WorldWideScience

Sample records for conventional imaging modality

  1. Evaluation of photoshop based image analysis in cytologic diagnosis of pleural fluid in comparison with conventional modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Tasbandi, Aida; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema

    2018-04-19

    The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the results of digital image analysis in pleural effusion cytology samples with conventional modalities. In this cross-sectional study, 53 pleural fluid cytology smears from Qaem hospital pathology department, located in Mashhad, Iran were investigated. Prior to digital analysis, all specimens were evaluated by two pathologists and categorized into three groups as: benign, suspicious, and malignant. Using an Olympus microscope and Olympus DP3 digital camera, digital images from cytology slides were captured. Appropriate images (n = 130) were separately imported to Adobe Photoshop CS5 and parameters including area and perimeter, circularity, Gray Value mean, integrated density, and nucleus to cytoplasm area ratio were analyzed. Gray Value mean, nucleus to cytoplasm area ratio, and circularity showed the best sensitivity and specificity rates as well as significant differences between all groups. Also, nucleus area and perimeter showed a significant relation between suspicious and malignant groups with benign group. Whereas, there was no such difference between suspicious and malignant groups. We concluded that digital image analysis is welcomed in the field of research on pleural fluid smears as it can provide quantitative data to apply various comparisons and reduce interobserver variation which could assist pathologists to achieve a more accurate diagnosis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT compared to conventional imaging modalities in pediatric primary bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Stege, Claudia; Kaspers, Gertjan [VU Medical Centre, Divisions of Paediatric Oncology/Haematology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cross, Siobhan; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Oncology, Sydney (Australia); Onikul, Ella [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia); Graf, Nicole [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Pathology, Sydney (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Imaging, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-04-15

    F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in adults with primary bone tumors. Limited published data exist in children. To compare hybrid FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with conventional imaging (CI) modalities in detecting malignant lesions, predicting response to chemotherapy and diagnosing physeal involvement in pediatric primary bone tumors. Retrospective analysis of PET/CT and CI reports with histopathology or follow-up > 6 months as reference standard. Response parameters and physeal involvement at diagnosis were compared to histopathology. A total of 314 lesions were detected in 86 scans. Excluding lung lesions, PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity than CI (83%, 98% and 78%, 97%, respectively). In lung lesions, PET/CT had higher specificity than CI (96% compared to 87%) but lower sensitivity (80% compared to 93%). Higher initial SUV{sub max} and greater SUV{sub max} reduction on PET/CT after chemotherapy predicted a good response. Change in tumor size on MRI did not predict response. Both PET/CT and MRI were very sensitive but of low specificity in predicting physeal tumor involvement. PET/CT appears more accurate than CI in detecting malignant lesions in childhood primary bone tumors, excluding lung lesions. It seems better than MRI at predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT compared to conventional imaging modalities in pediatric primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Stege, Claudia; Kaspers, Gertjan; Cross, Siobhan; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Onikul, Ella; Graf, Nicole; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2012-01-01

    F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in adults with primary bone tumors. Limited published data exist in children. To compare hybrid FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with conventional imaging (CI) modalities in detecting malignant lesions, predicting response to chemotherapy and diagnosing physeal involvement in pediatric primary bone tumors. Retrospective analysis of PET/CT and CI reports with histopathology or follow-up > 6 months as reference standard. Response parameters and physeal involvement at diagnosis were compared to histopathology. A total of 314 lesions were detected in 86 scans. Excluding lung lesions, PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity than CI (83%, 98% and 78%, 97%, respectively). In lung lesions, PET/CT had higher specificity than CI (96% compared to 87%) but lower sensitivity (80% compared to 93%). Higher initial SUV max and greater SUV max reduction on PET/CT after chemotherapy predicted a good response. Change in tumor size on MRI did not predict response. Both PET/CT and MRI were very sensitive but of low specificity in predicting physeal tumor involvement. PET/CT appears more accurate than CI in detecting malignant lesions in childhood primary bone tumors, excluding lung lesions. It seems better than MRI at predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  4. Identification of Nasal Bone Fractures on Conventional Radiography and Facial CT: Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy in Different Imaging Modalities and Analysis of Interobserver Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Lee, Yoo Jin

    2013-01-01

    There has been no study to compare the diagnostic accuracy of an experienced radiologist with a trainee in nasal bone fracture. To compare the diagnostic accuracy between conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) for the identification of nasal bone fractures and to evaluate the interobserver reliability between a staff radiologist and a trainee. A total of 108 patients who underwent conventional radiography and CT after acute nasal trauma were included in this retrospective study. Two readers, a staff radiologist and a second-year resident, independently assessed the results of the imaging studies. Of the 108 patients, the presence of a nasal bone fracture was confirmed in 88 (81.5%) patients. The number of non-depressed fractures was higher than the number of depressed fractures. In nine (10.2%) patients, nasal bone fractures were only identified on conventional radiography, including three depressed and six non-depressed fractures. CT was more accurate as compared to conventional radiography for the identification of nasal bone fractures as determined by both readers (P <0.05), all diagnostic indices of an experienced radiologist were similar to or higher than those of a trainee, and κ statistics showed moderate agreement between the two diagnostic tools for both readers. There was no statistical difference in the assessment of interobserver reliability for both imaging modalities in the identification of nasal bone fractures. For the identification of nasal bone fractures, CT was significantly superior to conventional radiography. Although a staff radiologist showed better values in the identification of nasal bone fracture and differentiation between depressed and non-depressed fractures than a trainee, there was no statistically significant difference in the interpretation of conventional radiography and CT between a radiologist and a trainee

  5. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, M.; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options

  6. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M. E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options.

  7. Special imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, W.E.; Fajman, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Continual advances in technology have made a wide variety of techniques available for diagnostic imaging. The physician caring for the critically ill patient is, therefore, confronted not only with a choice of different procedures, but also frequently with a choice of imaging modalites. Relatively few of these procedures can be performed at the bedside. Consultation between the radiologist and referring physician is necessary not only for choosing the optimum procedure to answer a specific question, but also for expediting movement of the patient with life-support apparatus through a busy radiology department. It is of utmost importance that there be a coordinated effort when a critically ill patient is to be sent to the radiology department; nursing staff and support personnel should be available to accompany the patient to an area where nursing care is generally not available

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Diagnosis of Puerperal Breast Abscess After Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Augmentation Mammoplasty: Compared with Other Conventional Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Long, Miaomiao; Wang, Junping; Liu, Ning; Ge, Xihong; Hu, Zhandong; Shen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Puerperal breast abscess after polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) augmentation mammoplasty can induce breast auto-inflation resulting in serious consequences. Mammography, ultrasound, and conventional MRI are poor at detecting related PAAG abnormality histologically. We evaluated the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the quantitative analysis of puerperal PAAG abscess after augmentation mammoplasty. This was a retrospective study, and a waiver for informed consent was granted. Sixteen puerperal women with breast discomfort underwent conventional breast non-enhanced MRI and axial DWI using a 3T MR scanner. Qualitative analysis of the signal intensity on DWI and conventional sequences was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the affected and contralateral normal PAAG cysts were measured quantitatively. Paired t test was used to evaluate whether there was significant difference. Both affected and normal PAAG cysts showed equal signal intensity on conventional T1WI and fat saturation T2WI, which were not helpful in detecting puerperal PAAG abscess. However, the affected PAAG cysts had a significantly decreased ADC value of 1.477 ± 0.332 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s and showed obvious hypo-intensity on the ADC map and increased signal intensity on DWI compared with the ADC value of 2.775 ± 0.233 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s of the contralateral normal PAAG cysts. DWI and quantitative measurement of ADC values are of great value for the diagnosis of puerperal PAAG abscess. Standardized MRI should be suggested to these puerperal women with breast discomfort or just for the purpose of check up. DWI should be selected as the essential MRI sequence.

  9. Combined SPECT/CT improves detection of initial bone invasion and determination of resection margins in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck compared to conventional imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Mund-Kiefer und Gesichtschirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Schuster, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Chlebowski, A.; Kesting, M.; Bissinger, O.; Weitz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich (Germany); Lange, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Munich (Germany); Scheidhauer, K.; Schwaiger, M.; Dinges, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Knowledge of the presence and extent of bone infiltration is crucial for planning the resection of potential bone-infiltrating squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Routinely, plain-film radiography, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for preoperative staging, but they show relatively high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-bisphosphonate has the ability to show increased metabolic bone activity. If combined with anatomical imaging (e.g. (SPECT)/CT), it facilitates the precise localization of malignant bone lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the indications and advantages of SPECT/CT compared with standard imaging modalities and histology with regard to specificity and sensitivity A longitudinally evaluated group of 30 patients with biopsy-proven HNSCC adjacent to the mandible underwent {sup 99m}Tc-bisphosphonate SPECT/CT, MRI, MSCT and conventional radiography before partial or rim resection of the mandible was performed. Bone infiltration was first evaluated with plain films, MSCT and MRI. In a second reading, SPECT/CT data were taken into account. The results (region and certainty of bone invasion) were evaluated among the different imaging modalities and finally compared with histological specimens from surgical resection as the standard of reference. For a better evaluation of the hybrid property of SPECT/CT, a retrospectively evaluated group of 20 additional patients with tumour locations similar to those of the longitudinally examined SPECT/CT group underwent SPECT, MSCT and MRI. To assess the influence of dental foci on the specificity of the imaging modalities, all patients were separated into two subgroups depending on the presence or absence of teeth in the area of potential tumour-bone contact. Histologically proven bone infiltration was found in 17 patients (57 %) when analysed by conventional imaging modalities. SPECT/CT data

  10. Combined SPECT/CT improves detection of initial bone invasion and determination of resection margins in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck compared to conventional imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, A.; Schuster, T.; Chlebowski, A.; Kesting, M.; Bissinger, O.; Weitz, J.; Lange, P.; Scheidhauer, K.; Schwaiger, M.; Dinges, J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the presence and extent of bone infiltration is crucial for planning the resection of potential bone-infiltrating squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Routinely, plain-film radiography, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for preoperative staging, but they show relatively high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-bisphosphonate has the ability to show increased metabolic bone activity. If combined with anatomical imaging (e.g. (SPECT)/CT), it facilitates the precise localization of malignant bone lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the indications and advantages of SPECT/CT compared with standard imaging modalities and histology with regard to specificity and sensitivity A longitudinally evaluated group of 30 patients with biopsy-proven HNSCC adjacent to the mandible underwent 99m Tc-bisphosphonate SPECT/CT, MRI, MSCT and conventional radiography before partial or rim resection of the mandible was performed. Bone infiltration was first evaluated with plain films, MSCT and MRI. In a second reading, SPECT/CT data were taken into account. The results (region and certainty of bone invasion) were evaluated among the different imaging modalities and finally compared with histological specimens from surgical resection as the standard of reference. For a better evaluation of the hybrid property of SPECT/CT, a retrospectively evaluated group of 20 additional patients with tumour locations similar to those of the longitudinally examined SPECT/CT group underwent SPECT, MSCT and MRI. To assess the influence of dental foci on the specificity of the imaging modalities, all patients were separated into two subgroups depending on the presence or absence of teeth in the area of potential tumour-bone contact. Histologically proven bone infiltration was found in 17 patients (57 %) when analysed by conventional imaging modalities. SPECT/CT data revealed

  11. Imaging modalities of abdominal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reither, M.

    1993-01-01

    Further technological progress in cross-sectional imaging modalities, accumuting experience with increasingly refined hardware and software and accumulating specific contrast media allow new algorithms for the assessment of abdominal tumors in children. However, ultrasound remains the diagnostic method of choice: Conventional roentgenology with or without contrast media is decreasing, but often reveals further differential diagnostic details. MRI is becoming more prominent and is often performed immediately after ultrasound. The inauguration of gradient echo sequences and consequent shorter examination times combined with the elimination of pulsation and motion artefacts extends the diagnostic spectrum of the upper and middle abdomen. The application of oral or rectal contrast agents for imaging of the GI tract ameliorates the differentiation of pathologic processes. Recently volumetric CT/ultrafast CT has been gaining in importance for abdominal examinations in the pediatric age group. CT especially is helpful if there are bony structures in the region being examined. CT, however, involves ionizing radiation and timely administration of oral and intravenous contrast material. Moreover, as pediatric radiologists, we must strongly withstand tendencies to perform CT more often because it is less expensive, rather than avoiding ionizing radiation by using MRI. (orig.) [de

  12. Established rheumatoid arthritis - new imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    New imaging modalities are assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation and management of rheumatoid arthritis. It is now possible to obtain information about all tissues within the joint in three dimensions using tomographic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  13. Established rheumatoid arthritis - new imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    in real-time and facilitates diagnostic and therapeutic interventions such as joint aspiration and injection. Exciting experimental modalities are also being developed with the potential to provide not just morphological but functional imaging. Techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET......) and high-resolution computerized tomography. Erosions are very clearly depicted using these modalities and MRI also allows imaging of soft tissues with assessment of joint inflammation. High-resolution ultrasound is a convenient clinical technique for the assessment of erosions, synovitis and tenosynovitis...

  14. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  15. Multimodal Image Alignment via Linear Mapping between Feature Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanyun; Zheng, Yuanjie; Hou, Sujuan; Chang, Yuchou; Gee, James

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel landmark matching based method for aligning multimodal images, which is accomplished uniquely by resolving a linear mapping between different feature modalities. This linear mapping results in a new measurement on similarity of images captured from different modalities. In addition, our method simultaneously solves this linear mapping and the landmark correspondences by minimizing a convex quadratic function. Our method can estimate complex image relationship between different modalities and nonlinear nonrigid spatial transformations even in the presence of heavy noise, as shown in our experiments carried out by using a variety of image modalities.

  16. Image and Dose Simulation in Support of New Imaging Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruvilla Verghese

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights of the research performed under the 2-year NEER grant from the Department of Energy. The primary outcome of the work was a new Monte Carlo code, MCMIS-DS, for Monte Carlo for Mammography Image Simulation including Differential Sampling. The code was written to generate simulated images and dose distributions from two different new digital x-ray imaging modalities, namely, synchrotron imaging (SI) and a slot geometry digital mammography system called Fisher Senoscan. A differential sampling scheme was added to the code to generate multiple images that included variations in the parameters of the measurement system and the object in a single execution of the code. The code is to serve multiple purposes; (1) to answer questions regarding the contribution of scattered photons to images, (2) for use in design optimization studies, and (3) to do up to second-order perturbation studies to assess the effects of design parameter variations and/or physical parameters of the object (the breast) without having to re-run the code for each set of varied parameters. The accuracy and fidelity of the code were validated by a large variety of benchmark studies using published data and also using experimental results from mammography phantoms on both imaging modalities

  17. Applications of Novel X-Ray Imaging Modalities in Food Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Schou

    science for understanding and designing food products. In both of these aspects, X-ray imaging methods such as radiography and computed tomography provide a non-destructive solution. However, since the conventional attenuation-based modality suers from poor contrast in soft matter materials, modalities...... with improved contrast are needed. Two possible candidates in this regard are the novel X-ray phase-contrast and X-ray dark-eld imaging modalities. The contrast in phase-contrast imaging is based on dierences in electron density which is especially useful for soft matter materials whereas dark-eld imaging....... Furthermore, the process of translating the image in image analysis was addressed. For improved handling of multimodal image data, a multivariate segmentation scheme of multimodal X-ray tomography data was implemented. Finally, quantitative data analysis was applied for treating the images. Quantitative...

  18. Diagnostic imaging of Klippel-Feil syndrome: conventional radiography, CT and MR imaging. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochens, R.; Schubeus, P.; Steinkamp, H.J.; Menzhausen, L.; Felix, R.

    1993-01-01

    In two patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome, type II radiographic findings of the malformation are shown in the cervical spine and the craniocervical junction. Conventional X-rays of the cervical spine in the AP and lateral view and conventional tomography as well as CT of the cervical spine were obtained in both patients. One of the two patients additionally underwent MR imaging. Findings of the different imaging modalities are compared with each other. (orig.) [de

  19. Algorithm of imaging modalities in cases of mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailova, H.

    2009-01-01

    Mandibular fracture is the most common bone fracture of maxillo-facial trauma. Up to now the main method for examination of the mandible is radiography. The aim of the issue is to present an algorithm of imaging modalities for investigation of patients in cases of mandibular trauma. It consists of series of X ray techniques and views of the facial skull named mandibulo-facial. This standardizes mandibulo-facial series includes exactly determined four projections done by conventional X ray techniques: posterior-anterior view of skull (PA or AP), oblique view of the left mandible; oblique view of the right mandible; occipito-mental view. Using these four planned radiograms is obligatory for each mandibular trauma. Panoramic X-ray is obligatory in cases of apparatus availability; this abolish only oblique views (left and right). Occipito-mental view of the skull gives anatomically better the coronoid process of the mandible, the zygoma complex, the orbital edges and maxillar sinus than Waters projection. So mandibulo-facial series of four planned radiograms is not only for diagnostic of mandibular fractures, but as a screening of mandibulo-facial trauma too. Thus using algorithm of imaging modalities in cases of mandibular fracture leads to optimization of diagnostic process in patients with mandibular trauma. (author)

  20. Large-field image intensifiers versus conventional chest radiography: ROC study with simulated interstitial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.L.; Chakraborty, D.P.; Waes, P.F.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two image intensifier tubes have recently been introduced whose large imaging area makes them suitable for chest imaging (Phillips Pulmodiagnost TLX slit II and Siemens TX 57 large entrance field II). Both modalities present a 10 x 10-cm hard copy image to the radiologist. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve study with simulated interstitial disease was performed to compare the image quality of these image intensifiers with conventional chest images. The relative ranking in terms of decreasing ROC areas was Siemens, conventional, and Philips. Compared with conventional imaging, none of the differences in ROC curve area were statistically significant at the 5% level

  1. Imaging Modalities for Cervical Spondylotic Stenosis and Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a spectrum of pathology presenting as neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy or all in combination. Diagnostic imaging is essential to diagnosis and preoperative planning. We discuss the modalities of imaging in common practice. We examine the use of imaging to differentiate among central, subarticular, and lateral stenosis and in the assessment of myelopathy.

  2. Diagnostic Approach in Impotence and Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medih Celiktas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penile erection results from a complex interplay between central nerveus system and local factors. Several aspects of these interactions have been the subject of many reviews. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT monitoring is the best single non-invasive examination to differentiate organic from psychogenic impotence. Angiography and pharmaco-cevernosometry are accepted as gold standard modalities in the assesment of vasculojenic impotence. Recently color Doppler sonography made the detection of vessels easier and the correction of the Doppler angle more accurate, resulting in more rapid and accurate acquisition of data. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 208-211

  3. Optical cell sorting with multiple imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Andrew; Carrissemoux, Caro; Palima, Darwin

    2017-01-01

    healthy cells. With the richness of visual information, a lot of microscopy techniques have been developed and have been crucial in biological studies. To utilize their complementary advantages we adopt both fluorescence and brightfield imaging in our optical cell sorter. Brightfield imaging has...... the advantage of being non-invasive, thus maintaining cell viability. Fluorescence imaging, on the other hand, takes advantages of the chemical specificity of fluorescence markers and can validate machine vision results from brightfield images. Visually identified cells are sorted using optical manipulation...

  4. A highly sensitive x-ray imaging modality for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called spatial frequency heterodyne imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. In this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images of hepatocellular carcinoma labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. As x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities.

  5. Multi-Modality Registration And Fusion Of Medical Image Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassak, P.; Vencko, D.; Cerovsky, I.

    2008-01-01

    Digitalisation of health care providing facilities allows US to maximize the usage of digital data from one patient obtained by various modalities. Complex view on to the problem can be achieved from the site of morphology as well as functionality. Multi-modal registration and fusion of medical image data is one of the examples that provides improved insight and allows more precise approach and treatment. (author)

  6. Autonomy of image and use of single or multiple sense modalities in original verbal image production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatena, J

    1978-06-01

    The use of a single or of multiple sense modalities in the production of original verbal images as related to autonomy of imagery was explored. 72 college adults were administered Onomatopoeia and Images and the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. A modified scoring procedure for the Gordon scale differentiated imagers who were moderate or low in autonomy. The two groups produced original verbal images using multiple sense modalities more frequently than a single modality.

  7. Feature-based Alignment of Volumetric Multi-modal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Zöllei, Lilla; Wells, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for aligning image volumes acquired from different imaging modalities (e.g. MR, CT) based on 3D scale-invariant image features. A novel method for encoding invariant feature geometry and appearance is developed, based on the assumption of locally linear intensity relationships, providing a solution to poor repeatability of feature detection in different image modalities. The encoding method is incorporated into a probabilistic feature-based model for multi-modal image alignment. The model parameters are estimated via a group-wise alignment algorithm, that iteratively alternates between estimating a feature-based model from feature data, then realigning feature data to the model, converging to a stable alignment solution with few pre-processing or pre-alignment requirements. The resulting model can be used to align multi-modal image data with the benefits of invariant feature correspondence: globally optimal solutions, high efficiency and low memory usage. The method is tested on the difficult RIRE data set of CT, T1, T2, PD and MP-RAGE brain images of subjects exhibiting significant inter-subject variability due to pathology. PMID:24683955

  8. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  9. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  10. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  11. Modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, Alex; Müller, Henrik Høeg

    Modality: Studies in Form and Function reflects the diversity of theoretical frameworks and the heterogeneity of linguistic phenomena under the general heading of modality. Researchers in the fields of logic, philosophy and linguistics have for many years been pondering the elusive nature...... of modality and grappled with ways of capturing it. The 11 studies included here cover the span from contributions that seek to clarify controversial theoretical constructs to studies which take an empirical approach to linguistic categories and cross-linguistic typological issues. The key concepts addressed...

  12. Musculoskeletal ultrasound and other imaging modalities in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrndorf, Sarah; Werner, Stephanie G; Finzel, Stephanie; Backhaus, Marina

    2013-05-01

    This review refers to the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) both in clinical practice and research. Furthermore, other novel sensitive imaging modalities (high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and fluorescence optical imaging) are introduced in this article. Recently published ultrasound studies presented power Doppler activity by ultrasound highly predictive for later radiographic erosions in patients with RA. Another study presented synovitis detected by ultrasound being predictive of subsequent structural radiographic destruction irrespective of the ultrasound modality (grayscale ultrasound/power Doppler ultrasound). Further studies are currently under way which prove ultrasound findings as imaging biomarkers in the destructive process of RA. Other introduced novel imaging modalities are in the validation process to prove their impact and significance in inflammatory joint diseases. The introduced imaging modalities show different sensitivities and specificities as well as strength and weakness belonging to the assessment of inflammation, differentiation of the involved structures and radiological progression. The review tries to give an answer regarding how to best integrate them into daily clinical practice with the aim to improve the diagnostic algorithms, the daily patient care and, furthermore, the disease's outcome.

  13. Implementation and applications of dual-modality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Barber, William C.; Funk, Tobias; Hwang, Andrew B.; Taylor, Carmen; Sun, Mingshan; Seo, Youngho

    2004-06-01

    In medical diagnosis, functional or physiological data can be acquired using radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography or with single-photon emission computed tomography. However, anatomical or structural data can be acquired using X-ray computed tomography. In dual-modality imaging, both radionuclide and X-ray detectors are incorporated in an imaging system to allow both functional and structural data to be acquired in a single procedure without removing the patient from the imaging system. In a clinical setting, dual-modality imaging systems commonly are used to localize radiopharmaceutical uptake with respect to the patient's anatomy. This helps the clinician to differentiate disease from regions of normal radiopharmaceutical accumulation, to improve diagnosis or cancer staging, or to facilitate planning for radiation therapy or surgery. While initial applications of dual-modality imaging were developed for clinical imaging on humans, it now is recognized that these systems have potentially important applications for imaging small animals involved in experimental studies including basic investigations of mammalian biology and development of new pharmaceuticals for diagnosis or treatment of disease.

  14. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2016-02-26

    participants; sensitivity 0.95 (95% CI 0.90, 1.00), specificity 0.91 (95% CI 0.86, 0.97)) met the criteria for a replacement and SnNout triage test and approached the criteria for a SpPin test. For DIE, TVUS (nine studies, 12 data sets, 934 participants; sensitivity 0.79 (95% CI 0.69, 0.89) and specificity 0.94 (95% CI 0.88, 1.00)) approached the criteria for a SpPin triage test, and MRI (six studies, seven data sets, 266 participants; sensitivity 0.94 (95% CI 0.90, 0.97), specificity 0.77 (95% CI 0.44, 1.00)) approached the criteria for a replacement and SnNout triage test. Other imaging tests assessed in small individual studies could not be statistically evaluated.TVUS met the criteria for a SpPin triage test in mapping DIE to uterosacral ligaments, rectovaginal septum, vaginal wall, pouch of Douglas (POD) and rectosigmoid. MRI met the criteria for a SpPin triage test for POD and vaginal and rectosigmoid endometriosis. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) might qualify as a SpPin triage test for rectosigmoid involvement but could not be adequately assessed for other anatomical sites because heterogeneous data were scant. Multi-detector computerised tomography enema (MDCT-e) displayed the highest diagnostic performance for rectosigmoid and other bowel endometriosis and met the criteria for both SpPin and SnNout triage tests, but studies were too few to provide meaningful results.Diagnostic accuracies were higher for TVUS with bowel preparation (TVUS-BP) and rectal water contrast (RWC-TVS) and for 3.0TMRI than for conventional methods, although the paucity of studies precluded statistical evaluation. None of the evaluated imaging modalities were able to detect overall pelvic endometriosis with enough accuracy that they would be suggested to replace surgery. Specifically for endometrioma, TVUS qualified as a SpPin triage test. MRI displayed sufficient accuracy to suggest utility as a replacement test, but the data were too scant to permit meaningful conclusions. TVUS could be

  15. Novelty detection of foreign objects in food using multi-modal X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Emerson, Monica Jane; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a method for novelty detection of foreign objects in food products using grating-based multimodal X-ray imaging. With this imaging technique three modalities are available with pixel correspondence, enhancing organic materials such as wood chips, insects and soft...... plastics not detectable by conventional X-ray absorption radiography. We conduct experiments, where several food products are imaged with common foreign objects typically found in the food processing industry. To evaluate the benefit from using this multi-contrast X-ray technique over conventional X......-ray absorption imaging, a novelty detection scheme based on well known image- and statistical analysis techniques is proposed. The results show that the presented method gives superior recognition results and highlights the advantage of grating-based imaging....

  16. Arthritis: Conventional and Advanced Radiological Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adviye Ergun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthritides are acute or chronic inflammation of one or more joints. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, but there are more than 100 different forms. Right and early diagnosis is extremely important for the prevention of eventual structural and functional disability of the affected joint. Imaging findings, especially those of advanced level imaging, play a major role in diagnosis and monitor the progression of arthritis or its response to therapy. The objective of the review is to discuss the findings of conventional and advanced radiological imaging of most common arthritides and to present a simplified approach for their radiological evaluation.

  17. Automatic intra-modality brain image registration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.M.; Ardekani, B.A.; Braun, M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Registration of 3D images of brain of the same or different subjects has potential importance in clinical diagnosis, treatment planning and neurological research. The broad aim of our work is to produce an automatic and robust intra-modality, brain image registration algorithm for intra-subject and inter-subject studies. Our algorithm is composed of two stages. Initial alignment is achieved by finding the values of nine transformation parameters (representing translation, rotation and scale) that minimise the nonoverlapping regions of the head. This is achieved by minimisation of the sum of the exclusive OR of two binary head images, produced using the head extraction procedure described by Ardekani et al. (J Comput Assist Tomogr, 19:613-623, 1995). The initial alignment successfully determines the scale parameters and gross translation and rotation parameters. Fine alignment uses an objective function described for inter-modality registration in Ardekani et al. (ibid.). The algorithm segments one of the images to be aligned into a set of connected components using K-means clustering. Registration is achieved by minimising the K-means variance of the segmentation induced in the other image. Similarity of images of the same modality makes the method attractive for intra-modality registration. A 3D MR image, with voxel dimensions, 2x2x6 mm, was misaligned. The registered image shows visually accurate registration. The average displacement of a pixel from its correct location was measured to be 3.3 mm. The algorithm was tested on intra-subject MR images and was found to produce good qualitative results. Using the data available, the algorithm produced promising qualitative results in intra-subject registration. Further work is necessary in its application to intersubject registration, due to large variability in brain structure between subjects. Clinical evaluation of the algorithm for selected applications is required

  18. Diagnosis and Characterization of Patellofemoral Instability: Review of Available Imaging Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Thawait, Gaurav K; Tanaka, Miho J; Demehri, Shadpour

    2017-06-01

    Patellofemoral instability (PI) is defined as single or multiple episodes of patellar dislocation. Imaging modalities are useful for characterization of patellar malalignment, maltracking, underlying morphologic abnormalities, and stabilizing soft-tissue injuries. Using these findings, orthopedic surgeons can decide when to operate, determine the best operation, and measure degree of correction postoperatively in PI patients. Also, these methods assist with PI diagnosis in some suspicious cases. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred method especially in the setting of acute dislocations. Multidetector computed tomography allows a more accurate assessment for malalignment such as patellar tilt and lateral subluxation and secondary osteoarthritis. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and 4-dimensional computed tomography have been introduced for better kinematic assessment of the patellofemoral maltracking during extension-flexion motions. In this review article, we will discuss the currently available evidence regarding both the conventional and the novel imaging modalities that can be used for diagnosis and characterization of PI.

  19. Imaging of congenital heart disease in adults: choice of modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, Stefan; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Baumgartner, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Major advances in noninvasive imaging of adult congenital heart disease have been accomplished. These tools play now a key role in comprehensive diagnostic work-up, decision for intervention, evaluation for the suitability of specific therapeutic options, monitoring of interventions and regular follow-up. Besides echocardiography, magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CT) have gained particular importance. The choice of imaging modality has thus become a critical issue. This review summarizes strengths and limitations of the different imaging modalities and how they may be used in a complementary fashion. Echocardiography obviously remains the workhorse of imaging routinely used in all patients. However, in complex disease and after surgery echocardiography alone frequently remains insufficient. CMR is particularly useful in this setting and allows reproducible and accurate quantification of ventricular function and comprehensive assessment of cardiac anatomy, aorta, pulmonary arteries and venous return including complex flow measurements. CT is preferred when CMR is contraindicated, when superior spatial resolution is required or when "metallic" artefacts limit CMR imaging. In conclusion, the use of currently available imaging modalities in adult congenital heart disease needs to be complementary. Echocardiography remains the basis tool, CMR and CT should be added considering specific open questions and the ability to answer them, availability and economic issues.

  20. Multi-modality molecular imaging: pre-clinical laboratory configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanjun; Wellen, Jeremy W.; Sarkar, Susanta K.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of in vivo molecular imaging applications has rapidly increased. Here we report on the construction of a multi-modality imaging facility in a pharmaceutical setting that is expected to further advance existing capabilities for in vivo imaging of drug distribution and the interaction with their target. The imaging instrumentation in our facility includes a microPET scanner, a four wavelength time-domain optical imaging scanner, a 9.4T/30cm MRI scanner and a SPECT/X-ray CT scanner. An electronics shop and a computer room dedicated to image analysis are additional features of the facility. The layout of the facility was designed with a central animal preparation room surrounded by separate laboratory rooms for each of the major imaging modalities to accommodate the work-flow of simultaneous in vivo imaging experiments. This report will focus on the design of and anticipated applications for our microPET and optical imaging laboratory spaces. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to maximize the daily throughput of animal scans through development of efficient experimental work-flows and the use of multiple animals in a single scanning session.

  1. Comparison of imaging modalities for diagnosis of thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Hirsch, H.; Stein, N.; Maier, R.; Meindl, S.; Voges, K.; Willmann, L.

    1984-01-01

    From 4-1-1980 to 3-30-1983 in more than 10000 patients scanning of the thyroid was performed by a rectiliniear scanner and predominantly by a gamma-camera using a special collimator and a data processing unit for evaluation of global and regional uptake of sup(99m)TcO 4 or 123 I. The functional scans were compared with the structural information provided by real-time ultrasonography of the thyroid, employing in questionable cases specially developed computer aided pattern recognition methods. Other modalities as a multiwire camera, X-ray fluorescence, CT-imaging, NMR-tomography were also evaluated in selected cases. From the data a diagnostic strategy for the use of imaging modalities to diagnose thyroid diseases was derived. (orig.) [de

  2. Imaging of oxygenation in 3D tissue models with multi-modal phosphorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Borisov, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    Cell-penetrating phosphorescence based probes allow real-time, high-resolution imaging of O2 concentration in respiring cells and 3D tissue models. We have developed a panel of such probes, small molecule and nanoparticle structures, which have different spectral characteristics, cell penetrating and tissue staining behavior. The probes are compatible with conventional live cell imaging platforms and can be used in different detection modalities, including ratiometric intensity and PLIM (Phosphorescence Lifetime IMaging) under one- or two-photon excitation. Analytical performance of these probes and utility of the O2 imaging method have been demonstrated with different types of samples: 2D cell cultures, multi-cellular spheroids from cancer cell lines and primary neurons, excised slices from mouse brain, colon and bladder tissue, and live animals. They are particularly useful for hypoxia research, ex-vivo studies of tissue physiology, cell metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and multiplexing with many conventional fluorophors and markers of cellular function.

  3. Cardiac Computed Tomography as an Imaging Modality in Coronary Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliova, Irem; Fries, Peter; Schmidt, Jörg; Schneider, Ulrich; Shalabi, Ahmad; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Coronary artery fistulae and coronary aneurysms are rare anomalies. When they become symptomatic, they require precise anatomic information to allow for planning of the therapeutic procedure. We report a case in which both fistulae and aneurysm were present. The required information could only be obtained by electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography with reformation. This imaging modality should be considered in every case of fistula or coronary aneurysm. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola

    2012-07-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

  5. MRI of persistent cloaca: Can it substitute conventional imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar, E-mail: shaimaa96@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University (Egypt); AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid, E-mail: amrabdelhamid@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To define the role of MRI in the preoperative assessment of patients with persistent cloaca and whether it can substitute other imaging modalities. Methods: We prospectively examined eleven patients with persistent cloaca between July 2007 and March 2012. Non contrast MRI examinations were performed on 1.5 T magnet using head coil. Multiple pulse sequences (T1WI, T2WI, fat suppression) were obtained in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis, abdomen, and spine. The scans were reviewed for the following: the level and type of rectal termination, the developmental state of striated muscle complex (SMC), associated genitourinary and spinal anomalies. MRI findings were compared to conventional fluoroscopic imaging, operative and endoscopic findings. We applied novel MRI parameters (urethral length, relative hiatal distance and vaginal volume). The relation between different parameters was tested statistically using Pearson correlation test. Results: MRI could accurately demonstrate the level of bowel termination in patients with persistent cloaca, in addition to its high sensitivity for detection of mullerian anomalies which were present in 73% of patients. Furthermore, MRI could disclose associating renal and spinal anomalies, and assess the developmental state of SMC. The shorter the urethra (higher urogenital confluence), the narrower the pelvic hiatus, and the more was the obstruction (vaginal distension). Conclusion: MRI is a valuable tool in exploring the different internal anatomical features of the cloacal anomaly; and when combined with endoscopy, MRI can make other preoperative conventional imaging unnecessary.

  6. The research progress of dual-modality probes for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Feng; Chen Yue

    2010-01-01

    Various imaging modalities have been exploited to investigate the anatomic or functional dissemination of tissues in the body. However, no single imaging modality allows overall structural, functional, and molecular information as each imaging modality has its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The combination of two imaging modalities that investigates the strengths of different methods might offer the prospect of improved diagnostic abilities. As more and more dual-modality imaging system have become clinically adopted, significant progress has been made toward the creation of dual-modality imaging probes, which can be used as novel tools for future multimodality systems. These all-in-one probes take full advantage of two different imaging modalities and could provide comprehensive information for clinical diagnostics. This review discusses the advantages and challenges in developing dual-modality imaging probes. (authors)

  7. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.

  8. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems

  9. Optical imaging modalities: From design to diagnosis of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde, Vrushali Raj

    This study investigates three high resolution optical imaging modalities to better detect and diagnose skin cancer. The ideal high resolution optical imaging system can visualize pre-malignant tissue growth non-invasively with resolution comparable to histology. I examined 3 modalities which approached this goal. The first method examined was high magnification microscopy of thin stained tissue sections, together with a statistical analysis of nuclear chromatin patterns termed Karyometry. This method has subcellular resolution, but it necessitates taking a biopsy at the desired tissue site and imaging the tissue ex-vivo. My part of this study was to develop an automated nuclear segmentation algorithm to segment cell nuclei in skin histology images for karyometric analysis. The results of this algorithm were compared to hand segmented cell nuclei in the same images, and it was concluded that the automated segmentations can be used for karyometric analysis. The second optical imaging modality I investigated was Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT is analogous to ultrasound, in which sound waves are delivered into the body and the echo time and reflected signal magnitude are measured. Due to the fast speed of light and detector temporal integration times, low coherence interferometry is needed to gate the backscattered light. OCT acquires cross sectional images, and has an axial resolution of 1-15 mum (depending on the source bandwidth) and a lateral resolution of 10-20 mum (depending on the sample arm optics). While it is not capable of achieving subcellular resolution, it is a non-invasive imaging modality. OCT was used in this study to evaluate skin along a continuum from normal to sun damaged to precancer. I developed algorithms to detect statistically significant differences between images of sun protected and sun damaged skin, as well as between undiseased and precancerous skin. An Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) endoscope was developed in the third

  10. Dual-modal photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Park, Sungjo; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Dental implants are common method to replace decayed or broken tooth. As the implant treatment procedures varies according to the patients' jawbone, bone ridge, and sinus structure, appropriate examinations are necessary for successful treatment. Currently, radiographic examinations including periapical radiology, panoramic X-ray, and computed tomography are commonly used for diagnosing and monitoring. However, these radiographic examinations have limitations in that patients and operators are exposed to radioactivity and multiple examinations are performed during the treatment. In this study, we demonstrated photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) combined imaging of dental implant that can lower the total amount of absorbed radiation dose in dental implant treatment. An acoustic resolution PA macroscopy and a clinical PA/US system was used for dental implant imaging. The acquired dual modal PA/US imaging results support that the proposed photoacoustic imaging strategy can reduce the radiation dose rate during dental implant treatment.

  11. Acoustic Angiography: A New Imaging Modality for Assessing Microvasculature Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Gessner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide the biomedical imaging community with details of a new high resolution contrast imaging approach referred to as “acoustic angiography.” Through the use of dual-frequency ultrasound transducer technology, images acquired with this approach possess both high resolution and a high contrast-to-tissue ratio, which enables the visualization of microvascular architecture without significant contribution from background tissues. Additionally, volumetric vessel-tissue integration can be visualized by using b-mode overlays acquired with the same probe. We present a brief technical overview of how the images are acquired, followed by several examples of images of both healthy and diseased tissue volumes. 3D images from alternate modalities often used in preclinical imaging, contrast-enhanced micro-CT and photoacoustics, are also included to provide a perspective on how acoustic angiography has qualitatively similar capabilities to these other techniques. These preliminary images provide visually compelling evidence to suggest that acoustic angiography may serve as a powerful new tool in preclinical and future clinical imaging.

  12. Chronic granulomatous disease: Value of the newer imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricof, D.D.; Glazer, M.; Amendola, A.

    1984-01-01

    The contribution of computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and nuclear medicine studies in the evaluation and management of seven patients with chronic granulatous disease was retrospectively reviewed. These modalities proved valuable in detecting sites of infection, particularly in the abdomen. Three patients had liver abscesses, two had suppurative retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, one had empyema, and one hand a scrotal abscess. Furthermore, CT or US-guided percutaneous aspiration and/or drainage of infected material was successfully performed on three separate occasions in a single patient, obviating the need for surgery. The newer imaging modalities are useful in the prompt diagnosis and in some instances non-operative therapy of complications of chronic granulomatous disease. (orig.)

  13. Nanogels as imaging agents for modalities spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Minnie; Almutairi, Adah

    2016-01-21

    In the past few decades, advances in imaging equipment and protocols have expanded the role of imaging in in vivo diagnosis and disease management, especially in cancer. Traditional imaging agents have rapid clearance and low specificity for disease detection. To improve accuracy in disease identification, localization and assessment, novel nanomaterials are frequently explored as imaging agents to achieve high detection specificity and sensitivity. A promising material for this purpose are hydrogel nanoparticles, whose high hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and tunable size in the nanometer range make them ideal for imaging. These nanogels (10 to 200 nm) can circumvent uptake by the reticuloendothelial system, allowing longer circulation times than small molecules. In addition, their size/surface properties can be further tailored to optimize their pharmacokinetics for imaging of a particular disease. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of nanogels as imaging agents in various modalities with sources of signal spanning the electromagnetic spectrum, including MRI, NIR, UV-vis, and PET. Many materials and formulation methods will be reviewed to highlight the versatility of nanogels as imaging agents.

  14. Modality prediction of biomedical literature images using multimodal feature representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelka, Obioma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling approaches performed to automatically predict the modality of images found in biomedical literature. Various state-of-the-art visual features such as Bag-of-Keypoints computed with dense SIFT descriptors, texture features and Joint Composite Descriptors were used for visual image representation. Text representation was obtained by vector quantisation on a Bag-of-Words dictionary generated using attribute importance derived from a χ-test. Computing the principal components separately on each feature, dimension reduction as well as computational load reduction was achieved. Various multiple feature fusions were adopted to supplement visual image information with corresponding text information. The improvement obtained when using multimodal features vs. visual or text features was detected, analysed and evaluated. Random Forest models with 100 to 500 deep trees grown by resampling, a multi class linear kernel SVM with C=0.05 and a late fusion of the two classifiers were used for modality prediction. A Random Forest classifier achieved a higher accuracy and computed Bag-of-Keypoints with dense SIFT descriptors proved to be a better approach than with Lowe SIFT.

  15. Panoramic images of conventional radiographs: digital panoramic dynamic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, M.

    2001-01-01

    The benefits of digital technic s to od ontology are evident. Instant images, the possibility to handle them, the reduction of exposition time to radiations, better quality image, better quality information, Stocking them in a compact disc, occupying very little space, allows an easy transport and duplication, as well as the possibility to transfer and save it in an electronica l support.This kind of communication allows the transmission of digital images and every other type of data, instantaneously and no matter distances or geographical borders. Anyway, we should point out that conventional and digital technic s reveal the same information contents

  16. Photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging for inflammatory arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Chamberland, David; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

    2014-03-01

    Arthritis is a leading cause of disability, affecting 46 million of the population in the U.S. Rendering new optical contrast in articular tissues at high spatial and temporal resolution, emerging photoacoustic imaging (PAI) combined with more established ultrasound (US) imaging technologies provides unique opportunities for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of inflammatory arthritis. In addition to capturing peripheral bone and soft tissue images, PAI has the capability to quantify hemodynamic properties including regional blood oxygenation and blood volume, both abnormal in synovial tissues affected by arthritis. Therefore, PAI, especially when performed together with US, should be of considerable help for further understanding the pathophysiology of arthritis as well as assisting in therapeutic decisions, including assessing the efficacy of new pharmacological therapies. In this paper, we will review our recent work on the development of PAI for application to the diagnostic imaging and therapeutic monitoring of inflammatory arthritis. We will present the imaging results from a home-built imaging system and another one based on a commercial US. The performance of PAI in evaluating pharmacological therapy on animal model of arthritis will be shown. Moreover, our resent work on PAI and US dual-modality imaging of human peripheral joints in vivo will also be presented.

  17. TU-C-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT I: Multi-Modality 4D Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, J; Mageras, G; Pan, T

    2014-01-01

    Motion management is one of the critical technical challenges for radiation therapy. 4D imaging has been rapidly adopted as essential tool to assess organ motion associated with respiratory breathing. A variety of 4D imaging techniques have been developed and are currently under development based on different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, PET, and CBCT. Each modality provides specific and complementary information about organ and tumor respiratory motion. Effective use of each different technique or combined use of different techniques can introduce a comprehensive management of tumor motion. Specifically, these techniques have afforded tremendous opportunities to better define and delineate tumor volumes, more accurately perform patient positioning, and effectively apply highly conformal therapy techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Successful implementation requires good understanding of not only each technique, including unique features, limitations, artifacts, imaging acquisition and process, but also how to systematically apply the information obtained from different imaging modalities using proper tools such as deformable image registration. Furthermore, it is important to understand the differences in the effects of breathing variation between different imaging modalities. A comprehensive motion management strategy using multi-modality 4D imaging has shown promise in improving patient care, but at the same time faces significant challenges. This session will focuses on the current status and advances in imaging respiration-induced organ motion with different imaging modalities: 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, 4D-PET, and 4D-CBCT/DTS. Learning Objectives: Understand the need and role of multimodality 4D imaging in radiation therapy. Understand the underlying physics behind each 4D imaging technique. Recognize the advantages and limitations of each 4D imaging technique

  18. Dermatological Feasibility of Multimodal Facial Color Imaging Modality for Cross-Evaluation of Facial Actinic Keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Son, Taeyoon; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Eung Ho; Jung, Byungjo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Purpose Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions. Methods/Results Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions. Conclusion DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and an efficient database management of patient information. PMID:20923462

  19. Reproducibility of lateral cephalometric landmarks on conventional radiographs and spatial frequency-processed digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Won; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Hang Moon

    2002-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) has been used in cephalometric radiography and many studies have been carried out to improve image quality using various digital enhancement and filtering techniques. During CR image acquisition, the frequency rank and type affect to the image quality. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic quality of conventional cephalometric radiographs to those of computed radiography. The diagnostic quality of conventional cephalometric radiographs (M0) and their digital image counterparts were compared, and at the same time, six modalities (M1-M6) of spatial frequency-processed digital images were compared by evaluating the reproducibility of 23 cephalometric landmark locations. Reproducibility was defined as an observer's deviation (in mm) from the mean between all observers. In comparison with the conventional cephalometric radiograph (M0), M1 showed statistically significant differences in 8 locations, M2 in 9, M3 12, M4 in 7, M5 in 12, and M6 showed significant differences in 14 of 23 landmark locations (p<0.05). The number of reproducible landmarks that each modality possesses were 7 in M6, 6 in M5, 5 in M3, 4 in M4, 3 in M2, 2 in M1, and 1 location in M0. The image modality that observers selected as having the best image quality was M5.

  20. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex Wing Hung [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Wong, Clara Wing Yee [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2014-06-15

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Fusion of different modalities of imaging the fist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdenet, J.; Garbuio, P.; Runge, M.; Cardot, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The standard radiographical pictures are not able always to bring out the fracture of one of the fist bones. In an early study it was shown that 40% of patients presenting a suspicion of fracture and in which the radio- image was normal, have had a fracture confirmed with quantification by MRI and scintigraphy. The last one does not allow to specify the localization and consequently we developed a code to fusion entirely automatically the radiologic image and the scintigraphic image using no external marker. The code has been installed on a PC and uses the Matlab environment. Starting from the histogram processing the contours are individualized on the interpolated radio- and scinti-images. For matching there are 3 freedom degrees: one of rotation and 2 of translation (in x and y axes). The internal axes of the forearm was chosen to effect the rotation and translation. The forehand thickness, identical for each modality, allows to match properly the images. We have obtained an anatomic image on which the contour and the hyper-fixating zones of the scintigraphy are added. On a set of 100 examinations we observed 38 fractures while the difference between a fracture of the scaphoid and of another fist bone is confirmed in 93% of cases

  2. A review of imaging modalities in pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ascha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is defined as resting mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg measured by right heart catheterization. PH is a progressive, life-threatening disease with a variety of etiologies. Swift and accurate diagnosis of PH and appropriate classification in etiologic group will allow for earlier treatment and improved outcomes. A number of imaging tools are utilized in the evaluation of PH, such as chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q scan, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Newer imaging tools such as dual-energy CT and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography V/Q scanning have also emerged; however, their place in the diagnostic evaluation of PH remains to be determined. In general, each imaging technique provides incremental information, with varying degrees of sensitivity and specificity, which helps suspect the presence and identify the etiology of PH. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the utility, advantages, and shortcomings of the imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate patients with PH.

  3. Improved proton computed tomography by dual modality image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, David C., E-mail: dch@ki.au.dk; Bassler, Niels [Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer [Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Sørensen, Thomas Sangild [Computer Science, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark and Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Proton computed tomography (CT) is a promising image modality for improving the stopping power estimates and dose calculations for particle therapy. However, the finite range of about 33 cm of water of most commercial proton therapy systems limits the sites that can be scanned from a full 360° rotation. In this paper the authors propose a method to overcome the problem using a dual modality reconstruction (DMR) combining the proton data with a cone-beam x-ray prior. Methods: A Catphan 600 phantom was scanned using a cone beam x-ray CT scanner. A digital replica of the phantom was created in the Monte Carlo code Geant4 and a 360° proton CT scan was simulated, storing the entrance and exit position and momentum vector of every proton. Proton CT images were reconstructed using a varying number of angles from the scan. The proton CT images were reconstructed using a constrained nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, minimizing total variation and the x-ray CT prior while remaining consistent with the proton projection data. The proton histories were reconstructed along curved cubic-spline paths. Results: The spatial resolution of the cone beam CT prior was retained for the fully sampled case and the 90° interval case, with the MTF = 0.5 (modulation transfer function) ranging from 5.22 to 5.65 linepairs/cm. In the 45° interval case, the MTF = 0.5 dropped to 3.91 linepairs/cm For the fully sampled DMR, the maximal root mean square (RMS) error was 0.006 in units of relative stopping power. For the limited angle cases the maximal RMS error was 0.18, an almost five-fold improvement over the cone beam CT estimate. Conclusions: Dual modality reconstruction yields the high spatial resolution of cone beam x-ray CT while maintaining the improved stopping power estimation of proton CT. In the case of limited angles, the use of prior image proton CT greatly improves the resolution and stopping power estimate, but does not fully achieve the quality of a 360

  4. Improved proton computed tomography by dual modality image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, David C.; Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Proton computed tomography (CT) is a promising image modality for improving the stopping power estimates and dose calculations for particle therapy. However, the finite range of about 33 cm of water of most commercial proton therapy systems limits the sites that can be scanned from a full 360° rotation. In this paper the authors propose a method to overcome the problem using a dual modality reconstruction (DMR) combining the proton data with a cone-beam x-ray prior. Methods: A Catphan 600 phantom was scanned using a cone beam x-ray CT scanner. A digital replica of the phantom was created in the Monte Carlo code Geant4 and a 360° proton CT scan was simulated, storing the entrance and exit position and momentum vector of every proton. Proton CT images were reconstructed using a varying number of angles from the scan. The proton CT images were reconstructed using a constrained nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, minimizing total variation and the x-ray CT prior while remaining consistent with the proton projection data. The proton histories were reconstructed along curved cubic-spline paths. Results: The spatial resolution of the cone beam CT prior was retained for the fully sampled case and the 90° interval case, with the MTF = 0.5 (modulation transfer function) ranging from 5.22 to 5.65 linepairs/cm. In the 45° interval case, the MTF = 0.5 dropped to 3.91 linepairs/cm For the fully sampled DMR, the maximal root mean square (RMS) error was 0.006 in units of relative stopping power. For the limited angle cases the maximal RMS error was 0.18, an almost five-fold improvement over the cone beam CT estimate. Conclusions: Dual modality reconstruction yields the high spatial resolution of cone beam x-ray CT while maintaining the improved stopping power estimation of proton CT. In the case of limited angles, the use of prior image proton CT greatly improves the resolution and stopping power estimate, but does not fully achieve the quality of a 360

  5. Biomedical imaging modality classification using combined visual features and textual terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xian-Hua; Chen, Yen-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We describe an approach for the automatic modality classification in medical image retrieval task of the 2010 CLEF cross-language image retrieval campaign (ImageCLEF). This paper is focused on the process of feature extraction from medical images and fuses the different extracted visual features and textual feature for modality classification. To extract visual features from the images, we used histogram descriptor of edge, gray, or color intensity and block-based variation as global features and SIFT histogram as local feature. For textual feature of image representation, the binary histogram of some predefined vocabulary words from image captions is used. Then, we combine the different features using normalized kernel functions for SVM classification. Furthermore, for some easy misclassified modality pairs such as CT and MR or PET and NM modalities, a local classifier is used for distinguishing samples in the pair modality to improve performance. The proposed strategy is evaluated with the provided modality dataset by ImageCLEF 2010.

  6. [Results of the treatment of congenital diaphagmatic hernia with conventional terapeutics modalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, A L; Avila, L F; Encinas, J L; Andrés, A M; Suárez, O; Elorza, D; Rodríguez, I; Martínez, L; Murcia, J; Lassaletta, L; Tovar, J A

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we analyze our results in the treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) using conventional ventilatory therapy without ECMO. fifty one CDH patients (27 males and 24 females) treated at our institution between 1997 and 2004 were reviewed. Data referred to obstetrics, prenatal diagnosis, newborn care, type of hernia and surgical treatment were analyzed. We recorded ventilatory treatment modalities and the outcome of the patients. We also compared the survival of our series with those expected using the formula proposed by the CDH study group in 2001. We finally analized separately those patients with early clinical presentation and who fulfilled ECMO criteria. Data from necropsies were also recovered when available. Prenatal diagnosis was made in 58% of the patients. Fifty nine percent were born by c-section. The diaphragmatic defect was left-sided in 42 patients, right in 8 and bilateral in 1. Ten patients needed a prosthetic patch to close the defect. Eighteen out of the 51 patients (35%) died, 11 of them without surgical treatment. Early presentation of clinical picture was evident in 44 patients; among them 46% required high frequency ventilation and 53% nitric oxide therapy. Medium age at operation was 56+/-49 hours. The 7 children with late clinical presentation are alive. Among the 44 remaining patients, 26 are also alive (59,09%), data similar to those expected by the formula (62.39%, p>0.05). Fifteen patients had oxigenation index (IO) over 40, with a stimated survival rate of 48%, a statistically significant lower rate when compared to patients with IO40 survived; in 4 out of the 7 available necropsy studies, a severe lung hypoplasia was found (index lung weight/body weight ventilatory measures in patients with IO40 are rarely candidates to ECMO therapy because of the associated severe lung hypoplasia confirmed by necropsy studies.

  7. Combining Different Modalities for 3D Imaging of Biological Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, E; Kulkarni, P; Mason, R; Parkey, R; Seliuonine, S; Shay, J; Soesbe, T; Zhezher, V; Zinchenko, A I

    2005-01-01

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a $^{57}$Co source and $^{98m}$Tc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown in this paper, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. ...

  8. Combining different modalities for 3D imaging of biological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Eh.; Antich, P.; Kulkarni, P.; Mason, R.; Parkey, R.; Seliuonine, S.; Shay, J.; Soesbe, T.; Zhezher, V.; Zinchenko, A.

    2005-01-01

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a 57 Co source and 98m Tc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. This structural information can provide even more detail if the x-ray tomography is used as presented in the paper

  9. Imaging by multiple modalities of patients with a carotidynia syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Uematsu, Hidemasa; Kimura, Hirohiko; Itoh, Harumi [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Sagoh, Tadashi; Noguchi, Masato [Fukui Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukui (Japan); Miyayama, Shiro [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Fukui (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize readers with the clinical syndrome of carotidynia. In the past, the International Headache Society (IHS) described idiopathic carotidynia as a diagnostic entity consisting of a self-limiting neck pain syndrome and tenderness over the carotid bifurcation without structural abnormality and then recently removed it from its classification. Although the clinical criteria of carotidynia in the former classification of the IHS included the absence of structural abnormality, several publications have demonstrated associated radiological findings and have described the usefulness of radiological investigations in diagnosing this syndrome. In this paper, we report four additional cases with a carotidynia clinical syndrome (according to the former classification) and the presence of abnormal soft tissue infiltration surrounding the symptomatic carotid artery as demonstrated by multiple imaging modalities, without any other underlying cause for the carotid pain syndrome. Our findings support the hypothesis that carotidynia could be a distinct disease entity, possibly caused by inflammation. (orig.)

  10. Imaging by multiple modalities of patients with a carotidynia syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Uematsu, Hidemasa; Kimura, Hirohiko; Itoh, Harumi; Sagoh, Tadashi; Noguchi, Masato; Miyayama, Shiro

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize readers with the clinical syndrome of carotidynia. In the past, the International Headache Society (IHS) described idiopathic carotidynia as a diagnostic entity consisting of a self-limiting neck pain syndrome and tenderness over the carotid bifurcation without structural abnormality and then recently removed it from its classification. Although the clinical criteria of carotidynia in the former classification of the IHS included the absence of structural abnormality, several publications have demonstrated associated radiological findings and have described the usefulness of radiological investigations in diagnosing this syndrome. In this paper, we report four additional cases with a carotidynia clinical syndrome (according to the former classification) and the presence of abnormal soft tissue infiltration surrounding the symptomatic carotid artery as demonstrated by multiple imaging modalities, without any other underlying cause for the carotid pain syndrome. Our findings support the hypothesis that carotidynia could be a distinct disease entity, possibly caused by inflammation. (orig.)

  11. Breast US as primary imaging modality for diagnosing gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, M; Introna, T; Coi, L; Cornacchia, I; Rella, L; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G; Moschetta, M

    2016-01-01

    To assess the role of breast US in diagnosing and classifying gynecomastia as the primary imaging modality and to compare US findings and classification system with the mammographic ones. 48 patients suspected of having gynecomastia underwent mammography and US. Two radiologists in consensus retrospectively evaluated mammograms and sonograms. Both US and mammographic images were evaluated categorizing gynecomastia into non-mass, nodular and flame shaped patterns. The two category assignations were compared in order to find any difference. The reference standard for both the classification systems was represented by the cytological examination in 18 out of 44 cases (41%) and the six-month US follow-up in the remaining cases. The US examination revealed pseudo-gynecomastia in 4/48 (8%) and true gynecomastia in the remaining 44 (92%). Gynecomastia was bilateral in 25/44 cases (57%) and unilateral in the remaining 19 (43%). The cases of true gynecomastia included non mass shape in 26/44 cases (59%), nodular shape in 12 (27%) and flame shape in 6 (14%). The mammographic examination revealed the same results as compared with US findings. 18/44 (41%) patients affected by nodular or dendritic gynecomastia underwent cytological examination confirming the presence of glandular tissue and the benign nature of the clinical condition. US could be proposed as the primary imaging tool for diagnosing and classifying gynecomastia, avoiding unnecessary Xray examinations or invasive procedures in case of diffuse gynecomastia. In case of nodular or dendritic patterns, biopsy remains mandatory for a definitive diagnosis.

  12. Imaging modalities in radiation treatment planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, D.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation therapy is a standard treatment after surgery for most of malignant and some of benignant brain tumors. The restriction in acquiring local tumor control is an inability in realization of high dose without causing radiation necrosis in irradiated area and sparing normal tissues. The development of imaging modalities during the last years is responsible for better treatment results and lower early and late toxicity. Essential is the role of image methods not only in the diagnosis and also in the precise anatomical (during last years also functional) localisation, spreading of the tumor, treatment planning process and the effects of the treatment. Target delineation is one of the great geometrical uncertainties in the treatment planning process. Early studies on the use of CT in treatment planning documented that tumor coverage without CT was clearly inadequate in 20% of the patients and marginal in another 27 %. The image fusion of CT, MBI and PET and also the use of contrast materia helps to get over those restrictions. The use of contrast material enhances the signal in 10 % of the patients with glioblastoma multiform and in a higher percentage of the patients with low-grade gliomas

  13. A new procedure of modal parameter estimation for high-speed digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huňady, Róbert; Hagara, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with the use of 3D digital image correlation in determining modal parameters of mechanical systems. It is a non-contact optical method, which for the measurement of full-field spatial displacements and strains of bodies uses precise digital cameras with high image resolution. Most often this method is utilized for testing of components or determination of material properties of various specimens. In the case of using high-speed cameras for measurement, the correlation system is capable of capturing various dynamic behaviors, including vibration. This enables the potential use of the mentioned method in experimental modal analysis. For that purpose, the authors proposed a measuring chain for the correlation system Q-450 and developed a software application called DICMAN 3D, which allows the direct use of this system in the area of modal testing. The created application provides the post-processing of measured data and the estimation of modal parameters. It has its own graphical user interface, in which several algorithms for the determination of natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping of particular modes of vibration are implemented. The paper describes the basic principle of the new estimation procedure which is crucial in the light of post-processing. Since the FRF matrix resulting from the measurement is usually relatively large, the estimation of modal parameters directly from the FRF matrix may be time-consuming and may occupy a large part of computer memory. The procedure implemented in DICMAN 3D provides a significant reduction in memory requirements and computational time while achieving a high accuracy of modal parameters. Its computational efficiency is particularly evident when the FRF matrix consists of thousands of measurement DOFs. The functionality of the created software application is presented on a practical example in which the modal parameters of a composite plate excited by an impact hammer were determined. For the

  14. Localisation of epileptic foci using novel imaging modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ciantis, Alessio; Lemieux, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This review examines recent reports on the use of advanced techniques to map the regions and networks involved during focal epileptic seizure generation in humans. Recent findings A number of imaging techniques are capable of providing new localizing information on the ictal processes and epileptogenic zone. Evaluating the clinical utility of these findings has been mainly performed through post-hoc comparison with the findings of invasive EEG and ictal single-photon emission computed tomography, using postsurgical seizure reduction as the main outcome measure. Added value has been demonstrated in MRI-negative cases. Improved understanding of the human ictiogenic processes and the focus vs. network hypothesis is likely to result from the application of multimodal techniques that combine electrophysiological, semiological, and whole-brain coverage of brain activity changes. Summary On the basis of recent research in the field of neuroimaging, several novel imaging modalities have been improved and developed to provide information about the localization of epileptic foci. PMID:23823464

  15. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3 He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129 Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3 He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129 Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129 Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO 2 ) by observation of 129 Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO 2 by observation of 129 Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3 He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129 Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO 2 that accounts for both traditional T 1 decay from pO 2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  16. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research

  17. Compositional-prior-guided image reconstruction algorithm for multi-modality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qianqian; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The development of effective multi-modality imaging methods typically requires an efficient information fusion model, particularly when combining structural images with a complementary imaging modality that provides functional information. We propose a composition-based image segmentation method for X-ray digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and a structural-prior-guided image reconstruction for a combined DBT and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) breast imaging system. Using the 3D DBT images from 31 clinically measured healthy breasts, we create an empirical relationship between the X-ray intensities for adipose and fibroglandular tissue. We use this relationship to then segment another 58 healthy breast DBT images from 29 subjects into compositional maps of different tissue types. For each breast, we build a weighted-graph in the compositional space and construct a regularization matrix to incorporate the structural priors into a finite-element-based DOT image reconstruction. Use of the compositional priors enables us to fuse tissue anatomy into optical images with less restriction than when using a binary segmentation. This allows us to recover the image contrast captured by DOT but not by DBT. We show that it is possible to fine-tune the strength of the structural priors by changing a single regularization parameter. By estimating the optical properties for adipose and fibroglandular tissue using the proposed algorithm, we found the results are comparable or superior to those estimated with expert-segmentations, but does not involve the time-consuming manual selection of regions-of-interest. PMID:21258460

  18. Imaging modalities used to confirm diaphragmatic hernia in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Leveille, R.; Myer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    When a patient is presented for treatment following a traumatic accident such as being hit by a car, thoracic radiographs are usually an integral part of the overall diagnostic evaluation. Diagnosis at diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is often challenging in small animals. The thorax may contain substantial fluid, thereby masking the presence of cranially displaced abdominal soft tissues (e.g., liver or spleen). The most common cause of decreased radiographic visualization of the diaphragm on survey radiographs is pleural fluid; however, the second most common cause is DH. Obviously, if a gas-filledviscus is identified within the thoracic cavity on survey radiographs, the diagnosis of DH is straightforward and relatively routine. If, however, there is substantial pleural effusion and the herniated structure is a soft tissue parenchymal organ (e.g., liver or spleen), the diagnosis is less clearly defined on survey radiographs. This review discusses the various imaging modalities (survey, positional, and contrast-enhanced radiographs and ultrasonography) that can be used in the diagnosis or confirmation of DH

  19. Biomedical Imaging Modality Classification Using Combined Visual Features and Textual Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Hua Han

    2011-01-01

    extraction from medical images and fuses the different extracted visual features and textual feature for modality classification. To extract visual features from the images, we used histogram descriptor of edge, gray, or color intensity and block-based variation as global features and SIFT histogram as local feature. For textual feature of image representation, the binary histogram of some predefined vocabulary words from image captions is used. Then, we combine the different features using normalized kernel functions for SVM classification. Furthermore, for some easy misclassified modality pairs such as CT and MR or PET and NM modalities, a local classifier is used for distinguishing samples in the pair modality to improve performance. The proposed strategy is evaluated with the provided modality dataset by ImageCLEF 2010.

  20. Compton scatter imaging: A promising modality for image guidance in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redler, Gage; Jones, Kevin C; Templeton, Alistair; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Chu, James C H

    2018-03-01

    Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) requires delivering large radiation doses with millimeter accuracy, making image guidance essential. An approach to forming images of patient anatomy from Compton-scattered photons during lung SBRT is presented. To investigate the potential of scatter imaging, a pinhole collimator and flat-panel detector are used for spatial localization and detection of photons scattered during external beam therapy using lung SBRT treatment conditions (6 MV FFF beam). MCNP Monte Carlo software is used to develop a model to simulate scatter images. This model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated phantom images. Patient scatter images are then simulated from 4DCT data. Experimental lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise to visualize the tumor with as few as 10 MU (0.5 s temporal resolution). The relative signal intensity from objects of different composition as well as lung tumor contrast for simulated phantom images agree quantitatively with experimental images, thus validating the Monte Carlo model. Scatter images are shown to display high contrast between different materials (lung, water, bone). Simulated patient images show superior (~double) tumor contrast compared to MV transmission images. Compton scatter imaging is a promising modality for directly imaging patient anatomy during treatment without additional radiation, and it has the potential to complement existing technologies and aid tumor tracking and lung SBRT image guidance. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Cross-Modality Image Synthesis via Weakly Coupled and Geometry Co-Regularized Joint Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yawen; Shao, Ling; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2018-03-01

    Multi-modality medical imaging is increasingly used for comprehensive assessment of complex diseases in either diagnostic examinations or as part of medical research trials. Different imaging modalities provide complementary information about living tissues. However, multi-modal examinations are not always possible due to adversary factors, such as patient discomfort, increased cost, prolonged scanning time, and scanner unavailability. In additionally, in large imaging studies, incomplete records are not uncommon owing to image artifacts, data corruption or data loss, which compromise the potential of multi-modal acquisitions. In this paper, we propose a weakly coupled and geometry co-regularized joint dictionary learning method to address the problem of cross-modality synthesis while considering the fact that collecting the large amounts of training data is often impractical. Our learning stage requires only a few registered multi-modality image pairs as training data. To employ both paired images and a large set of unpaired data, a cross-modality image matching criterion is proposed. Then, we propose a unified model by integrating such a criterion into the joint dictionary learning and the observed common feature space for associating cross-modality data for the purpose of synthesis. Furthermore, two regularization terms are added to construct robust sparse representations. Our experimental results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed model over state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Three-dimensional imaging of flat natural and cultural heritage objects by a Compton scattering modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Prado, Patricio; Nguyen, Mai K.; Dumas, Laurent; Cohen, Serge X.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and interpretation of flat ancient material objects, such as those found in archaeology, paleoenvironments, paleontology, and cultural heritage, have remained a challenging task to perform by means of conventional x-ray tomography methods due to their anisotropic morphology and flattened geometry. To overcome the limitations of the mentioned methodologies for such samples, an imaging modality based on Compton scattering is proposed in this work. Classical x-ray tomography treats Compton scattering data as noise in the image formation process, while in Compton scattering tomography the conditions are set such that Compton data become the principal image contrasting agent. Under these conditions, we are able, first, to avoid relative rotations between the sample and the imaging setup, and second, to obtain three-dimensional data even when the object is supported by a dense material by exploiting backscattered photons. Mathematically this problem is addressed by means of a conical Radon transform and its inversion. The image formation process and object reconstruction model are presented. The feasibility of this methodology is supported by numerical simulations.

  3. Multi-modality image reconstruction for dual-head small-animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chang-Han; Chou, Cheng-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) or positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) has become routine practice in clinics. The applications of multi-modality imaging can also benefit research advances. Consequently, dedicated small-imaging system like dual-head small-animal PET (DHAPET) that possesses the advantages of high detection sensitivity and high resolution can exploit the structural information from CT or MRI. It should be noted that the special detector arrangement in DHAPET leads to severe data truncation, thereby degrading the image quality. We proposed to take advantage of anatomical priors and total variation (TV) minimization methods to reconstruct PET activity distribution form incomplete measurement data. The objective is to solve the penalized least-squares function consisted of data fidelity term, TV norm and medium root priors. In this work, we employed the splitting-based fast iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm to split smooth and non-smooth functions in the convex optimization problems. Our simulations studies validated that the images reconstructed by use of the proposed method can outperform those obtained by use of conventional expectation maximization algorithms or that without considering the anatomical prior information. Additionally, the convergence rate is also accelerated.

  4. Dual-Modality Prostate Imaging with PET and Transrectal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Downloaded on April 07,2010 at 23:12:26 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. HUBER et al.: MULTI-MODALITY PHANTOM DEVELOPMENT 2723 As soon as...allow Authorized licensed use limited to: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Downloaded on April 07,2010 at 23:12:26 UTC from IEEE Xplore ...April 07,2010 at 23:12:26 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. HUBER et al.: MULTI-MODALITY PHANTOM DEVELOPMENT 2725 Fig. 3. Reconstructed

  5. MR imaging of recurrent hyperparathyroidism in comparison with other imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffermann, W.; Thurnher, S.; Okerland, M.; Levin, K.; Gooding, G.W.; Clark, O.H.; Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty patients with recurrent hyperparathyroidism were evaluated with MR imaging, performed using a saddle-shaped surface coil producing 5-mm sections with T1 and T2 weighting. Twenty-six and 22 of these patients also underwent T1-201 scintigraphy and high-resolution US, respectively. MR imaging accurately localized abnormal parathyroid glands in 75% evaluated prospectively and 86% retrospectively. Scintigraphy localized 64% prospectively and 72% retrospectively. US demonstrated 57% prospectively and 67% retrospectively. MR imaging showed three of four mediastinal adenomas evaluated prospectively retrospectively. There were two false-positive studies with MR imaging, two with scintigraphy, and one with US. Thus, MR imaging was the most effective imaging modality for parathyroid localization in recurrent hyperparathyroidism

  6. Radiation dose reduction and new image modalities development for interventional C-arm imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai

    Cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading health problems and causes of death in the US. Due to the minimally invasive nature of the evolution of image guided techniques, interventional radiological procedures are becoming more common and are preferred in treating many cardiovascular diseases and strokes. In addition, with the recent advances in hardware and device technology, the speed and efficacy of interventional treatment has significantly improved. This implies that more image modalities can be developed based on the current C-arm system and patients treated in interventional suites can potentially experience better health outcomes. However, during the treatment patients are irradiated with substantial amounts of ionizing radiation with a high dose rate (digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with 3muGy/frame and 3D cone beam CT image with 0.36muGy/frame for a Siemens Artis Zee biplane system) and/or a long irradiation time (a roadmapping image sequence can be as long as one hour during aneurysm embolization). As a result, the patient entrance dose is extremely high. Despite the fact that the radiation dose is already substantial, image quality is not always satisfactory. By default a temporal average is used in roadmapping images to overcome poor image quality, but this technique can result in motion blurred images. Therefore, reducing radiation dose while maintaining or even improving the image quality is an important area for continued research. This thesis is focused on improving the clinical applications of C-arm cone beam CT systems in two ways: (1) Improve the performance of current image modalities on the C-arm system. (2) Develop new image modalities based on the current system. To be more specific, the objectives are to reduce radiation dose for current modalities (e.g., DSA, fluoroscopy, roadmapping, and cone beam CT) and enable cone beam CT perfusion and time resolved cone beam CT angiography that can be used to diagnose and triage acute

  7. Multi-Modality Medical Image Fusion Based on Wavelet Analysis and Quality Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-modality medical image fusion has more and more important applications in medical image analysisand understanding. In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-resolution method based on wavelet pyramid to fusemedical images from different modalities such as PET-MRI and CT-MRI. In particular, we evaluate the different fusionresults when applying different selection rules and obtain optimum combination of fusion parameters.

  8. Imaging in hematology. Part 1: Ultrasonography and conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhechev, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Applications of conventional ultrasonography techniques (B-mode or real time) in oncohematology are presented. The newer adaptations (in particular colour Doppler) provide incremental advantages that support their inclusion in the imaging techniques available to modern hematology. Conventional radiologic studies include chest and bone X-ray, gastrointestinal contrast examination and bipedal lymphangiography

  9. Ankle ligamints : comparison of MR arthrography with conventional MR imaging in amputated feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Sung; Lee, Sang Yong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Chung, Kyung Ho; Kim, CHong Soo

    2001-01-01

    To compare magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography with conventional MR imaging in the evaluation of ankle ligaments. Eight freshly amputated human feet underwent conventional MR imaging and MR arthrography. For the former, 1.5-T magnets in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes were used, and T1-weighted sequences were obtained. Following the injection of 6-10 ml of diluted contrast media (Gd-DTPA 1:250), T1-weighted images were obtained in the same positions as conventional MR images. Paired conventional MR imaging and MR arthrography of each ankle ligament were rated on a five-point scale, and to reflect inter-group differences a Wilcoxon singed-rank test was used to compare the different measurements (p<0.05). In two ankles, MR images of the ligaments were correlated with ankle dissection. Anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments were more clearly revealed by MR arthrography than by conventional MR imaging, while calcaneofibular ligaments showed no difference between these two modalities. With regard to deltoid ligaments, visualization of the anterior and posterior tibiotalar ligament was much improved when contrast material was used to outline the ligament's articular aspect. Visualization of the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament and inferior transverse ligament were also improved when the use of contrast material provided delineation of the articular side of the ligaments and separated them from adjacent bone. In addition, MR arthography was very useful for indentification of the posterior intermalleolar ligament, though its use did not enhance visualization of the calcaneofibular, tibiocalcaneal, spring or tibiospring ligaments. MR arthrography accurately revealed the anatomic details of ankle ligaments, and may therefore be more useful than conventional Mr imaging for evaluation of these structures

  10. System Characterizations and Optimized Reconstruction Methods for Novel X-ray Imaging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huifeng

    In the past decade there have been many new emerging X-ray based imaging technologies developed for different diagnostic purposes or imaging tasks. However, there exist one or more specific problems that prevent them from being effectively or efficiently employed. In this dissertation, four different novel X-ray based imaging technologies are discussed, including propagation-based phase-contrast (PB-XPC) tomosynthesis, differential X-ray phase-contrast tomography (D-XPCT), projection-based dual-energy computed radiography (DECR), and tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT). System characteristics are analyzed or optimized reconstruction methods are proposed for these imaging modalities. In the first part, we investigated the unique properties of propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique when combined with the X-ray tomosynthesis. Fourier slice theorem implies that the high frequency components collected in the tomosynthesis data can be more reliably reconstructed. It is observed that the fringes or boundary enhancement introduced by the phase-contrast effects can serve as an accurate indicator of the true depth position in the tomosynthesis in-plane image. In the second part, we derived a sub-space framework to reconstruct images from few-view D-XPCT data set. By introducing a proper mask, the high frequency contents of the image can be theoretically preserved in a certain region of interest. A two-step reconstruction strategy is developed to mitigate the risk of subtle structures being oversmoothed when the commonly used total-variation regularization is employed in the conventional iterative framework. In the thirt part, we proposed a practical method to improve the quantitative accuracy of the projection-based dual-energy material decomposition. It is demonstrated that applying a total-projection-length constraint along with the dual-energy measurements can achieve a stabilized numerical solution of the decomposition problem, thus overcoming the

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of artificially induced vertical root fractures: a comparison of direct digital periapical images with conventional periapical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Un; Kwon, Ki Jeong; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2004-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy for the detection of root fractures in CMOS-based digital periapical images with conventional film-based periapical images. Sixty extracted single-root human teeth with closed apices were prepared endodontically and divided into two groups; artificially induced vertical root fracture group and control group. All radiographs were obtained using the paralleling technique. The radiographs were examined by 4 observers three times within a 4 week interval. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using data obtained from four observers. Intra- and inter-examiner agreements were computed using kappa analysis. The area under the ROC curve (Az) was used as an indicator of the diagnostic accuracy of the imaging system. Az values were as follows: direct-digital images; 0.93, film-based images; 0.92, and inverted digital images; 0.91. There was no significant difference between imaging modalities(P<0.05). The kappa value of inter-observer agreement was 0.42(range:0.28-0.60) and intra-observer agreement was 0.57(range:0.44-0.75). There is no statistical difference in diagnostic accuracy for the detection of vertical root fractures between digital periapical images and conventional periapical images. The results indicate that the CMOS sensor is a good image detector for the evaluation of vertical root fractures.

  12. Evaluation of registration strategies for multi-modality images of rat brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Christoph; Vieten, Andrea; Salber, Dagmar; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    In neuroscience, small-animal studies frequently involve dealing with series of images from multiple modalities such as histology and autoradiography. The consistent and bias-free restacking of multi-modality image series is obligatory as a starting point for subsequent non-rigid registration procedures and for quantitative comparisons with positron emission tomography (PET) and other in vivo data. Up to now, consistency between 2D slices without cross validation using an inherent 3D modality is frequently presumed to be close to the true morphology due to the smooth appearance of the contours of anatomical structures. However, in multi-modality stacks consistency is difficult to assess. In this work, consistency is defined in terms of smoothness of neighboring slices within a single modality and between different modalities. Registration bias denotes the distortion of the registered stack in comparison to the true 3D morphology and shape. Based on these metrics, different restacking strategies of multi-modality rat brain slices are experimentally evaluated. Experiments based on MRI-simulated and real dual-tracer autoradiograms reveal a clear bias of the restacked volume despite quantitatively high consistency and qualitatively smooth brain structures. However, different registration strategies yield different inter-consistency metrics. If no genuine 3D modality is available, the use of the so-called SOP (slice-order preferred) or MOSOP (modality-and-slice-order preferred) strategy is recommended.

  13. Multi-Modal Curriculum Learning for Semi-Supervised Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Tao, Dacheng; Maybank, Stephen J; Liu, Wei; Kang, Guoliang; Yang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Semi-supervised image classification aims to classify a large quantity of unlabeled images by typically harnessing scarce labeled images. Existing semi-supervised methods often suffer from inadequate classification accuracy when encountering difficult yet critical images, such as outliers, because they treat all unlabeled images equally and conduct classifications in an imperfectly ordered sequence. In this paper, we employ the curriculum learning methodology by investigating the difficulty of classifying every unlabeled image. The reliability and the discriminability of these unlabeled images are particularly investigated for evaluating their difficulty. As a result, an optimized image sequence is generated during the iterative propagations, and the unlabeled images are logically classified from simple to difficult. Furthermore, since images are usually characterized by multiple visual feature descriptors, we associate each kind of features with a teacher, and design a multi-modal curriculum learning (MMCL) strategy to integrate the information from different feature modalities. In each propagation, each teacher analyzes the difficulties of the currently unlabeled images from its own modality viewpoint. A consensus is subsequently reached among all the teachers, determining the currently simplest images (i.e., a curriculum), which are to be reliably classified by the multi-modal learner. This well-organized propagation process leveraging multiple teachers and one learner enables our MMCL to outperform five state-of-the-art methods on eight popular image data sets.

  14. A tri-modality image fusion method for target delineation of brain tumors in radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guo

    Full Text Available To develop a tri-modality image fusion method for better target delineation in image-guided radiotherapy for patients with brain tumors.A new method of tri-modality image fusion was developed, which can fuse and display all image sets in one panel and one operation. And a feasibility study in gross tumor volume (GTV delineation using data from three patients with brain tumors was conducted, which included images of simulation CT, MRI, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET examinations before radiotherapy. Tri-modality image fusion was implemented after image registrations of CT+PET and CT+MRI, and the transparency weight of each modality could be adjusted and set by users. Three radiation oncologists delineated GTVs for all patients using dual-modality (MRI/CT and tri-modality (MRI/CT/PET image fusion respectively. Inter-observer variation was assessed by the coefficient of variation (COV, the average distance between surface and centroid (ADSC, and the local standard deviation (SDlocal. Analysis of COV was also performed to evaluate intra-observer volume variation.The inter-observer variation analysis showed that, the mean COV was 0.14(± 0.09 and 0.07(± 0.01 for dual-modality and tri-modality respectively; the standard deviation of ADSC was significantly reduced (p<0.05 with tri-modality; SDlocal averaged over median GTV surface was reduced in patient 2 (from 0.57 cm to 0.39 cm and patient 3 (from 0.42 cm to 0.36 cm with the new method. The intra-observer volume variation was also significantly reduced (p = 0.00 with the tri-modality method as compared with using the dual-modality method.With the new tri-modality image fusion method smaller inter- and intra-observer variation in GTV definition for the brain tumors can be achieved, which improves the consistency and accuracy for target delineation in individualized radiotherapy.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging versus Computed Tomography and Different Imaging Modalities in Evaluation of Sinonasal Neoplasms Diagnosed by Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Gomaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study purpose was to detect the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI compared to computed tomography (CT and different imaging modalities as conventional radiology in evaluation of sinonasal neoplasms diagnosed by Histopathology. Methods Thirty patients (16 males and 14 females were complaining of symptoms related to sinonasal tract. After thorough clinical and local examination, the patients were subjected to the following: conventional radiography, CT, MRI, and histopathological examination. Results The nasal cavity was the most commonly involved site with sinonasal malignancies followed by the maxillary sinuses. The least commonly affected site was the frontal sinuses. Benign sinonasal tumors were present in 14 cases. The most common benign lesion was juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (6 cases, followed by inverted papilloma (3 cases. While malignant sinonasal tumors were present in 16 cases, squamous cell carcinoma was present in 5 cases, and undifferentiated carcinoma, in 3 cases. Lymphoepithelioma and non-Hodgkin lymphomas were present in 2 cases each, while adenocarcinoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma were present in 1 case each. Conclusion MRI with its superior soft tissue contrast and multiplanar capability is superior to CT in pretreatment evaluation of primary malignant tumors of sinonasal cavity.

  16. Current and future diagnostic tools for traumatic brain injury: CT, conventional MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, David L; Mac Donald, Christine L; Shimony, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Brain imaging plays a key role in the assessment of traumatic brain injury. In this review, we present our perspectives on the use of computed tomography (CT), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and newer advanced modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging. Specifically, we address assessment for immediately life-threatening intracranial lesions (noncontrast head CT), assessment of progression of intracranial lesions (noncontrast head CT), documenting intracranial abnormalities for medicolegal reasons (conventional MRI with blood-sensitive sequences), presurgical planning for post-traumatic epilepsy (high spatial resolution conventional MRI), early prognostic decision making (conventional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging), prognostic assessment for rehabilitative planning (conventional MRI and possibly diffusion tensor imaging in the future), stratification of subjects and pharmacodynamic tracking of targeted therapies in clinical trials (specific MRI sequences or positron emission tomography (PET) ligands, e.g., diffusion tensor imaging for traumatic axonal injury). We would like to emphasize that all of these methods, especially the newer research approaches, require careful radiologic-pathologic validation for optimal interpretation. We have taken this approach in a mouse model of pericontusional traumatic axonal injury. We found that the extent of reduction in the diffusion tensor imaging parameter relative anisotropy directly correlated with the number of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-stained axonal varicosities (r(2)=0.81, p<0.0001, n=20 injured mice). Interestingly, however, the least severe contusional injuries did not result in APP-stained axonal varicosities, but did cause reduction in relative anisotropy. Clearly, both the imaging assessments and the pathologic assessments will require iterative refinement. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun Ki; Herbst, Roy

    2006-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  18. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy

    2008-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  19. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy

    2007-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  20. Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; Lorenser, Dirk; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Kirk, Rodney W.; Kramer, Anne S.; Yeoh, George C.; Godbout, Nicolas; Sampson, David D.; Boudoux, Caroline; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging using optical techniques provides insight into disease at the cellular level. In this paper, we report on a novel dual-modality probe capable of performing molecular imaging by combining simultaneous three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-dimensional fluorescence imaging in a hypodermic needle. The probe, referred to as a molecular imaging (MI) needle, may be inserted tens of millimeters into tissue. The MI needle utilizes double-clad fiber to carry both imaging modalities, and is interfaced to a 1310-nm OCT system and a fluorescence imaging subsystem using an asymmetrical double-clad fiber coupler customized to achieve high fluorescence collection efficiency. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first dual-modality OCT and fluorescence needle probe with sufficient sensitivity to image fluorescently labeled antibodies. Such probes enable high-resolution molecular imaging deep within tissue. PMID:26137379

  1. Large-image intensifier photofluorography and conventional radiography in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, H.; Partanen, K.; Soimakallio, S.; Rytkoenen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Large-screen image intensifier (II) photofluorography was compared with full-size screen-film chest radiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in 84 patients. Photospot films and conventional radiographs were interpreted independently by three radiologists. Computed tomography (CT) was used as an independent reference technique, and diagnostic performance of chest radiography in various CT patterns of emphysema was evaluated. The difference in diagnostic sensitivity for emphysema in favor of conventional chest radiography over photofluorography (0.65 versus 0.56) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Specificity of the imaging modalities was equal: 0.78 in full-size films and 0.77 in photospot films. All CT patterns of emphysema had great false negative response rates in chest radiography, which is an inaccurate technique for the diagnosis of emphysema. CT is required for reliable radiologic evaluation of emphysema. (orig.)

  2. Efficacy of do-it-yourself whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S R; Meharry, M; Oyoyo, U; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities using different shade assessment tools. Extracted human molars (120) were randomly distributed to six groups (n=20). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter, dentist-dispensed for home use, and in-office whitening. DIY whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. Two evaluators used the Vita Classical (VC) and Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master with interpolated numbers (BGi) for visual assessment at baseline and one-week, one-month, and three-month postwhitening. Instrumental measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer. Kruskal-Wallis procedure was used to assess color changes among groups and intraclass correlation (ICC) to evaluate agreement between evaluators. DIY exhibited lower color change (ΔSGUVC, ΔSGUBGi, ΔE*, where SGU = shade guide unit and E = overall color change) compared to other whitening groups at all time points (p<0.05). ICC demonstrated very good agreement between evaluators with VC and BGi at each time point. Both shade guides were related with each other and strongly related to instrumental measurements (p<0.05). DIY whitening was the least effective whitening modality. Both VC and BGi are related with each other and have good correlation with instrumental measurements.

  3. Digital imaging in conventional diagnostic radiology: status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiler, M.; Marhoff, P.; Schipper, P.

    1984-01-01

    Digital techniques, i.e. techniques using microcomputers of minicomputers, are getting increasingly common in so-called conventional radiography. These nonreconstructive techniques are referred to here as 'digital, direct-imaging radiography' in order to contrast them with the reconstructive techniques of computerized tomography. Digitalisation of imaging and image processing operation and control will change the jobs of the radiologist and radiological assistants in such manner that only X-ray units with film-foil systems or with X-ray image intensification should be classified as conventional systems. Digital and conventional systems differ in that digital techniques imply the possibility of establishing data pools which may eventually be developed into a digital image interconnection and archiving system. The authors first describe the general system in which the digital imaging systems must be integrated on a medium-term and long-term basis and then proceed to discuss digital imaging and image processing in some more detail. (orig./WU) [de

  4. Classifying magnetic resonance image modalities with convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Samuel; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.; Roy, Snehashis

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging allows the acquisition of images with different contrast properties depending on the acquisition protocol and the magnetic properties of tissues. Many MR brain image processing techniques, such as tissue segmentation, require multiple MR contrasts as inputs, and each contrast is treated differently. Thus it is advantageous to automate the identification of image contrasts for various purposes, such as facilitating image processing pipelines, and managing and maintaining large databases via content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Most automated CBIR techniques focus on a two-step process: extracting features from data and classifying the image based on these features. We present a novel 3D deep convolutional neural network (CNN)- based method for MR image contrast classification. The proposed CNN automatically identifies the MR contrast of an input brain image volume. Specifically, we explored three classification problems: (1) identify T1-weighted (T1-w), T2-weighted (T2-w), and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) contrasts, (2) identify pre vs postcontrast T1, (3) identify pre vs post-contrast FLAIR. A total of 3418 image volumes acquired from multiple sites and multiple scanners were used. To evaluate each task, the proposed model was trained on 2137 images and tested on the remaining 1281 images. Results showed that image volumes were correctly classified with 97.57% accuracy.

  5. Integrating imaging modalities: what makes sense from a workflow perspective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulthess, Gustav K. von; Burger, Cyrill

    2010-01-01

    From a workflow/cost perspective integrated imaging is not an obvious solution. An analysis of scanning costs as a function of system cost and relevant imaging times is presented. This analysis ignores potential clinical advantages of integrated imaging. An analysis comparing separate vs integrated imaging costs was performed by deriving pertinent equations and using reasonable cost numbers for imaging devices and systems, room and other variable costs. Integrated systems were divided into those sequentially and simultaneously. Sequential scanning can be done with two devices placed in a single or in two different scanning rooms. Graphs were derived which represent the cost difference between integrated imaging system options and their separate counterparts vs scanning time on one of the devices and cost ratio of an integrated system and its counterpart of separate devices. Integrated systems are favoured by the fact that patients have to be up- and downloaded only once. If imaging times become longer than patient changing times, imaging on separate devices is advantageous. An integrated imaging cost advantage is achieved if the integrated systems typically and overall cost three fourths or less of the separate systems. If PET imaging takes 15 min or less, PET/CT imaging costs less than separate PET and CT imaging, while this time is below 5 min for SPECT/CT. A two-room integrated system has the added advantage that patient download time is not cost relevant, when imaging times on the two devices differ by more than the patient download time. PET/CT scanning is a cost-effective implementation of an integrated system unlike most current SPECT/CT systems. Integration of two devices in two rooms by a shuttle seems the way how to make PET/MR cost-effective and may well also be a design option for SPECT/CT systems. (orig.)

  6. Modeling decision-making in single- and multi-modal medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canosa, R. L.; Baum, K. G.

    2009-02-01

    This research introduces a mode-specific model of visual saliency that can be used to highlight likely lesion locations and potential errors (false positives and false negatives) in single-mode PET and MRI images and multi-modal fused PET/MRI images. Fused-modality digital images are a relatively recent technological improvement in medical imaging; therefore, a novel component of this research is to characterize the perceptual response to these fused images. Three different fusion techniques were compared to single-mode displays in terms of observer error rates using synthetic human brain images generated from an anthropomorphic phantom. An eye-tracking experiment was performed with naÃve (non-radiologist) observers who viewed the single- and multi-modal images. The eye-tracking data allowed the errors to be classified into four categories: false positives, search errors (false negatives never fixated), recognition errors (false negatives fixated less than 350 milliseconds), and decision errors (false negatives fixated greater than 350 milliseconds). A saliency model consisting of a set of differentially weighted low-level feature maps is derived from the known error and ground truth locations extracted from a subset of the test images for each modality. The saliency model shows that lesion and error locations attract visual attention according to low-level image features such as color, luminance, and texture.

  7. Multi-modal brain imaging software for guiding invasive treatment of epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenblok, P.P.W.; Marien, S.; Meesters, S.P.L.; Florack, L.M.J.; Hofman, P.; Schijns, O.E.M.G.; Colon, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The surgical treatment of patients with complex epilepsies is changing more and more from open, invasive surgery towards minimally invasive, image guided treatment. Multi-modal brain imaging procedures are developed to delineate preoperatively the region of the brain which is responsible

  8. Impact of Medical Therapy on Atheroma Volume Measured by Different Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad C. N. Sinno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects most vascular beds. The gold standard of atherosclerosis imaging has been invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS. Newer noninvasive imaging modalities like B-mode ultrasound, cardiac computed tomography (CT, positron emission tomography (PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used to assess these vascular territories with high accuracy and reproducibility. These imaging modalities have lately been used for the assessment of the atherosclerotic plaque and the response of its volume to several medical therapies used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. To study the impact of these medications on atheroma volume progression or regression, imaging modalities have been used on a serial basis providing a unique opportunity to monitor the effect these antiatherosclerotic strategies exert on plaque burden. As a result, studies incorporating serial IVUS imaging, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA, B-mode ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies that modify cholesterol and blood pressure on the progression/regression of atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, we intend to summarize the impact of different therapies aimed at halting the progression or even result in regression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease evaluated by different imaging modalities.

  9. Dual-modality imaging with a ultrasound-gamma device for oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, C.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; De Vincentis, G.; Lo Meo, S.; Fabbri, A.; Bennati, P.; Cencelli, V. Orsolini; Pani, R.

    2018-06-01

    Recently, dual-modality systems have been developed, aimed to correlate anatomical and functional information, improving disease localization and helping oncological or surgical treatments. Moreover, due to the growing interest in handheld detectors for preclinical trials or small animal imaging, in this work a new dual modality integrated device, based on a Ultrasounds probe and a small Field of View Single Photon Emission gamma camera, is proposed.

  10. Addition of tomosynthesis to conventional digital mammography: effect on image interpretation time of screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pragya A; Freer, Phoebe E; Humphrey, Kathryn L; Halpern, Elkan F; Rafferty, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of implementing a screening tomosynthesis program on real-world clinical performance by quantifying differences between interpretation times for conventional screening mammography and combined tomosynthesis and mammography for multiple participating radiologists with a wide range of experience in a large academic center. In this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, 10 radiologists prospectively read images from screening digital mammography or screening combined tomosynthesis and mammography examinations for 1-hour-long uninterrupted sessions. Images from 3665 examinations (1502 combined and 2163 digital mammography) from July 2012 to January 2013 were interpreted in at least five sessions per radiologist per modality. The number of cases reported during each session was recorded for each reader. The experience level for each radiologist was also correlated to the average number of cases reported per hour. Analysis of variance was used to assess the number of studies interpreted per hour. A linear regression model was used to evaluate correlation between breast imaging experience and time taken to interpret images from both modalities. The mean number of studies interpreted in hour was 23.8 ± 0.55 (standard deviation) (range, 14.4-40.4) for combined tomosynthesis and mammography and 34.0 ± 0.55 (range, 20.4-54.3) for digital mammography alone. A mean of 10.2 fewer studies were interpreted per hour during combined tomosynthesis and mammography compared with digital mammography sessions (P tomosynthesis and mammography and 1.9 minutes ± 0.6 (range, 1.1-3.0) for digital mammography; interpretation time with combined tomosynthesis and mammography was 0.9 minute longer (47% longer) compared with digital mammography alone (P tomosynthesis and mammography examinations decreased (R(2) = 0.52, P = .03). Addition of tomosynthesis to mammography results in increased time to interpret images from screening examinations compared

  11. WE-H-206-02: Recent Advances in Multi-Modality Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, B. [Johns Hopkins University (United States)

    2016-06-15

    to biomedical research during the past decade. The initial development was an extension of clinical PET/CT and SPECT/CT from human to small animals and combine the unique functional information obtained from PET and SPECT with anatomical information provided by the CT in registered multi-modality images. The requirements to image a mouse whose size is an order of magnitude smaller than that of a human have spurred advances in new radiation detector technologies, novel imaging system designs and special image reconstruction and processing techniques. Examples are new detector materials and designs with high intrinsic resolution, multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator design for much improved resolution and detection efficiency compared to the conventional collimator designs in SPECT, 3D high-resolution and artifact-free MPH and sparse-view image reconstruction techniques, and iterative image reconstruction methods with system response modeling for resolution recovery and image noise reduction for much improved image quality. The spatial resolution of PET and SPECT has improved from ∼6–12 mm to ∼1 mm a few years ago to sub-millimeter today. A recent commercial small animal SPECT system has achieved a resolution of ∼0.25 mm which surpasses that of a state-of-art PET system whose resolution is limited by the positron range. More recently, multimodality SA PET/MRI and SPECT/MRI systems have been developed in research laboratories. Also, multi-modality SA imaging systems that include other imaging modalities such as optical and ultrasound are being actively pursued. In this presentation, we will provide a review of the development, recent advances and future outlook of multi-modality molecular imaging of small animals. Learning Objectives: To learn about the two major multi-modality molecular imaging techniques of small animals. To learn about the spatial resolution achievable by the molecular imaging systems for small animal today. To learn about the new multi-modality

  12. WE-H-206-02: Recent Advances in Multi-Modality Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.

    2016-01-01

    to biomedical research during the past decade. The initial development was an extension of clinical PET/CT and SPECT/CT from human to small animals and combine the unique functional information obtained from PET and SPECT with anatomical information provided by the CT in registered multi-modality images. The requirements to image a mouse whose size is an order of magnitude smaller than that of a human have spurred advances in new radiation detector technologies, novel imaging system designs and special image reconstruction and processing techniques. Examples are new detector materials and designs with high intrinsic resolution, multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator design for much improved resolution and detection efficiency compared to the conventional collimator designs in SPECT, 3D high-resolution and artifact-free MPH and sparse-view image reconstruction techniques, and iterative image reconstruction methods with system response modeling for resolution recovery and image noise reduction for much improved image quality. The spatial resolution of PET and SPECT has improved from ∼6–12 mm to ∼1 mm a few years ago to sub-millimeter today. A recent commercial small animal SPECT system has achieved a resolution of ∼0.25 mm which surpasses that of a state-of-art PET system whose resolution is limited by the positron range. More recently, multimodality SA PET/MRI and SPECT/MRI systems have been developed in research laboratories. Also, multi-modality SA imaging systems that include other imaging modalities such as optical and ultrasound are being actively pursued. In this presentation, we will provide a review of the development, recent advances and future outlook of multi-modality molecular imaging of small animals. Learning Objectives: To learn about the two major multi-modality molecular imaging techniques of small animals. To learn about the spatial resolution achievable by the molecular imaging systems for small animal today. To learn about the new multi-modality

  13. MO-B-BRC-00: Prostate HDR Treatment Planning - Considering Different Imaging Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions

  14. MO-B-BRC-00: Prostate HDR Treatment Planning - Considering Different Imaging Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions.

  15. Comparison of conventional color fundus photography and multicolor imaging in choroidal or retinal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Gaber, Raouf; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Meshi, Amit; Goldbaum, Michael; Freeman, William R

    2018-04-01

    Our purpose was to compare the characteristics of the retinal and choroidal lesions including choroidal nevus, choroidal melanoma and congenital hypertrophy of the retina pigment epithelium using conventional color fundus photography (CFP) and multicolor imaging (MCI). The paired images of patients with retinal or choroidal lesions were assessed for the visibility of lesion's border, halo and drusen using a grading scale (0-2). The area of the lesion was measured on both imaging modalities. The same grading was also done on the individual color channels of MCI for a further evaluation. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients were included. There were no significant differences in the mean border, drusen and halo visibility scores between the two imaging modalities (p = 0.12, p = 0.70, p = 0.35). However, the mean area of the lesion was significantly smaller on MCI than that on CFP (14.9±3.3 versus 18.7±3.4 mm 2 , p = 0.01). The appearance of choroidal and/ or retinal lesions on MCI may be different than that on CFP. Though MCI can provide similar information with CFP for the features of retinal and/ or choroidal lesions including border, halo and drusen; the infrared light reflection on MCI underestimates the extent of the choroidal lesion by 33%.

  16. Value of imaging modalities in sinus tarsi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.W.R.; Resnick, C.S.; Kenzora, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Sinus tarsi syndrome consists of ankle pain, giving way of the ankle, and tenderness over the sinus tarsi after acute ankle injury (usually inversion). Plan radiographic evaluation is unrewarding. This paper reports on stress CT scanning performed in 25 patients with sinus tarsi syndrome; 18 of these patients also underwent MR imaging; and all patients had routine radiographs. No consistent significant abnormalities were seen on CT. Ligamentous injury of the calcaneofibular or talocalcaneal ligament was suggested on MR images in six cases. Therefore, CT was not helpful in evaluating sinus tarsi syndrome, and the MR findings were present in only one-third of cases, suggesting either that MR imaging is not at present sufficiently accurate to detect all abnormalities or ligamentous injury is not the underlying cause for sinus tarsi syndrome

  17. Development of in vivo imaging modalities for experimental oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesnel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Small animal imaging is more and more used in pharmacology to identify and to characterize the activities of new antitumor agents. The first part of my work consisted in the development of new tools to improve the quantitation in bioluminescence. A method, based on spectral characteristics of emitted photons, has been established to correct tissue absorption. The second, using methods of image restoration had for objective to correct tissue scattering to increase the resolution. In a second part, I developed in vivo models of bioluminescent tumors (intracranial glioblastoma, a large cell anaplastic lymphoma and a metastatic neuroblastoma) using the imaging methods described previously. These studies allowed the characterization of the activity of a new antitumor agent. The aim of the last part was to develop imaging probes. The first, a monoclonal antibody antiCD45 labeled with a fluoro chrome allowed the detection of human leukemic cells implanted in the mice using fluorescence imaging. The second was developed to predict the uptake of a antitumor agent, a spermine-podophyllotoxin conjugate, in tumor cells via the polyamine transport system. The synthesized probe is a spermine conjugated to a HYNIC group to bind a radioisotope: the Technetium-99m and to realize a scintigraphic examination. The results showed the feasibility of a preclinical use of this probe. So, at this end of this thesis, the developed methods of bioluminescent signal processing are available to improve the use of optical imaging in pharmacology. Of course, supplementary studies are necessary to define precisely in which context these corrections will be the most appropriate. (author)

  18. Robotic 3D scanner as an alternative to standard modalities of medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromy, Adam; Zalud, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    There are special medical cases, where standard medical imaging modalities are able to offer sufficient results, but not in the optimal way. It means, that desired results are produced with unnecessarily high expenses, with redundant informations or with needless demands on patient. This paper deals with one special case, where information useful for examination is the body surface only, inner sight into the body is needless. New specialized medical imaging device is developed for this situation. In the Introduction section, analysis of presently used medical imaging modalities is presented, which declares, that no available imaging device is best fitting for mentioned purposes. In the next section, development of the new specialized medical imaging device is presented, and its principles and functions are described. Then, the parameters of new device are compared with present ones. It brings significant advantages comparing to present imaging systems.

  19. Dual modality CT/PET imaging in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of PET-HCT image fusion and helical computed tomography (HCT) for nodal and distant metastases detection in patients with lung cancer. Material and methods: Between February, 2003 and March, 2004 sixty-six consecutive lung cancer patients (45 men and 21 women, mean ages: 63 years old, range: 38 to 96 years old) who underwent HCT and PET-HCT fusion imaging were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had histological confirmation of lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis established on the basis of pathology results and/or clinical follow-up. Results: For global nodal staging (hilar and mediastinal) HCT showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 72%, 47%, 62% and 58% respectively, versus 94%, 77%, 83% and 92% corresponding to PET-HCT examination. For assessment of advanced nodal stage (N3) PET-HCT showed values of 92%, 100%, 100% and 98% respectively. For detection of distant metastasis, HCT alone had values of 67%, 93%, 84% and 83% respectively versus 100%, 98%, 96% and 100% for the PET-HCT fusion imaging. In 20 (30%) patients under-staged or over-staged on the basis of HCT results, PET-HCT allowed accurate staging. Conclusions: PET-HCT fusion imaging was more effective than HCT alone for nodal and distant metastasis detection and oncology staging. (author)

  20. Accuracy of different imaging modalities prior to biventricular repair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    catheterization with invasive angiocardiography is indicated when the PA ... arterial and venous imaging.3,4. The major ... history of aorto-pulmonary shunt awaiting bi-ventricular ..... regarding the central and peripheral PAs, APCs as well as in ...

  1. Percutaneous Ultrasonography as Imaging Modality and Sampling Guide for Pulmonologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigt, Jos A.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is gradually progressing into common practice in contemporary pulmonology. Its main applications are to determine the presence and amount of pleural effusions and to guide subsequent treatment interventions. Guidelines recommend the use of US for these indications. Training

  2. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alić, L.; Haeck, J.C.; Klein, S.; Bol, K.; Tiel, S.T. van; Wielopolski, P.A.; Bijster, M.; Niessen, W.J.; Bernsen, M.; Veenland, J.F.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co

  3. Comparisons of three alternative breast modalities in a common phantom imaging experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dun; Meaney, Paul M.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Jiang Shudong; Kerner, Todd E.; McBride, Troy O.; Pogue, Brian W.; Hartov, Alexander; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2003-01-01

    Four model-based imaging systems are currently being developed for breast cancer detection at Dartmouth College. A potential advantage of multimodality imaging is the prospect of combining information collected from each system to provide a more complete diagnostic tool that covers the full range of the patient and pathology spectra. In this paper it is shown through common phantom experiments on three of these imaging systems that it was possible to correlate different types of image information to potentially improve the reliability of tumor detection. Imaging experiments were conducted with common phantoms which mimic both dielectric and optical properties of the human breast. Cross modality comparison was investigated through a statistical study based on the repeated data sets of reconstructed parameters for each modality. The system standard error between all methods was generally less than 10% and the correlation coefficient across modalities ranged from 0.68 to 0.91. Future work includes the minimization of bias (artifacts) on the periphery of electrical impedance spectroscopy images to improve cross modality correlation and implementation of the multimodality diagnosis for breast cancer detection

  4. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mutian; Huang Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ling, C Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A; Humm, John L; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S; Martin, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ∼0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ∼0.8 mm could be obtained.

  5. Establishment study of the in vivo imaging analysis with small animal imaging modalities for bio-durg development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Beomsu; Park, Sanghyeon; Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Jeonghoon; Jung, Uhee; Lee, Yun Jong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we established the image modalities (micro-PET, SPECT/CT) using the experimental animal (mouse) for the development of imaging assessment method for the bio-durg and extramural collaboration proposal. We examined the micro-SPECT/CT, PET imaging study using the Siemens Inveon micro-multimodality system (SPECT/CT) and imaging study using the Siemens Inveon micro-multimodality system (SPECT/CT) and micro-PET with 99m Tc tricarbonyl bifunctional chelators and 18 F-clotrimazole derivative. SPECT imaging studies were performed with 99m Tc tricarbonyl BFCs. PET imaging study was performed with 18 F-clotrimazole derivatives. We performed the PET image study of 18 F-clotrimazole derivatives using U87MG tumor bearing mice. Also we tested the intramural and extramural collaboration using small animal imaging modalities and prepared the draft of extramural R and D operation manual for small animal imaging modalities and the experimental animal imaging facility. These research results can be utilized as a basic image study protocols and data for the image assessment of drugs including biological drug

  6. Positron range in PET imaging: non-conventional isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jødal, L; Le Loirec, C; Champion, C

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional short-lived radionuclides, longer-lived isotopes are becoming increasingly important to positron emission tomography (PET). The longer half-life both allows for circumvention of the in-house production of radionuclides, and expands the spectrum of physiological processes amenable to PET imaging, including processes with prohibitively slow kinetics for investigation with short-lived radiotracers. However, many of these radionuclides emit ‘high-energy’ positrons and gamma rays which affect the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of PET images. The objective of the present work is to investigate the positron range distribution for some of these long-lived isotopes. Based on existing Monte Carlo simulations of positron interactions in water, the probability distribution of the line of response displacement have been empirically described by means of analytic displacement functions. Relevant distributions have been derived for the isotopes 22 Na, 52 Mn, 89 Zr, 45 Ti, 51 Mn, 94m Tc, 52m Mn, 38 K, 64 Cu, 86 Y, 124 I, and 120 I. It was found that the distribution functions previously found for a series of conventional isotopes (Jødal et al 2012 Phys. Med. Bio. 57 3931–43), were also applicable to these non-conventional isotopes, except that for 120 I, 124 I, 89 Zr, 52 Mn, and 64 Cu, parameters in the formulae were less well predicted by mean positron energy alone. Both conventional and non-conventional range distributions can be described by relatively simple analytic expressions. The results will be applicable to image-reconstruction software to improve the resolution. (paper)

  7. ADMultiImg: a novel missing modality transfer learning based CAD system for diagnosis of MCI due to AD using incomplete multi-modality imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Teresa; Weidman, David; Lure, Fleming; Li, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and currently has no cure. Treatments targeting early stages of AD such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) may be most effective to deaccelerate AD, thus attracting increasing attention. However, MCI has substantial heterogeneity in that it can be caused by various underlying conditions, not only AD. To detect MCI due to AD, NIA-AA published updated consensus criteria in 2011, in which the use of multi-modality images was highlighted as one of the most promising methods. It is of great interest to develop a CAD system based on automatic, quantitative analysis of multi-modality images and machine learning algorithms to help physicians more adequately diagnose MCI due to AD. The challenge, however, is that multi-modality images are not universally available for many patients due to cost, access, safety, and lack of consent. We developed a novel Missing Modality Transfer Learning (MMTL) algorithm capable of utilizing whatever imaging modalities are available for an MCI patient to diagnose the patient's likelihood of MCI due to AD. Furthermore, we integrated MMTL with radiomics steps including image processing, feature extraction, and feature screening, and a post-processing for uncertainty quantification (UQ), and developed a CAD system called "ADMultiImg" to assist clinical diagnosis of MCI due to AD using multi-modality images together with patient demographic and genetic information. Tested on ADNI date, our system can generate a diagnosis with high accuracy even for patients with only partially available image modalities (AUC=0.94), and therefore may have broad clinical utility.

  8. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: a new imaging modality to identify original cellular biomarkers of diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, P.; Rothenfusser, K.; Rappaz, B.; Depeursinge, Christian; Jourdain, P.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    parallelization and automation processes, represents an appealing imaging modality to both identify original cellular biomarkers of diseases as well to explore the underlying pathophysiological processes.

  10. Multi-Modality Imaging in the Evaluation and Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Marc-André; Côté-Laroche, Claudia; Beaudoin, Jonathan

    2017-10-13

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is frequent and associated with increased mortality and morbidity when severe. It may be caused by intrinsic valvular disease (primary MR) or ventricular deformation (secondary MR). Imaging has a critical role to document the severity, mechanism, and impact of MR on heart function as selected patients with MR may benefit from surgery whereas other will not. In patients planned for a surgical intervention, imaging is also important to select candidates for mitral valve (MV) repair over replacement and to predict surgical success. Although standard transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line modality to evaluate MR, newer imaging modalities like three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography, stress echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and computed tomography (CT) are emerging and complementary tools for MR assessment. While some of these modalities can provide insight into MR severity, others will help to determine its mechanism. Understanding the advantages and limitations of each imaging modality is important to appreciate their respective role for MR assessment and help to resolve eventual discrepancies between different diagnostic methods. With the increasing use of transcatheter mitral procedures (repair or replacement) for high-surgical-risk patients, multimodality imaging has now become even more important to determine eligibility, preinterventional planning, and periprocedural guidance.

  11. Multifunctional Magnetic and Upconverting Nanobeads as Dual Modal Imaging Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materia, Maria Elena; Pernia Leal, Manuel; Scotto, Marco; Balakrishnan, Preethi Bala; Kumar Avugadda, Sahitya; García-Martín, María L; Cohen, Bruce E; Chan, Emory M; Pellegrino, Teresa

    2017-11-15

    We report the fabrication of aqueous multimodal imaging nanocomposites based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and two different sizes of photoluminescent upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). The controlled and simultaneous incorporation of both types of nanoparticles (NPs) was obtained by controlling the solvent composition and the addition rate of the destabilizing solvent. The magnetic properties of the MNPs remained unaltered after their encapsulation into the polymeric beads as shown by the T2 relaxivity measurements. The UCNPs maintain photoluminescent properties even when embedded with the MNPs into the polymer bead. Moreover, the light emitted by the magnetic and upconverting nanobeads (MUCNBs) under NIR excitation (λ exc = 980 nm) was clearly observed through different thicknesses of agarose gel or through a mouse skin layer. The comparison with magnetic and luminescent nanobeads based on red-emitting quantum dots (QDs) demonstrated that while the QD-based beads show significant autofluorescence background from the skin, the signal obtained by the MUCNBs allows a decrease in this background. In summary, these results indicate that MUCNBs are good magnetic and optical probes for in vivo multimodal imaging sensors.

  12. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alic, Lejla; Haeck, Joost C.; Klein, Stefan; Bol, Karin; van Tiel, Sandra T.; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Bijster, Magda; Niessen, Wiro J.; Bernsen, Monique; Veenland, Jifke F.; de Jong, Marion

    2010-03-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co registration of MR images with histological sections. This work proposes a methodology to establish a detailed 3D relation between histology sections and in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are a very dense histological sampling (up to 100 histology slices per tumor), mutual information based non-rigid B-spline registration, the utilization of the whole 3D data sets, and the exploitation of an intermediate ex vivo MRI. In this proof of concept paper, the methodology was applied to one tumor. We found that, after registration, the visual alignment of tumor borders and internal structures was fairly accurate. Utilizing the intermediate ex vivo MRI, it was possible to account for changes caused by the excision of the tumor: we observed a tumor expansion of 20%. Also the effects of fixation, dehydration and histological sectioning could be determined: 26% shrinkage of the tumor was found. The annotation of viable tissue, performed in histology and transformed to the in vivo MRI, matched clearly with high intensity regions in MRI. With this methodology, histological annotation can be directly related to the corresponding in vivo MRI. This is a vital step for the evaluation of the feasibility of multi-spectral MRI to depict histological groundtruth.

  13. Role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS) and other imaging modalities in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Uma; Virendra Kumar; Jagannathan, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women world over and the diagnosis continues to generate fear and turmoil in the life of patients and their families. This article describes the currently available techniques used for screening primary and recurrent breast cancers and the evaluation of therapeutic response of breast cancer with special emphasis on MRI and MRS techniques. MRI, a noninvasive technique, provides anatomic images in multiple planes enabling tissue characterization. Contrast enhanced MR studies have been found to be useful in the diagnosis of small tumors in dense breast benign diseases from malignant ones. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is another useful technique for diagnosis and for assessing the biochemical status of normal and diseased tissues. Being noninvasive, MR techniques can be used repetitively for assessment of response of the tumor to various therapeutic regimens and for evaluating the efficacy of drugs at both the structural and molecular level. An overview of the various aspects of different imaging modalities used in breast cancer research including various in vivo MR methodologies with clinical examples is presented in this review. (author)

  14. Integration of vibro-acoustography imaging modality with the traditional mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, H Gholam; Alizad, A; Fatemi, M

    2007-01-01

    Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a new imaging modality that has been applied to both medical and industrial imaging. Integrating unique diagnostic information of VA with other medical imaging is one of our research interests. In this work, we establish correspondence between the VA images and traditional X-ray mammogram by adopting a flexible control-point selection technique for image registration. A modified second-order polynomial, which simply leads to a scale/rotation/translation invariant registration, was used. The results of registration were used to spatially transform the breast VA images to map with the X-ray mammography with a registration error of less than 1.65 mm. The fused image is defined as a linear integration of the VA and X-ray images. Moreover, a color-based fusion technique was employed to integrate the images for better visualization of structural information.

  15. Study of two novel large-field-of-view image intensifiers versus conventional chest radiography with use of FROC methods and simulated pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.L.; Chakraborty, D.P.; Van Waes, P.F.G.M.; Puylaert, C.B.A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two novel large-field-of-view image intensifier (LFOV 1.1) tubes have been introduced whose image area makes them suitable for chest imaging. Both modalities present a 100-mm hard-copy image to the radiologist. A pulmonary nodule performance experiment was done to compare the diagnostic accuracy of these tubes with conventional full-size chest images. The data were analyzed with the maximum-likelihood FROCFIT program. The relative ranking in terms of decreasing A1 values was TLX, Siemens 43-cm mode, conventional radiography, and Siemens 57-cm mode

  16. Congenital syphylitic hepatitis: a case report with multiple imaging modalities (syphilitic hepatitis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, S; Rosenberg, H K; Mandell, G A; Golden, D A

    1983-11-14

    A case of syphilitic hepatitis is described with no evidence of mass effect on the ultrasonic and computerized tomographic study, but with discrete areas of decreased uptake on liver scan suggestive of space-occupying lesion. This is the second instance in the literature of the incongruence of the liver scan and the other imaging modalities in syphilitic hepatitis.

  17. Extended feature-fusion guidelines to improve image-based multi-modal biometrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The feature-level, unlike the match score-level, lacks multi-modal fusion guidelines. This work demonstrates a practical approach for improved image-based biometric feature-fusion. The approach extracts and combines the face, fingerprint...

  18. Congenital syphylitic hepatitis: a case report with multiple imaging modalities (syphilitic hepatitis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.; Rosenberg, H.K.; Mandell, G.A.; Golden, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A case of syphilitic hepatitis is described with no evidence of mass effect on the ultrasonic and computerized tomographic study, but discrete areas of decreased uptake on liver scan suggestive of space-occupying lesion. This is the second instance in the literature of the incongruence of the liver scan and the other imaging modalities in syphilitic hepatitis. (orig.)

  19. Seismic reflection imaging with conventional and unconventional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros Ugalde, Diego Alonso

    This manuscript reports the results of research using both conventional and unconventional energy sources as well as conventional and unconventional analysis to image crustal structure using reflected seismic waves. The work presented here includes the use of explosions to investigate the Taiwanese lithosphere, the use of 'noise' from railroads to investigate the shallow subsurface of the Rio Grande rift, and the use of microearthquakes to image subsurface structure near an active fault zone within the Appalachian mountains. Chapter 1 uses recordings from the land refraction and wide-angle reflection component of the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research (TAIGER) project. The most prominent reflection feature imaged by these surveys is an anomalously strong reflector found in northeastern Taiwan. The goal of this chapter is to analyze the TAIGER recordings and to place the reflector into a geologic framework that fits with the modern tectonic kinematics of the region. Chapter 2 uses railroad traffic as a source for reflection profiling within the Rio Grande rift. Here the railroad recordings are treated in an analogous way to Vibroseis recordings. These results suggest that railroad noise in general can be a valuable new tool in imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface in environmental and geotechnical studies. In chapters 3 and 4, earthquakes serve as the seismic imaging source. In these studies the methodology of Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) is borrowed from the oil and gas industry to develop reflection images. In chapter 3, a single earthquake is used to probe a small area beneath Waterboro, Maine. In chapter 4, the same method is applied to multiple earthquakes to take advantage of the increased redundancy that results from multiple events illuminating the same structure. The latter study demonstrates how dense arrays can be a powerful new tool for delineating, and monitoring temporal changes of deep structure in areas characterized by significant

  20. Accuracy of conventional imaging of penetrating torso injuries in the trauma resuscitation room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S.E. Varin (Dorien); A.N. Ringburg (Akkie); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); P. Patka (Peter); I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractChest X-ray (CXR), abdominal ultrasound, cardiac ultrasound, and abdominal X-ray are the most frequently used imaging modalities to radiologically evaluate patients with penetrating torso trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of these imaging modalities. From January

  1. Feasibility of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) follow-up as the primary imaging modality after coiling of intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.; Dijk, J. Marc C. van; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.; Groen, Rob J. M.; Westerlaan, Henriette E.; Eshghi, Omid S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is still regarded as the gold standard for detecting residual flow in treated aneurysms. Recent reports have also shown excellent results from magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) imaging. This is an important observation, since DSA is associated with a risk of medical complications, is time consuming, and is more expensive. Purpose: To determine whether MRA could replace conventional DSA and serve as the primary postinterventional imaging modality in patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms. Material and Methods: We studied a prospectively enrolled cohort of 190 patients treated endovascularly for a first-ruptured and/or unruptured intracranial aneurysm between January 2004 and December 2008. The imaging protocol included a 1.5T time-of-flight (TOF) MRA and a DSA at 3 months (on the same day) and, depending on comparability, a 1.5T TOF-MRA or DSA 1 year after treatment. All images were evaluated by a multidisciplinary panel. Results: In 141/190 patients, both an MRA and DSA were performed after 3-month follow-up. In 2/141 patients (1.4%), (small) neck remnants gave false-negative MRA results. In one patient (0.7%), this led to additional neurosurgical clipping of the aneurysm. In 25/141 patients, future follow-up (>3 months) consisted of DSA because of various reasons. In 24/25 of these patients, primary MRA images alone would invariably have led to additional DSA imaging. Conclusion: The present study shows that 1.5T TOF-MRA is a feasible primary follow-up modality after coiling of intracranial aneurysms. Given our data, we now suggest that, in every patient with a coiled intracranial aneurysm, the first follow-up, 3 months after coiling, should be an MRA study. Only when this MRA is inconclusive (e.g., because of coil artifacts), or in the case of suspicion of recanalization, should DSA be performed additionally

  2. Geometry Processing of Conventionally Produced Mouse Brain Slice Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Xu, Xiangmin; Gopi, M

    2018-04-21

    Brain mapping research in most neuroanatomical laboratories relies on conventional processing techniques, which often introduce histological artifacts such as tissue tears and tissue loss. In this paper we present techniques and algorithms for automatic registration and 3D reconstruction of conventionally produced mouse brain slices in a standardized atlas space. This is achieved first by constructing a virtual 3D mouse brain model from annotated slices of Allen Reference Atlas (ARA). Virtual re-slicing of the reconstructed model generates ARA-based slice images corresponding to the microscopic images of histological brain sections. These image pairs are aligned using a geometric approach through contour images. Histological artifacts in the microscopic images are detected and removed using Constrained Delaunay Triangulation before performing global alignment. Finally, non-linear registration is performed by solving Laplace's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our methods provide significant improvements over previously reported registration techniques for the tested slices in 3D space, especially on slices with significant histological artifacts. Further, as one of the application we count the number of neurons in various anatomical regions using a dataset of 51 microscopic slices from a single mouse brain. To the best of our knowledge the presented work is the first that automatically registers both clean as well as highly damaged high-resolutions histological slices of mouse brain to a 3D annotated reference atlas space. This work represents a significant contribution to this subfield of neuroscience as it provides tools to neuroanatomist for analyzing and processing histological data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuous monitoring of arthritis in animal models using optical imaging modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taeyoon; Yoon, Hyung-Ju; Lee, Saseong; Jang, Won Seuk; Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Wan-Uk

    2014-10-01

    Given the several difficulties associated with histology, including difficulty in continuous monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of optical imaging modalities-cross-polarization color (CPC) imaging, erythema index (EI) imaging, and laser speckle contrast (LSC) imaging-for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models. C57BL/6 mice, used for the evaluation of arthritis, were divided into three groups: arthritic mice group (AMG), positive control mice group (PCMG), and negative control mice group (NCMG). Complete Freund's adjuvant, mineral oil, and saline were injected into the footpad for AMG, PCMG, and NCMG, respectively. LSC and CPC images were acquired from 0 through 144 h after injection for all groups. EI images were calculated from CPC images. Variations in feet area, EI, and speckle index for each mice group over time were calculated for quantitative evaluation of arthritis. Histological examinations were performed, and the results were found to be consistent with those from optical imaging analysis. Thus, optical imaging modalities may be successfully applied for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models.

  4. Visual tracking for multi-modality computer-assisted image guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basafa, Ehsan; Foroughi, Pezhman; Hossbach, Martin; Bhanushali, Jasmine; Stolka, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    With optical cameras, many interventional navigation tasks previously relying on EM, optical, or mechanical guidance can be performed robustly, quickly, and conveniently. We developed a family of novel guidance systems based on wide-spectrum cameras and vision algorithms for real-time tracking of interventional instruments and multi-modality markers. These navigation systems support the localization of anatomical targets, support placement of imaging probe and instruments, and provide fusion imaging. The unique architecture - low-cost, miniature, in-hand stereo vision cameras fitted directly to imaging probes - allows for an intuitive workflow that fits a wide variety of specialties such as anesthesiology, interventional radiology, interventional oncology, emergency medicine, urology, and others, many of which see increasing pressure to utilize medical imaging and especially ultrasound, but have yet to develop the requisite skills for reliable success. We developed a modular system, consisting of hardware (the Optical Head containing the mini cameras) and software (components for visual instrument tracking with or without specialized visual features, fully automated marker segmentation from a variety of 3D imaging modalities, visual observation of meshes of widely separated markers, instant automatic registration, and target tracking and guidance on real-time multi-modality fusion views). From these components, we implemented a family of distinct clinical and pre-clinical systems (for combinations of ultrasound, CT, CBCT, and MRI), most of which have international regulatory clearance for clinical use. We present technical and clinical results on phantoms, ex- and in-vivo animals, and patients.

  5. Image quality and dose distributions of three linac-based imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Ames, Evemarie; Nuesken, Frank; Palm, Jan; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Linac-based patient imaging is possible with a variety of techniques using different photon energies. The purpose of this work is to compare three imaging systems operating at 6 MV, flattening free filter (FFF) 1 MV, and 121 kV. The dose distributions of all pretreatment set-up images (over 1,000) were retrospectively calculated on the planning computed tomography (CT) images for all patients with prostate and head-and-neck cancer treated at our institution in 2013. We analyzed the dose distribution and the dose to organs at risk. For head-and-neck cancer patients, the imaging dose from 6-MV cone beam CT (CBCT) reached maximum values at around 8 cGy. The 1-MV CBCT dose was about 63-79 % of the 6-MV CBCT dose for all organs at risk. Planar imaging reduced the imaging dose from CBCT to 30-40 % for both megavoltage modalities. The dose from the kilovoltage CBCT was 4-10 % of the 6-MV CBCT dose. For prostate cancer patients, the maximum dose from 6-MV CBCT reached 13-15 cGy, and was reduced to 66-73 % for 1 MV. Planar imaging reduces the MV CBCT dose to 10-20 %. The kV CBCT dose is 15-20 % of the 6-MV CBCT dose, slightly higher than the dose from MV axes. The dose distributions differ markedly in response to the different beam profiles and dose-depth characteristics. (orig.) [German] Linac-basierte Bildgebung zur Patientenlagerung ist mit einer Vielzahl von Techniken unterschiedlicher Photonenenergien moeglich. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist der Vergleich dreier Bildgebungssysteme mit 6 MV (Megavolt), FFF 1 MV, und 121 kV (Kilovolt). Fuer alle im Jahr 2013 an unserer Klinik behandelten Prostata- und HNO-Patienten wurden retrospektiv die Dosisverteilungen aller Verifikationsaufnahmen (ueber 1000 insgesamt) auf der Planungs-Computertomographie (CT) berechnet. Wir analysierten die Dosisverteilung und die Dosis an den Risikoorganen. Bei HNO-Patienten erreichte die Dosis von 6 MV ''Cone-beam''-CT (CBCT)Maximalwerte um 8 cGy. Mit 1 MV wird die Dosis auf 63

  6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of imaging modalities to diagnose wear-related corrosion problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Denis; Barrack, Robert L; Potter, Hollis G

    2014-12-01

    Adverse tissue reactions are known to occur after total hip arthroplasty using both conventional and metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings and after MoM hip resurfacing arthroplasty (SRA). A variety of imaging tools, including ultrasound (US), CT, and MRI, have been used to diagnose problems associated with wear after MoM hip arthroplasty and corrosion at the head-trunnion junction; however, the relative advantages and disadvantages of each remain a source of controversy. The purposes of this review were to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of (1) US; (2) CT; and (3) MRI as diagnostic tools in the assessment of wear-related corrosion problems after hip arthroplasty. A systematic literature review was performed through Medline, EMBASE, Scopus CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library without time restriction using search terms related to THA, SRA, US, CT, MRI, adverse tissue reactions, and corrosion. Inclusion criteria were Level I through IV studies in the English language, whereas expert opinions and case reports were excluded. The quality of included studies was judged by their level of evidence, method of intervention allocation, outcome assessments, and followup of patients. Four hundred ninety unique results were returned and 40 articles were reviewed. The prevalence of adverse local tissue reactions in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients varies based on the method of evaluation (US, CT, MRI) and imaging protocols. US is accessible and relatively inexpensive, yet has not been used to report synovial thicknesses in the setting of wear-related corrosion. CT scans are highly sensitive and provide information regarding component positioning but are limited in providing enhanced soft tissue contrast and require ionizing radiation. MRI has shown promise in predicting both the presence and severity of adverse local tissue reactions but is more expensive. All three imaging modalities have a role in the assessment of adverse local tissue reactions and tribocorrosion

  7. Automatic classification of early Parkinson's disease with multi-modal MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, neuroimaging has been increasingly used as an objective method for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD. Most previous studies were based on invasive imaging modalities or on a single modality which was not an ideal diagnostic tool. In this study, we developed a non-invasive technology intended for use in the diagnosis of early PD by integrating the advantages of various modals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen early PD patients and twenty-seven normal volunteers participated in this study. For each subject, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI and structural images. For the rsfMRI images, we extracted the characteristics at three different levels: ALFF (amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, ReHo (regional homogeneity and RFCS (regional functional connectivity strength. For the structural images, we extracted the volume characteristics from the gray matter (GM, the white matter (WM and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. A two-sample t-test was used for the feature selection, and then the remaining features were fused for classification. Finally a classifier for early PD patients and normal control subjects was identified from support vector machine training. The performance of the classifier was evaluated using the leave-one-out cross-validation method. RESULTS: Using the proposed methods to classify the data set, good results (accuracy  = 86.96%, sensitivity  = 78.95%, specificity  = 92.59% were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: This method demonstrates a promising diagnosis performance by the integration of information from a variety of imaging modalities, and it shows potential for improving the clinical diagnosis and treatment of PD.

  8. 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging in breast cancer patients. Is there a relevant impact on treatment planning compared to conventional staging modalities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, J.; Schnitzer, A.; Kaiser, C.G.; Buesing, K.A.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Wasser, K.; Sperk, E.; Brade, J.; Wasgindt, S.; Suetterlin, M.; Sutton, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT on initial staging of breast cancer in comparison to conventional staging modalities. This study included 102 breast cancer patients, 101 patients were eligible for evaluation. Preoperative whole-body staging with PET/CT was performed in patients with clinical stage ≥ T2 tumours or positive local lymph nodes (n = 91). Postoperative PET/CT was performed in patients without these criteria but positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (n = 10). All patients underwent PET/CT and a conventional staging algorithm, which included bone scan, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound. PET/CT findings were compared to conventional staging and the impact on therapeutic management was evaluated. PET/CT led to an upgrade of the N or M stage in overall 19 patients (19 %) and newly identified manifestation of breast cancer in two patients (2 %). PET/CT findings caused a change in treatment of 11 patients (11 %). This is within the range of recent studies, all applying conventional inclusion criteria based on the initial T and N status. PET/CT has a relevant impact on initial staging and treatment of breast cancer when compared to conventional modalities. Further studies should assess inclusion criteria beyond the conventional T and N status, e.g. tumour grading and receptor status. (orig.)

  9. Empirical gradient threshold technique for automated segmentation across image modalities and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, J; Majurski, M; Peskin, A; Breen, C; Bajcsy, P; Brady, M

    2015-10-01

    New microscopy technologies are enabling image acquisition of terabyte-sized data sets consisting of hundreds of thousands of images. In order to retrieve and analyze the biological information in these large data sets, segmentation is needed to detect the regions containing cells or cell colonies. Our work with hundreds of large images (each 21,000×21,000 pixels) requires a segmentation method that: (1) yields high segmentation accuracy, (2) is applicable to multiple cell lines with various densities of cells and cell colonies, and several imaging modalities, (3) can process large data sets in a timely manner, (4) has a low memory footprint and (5) has a small number of user-set parameters that do not require adjustment during the segmentation of large image sets. None of the currently available segmentation methods meet all these requirements. Segmentation based on image gradient thresholding is fast and has a low memory footprint. However, existing techniques that automate the selection of the gradient image threshold do not work across image modalities, multiple cell lines, and a wide range of foreground/background densities (requirement 2) and all failed the requirement for robust parameters that do not require re-adjustment with time (requirement 5). We present a novel and empirically derived image gradient threshold selection method for separating foreground and background pixels in an image that meets all the requirements listed above. We quantify the difference between our approach and existing ones in terms of accuracy, execution speed, memory usage and number of adjustable parameters on a reference data set. This reference data set consists of 501 validation images with manually determined segmentations and image sizes ranging from 0.36 Megapixels to 850 Megapixels. It includes four different cell lines and two image modalities: phase contrast and fluorescent. Our new technique, called Empirical Gradient Threshold (EGT), is derived from this reference

  10. Improved medical image modality classification using a combination of visual and textual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovski, Ivica; Kocev, Dragi; Kitanovski, Ivan; Loskovska, Suzana; Džeroski, Sašo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the approach that we applied to the medical modality classification tasks at the ImageCLEF evaluation forum. More specifically, we used the modality classification databases from the ImageCLEF competitions in 2011, 2012 and 2013, described by four visual and one textual types of features, and combinations thereof. We used local binary patterns, color and edge directivity descriptors, fuzzy color and texture histogram and scale-invariant feature transform (and its variant opponentSIFT) as visual features and the standard bag-of-words textual representation coupled with TF-IDF weighting. The results from the extensive experimental evaluation identify the SIFT and opponentSIFT features as the best performing features for modality classification. Next, the low-level fusion of the visual features improves the predictive performance of the classifiers. This is because the different features are able to capture different aspects of an image, their combination offering a more complete representation of the visual content in an image. Moreover, adding textual features further increases the predictive performance. Finally, the results obtained with our approach are the best results reported on these databases so far. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MO-AB-BRA-02: A Novel Scatter Imaging Modality for Real-Time Image Guidance During Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redler, G; Bernard, D; Templeton, A; Chu, J; Nair, C Kumaran; Turian, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A novel scatter imaging modality is developed and its feasibility for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer patients is assessed using analytic and Monte Carlo models as well as experimental testing. Methods: During treatment, incident radiation interacts and scatters from within the patient. The presented methodology forms an image of patient anatomy from the scattered radiation for real-time localization of the treatment target. A radiographic flat panel-based pinhole camera provides spatial information regarding the origin of detected scattered radiation. An analytical model is developed, which provides a mathematical formalism for describing the scatter imaging system. Experimental scatter images are acquired by irradiating an object using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging simple objects of known compositions (water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is fabricated and imaged to investigate image quality for various quantities of delivered radiation. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code is used for validation and testing by simulating scatter image formation using the experimental pinhole camera setup. Results: Analytical calculations, MCNP simulations, and experimental results when imaging the water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent objects show close agreement, thus validating the proposed models and demonstrating that scatter imaging differentiates these materials well. Lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) to clearly distinguish tumor from surrounding lung tissue. CNR=4.1 and CNR=29.1 for 10MU and 5000MU images (equivalent to 0.5 and 250 second images), respectively. Conclusion: Lung SBRT provides favorable treatment outcomes, but depends on accurate target localization. A comprehensive

  12. MO-AB-BRA-02: A Novel Scatter Imaging Modality for Real-Time Image Guidance During Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redler, G; Bernard, D; Templeton, A; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Nair, C Kumaran [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Turian, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Rush Radiosurgery LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A novel scatter imaging modality is developed and its feasibility for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer patients is assessed using analytic and Monte Carlo models as well as experimental testing. Methods: During treatment, incident radiation interacts and scatters from within the patient. The presented methodology forms an image of patient anatomy from the scattered radiation for real-time localization of the treatment target. A radiographic flat panel-based pinhole camera provides spatial information regarding the origin of detected scattered radiation. An analytical model is developed, which provides a mathematical formalism for describing the scatter imaging system. Experimental scatter images are acquired by irradiating an object using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging simple objects of known compositions (water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is fabricated and imaged to investigate image quality for various quantities of delivered radiation. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code is used for validation and testing by simulating scatter image formation using the experimental pinhole camera setup. Results: Analytical calculations, MCNP simulations, and experimental results when imaging the water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent objects show close agreement, thus validating the proposed models and demonstrating that scatter imaging differentiates these materials well. Lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) to clearly distinguish tumor from surrounding lung tissue. CNR=4.1 and CNR=29.1 for 10MU and 5000MU images (equivalent to 0.5 and 250 second images), respectively. Conclusion: Lung SBRT provides favorable treatment outcomes, but depends on accurate target localization. A comprehensive

  13. Imaging method of brain surface anatomy structures using conventional T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Masahiko; Machida, Yoshio; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    As a non-invasive technique for visualizing the brain surface structure by MRI, surface anatomy scanning (SAS) and the multislice SAS methods have been developed. Both techniques require additional MRI scanning to obtain images for the brain surface. In this paper, we report an alternative method to obtain the brain surface image using conventional T2-weighted multislice images without any additional scanning. The power calculation of the image pixel values, which is incorporated in the routine processing, has been applied in order to enhance the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contrast. We think that this method is one of practical approaches for imaging the surface anatomy of the brain. (author)

  14. Preoperative evaluation and monitoring chemotherapy in patients with high-grade osteogenic and Ewing's sarcoma: review of current imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woude, H.-J. van der; Bloem, J.L.; Hogendoorn, P.C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is pivotal in the initial detection, characterization, staging and post-treatment follow-up of patients with high-grade osteogenic and Ewing's sarcoma. In the present review article, conventional and new imaging modalities are discussed with regard to the monitoring of the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in such patients. Presurgical monitoring of response to chemotherapy may have an impact on modification of neoadjuvant treatment protocols, on patient selection for the performance and timing of limb-salvage surgery and on planning of radiation therapy (in non-operated Ewing's sarcomas) and selection of postoperative chemotherapy regimens. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, as part of a routine MR protocol, assists in the detection of the most viable parts of the tumour and serves as an initial standard for follow-up of the metabolic activity of the tumour during and after chemotherapy, both in small intraosseous tumours and in tumours with an associated soft tissue mass. In combination with selected morphological features, dynamic imaging parameters are therefore advocated for monitoring the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with osteogenic and Ewing's sarcoma. (orig.)

  15. Costs, charges, and revenues for hospital diagnostic imaging procedures: differences by modality and hospital characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistrom, Christopher Lee; McKay, Niccie L

    2005-06-01

    This study examined financial data reported by Florida hospitals concerning costs, charges, and revenues related to imaging services. Financial reports to the Florida Hospital Uniform Reporting System by all licensed acute care facilities for fiscal year 2002 were used to calculate four financial indices on a per procedure basis. These included charge, net revenue, operating expense (variable cost), and contribution margin. Analysis, stratified by cost center (imaging modality), tested the effects of bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban or rural status on the four indices. The mean operating expense and charge per procedure were as follows: computed tomography (CT): $51 and $1565; x-ray and ultrasound: $55 and $410; nuclear medicine (NM): $135 and $1138; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): $165 and $2048. With all four modalities, for-profit hospitals had higher charges than not-for-profit and public facilities. Excepting NM, however, the difference by ownership disappeared when considering net revenue. Operating expense did not differ by ownership type or bed size. Operating expense (variable cost) per procedure is considerably lower for CT than for MRI. Consequently, when diagnostically equivalent, CT is preferable to MRI in terms of costs for hospitals. If the cost structure of nonhospital imaging is at all similar to hospitals, the profit potential for performing CT and MRI seems to be substantial, which has relevance to the issue of imaging self-referral.

  16. Interactive, multi-modality image registrations for combined MRI/MRSI-planned HDR prostate brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Reed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study presents the steps and criteria involved in the series of image registrations used clinically during the planning and dose delivery of focal high dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy of the prostate. Material and methods: Three imaging modalities – Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI, and Computed Tomography (CT – were used at different steps during the process. MRSI is used for identification of dominant intraprosatic lesions (DIL. A series of rigid and nonrigid transformations were applied to the data to correct for endorectal-coil-induced deformations and for alignment with the planning CT. Mutual information was calculated as a morphing metric. An inverse planning optimization algorithm was applied to boost dose to the DIL while providing protection to the urethra, penile bulb, rectum, and bladder. Six prostate cancer patients were treated using this protocol. Results: The morphing algorithm successfully modeled the probe-induced prostatic distortion. Mutual information calculated between the morphed images and images acquired without the endorectal probe showed a significant (p = 0.0071 increase to that calculated between the unmorphed images and images acquired without the endorectal probe. Both mutual information and visual inspection serve as effective diagnostics of image morphing. The entire procedure adds less than thirty minutes to the treatment planning. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the utility of image transformations and registrations to HDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

  17. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Multi-Modality Isointense Infant Brain Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Li, Rongjian; Deng, Houtao; Wang, Li; Lin, Weili; Ji, Shuiwang; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    The segmentation of infant brain tissue images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in studying early brain development in health and disease. In the isointense stage (approximately 6–8 months of age), WM and GM exhibit similar levels of intensity in both T1 and T2 MR images, making the tissue segmentation very challenging. Only a small number of existing methods have been designed for tissue segmentation in this isointense stage; however, they only used a single T1 or T2 images, or the combination of T1 and T2 images. In this paper, we propose to use deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for segmenting isointense stage brain tissues using multi-modality MR images. CNNs are a type of deep models in which trainable filters and local neighborhood pooling operations are applied alternatingly on the raw input images, resulting in a hierarchy of increasingly complex features. Specifically, we used multimodality information from T1, T2, and fractional anisotropy (FA) images as inputs and then generated the segmentation maps as outputs. The multiple intermediate layers applied convolution, pooling, normalization, and other operations to capture the highly nonlinear mappings between inputs and outputs. We compared the performance of our approach with that of the commonly used segmentation methods on a set of manually segmented isointense stage brain images. Results showed that our proposed model significantly outperformed prior methods on infant brain tissue segmentation. In addition, our results indicated that integration of multi-modality images led to significant performance improvement. PMID:25562829

  18. Comparing Image Perception of Bladder Tumors in Four Different Storz Professional Image Enhancement System Modalities Using the íSPIES App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Guido M.; de Bruin, D. Martijn; Brandt, Martin J.; Knoll, Thomas; Conort, Pierre; Lapini, Alberto; Dominguez-Escrig, Jose L.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the variation of interpretation of the same bladder urothelium image in different Storz Professional Image Enhancement System (SPIES) modalities. SPIES contains a White light (WL), Spectra A (SA), Spectra B (SB), and Clara and Chroma combined (CC) modality. An App for the iPAD retina was

  19. Role of the multi-modality image archival and communication system in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kari; Adam Mester; Erno Mako; Zoltan Gyorfi; Bela Mihalik; Zsolt; Hegyi

    2004-01-01

    Various non-invasive imaging systems produce increasing amount of diagnostic images day by day in digital format. The direct consequence of this tendency places electronic archives and image transfers in spotlight. Moreover, the digital image archives may support any other activities like simultaneous displaying of multi-modality images, telediagnostics, on-line consultation, construction of standard databases for dedicated organs by regional and/or country wide (e.g. myocardial scintigraphy, mammography, etc....) in order to obtain much more exact diagnosis as well as to support education and training. Our institute started similar research and developing activities few years ago, resulting the construction of our PACS systems -MEDISA LINUX Debian and eRAD ImageMedical TM LINUX Red Hat- together with the telecommunication part. Mass storage unit of PACS is based on hard drives connecting in RAID with l.2Tbyte capacity. The on-line telecommunication system consists of an ISDN Multi-Media System (MMS) and Internet based independent units. MMS was dedicated mainly for on-line teleconferencing and consultation by the simultaneously transferred morphological and functional images obtaining from the central archives by DICOM or any other allowable image formats. MMS has been created as a part and requirements of an EU research project - RETRANSPLANT -. The central archives -PACS- can be accessed by DICOM 3.0 protocol on Internet surface through well maintained and secure access rights. Displaying and post-processing of any retrieved images on individual workstations are supported by eRAD ImageMedical TM PracticeBuilder1-2-3 (Window based) image manager with its unique supports and services. The 'real engine' of PracticeBuilder is Ver.5.0 or newer Internet Explorer. The unique feature of PracticelBuilder1-2-3 is the extremely fast patient and image access from the archives even from very 'far distance' (through continents), due to the exceptional image communication

  20. Detection of relationships among multi-modal brain imaging meta-features via information flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robyn L; Vergara, Victor M; Calhoun, Vince D

    2018-01-15

    Neuroscientists and clinical researchers are awash in data from an ever-growing number of imaging and other bio-behavioral modalities. This flow of brain imaging data, taken under resting and various task conditions, combines with available cognitive measures, behavioral information, genetic data plus other potentially salient biomedical and environmental information to create a rich but diffuse data landscape. The conditions being studied with brain imaging data are often extremely complex and it is common for researchers to employ more than one imaging, behavioral or biological data modality (e.g., genetics) in their investigations. While the field has advanced significantly in its approach to multimodal data, the vast majority of studies still ignore joint information among two or more features or modalities. We propose an intuitive framework based on conditional probabilities for understanding information exchange between features in what we are calling a feature meta-space; that is, a space consisting of many individual featurae spaces. Features can have any dimension and can be drawn from any data source or modality. No a priori assumptions are made about the functional form (e.g., linear, polynomial, exponential) of captured inter-feature relationships. We demonstrate the framework's ability to identify relationships between disparate features of varying dimensionality by applying it to a large multi-site, multi-modal clinical dataset, balance between schizophrenia patients and controls. In our application it exposes both expected (previously observed) relationships, and novel relationships rarely considered investigated by clinical researchers. To the best of our knowledge there is not presently a comparably efficient way to capture relationships of indeterminate functional form between features of arbitrary dimension and type. We are introducing this method as an initial foray into a space that remains relatively underpopulated. The framework we propose is

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of imaging modalities for internal derangements of temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Igarashi, Chinami; Yuasa, Masao; Imanaka, Masahiro; Kondoh, Toshirou

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and review the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of imaging diagnosis for temporomandibular disorders. The role of diagnostic imaging is to detect and document specific anatomic abnormalities associated with the signs and symptoms in the temporomandibular joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) can accurately depict disc displacement and disc deformity. MR imaging is our first choice among the various imaging modalities for the patients with clinical signs and symptoms. However, it has been shown that intra-capsular adhesions and perforations of the disc and retrodiscal tissue are sometimes not detected by MR imaging. To improve the diagnostic technique for adhesions and perforations, double-contrast arthrotomography with fluoroscopy should be employed. The irregular surface of the eminences and the glenoid fossae shown by MR imaging and tomography are correlated with subchondral bone exposure by arthroscopy. Erosion of the condyles detected by MR imaging, tomography and rotational panoramic radiography is correlated with subchondral bone exposure detected by arthroscopy. (author). 69 refs

  2. The increased use of computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography as the sole imaging modalities prior to infrainguinal bypass has had no effect on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Bing; Damle, Rachelle N; Flahive, Julie; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Stone, David H; Patel, Virendra I; Schanzer, Andres; Baril, Donald T

    2015-08-01

    Angiography remains the gold standard imaging modality before infrainguinal bypass. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have emerged as noninvasive alternatives for preoperative imaging. We sought to examine contemporary trends in the utilization of CTA and MRA as isolated imaging modalities before infrainguinal bypass and to compare outcomes following infrainguinal bypass in patients who underwent CTA or MRA versus those who underwent conventional arteriography. Patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass within the Vascular Study Group of New England were identified (2003-2012). Patients were stratified by preoperative imaging modality: CTA/MRA alone or conventional angiography. Trends in utilization of these modalities were examined and demographics of these groups were compared. Primary end points included primary patency, secondary patency, and major adverse limb events (MALE) at 1 year as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate the effect of imaging modality on primary patency, secondary patency, and MALE after adjusting for confounders. In 3123 infrainguinal bypasses, CTA/MRA alone was used in 462 cases (15%) and angiography was used in 2661 cases (85%). Use of CTA/MRA alone increased over time, with 52 (11%) bypasses performed between 2003 and 2005, 189 (41%) bypasses performed between 2006 and 2009, and 221 (48%) bypasses performed between 2010 and 2012 (P < 0.001). Patients with CTA/MRA alone, compared with patients with angiography, more frequently underwent bypass for claudication (33% vs. 26%, P = 0.001) or acute limb ischemia (13% vs. 5%, P < 0.0001), more frequently had prosthetic conduits (39% vs. 30%, P = 0.001), and less frequently had tibial/pedal targets (32% vs. 40%, P = 0.002). After adjusting for these and other confounders, multivariable analysis demonstrated that the use of CTA/MRA alone was not associated with a significant

  3. On the Multi-Modal Object Tracking and Image Fusion Using Unsupervised Deep Learning Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHaye, N.; Ott, J.; Garay, M. J.; El-Askary, H. M.; Linstead, E.

    2017-12-01

    The number of different modalities of remote-sensors has been on the rise, resulting in large datasets with different complexity levels. Such complex datasets can provide valuable information separately, yet there is a bigger value in having a comprehensive view of them combined. As such, hidden information can be deduced through applying data mining techniques on the fused data. The curse of dimensionality of such fused data, due to the potentially vast dimension space, hinders our ability to have deep understanding of them. This is because each dataset requires a user to have instrument-specific and dataset-specific knowledge for optimum and meaningful usage. Once a user decides to use multiple datasets together, deeper understanding of translating and combining these datasets in a correct and effective manner is needed. Although there exists data centric techniques, generic automated methodologies that can potentially solve this problem completely don't exist. Here we are developing a system that aims to gain a detailed understanding of different data modalities. Such system will provide an analysis environment that gives the user useful feedback and can aid in research tasks. In our current work, we show the initial outputs our system implementation that leverages unsupervised deep learning techniques so not to burden the user with the task of labeling input data, while still allowing for a detailed machine understanding of the data. Our goal is to be able to track objects, like cloud systems or aerosols, across different image-like data-modalities. The proposed system is flexible, scalable and robust to understand complex likenesses within multi-modal data in a similar spatio-temporal range, and also to be able to co-register and fuse these images when needed.

  4. High-frequency 3D echodentographic imaging modality for early assessment of periodontal diseases: in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound in dentistry is still an open growing area of research. Currently, there is a lack of imaging modalities to accurately predict minute structures and defects in the jawbone. In particular, the inability of 2D radiographic images to detect bony periodontal defects resulted from infection of the periodontium. This study investigates the feasibility of high frequency ultrasound to reconstruct high resolution 3D surface images of human jawbone. Methods: A dentate and non-dentate mandibles were used in this study. The system employs high frequency single-element ultrasound focused transducers (15-30 MHz) for scanning. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high precision two-dimensional stage positioning system of +/-1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate and quantitative measurements of the mandible in vitro. Radio frequency (RF) signals are acquired laterally 44-45.5 μm apart for each frame. Different frames are reconstructed 500 μm apart for the 3D reconstruction. Signal processing algorithms are applied on the received ultrasound signals for filtering, focusing, and envelope detection before frame reconstruction. Furthermore, an edge detection technique is adopted to detect the bone surface in each frame. Finally, all edges are combined together in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. Major anatomical landmarks on the resultant images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles to show the efficacy of the system. Comparison were also made with conventional 2D radiographs to show the superiority of the ultrasound imaging system in diagnosing small defects in the lateral, axial and elevation planes of space. Results: The landmarks on all ultrasound images matched with those on the mandible, indicating the efficacy of the system in detecting small structures in human jaw bones. Comparison with conventional 2D radiographic images of the same mandible showed superiority of

  5. Detection ability of FDG-PET/CT comparing with other imaging modalities in multiple myeloma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Lee, Tae Hyun; Pai, Moon Sun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by bone marrow infiltration with malignant plasma cells. It is important to detect involving bone for diagnosis and management of MM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability and limitation of 18F-FDG-PET/CT (PET/CT) comparing other imaging modalities (separated PET and CT, whole body plain X-ray (XR), bone scintigraphy (BS), and MRI) in MM. Twenty PET/CT scans were performed in 16 patients (M: F=6: 10, median age=59 y). PET/CT findings were compared with available other images (n of CT=21, XR=21, BS=8, and MRI=5). Concordance with more than 2 image modalities, laboratory data, symptom, and biopsies were used for diagnosis of detected lesions. PET/CT revealed 256 of total 287 sites (sensitivity, 89.2%; accuracy, 84.8%). The sensitivity and accuracy of separating PET, CT, and XR were 86.3%, 70.4%; 47.4%, 50.3%; and 72.8%, 72.4%, respectively. Available BS identified 67 of 202 sites (sensitivity, 33.2%; accuracy, 44.0%). MRI detected 20 of 24 sites (sensitivity, 83.3%; accuracy, 36.3%). False positive rate (FP) of PET, XR, and MRI was as high as 87.8%, 95.1%, and 100%. PET for rib lesion identified 9 of 10 patients (90.0%) but for skull lesion only 4 of 7 patients (57.2%) with underestimation. 5 patients in MRI showed diffuse marrow signal change but only 3 had marrow involvement. But PET/CT showed higher accuracy than MRI. PET/CT was the most useful tool for detecting involving bone of MM comparing with other imaging modalities. Moreover, PET/CT is expected to overcome the limitations for the small osteolytic bone lesions with diffuse FDG uptake on PET

  6. The Impact of Imaging Modality on the Measurement of Coronal Plane Alignment After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Denis; Vajapey, Sravya; Nunley, Ryan M; Barrack, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    The optimal coronal alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become an area of increased debate. Sources of variability among investigations include the radiographic technique used for both preoperative surgical planning and postoperative alignment assessments. This study's purpose was to assess the impact of the imaging modality used on the measurement of coronal plane alignment after TKA. A consecutive series of patients undergoing TKA using the same cruciate-retaining prosthesis were included for analysis. Postoperatively, all patients received both a rotationally controlled, scout computed tomography scan and a hip-knee-ankle (HKA) image using the EOS Imaging system (EOS Inc., Paris, France). Two, independent observers measured the HKA angle, and femoral and tibial component alignment from each image. After classifying overall and component alignment as neutral, varus, or valgus, 40.6% (65 of 160) of knees had a discordant alignment classification for HKA, 28.1% (45 of 160) for femoral component alignment, and 26.9% (43 of 160) for tibial component alignment between their computed tomography and EOS images. Overall, 24.4% (39 of 160) of patients had a HKA difference of ≥3° between the 2 images, whereas 18.8% (30 of 160) and 20.0% (32 of 160) of patients had a femoral and tibial component alignment difference of ≥2°, respectively. Significant differences are present when comparing 2 measurement techniques of mechanical alignment after TKA. The impact of imaging modality on postoperative assessments must be accounted for and be consistent when comparing the results of different investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. VoxelStats: A MATLAB Package for Multi-Modal Voxel-Wise Brain Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Wang, Seqian; Shin, Monica; Pascoal, Tharick A; Benedet, Andrea L; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gauthier, Serge; Labbe, Aurélie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, behavioral outcomes are highly associated with the variability on brain regional structure or neurochemical phenotypes. Similarly, in the context of neurodegenerative conditions, neuroimaging reveals that cognitive decline is linked to the magnitude of atrophy, neurochemical declines, or concentrations of abnormal protein aggregates across brain regions. However, modeling the effects of multiple regional abnormalities as determinants of cognitive decline at the voxel level remains largely unexplored by multimodal imaging research, given the high computational cost of estimating regression models for every single voxel from various imaging modalities. VoxelStats is a voxel-wise computational framework to overcome these computational limitations and to perform statistical operations on multiple scalar variables and imaging modalities at the voxel level. VoxelStats package has been developed in Matlab(®) and supports imaging formats such as Nifti-1, ANALYZE, and MINC v2. Prebuilt functions in VoxelStats enable the user to perform voxel-wise general and generalized linear models and mixed effect models with multiple volumetric covariates. Importantly, VoxelStats can recognize scalar values or image volumes as response variables and can accommodate volumetric statistical covariates as well as their interaction effects with other variables. Furthermore, this package includes built-in functionality to perform voxel-wise receiver operating characteristic analysis and paired and unpaired group contrast analysis. Validation of VoxelStats was conducted by comparing the linear regression functionality with existing toolboxes such as glim_image and RMINC. The validation results were identical to existing methods and the additional functionality was demonstrated by generating feature case assessments (t-statistics, odds ratio, and true positive rate maps). In summary, VoxelStats expands the current methods for multimodal imaging analysis by allowing the

  8. Lipid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jinying Liang,1–3 Xinxin Zhang,2 Yunqiu Miao,2 Juan Li,1 Yong Gan2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The development of noninvasive imaging techniques for the accurate diagnosis of progressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is of great clinical significance and has always been desired. Herein, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell-targeting fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle (NP was obtained by conjugating near-infrared fluorescence to the surface of Fe3O4 (NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs, followed by coating the lipids consisting of tumoral hepatocytes-targeting polymer (Gal-P123. This magnetic NP (GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 with superparamagnetic behavior showed high stability and safety in physiological conditions. In addition, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 achieved more specific uptake of human liver cancer cells than free Fe3O4 NPs. Importantly, with superparamagnetic iron oxide and strong NIR absorbance, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs demonstrate prominent tumor-contrasted imaging performance both on fluorescent and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR imaging modalities in a living body. The relative MR signal enhancement of GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs achieved 5.4-fold improvement compared with NIR-Fe3O4 NPs. Therefore, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs may be potentially used as a candidate for dual-modal imaging of tumors with information covalidated and directly compared by combining fluorescence and MR imaging. Keywords: dual-imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatocellular carcinoma, tumor-targeting

  9. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow mapping by digital processing conventional color-Doppler echocardiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Del Alamo, Juan C; Tanne, David; Yotti, Raquel; Cortina, Cristina; Bertrand, Eric; Antoranz, José Carlos; Perez-David, Esther; Rieu, Régis; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier

    2010-10-01

    Doppler echocardiography remains the most extended clinical modality for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function. Current Doppler ultrasound methods, however, are limited to the representation of a single flow velocity component. We thus developed a novel technique to construct 2D time-resolved (2D+t) LV velocity fields from conventional transthoracic clinical acquisitions. Combining color-Doppler velocities with LV wall positions, the cross-beam blood velocities were calculated using the continuity equation under a planar flow assumption. To validate the algorithm, 2D Doppler flow mapping and laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an atrio-ventricular duplicator. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions were used to measure in vivo the error due to the 2D flow assumption and to potential scan-plane misalignment. Finally, the applicability of the Doppler technique was tested in the clinical setting. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the new method yields an accurate quantitative description of the main vortex that forms during the cardiac cycle (mean error for vortex radius, position and circulation). MR image analysis evidenced that the error due to the planar flow assumption is close to 15% and does not preclude the characterization of major vortex properties neither in the normal nor in the dilated LV. These results are yet to be confirmed by a head-to-head clinical validation study. Clinical Doppler studies showed that the method is readily applicable and that a single large anterograde vortex develops in the healthy ventricle while supplementary retrograde swirling structures may appear in the diseased heart. The proposed echocardiographic method based on the continuity equation is fast, clinically-compliant and does not require complex training. This technique will potentially enable investigators to study of additional quantitative aspects of intraventricular flow dynamics in the clinical setting by

  10. Phantom evaluation of a commercially available three modality image guided radiation therapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploquin, Nicolas; Rangel, Alejandra; Dunscombe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a detailed evaluation of the capabilities of imaging and image registration systems available with Varian linear accelerators for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Specifically, they present modulation transfer function curves for megavoltage planar, kilovoltage (kV) planar, and cone beam computed tomography imaging systems and compare these with conventional computed tomography. While kV planar imaging displayed the highest spatial resolution, all IGRT imaging techniques were assessed as adequate for their intended purpose. They have also characterized the image registration software available for use in conjunction with these imaging systems through a comprehensive phantom study involving translations in three orthogonal directions. All combinations of imaging systems and image registration software were found to be accurate, although the planar kV imaging system with automatic registration was generally superior, with both accuracy and precision of the order of 1 mm, under the conditions tested. Based on their phantom study, the attainable accuracy for rigid body translations using any of the features available with Varian equipment will more likely be limited by the resolution of the couch readouts than by inherent limitations in the imaging systems and image registration software. Overall, the accuracy and precision of currently available IGRT technology exceed published experience with the accuracy and precision of contouring for planning.

  11. Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis: roles of magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, conventional radiography and computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Efficient methods for diagnosis, monitoring and prognostication are essential in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While conventional X-rays only visualize the late signs of preceding disease activity, there is evidence for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography being highly sensitiv...

  12. Double oblique MR images of the shoulder. Comparison with conventional images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Taisuke; Saito, Yoko; Yodono, Hiraku; Miura, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Atsushi; Abe, Shuichiro

    1998-01-01

    Because the scapula is not only slanted on transverse sections but also inclines on sagittal sections, we now perform shoulder MR imaging using double oblique images (DOI), which are planes perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of the scapula obtained with oblique sagittal scout imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of double oblique shoulder MR imaging. MR images of shoulders with operatively or arthroscopically proven lesions (20 cases) that had been examined on both conventional images (CI) and DOI were retrospectively reviewed. DOI were compared with CI not only in terms of diagnostic performance but also in their ability to identify the details of shoulder anatomy. All MR studies were done with a shoulder coil on a high-field (1.5 T) unit. Although the accuracy of DOI in diagnosing shoulder disorders such as rotator cuff tear and labrum injury was not as good as that of CI, DOI were better for identifying or discriminating muscles and tendons of the rotator cuff, labralbicipital junction and anterior band of the inferior gleno-humeral ligament, and for recognizing the correct position of the glenoid labrum. MR double oblique imaging of the shoulder provides more detailed information about shoulder anatomy and disorders than conventional imaging. (author)

  13. Endoscopic Tri-Modal Imaging (ETMI With Optical Magnification in the Detection of Barrett's Early Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmed S. Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lesion detection and characterisation is vital to ensure accurate management in patients with gastrointestinal neoplasia. Endoscopic Tri-modal Imaging (ETMI technology has been shown to improve the targeted detection of early dysplastic lesions in Barrett's Oesophagus, but these results were not confirmed in non-expert hands [1]. This technology incorporates high resolution while light endoscopy (HRE, Auto Fluorescence Imaging (AFI and Narrow Band Imaging (NBI in one endoscope. The mucosa is first inspected with HRE, and then AFI is switched on to help in highlighting any suspicious areas in the mucosa [2]. These areas can be further examined by switching to NBI mode with magnification which helps to characterise mucosal patterns and identify early neoplasia [3].

  14. A tri-modal molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhengtao; Hoh, Carl K.; Hall, David J.; Vera, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We report an “instant kit” method to radiolabel fluorescent-tilmanocept with 68 Ga and 99m Tc for tri-modal molecular imaging of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Methods: Solutions of sodium acetate, 68 GaCl 3 and Na 99m TcO 4 were added successively to a “kit vial” containing lyophilized 800CW-tilmanocept, SnCl 2 , trehalose and ascorbic acid. After a 30-min incubation, the pH was neutralized with PBS. No purification was required. Radiochemical and fluorescence purity was measured by HPLC and ITLC techniques. In vitro stability was measured by standing gel chromatography (SGC) and ITLC by a 100-fold dilution 0.25 h after radiolabeling. In vivo stability was measured by SGC and ITLC after an 11 h incubation in human plasma. A dose (0.1 nmol, ~ 1 MBq 68 Ga, ~ 25 MBq 99m Tc) was injected to the footpad of 4 mice. Popliteal SLNs were imaged by PET and fluorescence imaging systems at 0.5, 24, 48, 72 h, then excised and assayed for 99m Tc. Results: Radiochemical and fluorescent purity exceeded 98%. The in vitro stability assay demonstrated high irreversibility of both radiolabels and the fluorescent label, and in vivo stability assay demonstrated high stability of the technetium and fluorescent labels to plasma metabolism. Popliteal SLNs were identified by PET and fluorescence imaging within 0.5 h of injection. SLN fluorescence intensity remained constant for 72 h, when ~ 1% of the injected dose resided in the SLN. Conclusions: Fluorescent-labeled tilmanocept can be radiolabeled with 68 Ga and 99m Tc by the sequential addition of each generator eluate to a lyophilized kit. The resulting tri-modal agent provides: PET images for pre-operative SLN mapping, fluorescence imaging up to 72 hours after injection, and quantitative radiometric measurement of SLN accumulation after excision.

  15. Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ying; Dubois, Arnaud; Qin Xiangpei; Li Jian; Haj, Alicia El; Wang, Ruikang K

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring cell profiles in 3D porous scaffolds presents a major challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigate optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an imaging modality to monitor non-invasively both structures and cells in engineered tissue constructs. We employ time-domain OCT to visualize macro-structural morphology, and whole-field optical coherence microscopy to delineate the morphology of cells and constructs in a developing in vitro engineered bone tissue. The results show great potential for the use of OCT in non-invasive monitoring of cellular activities in 3D developing engineered tissues

  16. A comparison of efficacy of photoradiation therapy and other conventional treatment modalities on experimental MS-2 sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzoni, Gabriella; Savi, Giuseppina; Melloni, Elsa; Marchesini, Renato; Fava, Giannino; Locati, Lucia; Zunino, Franco

    1984-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of photoradiation therapy (PRT) following hematoporthyrin derivative (HpD) administration was compared in the experimental MS-2 tumour model to that of conventional treatment methods for local control of neoplastic diseases (i.e. surgery and radiotherapy). The therapeutic effects of PRT and surgical removal of primary tumour were comparable in these experiments. However, optimal effects were critically dependent on the stage of tumour development. In addition, the therapeutic advantage of PRT over radiotherapy suggests an interesting role of a new approach in tumours resistant to this conventional treatment. (author)

  17. SU-E-I-83: Error Analysis of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using a Preclinical Multi-Modality QA Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fullerton, G; Goins, B [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous study a preclinical multi-modality quality assurance (QA) phantom that contains five tumor-simulating test objects with 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 mm diameters was developed for accurate tumor size measurement by researchers during cancer drug development and testing. This study analyzed the errors during tumor volume measurement from preclinical magnetic resonance (MR), micro-computed tomography (micro- CT) and ultrasound (US) images acquired in a rodent tumor model using the preclinical multi-modality QA phantom. Methods: Using preclinical 7-Tesla MR, US and micro-CT scanners, images were acquired of subcutaneous SCC4 tumor xenografts in nude rats (3–4 rats per group; 5 groups) along with the QA phantom using the same imaging protocols. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging was performed to determine reference tumor volume. Volumes measured for the rat tumors and phantom test objects were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three imaging modalities. Then linear regression analysis was performed to compare image-based tumor volumes with the reference tumor volume and known test object volume for the rats and the phantom respectively. Results: The slopes of regression lines for in-vivo tumor volumes measured by three imaging modalities were 1.021, 1.101 and 0.862 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. For phantom, the slopes were 0.9485, 0.9971 and 0.9734 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. Conclusion: For both animal and phantom studies, random and systematic errors were observed. Random errors were observer-dependent and systematic errors were mainly due to selected imaging protocols and/or measurement method. In the animal study, there were additional systematic errors attributed to ellipsoidal assumption for tumor shape. The systematic errors measured using the QA phantom need to be taken into account to reduce measurement

  18. FogBank: a single cell segmentation across multiple cell lines and image modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Stuelten, Christina; Peskin, Adele; Brady, Mary

    2014-12-30

    Many cell lines currently used in medical research, such as cancer cells or stem cells, grow in confluent sheets or colonies. The biology of individual cells provide valuable information, thus the separation of touching cells in these microscopy images is critical for counting, identification and measurement of individual cells. Over-segmentation of single cells continues to be a major problem for methods based on morphological watershed due to the high level of noise in microscopy cell images. There is a need for a new segmentation method that is robust over a wide variety of biological images and can accurately separate individual cells even in challenging datasets such as confluent sheets or colonies. We present a new automated segmentation method called FogBank that accurately separates cells when confluent and touching each other. This technique is successfully applied to phase contrast, bright field, fluorescence microscopy and binary images. The method is based on morphological watershed principles with two new features to improve accuracy and minimize over-segmentation. First, FogBank uses histogram binning to quantize pixel intensities which minimizes the image noise that causes over-segmentation. Second, FogBank uses a geodesic distance mask derived from raw images to detect the shapes of individual cells, in contrast to the more linear cell edges that other watershed-like algorithms produce. We evaluated the segmentation accuracy against manually segmented datasets using two metrics. FogBank achieved segmentation accuracy on the order of 0.75 (1 being a perfect match). We compared our method with other available segmentation techniques in term of achieved performance over the reference data sets. FogBank outperformed all related algorithms. The accuracy has also been visually verified on data sets with 14 cell lines across 3 imaging modalities leading to 876 segmentation evaluation images. FogBank produces single cell segmentation from confluent cell

  19. Diagnostic imaging of Klippel-Feil syndrome: conventional radiography, CT and MR imaging. Case report; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Klippel-Feil-Syndroms: Konventionelle Roentgenaufnahmen, CT und MRT. Fallbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochens, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Schubeus, P. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Steinkamp, H.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Menzhausen, L. [Abt. fuer Psychiatrie, Urban Krankenhaus, Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In two patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome, type II radiographic findings of the malformation are shown in the cervical spine and the craniocervical junction. Conventional X-rays of the cervical spine in the AP and lateral view and conventional tomography as well as CT of the cervical spine were obtained in both patients. One of the two patients additionally underwent MR imaging. Findings of the different imaging modalities are compared with each other. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand von zwei Patienten mit Klippel-Feil-Syndrom Typ II werden typische radiologische Befunde des Missbildungssyndroms im Bereich der Halswirbelsaeule und des kraniozervikalen Ueberganges dargestellt. Neben den konventionellen HWS-Roentgenaufnahmen und den konventionellen Schichtaufnahmen, wurden bei beiden Patienten ein CT der HWS und bei einem Patienten zusaetzlich ein MRT durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse und Befunde der verschiedenen Untersuchungsverfahren werden einander gegenuebergestellt. (orig.)

  20. Image quality of conventional images of dual-layer SPECTRAL CT: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommen, F; Bennink, E; Vlassenbroek, A; Dankbaar, J W; Schilham, A M R; Viergever, M A; de Jong, H W A M

    2018-05-10

    Spectral CT using a dual layer detector offers the possibility of retrospectively introducing spectral information to conventional CT images. In theory, the dual-layer technology should not come with a dose or image quality penalty for conventional images. In this study, we evaluate the influence of a dual-layer detector (IQon Spectral CT, Philips) on the image quality of conventional CT images, by comparing these images with those of a conventional but otherwise technically comparable single-layer CT scanner (Brilliance iCT, Philips), by means of phantom experiments. For both CT scanners conventional CT images were acquired using four adult scanning protocols: i) body helical, ii) body axial, iii) head helical and iv) head axial. A CATPHAN 600 phantom was scanned to conduct an assessment of image quality metrics at equivalent (CTDI) dose levels. Noise was characterized by means of noise power spectra (NPS) and standard deviation (SD) of a uniform region, and spatial resolution was evaluated with modulation transfer functions (MTF) of a tungsten wire. In addition, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), image uniformity, CT number linearity, slice thickness, slice spacing, and spatial linearity were measured and evaluated. Additional measurements of CNR, resolution and noise were performed in two larger phantoms. The resolution levels at 50%, 10% and 5% MTF of the iCT and IQon showed small but significant differences up to 0.25 lp/cm for body scans, and up to 0.2 lp/cm for head scans in favor of the IQon. The iCT and IQon showed perfect CT linearity for body scans, but for head scans both scanners showed an underestimation of the CT numbers of materials with a high opacity. Slice thickness was slightly overestimated for both scanners. Slice spacing was comparable and reconstructed correctly. In addition, spatial linearity was excellent for both scanners, with a maximum error of 0.11 mm. CNR was higher on the IQon compared to the iCT for both normal and larger phantoms with

  1. Medical Students’ Knowledge of Indications for Imaging Modalities and Cost Analysis of Incorrect Requests, Shiraz, Iran 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Islami Parkoohi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20. In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars. The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%. The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff and $205581 (private tariff. Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns.

  2. Medical students' knowledge of indications for imaging modalities and cost analysis of incorrect requests, shiraz, iran 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Jalli, Reza; Danaei, Mina; Khajavian, Shiva; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent) using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20). In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars. The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%). The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff) and $205581 (private tariff). Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns.

  3. Evaluation of localized bacterial infection using radioisotope-labeled nucleosides imaging modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang II; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Conventional diagnostic methods for infections are difficult to distinguish localized bacterial infections from sites of sterile inflammation. For this reason, the importance of developing methods to image bacterial infections is widely recognized. In this study to acquire bacterial infection imaging with radiolabeled nucleosides, in vitro bacterial thymidine kinase (tk) activities of Salmonella typhimurium with [{sup 18}F]FLT and [{sup 125}I]IVDU were measured and localized infections model in BALB/c mice was imaged with [{sup 18}F]FLT or [{sup 125}I]FIAU

  4. Photoacoustic cystography using handheld dual modal clinical ultrasound photoacoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Periyasamy, Vijitha; Austria, Dienzo Rhonnie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux is the abnormal flow of urine from your bladder back up the tubes (ureters) that connect your kidneys to your bladder. Normally, urine flows only down from your kidneys to your bladder. Vesicoureteral reflux is usually diagnosed in infants and children. The disorder increases the risk of urinary tract infections, which, if left untreated, can lead to kidney damage. X-Ray cystography is used currently to diagnose this condition which uses ionising radiation, making it harmful for patients. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the urinary bladder using a handheld clinical ultrasound and photoacoustic dual modal imaging system in small animals (rats). Additionally, we demonstrate imaging vesicoureteral reflux using bladder mimicking phantoms. Urinary bladder imaging is done with the help of contrast agents like black ink and gold nanoparticles which have high optical absorption at 1064 nm. Imaging up to 2 cm was demonstrated with this system. Imaging was done at a framerate of 5 frames per second.

  5. Thoracic neuroblastoma: what is the best imaging modality for evaluating extent of disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovis, T.L.; Meza, M.P.; Cushing, B.; Elkowitz, S.S.; Leonidas, J.C.; Festa, R.; Kogutt, M.S.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    Thoracic neuroblastoma accounts for 15% of all cases of neuroblastoma. A minority of children with thoracic neuroblastoma will have dumbbell tumors, i.e., intraspinal extension, but only half these patients will have neurologic signs or symptoms. Hypothesis. MR imaging is the single best test to evaluate the extent of thoracic and spinal disease in thoracid neuroblastoma after the diagnosis of a mass is estbalished on plain film. A retrospective multi-institutional investigation over 7 years of all cases of thoracic neuroblastoma (n=26) imaged with CT and/or MR were reviewed for detection of the extent of disease. The chest film, nuclear bone scan, and other imaging modalities were also reviewed. The surgical and histologic correlation in each case, as well as the patients' staging and outcome, were tabulated. The chest radiography was 100% sensitive in suggesting the diagnosis. MR imaging was 100% sensitive in predicting enlarged lymph nodes, intraspinal extension, and chest wall involvement. CT was 88% sensitive for intraspinal extension but only 20% sensitive for lymph node enlargement. CT was 100% sensitive in detecting chest wall involvement. Direct comparison of CT and MR imaging in six cases revealed no difference in detection of enlarged lymph nodes or chest wall involvement. Neither test was able to detect remote disease, as noted by bone scan. The chest film is 100% sensitive in suggesting the diagnosis of thoracic neuroblastoma; MR imaging appears to be the single best test for detecting nodal involvement, intraspinal extension, and chest wall involvement. (orig.)

  6. Emerging Cardiac Imaging Modalities for the Early Detection of Cardiotoxicity Due to Anticancer Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Teresa; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-06-01

    The undeniable advances in the field of oncology have finally led to a decrease in overall cancer-related mortality. However, this population of long-term cancer survivors is now facing a shift toward a substantial increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because the development of overt cardiotoxicity can be associated with poor outcomes, preclinical identification of cardiac toxicity is important. This will promote early instauration of treatments to prevent overt heart dysfunction and allow oncologists to continue cancer therapy in an uninterrupted manner. Surveillance strategies for the early detection of cardiac injury include cardiac imaging and biomarkers during treatment. In this review, we outline existing cardiac imaging modalities to detect myocardial changes in patients undergoing cancer treatment and in survivors, and their strengths and limitations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiac imaging modalities with ionizing radiation: the role of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterick, Timothy E; Jan, M Fuad; Paterick, Zachary R; Tajik, A Jamil; Gerber, Thomas C

    2012-06-01

    Informed consent ideally results in patient autonomy and rational health care decisions. Frequently, patients face complex medical decisions that require a delicate balancing of anticipated benefits and potential risks, which is the concept of informed consent. This balancing process requires an understanding of available medical evidence and alternative medical options, and input from experienced physicians. The informed consent doctrine places a positive obligation on physicians to partner with patients as they try to make the best decision for their specific medical situation. The high prevalence and mortality related to heart disease in our society has led to increased cardiac imaging with modalities that use ionizing radiation. This paper reviews how physicians can meet the ideals of informed consent when considering cardiac imaging with ionizing radiation, given the limited evidence for risks and benefits. The goal is an informed patient making rational choices based on available medical information. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoscopic tri-modal imaging for detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus: a multi-centre feasibility study using high-resolution endoscopy, autofluorescence imaging and narrow band imaging incorporated in one endoscopy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvers, W. L.; Singh, R.; Song, L.-M. Wong-Kee; Wolfsen, H. C.; Ragunath, K.; Wang, K.; Wallace, M. B.; Fockens, P.; Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic potential of endoscopic tri-modal imaging and the relative contribution of each imaging modality (i.e. high-resolution endoscopy (HRE), autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and narrow-band imaging (NBI)) for the detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus.

  9. Characterization and functional correlation of multiple imaging modalities with focal choroidal excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chen Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the clinical manifestations and imaging features of near-infrared autofluorescence (NIA, infrared reflectance (IR, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA and fluorescein angiography (FAG in the detection of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE identified by cross-sectional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 12 eyes of 10 Taiwanese patients with FCE diagnosed by SD-OCT. The areas and depths of FCE in serial cross-sectional and en-face OCT were compared in different imaging modalities. NIA, IR, FAF, ICGA and FAG images were obtained. Best corrected visual acuity, subjective distortion area in the Amsler grid and history of maculopathies were also recorded. Results: In areas where the choroid started to excavate as shown in SD-OCT, hypo-autofluorescence in NIA was noted. The area of hypo-fluorescence in NIA of all the FCE lesions showed good correlation with the size. The area of FCE was associated with complications such as choroidal neovascularization and central serous chorioretinopathy (p = 0.014, d.f = 1 and the volume (NIA area × Depth measured by SD-OCT × 1/3 was associated with subjective distortion strongly (p = 0.051, Spearman's correlation = 0.600. Conclusion: Among all image modalities, NIA was the most sensitive tool in area measurement of FCE and peripheral lesion detection. Also, the volume of FCE was associated with subjective distortion and the area was related to complications. Recording the area and volume of FCE could play an important role in monitoring complications. Keywords: Choroid-retina disease, Focal choroidal excavation, Near-infrared autofluorescence, Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

  10. Pleomorphic adenoma: Choice of radiographic imaging modality - Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging? Illustration through a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign neoplasm of the major salivary glands arising primarily from the parotid gland. Computed tomography (CT is one of the primary imaging modalities used to assess the tumors of salivary glands. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may provide additional information over CT. Case Report: We report the case of a 60-year-old male with a slowly enlarging, well-defined, round, painless, non-fixated, rubber-like swelling over the left ramus region below the ear, measuring about 4 × 4.5 cm, covering the lower border of the mandible near the angle. A provisional diagnosis of PA was given and CT and MRI were used to study the lesion. Discussion: Through this case, which was suspected to have undergone malignant transformation because of indistinct margins and focal hypodense areas on CT but was later confirmed to be a benign salivary gland tumor on MRI, we illustrate the role of CT and MRI as diagnostic aids in PA and emphasize on what should be the choice of imaging modality for parotid tumors.

  11. Conventional diagnostic imaging of the temporal bone. A historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canigiani, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Viennese Medical School played an important role in the development of radiological examinations and signs of the temporal bone with conventional X-rays. Famous pioneers include E.G. Mayer (1893-1969) and L. Psenner (1910-1986). Nowadays conventional X-rays and tomography have lost their important role in diagnostic radiology of the temporal bone, but the basic principles established in those early years of radiology are still used now. This statement is correct not only for conventional X-rays, but particularly for 'poly'-tomography in comparison with CT. (orig.) [de

  12. Facile Fabrication of Animal-Specific Positioning Molds For Multi-modality Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Oh, Ji Eun; Woo, Seung Tae

    2008-01-01

    Recently multi-modal imaging system has become widely adopted in molecular imaging. We tried to fabricate animal-specific positioning molds for PET/MR fusion imaging using easily available molding clay and rapid foam. The animal-specific positioning molds provide immobilization and reproducible positioning of small animal. Herein, we have compared fiber-based molding clay with rapid foam in fabricating the molds of experimental animal. The round bottomed-acrylic frame, which fitted into microPET gantry, was prepared at first. The experimental mice was anesthetized and placed on the mold for positioning. Rapid foam and fiber-based clay were used to fabricate the mold. In case of both rapid foam and the clay, the experimental animal needs to be pushed down smoothly into the mold for positioning. However, after the mouse was removed, the fabricated clay needed to be dried completely at 60 .deg. C in oven overnight for hardening. Four sealed pipe tips containing [ 18 F]FDG solution were used as fiduciary markers. After injection of [ 18 F]FDG via tail vein, microPET scanning was performed. Successively, MRI scanning was followed in the same animal. Animal-specific positioning molds were fabricated using rapid foam and fiber-based molding clay for multimodality imaging. Functional and anatomical images were obtained with microPET and MRI, respectively. The fused PET/MR images were obtained using freely available AMIDE program. Animal-specific molds were successfully prepared using easily available rapid foam, molding clay and disposable pipet tips. Thanks to animal-specific molds, fusion images of PET and MR were co-registered with negligible misalignment

  13. 3D reconstruction of microvascular flow phantoms with hybrid imaging modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingying; Hsiung, Kevin; Ritenour, Russell; Golzarian, Jafar

    2011-03-01

    Microvascular flow phantoms were built to aid the development of a hemodynamic simulation model for treating hepatocelluar carcinoma. The goal is to predict the blood flow routing for embolotherapy planning. Embolization is to deliver agents (e.g. microspheres) to the vicinity of the tumor to obstruct blood supply and nutrients to the tumor, targeting into 30 - 40 μm arterioles. Due to the size of the catheter, it has to release microspheres at an upper stream location, which may not localize the blocking effect. Accurate anatomical descriptions of microvasculature will help to conduct a reliable simulation and prepare a successful embolization strategy. Modern imaging devices can generate 3D reconstructions with ease. However, with a fixed detector size, larger field of view yields lower resolution. Clinical CT images can't be used to measure micro vessel dimensions, while micro-CT requires more acquisitions to reconstruct larger vessels. A multi-tiered, montage 3D reconstruction method with hybrid-modality imagery is devised to minimize the reconstruction effort. Regular CT is used for larger vessels and micro-CT is used for micro vessels. The montage approach aims to stitch up images with different resolutions and orientations. A resolution-adaptable 3D image registration is developed to assemble the images. We have created vessel phantoms that consist of several tiers of bifurcating polymer tubes in reducing diameters, down to 25 μm. No previous work of physical flow phantom has ventured into this small scale. Overlapping phantom images acquired from clinical CT and micro-CT are used to verify the image registration fidelity.

  14. The guarantee of the consistency of patient information through modality worklist among PACS, RIS and imaging equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Min; Peng Chenglin; Wang Xiaolin; Luo Song; Lei Wenyong; Wang Kang; Wang Xuejian; Wen Hongyu; Wu Hongxing

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To realize the consistency of patient information through modality worklist among picture archiving and communication system (PACS), radiology information systems (RIS), and imaging equipments. Methods: Many digital modalities including GE Signa 1.5 T MR system, digital mammography, Agfa digital radiography, computed radiography, GE CT, and etc were installed in our hospital. Since the GE PACS system was in English version, the images were saved and the information was managed to PACS without a truly worklist. Two months later, while still using the previous PACS, the consistency of patient information was resolved through modality worklist by adopting the international advanced approach to realize thread worklist of digital imaging and communication in medicine. The information in Chinese will be transformed into information in English in RIS system and saved as the English information to worklist. Results: After the implementation and integration of PACS and RIS was achieved in my hospital, the consistency of patient information was guaranteed through modality worklist between RIS and imaging equipments and the first-rate effect was acquired. The patient information could be checked, edited, and created by using the Chinese RIS system on all diagnostic workstations. Conclusion: The consistency of patient information through modality worklist was realized among PACS, RIS, and imaging equipments, yet at present, the question of guarantee the consistency of patient information must be thought over in PACS building

  15. Evaluation of 3D modality-independent elastography for breast imaging: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, J J; Ong, R E; Yankeelov, T E; Miga, M I

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and preliminary testing of a three-dimensional implementation of an inverse problem technique for extracting soft-tissue elasticity information via non-rigid model-based image registration. The modality-independent elastography (MIE) algorithm adjusts the elastic properties of a biomechanical model to achieve maximal similarity between images acquired under different states of static loading. A series of simulation experiments with clinical image sets of human breasts were performed to test the ability of the method to identify and characterize a radiographically occult stiff lesion. Because boundary conditions are a critical input to the algorithm, a comparison of three methods for semi-automated surface point correspondence was conducted in the context of systematic and randomized noise processes. The results illustrate that 3D MIE was able to successfully reconstruct elasticity images using data obtained from both magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography systems. The lesion was localized correctly in all cases and its relative elasticity found to be reasonably close to the true values (3.5% with the use of spatial priors and 11.6% without). In addition, the inaccuracies of surface registration performed with thin-plate spline interpolation did not exceed empiric thresholds of unacceptable boundary condition error

  16. Multi-modal imaging, model-based tracking, and mixed reality visualisation for orthopaedic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Bernhard; Tateno, Keisuke; Johnson, Alex; Fotouhi, Javad; Osgood, Greg; Tombari, Federico; Navab, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons are still following the decades old workflow of using dozens of two-dimensional fluoroscopic images to drill through complex 3D structures, e.g. pelvis. This Letter presents a mixed reality support system, which incorporates multi-modal data fusion and model-based surgical tool tracking for creating a mixed reality environment supporting screw placement in orthopaedic surgery. A red–green–blue–depth camera is rigidly attached to a mobile C-arm and is calibrated to the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging space via iterative closest point algorithm. This allows real-time automatic fusion of reconstructed surface and/or 3D point clouds and synthetic fluoroscopic images obtained through CBCT imaging. An adapted 3D model-based tracking algorithm with automatic tool segmentation allows for tracking of the surgical tools occluded by hand. This proposed interactive 3D mixed reality environment provides an intuitive understanding of the surgical site and supports surgeons in quickly localising the entry point and orienting the surgical tool during screw placement. The authors validate the augmentation by measuring target registration error and also evaluate the tracking accuracy in the presence of partial occlusion. PMID:29184659

  17. 18F-FDG PET/CT in paediatric lymphoma: comparison with conventional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Cross, Siobhan; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Onikul, Ella; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In children with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the ability of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET/CT and conventional imaging (CI) to detect malignant lesions and predict poor lesion response to therapy was assessed and compared. A retrospective review of findings reported on PET/CT and CI was performed using a lesion-based analysis of 16 lymph node and 8 extra-nodal regions. Lesions were defined by histopathological findings or follow-up > 6 months. The study included 209 PET/CT scans with a valid CI comparator. A total of 5,014 regions (3,342 lymph node, 1,672 extra-nodal) were analysed. PET/CT performed significantly better than CI in the detection of malignant lesions with sensitivity and specificity of 95.9 and 99.7% compared to 70.1 and 99.0%, respectively. For predicting poor lesion response to therapy, PET/CT had fewer false-positive lesions than CI. The specificity for predicting poor lesion response to treatment for PET/CT was 99.2% compared to 96.9% for CI. PET/CT was the correct modality in 86% of lesions with discordant findings. PET/CT is more accurate than CI in detecting malignant lesions in childhood lymphoma and in predicting poor lesion response to treatment. In lesions with discordant findings, PET/CT results are more likely to be correct. (orig.)

  18. A multi-modality concept for radiotherapy planning with imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.

    1993-01-01

    The reported multi-modality concept of radiotherapy planning in the LAN can be realised in any hospital with standard equipment, although in some cases by way of auxiliary configurations. A software is currently developed as a tool for reducing the entire planning work. The heart of any radiotherapy planning is the therapy simulator, which has to be abreast with the requirements of modern radiotherapy. Integration of tomograpy, digitalisation, and electronic data processing has added important modalities to therapy planning which allow more precise target volume definition, and better biophysical planning. This is what is needed in order to achieve well differentiated radiotherapy for treatment of the manifold tumors, and the quality standards expected by the supervisory quality assurance regime and the population. At present, the CT data still are transferred indirect, on storage media, to the EDP processing system of the radiotherapy planning system. Based on the tomographic slices given by the imaging data, the contours and technical problem solutions are derived automatically, either for multi-field radiotherapy or moving field irradiation, depending on the anatomy or the targets to be protected from ionizing radiation. (orig./VHE) [de

  19. A convergent functional architecture of the insula emerges across imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clare; Toro, Roberto; Di Martino, Adriana; Cox, Christine L; Bellec, Pierre; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2012-07-16

    Empirical evidence increasingly supports the hypothesis that patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) are sculpted by a history of evoked coactivation within distinct neuronal networks. This, together with evidence of strong correspondence among the networks defined by iFC and those delineated using a variety of other neuroimaging techniques, suggests a fundamental brain architecture detectable across multiple functional and structural imaging modalities. Here, we leverage this insight to examine the functional organization of the human insula. We parcellated the insula on the basis of three distinct neuroimaging modalities - task-evoked coactivation, intrinsic (i.e., task-independent) functional connectivity, and gray matter structural covariance. Clustering of these three different covariance-based measures revealed a convergent elemental organization of the insula that likely reflects a fundamental brain architecture governing both brain structure and function at multiple spatial scales. While not constrained to be hierarchical, our parcellation revealed a pseudo-hierarchical, multiscale organization that was consistent with previous clustering and meta-analytic studies of the insula. Finally, meta-analytic examination of the cognitive and behavioral domains associated with each of the insular clusters obtained elucidated the broad functional dissociations likely underlying the topography observed. To facilitate future investigations of insula function across healthy and pathological states, the insular parcels have been made freely available for download via http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org, along with the analytic scripts used to perform the parcellations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasonography assessment of heel entheses in patients with spondyloarthritis: a comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging and conventional radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila Maldonado, Rodrigo; Ruta, Santiago; Valuntas, María Laura; García, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the agreement between ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and conventional radiography (CR) in the detection of findings indicative of enthesopathy in spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. A cross-sectional study was performed in 40 SpA patients. Heel entheses (Achilles tendon and plantar fascia) were bilaterally examined by US, MRI, and CR. The three imaging modalities were carried out by three independent operators blinded to the other imaging modality data. Soft tissue abnormalities indicative of enthesopathy as thickening, structural changes, and bursitis were assessed by both US and MRI, and cortical bone abnormalities indicative of enthesopathy as erosions and enthesophytes were assessed by the three imaging modalities. The unweighted kappa values between US and MRI were 0.80, 0.66, 0.69, 0.70, and 0.70 for thickening, structural changes, bursitis, enthesophytes, and bone erosions, respectively. With respect to the detection of enthesophytes, the unweighted kappa values between CR and both US and MRI were 0.78 and 0.76, respectively. At last, for the recognition of bone erosions, the unweighted kappa values between CR and both US and MRI were 0.38 and 0.45, respectively. Using MRI as standard reference method, US was more sensitive with respect to CR revealing bone erosions. The present study provides evidence about the high overall agreement between US and MRI for all abnormal comparable findings at entheseal level and between US, MRI, and CR for the detection of enthesophytes in SpA patients.

  1. Antibiofouling polymer coated gold nanoparticles as a dual modal contrast agent for X-ray and photoacoustic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guojia Huang; Yi Yuan; Xing Da

    2011-01-01

    X-ray is one of the most useful diagnostic tools in hospitals in terms of frequency of use and cost, while photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a rapidly emerging non-invasive imaging technology that integrates the merits of high optical contrast with high ultrasound resolution. In this study, for the first time, we used gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a dual modal contrast agent for X-ray and PA imaging. Soft gelatin phantoms with embedded tumor simulators of GNPs in various concentrations are clearly shown in both X-ray and PA imaging. With GNPs as a dual modal contrast agent, X-ray can fast detect the position of tumor and provide morphological information, whereas PA imaging has important potential applications in the image guided therapy of superficial tumors such as breast cancer, melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma.

  2. SU-E-I-53: Variation in Measurements of Breast Skin Thickness Obtained Using Different Imaging Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, U; Kumaraswamy, N; Markey, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate variation in measurements of breast skin thickness obtained using different imaging modalities, including mammography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Breast skin thicknesses as measured by mammography, CT, ultrasound, and MRI were compared. Mammographic measurements of skin thickness were obtained from published studies that utilized standard positioning (upright) and compression. CT measurements of skin thickness were obtained from a published study of a prototype breast CT scanner in which the women were in the prone position and the breast was uncompressed. Dermatological ultrasound exams of the breast skin were conducted at our institution, with the subjects in the upright position and the breast uncompressed. Breast skin thickness was calculated from breast MRI exams at our institution, with the patient in the prone position and the breast uncompressed. Results: T tests for independent samples demonstrated significant differences in the mean breast skin thickness as measured by different imaging modalities. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in breast skin thickness across different quadrants of the breast for some modalities. Conclusion: The measurement of breast skin thickness is significantly different across different imaging modalities. Differences in the amount of compression and differences in patient positioning are possible reasons why measurements of breast skin thickness vary by modality

  3. Dual-Modal Nanoprobes for Imaging of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplant by MRI and Fluorescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chang Kyu; Hong, Kyung Ah; Lin, Shun Mei

    2009-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of labeling human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with bifunctional nanoparticles and assessing their potential as imaging probes in the monitoring of hMSC transplantation. The T1 and T2 relaxivities of the nanoparticles (MNP SiO 2 [RITC]-PEG) were measured at 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance scanner. Using hMSCs and the nanoparticles, labeling efficiency, toxicity, and proliferation were assessed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to specify the intracellular localization of the endocytosed iron nanoparticles. We also observed in vitro and in vivo visualization of the labeled hMSCs with a 3T MR scanner and optical imaging. MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG showed both superparamagnetic and fluorescent properties. The r 1 and r 2 relaxivity values of the MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG were 0.33 and 398 mM -1 s -1 at 1.5T, respectively, and 0.29 and 453 mM -1 s -1 at 3T, respectively. The effective internalization of MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG into hMSCs was observed by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. The transmission electron microscopy images showed that MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG was internalized into the cells and mainly resided in the cytoplasm. The viability and proliferation of MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG-labeled hMSCs were not significantly different from the control cells. MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG-labeled hMSCs were observed in vitro and in vivo with optical and MR imaging. MNP SiO 2 (RITC)-PEG can be a useful contrast agent for stem cell imaging, which is suitable for a bimodal detection by MRI and optical imaging

  4. Intraoperative Imaging Modalities and Compensation for Brain Shift in Tumor Resection Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative brain shift during neurosurgical procedures is a well-known phenomenon caused by gravity, tissue manipulation, tumor size, loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and use of medication. For the use of image-guided systems, this phenomenon greatly affects the accuracy of the guidance. During the last several decades, researchers have investigated how to overcome this problem. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of publications concerning different aspects of intraoperative brain shift especially in a tumor resection surgery such as intraoperative imaging systems, quantification, measurement, modeling, and registration techniques. Clinical experience of using intraoperative imaging modalities, details about registration, and modeling methods in connection with brain shift in tumor resection surgery are the focuses of this review. In total, 126 papers regarding this topic are analyzed in a comprehensive summary and are categorized according to fourteen criteria. The result of the categorization is presented in an interactive web tool. The consequences from the categorization and trends in the future are discussed at the end of this work.

  5. A novel treatment modality in patients with premature ejaculation resistant to conventional methods: the neuromodulation of dorsal penile nerves by pulsed radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal, Seref; Goktas, Serdar; Ergin, Atilla; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Atim, Abdulkadir; Tahmaz, Lutfi; Dayanc, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual problem experienced by men, and it affects 20%-30% of them. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation has been shown to be an effective treatment for a wide range of pain conditions. We used PRF to treat PE by desensitizing dorsal penile nerves in patients resistant to conventional treatments. Fifteen patients with a lifelong history of PE, defined as an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of IELT and sexual satisfaction score (SSS; for patients and their partners) were obtained. The mean IELTs before and 3 weeks after procedure were 18.5 +/- 17.9 and 139.9 +/- 55.1 seconds, respectively. Side effects did not occur. Mean SSSs of patients before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.5, and mean SSSs of partners before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 4.4 +/- 0.5, respectively. In all cases, IELT and SSS were significantly increased (P < .05). None of the patients or their wives reported any treatment failure during the follow-up period. The mean follow-up time was 8.3 +/- 1.9 months. It is early to conclude that this new treatment modality might be used widely for the treatment of PE; however, because it is an innovative modality, placebo-controlled studies (eg, sham procedure), with larger numbers of patients and including assessment of penile sensitivity (eg, biothesiometry), are needed.

  6. Multi-modal and targeted imaging improves automated mid-brain segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; D'Haese, Pierre F.; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Newton, Allen T.; Claassen, Daniel O.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-02-01

    The basal ganglia and limbic system, particularly the thalamus, putamen, internal and external globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and sub-thalamic nucleus, comprise a clinically relevant signal network for Parkinson's disease. In order to manually trace these structures, a combination of high-resolution and specialized sequences at 7T are used, but it is not feasible to scan clinical patients in those scanners. Targeted imaging sequences at 3T such as F-GATIR, and other optimized inversion recovery sequences, have been presented which enhance contrast in a select group of these structures. In this work, we show that a series of atlases generated at 7T can be used to accurately segment these structures at 3T using a combination of standard and optimized imaging sequences, though no one approach provided the best result across all structures. In the thalamus and putamen, a median Dice coefficient over 0.88 and a mean surface distance less than 1.0mm was achieved using a combination of T1 and an optimized inversion recovery imaging sequences. In the internal and external globus pallidus a Dice over 0.75 and a mean surface distance less than 1.2mm was achieved using a combination of T1 and FGATIR imaging sequences. In the substantia nigra and sub-thalamic nucleus a Dice coefficient of over 0.6 and a mean surface distance of less than 1.0mm was achieved using the optimized inversion recovery imaging sequence. On average, using T1 and optimized inversion recovery together produced significantly improved segmentation results than any individual modality (p<0.05 wilcox sign-rank test).

  7. A preliminary diffusional kurtosis imaging study of Parkinson disease: comparison with conventional diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamagata, Koji; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Yoshida, Mariko; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Taku; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Osamu [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Shimoji, Keigo [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a more sensitive technique than conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessing tissue microstructure. In particular, it quantifies the microstructural integrity of white matter, even in the presence of crossing fibers. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare how DKI and DTI show white matter alterations in Parkinson disease (PD). DKI scans were obtained with a 3-T magnetic resonance imager from 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy controls matched by age and sex. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare the mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of the PD patient group and the control group. In addition, a region-of-interest analysis was performed for the area of the posterior corona radiata and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber crossing. FA values in the frontal white matter were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls. Reductions in MK occurred more extensively throughout the brain: in addition to frontal white matter, MK was lower in the parietal, occipital, and right temporal white matter. The MK value of the area of the posterior corona radiata and SLF fiber crossing was also lower in the PD group. DKI detects changes in the cerebral white matter of PD patients more sensitively than conventional DTI. In addition, DKI is useful for evaluating crossing fibers. By providing a sensitive index of brain pathology in PD, DKI may enable improved monitoring of disease progression. (orig.)

  8. Use of the functional imaging modalities, f MRI r CBV and PET FDG, alters radiation therapy 3-D treatment planning in patients with malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzek, M.; Pardo, F.S.; Busierre, M.; Lev, M.; Fischman, A.; Denny, N.; Hanser, B.; Rosen, B.R.; Smith, A.; Aronen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Background: Malignant gliomas present one of the most difficult challenges to definitive radiation therapy, not only with respect to local control, but also with respect to clinical functional status. While tumor target volume definitions for malignant gliomas are often based on CT and conventional MRI, the functional imaging modalities, echo planar r CBV (regional cerebral blood volume mapping) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, are more sensitive modalities for the detection of neovascularization, perhaps one of the earliest signs of glial tumor initiation and progression. Methods: In order to address the clinical utility of functional imaging in radiation therapy 3-D treatment planning, we compared tumor target volume definitions and overall dosimetry in patients either undergoing co-registration of conventional Gadolinium-enhanced MRI, or co-registration of functional imaging modalities, prior to radiation therapy 3-D treatment planning. Fourteen patients were planned using 3-D radiation therapy treatment planning, either with or without inclusion of data on functional imaging. All patients received proton beam, as well as megavoltage x-ray radiation therapy, with the ratio of photon:proton optimized to the individual clinical case at hand. Both PET FDG and f MRI scans were obtained postoperatively pre-radiation, during radiation therapy, one month following completion of radiation therapy, and at three month follow-up intervals. Dose volume histograms were constructed in order to assess dose optimization, not only with respect to tumor, but also with respect to normal tissue tolerance (e.g., motor strip, dominant speech area, brainstem, optic nerves). Results: In 5 of 14 cases, functional imaging modalities, as compared with conventional MRI and CT, contributed additional information that was useful in radiation therapy treatment planning. In general, both fMRI rCBV and PET FDG uptake decreased during the course of radiation therapy. In 1 patient, however, fMRI r

  9. A novel 3D volumetric voxel registration technique for volume-view-guided image registration of multiple imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guang; Xie Huchen; Ning, Holly; Capala, Jacek; Arora, Barbara C.; Coleman, C. Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide more clinically useful image registration with improved accuracy and reduced time, a novel technique of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric voxel registration of multimodality images is developed. Methods and Materials: This technique can register up to four concurrent images from multimodalities with volume view guidance. Various visualization effects can be applied, facilitating global and internal voxel registration. Fourteen computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MR) image sets and two computed tomography/positron emission tomography (CT/PET) image sets are used. For comparison, an automatic registration technique using maximization of mutual information (MMI) and a three-orthogonal-planar (3P) registration technique are used. Results: Visually sensitive registration criteria for CT/MR and CT/PET have been established, including the homogeneity of color distribution. Based on the registration results of 14 CT/MR images, the 3D voxel technique is in excellent agreement with the automatic MMI technique and is indicatory of a global positioning error (defined as the means and standard deviations of the error distribution) using the 3P pixel technique: 1.8 deg ± 1.2 deg in rotation and 2.0 ± 1.3 (voxel unit) in translation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such positioning error has been addressed. Conclusion: This novel 3D voxel technique establishes volume-view-guided image registration of up to four modalities. It improves registration accuracy with reduced time, compared with the 3P pixel technique. This article suggests that any interactive and automatic registration should be safeguarded using the 3D voxel technique

  10. Meniscal tears: comparison of half-Fourier technique and conventional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabana, Wael; Maeseneer, Michel de; Machiels, Freddy; Ridder, Filip de; Osteaux, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether half-Fourier MR image acquisition technique can provide similar information to that of conventional MR acquisition technique for evaluation of meniscal tears. Materials and methods: We studied 101 menisci in 52 patients who were referred for evaluation of meniscal tears. Sagittal MR images of the knee were obtained for all patients by using proton density and T2-weighted SE sequences on a 1-T clinical system. The half-Fourier technique and conventional technique were used for all patients. All other imaging parameters were identical for both sequences (TR/TE=2400/20,70; 3 mm slice thickness; 200x256 matrix; field of view, 200; one signal acquired). Both sets of images were filmed with standard window and level settings. Images were randomised and interpreted independently by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Images were also subjectively assessed for image quality using a five-point grading scale. Results: On half-Fourier images, Reader 1 interpreted 23 menisci as torn, compared to 28 for Reader 2. On conventional images, Reader 1 interpreted 24 menisci as torn, compared to 26 for Reader 2. Agreement between interpretation of the conventional and that of the half-Fourier images was 99% for Reader 1, and 98% for Reader 2. Agreement between readers for the half-Fourier images was 95%, and for the conventional images 96%. No statistically significant difference was found in the subjective evaluation of image quality between the conventional and half-Fourier images. Conclusion: The half-Fourier acquisition technique compares favourably with the conventional technique for the evaluation of meniscal tears

  11. NON-CONVENTIONAL PET NUCLIDES: PRODUCTION AND IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical cyclotrons are now commonly used for the production of PET nuclides by the (pn) reaction. These devices are typically capable of delivering 10-15 MeV protons beams at sufficiently high intensity for timely production of β+ decaying nuclides. Non-conventional PET nuclides have emerged recently and offers new opportunities for diagnostic and therapy drug discovery. In this paper, we will review the production capabilities for such nuclides at Washington University Medical Schoo...

  12. vECTlab-A fully integrated multi-modality Monte Carlo simulation framework for the radiological imaging sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Joerg; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2007-01-01

    Alongside and in part motivated by recent advances in molecular diagnostics, the development of dual-modality instruments for patient and dedicated small animal imaging has gained attention by diverse research groups. The desire for such systems is high not only to link molecular or functional information with the anatomical structures, but also for detecting multiple molecular events simultaneously at shorter total acquisition times. While PET and SPECT have been integrated successfully with X-ray CT, the advance of optical imaging approaches (OT) and the integration thereof into existing modalities carry a high application potential, particularly for imaging small animals. A multi-modality Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach at present has been developed that is able to trace high-energy (keV) as well as optical (eV) photons concurrently within identical phantom representation models. We show that the involved two approaches for ray-tracing keV and eV photons can be integrated into a unique simulation framework which enables both photon classes to be propagated through various geometry models representing both phantoms and scanners. The main advantage of such integrated framework for our specific application is the investigation of novel tomographic multi-modality instrumentation intended for in vivo small animal imaging through time-resolved MC simulation upon identical phantom geometries. Design examples are provided for recently proposed SPECT-OT and PET-OT imaging systems

  13. Comparison of 3D computer-aided with manual cerebral aneurysm measurements in different imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.; Buhk, J.H.; Schoenfeld, M.; Goebell, E.; Fiehler, J.; Forkert, N.D.

    2013-01-01

    To compare intra- and inter-observer reliability of aneurysm measurements obtained by a 3D computer-aided technique with standard manual aneurysm measurements in different imaging modalities. A total of 21 patients with 29 cerebral aneurysms were studied. All patients underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA), contrast-enhanced (CE-MRA) and time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA). Aneurysm neck and depth diameters were manually measured by two observers in each modality. Additionally, semi-automatic computer-aided diameter measurements were performed using 3D vessel surface models derived from CE- (CE-com) and TOF-MRA (TOF-com) datasets. Bland-Altman analysis (BA) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate intra- and inter-observer agreement. BA revealed the narrowest relative limits of intra- and inter-observer agreement for aneurysm neck and depth diameters obtained by TOF-com (ranging between ±5.3 % and ±28.3 %) and CE-com (ranging between ±23.3 % and ±38.1 %). Direct measurements in DSA, TOF-MRA and CE-MRA showed considerably wider limits of agreement. The highest ICCs were observed for TOF-com and CE-com (ICC values, 0.92 or higher for intra- as well as inter-observer reliability). Computer-aided aneurysm measurement in 3D offers improved intra- and inter-observer reliability and a reproducible parameter extraction, which may be used in clinical routine and as objective surrogate end-points in clinical trials. (orig.)

  14. Contrast-enhanced [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Avani; Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Pawaskar, Alok Suresh; Shelley, Simon; Elangovan, Indirani; Jain, Hasmukh; Pandey, Somnath; Kalal, Shilpa; Amalachandran, Jaykanth

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the advantages of contrast enhanced F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-contrast enhanced CT [CECT]) when used as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin (MUO). A total of 243 patients with fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy proven MUO were included in this prospective study. Patients who were thoroughly evaluated for primary or primary tumor was detected by any other investigation were excluded from the analysis. Totally, 163 patients with pathological diagnosis of malignancy but no apparent sites of the primary tumor were finally selected for analysis. The site of probable primary malignancy suggested by PET-CECT was confirmed by biopsy/follow-up. PET-CECT suggested probable site of primary in 128/163 (78.52%) patients. In 30/35 remaining patients, primary tumor was not detected even after extensive work-up. In 5 patients, where PET-CECT was negative, primary was found on further extensive investigations or follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the study were 95.76%, 66.67%, 88.28% and 85.71% respectively. F-18 FDG PET-CECT aptly serves the purpose of initial imaging modality owing to high sensitivity, negative and positive predictive value. PET-CECT not only surveys the whole body for the primary malignancy but also stages the disease accurately. Use of contrast improves the diagnostic utility of modality as well as help in staging of the primary tumor. Although benefits of using PET-CECT as initial diagnostic modality are obvious from this study, there is a need for a larger study comparing conventional methods for diagnosing primary in patients with MUO versus PET-CECT

  15. Contrast-enhanced [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Avani; Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Pawaskar, Alok Suresh; Shelley, Simon; Elangovan, Indirani; Jain, Hasmukh; Pandey, Somnath; Kalal, Shilpa; Amalachandran, Jaykanth

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the advantages of contrast enhanced F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-contrast enhanced CT [CECT]) when used as an initial imaging modality in patients presenting with metastatic malignancy of undefined primary origin (MUO). A total of 243 patients with fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy proven MUO were included in this prospective study. Patients who were thoroughly evaluated for primary or primary tumor was detected by any other investigation were excluded from the analysis. Totally, 163 patients with pathological diagnosis of malignancy but no apparent sites of the primary tumor were finally selected for analysis. The site of probable primary malignancy suggested by PET-CECT was confirmed by biopsy/follow-up. PET-CECT suggested probable site of primary in 128/163 (78.52%) patients. In 30/35 remaining patients, primary tumor was not detected even after extensive work-up. In 5 patients, where PET-CECT was negative, primary was found on further extensive investigations or follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the study were 95.76%, 66.67%, 88.28% and 85.71% respectively. F-18 FDG PET-CECT aptly serves the purpose of initial imaging modality owing to high sensitivity, negative and positive predictive value. PET-CECT not only surveys the whole body for the primary malignancy but also stages the disease accurately. Use of contrast improves the diagnostic utility of modality as well as help in staging of the primary tumor. Although benefits of using PET-CECT as initial diagnostic modality are obvious from this study, there is a need for a larger study comparing conventional methods for diagnosing primary in patients with MUO versus PET-CECT.

  16. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P oral nutrition group (P oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal surgery. Registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004395 . Registered 15 March 2014.

  17. Comparison of peritoneal tumor imaging using conventional MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging with different b values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, Mahmut [Buhara Private Hospital Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Doganay, Selim [Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Kantarci, Mecit, E-mail: akkanrad@hotmail.com [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Yalcin, Ahmet; Eren, Suat [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Atamanalp, S. Selcuk [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Erzurum (Turkey); Yuce, Ihsan [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Yildirgan, M. Ilhan [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of DW MRI with two different b values in identifying peritoneal tumors in oncology patients. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients with known malignancy underwent abdominal and pelvic MRI before surgery. MRI included free-breathing DWI with b values of 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}, T1-weighted fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo, T2-weighted fat-saturated turbo spin-echo, and 5-min delayed gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Two observers reviewed images for peritoneal tumors at ten anatomic sites within consensus. The results of laparatomy and histopathological evaluation were compared with MRI results. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of identifying peritoneal metastases were calculated for conventional MRI, combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI, and combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI by consensus of two observers. Results: One-hundred and twenty-five peritoneal metastasis sites were confirmed by surgical and histopathological findings. Conventional MRI alone identified 72 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.58; specificity, 0.87; accuracy, 0.67). Combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI revealed 106 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.88; accuracy, 0.85). Finally, combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI revealed 103 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.83; specificity, 0.94; accuracy, 0.86). Conclusion: DWI with a high b value provides complementary information that can improve the detection of peritoneal tumors when combined with conventional MRI. We recommend combined MRI and DWI with a high b value for increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of the preoperative detection of peritoneal tumors.

  18. Comparison of peritoneal tumor imaging using conventional MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging with different b values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Mahmut; Doganay, Selim; Kantarci, Mecit; Yalcin, Ahmet; Eren, Suat; Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Yuce, Ihsan; Yildirgan, M. Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of DW MRI with two different b values in identifying peritoneal tumors in oncology patients. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients with known malignancy underwent abdominal and pelvic MRI before surgery. MRI included free-breathing DWI with b values of 400 and 800 s/mm 2 , T1-weighted fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo, T2-weighted fat-saturated turbo spin-echo, and 5-min delayed gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Two observers reviewed images for peritoneal tumors at ten anatomic sites within consensus. The results of laparatomy and histopathological evaluation were compared with MRI results. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of identifying peritoneal metastases were calculated for conventional MRI, combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI, and combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI by consensus of two observers. Results: One-hundred and twenty-five peritoneal metastasis sites were confirmed by surgical and histopathological findings. Conventional MRI alone identified 72 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.58; specificity, 0.87; accuracy, 0.67). Combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI revealed 106 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.88; accuracy, 0.85). Finally, combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI revealed 103 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.83; specificity, 0.94; accuracy, 0.86). Conclusion: DWI with a high b value provides complementary information that can improve the detection of peritoneal tumors when combined with conventional MRI. We recommend combined MRI and DWI with a high b value for increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of the preoperative detection of peritoneal tumors.

  19. Enhanced Visualization of Subtle Outer Retinal Pathology by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation with Multi-Modal Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta M Sampson

    Full Text Available To present en face optical coherence tomography (OCT images generated by graph-search theory algorithm-based custom software and examine correlation with other imaging modalities.En face OCT images derived from high density OCT volumetric scans of 3 healthy subjects and 4 patients using a custom algorithm (graph-search theory and commercial software (Heidelberg Eye Explorer software (Heidelberg Engineering were compared and correlated with near infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO and microperimetry.Commercial software was unable to generate accurate en face OCT images in eyes with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE pathology due to segmentation error at the level of Bruch's membrane (BM. Accurate segmentation of the basal RPE and BM was achieved using custom software. The en face OCT images from eyes with isolated interdigitation or ellipsoid zone pathology were of similar quality between custom software and Heidelberg Eye Explorer software in the absence of any other significant outer retinal pathology. En face OCT images demonstrated angioid streaks, lesions of acute macular neuroretinopathy, hydroxychloroquine toxicity and Bietti crystalline deposits that correlated with other imaging modalities.Graph-search theory algorithm helps to overcome the limitations of outer retinal segmentation inaccuracies in commercial software. En face OCT images can provide detailed topography of the reflectivity within a specific layer of the retina which correlates with other forms of fundus imaging. Our results highlight the need for standardization of image reflectivity to facilitate quantification of en face OCT images and longitudinal analysis.

  20. Selection of optimal pulse sequences for conventional and dynamic MR imaging with Gd-DTPA; A fundamental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Miho; Kita, Keisuke; Maeda, Masayuki (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)) (and others)

    1989-11-01

    Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhances contrast between tissues in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The enhancement of tissues depends partly upon the pulse sequences, and the optimal pulse sequence is also influenced by the tissue cncentration of Gd-DTPA. We prepared phantoms of 25% albumin solutions with various concentrations of Gd-DTPA, and imaged them using various pulse sequences with 1.5-T MR system. We also performed MR imaging of 16 patients with tumors (10 brain tumors and 6 hepatic tumors) before and after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg); 6 patients with hepatic tumors underwent dynamic MR imaging during suspended respiration. We made a theoretical equation to calculate the concentration of Gd-DTPA and estimated its tissue concentration in tumors at 0{approx}0.2 mmol/kg. Within these tissue concentrations, the enhancement-to-noise (E/N) ratio was larger in FISP (flip angle of 90deg, TR pf 300 msec, minimal TE) and SE (TR of 400 msec, minimal TE) sequences than in other sequences observed. These sequences may be preferable for conventional enhanced-MRI. Among the pulse sequences with TR of less than 100 msec, FISP (flip angle of 90deg, TR of less than 100 msec, minimal TE) had the largest E/N ratio; which may be useful for dynamic MRI during suspended respiration. The importance of selecting the optimal pulse sequences according to the imaging modality used will be discussed. (author).

  1. Fluorescence cell imaging and manipulation using conventional halogen lamp microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamagata

    Full Text Available Technologies for vitally labeling cells with fluorescent dyes have advanced remarkably. However, to excite fluorescent dyes currently requires powerful illumination, which can cause phototoxic damage to the cells and increases the cost of microscopy. We have developed a filter system to excite fluorescent dyes using a conventional transmission microscope equipped with a halogen lamp. This method allows us to observe previously invisible cell organelles, such as the metaphase spindle of oocytes, without causing phototoxicity. Cells remain healthy even after intensive manipulation under fluorescence observation, such as during bovine, porcine and mouse somatic cell cloning using nuclear transfer. This method does not require expensive epifluorescence equipment and so could help to reduce the science gap between developed and developing countries.

  2. Imaging of the digital arteries: Digital subtraction angiography versus conventional angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, B.P.; Treutenaere, J.M.; Marcus, C.; Ladam, V.; Gausserand, F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and conventional angiography of the hand. Of the 95 patients in the study group, 80 underwent conventional angiography and 15 underwent DSA. They analyzed the studies with regard to the type and amount of contrast agent used, the number of radiographs needed, and the diagnostic quality of the images. Conventional angiography often requires general anesthesia, magnification, and pharmaco-angiographic techniques to improve the image-based diagnosis. In comparison with conventional angiography, intraarterial DSA is characterized by improved contrast sensitivity and inferior spatial resolution. However, DSA provides images as acceptable as those of conventional angiography. Smaller catheters can be used, and the examination is performed under local anesthesia. The authors conclude that intraarterial DSA is now the technique of choice for examining patients with chronic ischemia of the hand

  3. Research progress of functional magnetic resonance imaging in cross-modal activation of visual cortex during tactile perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Jie; Gong Honghan

    2013-01-01

    An increasing amount of neuroimaging studies recently demonstrated activation of visual cortex in both blind and sighted participants when performing a variety of tactile tasks such as Braille reading and tactile object recognition, which indicates that visual cortex not only receives visual information, but may participate in tactile perception. To address these cross-modal changes of visual cortex and the neurophysiological mechanisms, many researchers conducted explosive studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and have made some achievements. This review focuses on cross-modal activation of visual cortex and the underlying mechanisms during tactile perception in both blind and sighted individuals. (authors)

  4. Role of Artificial Intelligence Techniques (Automatic Classifiers) in Molecular Imaging Modalities in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascianelli, Silvia; Scialpi, Michele; Amici, Serena; Forini, Nevio; Minestrini, Matteo; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Sinzinger, Helmut; Schillaci, Orazio; Palumbo, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a very active Computer Science research field aiming to develop systems that mimic human intelligence and is helpful in many human activities, including Medicine. In this review we presented some examples of the exploiting of AI techniques, in particular automatic classifiers such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Classification Tree (ClT) and ensemble methods like Random Forest (RF), able to analyze findings obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) scans of patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases, in particular Alzheimer's Disease. We also focused our attention on techniques applied in order to preprocess data and reduce their dimensionality via feature selection or projection in a more representative domain (Principal Component Analysis - PCA - or Partial Least Squares - PLS - are examples of such methods); this is a crucial step while dealing with medical data, since it is necessary to compress patient information and retain only the most useful in order to discriminate subjects into normal and pathological classes. Main literature papers on the application of these techniques to classify patients with neurodegenerative disease extracting data from molecular imaging modalities are reported, showing that the increasing development of computer aided diagnosis systems is very promising to contribute to the diagnostic process.

  5. Machine learning techniques for breast cancer computer aided diagnosis using different image modalities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Nisreen I R; Omran, Shaimaa; El Houby, Enas M F; Allam, Hemat

    2018-03-01

    The high incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in the recent years. Physician experience of diagnosing and detecting breast cancer can be assisted by using some computerized features extraction and classification algorithms. This paper presents the conduction and results of a systematic review (SR) that aims to investigate the state of the art regarding the computer aided diagnosis/detection (CAD) systems for breast cancer. The SR was conducted using a comprehensive selection of scientific databases as reference sources, allowing access to diverse publications in the field. The scientific databases used are Springer Link (SL), Science Direct (SD), IEEE Xplore Digital Library, and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and applied to each retrieved work to select those of interest. From 320 studies retrieved, 154 studies were included. However, the scope of this research is limited to scientific and academic works and excludes commercial interests. This survey provides a general analysis of the current status of CAD systems according to the used image modalities and the machine learning based classifiers. Potential research studies have been discussed to create a more objective and efficient CAD systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Feature-Fusion Guidelines for Image-Based Multi-Modal Biometric Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Brown

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The feature level, unlike the match score level, lacks multi-modal fusion guidelines. This work demonstrates a new approach for improved image-based biometric feature-fusion. The approach extracts and combines the face, fingerprint and palmprint at the feature level for improved human identification accuracy. Feature-fusion guidelines, proposed in our recent work, are extended by adding a new face segmentation method and the support vector machine classifier. The new face segmentation method improves the face identification equal error rate (EER by 10%. The support vector machine classifier combined with the new feature selection approach, proposed in our recent work, outperforms other classifiers when using a single training sample. Feature-fusion guidelines take the form of strengths and weaknesses as observed in the applied feature processing modules during preliminary experiments. The guidelines are used to implement an effective biometric fusion system at the feature level, using a novel feature-fusion methodology, reducing the EER of two groups of three datasets namely: SDUMLA face, SDUMLA fingerprint and IITD palmprint; MUCT Face, MCYT Fingerprint and CASIA Palmprint.

  7. Diagnostic ability of differential diagnosis in ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst by imaging modalities and observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Tae In; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Moon, Je Woon; Choi, Soon Chul

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability in differentiating between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst according to the imaging modalities and observes. We evaluated thirty-six cases of ameloblastomas and forty-seven cases of odontogenic keratocysts all histologically confirmed. Six oral and maxillofacial radiologists diagnosed the lesions by 3 methods: using panoramic radiograph, using computed tomograph (CT), and using panoramic radiograph and CT. The observers were classified by 3 groups: group 1 had experienced over 10 years in oral and mazilofacial radiologic field, group 2 had experienced for 3-4 years, and group 3 was in the process of residentship. After over 2 weeks, the observers diagnosed them by the same methods. The ROC curve areas except for group 3 were the highest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph and CT, followed by interpretation using CT only, and the lowest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph only. The overall difference was not found in diagnostic ability among groups in using panoramic radiograph only, but there was difference in diagnostic ability of group 1 and 2 vs 3 in using CT only, and combination panoramic radiograph and CT. To differentiate between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst more accurately, the experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologist should diagnose with combination of panoramic radiograph and CT

  8. Diagnostic ability of differential diagnosis in ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst by imaging modalities and observers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Tae In; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Moon, Je Woon; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability in differentiating between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst according to the imaging modalities and observes. We evaluated thirty-six cases of ameloblastomas and forty-seven cases of odontogenic keratocysts all histologically confirmed. Six oral and maxillofacial radiologists diagnosed the lesions by 3 methods: using panoramic radiograph, using computed tomograph (CT), and using panoramic radiograph and CT. The observers were classified by 3 groups: group 1 had experienced over 10 years in oral and mazilofacial radiologic field, group 2 had experienced for 3-4 years, and group 3 was in the process of residentship. After over 2 weeks, the observers diagnosed them by the same methods. The ROC curve areas except for group 3 were the highest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph and CT, followed by interpretation using CT only, and the lowest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph only. The overall difference was not found in diagnostic ability among groups in using panoramic radiograph only, but there was difference in diagnostic ability of group 1 and 2 vs 3 in using CT only, and combination panoramic radiograph and CT. To differentiate between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst more accurately, the experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologist should diagnose with combination of panoramic radiograph and CT.

  9. Application of multi-modality image coregistration in paediatric prosthetic endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, T.; Chung, D.K.; Howman-Giles, R.; Lau, Y.H.; University of Technology, Sydney, NSW

    2003-01-01

    This is a case where coregistration of Gallium and chest CT scans provided important clinical information which had a significant impact on management decisions. A 13-year-old girl from Noumea was transferred to our hospital for further management of S.haemolyticus bacteraemia. She had a history of complex congenital heart disease, requiring several cardiac surgical procedures. Seven months earlier she had a patch repair of the ventricular septum and formation of a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. On admission she was generally unwell and had hemoptysis. She had fever to 39.9 deg C, oximetry of 83 per cent on room air, finger clubbing and a cardiac murmur. Chest X-ray and CT scans showed widespread pulmonary consolidation with bilateral pleural effusions. An echocardiogram showed no evidence of endocarditis. The crucial diagnostic dilemma was whether she had pneumonia or prosthetic endocarditis: the latter was more ominous and entailed high risk surgery. A Gallium whole body scan with chest SPECT showed focal localisation in the right mid chest. However, its location could not be confidently defined. A specifically developed computer program was used to co-register the Gallium SPECT and chest CT scans. The co-registered images conclusively localised the Gallium scan lesion to the prosthetic pulmonary outflow conduit, consistent with endocarditis. This triggered referral for cardiac MRI, which confirmed the diagnosis. In summary co-registration allowed precise structural localisation of focal Gallium uptake in the prosthetic pulmonary outflow conduit, with profound impact on the patient's diagnosis and subsequent management. This is an example of the potential benefits of co-registering structural and functional imaging modalities. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  10. Optimising the measurement of bruises in children across conventional and cross polarized images using segmentation analysis techniques in Image J, Photoshop and circle diameter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C; Alcock, A; Trefan, L; Nuttall, D; Evans, S T; Maguire, S; Kemp, A M

    2018-02-01

    Bruising is a common abusive injury in children, and it is standard practice to image and measure them, yet there is no current standard for measuring bruise size consistently. We aim to identify the optimal method of measuring photographic images of bruises, including computerised measurement techniques. 24 children aged Photoshop 'ruler' software (Photoshop diameter)). Inter and intra-observer effects were determined by two individuals repeating 11 electronic measurements, and relevant Intraclass Correlation Coefficient's (ICC's) were used to establish reliability. Spearman's rank correlation was used to compare in vivo with computerised measurements; a comparison of measurement techniques across imaging modalities was conducted using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Significance was set at p 0.5 for all techniques, with maximum Feret diameter and maximum Photoshop diameter on conventional images having the strongest correlation with in vivo measurements. There were significant differences between in vivo and computer-aided measurements, but none between different computer-aided measurement techniques. Overall, computer aided measurements appeared larger than in vivo. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was high for all maximum diameter measurements (ICC's > 0.7). Whilst there are minimal differences between measurements of images obtained, the most consistent results were obtained when conventional images, segmented by Image J Software, were measured with a Feret diameter. This is therefore proposed as a standard for future research, and forensic practice, with the proviso that all computer aided measurements appear larger than in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using brain perfusion SPECT and MR imaging: which modality achieves better diagnostic accuracy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takao; Ushijima, Yo; Yamada, Kei; Okuyama, Chio; Kizu, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of MR imaging and brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The transaxial section display of brain perfusion SPECT, three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) SPECT image sets, thin-section MR imaging of the hippocampus and perfusion MR imaging were evaluated in 66 subjects comprising 35 AD patients and 31 subjects without AD. SPECT and MR imaging were visually interpreted by two experts and two novices, and the diagnostic ability of each modality was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the experts' interpretations, there was no significant difference in the area under the ROC curve (A z ) between 3D-SSP and thin-section MR imaging, whereas the A z of transaxial SPECT display was significantly lower than that of 3D-SSP (3D-SSP: 0.97, thin-section MR imaging: 0.96, transaxial SPECT: 0.91), and the A z of perfusion MR imaging was lowest (0.63). The sensitivity and specificity of each modality were, respectively, 80.0% and 96.8% for 3D-SSP, 77.1% and 96.8% for thin-section MR imaging, 60.0% and 93.5% for transaxial SPECT display and 34.3% and 100% for perfusion MR imaging. In the novices' interpretations, the A z , sensitivity and specificity of 3D-SSP were superior to those of thin-section MR imaging. Thin-section hippocampal MR imaging and 3D-SSP image sets had potentially equivalent value for the diagnosis of AD, and they were superior to transaxial SPECT display and perfusion MR imaging. For avoidance of the effect of interpreters' experience on image evaluation, 3D-SSP appears to be optimal. (orig.)

  12. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one's peers, the current study aimed to determine whether the relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction would be stronger for those exposed to social media images, compared to conventional media images. A sample of 193 female first year university students were randomly allocated to view a series of either Facebook or conventional media thin-ideal images. Participants completed questionnaires assessing pre- and post- image exposure measures of thin-ideal internalisation, appearance comparison, self-esteem, Facebook use and eating disorder risk. Type of exposure was not found to moderate the relationship between appearance comparison and changes in body image dissatisfaction. When analysed according to exposure type, appearance comparison only significantly predicted body image dissatisfaction change for those exposed to Facebook, but not conventional media. Facebook use was found to predict higher baseline body image dissatisfaction and was associated with higher eating disorder risk. The findings suggest the importance of extending the body image dissatisfaction literature by taking into account emerging social media formats. It is recommended that interventions for body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders consider appearance comparison processes elicited by thin-ideal content on social media forums, such as Facebook, in addition to conventional media.

  13. Methylene blue microbubbles as a model dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound and activatable photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Song, Wentao; Huynh, Elizabeth; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jeesu; Helfield, Brandon L.; Leung, Ben Y. C.; Goertz, David E.; Zheng, Gang; Oh, Jungtaek; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging are highly complementary modalities since both use ultrasonic detection for operation. Increasingly, photoacoustic and ultrasound have been integrated in terms of hardware instrumentation. To generate a broadly accessible dual-modality contrast agent, we generated microbubbles (a standard ultrasound contrast agent) in a solution of methylene blue (a standard photoacoustic dye). This MB2 solution was formed effectively and was optimized as a dual-modality contrast solution. As microbubble concentration increased (with methylene blue concentration constant), photoacoustic signal was attenuated in the MB2 solution. When methylene blue concentration increased (with microbubble concentration held constant), no ultrasonic interference was observed. Using an MB2 solution that strongly attenuated all photoacoustic signal, high powered ultrasound could be used to burst the microbubbles and dramatically enhance photoacoustic contrast (>800-fold increase), providing a new method for spatiotemporal control of photoacoustic signal generation.

  14. Image quality in conventional chest radiography. Evaluation using the postprocessing tool Diamond View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, Tilo; Reisinger, Clemens; Rau, Philipp; Schwarz, Jochen; Ruis-Lopez, Laura; Bongartz, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the postprocessing tool Diamond View (Siemens AG Medical Solutions, Germany) on image quality in conventional chest radiography. Evaluation of image quality remains a challenge in conventional radiography. Based on the European Commission quality criteria we evaluated the improvement of image quality when applying the new postprocessing tool Diamond View (Siemens AG Medical solutions, Germany) to conventional chest radiographs. Three different readers prospectively evaluated 102 digital image pairs of chest radiographs. Statistical analysis was performed with a p value <0.05 considered as significant. Images were evaluated on basis of the modified imaging Quality Criteria by the Commission of the European Communities. Each of the 11 image quality criteria was evaluated separately using a five point classification. Statistical analysis showed an overall tendency for improved image quality for Diamond View (DV) for all criteria. Significant differences could be found in most of the criteria. In conclusion DV improves image quality in conventional chest radiographs.

  15. Staging N0 Oral Cancer: Lymphoscintigraphy and Conventional Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, J.B.; Soerensen, J.A.; Grupe, P.; Karstoft, J.; Krogdahl, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, and Pathology

    2005-08-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1 and 16 T2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Palpation was carried out by two observers prior to inclusion. MRI, gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Lymphoscintigraphies were done after peritumoral injections of 99mTc labelled rheniumsulphide nanocolloid, followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by a gamma probe and Patent Blue. Palpation, Doppler ultrasonography, MRI, and sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared to a combination of histopathology and follow-up. Diagnostic testing was performed using the x2 test. RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed metastatic spread to the neck in 14 of 40 patients. One patient had bilateral neck disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography were performed in 80 neck sides of 40 patients and MRI in 70 neck sides (5 patients were claustrophobic). SN revealed suspicious lymph nodes in 12 necks, ultrasonography in 23 necks, and MRI in 9 necks. The positive predictive value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 100%, ultrasonography 57%, and MRI 56%. The respective negative predictive values were 96%, 96%, and 85%. The sensitivity of sentinel lymph node biopsy 80% was comparable to ultrasonography 87%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and Doppler ultrasonography may further improve staging. MRI and simple palpation results were poor.

  16. Comparison between the implementation of quality criteria of radiographic image in conventional and digital mammography equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.C.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Furquim, T.A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The mammographic examination needs a strict quality control. A publication of the European Commission provides guidelines on quality criteria for the images of the breast, quantifying the quality obtained in the image. Following the recommendations of the European Commission, two kinds of mammographic equipments, at a same institution, were evaluated to compare the quality of the conventional and digital images. Besides of that, the Average Glandular Dose (AGD) and the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) were measured by using an ionization chamber (Radcal, 6M) in the radiation beams of each equipment. The digital equipment fulfills more quality criteria than the conventional equipment, provided ESD values, AGD values and a rejection index lower than the conventional equipment. Therefore, the digital mammography can be considered more adequate than the conventional one, both for criteria analyses and for dose optimization. (author)

  17. Subjective image quality comparison between two digital dental radiographic systems and conventional dental film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ajmal

    2014-10-01

    Recommendations: Improved software and hardware for digital imaging systems are now available and these improvements may now yield images that are comparable in quality to conventional film. However, we recommend that studies still use more observers and other statistical methods to produce ideal results.

  18. The establishment of Digital Image Capture System(DICS) using conventional simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae Sung; Park, Jong Il; Byun, Young Sik; Shin, Hyun Kyoh

    2004-01-01

    The simulator is used to determine patient field and ensure the treatment field, which encompasses the required anatomy during patient normal movement such as during breathing. The latest simulator provide real time display of still, fluoroscopic and digitalized image, but conventional simulator is not yet. The purpose of this study is to introduce digital image capture system(DICS) using conventional simulator and clinical case using digital captured still and fluoroscopic image. We connect the video signal cable to the video terminal in the back up of simulator monitor, and connect the video jack to the A/D converter. After connection between the converter jack and computer, We can acquire still image and record fluoroscopic image with operating image capture program. The data created with this system can be used in patient treatment, and modified for verification by using image processing software. (j.e. photoshop, paintshop) DICS was able to establish easy and economical procedure. DCIS image was helpful for simulation. DICS imaging was powerful tool in the evaluation of the department specific patient positioning. Because the commercialized simulator based of digital capture is very expensive, it is not easily to establish DICS simulator in the most hospital. DICS using conventional simulator enable to utilize the practical use of image equal to high cost digitalized simulator and to research many clinical cases in case of using other software program.

  19. Operation logic and functionality of automatic dose rate and image quality control of conventional fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Pei-Jan Paul

    2009-01-01

    New generation of fluoroscopic imaging systems is equipped with spectral shaping filters complemented with sophisticated automatic dose rate and image quality control logic called ''fluoroscopy curve'' or ''trajectory''. Such fluoroscopy curves were implemented first on cardiovascular angiographic imaging systems and are now available on conventional fluoroscopy equipment. This study aims to investigate the control logic operations under the fluoroscopy mode and acquisition mode (equivalent to the legacy spot filming) of a conventional fluoroscopy system typically installed for upper-lower gastrointestinal examinations, interventional endoscopy laboratories, gastrointestinal laboratory, and pain clinics.

  20. Operation logic and functionality of automatic dose rate and image quality control of conventional fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Pei-Jan Paul [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    New generation of fluoroscopic imaging systems is equipped with spectral shaping filters complemented with sophisticated automatic dose rate and image quality control logic called ''fluoroscopy curve'' or ''trajectory''. Such fluoroscopy curves were implemented first on cardiovascular angiographic imaging systems and are now available on conventional fluoroscopy equipment. This study aims to investigate the control logic operations under the fluoroscopy mode and acquisition mode (equivalent to the legacy spot filming) of a conventional fluoroscopy system typically installed for upper-lower gastrointestinal examinations, interventional endoscopy laboratories, gastrointestinal laboratory, and pain clinics.

  1. High-resolution storage phosphor imaging of the chest: Comparison with conventional screen-film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrman, C.R.; Good, B.; Feist, J.; Gur, D.; Darby, J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental high-resolution storage phosphor imaging system (Eastman Kodak) has been used to evaluate the image quality and impact on diagnostic interpretation of storage phosphor images relative to conventional screen-film images of the same patients. The elements of the system include a high-resolution laser scanner (4K X 5K X 12 bit); an image processing system; and a high-resolution (4K X 5K X 12 bit) laser printer. Each case was digitally printed onto film in two different formats: a full-size (14 X 14-inch) and a half-size format of four processed, minified images (7 X 7-inches each). The multiformat image includes an original, an unsharp-masked, a reversed (black bone) unsharp-masked, and a high-contrast unsharp-masked image. The results of this preliminary study (11 cases, eight readers) clearly indicate that after minimal adjustment, radiologists do not object to making diagnoses from minified images. Unsharp masked images were considered preferable to unprocessed images, and processed storage phosphor images were rated significantly better than conventional film images

  2. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone: conventional X-ray and MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Haeussler, M.D.; Poppek, S.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Blasius, S.; Lindner, N.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the conventional X-ray and MR imaging features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone. Design. MRI examinations and conventional radiographs were reviewed in 39 patients with biopsy-proven MFH. Imaging characteristics were analyzed and the differential diagnoses assessed in a masked fashion by two experienced radiologists. Results. Typical X-ray features included aggressive, destructive tumor growth centrally located in the metaphysis of long bones. Periosteal reactions and expansive growth were rarely seen. On MR images extraosseous tumor spread was frequently noted. On T2-weighted images and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images most of the tumors displayed an inhomogeneous, nodular signal pattern with peripheral Gd-DTPA enhancement. Conclusions. Although several MR imaging criteria were typical for MFH none of them was specific. X-ray diagnosis of MFH may also prove difficult, with the main differential diagnosis being metastasis in the older and osteosarcoma in the younger population. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Lu Mei; Stricker, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means (μ), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic (Σ) and random errors (σ) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [μ CBCT = (−1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, Σ CBCT = (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, σ CBCT = (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [μ kV = (−2.9, −0.4, 0.5) mm, Σ kV = (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, σ kV = (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [μ US = (−3.6, −1.4, 0.0) mm, Σ US = (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, σ US = (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior–posterior (A/P), superior–inferior (S/I), and the left–right (L

  4. Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Lu Mei [Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States); Stricker, Hans [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means ({mu}), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic ({Sigma}) and random errors ({sigma}) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [{mu}{sub CBCT}= (-1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, {Sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, {sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [{mu}{sub kV}= (-2.9, -0.4, 0.5) mm, {Sigma}{sub kV}= (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, {sigma}{sub kV}= (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [{mu}{sub US}= (-3.6, -1.4, 0.0) mm, {Sigma}{sub US}= (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, {sigma}{sub US}= (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior

  5. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one?s peers, the current study aimed to determine wheth...

  6. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging of blends of conventional and waxy hard wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Delwiche

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent development of hard winter waxy (amylose-free wheat adapted to the North American climate has prompted the quest to find a rapid method that will determine mixture levels of conventional wheat in lots of identity preserved waxy wheat. Previous work documented the use of conventional near infrared (NIR reflectance spectroscopy to determine the mixture level of conventional wheat in waxy wheat, with an examined range, through binary sample mixture preparation, of 0–100% (weight conventional / weight total. The current study examines the ability of NIR hyperspectral imaging of intact kernels to determine mixture levels. Twenty-nine mixtures (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, …, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100% were formed from known genotypes of waxy and conventional wheat. Two-class partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA and statistical pattern recognition classifier models were developed for identifying each kernel in the images as conventional or waxy. Along with these approaches, conventional PLS1 regression modelling was performed on means of kernel spectra within each mixture test sample. Results indicated close agreement between all three approaches, with standard errors of prediction for the better preprocess transformations (PLSDA models or better classifiers (pattern recognition models of approximately 9 percentage units. Although such error rates were slightly greater than ones previously published using non-imaging NIR analysis of bulk whole kernel wheat and wheat meal, the HSI technique offers an advantage of its potential use in sorting operations.

  7. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, QCC-Gent, Ghent (Belgium); Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Ghent (Belgium); Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Centrum voor Kankeropsporing, Bruges (Belgium); Brabander, Isabel de [Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels (Belgium); Goossens, Mathieu [UZ Brussel, Dienst Kankerpreventie, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  8. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert; Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van; Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van; Martens, Patrick; Brabander, Isabel de; Goossens, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  9. MO-DE-210-03: Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities. It is inexpensive, portable and provides good soft tissue contrast. For challenging soft tissue targets such as pancreatic cancer, ultrasound imaging can be used in combination with pre-treatment MRI and/or CT to transfer important anatomical features for target localization at time of treatment. The non-invasive and non-ionizing nature of ultrasound imaging is particularly powerful for intra-fraction localization and monitoring. Recognizing these advantages, efforts are being made to incorporate novel robotic approaches to position and manipulate the ultrasound probe during irradiation. These recent enabling developments hold potential to bring ultrasound imaging to a new level of IGRT applications. However, many challenges, not limited to image registration, robotic deployment, probe interference and image acquisition rate, need to be addressed to realize the full potential of IGRT with ultrasound imaging. Learning Objectives: Understand the benefits and limitations in using ultrasound to augment MRI and/or CT for motion monitoring during radiation therapy delivery. Understanding passive and active robotic approaches to implement ultrasound imaging for intra-fraction monitoring. Understand issues of probe interference with radiotherapy treatment. Understand the critical clinical workflow for effective and reproducible IGRT using ultrasound guidance. The work of X.L. is supported in part by Elekta; J.W. and K.D. is supported in part by a NIH grant R01 CA161613 and by Elekta; D.H. is support in part by a NIH grant R41 CA174089

  10. MO-DE-210-03: Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K. [Johns Hopkins University: Development of Intra-Fraction Soft Tissue Monitoring with Ultrasound Imaging (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities. It is inexpensive, portable and provides good soft tissue contrast. For challenging soft tissue targets such as pancreatic cancer, ultrasound imaging can be used in combination with pre-treatment MRI and/or CT to transfer important anatomical features for target localization at time of treatment. The non-invasive and non-ionizing nature of ultrasound imaging is particularly powerful for intra-fraction localization and monitoring. Recognizing these advantages, efforts are being made to incorporate novel robotic approaches to position and manipulate the ultrasound probe during irradiation. These recent enabling developments hold potential to bring ultrasound imaging to a new level of IGRT applications. However, many challenges, not limited to image registration, robotic deployment, probe interference and image acquisition rate, need to be addressed to realize the full potential of IGRT with ultrasound imaging. Learning Objectives: Understand the benefits and limitations in using ultrasound to augment MRI and/or CT for motion monitoring during radiation therapy delivery. Understanding passive and active robotic approaches to implement ultrasound imaging for intra-fraction monitoring. Understand issues of probe interference with radiotherapy treatment. Understand the critical clinical workflow for effective and reproducible IGRT using ultrasound guidance. The work of X.L. is supported in part by Elekta; J.W. and K.D. is supported in part by a NIH grant R01 CA161613 and by Elekta; D.H. is support in part by a NIH grant R41 CA174089.

  11. In vivo sectional imaging of the retinal periphery using conventional optical coherence tomography systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kothari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT has transformed macular disease practices. This report describes the use of conventional OCT systems for peripheral retinal imaging. Thirty-six eyes with peripheral retinal pathology underwent imaging with conventional OCT systems. In vivo sectional imaging of lattice degeneration, snail-track degeneration, and paving-stone degeneration was performed. Differences were noted between phenotypes of lattice degeneration. Several findings previously unreported in histopathology studies were encountered. Certain anatomic features were seen that could conceivably explain clinical and intraoperative behavior of peripheral lesions. Peripheral OCT imaging helped elucidate clinically ambiguous situations such as retinal breaks, subclinical retinal detachment, retinoschisis, choroidal nevus, and metastasis. Limitations of such scanning included end-gaze nystagmus and far peripheral lesions. This first of its kind study demonstrates the feasibility of peripheral retinal OCT imaging and expands the spectrum of indications for which OCT scanning may be clinically useful.

  12. In vivo sectional imaging of the retinal periphery using conventional optical coherence tomography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Abhishek; Narendran, V; Saravanan, V R

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has transformed macular disease practices. This report describes the use of conventional OCT systems for peripheral retinal imaging. Thirty-six eyes with peripheral retinal pathology underwent imaging with conventional OCT systems. In vivo sectional imaging of lattice degeneration, snail-track degeneration, and paving-stone degeneration was performed. Differences were noted between phenotypes of lattice degeneration. Several findings previously unreported in histopathology studies were encountered. Certain anatomic features were seen that could conceivably explain clinical and intraoperative behavior of peripheral lesions. Peripheral OCT imaging helped elucidate clinically ambiguous situations such as retinal breaks, subclinical retinal detachment, retinoschisis, choroidal nevus, and metastasis. Limitations of such scanning included end-gaze nystagmus and far peripheral lesions. This first of its kind study demonstrates the feasibility of peripheral retinal OCT imaging and expands the spectrum of indications for which OCT scanning may be clinically useful.

  13. Development of comprehensive image processing technique for differential diagnosis of liver disease by using multi-modality images. Pixel-based cross-correlation method using a profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akira; Okura, Yasuhiko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Ishida, Takayuki; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Sanada, Taizo

    2009-01-01

    Imaging techniques such as high magnetic field imaging and multidetector-row CT have been markedly improved recently. The final image-reading systems easily produce more than a thousand diagnostic images per patient. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive cross-correlation processing technique using multi-modality images, in order to decrease the considerable time and effort involved in the interpretation of a radiogram (multi-formatted display and/or stack display method, etc). In this scheme, the criteria of an attending radiologist for the differential diagnosis of liver cyst, hemangioma of liver, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic liver cancer on magnetic resonance images with various sequences and CT images with and without contrast enhancement employ a cross-correlation coefficient. Using a one-dimensional cross-correlation method, comprehensive image processing could be also adapted for various artifacts (some depending on modality imaging, and some on patients), which may be encountered at the clinical scene. This comprehensive image-processing technique could assist radiologists in the differential diagnosis of liver diseases. (author)

  14. Superiority of 18F-FNa PET/CT for Detecting Bone Metastases in Comparison with Other Diagnostic Imaging Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Lapa; Tiago Saraiva; Rodolfo Silva; Margarida Marques; Gracinda Costa; João Pedroso Lima

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The 18F-NaF positron emission tomography/computed tomography is being considered as an excellent imaging modality for bone metastases detection. This ability was compared with other imaging techniques. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 114 patients who underwent 18F-NaF positron emission tomography/ computed tomography. Of these, 49 patients also had bone scintigraphy, 61 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography and 10 18F-FCH positron emis...

  15. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bleyen, Luc; Bacher, Klaus; Van Herck, Koen; Lemmens, Kim; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Van Steen, Andre; Martens, Patrick; De Brabander, Isabel; Goossens, Mathieu; Thierens, Hubert

    2017-09-01

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. • Interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. • Cancer detection rate in high-density breasts is superior in DR. • IC rate exceeds CDR for SF and CR in high-density breasts. • DR performs better in high-density breasts for third readings and false-positives.

  16. Monitoring the Spatiotemporal Activities of miRNAs in Small Animal Models Using Molecular Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Baril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy.

  17. Monitoring the spatiotemporal activities of miRNAs in small animal models using molecular imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Patrick; Ezzine, Safia; Pichon, Chantal

    2015-03-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy.

  18. Epi-detected quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopy for label-free imaging of the tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei, E-mail: biehzw@nus.edu.sg [Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Stephen Hsu, Chin-Ying [Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore 119083 (Singapore)

    2015-01-19

    We present an epi-detected quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopic imaging technique (i.e., coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third-harmonic generation (THG), and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF)) based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of the tooth. We demonstrate that high contrast ps-CARS images covering both the fingerprint (500–1800 cm{sup −1}) and high-wavenumber (2500–3800 cm{sup −1}) regions can be acquired to uncover the distributions of mineral and organic biomaterials in the tooth, while high quality TPEF, SHG, and THG images of the tooth can also be acquired under ps laser excitation without damaging the samples. The quadruple-modal nonlinear microscopic images (CARS/SHG/THG/TPEF) acquired provide better understanding of morphological structures and biochemical/biomolecular distributions in the dentin, enamel, and the dentin-enamel junction of the tooth without labeling, facilitating optical diagnosis and characterization of the tooth in dentistry.

  19. Performance evaluation of a compact PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system for small animal imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qingyang; Wang, Shi; Ma, Tianyu; Wu, Jing; Liu, Hui; Xu, Tianpeng; Xia, Yan; Fan, Peng; Lyu, Zhenlei; Liu, Yaqiang

    2015-01-01

    PET, SPECT and CT imaging techniques are widely used in preclinical small animal imaging applications. In this paper, we present a compact small animal PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system. A dual-functional, shared detector design is implemented which enables PET and SPECT imaging with a same LYSO ring detector. A multi-pinhole collimator is mounted on the system and inserted into the detector ring in SPECT imaging mode. A cone-beam CT consisting of a micro focus X-ray tube and a CMOS detector is implemented. The detailed design and the performance evaluations are reported in this paper. In PET imaging mode, the measured NEMA based spatial resolution is 2.12 mm (FWHM), and the sensitivity at the central field of view (CFOV) is 3.2%. The FOV size is 50 mm (∅)×100 mm (L). The SPECT has a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm (FWHM) and an average sensitivity of 0.031% at the center axial, and a 30 mm (∅)×90 mm (L) FOV. The CT spatial resolution is 8.32 lp/mm @10%MTF, and the contrast discrimination function value is 2.06% with 1.5 mm size cubic box object. In conclusion, a compact, tri-modality PET/SPECT/CT system was successfully built with low cost and high performance

  20. Radiopacity of restorative composites by conventional radiography and digital images with different resolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Raquel Venancio; Samento, Hugo Ramalho [Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas (Brazil); Duarte, Rosangela Marques; Raso, Sonia Saeger Meireles Monte; De Andrade Ana Karina Maciel; Anjos-Pontual Maria Luiza Dos [Dept. of Operative Dentistry, Federal University of Paraiba, Pelotas (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the radiopacity of dentin, enamel, and 8 restorative composites on conventional radiograph and digital images with different resolutions. Specimens were fabricated from 8 materials and human molars were longitudinally sectioned 1.0 mm thick to include both enamel and dentin. The specimens and tooth sections were imaged by conventional radiograph using 4 sized intraoral film and digital images were taken in high speed and high resolution modes using a phosphor storage plate. Densitometric evaluation of the enamel, dentin, restorative materials, a lead sheet, and an aluminum step wedge was performed on the radiographic images. For the evaluation, the Al equivalent (mm) for each material was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), considering the material factor and then the radiographic method factor, individually. The high speed mode allowed the highest radiopacity, while the high resolution mode generated the lowest values. Furthermore, the high resolution mode was the most efficient method for radiographic differentiation between restorative composites and dentin. The conventional radiograph was the most effective in enabling differentiation between enamel and composites. The high speed mode was the least effective in enabling radiographic differentiation between the dental tissues and restorative composites. The high speed mode of digital imaging was not effective for differentiation between enamel and composites. This made it less effective than the high resolution mode and conventional radiographs. All of the composites evaluated showed radiopacity values that fit the ISO 4049 recommendations.

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Imaging Modalities and Injection Techniques for the Diagnosis of Femoroacetabular Impingement/Labral Tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, Michael P.; Thorborg, Kristian; Goode, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing femoroacetabular impingement/acetabular labral tear (FAI/ALT) and subsequently making a decision regarding surgery are based primarily on diagnostic imaging and intra-articular hip joint injection techniques of unknown accuracy. Purpose: Summarize and evaluate the diagnostic...... probability of disease was demonstrated. Positive imaging findings increased the probability that a labral tear existed by a minimal to small degree with the use of magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiogram (MRI/MRA) and ultrasound (US) and by a moderate degree for CTA. Negative imaging findings...... decreased the probability that a labral tear existed by a minimal degree with the use of MRI and US, a small to moderate degree with MRA, and a moderate degree with CTA. Clinical Relevance: Although findings of the included studies suggested potentially favorable use of these modalities for the diagnosis...

  2. Postcontrast T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients: comparison between postcontrast fat-suppression imaging and conventional T1-weighted or magnetization transfer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choong Wook; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2004-01-01

    We wished to assess the merits and weaknesses of postcontrast fat-suppression (FS) brain MR imaging in children for the evaluation of various enhancing lesions as compared with postcontrast conventional T1-weighted or magnetization transfer (MT) imaging. We reviewed the records of those patients with enhancing lesions on brain MR imaging who had undergone both FS imaging and one of the conventional T1-weighted or MT imaging as a post-contrast T1-weighted brain MR imaging. Thirty-one patients (21 male, 10 female; mean age, 8.7 years) with 38 enhancing lesions (18 intra-axial, 16 extra-axial and 4 orbital locations) were included in this study. There were 27 pairs of FS and conventional imagings, and 13 pairs of FS and MT imagings available for evaluation. Two radiologists visually assessed by consensus the lesions' conspicuity, and they also looked for the presence of flow or susceptibility artifacts in a total of 40 pairs of MR imagings. For 19 measurable lesions (14 pairs of FS and conventional T1-weighted imagings, 5 pairs of FS and MT imagings), the contrast ratios between the lesion and the normal brain ([SIlesion-SIwater]/[SInormal brain-SIwater]) were calculated and compared. Compared with conventional imaging, the lesion conspicuity on FS imaging was better in 10 cases (7 extra-axial lesions, 2 orbital lesions and 1 fat-containing intra-axial lesion), equal in 16 cases, and worse in one case. Compared with MT imaging, the lesion conspicuity on FS imaging was better in 3 cases (2 extra-axial lesions and 1 intra-axial lesion), equal in 8 cases, and worse in 2 cases. Image quality of FS imaging was compromised by flow or susceptibility artifacts for 7 patients. The contrast ratios for FS imaging were not significantly different from those for conventional imaging (2.2±0.7 vs. 2.2±0.6, respectively, p=0.914) and they were significantly lower than those for MT imaging (2.4±0.8 vs. 4.5±1.5, respectively, p=0.018). Postcontrast FS brain MR imaging appears to be

  3. Assessment of rigid multi-modality image registration consistency using the multiple sub-volume registration (MSR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, C; Heide, U A van der; Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Kotte, A N T J

    2005-01-01

    Registration of different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, functional MRI (fMRI), positron (PET) and single photon (SPECT) emission tomography is used in many clinical applications. Determining the quality of any automatic registration procedure has been a challenging part because no gold standard is available to evaluate the registration. In this note we present a method, called the 'multiple sub-volume registration' (MSR) method, for assessing the consistency of a rigid registration. This is done by registering sub-images of one data set on the other data set, performing a crude non-rigid registration. By analysing the deviations (local deformations) of the sub-volume registrations from the full registration we get a measure of the consistency of the rigid registration. Registration of 15 data sets which include CT, MR and PET images for brain, head and neck, cervix, prostate and lung was performed utilizing a rigid body registration with normalized mutual information as the similarity measure. The resulting registrations were classified as good or bad by visual inspection. The resulting registrations were also classified using our MSR method. The results of our MSR method agree with the classification obtained from visual inspection for all cases (p < 0.02 based on ANOVA of the good and bad groups). The proposed method is independent of the registration algorithm and similarity measure. It can be used for multi-modality image data sets and different anatomic sites of the patient. (note)

  4. Comparative study of the macroscopic finding, conventional tomographic imaging, and computed tomographic imaging in locating the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon; You, Dong Soo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was comparison of conventional tomography with reformatted computed tomography for dental implant in locating the mandibular canal. Five dogs were used and after conventional tomographs and fitted computed tomographs were taken, four dentist traced all films. Mandibles were sectioned with 2 mm slice thickness and the sections were then radiographed (contact radiography). Each radiograpic image was traced and linear measurements were made from mandibular canal to alveolar crest, buccal cortex, lingual cortex, and inferior border. The following results were obtained; 1. Reformatted computed tomographs were exacter than conventional tomography by alveolar crest to canal length of -0.6 mm difference between real values and radiographs 2. The average measurements of buccal cortex to mandibular canal width and lingual cortex to mandibular canal width of conventional tomographs were exacter than reformatted computed tomographs, but standard deviations were higher than reformatted computed tomographs. 3. Standard deviations of reformatted computed tomographs were lower than conventional tomographs at all comparing sites 4. At reformatted computed tomography 62.5% of the measurements performed were within ±1 mm of the true value, and at conventional tomography 24.1% were. 5. Mandibular canal invisibility was 0.8% at reformatted computed tomography and 9.2% at conventional tomography. Reformatted computed tomography has been shown to be more useful radiographic technique for assessment of the mandibular canal than conventional tomography.

  5. Deep pelvic endometriosis: Limited additional diagnostic value of postcontrast in comparison with conventional MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazot, Marc; Gasner, Adeline; Lafont, Clarisse; Ballester, Marcos; Daraï, Emile

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the value of postcontrast MR imaging (MRI) in cases of suspected pelvic endometriosis by assessing interobserver variability of MR imaging according to the endometriotic locations. Methods: This retrospective study included 158 patients with clinical suspicion of endometriosis who had undergone surgery after MRI between January 2004 and April 2009. Three radiologists with different degrees of experience were independently asked to determine the presence of rectosigmoid colon, vaginal, and bladder endometriosis using both conventional and a combination of conventional and postcontrast MRI. Descriptive analysis, ROC analysis and interobserver agreements (kappa values) were calculated. Results: Rectosigmoid colon, vaginal, and bladder endometriosis was present in 65, 39 and eight patients, respectively. The accuracy of conventional assessment for readers 1, 2, and 3 for rectosigmoid colon, vaginal and bladder endometriosis was 77.2%, 74.1% and 96.8%, and 73.4%, 76.6% and 98.7%, and 86.1%, 88.6% and 99.4%, respectively. The accuracy of conventional and postcontrast MR images for readers 1, 2, and 3 for rectosigmoid colon, vaginal and bladder endometriosis was 77.8%, 78.5% and 98.1%, and 83.5%, 83.5% and 99.4%, and 87.3%, 89.2% and 99.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Interobserver variability of MRI using conventional MRI alone is excellent for the diagnosis of DPE. No significant benefit of intravenous gadolinium, rectal or vaginal administration has been demonstrated.

  6. Direct imaging of phase objects enables conventional deconvolution in bright field light microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Noemí Hernández Candia

    Full Text Available In transmitted optical microscopy, absorption structure and phase structure of the specimen determine the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the image. The elementary impulse responses of the bright field microscope therefore consist of separate absorptive and phase components, precluding general application of linear, conventional deconvolution processing methods to improve image contrast and resolution. However, conventional deconvolution can be applied in the case of pure phase (or pure absorptive objects if the corresponding phase (or absorptive impulse responses of the microscope are known. In this work, we present direct measurements of the phase point- and line-spread functions of a high-aperture microscope operating in transmitted bright field. Polystyrene nanoparticles and microtubules (biological polymer filaments serve as the pure phase point and line objects, respectively, that are imaged with high contrast and low noise using standard microscopy plus digital image processing. Our experimental results agree with a proposed model for the response functions, and confirm previous theoretical predictions. Finally, we use the measured phase point-spread function to apply conventional deconvolution on the bright field images of living, unstained bacteria, resulting in improved definition of cell boundaries and sub-cellular features. These developments demonstrate practical application of standard restoration methods to improve imaging of phase objects such as cells in transmitted light microscopy.

  7. PSMA-Targeted Nano-Conjugates as Dual-Modality (MRI/PET) Imaging Probes for the Non-Invasive Detection of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Xiankai

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop dual modality imaging probes for the detection of prostate cancer by doping radioisotopes to iron oxide nanoparticles, so that the sensitivity and specificity...

  8. Conventional MRI and magnetisation transfer imaging of tumour-like multiple sclerosis in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metafratzi, Z.; Argyropoulou, M.I.; Efremidis, S.C.; Tzoufi, M.; Papadopoulou, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Tumefactive multiple sclerosis is a rare entity in children. Differential diagnosis includes other mass lesions such as neoplasm and abscess. A case of tumefactive multiple sclerosis in a child is presented. The open-ring pattern of enhancement on conventional MRI and magnetisation transfer imaging was important for the initial diagnosis and the evaluation of the course of the disease. (orig.)

  9. Cone Beam CT vs. Fan Beam CT: A Comparison of Image Quality and Dose Delivered Between Two Differing CT Imaging Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Lawrence; Weidlich, Georg A

    2016-09-12

    A comparison of image quality and dose delivered between two differing computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities-fan beam and cone beam-was performed. A literature review of quantitative analyses for various image quality aspects such as uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, artifact presence, spatial resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF), and low contrast resolution was generated. With these aspects quantified, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) shows a superior spatial resolution to that of fan beam, while fan beam shows a greater ability to produce clear and anatomically correct images with better soft tissue differentiation. The results indicate that fan beam CT produces superior images to that of on-board imaging (OBI) cone beam CT systems, while providing a considerably less dose to the patient.

  10. Fabrication and imaging study of ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal contrast agent based on polymeric microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhanwen; Ke Hengte; Wang Jinrui; Zhao Bo; Qu Enze; Yue Xiuli; Dai Zhifei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To fabricate an ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal contrast agent by encapsulating fluorescent quantum dots into polymeric ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles. Methods: Polylactic acid (PLA, 500 mg), (1R)-(+)-camphor (50 mg) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (0.5 ml, 2.3 μmol/L)were dissolved or dispersed in dichloromethane (10 ml) to form in an organic phase. Ammonium carbonate solution and poly (vinyl alcohol) solution were employed as the internal and external water phase, respectively. The fluorescent microbubbles were generated using double emulsion solvent evaporation and lyophilization methods. The morphology and illumination were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Synchronized contrast-enhanced ultrasound and fluorescence imaging was acquired by injecting fluorescent microbubbles into the silicone tube coupled to a self-made ultrasound/fluorescence imaging device. Ultrasound/fluorescence bi-modal in vivo imaging was acquired on the kidney of New Zealand rabbits and suckling mice. Results: The fluorescent microbubbles were hollow spheres with an averaged diameter of (1.62 ± 1.47) μm. More than 99% of these microbubbles were less than 8 μm in diameter, which met the size criteria for ultrasound contrast agents. The fluorescence emission peak of the microbubbles appeared at 632 nm, indicating that good luminescence properties of quantum dots were maintained. In vitro ultrasound/fluorescence imaging showed no echoic signal when the silicone tube was filled with saline, but there was a strong echo when filled with fluorescent microbubbles. The liquid column with fluorescent microbubbles emitted red luminescence under ultraviolet irradiation. The kidney of the rabbit was remarkably enhanced after the administration of fluorescent microbubbles. Bright fluorescence could be observed at the injection site of the suckling mice via subcutaneous injection. Conclusions: A bi-modal but single contrast agent

  11. Automated method and system for the alignment and correlation of images from two different modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Armato, Samuel; Doi, Kunio

    1999-10-26

    A method and system for the computerized registration of radionuclide images with radiographic images, including generating image data from radiographic and radionuclide images of the thorax. Techniques include contouring the lung regions in each type of chest image, scaling and registration of the contours based on location of lung apices, and superimposition after appropriate shifting of the images. Specific applications are given for the automated registration of radionuclide lungs scans with chest radiographs. The method in the example given yields a system that spatially registers and correlates digitized chest radiographs with V/Q scans in order to correlate V/Q functional information with the greater structural detail of chest radiographs. Final output could be the computer-determined contours from each type of image superimposed on any of the original images, or superimposition of the radionuclide image data, which contains high activity, onto the radiographic chest image.

  12. Graduating 4th year radiology residents' perception of optimal imaging modalities for neoplasm and trauma: a pilot study from four U.S. universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias Junior, Jorge [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). School of Medicine; Semelka, Richard C.; Altun, Ersan; Thomas, Sarah L., E-mail: richsem@med.unc.ed [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Balci, N. Cem [Saint Louis University, MO (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Hussain, Shahid M. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Martin, Diego R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Our purpose was to assess 4th year radiology residents' perception of the optimal imaging modality to investigate neoplasm and trauma. Materials and methods: twenty-seven 4th year radiology residents from four residency programs were surveyed. They were asked about the best imaging modality to evaluate the brain and spine, lungs, abdomen, and the musculoskeletal system. Imaging modalities available were MRI, CT, ultrasound, PET, and Xray. All findings were compared to the ACR appropriateness criteria. Results: MRI was chosen as the best imaging modality to evaluate brain, spine, abdominal, and musculoskeletal neoplasm in 96.3%, 100%, 70.4%, and 63% of residents, respectively. CT was chosen by 88.9% to evaluate neoplasm of the lung. Optimal imaging modality to evaluate trauma was CT for brain injuries (100%), spine (92.6%), lung (96.3%), abdomen (92.6%), and major musculoskeletal trauma (74.1%); MRI was chosen for sports injury (96.3%). There was agreement with ACR appropriateness criteria. Conclusion: residents' perception of the best imaging modalities for neoplasm and trauma concurred with the appropriateness criteria by the ACR. (author)

  13. Residual Shuffling Convolutional Neural Networks for Deep Semantic Image Segmentation Using Multi-Modal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Weinmann, M.; Gao, X.; Yan, M.; Hinz, S.; Jutzi, B.; Weinmann, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we address the deep semantic segmentation of aerial imagery based on multi-modal data. Given multi-modal data composed of true orthophotos and the corresponding Digital Surface Models (DSMs), we extract a variety of hand-crafted radiometric and geometric features which are provided separately and in different combinations as input to a modern deep learning framework. The latter is represented by a Residual Shuffling Convolutional Neural Network (RSCNN) combining the characteristics of a Residual Network with the advantages of atrous convolution and a shuffling operator to achieve a dense semantic labeling. Via performance evaluation on a benchmark dataset, we analyze the value of different feature sets for the semantic segmentation task. The derived results reveal that the use of radiometric features yields better classification results than the use of geometric features for the considered dataset. Furthermore, the consideration of data on both modalities leads to an improvement of the classification results. However, the derived results also indicate that the use of all defined features is less favorable than the use of selected features. Consequently, data representations derived via feature extraction and feature selection techniques still provide a gain if used as the basis for deep semantic segmentation.

  14. Generation of Composite Dose and Biological Effective Dose (BED) Over Multiple Treatment Modalities and Multistage Planning Using Deformable Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, T-C; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Forster, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Currently there are no commercially available tools to generate composite plans across different treatment modalities and/or different planning image sets. Without a composite plan, it may be difficult to perform a meaningful dosimetric evaluation of the overall treatment course. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate composite biological effective dose (BED) plans over multiple radiotherapy treatment modalities and/or multistage plans, using deformable image registration. Two cases were used to demonstrate the method. Case I was prostate cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a permanent seed implant. Case II involved lung cancer treated with two treatment plans generated on two separate computed tomography image sets. Thin-plate spline or optical flow methods were used as appropriate to generate deformation matrices. The deformation matrices were then applied to the dose matrices and the resulting physical doses were converted to BED and added to yield the composite plan. Cell proliferation and sublethal repair were considered in the BED calculations. The difference in BED between normal tissues and tumor volumes was accounted for by using different BED models, α/β values, and cell potential doubling times. The method to generate composite BED plans presented in this paper provides information not available with the traditional simple dose summation or physical dose summation. With the understanding of limitations and uncertainties of the algorithms involved, it may be valuable for the overall treatment plan evaluation.

  15. Cross-modal priming facilitates production of low imageability word strings in a case of deep-phonological dysphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mary Mccarthy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Characteristics of repetition in deep-phonological dysphasia include an inability to repeat nonwords, semantic errors in single word repetition (deep dysphasia and in multiple word repetition (phonological dysphasia and better repetition of highly imageable words (Wilshire & Fisher, 2004; Ablinger et al., 2008. Additionally, visual processing of words is often more accurate than auditory processing of words (Howard & Franklin, 1988. We report a case study of LT who incurred a LCVA on 10/3/2009. She initially presented with deep dysphasia and near normal word reading. When enrolled in this study, approximately 24 months post-onset, she presented with phonological dysphasia. We investigated the hypothesis that (1 reproduction of a word string would be more accurate when preceded by a visual presentation of the word string compared to two auditory presentations of the word string, and (2 that this facilitative boost would be observed only for strings of low image words, consistent with the imageability effect in repetition. Method. Three-word strings were created in four conditions which varied the frequency (F and imageability (I of words within a string: HiF-HiI, LoF-HiI, HiF-LoI, LoF-LoI. All strings were balanced for total syllable length and were unrelated semantically and phonologically. The dependent variable was as accuracy of repetition of each word within a string. We created six modality prime conditions each with 24 strings drawn equally from the four frequency-imageability types, randomized within modality condition: Auditory Once (AudOnce – string presented auditorily one time; Auditory Twice (AudAud – string presented auditorily two consecutive times; Visual Once (VisOnce – string presented visually one time; Visual Twice (VisVis – string presented visually two consecutive times; Auditory then Visual (AudVis – string presented once auditorily, then a second time visually; Visual then Auditory (VisAud

  16. Computed and conventional chest radiography: a comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, K.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Ng, K-H.; Hussain, A.F.; Mahmud, R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the image quality and entrance skin dose (ESD) for film-screen and computed chest radiography. Analysis of the image quality and dose on chest radiography was carried out on a conventional X-ray unit using film-screen, storage phosphor plates and selenium drum direct chest radiography. For each receptor, ESD was measured in 60 patients using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Images were printed on 35 x 43 cm films. Image quality was assessed subjectively by evaluation of anatomic features and estimation of the image quality, following the guidelines established by the protocols of the Commission of the European Communities. There was no statistically significant difference noted between the computed and conventional images (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P>0.05). Imaging of the mediastinum and peripheral lung structures were better visualized with the storage phosphor and selenium drum technique than with the film-screen combination. The patients' mean ESD for chest radiography using the storage phosphor, film-screen combination and selenium drum was 0.20, 0.20 and 0.25 mGy, respectively, with no statistically significant difference with P > 0.05 (χ 2 tests) Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  17. Image quality characteristics for virtual monoenergetic images using dual-layer spectral detector CT: Comparison with conventional tube-voltage images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, Daisuke; Funama, Yoshinori; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Oda, Seitaro; Kidoh, Masafumi; Nagayama, Yasunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the image quality characteristics for virtual monoenergetic images compared with conventional tube-voltage image with dual-layer spectral CT (DLCT). Helical scans were performed using a first-generation DLCT scanner, two different sizes of acrylic cylindrical phantoms, and a Catphan phantom. Three different iodine concentrations were inserted into the phantom center. The single-tube voltage for obtaining virtual monoenergetic images was set to 120 or 140 kVp. Conventional 120- and 140-kVp images and virtual monoenergetic images (40-200-keV images) were reconstructed from slice thicknesses of 1.0 mm. The CT number and image noise were measured for each iodine concentration and water on the 120-kVp images and virtual monoenergetic images. The noise power spectrum (NPS) was also calculated. The iodine CT numbers for the iodinated enhancing materials were similar regardless of phantom size and acquisition method. Compared with the iodine CT numbers of the conventional 120-kVp images, those for the monoenergetic 40-, 50-, and 60-keV images increased by approximately 3.0-, 1.9-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. The image noise values for each virtual monoenergetic image were similar (for example, 24.6 HU at 40 keV and 23.3 HU at 200 keV obtained at 120 kVp and 30-cm phantom size). The NPS curves of the 70-keV and 120-kVp images for a 1.0-mm slice thickness over the entire frequency range were similar. Virtual monoenergetic images represent stable image noise over the entire energy spectrum and improved the contrast-to-noise ratio than conventional tube voltage using the dual-layer spectral detector CT. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic value of FDG PET-CT for detecting primary breast malignancy: comparison with other image modalities and histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Na Young; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Chung Ho; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Chung, Soo Kyo; Jung, Sang Seol

    2004-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET-CT in detecting the primary breast malignancy with other imaging modalities and to determine whether detectability of PET-CT depends on any factors such as size, differentiation, or nuclear grade of tumor. We evaluated pathologically proven 66 lesions in 61 patients (26-74 years, mean 46.9) who underwent preoperative PET-CT. Other imaging modalities were also evaluated: mammography in 58, US in 49 and MRI in 16. PET-CT images were visually evaluated and peak and mean SUV of mass were measured. For mammography and US, category 4 and 5 lesions as positive, and category 0-3 lesions as negative. For MRI, we used morphology and dynamic kinetic curve data based scoring system; sum of the scores higher than 10 as positive. Sensitivities of each modality were obtained. We analyzed PET-CT positive and negative groups in relation to size, SUV, differentiation and nuclear grade of tumors using paired t-test and Fisher's exact test. 65 among 66 were malignant lesions: invasive ductal carcinoma (n=56), ductal carcinoma in situ (n=3), tubular carcinoma (n=1), medullary carcinoma(n=3), mucinous carcinoma(n=1) and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n=1). One lesion was benign lesion. Sensitivities of PET-CT, mammography, US, and MRI for detecting malignant mass were 86.2%, 80.7%, 100% and 94.1% respectively. SUV(P) and SUV(M) in PET-CT positive group (5.28±3.24 and 3.56±2.24) was significantly higher than that of PET CT negative group (1.96±0.35 and 1.46±0.44) [p<0.0001 for both]. The size of the primary mass in PET-CT positive group (2.66±1.47) was significantly larger than that in PET-CT negative group (1.52±0.57) (p=0.0002). The nuclear grade and tumor differentiation were not significantly different between two groups. The sensitivity of the FDG PET-CT in detecting primary breast cancer is lower than those of other imaging modalities. The detectability of the FDG PET-CT might be degraded when the tumor is small in size

  19. Postmortem cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses and children: a masked comparison study with conventional autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew M; Sebire, Neil J; Ashworth, Michael T; Schievano, Silvia; Scott, Rosemary J; Wade, Angie; Chitty, Lyn S; Robertson, Nikki; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2014-05-13

    Perinatal and pediatric autopsies have declined worldwide in the past decade. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with conventional autopsy and histopathology assessment in fetuses and children. We performed postmortem magnetic resonance imaging in 400 fetuses and children, using a 1.5-T Siemens Avanto magnetic resonance scanner before conventional autopsy. A pediatric CMR imager reported the CMR images, masked to autopsy information. The pathologists were masked to the information from CMR images. The institutional research ethics committee approved the study, and parental consent was obtained. Assuming a diagnostic accuracy of 50%, 400 cases were required for a 5% precision of estimate. Three cases were excluded from analysis, 2 with no conventional autopsy performed and 1 with insufficient CMR sequences performed. Thirty-eight CMR data sets were nondiagnostic (37 in fetuses ≤24 weeks; 1 in a fetus >24 weeks). In the remaining 359 cases, 44 cardiac abnormalities were noted at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of CMR was 72.7% (58.2-83.7%) and 96.2% (93.5-97.8%) for detecting any cardiac pathology, with positive and negative predictive values of 72.7% (58.2-83.7%) and 96.2% (93.5-97.8%), respectively. Higher sensitivity of 92.6% (76.6-97.9%), specificity of 99.1% (97.4-99.7%), positive predictive value of 89.3% (72.8-96.3%), and negative predictive value of 99.4% (97.8-99.8%) were seen for major structural heart disease. Postmortem CMR imaging may be a useful alternative to conventional cardiac autopsy in fetuses and children for detecting cardiac abnormalities. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01417962.

  20. Comparison of prostate contours between conventional stepping transverse imaging and Twister-based sagittal imaging in permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shogo; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Tsumura, Hideyasu; Sekiguchi, Akane; Takenaka, Kouji; Tabata, Ken-Ichi; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2017-08-01

    To compare prostate contours on conventional stepping transverse image acquisitions with those on twister-based sagittal image acquisitions. Twenty prostate cancer patients who were planned to have permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy were prospectively accrued. A transrectal ultrasonography probe was inserted, with the patient in lithotomy position. Transverse images were obtained with stepping movement of the transverse transducer. In the same patient, sagittal images were also obtained through rotation of the sagittal transducer using the "Twister" mode. The differences of prostate size among the two types of image acquisitions were compared. The relationships among the difference of the two types of image acquisitions, dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters on the post-implant computed tomography (CT) analysis, as well as other factors were analyzed. The sagittal image acquisitions showed a larger prostate size compared to the transverse image acquisitions especially in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction ( p transverse image acquisitions was correlated to DVH parameters such as D 90 ( R = 0.518, p = 0.019), and V 100 ( R = 0.598, p = 0.005). There were small but significant differences in the prostate contours between the transverse and the sagittal planning image acquisitions. Furthermore, our study suggested that the differences between the two types of image acquisitions might correlated to dosimetric results on CT analysis.

  1. Multi-Modal Imaging in a Mouse Model of Orthotopic Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Priya; Kato, Tatsuya; Ujiie, Hideki; Wada, Hironobu; Lee, Daiyoon; Hu, Hsin-pei; Hirohashi, Kentaro; Ahn, Jin Young; Zheng, Jinzi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigation of CF800, a novel PEGylated nano-liposomal imaging agent containing indocyanine green (ICG) and iohexol, for real-time near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and computed tomography (CT) image-guided surgery in an orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice. Methods CF800 was intravenously administered into 13 mice bearing the H460 orthotopic human lung cancer. At 48 h post-injection (peak imaging agent accumulation time point), ex vivo NIR and CT imaging was performed. A cli...

  2. Status for NEXIM New X-ray Imaging Modalities for safe and high quality food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    . The main focuses are determined to be threefold: 1)Improving the detectability of low density foreign bodies incidentally present in food products. 2)Development of new modalities for assessment of quality traits in food production, for instance connective tissue and fatty acid composition. 3)Develop...... to developing laboratory-based setups further towards an in-line scanning system. Additionally, close co-operation with industrial partners has further emphasized the need for new techniques for quality control, product development and foreign object detection....

  3. Patient dosimetry and image quality in conventional diagnostic radiology. An experience from a local Serbian hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac; Milojko Kovacevic; Dusko Kosutic; Milan Loncar; Dajana Veljkovic

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The optimization of image quality vs. patient dose ins an important task in medical imaging. Maximal validity of optimization has to be based on clinical images. Simultaneous measurement of patient dose levels and image quality assessment is used to investigate possibilities for dose reduction and maintain image quality. The survey was conducted in a local hospital performing more than 60000 images annually and representing typical Serbian practice. For four most frequent diagnostic procedures (seven projections) patient exposure was measured using kerma area product meter. Image quality was assessed by experienced radiologists using 'European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images'. Following examination types were included into the survey: chest PA, chest LAT, pelvis AP, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine LAT and LSJ, skull PA and skull LAT. Comparing actual radiographic technique with recommended technique in European Guidelines, modification of practice was proposed and implemented and image quality was re-assessed. At least 10 adult patients were followed for each projection, before and after corrective actions. Large dose saving without compromising diagnostic information were found for some examination types, showing that this simple method is very efficient dose reduction tool in conventional diagnostic radiology. Also, need for staff training and difficulties related to practical implementation of optimization methods in Serbia were discussed.

  4. Cervical porcupine quill foreign body involving the spinal cord of a dog: A description of various imaging modality findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle le Roux

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although porcupine quill injuries are common in dogs, the detailed appearance of the quill on diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has not been sufficiently described. A 4-year-old, intact, female Jack Russel terrier presented with severe neck pain and ataxia after an altercation with a porcupine 2 weeks earlier. Radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were all utilised to identify a quill imbedded in the cervical vertebral canal and cervical musculature and were compared to each other. Surgical removal of the quill, guided by imaging findings, led to the resolution of the clinical signs in the patient. Previous ultrasound imaging reports have just stated that the quill consists of paralell hyperechoic lines, and do not mention the finer hyperechoic lines inbetween and do not try to provide a reason for the appearance. Previous computed tomography (CT reports just mention identifying the quill on CT images (whether or not CT could identify the fragments, but do not go into detail about the attenuating appearance of the quill nor try to relate this to the composition of the quill. This is to the authors’ knowledge the first report with detailed imaging descriptions of a case of cranial cervical vertebral canal porcupine quill foreign body in a dog. This is also the first report to allude to a possible difference in imaging findings related to quill structure because of keratin orientation and melanin content. The ideal imaging modality to use remains elusive, but ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging could all identify the quill.

  5. Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: a new imaging modality to identify original cellular biomarkers of diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, P.

    2016-05-03

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a powerful label-free technique in the field of living cell imaging allowing to non-invasively measure with a nanometric axial sensitivity cell structure and dynamics. Since the phase retardation of a light wave when transmitted through the observed cells, namely the quantitative phase signal (QPS), is sensitive to both cellular thickness and intracellular refractive index related to the cellular content, its accurate analysis allows to derive various cell parameters and monitor specific cell processes, which are very likely to identify new cell biomarkers. Specifically, quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM), thanks to its numerical flexibility facilitating parallelization and automation processes, represents an appealing imaging modality to both identify original cellular biomarkers of diseases as well to explore the underlying pathophysiological processes.

  6. Conical diffraction as a versatile building block to implement new imaging modalities for superresolution in fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Clément; Caron, Julien; Oddos, Stephane; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Moisan, Lionel; Sirat, Gabriel Y.; Braitbart, Philippe O.; Shorte, Spencer L.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new technology for super-resolution fluorescence imaging, based on conical diffraction. Conical diffraction is a linear, singular phenomenon taking place when a polarized beam is diffracted through a biaxial crystal. The illumination patterns generated by conical diffraction are more compact than the classical Gaussian beam; we use them to generate a super-resolution imaging modality. Conical Diffraction Microscopy (CODIM) resolution enhancement can be achieved with any type of objective on any kind of sample preparation and standard fluorophores. Conical diffraction can be used in multiple fashion to create new and disruptive technologies for super-resolution microscopy. This paper will focus on the first one that has been implemented and give a glimpse at what the future of microscopy using conical diffraction could be.

  7. Performance study of a fan beam collimator designed for a multi-modality small animal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbir Ahmed, ASM; Kramer, Gary H.; Semmler, Wolfrad; Peter, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology to design and conduct the performances of a fan beam collimator. This fan beam collimator was designed to use with a multi-modality small animal imaging device and the performance of the collimator was studied for a 3D geometry. Analytical expressions were formulated to calculate the parameters for the collimator. A Monte Carlo model was developed to analyze the scattering and image noises for a 3D object. The results showed that the performance of the fan beam collimator was strongly dependent on the source distribution and position. The fan beam collimator showed increased counting efficiency in comparison to a parallel hole collimator. Inside attenuating medium, the increased attenuating effect outweighed the fan beam increased counting efficiency.

  8. Optimization of conventional X-ray images for the detection of hook of hamate fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, R.; Adam, C.; Radmer, S.; Scheufler, O.; Bogusch, G.

    2006-01-01

    Fractures of the hook of the hamate are a rare event. The fracture cannot always be detected clinically and standard radiographs do not always provide an overlap-free image of the hook of the hamate, so that fractures can easily be overlooked. The objective of the present study was to examine if the sensitivity of detecting hamulus ossis hamati fractures can further be improved by a modified conventional radiographic projection. After dissection of the hook of the hamate on 10 cadaver hands, a fracture was produced close to the base using a surgical chisel. Conventional radiographs were then performed in four different projections (dorso-palmar, lateral, carpal-tunnel and oblique view). The oblique view was obtained in a 45 supination position, slight extension and radial duction, with the tube tilted from distal to proximal by 30 . An axial spiral CT was used as a reference for detection of the fracture. The highest sensitivity of the conventional radiographs, with 8/10 identified fractures (80%), was achieved by the oblique view. The carpal-tunnel view with 4/10 (40%) and the dorso-palmar projection with 3/10 (30%) were much lower. All fractures were missed in the lateral projection. If all of the conventional radiographic projections are taken into account, the sensitivity is increased to 90%. All of the fractures were reliably detected in the axial CT-image. If a hamulus ossis hamati fracture is suspected clinically, in addition to the dorso-palmar and carpal-tunnel view, the special oblique view described here should be performed as a third projection plane, while the lateral view can be dispensed with. However, even if all projections are taken into account, a negative finding in the conventional radiographic imaging does not exclude a fracture with absolute certainty. In such cases, a CT or MRI should be performed to exclude a fracture. (orig.)

  9. Multifunctional dendrimer-based nanoparticles for in vivo MR/CT dual-modal molecular imaging of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kangan Li,1,4,5,* Shihui Wen,2,* Andrew C Larson,4,5 Mingwu Shen,2 Zhuoli Zhang,4,5 Qian Chen,3 Xiangyang Shi,2,3 Guixiang Zhang1 1Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Development of dual-mode or multi-mode imaging contrast agents is important for accurate and self-confirmatory diagnosis of cancer. We report a new multifunctional, dendrimer-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP as a dual-modality contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR/computed tomography (CT imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine dendrimers modified with gadolinium chelate (DOTA-NHS and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether were used as templates to synthesize AuNPs, followed by Gd(III chelation and acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amine groups; multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped AuNPs (Gd-Au DENPs were formed. The formed Gd-Au DENPs were used for both in vitro and in vivo MR/CT imaging of human MCF-7 cancer cells. Both MR and CT images demonstrate that MCF-7 cells and the xenograft tumor model can be effectively imaged. The Gd-Au DENPs uptake, mainly in the cell cytoplasm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The cell cytotoxicity assay, cell morphology observation, and flow cytometry show that the developed Gd-Au DENPs have good biocompatibility in the given concentration range. Our results

  10. A comparison between conventional radiography and digitized image accuracy in proximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangnoosh M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Computer Sciences, in radiology, like other fields, is of high importance. It should"nalso be noted that the accuracy of the technique and work conditions affects the radiographs information"nconsiderably. There for, in order to get more accurate diagnostic information, it seems necessary to investigate"ndifferent digitized radiographic techniques and to compare them with the conventional technique."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of conventional and digitized radiographic"nimages by three digitization techniques in proximal caries detection."nMaterial and Methods: In this research study, sixty extracted human canines, premolars and molars were"nmounted in blocks and imaged on E-Kodak film, similar to bitewing radiographs. Ten bitewing radiographs"nwere then scanned at 600 d.p.i with flat bed scanner and a digital camera, then digitized at 300 d.p.i with"nanother digital camera. The digitized images were displayed randomly on a high-resolution monitor. Six"nobservers assessed the caries status of 120 proximal surfaces by conventional and digitized images. The"nobserver's scores were compared with the results of the macroscopic examination. Reliability of each"ntechnique was calculated. Data were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA tests."nResults: No significant differences were detected between different techniques in intact proximal surfaces and"nenamel caries diagnosis. However, digital techniques were more sensitive in dentin caries detection (P<0.05."nConclusions: When conventional film images are digitized, medium resolution (300 d.p.i seems to be"nsufficient. At this resolution the file size is decreased and there is no significant loss of the information"nnecessary for caries diagnosis.

  11. Soft tissue masses with myxoid stroma: Can conventional magnetic resonance imaging differentiate benign from malignant tumors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombe, A., E-mail: amandine.crombe@ens-lyon.fr [Department of Radiology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Alberti, N. [Department of Radiology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Stoeckle, E. [Department of Surgery, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Brouste, V. [Clinical and Epidemiological Research Unit, Institut Bergonié, 33000 Bordeaux (France); Buy, X. [Department of Radiology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Coindre, J-M. [Department of Pathology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Kind, M. [Department of Radiology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)

    2016-10-15

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of morphological signs observed on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to differentiate benign from malignant peripheral solid tumors of soft tissue with myxoid stroma. Methods: MR images from 95 consecutive histopathologically proven tumors (26 benign and 69 malignant) of soft tissues with myxoid components were evaluated in our tertiary referral center. Two radiologists, blind to pathology results, independently reviewed conventional MR sequences including at least a) one T2-weighted sequence with or without fat suppression; b) one T1-weighted sequence without fat suppression; and c) one T1-weighted sequence with gadolinium-complex contrast enhancement and fat suppression. Multiple criteria were defined to analyze morphology, margins, architecture and tumor periphery and evaluated for each lesion. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and Odds ratios were calculated for each criterion. Results: The most relevant and reproducible criteria to significantly predict malignancy were: (1) ill-defined tumor margins, (2) a hemorrhagic component, (3) intra-tumoral fat, (4) fibrosis and (5) the “tail sign”. A lesion is classified as malignant if any of these 5 criteria is present, and benign if none of them are observed. Therefore, this combination provides a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 93.3%. Conclusion: Conventional MR imaging provides reproducible criteria that can be combined to differentiate between benign and malignant solid tumors of soft tissue with myxoid stroma.

  12. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.H.; Wu, T.H.; Lin, M.H.; Yang, C.C.; Guo, W.Y.; Wang, Z.J.; Chen, C.L.; Lee, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future

  13. Anterior abdominal Wall scar endometriosis: Case series and review of imaging modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Üstüner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of endometriosis to pelvic and abdominal scar tissue is a very rare occurrence. Most commonly observed after cesarean sections due to implantation of uterine endometrial stem cells to outside tissues. Patients are often asymptomatic but may present with cyclic pain and mass. Imaging diagnosis is possible when classical implantation site near the scar tissue, clinical history and imaging findings are combined. In ultrasound imaging the lesion is often solid, mildly hypoechoic and often isoechoic to surrounding muscle. Presence of bleeding and fluid may cause the lesion to appear more heterogeneous. On computed tomography imaging the most pronounced finding is avid contrast enhancement of the lesion whereas in magnetic resonance imaging sensitivity to blood products.

  14. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: mvmfonte@uol.com.br; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Reed, Umbertina Conti [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Rosemberg, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Patologia

    2008-11-15

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  15. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Rosemberg, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  16. 7T MRI in focal epilepsy with unrevealing conventional field strength imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ciantis, Alessio; Barba, Carmen; Tassi, Laura; Cosottini, Mirco; Tosetti, Michela; Costagli, Mauro; Bramerio, Manuela; Bartolini, Emanuele; Biagi, Laura; Cossu, Massimo; Pelliccia, Veronica; Symms, Mark R; Guerrini, Renzo

    2016-03-01

    To assess the diagnostic yield of 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting and characterizing structural lesions in patients with intractable focal epilepsy and unrevealing conventional (1.5 or 3T) MRI. We conducted an observational clinical imaging study on 21 patients (17 adults and 4 children) with intractable focal epilepsy, exhibiting clinical and electroencephalographic features consistent with a single seizure-onset zone (SOZ) and unrevealing conventional MRI. Patients were enrolled at two tertiary epilepsy surgery centers and imaged at 7T, including whole brain (three-dimensional [3D] T1 -weighted [T1W] fast-spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR), 3D susceptibility-weighted angiography [SWAN], 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR]) and targeted imaging (2D T2*-weighted dual-echo gradient-recalled echo [GRE] and 2D gray-white matter tissue border enhancement [TBE] fast spin echo inversion recovery [FSE-IR]). MRI studies at 1.5 or 3T deemed unrevealing at the referral center were reviewed by three experts in epilepsy imaging. Reviewers were provided information regarding the suspected localization of the SOZ. The same team subsequently reviewed 7T images. Agreement in imaging interpretation was reached through consensus-based discussions based on visual identification of structural abnormalities and their likely correlation with clinical and electrographic data. 7T MRI revealed structural lesions in 6 (29%) of 21 patients. The diagnostic gain in detection was obtained using GRE and FLAIR images. Four of the six patients with abnormal 7T underwent epilepsy surgery. Histopathology revealed focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in all. In the remaining 15 patients (71%), 7T MRI remained unrevealing; 4 of the patients underwent epilepsy surgery and histopathologic evaluation revealed gliosis. 7T MRI improves detection of epileptogenic FCD that is not visible at conventional field strengths. A dedicated protocol including whole brain FLAIR and GRE images at 7T

  17. Multi-modality imaging of tumor phenotype and response to therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyflot, Matthew J.

    2011-12-01

    Imaging and radiation oncology have historically been closely linked. However, the vast majority of techniques used in the clinic involve anatomical imaging. Biological imaging offers the potential for innovation in the areas of cancer diagnosis and staging, radiotherapy target definition, and treatment response assessment. Some relevant imaging techniques are FDG PET (for imaging cellular metabolism), FLT PET (proliferation), CuATSM PET (hypoxia), and contrast-enhanced CT (vasculature and perfusion). Here, a technique for quantitative spatial correlation of tumor phenotype is presented for FDG PET, FLT PET, and CuATSM PET images. Additionally, multimodality imaging of treatment response with FLT PET, CuATSM, and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is presented, in a trial of patients receiving an antiangiogenic agent (Avastin) combined with cisplatin and radiotherapy. Results are also presented for translational applications in animal models, including quantitative assessment of proliferative response to cetuximab with FLT PET and quantification of vascular volume with a blood-pool contrast agent (Fenestra). These techniques have clear applications to radiobiological research and optimized treatment strategies, and may eventually be used for personalized therapy for patients.

  18. Efficiency of Imaging Modalities in Male Breast Disease: Can Ultrasound Give Additional Information for Assessment of Gynecomastia Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıca, Özgür; Kahraman, A. Nedim; Öztürk, Enis; Teke, Memik

    2018-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to present mammography and ultrasound findings of male breast lesions and to investigate the ability of diagnostic modalities in estimating the evolution of gynecomastia. Materials and Methods Sixty-nine male patients who admitted to Taksim and Bakirkoy Education and Research Hospitals and underwent mammography (MG) and ultrasonography (US) imaging were retrospectively evaluated. Duration of symptoms and mammographic types of gynecomastia according to Appelbaum’s classifications were evaluated, besides the sonographic findings in mammographic types of gynecomastia. Results The distribution of 69 cases were as follows: gynecomastia 47 (68.11%), pseudogynecomastia 6 (8.69%) primary breast carcinoma 7 (10.14%), metastatic carcinoma 1 (1.4%), epidermal inclusion cyst 2 (2.8%), abscess 2 (2.8%), lipoma 2 (2.8%), pyogenic granuloma 1 (1.4%), and granulomatous lobular mastitis 1 (1.4%). Gynecomastia patients who had symptoms less than 1 year had nodular gynecomastia (34.6%) as opposed to dendritic gynecomastia (61.5%) (pgynecomastia (70%) had a higher rate than the dendritic type (20%). Patients having the symptoms more than 2 years had diffuse gynecomastia (57.1%) while 42.9% had dendritic gynecomastia (pgynecomastia (92.3%) than noduler type (1.9 %). Patients having symptoms for 1 to 2 years had more dentritic gynecomastia (70%) than diffuse type (30%). Patients having symptoms more than 2 years had diffuse gynecomastia (57.1%) comparable to dendritic gynecomastia (42.9 %). Conclusion Diagnostic imaging modalities are efficient tools for estimation of gynecomastia evolution as well as the diagnosis of other male breast diseases. There seems to be an incongruity between duration of clinical complaints and diagnostic imaging classification of gynecomastia. The use of these high resolution US findings may demonstrate an early phase fibrosis especially in patients visualized by mammography as with nodular phase. PMID:29322116

  19. Imaging modalities and therapy options in patients with acute flank pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, A.; Grosse, C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is the description of imaging techniques for the evaluation of patients with acute flank pain and suspicion of urolithiasis and the impact of these techniques in the therapy management of patients with calculi. (orig.) [de

  20. Expert consensus for multi-modality imaging evaluation of cardiovascular complications of radiotherapy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Badano, Luigi P

    2013-01-01

    . A comprehensive review of potential cardiac complications related to radiotherapy is warranted. An evidence-based review of several imaging approaches used to detect, evaluate, and monitor RIHD is discussed. Recommendations for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular complications...

  1. Multi-modal in vivo imaging of brain blood oxygenation, blood flow and neural calcium dynamics during acute seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringuette, Dene; Jeffrey, Melanie A.; Carlen, Peter L.; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium has been implicated in the development of epilepsy. To better understand the relation between vascular function and seizure and provide a foundation for interpreting results from functional imaging in chronic disease models, we investigate the relationship between intracellular calcium dynamics and local cerebral blood flow and blood oxygen saturation during acute seizure-like events and pharmacological seizure rescue. To probe the relation between the aforementioned physiological markers in an acute model of epilepsy in rats, we integrated three different optical modalities together with electrophysiological recordings: Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) was used to study changes in flow speeds, Intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI) was used to monitor changes in oxygenated, de-oxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentration, and Calcium-sensitive dye imaging was used to monitor intracellular calcium dynamics. We designed a dedicated cortical flow chamber to remove superficial blood and dye resulting from the injection procedure, which reduced spurious artifacts. The near infrared light used for IOSI and LSCI was delivered via a light pipe integrated with the flow chamber to minimize the effect of fluid surface movement on illumination stability. Calcium-sensitive dye was injected via a glass electrode used for recording the local field potential. Our system allowed us to observe and correlate increases in intracellular calcium, blood flow and blood volume during seizure-like events and provide a quantitative analysis of neurovascular coupling changes associated with seizure rescue via injection of an anti-convulsive agent.

  2. Image Guided Virtual Autopsy: An Adjunct with Radiographic and Computed Tomography Modalities - An Important Tool in Forensic Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Rai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The forensic examination of dead bodies is very helpful in order to identify the person, cause of death, gender, and solving the mysterious cases. It includes a number of techniques, out of which autopsy is the primary investigation that is performed in every medicolegal case. Because of mutilation technologies, traditional autopsy technique is most disturbing in terms of emotions and rituals of relatives. The use of radiology in forensic science comprises performance, interpretation, and reporting of radiographs that is helpful in detecting those changes that are not clinically visible. Forensic radiology plays an important role for identification of humans in mass disasters, criminal investigations, and evaluation of cause of death. The introduction of radiological modalities in autopsy techniques is a complementary tool for forensic identification and is known as virtual autopsy. The advance imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is used in virtual autopsy in order to visualize and reconstruct the internal organs to know the site, type, and depth of injury. This review elaborates the role of maxillofacial imaging in image-guided virtual autopsy.

  3. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez D, Juan F; Egan, Gary F; Gray, Marcus A; Poudel, Govinda R; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Stout, Julie C; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2013-01-01

    IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively). In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume) and microstructural (diffusivity) longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter) and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change). Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years), close to diagnosis (fractional anisotropy, FA), only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  4. Staging of untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma with PET/CT: comparison with conventional imaging work-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Shu-Hang; Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liu, Feng-Yuan; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Liao, Chun-Ta; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Chin, Shu-Chyn; Hsu, Cheng-Lung

    2009-01-01

    We prospectively compared PET/CT and conventional imaging for initial staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 111 patients with histologically proven NPC were investigated with PET/CT and conventional imaging (head-and-neck MRI, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, and bone scan) before treatment. The respective findings were reviewed independently and then compared with each other. With regard to T staging, PET/CT showed a discrepancy with head-and-neck MRI in 36 (32.4%) of the study subjects. With regard to N staging, PET/CT showed a discrepancy with head-and-neck MRI in 15 (13.5%) patients. Among the discordant cases, MRI was superior in demonstrating tumor involvement in the parapharyngeal space, skull base, intracranial area, sphenoid sinus, and retropharyngeal nodes while PET/CT was superior in demonstrating neck nodal metastasis. PET/CT disclosed 13 of 16 patients with distant malignancy compared with four patients disclosed by conventional imaging work-up. The false-positive rate of PET/CT was 18.8%. PET/CT correctly modified M staging in eight patients (7.2%) and disclosed a second primary lung malignancy in one patient (0.9%). In NPC patients, MRI appears to be superior to PET/CT for the assessment of locoregional invasion and retropharyngeal nodal metastasis. PET/CT is more accurate than MRI for determining cervical nodal metastasis and should be the better reference for the neck status. PET/CT has an acceptable diagnostic yield and a low false-positive rate for the detection of distant malignancy and can replace conventional work-up to this aim. PET/CT and head-and-neck MRI are suggested for the initial staging of NPC patients. (orig.)

  5. Expanded image database of pistachio x-ray images and classification by conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Le, Lan Chau; Casasent, David P.; Weber, David

    1996-12-01

    In order to develop sorting methods for insect damaged pistachio nuts, a large data set of pistachio x-ray images (6,759 nuts) was created. Both film and linescan sensor images were acquired, nuts dissected and internal conditions coded using the U.S. Grade standards and definitions for pistachios. A subset of 1199 good and 686 insect damaged nuts was used to calculate and test discriminant functions. Statistical parameters of image histograms were evaluated for inclusion by forward stepwise discrimination. Using three variables in the discriminant function, 89% of test set nuts were correctly identified. Comparable data for 6 human subjects ranged from 67 to 92%. If the loss of good nuts is held to 1% by requiring a high probability to discard a nut as insect damaged, approximately half of the insect damage present in clean pistachio nuts may be detected and removed by x-ray inspection.

  6. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images......The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R2=0.974 for protein and R2=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly the obtained results were significantly worse (best models...

  7. High-frequency annular array with coaxial illumination for dual-modality ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoux, Erwan; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chitnis, Parag V.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) system used to obtain high-quality, co-registered images of mouse-embryo anatomy and vasculature. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >20 MHz) is utilized to obtain high-resolution anatomical images of small animals while PAI provides high-contrast images of the vascular network. The imaging system is based on a 40 MHz, 5-element, 6 mm aperture annular-array transducer with a 800 μm diameter hole through its central element. The transducer was integrated in a cage-plate assembly allowing for a collimated laser beam to pass through the hole so that the optical and acoustic beams were collinear. The assembly was mounted on a two-axis, motorized stage to enable the simultaneous acquisition of co-registered HFU and PA volumetric data. Data were collected from all five elements in receive and a synthetic-focusing algorithm was applied in post-processing to beamform the data and increase the spatial resolution and depth-of-field (DOF) of the HFU and PA images. Phantom measurements showed that the system could achieve high-resolution images (down to 90 μm for HFU and 150 μm for PAI) and a large DOF of >8 mm. Volume renderings of a mouse embryo showed that the scanner allowed for visualizing morphologically precise anatomy of the entire embryo along with corresponding co-registered vasculature. Major head vessels, such as the superior sagittal sinus or rostral vein, were clearly identified as well as limb bud vasculature.

  8. Multi-Modal Imaging in a Mouse Model of Orthotopic Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priya; Kato, Tatsuya; Ujiie, Hideki; Wada, Hironobu; Lee, Daiyoon; Hu, Hsin-Pei; Hirohashi, Kentaro; Ahn, Jin Young; Zheng, Jinzi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of CF800, a novel PEGylated nano-liposomal imaging agent containing indocyanine green (ICG) and iohexol, for real-time near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and computed tomography (CT) image-guided surgery in an orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice. CF800 was intravenously administered into 13 mice bearing the H460 orthotopic human lung cancer. At 48 h post-injection (peak imaging agent accumulation time point), ex vivo NIR and CT imaging was performed. A clinical NIR imaging system (SPY®, Novadaq) was used to measure fluorescence intensity of tumor and lung. Tumor-to-background-ratios (TBR) were calculated in inflated and deflated states. The mean Hounsfield unit (HU) of lung tumor was quantified using the CT data set and a semi-automated threshold-based method. Histological evaluation using H&E, the macrophage marker F4/80 and the endothelial cell marker CD31, was performed, and compared to the liposomal fluorescence signal obtained from adjacent tissue sections. The fluorescence TBR measured when the lung is in the inflated state (2.0 ± 0.58) was significantly greater than in the deflated state (1.42 ± 0.380 (n = 7, p<0.003). Mean fluorescent signal in tumor was highly variable across samples, (49.0 ± 18.8 AU). CT image analysis revealed greater contrast enhancement in lung tumors (a mean increase of 110 ± 57 HU) when CF800 is administered compared to the no contrast enhanced tumors (p = 0.0002). Preliminary data suggests that the high fluorescence TBR and CT tumor contrast enhancement provided by CF800 may have clinical utility in localization of lung cancer during CT and NIR image-guided surgery.

  9. Automatic registration of multi-modal microscopy images for integrative analysis of prostate tissue sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippolis, Giuseppe; Edsjö, Anders; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Overgaard, Niels Chr

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths. For diagnosis, predicting the outcome of the disease, and for assessing potential new biomarkers, pathologists and researchers routinely analyze histological samples. Morphological and molecular information may be integrated by aligning microscopic histological images in a multiplex fashion. This process is usually time-consuming and results in intra- and inter-user variability. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using modern image analysis methods for automated alignment of microscopic images from differently stained adjacent paraffin sections from prostatic tissue specimens. Tissue samples, obtained from biopsy or radical prostatectomy, were sectioned and stained with either hematoxylin & eosin (H&E), immunohistochemistry for p63 and AMACR or Time Resolved Fluorescence (TRF) for androgen receptor (AR). Image pairs were aligned allowing for translation, rotation and scaling. The registration was performed automatically by first detecting landmarks in both images, using the scale invariant image transform (SIFT), followed by the well-known RANSAC protocol for finding point correspondences and finally aligned by Procrustes fit. The Registration results were evaluated using both visual and quantitative criteria as defined in the text. Three experiments were carried out. First, images of consecutive tissue sections stained with H&E and p63/AMACR were successfully aligned in 85 of 88 cases (96.6%). The failures occurred in 3 out of 13 cores with highly aggressive cancer (Gleason score ≥ 8). Second, TRF and H&E image pairs were aligned correctly in 103 out of 106 cases (97%). The third experiment considered the alignment of image pairs with the same staining (H&E) coming from a stack of 4 sections. The success rate for alignment dropped from 93.8% in adjacent sections to 22% for sections furthest away. The proposed method is both reliable and fast and therefore well suited

  10. The role of multi modality imaging in selecting patients and guiding lead placement for the delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Jonathan M; Claridge, Simon; Jackson, Tom; Sieniewicz, Ben; Porter, Bradley; Webb, Jessica; Rajani, Ronak; Kapetanakis, Stamatis; Carr-White, Gerald; Rinaldi, Christopher A

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective pacemaker delivered treatment for selected patients with heart failure with the target of restoring electro-mechanical synchrony. Imaging techniques using echocardiography have as yet failed to find a metric of dyssynchrony to predict CRT response. Current guidelines are thus unchanged in recommending prolonged QRS duration, severe systolic function and refractory heart failure symptoms as criteria for CRT implantation. Evolving strain imaging techniques in 3D echocardiography, cardiac MRI and CT may however, overcome limitations of older methods and yield more powerful CRT response predictors. Areas covered: In this review, we firstly discuss the use of multi modality cardiac imaging in the selection of patients for CRT implantation and predicting the response to CRT. Secondly we examine the clinical evidence on avoiding areas of myocardial scar, targeting areas of dyssynchrony and in doing so, achieving the optimal positioning of the left ventricular lead to deliver CRT. Finally, we present the latest clinical studies which are integrating both clinical and imaging data with X-rays during the implantation in order to improve the accuracy of LV lead placement. Expert commentary: Image integration and fusion of datasets with live X-Ray angiography to guide procedures in real time is now a reality for some implanting centers. Such hybrid facilities will enable users to interact with images, allowing measurement, annotation and manipulation with instantaneous visualization on the catheter laboratory monitor. Such advances will serve as an invaluable adjunct for implanting physicians to accurately deliver pacemaker leads into the optimal position to deliver CRT.

  11. Imaging findings in a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a survey using advanced modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronooh, Pegah [Dental School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafar, Ali Reza [TABA Medical Imaging Center, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Houshyar, Maneli; Nafarzade, Shima [Oral Pathology Department, Babol Dental School, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multi-systemic disease which is characterized by multiple keratocysts in the jaws, calcification of falx cerebri, and basal cell carcinomas. We report a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in a 23-year-old man with emphasis on image findings of keratocyctic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) on panoramic radiograph, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and Ultrasonography (US). In this case, pericoronal lesions were mostly orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) concerning the MR and US study, which tended to recur less. The aim of this report was to clarify the characteristic imaging features of the syndrome-related keratocysts that can be used to differentiate KCOT from OOC. Also, our findings suggested that the recurrence rate of KCOTs might be predicted based on their association to teeth.

  12. Imaging findings in a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a survey using advanced modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronoosh, Pegah; Shakibafar, Ali Reza; Houshyar, Maneli; Nafarzade, Shima

    2011-12-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multi-systemic disease which is characterized by multiple keratocysts in the jaws, calcification of falx cerebri, and basal cell carcinomas. We report a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in a 23-year-old man with emphasis on image findings of keratocyctic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) on panoramic radiograph, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and Ultrasonography (US). In this case, pericoronal lesions were mostly orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) concerning the MR and US study, which tended to recur less. The aim of this report was to clarify the characteristic imaging features of the syndrome-related keratocysts that can be used to differentiate KCOT from OOC. Also, our findings suggested that the recurrence rate of KCOTs might be predicted based on their association to teeth.

  13. Imaging findings in a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a survey using advanced modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronooh, Pegah; Shakibafar, Ali Reza; Houshyar, Maneli; Nafarzade, Shima

    2011-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multi-systemic disease which is characterized by multiple keratocysts in the jaws, calcification of falx cerebri, and basal cell carcinomas. We report a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in a 23-year-old man with emphasis on image findings of keratocyctic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) on panoramic radiograph, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and Ultrasonography (US). In this case, pericoronal lesions were mostly orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) concerning the MR and US study, which tended to recur less. The aim of this report was to clarify the characteristic imaging features of the syndrome-related keratocysts that can be used to differentiate KCOT from OOC. Also, our findings suggested that the recurrence rate of KCOTs might be predicted based on their association to teeth.

  14. Selective imaging modalities after first pyelonephritis failed to identify significant urological anomalies, despite normal antenatal ultrasounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mola, Gylli; Wenger, Therese Ramstad; Salomonsson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the consequences of applying different imaging guidelines for urological anomalies after first pyelonephritis in children with normal routine antenatal ultrasounds. METHODS: The cohort comprised 472 children treated for their first culture-positive pyelonephritis and investig......AIM: We investigated the consequences of applying different imaging guidelines for urological anomalies after first pyelonephritis in children with normal routine antenatal ultrasounds. METHODS: The cohort comprised 472 children treated for their first culture-positive pyelonephritis...... identified all patients initially treated with surgery and avoided 65 scintigraphies. CONCLUSION: Dilated VUR was the dominant anomaly in a cohort with first time pyelonephritis and normal antenatal ultrasound. The optimal imaging strategy after pyelonephritis must be identified....

  15. Non-traumatic acute abdomen in the adult: a critical review of imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Boos, S.; Heinemann, F.; Wenz, W.

    1992-01-01

    Two different series collected at the University Hospital of Freiburg are presented as a basis for the critical appraisal of available imaging tests and their correlation with anatomic pain sites. The first series comprises 284 patients of non-traumatic acute abdomen admitted to the emergency department during 1990. The radiological approach revealed an increased use of immediate ultrasound (58%) followed by plain film radiography (53%), contrast studies (15%), and computed tomography (9.8%). Five groups of entities were identified according to the diagnostic imaging procedure prior to surgery. In a second series, the clinical presentation, the distribution and the efficacy of imaging studies for the confirmation of acute mesenteric ischemia were evaluated in 55 patients over a period of 14 years. A reduced mortality rate emphasizes the value of early and agressive diagnosis and angiographic management. (orig.)

  16. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Dual-Modality Glyco-Nanoparticles for Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available d-Glucosamine (DG was conjugated to a core-cross linked polymeric micelle (CCPM system equipped with both a near-infrared fluorophore (NIRF and a gamma emitter (111In. The resultant nano-scale tumor-targeting imaging tracer, 111In-DG-NIRF-CCPM, selectively accumulated in a human epithelial carcinoma A-431 xenograft model in mice. At 24 hrs post injection, the tumor uptake was 2.62 ± 0.80 % of the injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g. Tumors were clearly delineated in both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and optical imaging. The results suggest that the prepared imaging tracer is a promising agent for tumor diagnosis.

  17. High Definition Confocal Imaging Modalities for the Characterization of Tissue-Engineered Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrand, Dominique; Fradette, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Optimal imaging methods are necessary in order to perform a detailed characterization of thick tissue samples from either native or engineered tissues. Tissue-engineered substitutes are featuring increasing complexity including multiple cell types and capillary-like networks. Therefore, technical approaches allowing the visualization of the inner structural organization and cellular composition of tissues are needed. This chapter describes an optical clearing technique which facilitates the detailed characterization of whole-mount samples from skin and adipose tissues (ex vivo tissues and in vitro tissue-engineered substitutes) when combined with spectral confocal microscopy and quantitative analysis on image renderings.

  18. Arterial hyperintensity on BLADE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) in hyperacute territorial infarction: comparison with conventional FLAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Eujean; Lim, Soo Mee; Park, Ji Eun; Chae, In Hye [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the utility of BLADE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging compared to conventional FLAIR for the detection of arterial hyperintensity (AH) in hyperacute territorial infarction. We retrospectively analysed MR images of patients with hyperacute (<6 h) territorial infarction over a 9-month study period. Special attention was paid to the presence or absence of AH in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes and the number of AHs in the sylvian fissure. We also evaluated the presence of three kinds of artefacts on BLADE FLAIR and conventional FLAIR images. AH was seen in 41 (91 %) patients with conventional FLAIR and 45 (100 %) patients with BLADE FLAIR images. More instances of AH were detected in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes and within the sylvian fissure using BLADE FLAIR. Motion artefacts, pulsation artefacts from the sigmoid sinus and incomplete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nulling that reduced image quality were observed more frequently on conventional FLAIR images than on BLADE FLAIR images. BLADE FLAIR sequences are more sensitive than conventional FLAIR for the detection of AH in hyperacute territorial infarctions and provide better image quality by reducing artefacts. They may be used in place of conventional FLAIR for patients with hyperacute stroke. (orig.)

  19. Synovial and inflammatory diseases in childhood: role of new imaging modalities in the assessment of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damasio, Maria Beatrice; Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto; Toma, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) represents a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by a chronic inflammatory process primarily targeting the synovial membrane. A persistent synovitis is associated with an increased risk of osteocartilaginous damage. With the advent of effective structure-modifying treatment for JIA, it may be possible to significantly reduce or even completely prevent structural damage and associated functional disability. The trend towards early suppression of inflammation, in order to prevent erosive disease, shifts the emphasis away from conventional radiographic detectable structural damage to the slightest traces of early joint damage, and drives the need for alternative imaging techniques more sensitive in detecting early signs of disease activity and damage. In this regard MRI and US are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of arthritic joints. This article will review the key aspects of the current status and recent important advances of imaging techniques available to investigate the child with rheumatic disease, briefly discussing conventional radiography, and particularly focusing on MRI and US. In this era of advancing imaging technology, knowledge of the relative values of available imaging techniques is necessary to optimize the management of children with JIA. (orig.)

  20. Comparison study among conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Bum Jin; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    2000-01-01

    To determine the most useful sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites by comparing conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images. 12 patients having pleural effusion and 14 patients having ascites were included in this study. 18 patients were male and 8 patients were female. Average age was 54.8 yrs (25-77). We compared images which had been taken at the same section with 3 above mentioned sonographic techniques. Evaluation was done by 3 radiologists in consensus and grades were given to 3 techniques from 1 to 3. Evaluating points were 1) normal structures that border the fluid such as liver, peritoneal lining, pleura, 2) septation in fluid, 3) debris floating in fluid, and 4) artifacts. Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best in image quality for normal structures, followed by tissue harmonic and conventional image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was better than conventional image to evaluate septation in fluid (p<0.05), but there were no statistically significant difference between pulse inversion and tissue harmonic images, and tissue harmonic and conventional images. Tissue harmonic image was better than pulse inversion harmonic and conventional images to evaluate debris floating in fluid (p<0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between these two latter techniques. Artifacts were most prominent on conventional image followed by tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion or ascites, However, Tissue harmonic image was the best for evaluation of debris.

  1. Comparison study among conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Bum Jin; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To determine the most useful sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites by comparing conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images. 12 patients having pleural effusion and 14 patients having ascites were included in this study. 18 patients were male and 8 patients were female. Average age was 54.8 yrs (25-77). We compared images which had been taken at the same section with 3 above mentioned sonographic techniques. Evaluation was done by 3 radiologists in consensus and grades were given to 3 techniques from 1 to 3. Evaluating points were 1) normal structures that border the fluid such as liver, peritoneal lining, pleura, 2) septation in fluid, 3) debris floating in fluid, and 4) artifacts. Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best in image quality for normal structures, followed by tissue harmonic and conventional image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was better than conventional image to evaluate septation in fluid (p<0.05), but there were no statistically significant difference between pulse inversion and tissue harmonic images, and tissue harmonic and conventional images. Tissue harmonic image was better than pulse inversion harmonic and conventional images to evaluate debris floating in fluid (p<0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between these two latter techniques. Artifacts were most prominent on conventional image followed by tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion or ascites, However, Tissue harmonic image was the best for evaluation of debris.

  2. Cone Beam Computed Tomography-Dawn of A New Imaging Modality in Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatha, J; Chaitra, K R; Paul, Renji K; George, Merin; Anitha, J; Khanna, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Today, we are in a world of innovations, and there are various diagnostics aids that help to take a decision regarding treatment in a well-planned way. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been a vital tool for imaging diagnostic tool in orthodontics. This article reviews case reports during orthodontic treatment and importance of CBCT during the treatment evaluation. PMID:26225116

  3. A Bayesian Spatial Model to Predict Disease Status Using Imaging Data From Various Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiong Xue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Relating disease status to imaging data stands to increase the clinical significance of neuroimaging studies. Many neurological and psychiatric disorders involve complex, systems-level alterations that manifest in functional and structural properties of the brain and possibly other clinical and biologic measures. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model to predict disease status, which is able to incorporate information from both functional and structural brain imaging scans. We consider a two-stage whole brain parcellation, partitioning the brain into 282 subregions, and our model accounts for correlations between voxels from different brain regions defined by the parcellations. Our approach models the imaging data and uses posterior predictive probabilities to perform prediction. The estimates of our model parameters are based on samples drawn from the joint posterior distribution using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods. We evaluate our method by examining the prediction accuracy rates based on leave-one-out cross validation, and we employ an importance sampling strategy to reduce the computation time. We conduct both whole-brain and voxel-level prediction and identify the brain regions that are highly associated with the disease based on the voxel-level prediction results. We apply our model to multimodal brain imaging data from a study of Parkinson's disease. We achieve extremely high accuracy, in general, and our model identifies key regions contributing to accurate prediction including caudate, putamen, and fusiform gyrus as well as several sensory system regions.

  4. STIM with energy loss contrast: An imaging modality unique to MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, H.W.; Schofield, R.M.S.; Bench, G.S.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) through measurement of energy loss of individual ions is a quantitative imaging technique with several unique capabilities. The uniqueness derives conjointly from the large penetration with small scattering of MeV ions in low-Z specimens, from the simple relationship between energy loss and projected or areal density, and from the almost 100% efficiency with which one obtains pixel data from individual ions. Since contrast is in energy loss and not in numbers of events, the statistics of energy loss straggling affects the image but the statistics of counting does not. Small scattering makes it possible to observe details within transparent specimens. High efficiency makes it possible to collect large data sets for computed tomography, stereo, or high-definition imaging with a small radiation dose. High efficiency allows one to minimize aberrations by use of small apertures, to achieve good precision in the determination of areal density, or even to image live biological specimens in air since only one or a few ions per pixel are required. This paper includes a bibliography on STIM with MeV ions, it discusses the accuracy that one can achieve in the areal density coloring of a pixel with data from one or a few ions, and it supplements that review with recent examples from the Melbourne and the Eugene microprobes. (orig.)

  5. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for pancreatic neoplasms without hematoxylin and eosin stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youting; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hong; Hong, Zhipeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples is the standard approach in histopathology for imaging and diagnosing cancer. Recent reports have shown that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides better sample interface with single-cell resolution, which enhances traditional H&E staining and offers a powerful diagnostic tool with potential applications in oncology. The purpose of this study was to further expand the versatility of MPM by establishing the optical parameters required for imaging unstained histological sections of pancreatic neoplasms, thereby providing an efficient and environmentally sustainable alternative to H&E staining while improving the accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnoses. We found that the high-resolution MPM images clearly distinguish between the structure of normal pancreatic tissues compared with pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections, and discernable differences in tissue architecture and cell morphology between normal versus tumorigenic cells led to enhanced optical diagnosis of cancerous tissue. Moreover, quantitative assessment of the cytomorphological features visualized from MPM images showed significant differences in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios of pancreatic neoplasms compared with normal pancreas, as well as further distinguished pancreatic malignant tumors from benign tumors. These results indicate that the MPM could potentially serve as an optical tool for the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms in unstained histological sections.

  6. Automatic generation of boundary conditions using demons nonrigid image registration for use in 3-D modality-independent elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Thomas S; Ou, Jao J; Ong, Rowena E; Miga, Michael I

    2011-09-01

    Modality-independent elastography (MIE) is a method of elastography that reconstructs the elastic properties of tissue using images acquired under different loading conditions and a biomechanical model. Boundary conditions are a critical input to the algorithm and are often determined by time-consuming point correspondence methods requiring manual user input. This study presents a novel method of automatically generating boundary conditions by nonrigidly registering two image sets with a demons diffusion-based registration algorithm. The use of this method was successfully performed in silico using magnetic resonance and X-ray-computed tomography image data with known boundary conditions. These preliminary results produced boundary conditions with an accuracy of up to 80% compared to the known conditions. Demons-based boundary conditions were utilized within a 3-D MIE reconstruction to determine an elasticity contrast ratio between tumor and normal tissue. Two phantom experiments were then conducted to further test the accuracy of the demons boundary conditions and the MIE reconstruction arising from the use of these conditions. Preliminary results show a reasonable characterization of the material properties on this first attempt and a significant improvement in the automation level and viability of the method.

  7. Preoperative conventional magnetic resonance images versus magnetic resonance arthrography of subacromial impingement syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Hyuk; Park, Jung Hwan; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Seung Jun

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of conventional magnetic resonance images (MRI) for arthroscopic surgery in subacromial impingement syndrome of the shoulder, as an alternative to MR arthrography with additional T2 fat saturation images (MRA). The preoperative MRI of 77 patients (45 females, 32 males) (52 right, 25 left) and MRA of 34 patients (14 females, 20 males) (24 right, 10 left) with subsequent arthroscopic confirmation of subacromial impingement syndrome were reviewed retrospectively. The lesions requiring arthroscopic surgery were 95 subacromial spurs, 101 subacromial bursitis, and 51 full-thickness and 44 partial thickness tears of the supraspinatus among 111 cases for both studies. A two by two table was constructed in order to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of both studies against arthroscopic outcomes. Also we analyzed the false positive and false negative cases of the full-thickness tears individually. The detection rates of subacromial spur and bursitis and full and partial thickness tears of the supraspinatus were 91%, 94%, 77%, and 65% in MRI and 93%, 100%, 83%, and 77% in MRA respectively. Their specificities were 33%, 33%, 90%, and 76% in MRI and 50%, 75%, 100%, and 71% in MRA respectively. Eleven false negative cases in regards to MRI resulted in Ellman's grade 3 partial thickness tear (72.7%), mild bursitis (63.6%), greater tuberosity erosion (45.5%), and negative fluid signal of the glenohumeral joint (81.8%). Three false positive cases on the MRI were induced from errors with lower window depth and width on the imagings. Two false negative cases on MRA were induced from the adhesion between Ellman's grade 3 rim rent tear and the glenohumeral joint cavity. Conventional MR images could be used to decide the arthroscopic surgery in subacromial impingement syndrome, as an alternative to MR arthrography with additional T2 fat saturation images

  8. Preoperative conventional magnetic resonance images versus magnetic resonance arthrography of subacromial impingement syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Hyuk; Park, Jung Hwan; Moon, Tae Yong [Pusan National Univ. Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Sook; Lee, Seung Jun [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of conventional magnetic resonance images (MRI) for arthroscopic surgery in subacromial impingement syndrome of the shoulder, as an alternative to MR arthrography with additional T2 fat saturation images (MRA). The preoperative MRI of 77 patients (45 females, 32 males) (52 right, 25 left) and MRA of 34 patients (14 females, 20 males) (24 right, 10 left) with subsequent arthroscopic confirmation of subacromial impingement syndrome were reviewed retrospectively. The lesions requiring arthroscopic surgery were 95 subacromial spurs, 101 subacromial bursitis, and 51 full-thickness and 44 partial thickness tears of the supraspinatus among 111 cases for both studies. A two by two table was constructed in order to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of both studies against arthroscopic outcomes. Also we analyzed the false positive and false negative cases of the full-thickness tears individually. The detection rates of subacromial spur and bursitis and full and partial thickness tears of the supraspinatus were 91%, 94%, 77%, and 65% in MRI and 93%, 100%, 83%, and 77% in MRA respectively. Their specificities were 33%, 33%, 90%, and 76% in MRI and 50%, 75%, 100%, and 71% in MRA respectively. Eleven false negative cases in regards to MRI resulted in Ellman's grade 3 partial thickness tear (72.7%), mild bursitis (63.6%), greater tuberosity erosion (45.5%), and negative fluid signal of the glenohumeral joint (81.8%). Three false positive cases on the MRI were induced from errors with lower window depth and width on the imagings. Two false negative cases on MRA were induced from the adhesion between Ellman's grade 3 rim rent tear and the glenohumeral joint cavity. Conventional MR images could be used to decide the arthroscopic surgery in subacromial impingement syndrome, as an alternative to MR arthrography with additional T2 fat saturation images.

  9. Imaging follow-up in patients with unresectable cellular hepatocarcinoma treated with conventional TACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents more than 5% of all neoplasms and is the most frequent cause of mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Although a number of therapeutic options are available, transarterial chemoembolisation is widely used in the treatment of unresectable HCC. Aim: Evaluation of the role of CT and MRI exams in the imaging followup of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated with conventional transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE). Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 120 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of HCC, sent to the Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology between january 2011 and april 2012 for TACE. The diagnosis of HCC was established using imaging criteria and elevated alfafetoprotein levels (higher than 400ng/ml) or histologic diagnosis. After the procedure, the imaging followup algorithm consisted in an ultrasound exam 24 hours after the procedure, a CT exam 1 month, a MRI exam 3 months later (if the previous CT showed no tumoral residues) and a CT exam 6 months later. The tumoral response was evaluated using the modified RECIST criteria (tumoral dimensions defined as the product of the 2 largest diameters), the visualisation of tumoral arterial enhancement and the presence of intratumoral lipiodol accumulation (defined as absent, homogenous or heterogenous). Results: At the CT exam performed 1 month after the procedure, 44 patients (37%) had homogenous intratumoral lipiodol accumulation, without any tumoral residues and with dimensional reduction. In patients with tumoral residue (n=76), the intratumoral lipiodol accumulation was homogenous (n=48) or heterogenous (n=28); in 5 cases, after the first TACE procedure, we had no lipiodol accumulation in the target lesion. Conclusion: CT exam is an essential tool in the postprocedural followup in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated with conventional transarterial

  10. Study on the diagnosis and mechanism of hemispatial neglect using different imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lele; Yin Yafu; Li Yaming

    2013-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a kind of cognitive impairment characterized by failure to report, respond or orient to stimuli presented in ipsi- or contra-lateral space after brain injury, which cannot be attributed to sensory or motor defects. Although there are various diagnosis and assessment methods, none is regarded as standard. The paper and pencil test is commonly used in routine clinical workup. The mechanism is controversial and the most accepted opinion is due to visuospatial attention defect. Imaging study focuses on exploring the functional regions leading to the hemispatial neglect. As functional imaging, SPECT and PET have capability to evaluate the perfusion, glucose metabolism and cellular vitality, which have been found increasingly useful and applicable clinically in the field of diagnosis for cognitive impairment diseases. They are likely to have potential for contribution in the study of hemispatial neglect. (authors)

  11. Multi-modality imaging findings of huge intrachoroidal cavitation and myopic peripapillary sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yutong; Ma, Xiaoli; Hua, Rui

    2018-02-02

    Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation was described as the presence of an asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, yellow-orange, peripapillary lesion at the inferior border of the myopic conus in eyes with high myopia. A 66-year-old myopic Chinese man was enrolled and his multi-color imaging examination showed a well-circumscribed, caesious, peripapillary lesion coalesced with the optic nerve head vertically rotated and obliquely tilted, together with an inferotemporal sinkhole in the myopic conus. The optical coherence tomography images showed an intrachoroidal hyporeflective space, schisis, an intracavitary septum located below the retinal pigment epithelium and inserted beneath the optic nerve head, as well as a sinkhole between the peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation and the vitreous space. Both myopic colobomas and sinkhole in myopic conus may contribute the coalescence of intrachoroidal cavitation with optic nerve head. These qualitative and quantitative new findings will be beneficial for understanding its pathomorphological mechanism, and the impact on optic nerve tissue of myopic patients.

  12. Evaluation of the tarsometatarsal joint using conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nasir A; Galizia, Mauricio S; Almusa, Emad; Omar, Imran M

    2014-01-01

    The tarsometatarsal, or Lisfranc, joint complex provides stability to the midfoot and forefoot through intricate osseous relationships between the distal tarsal bones and metatarsal bases and their connections with stabilizing ligamentous support structures. Lisfranc joint injuries are relatively uncommon, and their imaging findings can be subtle. These injuries have typically been divided into high-impact fracture-displacements, which are often seen after motor vehicle collisions, and low-impact midfoot sprains, which are more commonly seen in athletes. The injury mechanism often influences the imaging findings, and classification systems based primarily on imaging features have been developed to help diagnose and treat these injuries. Patients may have significant regional swelling and pain that prevent thorough physical examination or may have other more critical injuries at initial posttrauma evaluation. These factors may cause diagnostic delays and lead to subsequent morbidities, such as midfoot instability, deformity, and debilitating osteoarthritis. Missed Lisfranc ligament injuries are among the most common causes of litigation against radiologists and emergency department physicians. Radiologists must understand the pathophysiology of these injuries and the patterns of imaging findings seen at conventional radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging to improve injury detection and obtain additional information for referring physicians that may affect the selection of the injury classification system, treatment, and prognosis. ©RSNA, 2014.

  13. Recent Inferior Myocardial Infarction Complicated with a Right Ventricular Thrombus Detected by Three Cardiac Imaging Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Toshiki; Imaeda, Syohei; Hashimoto, Kenji; Ryuzaki, Toshinobu; Saito, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Tabei, Ryota; Kodaira, Masaki; Hase, Manabu; Numasawa, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old woman diagnosed with recent inferior myocardial infarction complicated with right ventricular infarction and a right ventricular thrombus. Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging clearly detected a thrombus. We consider cases with a recent right ventricular infarction to require assessment for thrombus formations in the right ventricle. Fortunately, vigorous anticoagulation therapy resolved the thrombi in both the right ventricle and right coronary artery.

  14. Exploring Multi-Modal and Structured Representation Learning for Visual Image and Video Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    As the explosive growth of the visual data, it is particularly important to develop intelligent visual understanding techniques for dealing with a large amount of data. Many efforts have been made in recent years to build highly effective and large-scale visual processing algorithms and systems. One of the core aspects in the research line is how to learn robust representations to better describe the data. In this thesis we study the problem of visual image and video understanding and specifi...

  15. Multi-modality Imaging: Bird's eye view from the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J; Lloyd, Steven G; Chaudhry, Farooq A; AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-04-01

    Multiple novel studies were presented at the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions which was considered a successful conference at many levels. In this review, we will summarize key studies in nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and cardiac computed tomography that were presented at the Sessions. We hope that this bird's eye view will keep readers updated on the newest imaging studies presented at the meeting whether or not they were able to attend the meeting.

  16. Correlation of the findings of thallium-201 chloride scans with those of other imaging modalities and histology following therapy in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostakoglu, L.; Panicek, D.M.; Divgi, C.R.; Botet, J.; Healy, J.; Larson, S.M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    We performed a prospective study to evaluate the imaging potential of thallium-201 as compared with other imaging modalities in differentiating residual/recurrent tumors from post-therapy changes in patients with musculoskeletal sarcomas. 201 Tl scans, magnetic resonance imaging (17), X-ray computed tomography (6) or contrast angiography (6) studies in 29 patients previously treated for musculoskeletal sarcomas were correlated with either histopathologic findings (26 patients) or 2-year clinical follow-up (three patients). All imaging studies were acquired within 2 weeks. Ratios of 201 Tl tumor uptake to the contralateral (28 patients) or adjacent region of interest were calculated. When qualitative interpretation was in doubt, only those cases with a ratio of 1.5 or more were considered suggestive of recurrent or residual viable tumor tissue. Residual or recurrent tumor tissue was verified in 21 patients by biopsy. All had true-positive 201 Tl scans while the other imaging modalities were true-positive in 20 and equivocal in one. In eight patients, there was no evidence of viable tumor tissue as proven by biopsy in five and long-term clinical follow-up in three. 201 Tl scan was false-positive (ratio 1.5) in one patient and true-negative in seven while the other imaging modalities had four false-positives. The average 201 Tl ratios were 3.8 ± 1.1 in the true-positive cases and 1.3 ± 0.3 in the true-negative cases. The percentage sensitivities, specificities, and accuracy for 201 Tl were 100%, 87.5%, and 96.5% versus 95%, 50%, and 82.7% respectively for other imaging modalities. These results indicate that 201 Tl scintigraphy is more accurate than other imaging modalities in differentiating residual/recurrent musculoskeletal sarcomas from post-therapy changes. (orig.)

  17. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management.

  18. Synthesis of polymer-lipid nanoparticles for image-guided delivery of dual modality therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszawska, Aneta J; Kim, YongTae; Gianella, Anita; van Rooy, Inge; Priem, Bram; Labarre, Matthew P; Ozcan, Canturk; Cormode, David P; Petrov, Artiom; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2013-09-18

    For advanced treatment of diseases such as cancer, multicomponent, multifunctional nanoparticles hold great promise. In the current study we report the synthesis of a complex nanoparticle (NP) system with dual drug loading as well as diagnostic properties. To that aim we present a methodology where chemically modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) polymer is formulated into a polymer-lipid NP that contains a cytotoxic drug doxorubicin (DOX) in the polymeric core and an anti-angiogenic drug sorafenib (SRF) in the lipidic corona. The NP core also contains gold nanocrystals (AuNCs) for imaging purposes and cyclodextrin molecules to maximize the DOX encapsulation in the NP core. In addition, a near-infrared (NIR) Cy7 dye was incorporated in the coating. To fabricate the NP we used a microfluidics-based technique that offers unique NP synthesis conditions, which allowed for encapsulation and fine-tuning of optimal ratios of all the NP components. NP phantoms could be visualized with computed tomography (CT) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging. We observed timed release of the encapsulated drugs, with fast release of the corona drug SRF and delayed release of a core drug DOX. In tumor bearing mice intravenously administered NPs were found to accumulate at the tumor site by fluorescence imaging.

  19. WE-AB-BRA-06: 4DCT-Ventilation: A Novel Imaging Modality for Thoracic Surgical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Y; Jackson, M; Schubert, L; Jones, B; Mitchell, J; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Guerrero, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The current standard-of-care imaging used to evaluate lung cancer patients for surgical resection is nuclear-medicine ventilation. Surgeons use nuclear-medicine images along with pulmonary function tests (PFT) to calculate percent predicted postoperative (%PPO) PFT values by estimating the amount of functioning lung that would be lost with surgery. 4DCT-ventilation is an emerging imaging modality developed in radiation oncology that uses 4DCT data to calculate lung ventilation maps. We perform the first retrospective study to assess the use of 4DCT-ventilation for pre-operative surgical evaluation. The purpose of this work was to compare %PPO-PFT values calculated with 4DCT-ventilation and nuclear-medicine imaging. Methods: 16 lung cancer patients retrospectively reviewed had undergone 4DCTs, nuclear-medicine imaging, and had Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) acquired as part of a standard PFT. For each patient, 4DCT data sets, spatial registration, and a density-change based model were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation maps. Both 4DCT and nuclear-medicine images were used to calculate %PPO-FEV1 using %PPO-FEV1=pre-operative FEV1*(1-fraction of total ventilation of resected lung). Fraction of ventilation resected was calculated assuming lobectomy and pneumonectomy. The %PPO-FEV1 values were compared between the 4DCT-ventilation-based calculations and the nuclear-medicine-based calculations using correlation coefficients and average differences. Results: The correlation between %PPO-FEV1 values calculated with 4DCT-ventilation and nuclear-medicine were 0.81 (p<0.01) and 0.99 (p<0.01) for pneumonectomy and lobectomy respectively. The average difference between the 4DCT-ventilation based and the nuclear-medicine-based %PPO-FEV1 values were small, 4.1±8.5% and 2.9±3.0% for pneumonectomy and lobectomy respectively. Conclusion: The high correlation results provide a strong rationale for a clinical trial translating 4DCT-ventilation to the surgical

  20. Imaging brain activity during seizures in freely behaving rats using a miniature multi-modal imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Iliya; Koletar, Margaret M; Ringuette, Dene; Gad, Raanan; Jeffrey, Melanie; Carlen, Peter L; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-09-01

    We report on a miniature label-free imaging system for monitoring brain blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in awake, freely behaving rats. The device, weighing 15 grams, enables imaging in a ∼ 2 × 2 mm field of view with 4.4 μm lateral resolution and 1 - 8 Hz temporal sampling rate. The imaging is performed through a chronically-implanted cranial window that remains optically clear between 2 to > 6 weeks after the craniotomy. This imaging method is well suited for longitudinal studies of chronic models of brain diseases and disorders. In this work, it is applied to monitoring neurovascular coupling during drug-induced absence-like seizures 6 weeks following the craniotomy.

  1. Collagen imaged by Coherent X-ray Diffraction: towards a complementary tool to conventional scanning SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Bean, Richard J; Bozec, Laurent; Robinson, Ian K; McCallion, Catriona; Wallace, Kris; Hiller, Jen C; Terrill, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Third generation x-ray sources offer unique possibilities for exploiting coherence in the study of materials. New insights in the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter and biological samples can be obtained by coherent x-ray diffraction (CXD). However, the experimental procedures for applying these methods to collagen tissues are still under development. We present here an investigation for the optimal procedure in order to obtain high quality CXD data from collagen tissues. Sample handling and preparation and adequate coherence defining apertures are among the more relevant factors to take into account. The impact of the results is also discussed, in particular in comparison with the information that can be extracted from conventional scanning small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Images of collagen tissues obtained by CXD reconstructions will give additional information about the local structure with higher resolution and will complement scanning SAXS images.

  2. Collagen imaged by Coherent X-ray Diffraction: towards a complementary tool to conventional scanning SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Bean, Richard J; Bozec, Laurent; Robinson, Ian K [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN), University College London (UCL), London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); McCallion, Catriona; Wallace, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hiller, Jen C; Terrill, Nicholas J, E-mail: f.berenguer@ucl.ac.u [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-01

    Third generation x-ray sources offer unique possibilities for exploiting coherence in the study of materials. New insights in the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter and biological samples can be obtained by coherent x-ray diffraction (CXD). However, the experimental procedures for applying these methods to collagen tissues are still under development. We present here an investigation for the optimal procedure in order to obtain high quality CXD data from collagen tissues. Sample handling and preparation and adequate coherence defining apertures are among the more relevant factors to take into account. The impact of the results is also discussed, in particular in comparison with the information that can be extracted from conventional scanning small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Images of collagen tissues obtained by CXD reconstructions will give additional information about the local structure with higher resolution and will complement scanning SAXS images.

  3. Conventional and Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Andrea M.; Sbardella, Emilia; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Boschetti, Mara; Vitale, Giovanni; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization. Evidence Acquisition: Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (computed tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging) and one of the following: 111In-pentetreotide (OCT), 131I/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), 18F-fluorodopa-PET (F-DOPA-PET), 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET/CT or 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan (68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT). Evidence Summary: The analysis comprised 231 patients (females, 50.2%; age, 42.6 ± 17 y). Overall, 52.4% (121/231) had “overt” ECS, 18.6% had “occult” ECS, and 29% had “covert” ECS. Tumors were located in the lung (55.3%), mediastinum-thymus (7.9%), pancreas (8.5%), adrenal glands (6.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.4%), thyroid (3.7%), and other sites (12.8%), and primary tumors were mostly bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (54.8%), pancreatic NETs (8%), mediastinum-thymus NETs (6.9%), gastrointestinal NETs (5.3%), pheochromocytoma (6.4%), neuroblastoma (3.2%), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (3.2%). Tumors were localized by CT in 66.2% (137/207), magnetic resonance imaging in 51.5% (53/103), OCT in 48.9% (84/172), FDG-PET in 51.7% (46/89), F-DOPA-PET in 57.1% (12/21), 131/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in 30.8% (4/13), and 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT in 81.8% (18/22) of cases. Molecular imaging discovered 79.1% (53/67) of tumors unidentified by conventional radiology, with OCT the most commonly used, revealing the tumor in 64%, followed by FDG-PET in 59.4%. F-DOPA-PET was used in only seven covert cases (sensitivity, 85.7%). Notably, 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT had 100% sensitivity among covert cases. Conclusions: Nuclear medicine improves the sensitivity of conventional radiology when tumor site

  4. Cy5.5 conjugated MnO nanoparticles for magnetic resonance/near-infrared fluorescence dual-modal imaging of brain gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Shao, Chen; Li, Shuai; Wang, Zihao; Qu, Yanming; Gu, Wei; Yu, Chunjiang; Ye, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The fusion of molecular and anatomical modalities facilitates more reliable and accurate detection of tumors. Herein, we prepared the PEG-Cy5.5 conjugated MnO nanoparticles (MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs) with magnetic resonance (MR) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging modalities. The applicability of MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs as a dual-modal (MR/NIRF) imaging nanoprobe for the detection of brain gliomas was investigated. In vivo MR contrast enhancement of the MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 nanoprobe in the tumor region was demonstrated. Meanwhile, whole-body NIRF imaging of glioma bearing nude mouse exhibited distinct tumor localization upon injection of MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs. Moreover, ex vivo CLSM imaging of the brain slice hosting glioma indicated the preferential accumulation of MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs in the glioma region. Our results therefore demonstrated the potential of MnO-PEG-Cy5.5 NPs as a dual-modal (MR/NIRF) imaging nanoprobe in improving the diagnostic efficacy by simultaneously providing anatomical information from deep inside the body and more sensitive information at the cellular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of diagnostic imaging modalities for peripheral post-traumatic osteomyelitis - a systematic review of the recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaert, Geertje A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Subdivision of Trauma Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Trauma Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); IJpma, Frank F.; Reininga, Inge H. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Subdivision of Trauma Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); McNally, Martin [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, The Bone Infection Unit, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); McNally, Eugene [Oxford Musculoskeletal Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Glaudemans, Andor W. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    Post-traumatic osteomyelitis (PTO) is difficult to diagnose and there is no consensus on the best imaging strategy. The aim of this study is to present a systematic review of the recent literature on diagnostic imaging of PTO. A literature search of the EMBASE and PubMed databases of the last 16 years (2000-2016) was performed. Studies that evaluated the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS), white blood cell (WBC) or antigranulocyte antibody (AGA) scintigraphy, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and plain computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing PTO were considered for inclusion. The review was conducted using the PRISMA statement and QUADAS-2 criteria. The literature search identified 3358 original records, of which 10 articles could be included in this review. Four of these studies had a comparative design which made it possible to report the results of, in total, 17 patient series. WBC (or AGA) scintigraphy and FDG-PET exhibit good accuracy for diagnosing PTO (sensitivity ranged from 50-100%, specificity ranged from 40-97% versus 83-100% and 51%-100%, respectively). The accuracy of both modalities improved when a hybrid imaging technique (SPECT/CT and FDG-PET/CT) was performed. For FDG-PET/CT, sensitivity ranged between 86 and 94% and specificity between 76 and 100%. For WBC scintigraphy + SPECT/CT, this is 100% and 89-97%, respectively. Based on the best available evidence of the last 16 years, both WBC (or AGA) scintigraphy combined with SPECT/CT or FDG-PET combined with CT have the best diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing peripheral PTO. (orig.)

  6. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Domínguez D

    Full Text Available IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively. In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume and microstructural (diffusivity longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change. Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years, close to diagnosis (<15 years and after diagnosis. Of the two diffusion metrics (mean diffusivity, MD; fractional anisotropy, FA, only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  7. Mesoporous composite nanoparticles for dual-modality ultrasound/magnetic resonance imaging and synergistic chemo-/thermotherapy against deep tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang N

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nan Zhang,1 Ronghui Wang,2 Junnian Hao,1 Yang Yang,1 Hongmi Zou,3 Zhigang Wang1 1Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2Department of Ultrasound, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is a promising and noninvasive treatment for solid tumors, which has been explored for potential clinical applications. However, the clinical applications of HIFU for large and deep tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are severely limited by unsatisfactory imaging guidance, long therapeutic times, and damage to normal tissue around the tumor due to the high power applied. In this study, we developed doxorubicin/perfluorohexane-encapsulated hollow mesoporous Prussian blue nanoparticles (HMPBs-DOX/PFH as theranostic agents, which can effectively guide HIFU therapy and enhance its therapeutic effects in combination with chemotherapy, by decreasing the cavitation threshold. We investigated the effects of this agent on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we showed a highly efficient HIFU therapeutic effect against HCC tumors, as well as controlled drug release, owing to the phase-transitional performance of the PFH. We therefore conclude that HMPB-DOX/PFH is a safe and efficient nanoplatform, which holds significant promise for cancer theranostics against deep tumors in clinical settings. Keywords: high-intensity focused ultrasound, HIFU, hollow mesoporous Prussian blue nanoplatforms, hepatocellular carcinoma, dual-modality imaging, synergistic chemo-/thermotherapy, theranostics

  8. Efficiency of Imaging Modalities in Male Breast Disease: Can Ultrasound Give Additional Information for Assessment of Gynecomastia Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıca, Özgür; Kahraman, A Nedim; Öztürk, Enis; Teke, Memik

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present mammography and ultrasound findings of male breast lesions and to investigate the ability of diagnostic modalities in estimating the evolution of gynecomastia. Sixty-nine male patients who admitted to Taksim and Bakirkoy Education and Research Hospitals and underwent mammography (MG) and ultrasonography (US) imaging were retrospectively evaluated. Duration of symptoms and mammographic types of gynecomastia according to Appelbaum's classifications were evaluated, besides the sonographic findings in mammographic types of gynecomastia. The distribution of 69 cases were as follows: gynecomastia 47 (68.11%), pseudogynecomastia 6 (8.69%) primary breast carcinoma 7 (10.14%), metastatic carcinoma 1 (1.4%), epidermal inclusion cyst 2 (2.8%), abscess 2 (2.8%), lipoma 2 (2.8%), pyogenic granuloma 1 (1.4%), and granulomatous lobular mastitis 1 (1.4%). Gynecomastia patients who had symptoms less than 1 year had nodular gynecomastia (34.6%) as opposed to dendritic gynecomastia (61.5%) (p<0.01) based on mammography results according to Appelbaum's classifications. In patients having symptoms for 1 to 2 years, diffuse gynecomastia (70%) had a higher rate than the dendritic type (20%). Patients having the symptoms more than 2 years had diffuse gynecomastia (57.1%) while 42.9% had dendritic gynecomastia (p<0.001). With sonographic examination patients who had symptoms less than 1 year had higher rates of dendritic gynecomastia (92.3%) than noduler type (1.9 %). Patients having symptoms for 1 to 2 years had more dentritic gynecomastia (70%) than diffuse type (30%). Patients having symptoms more than 2 years had diffuse gynecomastia (57.1%) comparable to dendritic gynecomastia (42.9 %). Diagnostic imaging modalities are efficient tools for estimation of gynecomastia evolution as well as the diagnosis of other male breast diseases. There seems to be an incongruity between duration of clinical complaints and diagnostic imaging classification of

  9. Shift in imaging modalities of the spine through 25 years and its impact on patient ionizing radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgen, Lars [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Buskerud, Dronning gaten 28, 3004 Drammen (Norway)]. E-mail: lars.borgen@sb-hf.no; Ostensen, Harald [Diagnostic Imaging and Laboratory Technology, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27 (Switzerland); Stranden, Erling [Buskerud University College, Konggate 51, 3019 Drammen (Norway); Olerud, Hilde Marie [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Gudmundsen, Tor Erik [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Buskerud, Dronning gaten 28, 3004 Drammen (Norway); Buskerud University College, Konggate 51, 3019 Drammen (Norway)

    2006-10-15

    Study design: Retrospective. Objective: To explore the shift in modalities when diagnosing the spine in the years 1979-2003. To see how this shift, together with a radiation protective policy, have influenced on the ionizing radiation doses. Summary of background data: The shift from CT/myelography to MR when diagnosing the spine is well known. To what extent this has changed the radiation doses has to our knowledge not yet been published. Methods: Activity reports from a department of radiology have been reviewed. Relevant radiation doses estimates have been obtained from the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Results: MRI was introduced in 1992 and has been used increasingly since then. Conventional X-ray to the spine has been practically unchanged. Myelography and CT decreased markedly after the introduction of MRI. The total number of examinations of the spine has increased, but the radiation doses given have decreased since 1993. Conclusions: The introduction of MRI together with a radiation protective policy have reduced the ionizing radiation doses given to this population, in spite of an increase in the total number of examinations of the spine.

  10. Evaluation of selective arterial embolization effect by chitosan micro-hydrogels in hindlimb sarcoma rodent models using various imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tai Kyoung; Kwon, Jeong Il; Na, Kyung Sook [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-09-15

    Embolization is mainly used to reduce the size of locally advanced tumors. In this study, selective arterial catheterization with chitosan micro-hydrogels (CMH) into the femoral artery was performed and the therapeutic effect was validated using different imaging methods. Male SD rats (n = 18, 6 weeks old) were randomly assigned into three groups: Group 1 as control, Group 2 without any ligation of distal femoral artery, and Group 3 with temporary ligation of the distal femoral artery. RR1022 sarcoma cell lines were inoculated into thigh muscle. After 1 week, CMH was injected into the proximal femoral artery. Different imaging modalities were performed during a 3-week follow-up. The tumor size was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in both Group 2 and Group 3 (P < 0.001) after selective arterial embolization therapy. 18F-FDG-PET/CT revealed decreased intensity of 18F-FDG uptake in tumors. The accumulation status of 125I-CMH near the tumor was verified by gamma camera. Appropriate selective arterial embolization therapy with CMH was.

  11. An approach to demonstrating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic imaging modalities in Australia illustrated by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a framework in which the cost-effectiveness of new imaging technologies could be evaluated using data from other countries, while assessing the impact that any differences between the study populations and Australia may have upon the results. Publications reporting the cost-effectiveness or therapeutic impact of positron emission tomography (PET) were re-worked using Australian cost structures. PET was assigned a cost of $950. The effects of potential differences between the populations studied and the Australian population were evaluated by applying sensitivity analysis to those publications that describe decision tree methodology. The parameters included in the sensitivity analysis were disease prevalence and specificity of PET. The Australian cost savings per patient examined by PET were $505.50-$912.41 for investigation of solitary pulmonary nodules, $34.65-$360.03 for lung cancer staging, $550.08 for axillary staging of breast cancer, $230.75-$2301.27 for assessment of recurrent colorectal cancer and $300.24-$2069.65 for assessment of myocardial viability. Significant differences in disease prevalence and PET specificity could occur while the cost-effectiveness of PET was preserved. Decision tree sensitivity analysis can demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic imaging modalities in Australia and provides indications that PET is cost-effective for a range of clinical indications. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Imaging slit-coupled surface plasmon polaritons using conventional optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehfuz, R; Chowdhury, F A; Chau, K J

    2012-05-07

    We develop a technique that now enables surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) coupled by nano-patterned slits in a metal film to be detected using conventional optical microscopy with standard objective lenses. The crux of this method is an ultra-thin polymer layer on the metal surface, whose thickness can be varied over a nanoscale range to enable controllable tuning of the SPP momentum. At an optimal layer thickness for which the SPP momentum matches the momentum of light emerging from the slit, the SPP coupling efficiency is enhanced about six times relative to that without the layer. The enhanced efficiency results in distinctive and bright plasmonic signatures near the slit visible by naked eye under an optical microscope. We demonstrate how this capability can be used for parallel measurement through a simple experiment in which the SPP propagation distance is extracted from a single microscope image of an illuminated array of nano-patterned slits on a metal surface. We also use optical microscopy to image the focal region of a plasmonic lens and obtain results consistent with a previously-reported results using near-field optical microscopy. Measurement of SPPs near a nano-slit using conventional and widely-available optical microscopy is an important step towards making nano-plasmonic device technology highly accessible and easy-to-use.

  13. Comparison of morphological and conventional edge detectors in medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabi, Lotfi; Loloyan, Mansur; Huang, H. K.

    1991-06-01

    Recently, mathematical morphology has been used to develop efficient image analysis tools. This paper compares the performance of morphological and conventional edge detectors applied to radiological images. Two morphological edge detectors including the dilation residue found by subtracting the original signal from its dilation by a small structuring element, and the blur-minimization edge detector which is defined as the minimum of erosion and dilation residues of the blurred image version, are compared with the linear Laplacian and Sobel and the non-linear Robert edge detectors. Various structuring elements were used in this study: regular 2-dimensional, and 3-dimensional. We utilized two criterions for edge detector's performance classification: edge point connectivity and the sensitivity to the noise. CT/MR and chest radiograph images have been used as test data. Comparison results show that the blur-minimization edge detector, with a rolling ball-like structuring element outperforms other standard linear and nonlinear edge detectors. It is less noise sensitive, and performs the most closed contours.

  14. Differentiation between early rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy persons by conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Ejbjerg, B J; Hetland, M L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameter that best differentiates healthy persons and patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigated responsiveness to treatment of various MRI parameters. METHOD: Conventional MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE...

  15. Mixing of multi-modal images for conformational radiotherapy: application to patient re positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassal, P.

    1998-01-01

    This study shows a procedure of patient re positioning by comparative evaluation between the position of the patient and the theoretical expected position of the patient; the stagger between the two information gives the error of installation in translation and rotation. A correction is calculated and applied to the treatment environment (position and orientation of the patient, position and orientation of the irradiation source). The control system allows to determine the precise position of the tumor volume. The echography allows to determine the position of an organ.The surface captor is used to localize the tumors of the face or of the brain, with the respect to the face, the acquisition and the treatment of information take only few minutes. The X rays imager is applied for the localization of bones structures. (N.C.)

  16. Integration of XNAT/PACS, DICOM, and research software for automated multi-modal image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Burns, Scott S.; Lauzon, Carolyn B.; Fong, Andrew E.; James, Terry A.; Lubar, Joel F.; Thatcher, Robert W.; Twillie, David A.; Wirt, Michael D.; Zola, Marc A.; Logan, Bret W.; Anderson, Adam W.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2013-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly important public health concern. While there are several promising avenues of intervention, clinical assessments are relatively coarse and comparative quantitative analysis is an emerging field. Imaging data provide potentially useful information for evaluating TBI across functional, structural, and microstructural phenotypes. Integration and management of disparate data types are major obstacles. In a multi-institution collaboration, we are collecting electroencephalogy (EEG), structural MRI, diffusion tensor MRI (DTI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) from a large cohort of US Army service members exposed to mild or moderate TBI who are undergoing experimental treatment. We have constructed a robust informatics backbone for this project centered on the DICOM standard and eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT) server. Herein, we discuss (1) optimization of data transmission, validation and storage, (2) quality assurance and workflow management, and (3) integration of high performance computing with research software.

  17. Active and Passive Optical Imaging Modality for Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring and Facial Expression Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, Vladimir; Blanik, Nikolai; Blazek, Claudia R; Paul, Michael; Pereira, Carina; Koeny, Marcus; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Because of their obvious advantages, active and passive optoelectronic sensor concepts are being investigated by biomedical research groups worldwide, particularly their camera-based variants. Such methods work noninvasively and contactless, and they provide spatially resolved parameter detection. We present 2 techniques: the active photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) method for detecting dermal blood perfusion dynamics and the passive infrared thermography imaging (IRTI) method for detecting skin temperature distribution. PPGI is an enhancement of classical pulse oximetry. Approved algorithms from pulse oximetry for the detection of heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure-dependent pulse wave velocity, pulse waveform-related stress/pain indicators, respiration rate, respiratory variability, and vasomotional activity can easily be adapted to PPGI. Although the IRTI method primarily records temperature distribution of the observed object, information on respiration rate and respiratory variability can also be derived by analyzing temperature change over time, for example, in the nasal region, or through respiratory movement. Combined with current research areas and novel biomedical engineering applications (eg, telemedicine, tele-emergency, and telemedical diagnostics), PPGI and IRTI may offer new data for diagnostic purposes, including assessment of peripheral arterial and venous oxygen saturation (as well as their differences). Moreover, facial expressions and stress and/or pain-related variables can be derived, for example, during anesthesia, in the recovery room/intensive care unit and during daily activities. The main advantages of both monitoring methods are unobtrusive data acquisition and the possibility to assess vital variables for different body regions. These methods supplement each other to enable long-term monitoring of physiological effects and of effects with special local characteristics. They also offer diagnostic advantages for

  18. Impact of body image on patients' attitude towards conventional, minimal invasive, and natural orifice surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadé, Wolfram; Friedrich, Colin; Ulmer, Christoph; Basar, Tarkan; Weiss, Heinz; Thon, Klaus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    A series of investigations proposed that patients' preference on minimal invasive and scarless surgery may be influenced by age, sex, and surgical as well as endoscopic history of the individual patient. However, it is unknown which psychological criteria lead to the acceptance of increased personal surgical risk or increased personal expenses in patients demanding scarless operations. We investigated whether individual body image contributes to the patient's readiness to assume higher risk in favor of potentially increased cosmesis. We conducted a nonrandomized survey among 63 consecutive surgical patients after receiving surgery. Individual body image perception was assessed postoperatively applying the FKB-20 questionnaire extended by four additional items. The FKB-20 questionnaire is a validated tool for measuring body image disturbances resulting in a two-dimensional score with negative body image (NBI) and vital body dynamics (VBD) being the two resulting scores. A subgroup analysis was performed according to the conducted operations: conventional open surgery = group 1, traditional laparoscopic surgery = group 2, and no scar surgery = group 3. There was a significant correlation between a negative body image and the preference for scar sparing and scarless surgery indicated by a significantly increased acceptance of surgical risks and the willingness to spend additional money for receiving scarless surgery (r = 0.333; p = 0.0227). Allocated to operation subgroups, 17 of 63 patients belonged to group 1 (OS), 29 to group 2 (minimally invasive surgery), and 17 patients to group 3 (no scar). Although age and sex were unequally distributed, the groups were homogenous regarding body mass index and body image (NBI). Subgroup analysis revealed that postoperative desire for scar sparing approaches was most frequently expressed by patients who received no scar operations. Patients with an NBI tend towards scarless surgery and are willing to accept increased

  19. Comparison study of four imaging modalities in diagnosis of primary synovial osteochondromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xulin; Qu Jianli; Li Shuling; Zhang Guowei; Zhang Guanghui; Li Ping; Lu Ning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of X-ray, CT, MRI, and ultrasound in primary synovial osteochondromatosis (PSO). Methods: The imaging data of X-ray, CT, MRI, and ultrasound of 42 patients with 44 knees with PSO proved by surgery and pathology were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: The Plain X-ray demonstrated 197 calcific nodules in 28 joints, 96 ossific nodules in 24 joints, and 5 mixed type nodules in 3 joints. Compared with the data of surgery and pathology, 36 joints (81.8%, 36/44) were diagnosed correctly by X-ray. The CT showed 8 big cartilaginous nodules in 5 joints, 255 calcific nodules in 30 joints, 146 ossific nodules in 28 joints, and 16 mixed type nodules in 7 joints. Twenty-four knees underwent volume rendering technique reconstruction which displayed the quantity, size, shape, and position of non-cartilaginous nodules clearly. Compared with the data of surgery and pathology, 40 joints (90.9%, 40/44) were diagnosed correctly by CT. The MRI demonstrated 8 big cartilaginous nodules in 5 joints, 70 small cartilaginous nodules in 4 joints, 248 calcific nodules in 29 joints, 146 ossific nodules in 28 joints, and 16 mixed type nodules in 7 joints. All nodules displayed low signal in DWI and there was no enhancement. Compared with the data of surgery and pathology, 43 joints (97.7%, 43/44) were diagnosed correctly by MRI. The ultrasound showed 8 big cartilaginous nodules in 5 joints, 70 small cartilaginous nodules in 4 joints, 232 calcific nodules in 30 joints, 142 ossific nodules in 28 joints, and 16 mixed type nodules in 7 joints. Compared with the data of surgery and pathology, 43 joints (97.7%, 43/44) were diagnosed correctly by ultrasound. Conclusions: The Less common manifestations of the PSO require multimodality imaging to make the diagnosis. Multimodalities (X-ray, CT, MRI and ultrasound) are particularly useful in fully characterising PSO and to allow for appropriate clinical planning. (authors)

  20. Role of correlative diagnostic imaging modalities in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.; Fouda, M.; El-awadi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Para thyroidectomy with bilateral neck exploration is the classic surgical approach to control primary hyperparathyroidism. Various imaging techniques have been used to detect and localize abnormal parathyroid tissue in order to modify surgical interference, to shorten operating and recovery time and to benefit from a cost- effective analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of technetium-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy (MIBI) in localizing parathyroid diseases and the effect of correlative studies in the improvement of overall lesion detection. The study included 136 patients with proven primary hyperparathyroidism. There were 30 men (22%) and 106 women (78%), their age ranged from 12 to 70 years (mean 38 ±14 year). underwent preoperative localization procedure. All patients, prior to successful para thyroidectomy, were subjected MIBI scan. Additional investigations were carried out included neck ultrasonography (US) in 92 patients (67.7%), computed tomography (CT) in 36 patients (27.9%) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6 patients (4.4%). The results were compared with operative and histological findings. Solitary parathyroid adenoma was found in 115 patients (84.6%), 3 patients had double adenomas (2.2%) and 18 patients had parathyroid hyperplasia (13.2%). Sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were 91.2% and 100% for MIBI, 85.2% and 94.9% for US, 83.3% and 93.7% for CT and 83.3% and 100% for MRI. Non-significant difference in sensitivity was observed between US, CT or MRI, whereas MIBI sensitivity was significantly higher than the other localizing techniques (P<0.05). The combination of MIBI and US improved the overall sensitivity (93.1%), but the combination of MIBI with either CT or MRI did not improve the overall detection. The sensitivity of MIBI scintigraphy was higher than that of US, CT and MRI. Its higher sensitivity and good positive predictive value suggests that a strategy of initial testing using Tc-99

  1. Implementation of a patient dose monitoring system in conventional digital X-ray imaging: initial experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Zuber, Niklaus; Weishaupt, Dominik [Stadtspital Triemli Zurich, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose was to report on the initial experience after implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging. A dose-monitoring system collected dose data relating to different radiographs (one projection) and studies (two or more projections). Images were acquired on digital X-ray systems equipped with flat-panel detectors. During period 1, examinations were performed in a routine fashion in 12,614 patients. After period 1, technical modifications were performed and radiographers underwent training in radiation protection. During period 2, examinations were performed in 14,514 patients, and the radiographers were advised to read dose data after each radiograph/study. Dose data were compared by means of kerma area product (KAP, gray x centimetre squared) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK, milligray). During period 1, 13,955 radiographs and 8,466 studies were performed, and in period 2 16,090 radiographs and 10,389 studies. In period 2, KAP values for radiographs were an average of 25 % lower and for studies 7 % lower, and ESAK values for radiographs were 24 % lower and for studies 5 % lower. The reduction in KAP was significant in 8/13 radiographs and in 6/14 studies, and the reduction in ESAK was significant in 6/13 radiographs and 5/14 studies. Implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging allows easy data collection, supports dose reduction efforts, and may increase radiographers' dose awareness. (orig.)

  2. Validating Bioluminescence Imaging as a High-Throughput, Quantitative Modality for Assessing Tumor Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Paroo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a highly sensitive tool for visualizing tumors, neoplastic development, metastatic spread, and response to therapy. Although BLI has engendered much excitement due to its apparent simplicity and ease of implementation, few rigorous studies have been presented to validate the measurements. Here, we characterize the nature of bioluminescence output from mice bearing subcutaneous luciferase-expressing tumors over a 4-week period. Following intraperitoneal or direct intratumoral administration of luciferin substrate, there was a highly dynamic kinetic profile of light emission. Although bioluminescence was subject to variability, strong correlations (r > .8, p < .001 between caliper measured tumor volumes and peak light signal, area under light signal curve and light emission at specific time points were determined. Moreover, the profile of tumor growth, as monitored with bioluminescence, closely resembled that for caliper measurements. The study shows that despite the dynamic and variable nature of bioluminescence, where appropriate experimental precautions are taken, single time point BLI may be useful for noninvasive, high-throughput, quantitative assessment of tumor burden.

  3. Articulatory mediation of speech perception: a causal analysis of multi-modal imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, David W; Segawa, Jennifer A

    2009-02-01

    The inherent confound between the organization of articulation and the acoustic-phonetic structure of the speech signal makes it exceptionally difficult to evaluate the competing claims of motor and acoustic-phonetic accounts of how listeners recognize coarticulated speech. Here we use Granger causation analyzes of high spatiotemporal resolution neural activation data derived from the integration of magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, to examine the role of lexical and articulatory mediation in listeners' ability to use phonetic context to compensate for place assimilation. Listeners heard two-word phrases such as pen pad and then saw two pictures, from which they had to select the one that depicted the phrase. Assimilation, lexical competitor environment and the phonological validity of assimilation context were all manipulated. Behavioral data showed an effect of context on the interpretation of assimilated segments. Analysis of 40 Hz gamma phase locking patterns identified a large distributed neural network including 16 distinct regions of interest (ROIs) spanning portions of both hemispheres in the first 200 ms of post-assimilation context. Granger analyzes of individual conditions showed differing patterns of causal interaction between ROIs during this interval, with hypothesized lexical and articulatory structures and pathways driving phonetic activation in the posterior superior temporal gyrus in assimilation conditions, but not in phonetically unambiguous conditions. These results lend strong support for the motor theory of speech perception, and clarify the role of lexical mediation in the phonetic processing of assimilated speech.

  4. Is magnetic resonance imaging a viable alternative to ultrasound as the primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of paediatric appendicitis? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunmefun, G.; Hardy, M.; Boynes, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention in paediatric patients. Ultrasound is generally the diagnostic imaging modality of choice, followed by CT, where paediatric appendicitis is suspected. However, high operator dependency and diagnostic restrictions related to anatomical and clinical presentation may limit consistency of application. This paper explores whether MRI is a viable alternative to ultrasound as the primary imaging modality. Method: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. A search of Medline, Cinahl, PubMed Central and Google Scholar was undertaken supplemented by a review of reference lists, author searching and review of NICE evidence base for existing guidelines. Included studies were assessed for bias using the QUADAS-2 quality assessment tool and data were extracted systematically using a purposefully designed electronic data extraction proforma. Results: Seven studies were included in final review. The age range of participants extended from 0 to 19 years. Only one study with a patient age range of 0–14 used sedation. Sensitivity estimates from the included studies ranged from 92% to 100% while specificity ranged from 89% to 100%. A significant variation in the number and type of sequences was noted between the studies. Conclusion: MRI offers high sensitivity and specificity comparable to contrast enhanced CT and greater than ultrasound as reported in the literature. Where accessibility is not a restriction, MRI is a viable alternative to ultrasound in the assessment and diagnosis of paediatric appendicitis. Clinical practice recommendations have been provided to facilitate the translation of evidence into practice. - Highlights: • MRI may be used as the primary imaging tool to investigate paediatric appendicitis. • Gadolinium is not necessary for MRI evaluation of appendicitis in children. • Sedation for MRI evaluation of appendicitis is not required

  5. Educational response in South Korea to recent advances in imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Dal Gwan

    1986-01-01

    Along with the development of new equipment, the progress made in diagnostics utilizing X-ray images has made both qualitative and quantitative analyses possible. Accordingly, the need is being felt for scientific-technological stance to explore new avenues of development through combined use of various apparatus in the interests of improving the absolute quality of our technology. To do so, extention of the school system to 4 years would be essential, but this may have to be modified to better suit the reality of the individual countries involved. As the education of physicians is being carried on by physicians, so should the leadership in the education of radiological technologists remain in the hands of radiological technologists remain in the hands of radiological technologists. Testing technology and clinical services may be the areas where education based on experience may be effective, and productivity of education may be enhanced through emphasis on reverence for human life and love for fellow human beings, so that the overall efforts may be more oriented to cultivation of ability rather than to the success in the national examinations. The post graduate education must lack nothing in re-equipping radiological technologists with basic technology and scientific knowledge. In order to strike a balance between cultivation of reverence for human life on the one hand and development of scientific knowledge and technological expertise on the other in this age of highly developed science and technology, close ties among radiological technologists within smaller units of organization and spirit of mutual cooperation must be emphasized, and greater emphasis may be in order on making information science and total imagenology appear more affractive to the students by effectively linking basic sciences to applied sciences, and to this end, communication and team work among different academic organizations must be actively pursued

  6. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  7. Diagnostic equivalence of conventional and fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munk, P.L.; Hilborn, M.D.; Vellet, A.D.; University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,; Romano, C.C.; University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,

    1997-01-01

    Many techniques and pulse sequences have been devised for the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament. The present study compares fast spin echo (FSE) imaging to conventional spin echo imaging at a field strength of 1.5 T in an effort to determine if these sequences are diagnostically equivalent. Where available, arthroscopy was also done. A total of 52 patients were imaged using both FSE and conventional spin echo sequences. Eight volunteers were used as controls. Arthroscopy was performed on 10 patients. The anterior cruciate ligament was assessed in a blinded fashion by three radiologists. The Kappa statistic was then used to determine the percentage agreement between FSE and conventional spin echo imaging. Fast spin echo sequencing demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 94.8% and an accuracy of 96.3% when compared to arthroscopy. Conventional spin echo imaging and arthroscopy had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 84.6% and an accuracy of 88.9%. The remaining 34 patients who did not undergo arthroscopy were followed clinically because clinical and imaging findings were not suggestive of ACL tears. These demonstrated 72% agreement between FSE and conventional spin echo imaging using the Kappa statistic, with regards to calling ACL normal or having only a low-grade partial tear. Fast spin echo imaging produces images of the anterior cruciate ligament that have similar diagnostic accuracy to conventional spin echo images (P<0.05) within a much shorter scan time. These results however, require further validation in a larger group, preferably with arthroscopic correlation. (author)

  8. Wavelength-Modulated Differential Photoacoustic (WM-DPA) imaging: a high dynamic range modality towards noninvasive diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Choi, Sung soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    This study explores wavelength-modulated differential photo-acoustic (WM-DPA) imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection via sensitive characterization of functional information such as hemoglobin oxygenation (sO2) levels. Well-known benchmarks of tumor formation such as angiogenesis and hypoxia can be addressed this way. While most conventional photo-acoustic imaging has almost entirely employed high-power pulsed lasers, frequency-domain photo-acoustic radar (FD-PAR) has seen significant development as an alternative technique. It employs a continuous wave laser source intensity-modulated and driven by frequency-swept waveforms. WM-DPA imaging utilizes chirp modulated laser beams at two distinct wavelengths for which absorption differences between oxy- and deoxygenated hemoglobin are minimum (isosbestic point, 805 nm) and maximum (680 nm) to simultaneously generate two signals detected using a standard commercial array transducer as well as a single-element transducer that scans the sample. Signal processing is performed using Lab View and Matlab software developed in-house. Minute changes in total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and oxygenation levels are detectable using this method since background absorption is suppressed due to the out-of-phase modulation of the laser sources while the difference between the two signals is amplified, thus allowing pre-malignant tumors to become identifiable. By regulating the signal amplitude ratio and phase shift the system can be tuned to applications like cancer screening, sO2 quantification and hypoxia monitoring in stroke patients. Experimental results presented demonstrate WM-DPA imaging of sheep blood phantoms in comparison to single-wavelength FD-PAR imaging. Future work includes the functional PA imaging of small animals in vivo.

  9. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow's milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.974 for protein and R(2)=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly with the obtained results were significantly worse (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.890 for fat content and R(2)=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tissue mimicking materials for a multi-imaging modality prostate phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Warren D.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Unal, Orhan; Vigen, Karl K.; Frank, Gary R.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    Materials that simultaneously mimic soft tissue in vivo for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), and computed tomography (CT) for use in a prostate phantom have been developed. Prostate and muscle mimicking materials contain water, agarose, lipid particles, protein, Cu ++ , EDTA, glass beads, and thimerosal (preservative). Fat was mimicked with safflower oil suffusing a random mesh (network) of polyurethane. Phantom material properties were measured at 22 deg. C. (22 deg. C is a typical room temperature at which phantoms are used.) The values of material properties should match, as well as possible, the values for tissues at body temperature, 37 deg. C. For MRI, the primary properties of interest are T1 and T2 relaxations times, for US they are the attenuation coefficient, propagation speed, and backscatter, and for CT, the x-ray attenuation. Considering the large number of parameters to be mimicked, rather good agreement was found with actual tissue values obtained from the literature. Using published values for prostate parenchyma, T1 and T2 at 37 deg. C and 40 MHz are estimated to be about 1100 and 98 ms, respectively. The CT number for in vivo prostate is estimated to be 45 HU (Hounsfield units). The prostate mimicking material has a T1 of 937 ms and a T2 of 88 ms at 22 deg. C and 40 MHz; the propagation speed and attenuation coefficient slope are 1540 m/s and 0.36 dB/cm/MHz, respectively, and the CT number of tissue mimicking prostate is 43 HU. Tissue mimicking (TM) muscle differs from TM prostate in the amount of dry weight agarose, Cu ++ , EDTA, and the quality and quantity of glass beads. The 18 μm glass beads used in TM muscle increase US backscatter and US attenuation; the presence of the beads also has some effect on T1 but no effect on T2. The composition of tissue-mimicking materials developed is such that different versions can be placed in direct contact with one another in a phantom with no long term change in US, MRI, or CT

  11. Identification, diagnostic assistance and planning methods that use multi-modality imaging for prostate cancer focal therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makni, Nasr

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer among men. In In the last decade, new diagnosis procedures and treatment options have been developed and made possible thanks to the recent progress in prostate imaging modalities. The newest challenges in this field are to detect the smallest tumors and to treat locally to minimise the treatment morbidity. In this thesis, we introduce a set of automatic image processing methods for the guidance and assistance of diagnosis and treatment, in laser-based prostate cancer focal therapies. In the first part of this work, segmentation and computer-aided detection algorithms have been developed for the enhancement of image-based diagnosis of prostate cancer. First, we propose a novel approach that combines Markov Random Fields framework with an Active Shape Model, in order to extract three dimensional outlines of the gland from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Second, prostate's MRI volume is segmented into peripheral and central zones: we introduce a method that explores features of multispectral MRI, and is based on belief functions and the modelling of an a priori knowledge as an additional source of information. Finally, computer-aided detection of prostate's peripheral zone tumors is investigated by experimenting novel texture features based on fractal geometry-based. These parameters, extracted from morphological MRI, were tested using both supervised and unsupervised classification methods. The results of these different approaches were studied and compared. The second part of this work addresses the guidance of laser-based focal ablation of prostate tumors. A novel non rigid registration method is introduced for fusion of pre-operative MRI and planning data, and per-operative ultrasound imaging. We test and evaluate our algorithms using simulated data and physical phantoms, which enable comparison to ground truth. Patients' data, combined to expert interpretation, are also used in the

  12. Imaging technique for the complete edentulous patient treated conventionally or with mini implant overdenture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleşcanu Imre, M; Preoteasa, E; Țâncu, AM; Preoteasa, CT

    2013-01-01

    Rationale. The imaging methods are more and more used in the clinical process of modern dentistry. Once the implant based treatment alternatives are nowadays seen as being the standard of care in edentulous patients, these techniques must be integrated in the complete denture treatment. Aim. The study presents some evaluation techniques for the edentulous patient treated by conventional dentures or mini dental implants (mini SKY Bredent) overdentures, using the profile teleradiography. These offer data useful for an optimal positioning of the artificial teeth and the mini dental implants, favoring to obtain an esthetic and functional treatment outcome. We proposed also a method to conceive a simple surgical guide that allows the prosthetically driven implants placement. Material and method. Clinical case reports were made, highlighting the importance of cephalometric evaluation on lateral teleradiographs in complete edentulous patients. A clinical case that gradually reports the surgical guide preparation (Bredent silicon radio opaque), in order to place the mini dental implants in the best prosthetic and anatomic conditions, was presented. Conclusions. The profile teleradiograph is a useful tool for the practitioner. It allows establishing the optimal site for implant placement, in a good relation with the overdenture. The conventional denture can be easily and relatively costless transformed in a surgical guide used during implant placement. PMID:23599828

  13. Optimization of patient protection using rare earth screen in conventional imaging procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkoom, S.; Schandorf, C.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize patient protection using rare earth screen of speed 400 in place of conventional screen-film of speed 200. The entrance surface dose (ESD) for the two screen-film systems was determined for patients undergoing simple radiographic examinations (chest, lumbar spine and pelvis series). The determination of the ESD included backscatter factors. The ESD was the optimizing parameter and its trade off with the image quality assessment, which was surveyed based on the information obtained through standardized questionnaire. The estimated ESDs were compared with reference levels set by the Community of European Commission (CEC) for a standard adult patient. For chest PA, ESD estimates were lower than the CEC reference levels whilst that of lumbar spine AP and LAT and pelvis AP were high. Upon the adoption of rare earth screen of speed 400, a dose reduction of 33% for chest, 17% for lumbar spine and 28% for pelvis examinations was achieved. From the observations made from this study, some corrective actions such as equipment quality control of parameters that affect patient dose and image quality like kVp accuracy and consistency, mAs accuracy and consistency, optimal film processing conditions, regular film reject analysis to detect and minimize the root causes and contributory factors to poor image quality and periodic training of staff on dose reduction techniques must be undertaken. Regular assessment of patient dose and image quality, equipment quality control, adoption of faster rare earth screens and optimum radiographic technique are therefore recommended in order to achieve optimization goals. (author)

  14. 18F-FDG PET as a single imaging modality in pediatric neuroblastoma. Comparison with abdomen CT and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Hwang, Hee Sung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Yong Hyu; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Mijin; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) as a single imaging agent in neuroblastoma in comparison with other imaging modalities. A total of 30 patients with pathologically proven neuroblastoma who underwent FDG PET for staging were enrolled. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET and abdomen CT was compared in detecting soft tissue lesions. FDG PET and bone scintigraphy (BS) were compared in bone metastases. Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of primary or recurrent lesions was calculated for quantitative analysis. Tumor FDG uptake was detected in 29 of 30 patients with primary neuroblastoma. On initial FDG PET, SUVmax of primary lesions were lower in early stage (I-II) than in late stage (III-IV) (3.03 vs. 5.45, respectively, p=0.019). FDG PET was superior to CT scan in detecting distant lymph nodes (23 vs. 18 from 23 lymph nodes). FDG PET showed higher accuracy to identify bone metastases than BS both on patient-based analyses (100 vs. 94.4% in sensitivity, 100 vs. 77.8% in specificity), and on lesion-based analyses (FDG PET: 203 lesions, BS: 86 lesions). Sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET to detect recurrence were 87.5% and 93.8, respectively. FDG PET was superior to CT in detecting distant LN metastasis and to BS in detecting skeletal metastasis in neuroblastoma. BS might be eliminated in the evaluation of neuroblastoma when FDG PET is performed. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional rotational angiography fused with multimodal imaging modalities for targeted endomyocardial injections in the ischaemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwe, Dieter Frans; Nuyens, Dieter; De Buck, Stijn; Claus, Piet; Gheysens, Olivier; Koole, Michel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vanden Driessche, Nina; Janssens, Laurens; Ector, Joris; Dymarkowski, Steven; Bogaert, Jan; Heidbuchel, Hein; Janssens, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    Biological therapies for ischaemic heart disease require efficient, safe, and affordable intramyocardial delivery. Integration of multiple imaging modalities within the fluoroscopy framework can provide valuable information to guide these procedures. We compared an anatomo-electric method (LARCA) with a non-fluoroscopic electromechanical mapping system (NOGA(®)). LARCA integrates selective three-dimensional-rotational angiograms with biplane fluoroscopy. To identify the infarct region, we studied LARCA-fusion with pre-procedural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dedicated CT, or (18)F-FDG-PET/CT. We induced myocardial infarction in 20 pigs by 90-min LAD occlusion. Six weeks later, we compared peri-infarct delivery accuracy of coloured fluospheres using sequential NOGA(®)- and LARCA-MRI-guided vs. LARCA-CT- and LARCA-(18)F-FDG-PET/CT-guided intramyocardial injections. MRI after 6 weeks revealed significant left ventricular (LV) functional impairment and remodelling (LVEF 31 ± 3%, LVEDV 178 ± 15 mL, infarct size 17 ± 2% LV mass). During NOGA(®)-procedures, three of five animals required DC-shock for major ventricular arrhythmias vs. one of ten during LARCA-procedures. Online procedure time was shorter for LARCA than NOGA(®) (77 ± 6 vs. 130 ± 3 min, P integration allowed closer approximation of the targeted border zone than LARCA-PET (4.0 ± 0.5 mm vs. 6.2 ± 0.6 mm, P technology for cardiac biological therapies. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A sharp image or a sharp knife: norms for the modality-exclusivity of 774 concept-property items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Cowell, Rosemary A; Zeelenberg, René; Pecher, Diane

    2011-03-01

    According to recent embodied cognition theories, mental concepts are represented by modality-specific sensory-motor systems. Much of the evidence for modality-specificity in conceptual processing comes from the property-verification task. When applying this and other tasks, it is important to select items based on their modality-exclusivity. We collected modality ratings for a set of 387 properties, each of which was paired with two different concepts, yielding a total of 774 concept-property items. For each item, participants rated the degree to which the property could be experienced through five perceptual modalities (vision, audition, touch, smell, and taste). Based on these ratings, we computed a measure of modality exclusivity, the degree to which a property is perceived exclusively through one sensory modality. In this paper, we briefly sketch the theoretical background of conceptual knowledge, discuss the use of the property-verification task in cognitive research, provide our norms and statistics, and validate the norms in a memory experiment. We conclude that our norms are important for researchers studying modality-specific effects in conceptual processing.

  17. A sharp image or a sharp knife: Norms for the modality-exclusivity of 774 concept-property items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Dantzig (Saskia); R.A. Cowell (Rosemary A.); R. Zeelenberg (René); D. Pecher (Diane)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAccording to recent embodied cognition theories, mental concepts are represented by modality-specific sensory-motor systems. Much of the evidence for modality-specificity in conceptual processing comes from the property-verification task. When applying this and other tasks, it is

  18. Multi-modality PET-CT imaging of breast cancer in an animal model using nanoparticle x-ray contrast agent and 18F-FDG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, C. T.; Ghaghada, K.; Espinosa, G.; Strong, L.; Annapragada, A.

    2011-03-01

    Multi-modality PET-CT imaging is playing an important role in the field of oncology. While PET imaging facilitates functional interrogation of tumor status, the use of CT imaging is primarily limited to anatomical reference. In an attempt to extract comprehensive information about tumor cells and its microenvironment, we used a nanoparticle xray contrast agent to image tumor vasculature and vessel 'leakiness' and 18F-FDG to investigate the metabolic status of tumor cells. In vivo PET/CT studies were performed in mice implanted with 4T1 mammary breast cancer cells.Early-phase micro-CT imaging enabled visualization 3D vascular architecture of the tumors whereas delayedphase micro-CT demonstrated highly permeable vessels as evident by nanoparticle accumulation within the tumor. Both imaging modalities demonstrated the presence of a necrotic core as indicated by a hypo-enhanced region in the center of the tumor. At early time-points, the CT-derived fractional blood volume did not correlate with 18F-FDG uptake. At delayed time-points, the tumor enhancement in 18F-FDG micro-PET images correlated with the delayed signal enhanced due to nanoparticle extravasation seen in CT images. The proposed hybrid imaging approach could be used to better understand tumor angiogenesis and to be the basis for monitoring and evaluating anti-angiogenic and nano-chemotherapies.

  19. Integration of multi-modality imaging for accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoglou, George D.; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.; Sianos, George; Tsikaderis, Dimitrios; Matakos, Antonis; Koutkias, Vassilios; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Maglaveras, Nicos; Parcharidis, George E.; Louridas, George E.

    2006-01-01

    In conventional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human coronary arteries, IVUS images are arranged linearly generating a straight vessel volume. However, with this approach real vessel curvature is neglected. To overcome this limitation an imaging method was developed based on integration of IVUS and biplane coronary angiography (BCA). In 17 coronary arteries from nine patients, IVUS and BCA were performed. From each angiographic projection, a single end-diastolic frame was selected and in each frame the IVUS catheter was interactively detected for the extraction of 3D catheter path. Ultrasound data was obtained with a sheath-based catheter and recorded on S-VHS videotape. S-VHS data was digitized and lumen and media-adventitia contours were semi-automatically detected in end-diastolic IVUS images. Each pair of contours was aligned perpendicularly to the catheter path and rotated in space by implementing an algorithm based on Frenet-Serret rules. Lumen and media-adventitia contours were interpolated through generation of intermediate contours creating a real 3D lumen and vessel volume, respectively. The absolute orientation of the reconstructed lumen was determined by back-projecting it onto both angiographic planes and comparing the projected lumen with the actual angiographic lumen. In conclusion, our method is capable of performing rapid and accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo. This technique can be utilized for reliable plaque morphometric, geometrical and hemodynamic analyses

  20. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cerebral gliomas showing imperceptible contrast enhancement on conventional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, A.; Tripathi, R.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the utility of perfusion MRI in cerebral gliomas showing imperceptible contrast enhancement on conventional MRI, and to evaluate the relationships of perfusion MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic results in these tumours. Twenty-two patients with histopathologically proven cerebral gliomas and showing insignificant contrast enhancement on conventional MR were included in the present study. All patients underwent perfusion MRI and MR spectroscopy on a 1.5-T MR system. Significant differences of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values and the choline : creatine ratios were noted between low-grade and anaplastic gliomas (P < 0.01). Good correlation was found between the rCBV values and the choline : creatine values (y = 0. 532x + 1.5643; r = 0.67). Perfusion MRI can be a useful tool in assessing the histopathological grade of non-contrast-enhancing cerebral gliomas. Along with MR spectroscopic imaging it can serve as an important technique for preoperative characterization of such gliomas, so that accurate targeting by stereotactic biopsies is possible. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Air-insufflated high-definition dacryoendoscopy yields significantly better image quality than conventional dacryoendoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tsugihisa Sasaki,1 Tsutomu Sounou,2 Hideki Tsuji,3 Kazuhisa Sugiyama4 1Sasaki Eye Clinic, Mikuni, Sakai, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keiju Kanazawa Hospital, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Cancer Institute Hospital, 4Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Purpose: To facilitate the analysis of lacrimal conditions, we utilized high-definition dacryoendoscopy (HDD and undertook observations with a pressure-controlled air-insufflation system. We report the safety and performance of HDD.Methods: In this retrospective, non-randomized clinical trial, 46 patients (14 males and 32 females; age range 39–91 years; mean age ± SD 70.3±12.0 years who had lacrimal disorders were examined with HDD and conventional dacryoendoscopy (CD. The high-definition dacryoendoscope had 15,000 picture element image fibers and an advanced objective lens. Its outer diameter was 0.9–1.2 mm. Air insufflation was controlled at 0–20 kPa with a digital manometer-based pressure-controlled air-insufflation system to evaluate the quality of the image. The HDD had an air/saline irrigation channel between the outer sheath (outer diameter =1.2 mm and the metal inner sheath of the endoscope. We used it and the CD in air, saline, and diluted milk saline with and without manual irrigation to quantitatively evaluate the effect of air pressure and saline irrigation on image quality.Results: In vivo, the most significant improvement in image quality was demonstrated with air-insufflated (5–15 kPa HDD, as compared with saline-irrigated HDD and saline-irrigated CD. No emphysema or damage was noted under observation with HDD. In vitro, no significant difference was demonstrated between air-insufflated HDD and saline-irrigated HDD. In vitro, the image quality of air-insufflated HDD was significantly improved as compared with that of saline-irrigated CD.Conclusion: Pressure-controlled (5–15 kPa air

  2. Performance of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using Multi-focus Fan Beam Collimator with Resolution Recovery Reconstruction in a Comparison with Conventional SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutomo, Norikazu; Nagaki, Akio; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    IQ-SPECT is an advanced high-speed SPECT modality for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), which uses a multi-focus fan beam collimator with resolution recovery reconstruction. The aim of this study was to compare IQ-SPECT with conventional SPECT in terms of performance, based on standard clinical protocols. In addition, we examined the concordance between conventional and IQ-SPECT in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifty-three patients, undergoing rest-gated MPI for the evaluation of known or suspected CAD, were enrolled in this study. In each patient, conventional SPECT ( 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, 9.6 min and 201 Tl, 12.9 min) was performed, immediately followed by IQ-SPECT, using a short acquisition time (4.3 min for 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and 6.2 min for 201 Tl). A quantitative analysis was performed on an MPI polar map, using a 20-segment model of the left ventricle. An automated analysis by gated SPECT was carried out to determine the left ventricular volume and function including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The degree of concordance between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT images was evaluated according to linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses. The segmental percent uptake exhibited a significant correlation between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT (P<0.05). The mean differences in 99m Tc-tetrofosmin studies were 1.1±6.6% (apex), 2.8±5.7% (anterior wall), 2.9±6.2% (septal wall), 4.9±6.7% (lateral wall), and 1.8±5.6% (inferior wall). Meanwhile, regarding the 201 Tl-SPECT studies, these values were 1.6±6.9%, 2.0±6.6%, 2.1±5.9%, 3.3±7.2%, and 2.4±5.8%, respectively. Although the mean LVEF in IQ-SPECT tended to be higher than that observed in conventional SPECT (conventional SPECT=64.8±11.8% and IQ-SPECT=68.3±12.1% for 99m Tc-tetrofosmin; conventional SPECT= 56.0±11.7% and IQ-SPECT=61.5±12.2% for 201 Tl), quantitative parameters were not significantly different between

  3. Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...

  4. Visualization of coronary arteries in patients after childhood Kawasaki syndrome: value of multidetector CT and MR imaging in comparison to conventional coronary catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Raoul; Ley, Sebastian; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Eichhorn, Joachim; Ulmer, Herbert; Schenk, Jens-Peter

    2007-01-01

    After childhood Kawasaki syndrome (KS) the coronary arteries undergo a lifelong dynamic pathological change, and follow-up coronary artery imaging is essential. At present, conventional coronary catheterization (CCC) and angiography is still regarded as the gold standard. Less-invasive methods such as multidetector CT angiography (MDCT-A) and MRI have been used sporadically. To compare the diagnostic quality of MDCT-A and MRI with that of CCC for coronary imaging in a group of patients with coronary artery pathology after childhood KS. A total of 16 patients (aged 5-27 years) underwent CCC and 16-row MDCT-A and 14 patients MRI (1.5 T). There was 100% agreement between MDCT-A and CCC in the detection of coronary aneurysms and stenoses. MDCT-A was superior for the visualization of calcified lesions. MRI and CCC showed 93% agreement for the detection of aneurysms. Visualization of coronary artery stenoses was difficult using MRI - one stenosis was missed. MDCT-A has excellent correlation with CCC regarding all changes affecting the coronary arteries in the follow-up of childhood KS. In comparison to MDCT-A and CCC, MRI is less precise in the detection of stenotic lesions. Due to its high image quality and ease of performance MDCT-A should be the primary diagnostic modality in patients following childhood KS. (orig.)

  5. Molecular Morphology of Pituitary Cells, from Conventional Immunohistochemistry to Fluorescein Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yoshiyuki Osamura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH at the electron microscopic (EM level is essential for elucidating the intracellular distribution and role of mRNA in protein synthesis. EM-ISH is considered to be an important tool for clarifying the intracellular localization of mRNA and the exact site of pituitary hormone synthesis on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A combined ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC under EM (EM-ISH&IHC approach has sufficient ultrastructural resolution, and provides two-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA in a pituitary cell. The advantages of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, Qdots and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM enable us to obtain three-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA. Both EM-ISH&IHC and ISH & IHC using Qdots and CLSM are useful for understanding the relationships between protein and mRNA simultaneously in two or three dimensions. CLSM observation of rab3B and SNARE proteins such as SNAP-25 and syntaxin has revealed that both rab3B and SNARE system proteins play important roles and work together as the exocytotic machinery in anterior pituitary cells. Another important issue is the intracellular transport and secretion of pituitary hormone. We have developed an experimental pituitary cell line, GH3 cell, which has growth hormone (GH linked to enhanced yellow fluorescein protein (EYFP. This stable GH3 cell secretes GH linked to EYFP upon stimulation by Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from storage. This GH3 cell line is useful for the real-time visualization of the intracellular transport and secretion of GH. These three methods from conventional immunohistochemistry and fluorescein imaging allow us to consecutively visualize the process of transcription, translation, transport and secretion of anterior pituitary hormone.

  6. High-resolution MR imaging of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC): comparison of microscopy coils and a conventional small surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, 02115, Boston, MA (United States); Ueno, Teruko; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Tanaka, Toshikazu [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tsukuba Kinen Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Shindo, Masashi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2003-10-01

    To compare MR images of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using microscopy coils with those using a conventional surface coil qualitatively and quantitatively. Proton density-weighted images and T2*-weighted images of the TFCC from ten normal volunteers were obtained with a conventional surface coil (C4 coil; 80 mm in diameter), a 47-mm microscopy surface coil and a 23-mm microscopy surface coil at 1.5 T. Qualitative image analysis of MR images with three coils was performed by two radiologists who assigned one of five numerical scores (0, nonvisualization; 1, poor; 2, average; 3, good; 4, excellent) for five TFCC components, which were disc proper, triangular ligament, meniscus homologue, ulnotriquetral and ulnolunate ligament. Quantitative analysis included the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the disc proper of TFCC, the lunate cartilage, the lunate bone and the contrast-noise-ratio (C/N) between articular cartilage and disc proper or bone marrow were measured. All structures show higher scores qualitatively on MR with microscopy coils than those with a C4 coil, and the difference was significant with the exception of the ulnolunate ligament. MR with microscopy coils showed significantly higher S/N values than those with a conventional surface coil (P<0.05 to P<0.001). T2*-weighted images using microscopy coils showed significantly higher cartilage-disc proper C/N and cartilage-bone marrow C/N (P<0.01 to P<0.001). On proton density-weighted images, the C/N between cartilage and disc proper with two microscopy coils was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that with a conventional coil. High-resolution MR images of the normal wrist using microscopy coils were superior to those using a conventional surface coil qualitatively and quantitatively. High-resolution MR imaging with a microscopy coil would be a promising method to diagnose TFCC lesions. (orig.)

  7. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ji Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jong Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI.

  8. In vivo tumor-targeted dual-modal fluorescence/CT imaging using a nanoprobe co-loaded with an aggregation-induced emission dye and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jimei; Li, Chan; Zhang, Xu; Huo, Shuaidong; Jin, Shubin; An, Fei-Fei; Wang, Xiaodan; Xue, Xiangdong; Okeke, C I; Duan, Guiyun; Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Hao, Jifu; Wang, Paul C; Zhang, Jinchao; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    As an intensely studied computed tomography (CT) contrast agent, gold nanoparticle has been suggested to be combined with fluorescence imaging modality to offset the low sensitivity of CT. However, the strong quenching of gold nanoparticle on fluorescent dyes requires complicated design and shielding to overcome. Herein, we report a unique nanoprobe (M-NPAPF-Au) co-loading an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) red dye and gold nanoparticles into DSPE-PEG(2000) micelles for dual-modal fluorescence/CT imaging. The nanoprobe was prepared based on a facile method of "one-pot ultrasonic emulsification". Surprisingly, in the micelles system, fluorescence dye (NPAPF) efficiently overcame the strong fluorescence quenching of shielding-free gold nanoparticles and retained the crucial AIE feature. In vivo studies demonstrated the nanoprobe had superior tumor-targeting ability, excellent fluorescence and CT imaging effects. The totality of present studies clearly indicates the significant potential application of M-NPAPF-Au as a dual-modal non-invasive fluorescence/X-ray CT nanoprobe for in vivo tumor-targeted imaging and diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diuretic-enhanced gadolinium excretory MR urography: comparison of conventional gradient-echo sequences and echo-planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Tacke, J.; Adam, G.B.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Jung, P.; Jakse, G. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Urology

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of different gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo techniques in excretory MR urography. In 74 urologic patients, excretory MR urography was performed using various T1-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) sequences after injection of gadolinium-DTPA and low-dose furosemide. The examinations included conventional GRE sequences and echo-planar imaging (GRE EPI), both obtained with 3D data sets and 2D projection images. Breath-hold acquisition was used primarily. In 20 of 74 examinations, we compared breath-hold imaging with respiratory gating. Breath-hold imaging was significantly superior to respiratory gating for the visualization of pelvicaliceal systems, but not for the ureters. Complete MR urograms were obtained within 14-20 s using 3D GRE EPI sequences and in 20-30 s with conventional 3D GRE sequences. Ghost artefacts caused by ureteral peristalsis often occurred with conventional 3D GRE imaging and were almost completely suppressed in EPI sequences (p < 0.0001). Susceptibility effects were more pronounced on GRE EPI MR urograms and calculi measured 0.8-21.7% greater in diameter compared with conventional GRE sequences. Increased spatial resolution degraded the image quality only in GRE-EPI urograms. (orig.)

  10. Symbol Digit Modalities Test adaptation for Magnetic Resonance Imaging environment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P H R; Spedo, C T; Barreira, A A; Leoni, R F

    2018-02-01

    The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is widely used for cognitive evaluation of information processing speed (IPS), required in many cognitive operations. Despite being unspecific for different neurological disorders, it is sensitive to assess impaired performance related to stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. However, in addition to evaluate the presence and severity of IPS impairment, it is of interest to determine the localization and integration of brain regions responsible for the functions assessed by the SDMT. To review the studies that adapted the SDMT to the magnetic resonance environment and obtain the brain areas associated with the performance of the task in healthy subjects with a meta-analysis. A systematic review was performed using ten studies published between 1990 and 2017, and selected from four databases. All studies included participants of both genders and age between 18 and 50 years, used Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and SDMT adaptation and reported brain regions associated with the task. Six of them also reported the region coordinates in a standard space, so they were included in a meta-analysis. Activation Likelihood Estimation algorithm, with significance for p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons, was used to identify areas that are robustly related to the performance of the SDMT. The areas predominantly reported in the studies of our meta-analysis were regions of the frontoparietal attentional network and occipital cortex, as well as cuneus, precuneus, and cerebellum. Individually all regions that survived the statistical threshold are consistent with what is expected after reviewing prospective studies. The present study allowed the identification of brain areas activated during the performance of the SDMT in healthy subjects, and therefore it will help understanding the differences in brain activation by this task in clinical populations. Moreover, it may guide future

  11. Perspectives on How Human Simultaneous Multi-Modal Imaging Adds Directionality to Spread Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Neitzel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous animal research suggests that the spread of pathological agents in Alzheimer’s disease (AD follows the direction of signaling pathways. Specifically, tau pathology has been suggested to propagate in an infection-like mode along axons, from transentorhinal cortices to medial temporal lobe cortices and consequently to other cortical regions, while amyloid-beta (Aβ pathology seems to spread in an activity-dependent manner among and from isocortical regions into limbic and then subcortical regions. These directed connectivity-based spread models, however, have not been tested directly in AD patients due to the lack of an in vivo method to identify directed connectivity in humans. Recently, a new method—metabolic connectivity mapping (MCM—has been developed and validated in healthy participants that uses simultaneous FDG-PET and resting-state fMRI data acquisition to identify directed intrinsic effective connectivity (EC. To this end, postsynaptic energy consumption (FDG-PET is used to identify regions with afferent input from other functionally connected brain regions (resting-state fMRI. Here, we discuss how this multi-modal imaging approach allows quantitative, whole-brain mapping of signaling direction in AD patients, thereby pointing out some of the advantages it offers compared to other EC methods (i.e., Granger causality, dynamic causal modeling, Bayesian networks. Most importantly, MCM provides the basis on which models of pathology spread, derived from animal studies, can be tested in AD patients. In particular, future work should investigate whether tau and Aβ in humans propagate along the trajectories of directed connectivity in order to advance our understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms causing disease progression.

  12. The utility of MR imaging of the shoulder joint: comparison of the MR imaging between conventional MR imaging and arthrographic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Sik; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Kim, Ihn Sub; Rhee, Yong Girl

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI of the shoulder. Between January and June 1997, shoulder MRI and arthroscopy were performed in a total of 48 patients with shoulder pain (n=3D30) or shoulder instability (n=3D18). Forty-five were males and three were females; their ages ranged from 16 to 67 (mean 32.5) years. The period between shoulder MRI and arthroscopy was between one and 390 (mean, 42.2) days. Twenty-six patents underwent MR arthrography (AMR), and 22 conventional MRI(CMR). Each image was analyzed for rotator cuff injury, glenoid labral injury, SLAP lesion, and biceps tendon injury. On arthroscopy, one disease was found in 34 patients, two were found in six, three diseases were found in seven, and one patient had four diseases. Arthroscopic diagnosis was as follows:rotator cuff injury, 29;SLAP lesion, 12;glenoid labral injury, 10;biceps tendon injury, 4;subacromial bursitis, 2;chronic synovitis, 1;adhesive capsulitis, 1;superior glenohumeral ligament injury, 1;normal, 1. For rotator cuff injury, the sensitivity of MRI was 65.5% and specificity was 93.0% (AMR:66.7%, 95.8%, CMR:65.2%, 86.4%). For SLAP lesion, sensitivity was 58.3% and specificity was 97.2% (AMR:66.7%, 100%, CMR:50%, 93.8%);for glenoid labral injury, sensitivity was 80.0% and specificity was 89.5% (AMR:85.7%, 84.2%, CMR:66.7%, 94.7%), and for biceps tendon injury, the false negative rate was 100%. In cases involving glenoid labral injury, the diagnostic accuracy of shoulder MRI was relatively high;in rotator cuff injury and SLAP lesion, however, diagnosis was limited, and in biceps tendon injury was difficult. We suggest, however, that MR arthrography has certain diagnostic advantages over conventional MRI.=20

  13. The utility of MR imaging of the shoulder joint: comparison of the MR imaging between conventional MR imaging and arthrographic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dong Sik; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Kim, Ihn Sub; Rhee, Yong Girl [Kyunghee Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI of the shoulder. Between January and June 1997, shoulder MRI and arthroscopy were performed in a total of 48 patients with shoulder pain (n=3D30) or shoulder instability (n=3D18). Forty-five were males and three were females; their ages ranged from 16 to 67 (mean 32.5) years. The period between shoulder MRI and arthroscopy was between one and 390 (mean, 42.2) days. Twenty-six patents underwent MR arthrography (AMR), and 22 conventional MRI(CMR). Each image was analyzed for rotator cuff injury, glenoid labral injury, SLAP lesion, and biceps tendon injury. On arthroscopy, one disease was found in 34 patients, two were found in six, three diseases were found in seven, and one patient had four diseases. Arthroscopic diagnosis was as follows:rotator cuff injury, 29;SLAP lesion, 12;glenoid labral injury, 10;biceps tendon injury, 4;subacromial bursitis, 2;chronic synovitis, 1;adhesive capsulitis, 1;superior glenohumeral ligament injury, 1;normal, 1. For rotator cuff injury, the sensitivity of MRI was 65.5% and specificity was 93.0% (AMR:66.7%, 95.8%, CMR:65.2%, 86.4%). For SLAP lesion, sensitivity was 58.3% and specificity was 97.2% (AMR:66.7%, 100%, CMR:50%, 93.8%);for glenoid labral injury, sensitivity was 80.0% and specificity was 89.5% (AMR:85.7%, 84.2%, CMR:66.7%, 94.7%), and for biceps tendon injury, the false negative rate was 100%. In cases involving glenoid labral injury, the diagnostic accuracy of shoulder MRI was relatively high;in rotator cuff injury and SLAP lesion, however, diagnosis was limited, and in biceps tendon injury was difficult. We suggest, however, that MR arthrography has certain diagnostic advantages over conventional MRI.=20.

  14. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles function as a long-term, multi-modal imaging label for non-invasive tracking of implanted progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Pacak

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles to function as a long-term tracking label for multi-modal imaging of implanted engineered tissues containing muscle-derived progenitor cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT. SPIO-labeled primary myoblasts were embedded in fibrin sealant and imaged to obtain intensity data by MRI or radio-opacity information by μCT. Each imaging modality displayed a detection gradient that matched increasing SPIO concentrations. Labeled cells were then incorporated in fibrin sealant, injected into the atrioventricular groove of rat hearts, and imaged in vivo and ex vivo for up to 1 year. Transplanted cells were identified in intact animals and isolated hearts using both imaging modalities. MRI was better able to detect minuscule amounts of SPIO nanoparticles, while μCT more precisely identified the location of heavily-labeled cells. Histological analyses confirmed that iron oxide particles were confined to viable, skeletal muscle-derived cells in the implant at the expected location based on MRI and μCT. These analyses showed no evidence of phagocytosis of labeled cells by macrophages or release of nanoparticles from transplanted cells. In conclusion, we established that SPIO nanoparticles function as a sensitive and specific long-term label for MRI and μCT, respectively. Our findings will enable investigators interested in regenerative therapies to non-invasively and serially acquire complementary, high-resolution images of transplanted cells for one year using a single label.

  15. JJ1017 committee report: image examination order codes--standardized codes for imaging modality, region, and direction with local expansion: an extension of DICOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Michio; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sukenobu, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Hiroki; Tani, Shigeki; Sakusabe, Takaya; Nakajima, Takashi; Morimura, Shinya; Kabata, Shun

    2002-06-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard includes parts regarding nonimage data information, such as image study ordering data and performed procedure data, and is used for sharing information between HIS/RIS and modality systems, which is essential for IHE. To bring such parts of the DICOM standard into force in Japan, a joint committee of JIRA and JAHIS established the JJ1017 management guideline, specifying, for example, which items are legally required in Japan, while remaining optional in the DICOM standard. In Japan, the contents of orders from referring physicians for radiographic examinations include details of the examination. Such details are not used typically by referring physicians requesting radiographic examinations in the United States, because radiologists in the United States often determine the examination protocol. The DICOM standard has code tables for examination type, region, and direction for image examination orders. However, this investigation found that it does not include items that are detailed sufficiently for use in Japan, because of the above-mentioned reason. To overcome these drawbacks, we have generated the JJ1017 code for these 3 codes for use based on the JJ1017 guidelines. This report introduces the JJ1017 code. These codes (the study type codes in particular) must be expandable to keep up with technical advances in equipment. Expansion has 2 directions: width for covering more categories and depth for specifying the information in more detail (finer categories). The JJ1017 code takes these requirements into consideration and clearly distinguishes between the stem part as the common term and the expansion. The stem part of the JJ1017 code partially utilizes the DICOM codes to remain in line with the DICOM standard. This work is an example of how local requirements can be met by using the DICOM standard and extending it.

  16. Avoiding preoperative breast MRI when conventional imaging is sufficient to stage patients eligible for breast conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengel, Kenneth E., E-mail: k.pengel@nki.nl [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnappel, Ruud M. [Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Aim: To determine when preoperative breast MRI will not be more informative than available breast imaging and can be omitted in patients eligible for breast conserving therapy (BCT). Methods: We performed an MRI in 685 consecutive patients with 692 invasive breast tumors and eligible for BCT based on conventional imaging and clinical examination. We explored associations between patient, tumor, and conventional imaging characteristics and similarity with MRI findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to compute the area under the curve (AUC). Results: MRI and conventional breast imaging were similar in 585 of the 692 tumors (85%). At univariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), negative preoperative lymph node status (p = 0.011), comparable tumor diameter at mammography and at ultrasound (p = 0.001), negative HER2 status (p = 0.044), and absence of invasive lobular cancer (p = 0.005) were significantly associated with this similarity. At multivariate analysis, these factors, except HER2 status, retained significant associations. The AUC was 0.68. Conclusions: It is feasible to identify a subgroup of patients prior to preoperative breast MRI, who will most likely show similar results on conventional imaging as on MRI. These findings enable formulation of a practical consensus guideline to determine in which patients a preoperative breast MRI can be omitted.

  17. Avoiding preoperative breast MRI when conventional imaging is sufficient to stage patients eligible for breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengel, Kenneth E.; Loo, Claudette E.; Wesseling, Jelle; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Rutgers, Emiel J.Th.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine when preoperative breast MRI will not be more informative than available breast imaging and can be omitted in patients eligible for breast conserving therapy (BCT). Methods: We performed an MRI in 685 consecutive patients with 692 invasive breast tumors and eligible for BCT based on conventional imaging and clinical examination. We explored associations between patient, tumor, and conventional imaging characteristics and similarity with MRI findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to compute the area under the curve (AUC). Results: MRI and conventional breast imaging were similar in 585 of the 692 tumors (85%). At univariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), negative preoperative lymph node status (p = 0.011), comparable tumor diameter at mammography and at ultrasound (p = 0.001), negative HER2 status (p = 0.044), and absence of invasive lobular cancer (p = 0.005) were significantly associated with this similarity. At multivariate analysis, these factors, except HER2 status, retained significant associations. The AUC was 0.68. Conclusions: It is feasible to identify a subgroup of patients prior to preoperative breast MRI, who will most likely show similar results on conventional imaging as on MRI. These findings enable formulation of a practical consensus guideline to determine in which patients a preoperative breast MRI can be omitted

  18. Two Phase Non-Rigid Multi-Modal Image Registration Using Weber Local Descriptor-Based Similarity Metrics and Normalized Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-rigid multi-modal image registration plays an important role in medical image processing and analysis. Existing image registration methods based on similarity metrics such as mutual information (MI and sum of squared differences (SSD cannot achieve either high registration accuracy or high registration efficiency. To address this problem, we propose a novel two phase non-rigid multi-modal image registration method by combining Weber local descriptor (WLD based similarity metrics with the normalized mutual information (NMI using the diffeomorphic free-form deformation (FFD model. The first phase aims at recovering the large deformation component using the WLD based non-local SSD (wldNSSD or weighted structural similarity (wldWSSIM. Based on the output of the former phase, the second phase is focused on getting accurate transformation parameters related to the small deformation using the NMI. Extensive experiments on T1, T2 and PD weighted MR images demonstrate that the proposed wldNSSD-NMI or wldWSSIM-NMI method outperforms the registration methods based on the NMI, the conditional mutual information (CMI, the SSD on entropy images (ESSD and the ESSD-NMI in terms of registration accuracy and computation efficiency.

  19. The Multi-modal Australian ScienceS Imaging and Visualisation Environment (MASSIVE high performance computing infrastructure: applications in neuroscience and neuroinformatics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtek James eGoscinski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-modal Australian ScienceS Imaging and Visualisation Environment (MASSIVE is a national imaging and visualisation facility established by Monash University, the Australian Synchrotron, the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, and the Victorian Partnership for Advanced Computing (VPAC, with funding from the National Computational Infrastructure and the Victorian Government. The MASSIVE facility provides hardware, software and expertise to drive research in the biomedical sciences, particularly advanced brain imaging research using synchrotron x-ray and infrared imaging, functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, x-ray computer tomography (CT, electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The development of MASSIVE has been based on best practice in system integration methodologies, frameworks, and architectures. The facility has: (i integrated multiple different neuroimaging analysis software components, (ii enabled cross-platform and cross-modality integration of neuroinformatics tools, and (iii brought together neuroimaging databases and analysis workflows. MASSIVE is now operational as a nationally distributed and integrated facility for neuroinfomatics and brain imaging research.

  20. Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Dual-Modality Imaging-Guided Photothermal and Photodynamic Dual-Therapy with Magnetic Porphyrin-Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yu-Hao; Chen, Yang; Wang, Man-Man; Wang, Xue-Sheng; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-03-01

    Phototherapy shows some unique advantages in clinical application, such as remote controllability, improved selectivity, and low bio-toxicity, than chemotherapy. In order to improve the safety and therapeutic efficacy, imaging-guided therapy seems particularly important because it integrates visible information to speculate the distribution and metabolism of the probe. Here we prepare biocompatible core-shell nanocomposites for dual-modality imaging-guided photothermal and photodynamic dual-therapy by the in situ growth of porphyrin-metal organic framework (PMOF) on Fe3O4@C core. Fe3O4@C core was used as T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) agent. The optical properties of porphyrin were well remained in PMOF, and PMOF was therefore selected for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence imaging. Fluorescence and MR dual-modality imaging-guided PTT and PDT dual-therapy was confirmed with tumour-bearing mice as model. The high tumour accumulation of Fe3O4@C@PMOF and controllable light excitation at the tumour site achieved efficient cancer therapy, but low toxicity was observed to the normal tissues. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4@C@PMOF was a promising dual-imaging guided PTT and PDT dual-therapy platform for tumour diagnosis and treatment with low cytotoxicity and negligible in vivo toxicity.

  1. In Vivo Dual-Modality Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Lymph Node Mapping with Good Biocompatibility Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Zhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional manganese oxide nanoparticles (NPs with impressive enhanced T1 contrast ability show great promise in biomedical diagnosis. Herein, we developed a dual-modality imaging agent system based on polyethylene glycol (PEG-coated manganese oxide NPs conjugated with organic dye (Cy7.5, which functions as a fluorescence imaging (FI agent as well as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI imaging agent. The formed Mn3O4@PEG-Cy7.5 NPs with the size of ~10 nm exhibit good colloidal stability in different physiological media. Serial FI and MRI studies that non-invasively assessed the bio-distribution pattern and the feasibility for in vivo dual-modality imaging-guided lymph node mapping have been investigated. In addition, histological and biochemical analyses exhibited low toxicity even at a dose of 20 mg/kg in vivo. Since Mn3O4@PEG-Cy7.5 NPs exhibited desirable properties as imaging agents and good biocompatibility, this work offers a robust, safe, and accurate diagnostic platform based on manganese oxide NPs for tumor metastasis diagnosis.

  2. Diagnostic performance of conventional diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging for the liver fibrosis and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosun, Mesude; Inan, Nagihan; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin; Akansel, Gur; Gumustas, Sevtap; Gürbüz, Yeşim; Demirci, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of liver apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (CDI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven patients with histologic diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis and 34 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. All patients and healthy volunteers were examined by 3 T MRI. CDI and DTI were performed using a breath-hold single-shot echo-planar spin echo sequence with b factors of 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 . ADCs were obtained with CDI and DTI. Histopathologically, fibrosis of the liver parenchyma was classified with the use of a 5-point scale (0–4) and inflammation was classified with use of a 4-point scale (0–3) in accordance with the METAVIR score. Quantitatively, signal intensity and the ADCs of the liver parenchyma were compared between patients stratified by fibrosis stage and inflammation grade. Results: With a b factor of 1000 s/mm 2 , the signal intensity of the cirrhotic livers was significantly higher than those of the normal volunteers. In addition, ADCs reconstructed from CDI and DTI of the patients were significantly lower than those of the normal volunteers. Liver ADC values inversely correlated with fibrosis and inflammation but there was only statistically significant for inflammatory grading. CDI performed better than DTI for the diagnosis of fibrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: ADC values measured with CDI and DTI may help in the detection of liver fibrosis. They may also give contributory to the inflammatory grading, particularly in distinguishing high from low grade

  3. Diagnostic performance of conventional diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging for the liver fibrosis and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Mesude, E-mail: mesude.tosun@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Inan, Nagihan, E-mail: inannagihan@ekolay.net [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin, E-mail: htssarisoy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Akansel, Gur, E-mail: gakansel@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Gumustas, Sevtap, E-mail: svtgumustas@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Gürbüz, Yeşim, E-mail: yesimgurbuz2002@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Demirci, Ali, E-mail: alidemirci@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of liver apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (CDI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven patients with histologic diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis and 34 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. All patients and healthy volunteers were examined by 3 T MRI. CDI and DTI were performed using a breath-hold single-shot echo-planar spin echo sequence with b factors of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADCs were obtained with CDI and DTI. Histopathologically, fibrosis of the liver parenchyma was classified with the use of a 5-point scale (0–4) and inflammation was classified with use of a 4-point scale (0–3) in accordance with the METAVIR score. Quantitatively, signal intensity and the ADCs of the liver parenchyma were compared between patients stratified by fibrosis stage and inflammation grade. Results: With a b factor of 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, the signal intensity of the cirrhotic livers was significantly higher than those of the normal volunteers. In addition, ADCs reconstructed from CDI and DTI of the patients were significantly lower than those of the normal volunteers. Liver ADC values inversely correlated with fibrosis and inflammation but there was only statistically significant for inflammatory grading. CDI performed better than DTI for the diagnosis of fibrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: ADC values measured with CDI and DTI may help in the detection of liver fibrosis. They may also give contributory to the inflammatory grading, particularly in distinguishing high from low grade.

  4. Simple and versatile modifications allowing time gated spectral acquisition, imaging and lifetime profiling on conventional wide-field microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Robert; Beeby, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An inverted microscope has been adapted to allow time-gated imaging and spectroscopy to be carried out on samples containing responsive lanthanide probes. The adaptation employs readily available components, including a pulsed light source, time-gated camera, spectrometer and photon counting detector, allowing imaging, emission spectroscopy and lifetime measurements. Each component is controlled by a suite of software written in LabVIEW and is powered via conventional USB ports. (technical note)

  5. Peritendinous calcinosis of calcaneus tendon associated with dermatomyositis: correlation between conventional radiograph, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and gross surgical pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Gomide, Lidyane Marques de Paula; Lemes, Marcella Stival

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial calcinosis is an uncommon condition in which there is either localized or widely disseminated deposition of calcium in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and tendons. Calcinosis is often associated with collagen diseases, scleroderma and dermatomyositis. The authors report a case of interstitial calcinosis associated with dermatomyositis studied with conventional radiograph, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and correlate the imaging findings with the results of surgical pathology gross examination. (author)

  6. Agreement between image grading of conventional (45°) and ultra wide-angle (200°) digital images in the macula in the Reykjavik eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csutak, A; Lengyel, I; Jonasson, F; Leung, I; Geirsdottir, A; Xing, W; Peto, T

    2010-10-01

    To establish the agreement between image grading of conventional (45°) and ultra wide-angle (200°) digital images in the macula. In 2008, the 12-year follow-up was conducted on 573 participants of the Reykjavik Eye Study. This study included the use of the Optos P200C AF ultra wide-angle laser scanning ophthalmoscope alongside Zeiss FF 450 conventional digital fundus camera on 121 eyes with or without age-related macular degeneration using the International Classification System. Of these eyes, detailed grading was carried out on five cases each with hard drusen, geographic atrophy and chorioretinal neovascularisation, and six cases of soft drusen. Exact agreement and κ-statistics were calculated. Comparison of the conventional and ultra wide-angle images in the macula showed an overall 96.43% agreement (κ=0.93) with no disagreement at end-stage disease; although in one eye chorioretinal neovascularisation was graded as drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment. Of patients with drusen only, the exact agreement was 96.1%. The detailed grading showed no clinically significant disagreement between the conventional 45° and 200° images. On the basis of our results, there is a good agreement between grading conventional and ultra wide-angle images in the macula.

  7. In vivo characterization of a new abdominal aortic aneurysm mouse model with conventional and molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, Ahmed; Heynens, Joeri; Herranz, Beatriz; Lobatto, Mark E.; Arias, Teresa; Sanders, Honorius M. H. F.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Merkx, Maarten; Nicolay, Klaas; Fuster, Valentin; Tedgui, Alain; Mallat, Ziad; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use noninvasive conventional and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect and characterize abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in vivo. Collagen is an essential constituent of aneurysms. Noninvasive MRI of collagen may represent an opportunity to help detect

  8. Correlation of conventional simulation x-ray films and CT images for HDR-brachytherapy catheters reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, M.; Reddy, K.D.; Reddy, R.M.; Reddy, J.M.; Reddy, B.V.N.; Kiran Kumar; Gopi, S.; Dharaniraj; Janardhanan

    2002-01-01

    In order to plan a brachytherapy implant, it is imperative that implant reconstruction is done accurately. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether implant reconstruction done with transverse CT images is comparable to reconstruction done with conventional x-ray films

  9. Calibration tests and use of a Nicolet/Xentronics imaging proportional chamber mounted on a conventional source for protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derewenda, Z; Helliwell, J R

    1989-04-01

    The results are presented of calibration tests and several single-crystal X-ray data collection experiments undertaken with a Nicolet/Xentronics Imaging Proportional Counter mounted on a conventional X-ray source. Considerable attention has been given to system optimization in collaboration with Nicolet, and this has led to a performance of high quality. (orig.).

  10. A fuzzy feature fusion method for auto-segmentation of gliomas with multi-modality diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance images in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lu; Wang, Ping; Sun, Ranran; Yang, Chengwen; Zhang, Ning; Guo, Yu; Feng, Yuanming

    2018-02-19

    The diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) images can provide functional information about tumour and enable more sensitive detection of the tumour extent. We aimed to develop a fuzzy feature fusion method for auto-segmentation of gliomas in radiotherapy planning using multi-parametric functional MR images including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV). For each functional modality, one histogram-based fuzzy model was created to transform image volume into a fuzzy feature space. Based on the fuzzy fusion result of the three fuzzy feature spaces, regions with high possibility belonging to tumour were generated automatically. The auto-segmentations of tumour in structural MR images were added in final auto-segmented gross tumour volume (GTV). For evaluation, one radiation oncologist delineated GTVs for nine patients with all modalities. Comparisons between manually delineated and auto-segmented GTVs showed that, the mean volume difference was 8.69% (±5.62%); the mean Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was 0.88 (±0.02); the mean sensitivity and specificity of auto-segmentation was 0.87 (±0.04) and 0.98 (±0.01) respectively. High accuracy and efficiency can be achieved with the new method, which shows potential of utilizing functional multi-parametric MR images for target definition in precision radiation treatment planning for patients with gliomas.

  11. Supine spinal magnetic resonance imaging with straightened lower extremities in spondylolisthesis: A comparison with the conventional technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Poureisa, Masoud; Arablou, Farid; Fouladi, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MR imaging with straightened lower extremities was tested in spondylolisthesis. • This technique is more accurate than conventional MR imaging in detecting slip. • Level of spondylolisthesis is the only independent predictor of severity of slip. - Abstract: Objectives: To compare the degree of slip in spondylolisthesis on supine magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained with flexed and straightened lower extremities. Methods: Supine spinal MR studies were performed in 100 cases of symptomatic spondylolisthesis with flexed and then straightened lower extremities. The angle of lumbar lordosis (by Cobb's method) and the degree of slip (by Taillard's method) were compared between the two sets of images. Results: The mean angle of lumbar lordosis increased from 51.65 ± 8.57° on MR images with flexed lower limbs to 57.39 ± 9.05° on MR images with straightened lower limbs (p < 0.001; mean percent increase: 11.51%). Similar change was also observed for the mean degree of slip (from 25.80 ± 7.74% to 28.68 ± 7.93%, p < 0.001; mean percent increase: 12.60%). After MR imaging with straightened lower extremities 22 out of 54 initially grade I cases had grade II disease (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Supine magnetic resonance imaging with straightened lower extremities detects higher degree of slippage in symptomatic patients with spondylolisthesis compared to conventional MRI with flexed lower extremities

  12. Supine spinal magnetic resonance imaging with straightened lower extremities in spondylolisthesis: A comparison with the conventional technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Poureisa, Masoud; Arablou, Farid [Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel F., E-mail: medicorelax@yahoo.com [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • MR imaging with straightened lower extremities was tested in spondylolisthesis. • This technique is more accurate than conventional MR imaging in detecting slip. • Level of spondylolisthesis is the only independent predictor of severity of slip. - Abstract: Objectives: To compare the degree of slip in spondylolisthesis on supine magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained with flexed and straightened lower extremities. Methods: Supine spinal MR studies were performed in 100 cases of symptomatic spondylolisthesis with flexed and then straightened lower extremities. The angle of lumbar lordosis (by Cobb's method) and the degree of slip (by Taillard's method) were compared between the two sets of images. Results: The mean angle of lumbar lordosis increased from 51.65 ± 8.57° on MR images with flexed lower limbs to 57.39 ± 9.05° on MR images with straightened lower limbs (p < 0.001; mean percent increase: 11.51%). Similar change was also observed for the mean degree of slip (from 25.80 ± 7.74% to 28.68 ± 7.93%, p < 0.001; mean percent increase: 12.60%). After MR imaging with straightened lower extremities 22 out of 54 initially grade I cases had grade II disease (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Supine magnetic resonance imaging with straightened lower extremities detects higher degree of slippage in symptomatic patients with spondylolisthesis compared to conventional MRI with flexed lower extremities.

  13. A new test phantom with different breast tissue compositions for image quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D; Valley, Jean-Francois; Verdun, Francis R

    2004-01-01

    Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of image quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue compositions, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and image noise. The phantom was imaged over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen-film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective image quality assessments for different breast tissue compositions were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen-film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for imaging because of the different breast tissue compositions encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose-image quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits image quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose-image quality relationship

  14. The Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Combination With Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Improving Tumor Detection for Early Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Fertility-Sparing Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulei; Wang, Ling; Li, Yong; Song, Peiji

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery because of early cervical carcinoma. Fifty-four patients with stage Ia or Ib1 cervical carcinoma were enrolled into this study. Magnetic resonance examinations were performed for these patients using conventional MRI (including T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) and DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical carcinoma were analyzed quantitatively and compared with that of adjacent epithelium. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 2 sets of MRI sequences were calculated on the basis of histologic results, and the diagnostic ability of conventional MRI/DWI combinations was compared with that of conventional MRI. The mean ADC value from cervical carcinoma (mean, 786 × 10 mm/s ± 100) was significantly lower than that from adjacent epithelium (mean, 1352 × 10 mm/s ± 147) (P = 0.01). When the threshold ADC value set as 1010 × 10 mm/s, the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating cervical carcinoma from nontumor epithelium were 78.2% and 67.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of conventional MRI for tumor detection were 76.0% and 70.4%, whereas the sensitivity and accuracy of conventional MRI/DWI combinations were 91.7% and 90.7%, respectively. Conventional MRI/DWI combinations revealed a positive predictive value of 97.8% and only 4 false-negative findings. The addition of DWI to conventional MRI considerably improves the sensitivity and accuracy of tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery, which supports the inclusion quantitative analysis of ADC value in routine MRI protocol before fertility-sparing surgery.

  15. A combination of small bowel imaging methods: conventional enteroclysis with complementary magnetic resonance enteroclysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akman, C. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Korman, U. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ugurk9@istanbul.edu.tr; Oguet, G. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Kurugoglu, S. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Urger, E. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulus, S. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Esen, G. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasci, I. [Department of Surgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the overall findings of conventional enteroclysis (CE) with complementary magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE) in small bowel disease. METHODS: The study included 32 patients referred from various clinical departments, with known or suspected small bowel disease and abnormalities on CE. Immediately after CE, true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true FISP), and unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequences with fat saturation were obtained. Mucosal, mural and luminal changes of the small bowel were evaluated by each technique. In addition, bowel wall thickening, bowel wall enhancement and perienteric changes were assessed by MRE. The radiological findings obtained were evaluated together as a combination, and the role of MRE in the determination of the activity and complications of the small bowel disease was assessed. Radiological findings were correlated with clinical evaluation and follow-up in all cases, including endoscopy in 14 cases and surgery in 5 cases. RESULTS: MRE provided important supplementary mural and extramural information, including degree of pathological wall thickness, mural enhancement pattern associated with disease activity, perivisceral collection, abscess formation, mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation, lymphadenopathy and increase in perienteric vascularity. Short strictures were not revealed on MRE; however, for patients with a history of abdominal malignancy, MRE helped characterize the level of any obstruction and the extent of the disease. CONCLUSION: We recommend MRE for patients who have findings of advanced inflammatory bowel disease or neoplasm on CE examination. The combination of these two techniques can provide important information on the degree and extent of the disorder.

  16. The value of adding conventional MR imaging to MR cholangiopancreatography in differentiation of benign and malignant causes of postoperative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Zhou Xiangping; Song Bin; Chen Xian; Liu Rongbo; Yan Zhihan; Xiong Yan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of conventional T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images as a supplement to MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in differentiation of benign from malignant causes of postoperative disorders in the biliary ductal system. Methods: Sixty-one patients with postoperative disorders in the biliary ductal system with proved causes underwent MRCP, conventional T 1 - and less heavily T 2 -weighted images, as well as gadolinium-enhanced images. Two radiologists independently reviewed MRCP images alone, MRCP plus nonenhanced T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images, and MRCP plus nonenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced images. The results of MR findings were compared with that of the surgical findings and the pathology. Results: For the diagnosis of postoperative disorders only with MRCP images, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 42.1%, 80.9% and 68.9% for radiologist 1 and 47.4%, 85.7%, and 73.8% for radiologist 2, respectively. When MRCP images were interpreted with T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 78.9%, 92.9% and 88.5% for radiologist 1 and, 78.9%, 95.2%, and 90.2% for radiologist 2, respectively. When MRCP images were combined with both nonenhanced T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images and enhanced MR images, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 84.2%, 95.2% and 91.8% for radiologist 1 and 84.2%, 97.6%, and 93.4% for radiologist 2, respectively. There was no significant difference between the 2 readers (P>0.05). For differentiation of benign from malignant causes of postoperative disorders, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) was significantly larger for MRCP images interpreted with T 1 - and T 2 weighted images (0.907 for reader 1, 0.920 for reader 2) than for MRCP images alone (0.682 reader 1, 0.714 for reader 2) (P 1 - and T 2 -weighted images did not significantly increase the accuracy (Az = 0.948 for reader 1, 0

  17. Solitary pulmonary nodules: meta-analytic comparison of cross-sectional imaging modalities for diagnosis of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Paul; Dwamena, Ben A; Kelly, Aine Marie; Carlos, Ruth C

    2008-03-01

    To perform a meta-analysis to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) depreotide single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Data sources were studies published in PubMed between January 1990 and December 2005. The selected investigations were comparative and noncomparative diagnostic cohort studies to examine the operating characteristics of the four imaging modalities for evaluation of SPNs, involving at least 10 enrolled participants with histologic confirmation and having sufficient data to calculate contingency tables. A random coefficient binary regression model with disease probability conditioned on test results was used to summarize test performance and construct summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, diagnostic odds ratios, and areas under the ROC curve were calculated. Forty-four studies--10 dynamic CT, six dynamic MR, 22 FDG PET, and seven (99m)Tc-depreotide SPECT--met the inclusion criteria. (One study was included in both the FDG PET and SPECT groups.) Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, diagnostic odds ratios, and areas under the ROC curve were, respectively, 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 0.97), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.97), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.86), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98), 39.91 (95% CI: 1.21, 81.04), and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.97) for dynamic CT; 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97), 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.86), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.89), 0.93 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.96), 60.59 (95% CI: 5.56, 115.62), and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.98) for dynamic MR; 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.93), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.94), 97.31 (95% CI: 6.26, 188.37), and 0

  18. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  19. First-in-human study of PET and optical dual-modality image-guided surgery in glioblastoma using 68Ga-IRDye800CW-BBN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deling; Zhang, Jingjing; Chi, Chongwei; Xiao, Xiong; Wang, Junmei; Lang, Lixin; Ali, Iqbal; Niu, Gang; Zhang, Liwei; Tian, Jie; Ji, Nan; Zhu, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose : Despite the use of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS), maximum safe resection of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a major challenge. It has restricted surgeons between preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative treatment. Currently, an integrated approach combining preoperative assessment with intraoperative guidance would be a significant step in this direction. Experimental design : We developed a novel 68 Ga-IRDye800CW-BBN PET/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dual-modality imaging probe targeting gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in GBM. The preclinical in vivo tumor imaging and FGS were first evaluated using an orthotopic U87MG glioma xenograft model. Subsequently, the first-in-human prospective cohort study (NCT 02910804) of GBM patients were conducted with preoperative PET assessment and intraoperative FGS. Results : The orthotopic tumors in mice could be precisely resected using the near-infrared intraoperative system. Translational cohort research in 14 GBM patients demonstrated an excellent correlation between preoperative positive PET uptake and intraoperative NIRF signal. The tumor fluorescence signals were significantly higher than those from adjacent brain tissue in vivo and ex vivo (p dual-modality imaging technique is feasible for integrated pre- and intraoperative targeted imaging via the same molecular receptor and improved intraoperative GBM visualization and maximum safe resection.

  20. Feasibility of CBCT-based target and normal structure delineation in prostate cancer radiotherapy: Multi-observer and image multi-modality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetgendorf-Caucig, Carola; Fotina, Irina; Stock, Markus; Poetter, Richard; Goldner, Gregor; Georg, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: In-room cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging and adaptive treatment strategies are promising methods to decrease target volumes and to spare organs at risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the inter-observer contouring uncertainties of target volumes and organs at risks (oars) in localized prostate cancer radiotherapy using CBCT images. Furthermore, CBCT contouring was benchmarked against other image modalities (CT, MR) and the influence of subjective image quality perception on inter-observer variability was assessed. Methods and materials: Eight prostate cancer patients were selected. Seven radiation oncologists contoured target volumes and oars on CT, MRI and CBCT. Volumes, coefficient of variation (COV), conformity index (cigen), and coordinates of center-of-mass (COM) were calculated for each patient and image modality. Reliability analysis was performed for the support of the reported findings. Subjective perception of image quality was assessed via a ten-scored visual analog scale (VAS). Results: The median volume for prostate was larger on CT compared to MRI and CBCT images. The inter-observer variation for prostate was larger on CBCT (CIgen = 0.57 ± 0.09, 0.61 reliability) compared to CT (CIgen = 0.72 ± 0.07, 0.83 reliability) and MRI (CIgen = 0.66 ± 0.12, 0.87 reliability). On all image modalities values of the intra-observer reliability coefficient (0.97 for CT, 0.99 for MR and 0.94 for CBCT) indicated high reproducibility of results. For all patients the root mean square (RMS) of the inter-observer standard deviation (σ) of the COM was largest on CBCT with σ(x) = 0.4 mm, σ(y) = 1.1 mm, and σ(z) = 1.7 mm. The concordance in delineating OARs was much stronger than for target volumes, with average CIgen > 0.70 for rectum and CIgen > 0.80 for bladder. Positive correlations between CIgen and VAS score of the image quality were observed for the prostate, seminal vesicles and rectum. Conclusions: Inter-observer variability for target

  1. Preliminary results for positron emission mammography: real-time functional breast imaging in a conventional mammography gantry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, I.; Majewski, S.; Weisenberger, A.; Markowitz, A.; Aloj, L.; Majewski, L,; Danforth, D.; Mulshine, J.; Cowan, K.; Zujewski, J.; Chow, C.; Jones, E.; Chang, V.; Berg, W.; Frank, J.

    1996-01-01

    In order to optimally integrate radiotracer breast imaging within the breast clinic, anatomy and pathology should be easily correlated with functional nuclear medicine breast images. As a first step in the development of a hybrid functional/anatomic breast imaging platform with biopsy capability, a conventional X-ray mammography gantry was modified to image the compressed brest with positron emitters. Phantom studies with the positron emission mammography (PEM) device showed that a 1-cc hot spot could be detected within 5 min. A preliminary clinical trial demonstrated in vivo visualization of primary breast cancer within 4 min. For sites where positron-emitting radionuclides are available, PEM promises to achieve low-cost directed functional examination of breast abnormalities, with potential for achieving X-ray correlation and image-guided biopsy. (orig.)

  2. Transient Splenial Lesion of Corpus Callosum Associated with Antiepileptic Drug: Conventional and Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, B.; Erdogan, C.; Yildirim, N.; Gokalp, G.; Parlak, M. [Uludag Univ. Medical School, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-11-01

    Transient focal lesions of splenium of corpus callosum can be seen as a component of many central nervous system diseases, including antiepileptic drug toxicity. The conventional magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the disease are characteristic and include ovoid lesions with high signal intensity at T2-weighted MRI. Limited information exists about the diffusion-weighted MRI characteristics of these lesions vanishing completely after a period of time. We examined the conventional, FLAIR, and diffusion-weighted MR images of a patient complaining of depressive mood and anxiety disorder after 1 year receiving antiepileptic medication.

  3. A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

  4. Volume-artifact reduction modality by helical CT of the anterior, middle and posterior carnial fossae. Comparison with conventional CT; Volumen-Artefakt-Reduktionstechnik mittels Spiral-CT in der vorderen, mittleren und hinteren Schaedelgrube. Vergleich mit der konventionellen kranialen CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorenbeck, U.; Finkenzeller, T.; Hill, K.; Feuerbach, S.; Link, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2000-04-01

    Purpose: The object of this study was to determine the extent to which a new volume-artifact reduction (VAR) modality using helical CT was able to reduce artifacts in the anterior, middle and posterior fossae in comparison with conventional CT (sequential mode). Methods: In a prospective, randomized trial, 50 patients underwent helical CT (VAR) and 50 underwent sequential CT. The results were evaluated by three radiologists; influences on image quality where scaled between 1 (no artifact) and 4 (not assessable). Eight regions of the anterior, middle and posterior fossae were evaluated. Results: On average, artifacts were scaled at 2.5 in helical CT (VAR) and 3.1 in conventional CT. Significant differences were seen at the eyeball, anterior to the petrosol bone, at the internal occipital crest, and at the level of the transverse sinus (p<0.005). Conclusions: Helical CT with the VAR modality is superior to conventional, sequential CT in the area of the anterior, middle and posterior fossae. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Das Ziel dieser Studie war herauszufinden, inwieweit ein neuer Volumen-Artefakt-Reduktionsmodus (VAR) im Spiral-CT in der vorderen, mittleren und hinteren Schaedelgrube gegenueber der Einzelschicht-CT zu einer Artefaktverringerung beitragen kann. Methoden: In einer prospektiven randomisierten Studie wurden 50 Untersuchungen mit Spiral-CT und 50 mit Einzelschicht-CT bezueglich Artefakten verglichen. Die Auswertung erfolgte durch drei Radiologen, die Bildqualitaet wurde in einer Skala zwischen 1 (kein Artefakt) und 4 (Beurteilung der Region wegen Artefakten nicht moeglich) angegeben. Acht anatomische Regionen in der vorderen, mittleren und hinteren Schaedelgrube wurden auf Beeintraechtigung durch Artefakte untersucht. Ergebnisse: Im Durchschnitt betrug die Bewertung fuer die Artefaktbeeintraechtigung beim Spiral-CT (VAR) 2,5 gegenueber 3,1 bei der Einzelschicht-CT. Der VAR-Modus ermoeglichte in der mittleren und hinteren Schaedelgrube sowie im Balbus oculi

  5. Problems of fluorescent imaging and its solution using nanofluorophores. Part I: Advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic fluorophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelev, Z.; Hadjidekov, G.; Zlateva, G.; Spasov, L.; Bakalova, R.

    2011-01-01

    The application of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in fast several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecules in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With development of novel bright fluorophores based on nano-technologies and fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. This review outlines the current status and future trends of fluorescent nanoparticles - quantum dots (QDs), as a new generation of fluorophores in experimental and pre-clinical fluorescent imaging diagnostic. Part 1 focuses on the advantages of quantum dots over conventional organic fluorophores and defines the major requirements to the 'perfect' fluorophore for fluorescent deep-tissue imaging diagnostic. The analysis is based on the limitations of fluorescent imaging in vivo and overcome by using quantum dots

  6. Comparison of the image quality between volumetric and conventional high-resolution CT with 64-slice row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanli; Zhang Lei; Zhao Xia; Ma Min; Zhai Renyou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the image quality between volumetric high-resolution CT (VHRCT) and conventional high-resolution CT (CHRCT), and investigate the feasibility of VHRCT. Methods: Catphan 412 phantom was scanned with protocols of CHRCT and VHRCT on a set of GE Lightspeed VCT. The spatial-resolution (LP/cm), noise (standard deviation in an ROI) and radiation close (CTDI) were recorded for each CT scan. Difference of noise between CHRCT and VHRCT were evaluated by paired t test. In clinical study, 32 patients were scanned with VHRCT and CHRCT protocols. The image quality of CHRCT and VHRCT was rated and compared. The quality difference between CHRCT and VHRCT was assessed by Wilcoxon paired signed rank sum test. Results: In phantom study, the in-plane spatial-resolution of both VHRCT and CHRCT was 11 LP/cm for axial images and 12 LP/cm for coronal reformatted images. The noise of VHRCT and CHRCT was (69.18±2.77)HU and (54.62±2.12) HU respectively (t=-15.929, P 0.05). The quality assessment scores of VHRCT coronal reformatted images and CHRCT coronal reformatted images were 3.05 and 1.88 respectively with significant difference (Z= -5.088, P<0.01). Conclusion: The image quality of VHRCT cross-sectional image is similar to that of CHRCT. Multiplanar images with high resolution of VHRCT are recommended. The radiation dose of VHRCT remains to be optimized. (authors)

  7. One-pot synthesis of polyamines improved magnetism and fluorescence Fe3O4-carbon dots hybrid NPs for dual modal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Yali; Iqbal, Anam; Dong, Yaping; Li, Wu; Liu, Weisheng; Qin, Wenwu; Chen, Shizhen; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Yunhuang

    2016-04-07

    A one-step hydrothermal method was developed to fabricate Fe3O4-carbon dots (Fe3O4-CDs) magnetic-fluorescent hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). Ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) was used as a cheap and nontoxic iron precursor and as the carbon source. Moreover, triethylenetetramine (TETA) was used to improve the adhesive strength of CDs on Fe3O4 and the fluorescence intensity of CDs. The prepared water-soluble hybrid NPs not only exhibit excellent superparamagnetic properties (Ms = 56.8 emu g(-1)), but also demonstrate excitation-independent photoluminescence for down-conversion and up-conversion at 445 nm. Moreover, the prepared water-soluble Fe3O4-CDs hybrid NPs have a dual modal imaging ability for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging.

  8. Synthesis, radiosynthesis and in vitro evaluation of 18F-Bodipy-C16/triglyceride as a dual modal imaging agent for brown adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Paulus

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue research is in the focus in the field of endocrinology. We designed a dual-modal fluorescent/PET fatty acid based tracer on commercially available Bodipy-C16, which can be synthesized to its corresponding triglyceride and which combines the benefits of fluorescent and PET imaging.Bodipy-C16 was coupled to 1,3-diolein resulting in Bodipy-triglyceride. Bodipy-C16 and Bodipy-triglyceride compounds were radiolabeled with 18F using an 18F/19F exchange reaction to yield a dual-modal imaging molecule. Uptake of radiolabeled and non-labeled Bodipy-C16 and Bodipy-triglyceride was analyzed by fluorescence imaging and radioactive uptake in cultured adipocytes derived from human brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue.Bodipy-C16 and Bodipy-triglyceride were successfully radiolabeled and Bodipy-C16 showed high shelf life and blood plasma stability (99% from 0-4 h. The uptake of Bodipy-C16 increased over time in cultured adipocytes, which was further enhanced after beta-adrenergic stimulation with norepinephrine. The uptake of Bodipy-C16 was inhibited by oleic acid and CD36 inhibitor sulfosuccinimidyl-oleate. The poor solubility of Bodipy-triglyceride did not allow stability or in vitro experiments.The new developed dual modal fatty acid based tracers Bodipy-C16 and Bodipy-triglyceride showed promising results to stimulate further in vivo evaluation and will help to understand brown adipose tissues role in whole body energy expenditure.

  9. Bedside functional brain imaging in critically-ill children using high-density EEG source modeling and multi-modal sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute brain injury is a common cause of death and critical illness in children and young adults. Fundamental management focuses on early characterization of the extent of injury and optimizing recovery by preventing secondary damage during the days following the primary injury. Currently, bedside technology for measuring neurological function is mainly limited to using electroencephalography (EEG for detection of seizures and encephalopathic features, and evoked potentials. We present a proof of concept study in patients with acute brain injury in the intensive care setting, featuring a bedside functional imaging set-up designed to map cortical brain activation patterns by combining high density EEG recordings, multi-modal sensory stimulation (auditory, visual, and somatosensory, and EEG source modeling. Use of source-modeling allows for examination of spatiotemporal activation patterns at the cortical region level as opposed to the traditional scalp potential maps. The application of this system in both healthy and brain-injured participants is demonstrated with modality-specific source-reconstructed cortical activation patterns. By combining stimulation obtained with different modalities, most of the cortical surface can be monitored for changes in functional activation without having to physically transport the subject to an imaging suite. The results in patients in an intensive care setting with anatomically well-defined brain lesions suggest a topographic association between their injuries and activation patterns. Moreover, we report the reproducible application of a protocol examining a higher-level cortical processing with an auditory oddball paradigm involving presentation of the patient's own name. This study reports the first successful application of a bedside functional brain mapping tool in the intensive care setting. This application has the potential to provide clinicians with an additional dimension of information to manage

  10. Prospective study of irradiation and magnification on a pelvic imaging: EOS system versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, Loic

    2015-01-01

    The pelvic x-ray is essential for the orthopedic practise. Recently, EOS system has been developed with technology to limit irradiation and theoretically not create magnification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EOS system realizing a pelvic x-ray. All patients who underwent hip replacement between September 2014 and April 2015 have benefited pelvis radiograph with the 2 techniques, after surgery. The size of the head was measured with both techniques and compared to the established size. Irradiation of each technique was listed. A correlation study was carried out with the body mass index (BMI) of the patient. Irradiation was significantly greater with conventional radiography than with the EOS system: PDS of conventional radiography = 15.0 (10.5; 25.2) against the EOS system PDS = 8.2 (7.1; 9.7), p ≤0.0001. It was found a significant correlation between BMI and irradiation, particularly with conventional radiography. About expansion, the EOS system not create any except in 4 cases, unlike the conventional radiograph. The EOS system significantly decreases irradiation in all patients, compared to the conventional radiography, and it do not create magnification when realizing a pelvic x-ray, even in overweight patients [fr

  11. Development of a dual-modality, dual-view smartphone-based imaging system for oral cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Ross D.; Song, Bofan; Birur, Praveen; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Sunny, Sumsum; Suresh, Amritha; Patrick, Sanjana; Anbarani, Afarin; Spires, Oliver; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Liang, Rongguang

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is a rising health issue in many low and middle income countries (LMIC). Proposed is an implementation of autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and white light imaging (WLI) on a smartphone platform providing inexpensive early detection of cancerous conditions in the oral cavity. Interchangeable modules allow both whole mouth imaging for an overview of the patients' oral health and an intraoral imaging probe for localized information. Custom electronics synchronize image capture and external LED operation for the excitation of tissue fluorescence. A custom Android application captures images and an image processing algorithm provides likelihood estimates of cancerous conditions. Finally, all data can be uploaded to a cloud server where a convolutional neural network classifies the images and a remote specialist can provide diagnosis and triage instructions.

  12. Computer experiments on the imaging of point defects with the conventional transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakow, W [Xerox Corp., Rochester, N.Y. (USA)

    1978-02-01

    To aid in the interpretation of high resolution electron micrographs of defect structures in crystals, computer-simulated dark-field electron micrographs have been obtained for a variety of point defects in metals. Interpretation of these images in terms of atomic positions and atom correlations becomes straightforward, and it is a simple matter to distinguish between real structural information and image artifacts produced by the phase contrast mechanism in the electron optical imaging process.

  13. Clinical utility of simultaneous whole-body 18F-FDG PET/MRI as a single-step imaging modality in the staging of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Ng, Shu-Hang; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Yu; Yen-Ming, Tsang; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Huang, Bing-Shen; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Chang, Kai-Ping; Wang, Hung-Ming; Liao, Chun-Ta

    2018-03-03

    Both head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) play a crucial role in the staging of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we sought to prospectively investigate the clinical utility of simultaneous whole-body 18F-FDG PET/MRI for primary staging of NPC patients. We examined 113 patients with histologically confirmed NPC who underwent pretreatment, simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI and PET/CT for primary tumor staging. The images obtained with the different imaging modalities were interpreted independently and compared with each other. PET/MRI increased the accuracy of head and neck MRI for assessment of primary tumor extent in four patients via addition of FDG uptake information to increase the conspicuity of morphologically subtle lesions. PET/MR images were more discernible than PET/CT images for mapping tumor extension, especially intracranial invasion. Regarding the N staging assessment, the sensitivity of PET/MRI (99.5%) was higher than that of head and neck MRI (94.2%) and PET/CT (90.9%). PET/MRI was particularly useful for distinguishing retropharyngeal nodal metastasis from adjacent nasopharyngeal tumors. For distant metastasis evaluation, PET/MRI exhibited a similar sensitivity (90% vs. 86.7% vs. 83.3%), but higher positive predictive value (93.1% vs. 78.8% vs. 83.3%) than whole-body MRI and PET/CT, respectively. For tumor staging of NPC, simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI was more accurate than head and neck MRI and PET/CT, and may serve as a single-step staging modality.

  14. Multifunctional BaYbF5: Gd/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo tri-modal upconversion optical, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Yi, Zhigao; Xue, Zhenluan; Zeng, Songjun; Liu, Hongrong

    2017-06-01

    Development of high-quality upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with combination of the merits of multiple molecular imaging techniques, such as, upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, could significantly improve the accuracy of biological diagnosis. In this work, multifunctional BaYbF 5 : Gd/Er (50:2mol%) UCNPs were synthesized via a solvothermal method using oleic acid (OA) as surface ligands (denoted as OA-UCNPs). The OA-UCNPs were further treated by diluted HCl to form ligand-free UCNPs (LF-UCNPs) for later bioimaging applications. The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cells shows low cell toxicity of these LF-UCNPs. Owing to the efficient UCL of BaYbF 5 : Gd/Er, the LF-UCNPs were successfully used as luminescent bioprobe in UCL bioimaging. And, X-ray CT imaging reveals that BaYbF 5 : Gd/Er UCNPs can act as potential contrast agents for detection of the liver and spleen in the live mice owing to the high-Z elements (e.g., Ba, Yb, and Gd) in host matrix. Moreover, with the addition of Gd, the as-designed UCNPs exhibit additional positive contrast enhancement in T 1 -weighted MR imaging. These findings demonstrate that BaYbF 5 : Gd/Er UCNPs are potential candidates for tri-modal imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prognostic value of normal stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging: a comparison between conventional and CZT-based SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shu; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Timmer, Jorik R. [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mouden, Mohamed; Engbers, Elsemiek [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging has proven to have prognostic importance in patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The recently introduced ultrafast cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based gamma cameras have been associated with less equivocal findings and more normal interpretations, allowing stress-only imaging to be performed more often. However, it is yet unclear whether normal stress-only CZT SPECT has comparable prognostic value as normally interpreted stress-only conventional SPECT. The study population consisted of 1,650 consecutive patients without known CAD with normal stress-only myocardial perfusion results with either conventional (n = 362) or CZT SPECT (n = 1,288). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization) was compared between the conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT groups. Multivariable analyses using the Cox model were used to adjust for differences in baseline variables. Patients scanned with CZT were less often male (33 vs 39 %), had less often hypercholesterolaemia (41 vs 50 %) and had more often a family history of CAD (57 vs 49 %). At a median follow-up time of 37 months (interquartile range 28-45 months) MACE occurred in 68 patients. The incidence of MACE was 1.5 %/year in the CZT group, compared to 2.0 %/year in the conventional group (p = 0.08). After multivariate analyses, there was a trend to a lower incidence of MACE in the CZT SPECT group (hazard ratio 0.61, 95 % confidence interval 0.35-1.04, p = 0.07). The prognostic value of normal stress-only CZT SPECT is at least comparable and may be even better than that of normal conventional stress SPECT. (orig.)

  16. Femtosecond laser nanosurgery of sub-cellular structures in HeLa cells by employing Third Harmonic Generation imaging modality as diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserevelakis, George J; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Resan, Bojan; Brunner, Felix; Gavgiotaki, Evagelia; Weingarten, Kurt; Filippidis, George

    2012-02-01

    Femtosecond laser assisted nanosurgery of microscopic biological specimens is a relatively new technique which allows the selective disruption of sub-cellular structures without causing any undesirable damage to the surrounding regions. The targeted structures have to be stained in order to be clearly visualized for the nanosurgery procedure. However, the validation of the final nanosurgery result is difficult, since the targeted structure could be simply photobleached rather than selectively destroyed. This fact comprises a main drawback of this technique. In our study we employed a multimodal system which integrates non-linear imaging modalities with nanosurgery capabilities, for the selective disruption of sub-cellular structures in HeLa cancer cells. Third Harmonic Generation (THG) imaging modality was used as a tool for the identification of structures that were subjected to nanosurgery experiments. No staining of the biological samples was required, since THG is an intrinsic property of matter. Furthermore, cells' viability after nanosurgery processing was verified via Two Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) measurements. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Ballon, D.; Hu, Y.C.; Ruan, S.; Chui, C.; Tulipano, P.K.; Erdi, A.; Koutcher, J.; Zakian, K.; Urano, M.; Zanzonico, P.; Mattis, C.; Dyke, J.; Chen, Y.; Harrington, P.; O'Donoghue, J.A.; Ling, C.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and then validate a stereotactic fiduciary marker system for tumor xenografts in rodents which could be used to co-register magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), PET, tissue histology, autoradiography, and measurements from physiologic probes. A Teflon TM fiduciary template has been designed which allows the precise insertion of small hollow Teflon rods (0.71 mm diameter) into a tumor. These rods can be visualized by MRI and PET as well as by histology and autoradiography on tissue sections. The methodology has been applied and tested on a rigid phantom, on tissue phantom material, and finally on tumor bearing mice. Image registration has been performed between the MRI and PET images for the rigid Teflon phantom and among MRI, digitized microscopy images of tissue histology, and autoradiograms for both tissue phantom and tumor-bearing mice. A registration accuracy, expressed as the average Euclidean distance between the centers of three fiduciary markers among the registered image sets, of 0.2±0.06 mm was achieved between MRI and microPET image sets of a rigid Teflon phantom. The fiduciary template allows digitized tissue sections to be co-registered with three-dimensional MRI images with an average accuracy of 0.21 and 0.25 mm for the tissue phantoms and tumor xenografts, respectively. Between histology and autoradiograms, it was 0.19 and 0.21 mm for tissue phantoms and tumor xenografts, respectively. The fiduciary marker system provides a coordinate system with which to correlate information from multiple image types, on a voxel-by-voxel basis, with sub-millimeter accuracy--even among imaging modalities with widely disparate spatial resolution and in the absence of identifiable anatomic landmarks

  18. Dual-Modality Imaging of the Human Finger Joint Systems by Using Combined Multispectral Photoacoustic Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a homemade dual-modality imaging system that combines multispectral photoacoustic computed tomography and ultrasound computed tomography for reconstructing the structural and functional information of human finger joint systems. The fused multispectral photoacoustic-ultrasound computed tomography (MPAUCT system was examined by the phantom and in vivo experimental tests. The imaging results indicate that the hard tissues such as the bones and the soft tissues including the blood vessels, the tendon, the skins, and the subcutaneous tissues in the finger joints systems can be effectively recovered by using our multimodality MPAUCT system. The developed MPAUCT system is able to provide us with more comprehensive information of the human finger joints, which shows its potential for characterization and diagnosis of bone or joint diseases.

  19. Method for automatic localization of MR-visible markers using morphological image processing and conventional pulse sequences: feasibility for image-guided procedures.