equivalent to the conventional technique with the exception of a slightly diminished visibility of the mucosal pattern. High spatial frequency enhancement did not provide additional diagnostic information and should be dispensed with in abdominal examinations. (orig.)

  2. INTEREST RATES AND CURRENCIES EFFECTS ON ISLAMIC AND CONVENTIONAL BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Syamni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bond markets have not been well developed in emerging countries. Realizing its important role, especially after the 1997 crises and the islamic economics development, emerging countries have started to develop such markets. This research examines the effect of interest rates and currencies on Islamic and conventional bonds in Bursa Malaysia. The analysis on Islamic bonds shows that interest rates and currencies do not influence Islamic bonds, which supports the prohibition of interest in Islam. The analysis on conventional bonds finds evidence that both interest rates and currencies affect conventional bond. It also finds evidence of a negative association between interest rates and a conventional bond. Keywords: Interest rate, currency, conventional bond, Islamic bond JEL classification numbers: G11, G12, G15

  3. Pitfall in quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulation of small solutes in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Liu, Haiyan

    2013-05-30

    Developments in computing hardware and algorithms have made direct molecular dynamics simulation with the combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods affordable for small solute molecules in solution, in which much improved accuracy can be obtained via the quantum mechanical treatment of the solute molecule and even sometimes water molecules in the first solvation shell. However, unlike the conventional molecular mechanical simulations of large molecules, e.g., proteins, in solutions, special care must be taken in the technical details of the simulation, including the thermostat of the solute/solvent system, so that the conformational space of the solute molecules can be properly sampled. We show here that the common setup for classical molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations, such as the Berendsen or single Nose-Hoover thermostat, and/or rigid water models could lead to pathological sampling of the solutes' conformation. In the extreme example of a methanol molecule in aqueous solution, improper and sluggish setups could generate two peaks in the distribution of the O-H bond length. We discuss the factors responsible for this somewhat unexpected result and evoke a simple and ancient technical fix-up to resolve this problem.

  4. 26 CFR 521.103 - Scope of the convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... convention, to be accomplished on a reciprocal basis, are to avoid double taxation upon major items of income... looking to the avoidance of double taxation and fiscal evasion. (b) The specific classes of income from... UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who Are Residents of...

  5. Comparative evaluation of organic and conventional farming on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five samples of organic fruits with seal certification, organic fruits without seal certification and conventional fruits were acquired from supermarkets and farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Organic lime and orange showed higher mean values of acidity, being 4.5 and 34.8% higher, when compared to conventional fruit, ...

  6. 3D printed versus conventionally cured provisional crown and bridge dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahayeri, Anthony; Morgan, MaryCatherine; Fugolin, Ana P; Bompolaki, Despoina; Athirasala, Avathamsa; Pfeifer, Carmem S; Ferracane, Jack L; Bertassoni, Luiz E

    2018-02-01

    To optimize the 3D printing of a dental material for provisional crown and bridge restorations using a low-cost stereolithography 3D printer; and compare its mechanical properties against conventionally cured provisional dental materials. Samples were 3D printed (25×2×2mm) using a commercial printable resin (NextDent C&B Vertex Dental) in a FormLabs1+ stereolithography 3D printer. The printing accuracy of printed bars was determined by comparing the width, length and thickness of samples for different printer settings (printing orientation and resin color) versus the set dimensions of CAD designs. The degree of conversion of the resin was measured with FTIR, and both the elastic modulus and peak stress of 3D printed bars was determined using a 3-point being test for different printing layer thicknesses. The results were compared to those for two conventionally cured provisional materials (Integrity ® , Dentsply; and Jet ® , Lang Dental Inc.). Samples printed at 90° orientation and in a white resin color setting was chosen as the most optimal combination of printing parameters, due to the comparatively higher printing accuracy (up to 22% error), reproducibility and material usage. There was no direct correlation between printing layer thickness and elastic modulus or peak stress. 3D printed samples had comparable modulus to Jet ® , but significantly lower than Integrity ® . Peak stress for 3D printed samples was comparable to Integrity ® , and significantly higher than Jet ® . The degree of conversion of 3D printed samples also appeared higher than that of Integrity ® or Jet ® . Our results suggest that a 3D printable provisional restorative material allows for sufficient mechanical properties for intraoral use, despite the limited 3D printing accuracy of the printing system of choice. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of the hardness of different orthodontic wires and brackets produced by metal injection molding and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: MIM orthodontic brackets exhibited hardness values much lower than those of SS orthodontic archwires and were more compatible with NiTi and beta-titanium archwires. A wide range of microhardness values has been reported for conventional orthodontic brackets and it should be considered that the manufacturing method might be only one of the factors affecting the mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets including hardness.

  8. Application of international maritime protection conventions to radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.M.; Walden, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of international maritime protection conventions to radioactive pollution is discussed with particular emphasis on the 1972 London Convention on prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter. Under that Convention, wastes are divided into three categories according to their radioactivity. High level wastes, whose dumping is prohibited, and low level wastes which require a special dumping permit are studied on the basis of definitions established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Mention is made of the IAEA-recommended procedures for issue of the specific dumping as well as of the exceptions provided for ships and aircraft enjoying State immunity and cases of force majeure or emergencies. Also dealt with are the other international Conventions applying to prevention of radioactive marine pollution [fr

  9. Transport of nuclear material under the 1971 Brussels Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagorce, M.

    1975-01-01

    The legal regime in force before entry into force of the 1971 Brussels Convention relating to civil liability for the maritime carriage of nuclear material created serious difficulties for maritime carriers, regarding both the financial risks entailed and restrictions on enjoyment of the rights granted by civil liability conventions. The 1971 Convention exonerates from liability any person likely to be held liable for nuclear damage under maritime law, provided another person is liable under the nuclear conventions or an equivalent national law. A problem remaining is that of compensation of nuclear damage to the means of transport for countries not having opted for re-inclusion of such damage in the nuclear law regime; this does not apply however to countries having ratified the Convention to date. A feature of the latter is that it establishes as extensively as possible the priority of nuclear law over maritime law. Furthermore the new regime continues to preserve efficiently the interests of victims of nuclear incidents. It is therefore to be hoped that insurers will no longer hesitate to cover international maritime carriage of nuclear material [fr

  10. Knowing linguistic conventions | Robinson | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are three standard accounts of the epistemic status of linguistic conventions, which all play into the first camp: (1) knowledge by intuition, (2) inferential a priori knowledge and (3) a posteriori knowledge. I give reasons why these accounts should be rejected. I then argue that linguistic conventions, if conceived of as ...

  11. The convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.

    2000-01-01

    The ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (EIA Convention) is the first multilateral treaty to specify the procedural rights and duties of Parties with regard to transboundary impacts of proposed activities and to provide procedures, in a transboundary context, for the consideration of environmental impacts in decision-making. The EIA Convention, elaborated under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), was adopted at Espoo, Finland, in February 1991. Obligations stipulated, and measures and procedures provided for in this Convention are described. (author)

  12. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6...

  13. Proprioceptive feedback and brain computer interface (BCI based neuroprostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Ramos-Murguialday

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface (BCI technology has been proposed for motor neurorehabilitation, motor replacement and assistive technologies. It is an open question whether proprioceptive feedback affects the regulation of brain oscillations and therefore BCI control. We developed a BCI coupled on-line with a robotic hand exoskeleton for flexing and extending the fingers. 24 healthy participants performed five different tasks of closing and opening the hand: (1 motor imagery of the hand movement without any overt movement and without feedback, (2 motor imagery with movement as online feedback (participants see and feel their hand, with the exoskeleton moving according to their brain signals, (3 passive (the orthosis passively opens and closes the hand without imagery and (4 active (overt movement of the hand and rest. Performance was defined as the difference in power of the sensorimotor rhythm during motor task and rest and calculated offline for different tasks. Participants were divided in three groups depending on the feedback receiving during task 2 (the other tasks were the same for all participants. Group 1 (n = 9 received contingent positive feedback (participants' sensorimotor rhythm (SMR desynchronization was directly linked to hand orthosis movements, group 2 (n = 8 contingent "negative" feedback (participants' sensorimotor rhythm synchronization was directly linked to hand orthosis movements and group 3 (n = 7 sham feedback (no link between brain oscillations and orthosis movements. We observed that proprioceptive feedback (feeling and seeing hand movements improved BCI performance significantly. Furthermore, in the contingent positive group only a significant motor learning effect was observed enhancing SMR desynchronization during motor imagery without feedback in time. Furthermore, we observed a significantly stronger SMR desynchronization in the contingent positive group compared to the other groups during active and

  14. Proprioceptive feedback and brain computer interface (BCI) based neuroprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schürholz, Markus; Caggiano, Vittorio; Wildgruber, Moritz; Caria, Andrea; Hammer, Eva Maria; Halder, Sebastian; Birbaumer, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Brain computer interface (BCI) technology has been proposed for motor neurorehabilitation, motor replacement and assistive technologies. It is an open question whether proprioceptive feedback affects the regulation of brain oscillations and therefore BCI control. We developed a BCI coupled on-line with a robotic hand exoskeleton for flexing and extending the fingers. 24 healthy participants performed five different tasks of closing and opening the hand: (1) motor imagery of the hand movement without any overt movement and without feedback, (2) motor imagery with movement as online feedback (participants see and feel their hand, with the exoskeleton moving according to their brain signals, (3) passive (the orthosis passively opens and closes the hand without imagery) and (4) active (overt) movement of the hand and rest. Performance was defined as the difference in power of the sensorimotor rhythm during motor task and rest and calculated offline for different tasks. Participants were divided in three groups depending on the feedback receiving during task 2 (the other tasks were the same for all participants). Group 1 (n = 9) received contingent positive feedback (participants' sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) desynchronization was directly linked to hand orthosis movements), group 2 (n = 8) contingent "negative" feedback (participants' sensorimotor rhythm synchronization was directly linked to hand orthosis movements) and group 3 (n = 7) sham feedback (no link between brain oscillations and orthosis movements). We observed that proprioceptive feedback (feeling and seeing hand movements) improved BCI performance significantly. Furthermore, in the contingent positive group only a significant motor learning effect was observed enhancing SMR desynchronization during motor imagery without feedback in time. Furthermore, we observed a significantly stronger SMR desynchronization in the contingent positive group compared to the other groups during active and passive

  15. Reversing the conventional leather processing sequence for cleaner leather production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanabhavan, Subramani; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2006-02-01

    Conventional leather processing generally involves a combination of single and multistep processes that employs as well as expels various biological, inorganic, and organic materials. It involves nearly 14-15 steps and discharges a huge amount of pollutants. This is primarily due to the fact that conventional leather processing employs a "do-undo" process logic. In this study, the conventional leather processing steps have been reversed to overcome the problems associated with the conventional method. The charges of the skin matrix and of the chemicals and pH profiles of the process have been judiciously used for reversing the process steps. This reversed process eventually avoids several acidification and basification/neutralization steps used in conventional leather processing. The developed process has been validated through various analyses such as chromium content, shrinkage temperature, softness measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and physical testing of the leathers. Further, the performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally processed leathers through bulk property evaluation. The process enjoys a significant reduction in COD and TS by 53 and 79%, respectively. Water consumption and discharge is reduced by 65 and 64%, respectively. Also, the process benefits from significant reduction in chemicals, time, power, and cost compared to the conventional process.

  16. Review of collapse triggering mechanism of collapsible soils due to wetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Loess soil deposits are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions and constitute about 10% of land area of the world. These soils typically have a loose honeycomb-type meta-stable structure that is susceptible to a large reduction in total volume or collapse upon wetting. Collapse characteristics contribute to various problems to infrastructures that are constructed on loess soils. For this reason, collapse triggering mechanism for loess soils has been of significant interest for researchers and practitioners all over the world. This paper aims at providing a state-of-the-art review on collapse mechanism with special reference to loess soil deposits. The collapse mechanism studies are summarized under three different categories, i.e. traditional approaches, microstructure approach, and soil mechanics-based approaches. The traditional and microstructure approaches for interpreting the collapse behavior are comprehensively summarized and critically reviewed based on the experimental results from the literature. The soil mechanics-based approaches proposed based on the experimental results of both compacted soils and natural loess soils are reviewed highlighting their strengths and limitations for estimating the collapse behavior. Simpler soil mechanics-based approaches with less parameters or parameters that are easy-to-determine from conventional tests are suggested for future research to better understand the collapse behavior of natural loess soils. Such studies would be more valuable for use in conventional geotechnical engineering practice applications.

  17. Finite elements methods in mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Eslami, M Reza

    2014-01-01

    This book covers all basic areas of mechanical engineering, such as fluid mechanics, heat conduction, beams, and elasticity with detailed derivations for the mass, stiffness, and force matrices. It is especially designed to give physical feeling to the reader for finite element approximation by the introduction of finite elements to the elevation of elastic membrane. A detailed treatment of computer methods with numerical examples are provided. In the fluid mechanics chapter, the conventional and vorticity transport formulations for viscous incompressible fluid flow with discussion on the method of solution are presented. The variational and Galerkin formulations of the heat conduction, beams, and elasticity problems are also discussed in detail. Three computer codes are provided to solve the elastic membrane problem. One of them solves the Poisson’s equation. The second computer program handles the two dimensional elasticity problems, and the third one presents the three dimensional transient heat conducti...

  18. A mechanical energy harvested magnetorheological damper with linear-rotary motion converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ki Sum; Zou, Li; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2016-04-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are promising to substitute traditional oil dampers because of adaptive properties of MR fluids. During vibration, significant energy is wasted due to the energy dissipation in the damper. Meanwhile, for conventional MR damping systems, extra power supply is needed. In this paper, a new energy harvester is designed in an MR damper that integrates controllable damping and energy harvesting functions into one device. The energy harvesting part of this MR damper has a unique mechanism converting linear motion to rotary motion that would be more stable and cost effective when compared to other mechanical transmissions. A Maxon motor is used as a power generator to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy to supply power for the MR damping system. Compared to conventional approaches, there are several advantages in such an integrated device, including weight reduction, ease in installation with less maintenance. A mechanical energy harvested MR damper with linear-rotary motion converter and motion rectifier is designed, fabricated, and tested. Experimental studies on controllable damping force and harvested energy are performed with different transmissions. This energy harvesting MR damper would be suitable to vehicle suspensions, civil structures, and smart prostheses.

  19. IAEA Director General welcomes landmark convention to combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the adoption of an International convention against nuclear terrorism. 'This is a landmark achievement which will bolster global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism,' Dr. ElBaradei said. 'It will be a key part of international efforts to prevent terrorists from gaining access to nuclear weapons'. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the convention, The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, on 13 April 2005. The Convention strengthens the global legal framework to counter terrorist threats. Based on a proposal by the Russian Federation in 1998, the Convention focuses on criminal offences related to nuclear terrorism and covers a broad range of possible targets, including nuclear reactors as well as nuclear material and radioactive substances. Under its provisions, alleged offenders - for example any individual or group that unlawfully and intentionally possesses or uses radioactive material with the intent to cause harm - must be either extradited or prosecuted. States are also encouraged to cooperate with each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings. The Convention further requires that any seized nuclear or radiological material be held in accordance with IAEA safeguards, and handled in keeping with the IAEA's health, safety and physical protection standards. Dr. ElBaradei also recalled that the Agency is in the process of amending the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, in order to broaden its scope, and in so doing, strengthen the current legal framework for securing nuclear material against illicit uses. A conference will be held from 4 to 8 July in Vienna to consider and adopt the amendments. The Convention opens for signature in September this year. Dr ElBaradei urged all States to 'sign and ratify the Convention without delay so nuclear terrorism will have no chance'. (IAEA)

  20. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  1. Technologies for Medical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João; Barbosa, Marcos; Slade, AP

    2012-01-01

    This book presents novel and advanced technologies for medical sciences in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders.   The fifteen papers included in this book were written by invited experts of international stature and address important technologies for medical sciences, including: computational modeling and simulation, image processing and analysis, medical imaging, human motion and posture, tissue engineering, design and development medical devices, and mechanic biology. Different applications are treated in such diverse fields as biomechanical studies, prosthesis and orthosis, medical diagnosis, sport, and virtual reality.   This book is of interest to researchers, students and manufacturers from  a wide range of disciplines related to bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computational vision, human motion, mathematics, medical devices, medical image, medicine and physics.

  2. Bra.Di.P.O. and P.I.G.R.O.: Innovative Devices for Motor Learning Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mechatronics prototypes, useful for robotic neurotreatments and new clinical trainings, are here presented. P.I.G.R.O. (pneumatic interactive gait rehabilitation orthosis is an active exoskeleton with an electropneumatic control. It imposes movements on lower limbs in order to produce in the patient’s brain proper motor cortex activation. Bra.Di.P.O. (brain discovery pneumatic orthosis is an MR-compatible device, designed to improve fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis. The two devices are presented together because both are involved in the study of new robotic treatments of patients affected by ictus or brain stroke or in some motor learning experimental investigations carried out on healthy subjects.

  3. Potential risk for bacterial contamination in conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Chi; Lin, Hui-Ling; Liao, Fang-Chun; Wang, Sing-Siang; Chang, Hsiu-Chu; Hsu, Hung-Fu; Chen, Sue-Hsien; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the difference in bacterial contamination between conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination rates of the reused and disposable ventilator systems, and the association between system disconnection and bacterial contamination of ventilator systems. The enrolled intubated and mechanically ventilated patients used a conventional reused ventilator system and a disposable closed ventilator-suction system, respectively, for a week; specimens were then collected from the ventilator circuit systems to evaluate human and environmental bacterial contamination. The sputum specimens from patients were also analyzed in this study. The detection rate of bacteria in the conventional reused ventilator system was substantially higher than that in the disposable ventilator system. The inspiratory and expiratory limbs of the disposable closed ventilator-suction system had higher bacterial concentrations than the conventional reused ventilator system. The bacterial concentration in the heated humidifier of the reused ventilator system was significantly higher than that in the disposable ventilator system. Positive associations existed among the bacterial concentrations at different locations in the reused and disposable ventilator systems, respectively. The predominant bacteria identified in the reused and disposable ventilator systems included Acinetobacter spp., Bacillus cereus, Elizabethkingia spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Stenotrophomonas (Xan) maltophilia. Both the reused and disposable ventilator systems had high bacterial contamination rates after one week of use. Disconnection of the ventilator systems should be avoided during system operation to decrease the risks of environmental pollution and human exposure, especially for the disposable ventilator system. ClinicalTrials.gov PRS / NCT03359148.

  4. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win....... With this monograph as their guide, lawyers and scholars who deal with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when...

  5. Manado Convention Centre (Megastructures)

    OpenAIRE

    Anggianto, Rio M; Rate, Johannes Van

    2013-01-01

    Proyek Manado Convention Center ini pada dasarnya merupakan wadah atau sarana komunikasi antara dua pihak dengan penerapkan berbagai metode komunikasi langsung tatap muka baik itu dari perorangan terhadap kelompok, kelompok terhadap kelompok atau kelompok terhadap masyarakat. Dan pada era kini hal ini menjadi suatu kebutuhan yang dianganggap penting. Kota Manado seringkali menjadi tuan rumah suatu konverensi dengan jumlah peserta yang tergolong besar karena cakupannya sampai manca negara....

  6. Convention of early notification of a nuclear accident. Convention of assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The document refers to the Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident (INFCIRC-335) and to the Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency (INFCIRC-336). Part I of the document contains reservations/declarations made upon or following signature made by Algeria, Iraq and Thailand. Part II contains reservations/declarations made upon or following deposit of instrument expressing consent to be bound made by Australia, Bulgaria, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Poland, South Africa, United Arab Emirates and Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. The status of signature, notification, acceptance, approval or accession of the two conventions as of 13 May 1988 is presented in two attachments

  7. Computer Understanding of Conventional Metaphoric Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, James H

    1990-01-01

    .... This approach asserts that the interpretation of conventional metaphoric language should proceed through the direct application of specific knowledge about the metaphors in the language. MIDAS...

  8. Mechanically-competent and cytocompatible polycaprolactone-borophosphosilicate hybrid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dibakar; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Mequanint, Kibret; Rizkalla, Amin S

    2017-11-01

    Organic-inorganic class II hybrid materials have domain sizes at the molecular level and chemical bonding between the organic and inorganic phases. We have previously reported the synthesis of class II hybrid biomaterials from alkoxysilane-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) and borophosphosilicate (B 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 ) glass (BPSG) through a non-aqueous sol-gel process. In the present study, the mechanical properties and degradability of these PCL/BPSG hybrid biomaterials were studied and compared to those of their conventional composite counterparts. The compressive strength, modulus and toughness of the hybrid biomaterials were significantly greater compared to the conventional composites, likely due to the covalent bonding between the organic and inorganic phases. A hybrid biomaterial (50wt% PCL and 50wt% BPSG) exhibited compressive strength, modulus and toughness values of 32.2 ± 3.5MPa, 573 ± 85MPa and 1.54 ± 0.03MPa, respectively; whereas the values for composite of similar composition were 18.8 ± 1.6MPa, 275 ± 28MPa and 0.76 ± 0.03MPa, respectively. Degradation in phosphate-buffered saline was slower for hybrid biomaterials compared to their composite counterparts. Thus, these hybrid materials possess superior mechanical properties and more controlled degradation characteristics compared to their corresponding conventional composites. To assess in vitro cytocompatibility, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells were seeded onto the surfaces of hybrid biomaterials and polycaprolactone (control). Compared to polycaprolactone, cells on the hybrid material displayed enhanced spreading, focal adhesion formation, and cell number, consistent with excellent cytocompatibility. Thus, based on their mechanical properties, degradability and cytocompatibility, these novel biomaterials have potential for use as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering and related applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Physiological Benefits and Problems Associated With Using Standing and Walking Orthoses in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury—A Meta-analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karimi Taghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI patients use two transportation systems that include orthosis and wheelchair. It was claimed that standing and walking bring some benefits for SCI patients, such as decreasing bone osteoporosis, preventing pressure sores, and improving various physiological functions. The main question posted here is as follows: Is there enough evidence to support the effect of walking with orthosis on the health status of the patients with SCI? A review of the relevant literature was carried out in Bioengineering Unit of Strathclyde University. The benefits of orthoses were evaluated. Evidence reported in the literature regarding the effectiveness of orthoses for improving the health condition of SCI patients is conflicting. The benefits that were mentioned in various research studies regarding using the orthosis include decreasing bone osteoporosis, preventing joint deformity, improving bowl and bladder function, improving digestive system function, decreasing muscle spasm, improving independent living, improving respiratory and cardiovascular systems function. Improvement of independence living and physiological health of the patients are the only two benefits that are supported by strong evidence. Unfortunately, conflicting results in the literature have led to criticism of most hypotheses based on theoretical grounds, with the effects of using orthoses on the health status remaining a matter of considerable debate.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  11. The influence of process parameters on Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter

  12. The influence of process parameters on gas assisted mechanical expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter

  13. The climate change convention: What role can business play?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit Cutajar, M.

    1994-01-01

    The development, content, and some implications of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are treated briefly. The Climate Change Convention commits those developed countries which have ratified it to limit their emissions of greenhouse gases. While this Convention is an agreement among Governments, and is not directly binding on companies, individuals or organizations, business people and others need to understand it and be prepared for the national initiatives that will follow its ratification. New opportunities are being created for energy-efficient firms, and for new technologies and products. (author)

  14. Spinal Cord Stimulation: Clinical Efficacy and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdrulla, Andrei D; Guan, Yun; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2018-03-11

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a minimally invasive therapy used for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. SCS is a safe and effective alternative to medications such as opioids, and multiple randomized controlled studies have demonstrated efficacy for difficult-to-treat neuropathic conditions such as failed back surgery syndrome. Conventional SCS is believed mediate pain relief via activation of dorsal column Aβ fibers, resulting in variable effects on sensory and pain thresholds, and measurable alterations in higher order cortical processing. Although potentiation of inhibition, as suggested by Wall and Melzack's gate control theory, continues to be the leading explanatory model, other segmental and supraspinal mechanisms have been described. Novel, non-standard, stimulation waveforms such as high-frequency and burst have been shown in some studies to be clinically superior to conventional SCS, however their mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Additional studies are needed, both mechanistic and clinical, to better understand optimal stimulation strategies for different neuropathic conditions, improve patient selection and optimize efficacy. © 2018 World Institute of Pain.

  15. Evidence from Animal Models: Is a Restricted or Conventional Intestinal Microbiota Composition Predisposing to Risk for High-LET Radiation Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Irene; Schiestl, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota affect cell responses to ionizing radiation at the molecular level and can be linked to the development of the immune system, controlled cell death or apoptosis. We have developed a microbiota mouse model and report here that high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation induced the repair of chromosomal DNA lesions more efficiently in conventional than in restricted intestinal microbiota mice. Based on different phylotype densities after whole-body irradiation, bacterial indicator phylotypes were found to be more abundant in restricted in microbiota than in conventional microbiota. Genotoxic phenotypes of irradiated restricted and conventional microbiota mice were compared with ataxia telangiectasia-deficient restricted and conventional microbiota mice, respectively. Those indicator phylotypes, including Bacteroides (Gram-negative bacterium cTPY-13), Barnesiella intestinihominis and others, which were identified in nonirradiated restricted microbiota mice, increase in radiation-exposed conventional microbiota along with a reduction of persistent DNA double-strand breaks in blood lymphocytes. The dynamic change of phylotype abundances elucidated a feedback mechanism and effect of intestinal microbiota composition on the adaptive response to high-LET radiation. Several other bacterial phylotypes ( Helicobacter hepaticus , Helicobacter spp and others) were found to be more abundant in conventional than restricted microbiota. In this commentary, mouse models used in cancer research and radiotherapy for the study on the effects of intestinal microbiota composition on normal tissue radiation response are characterized and discussed. Highlights of this commentary: 1. Restricted microbiota phylotypes were correlated with persistent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and were found to orchestrate onco-protective controlled cell death after radiation; 2. Restricted microbiota composition reduced proinflammatory extracellular-stimulated immune responses, but

  16. International conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage. Revised 1976 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This revised edition contains the texts of the following multilateral conventions and instruments concerning civil liability for nuclear damage: The Vienna Convention of 21 May 1963 on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage; The Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (incorporating the provisions of the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964); The Brussels Convention of 31 January 1963; Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 (and incorporating the provisions of the Additional Protocol signed in Paris on 28 January 1964); and the Brussels Convention of 25 May 1962 on the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships. Final Act and Resolutions of the International Conference on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, held in Vienna from 29 April to 19 May 1963; Final Act of the International Legal Conference on Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Substances, held in Brussels from 29 November to 2 December 1971; and Convention Relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material, adopted at Brussels on 17 December 1971

  17. Ideal and conventional feedback systems for RWM suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Feedback suppression of resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically using a model based on a standard cylindrical approximation. Two feedback systems are compared: 'ideal', creating only the field necessary for RMW suppression, and 'conventional', like that used in the DIII-D tokamak and considered as a candidate for ITER. The widespread opinion that the feedback with poloidal sensors is better than that with radial sensors is discussed. It is shown that the 'conventional' feedback with radial sensors can be effective only in a limited range, while using the input signal from internal poloidal sensors allows easy fulfilment of the stability criterion. This is a property of the 'conventional' feedback, but the 'ideal' feedback would stabilise RWM in both cases. (author)

  18. The effect of foot orthoses with forefoot cushioning or metatarsal pad on forefoot peak plantar pressure in running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hähni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot orthoses are frequently used in sports for the treatment of overuse complaints with sufficient evidence available for certain foot-related overuse pathologies like plantar fasciitis, rheumatoid arthritis and foot pain (e.g., metatarsalgia. One important aim is to reduce plantar pressure under prominent areas like metatarsal heads. For the forefoot region, mainly two common strategies exist: metatarsal pad (MP and forefoot cushioning (FC. The aim of this study was to evaluate which of these orthosis concepts is superior in reducing plantar pressure in the forefoot during running. Methods Twenty-three (13 female, 10 male asymptomatic runners participated in this cross-sectional experimental trial. Participants ran in a randomised order under the two experimental (MP, FC conditions and a control (C condition on a treadmill (2.78 ms−1 for 2 min, respectively. Plantar pressure was measured with the in-shoe plantar pressure measurement device pedar-x®-System and mean peak pressure averaged from ten steps in the forefoot (primary outcome and total foot was analysed. Insole comfort was measured with the Insole Comfort Index (ICI, sum score 0–100 after each running trial. The primary outcome was tested using the Friedman test (α = 0.05. Secondary outcomes were analysed descriptively (mean ± SD, lower & upper 95%-CI, median and interquartile-range (IQR. Results Peak pressure [kPa] in the forefoot was significantly lower wearing FC (281 ± 80, 95%-CI: 246–315 compared to both C (313 ± 69, 95%-CI: 283–343; p = .003 and MP (315 ± 80, 95%-CI: 280–350; p = .001. No significant difference was found between C and MP (p = .858. Peak pressures under the total foot were: C: 364 ± 82, 95%-CI: 328–399; MP: 357 ± 80, 95%-CI: 326–387; FC: 333 ± 81 95%-CI: 298–368. Median ICI sum scores were: C 50, MP 49, FC 64. Conclusions In contrast to the metatarsal pad orthosis, the

  19. Homeostasis as the Mechanism of Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Torday

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis is conventionally thought of merely as a synchronic (same time servo-mechanism that maintains the status quo for organismal physiology. However, when seen from the perspective of developmental physiology, homeostasis is a robust, dynamic, intergenerational, diachronic (across-time mechanism for the maintenance, perpetuation and modification of physiologic structure and function. The integral relationships generated by cell-cell signaling for the mechanisms of embryogenesis, physiology and repair provide the needed insight to the scale-free universality of the homeostatic principle, offering a novel opportunity for a Systems approach to Biology. Starting with the inception of life itself, with the advent of reproduction during meiosis and mitosis, moving forward both ontogenetically and phylogenetically through the evolutionary steps involved in adaptation to an ever-changing environment, Biology and Evolution Theory need no longer default to teleology.

  20. "We need a mechanism to report abuses of women's human rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This convention is the only instrument protecting the human rights of women at the international level. However, even if the convention was the best possible women's human rights documentation, there was no mechanism for reporting the abuses. The women's movement has long been pressing for the approval of the mechanism like the Optional Protocol, because they believe that the Protocol would fulfill the need in allowing the individual and collective accusations of human rights abuses. It means that a woman or a group of women can go to the committee and denounce an action as discriminatory. The committee can only receive reports and make recommendations, whereas having a Protocol would allow the committee to direct complaints, be able to investigate them, and make more specific recommendations. Those countries ratifying the CEDAW don't automatically agree to the Protocol, thus it is the country's discretion to either comply with the Protocol or not. There are also those who are against the Protocol and claim ironically that an Optional Protocol for Political and Civil rights already exists. But such mechanisms do not work for women's rights. What is most needed now is to lobby all national delegations to push the 5th Commission of the United Nations' General Assembly to approve the budget for the protocol.