WorldWideScience

Sample records for conventional drinking water

  1. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  2. Evaluation of the Influence of Conventional Water Coolers on Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nikaeen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Drinking water quality after treatment and before reaching  the consumer could be affected by distribution pipes, service lines and Home devices. The structure of water coolers, a home device that are widely used in warm months of the year, could potentially affect the quality of drinking water. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial and chemical quality of water from conventional water coolers."nMaterials and Methods : Water samples were collected from 29 water cooler systems at the Isfahan  university of medical sciences. 29 control samples also obtained from the nearest drinking water taps. All samples were examined for total heterotrophic bacteria and physicochemical parameters including temperature, ph, turbidity and heavy metals."nResults: All samples from the water cooler systems complied with the EPA guidelines for total heterotrophic bacteria count. There were no significant differences between the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the water cooler systems and taps. There was only a significant difference between the level of Cu in the water samples from cooler systems and taps "nConclusion: The overall results of this study indicated that the use of water cooler systems from hygienic point of view could not cause any problems for consumers

  3. Modification on the conventional procedure to measure AOC in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-zhi; SANG Jun-qiang; ZHANG Xi-hui; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Additional phosphorus will be introduced to water sample if the conventional procedure is used to measure assimilable organic carbon(AOC) in drinking water. It has been shown that there are the cases that phosphorus is the limiting nutrient for microbial growth in drinking water. The measured value of AOC would not be able to indicate appropriately the regrowth potential of bacteria in this case. The conventional procedure used to measure AOC was modified to avoid the introduction of additional phosphorus to water sample in this study. It was shown that it was feasible to measure AOC in water using the modified procedure. Furthermore, the measured value of AOC determined by the modified procedure could indicate appropriately the regrowth potential of bacteria in drinking water despite either organics or phosphorus was the limiting nutrient for bacterial regrowth.

  4. Efficacy of conventional drinking water treatment processes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-07

    Oct 7, 2013 ... chlorine residual varied between 1 and 2.5 mg/ℓ after 20 min of contact time. .... waters supplied to DWTP in Quebec, Canada (Zamyadi et al.,. 2012b), Bahia ..... late Ceratium in Albert Falls Dam (KZN): History, causes, spatial features and ... HEISLER J, GILBERT PM, BURKHOLDER JM, ANDERSON DM,.

  5. Removal of diclofenac by conventional drinking water treatment processes and granular activated carbon filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of conventional drinking water treatment processes with and without pre-oxidation with chlorine and chlorine dioxide and the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration for the removal of diclofenac (DCF). Water treatment was performed using the Jar test with filters on a lab scale, employing nonchlorinated artesian well water prepared with aquatic humic substances to yield 20HU true color, kaolin turbidity of 70 NTU and 1mgL(-1) DCF. For the quantification of DCF in water samples, solid phase extraction and HPLC-DAD methods were developed and validated. There was no removal of DCF in coagulation with aluminum sulfate (3.47mgAlL(-1) and pH=6.5), flocculation, sedimentation and sand filtration. In the treatment with pre-oxidation and disinfection, DCF was partially removed, but the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was unchanged and byproducts of DCF were observed. Chlorine dioxide was more effective than chorine in oxidizing DCF. In conclusion, the identification of DCF and DOC in finished water indicated the incomplete elimination of DCF through conventional treatments. Nevertheless, conventional drinking water treatment followed by GAC filtration was effective in removing DCF (⩾99.7%). In the oxidation with chlorine, three byproducts were tentatively identified, corresponding to a hydroxylation, aromatic substitution of one hydrogen by chlorine and a decarboxylation/hydroxylation. Oxidation with chlorine dioxide resulted in only one byproduct (hydroxylation).

  6. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  7. [Occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Chao; Luo, Qian; Chen, Hu; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zi-Jian; Xu, Ke-Wen

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes of 3 water treatment plants in Lianyungang City. Results showed that 30 compounds of 3 classes were detected from 67 kinds of VOCs in all the samples collected. The concentrations of carbonyl compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons and benzenes detected were in the ranges of 0.04-61.27, 0.02-35.61 and 0.07-2.33 microg x L(-1) respectively. Comparing the changes of different VOCs in three drinking water treatment plants, conventional chlorination process could effectively remove benzenes but meanwhile produced trihalomethanes (THMs). Additional advanced treatment ozonation-biological activated carbon process could decrease the formation of THMs during pre-chlorination but produced new risky contaminants like carbonyl compounds. The changes of VOCs in tap water were also investigated. It was found that carbonyl compounds produced by ozonation could be further transformed to THMs with residual chlorine. However, the health risks of all detected compounds in tap water were at a low level, except that the carcinogenic risk of crotonaldehydes (9.3 x 10(-5)-2.2 x 10(-4)) was slightly higher than the US EPA threshold (10(-6)-10(-4)).

  8. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  9. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  10. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Van Nevel, S.

    2017-02-08

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  11. Presence of radionuclides in sludge from conventional drinking water treatment plants. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, E; Nieto, A; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of sludge samples generated during water treatment processes show that different radioisotopes of uranium, thorium and radium, among others can accumulate in that kind of samples, even the good removal rates obtained in the aqueous phase (by comparison of influent and effluent water concentrations). Inconsequence, drinking water treatment plants are included in the group of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) industries. The accumulation of radionuclides can be a serious problem especially when this sludge is going to be reused, so more exhaustive information is required to prevent the possible radiological impact of these samples in the environment and also on the people. The main aim of this review is to outline the current situation regarding the different studies reported in the literature up to date focused on the analysis of the radiological content of these sludge samples from drinking water treatment plants. In this sense, special attention is given to the recent approaches for their determination. Another important aim is to discuss about the final disposal of these samples and in this regard, sludge reuse (including for example direct agricultural application or also as building materials) are together with landfilling the main reported strategies.

  12. Stimulatory drugs of abuse in surface waters and their removal in a conventional drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Fontela, Maria; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Ventura, Francesc

    2008-09-15

    The presence of psychoactive stimulatory drugs in raw waters used for drinking water production and in finished drinking water was evaluated in a Spanish drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Contamination of the river basin which provides raw water to this DWTP was also studied. In surface waters, illicit drugs such as cocaine, benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite), amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), and MDA were detected at mean concentrations ranging from 4 to 350 ng/L. Nicotine, caffeine, and their metabolites were also found at the microg/L level. The elimination of these compounds during drinking water treatment was investigated in a real waterworks. Amphetamine-type stimulants (except MDMA) were completely removed during prechlorination, flocculation, and sand filtration steps, yielding concentrations lowerthan their limits of detection (LODs). Further, ozone treatment was shown to be effective in partially eliminating caffeine (76%), while subsequent granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration removed cocaine (100%), MDMA(88%), benzoylecgonine (72%), and cotinine (63%). Postchlorination achieved the complete elimination of cocaine and nicotine and only one parent compound (caffeine) and two metabolites (cotinine and benzoylecgonine) persisted throughout treatment although reductions of 90% for caffeine and benzoylecgonine and 74% for cotinine were obtained.

  13. Conventional drinking water treatment and direct biofiltration for the removal of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners: A pilot-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Michael J; Andrews, Susan A; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-02-15

    The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and artificial sweeteners are of concern to water providers because they may be incompletely removed by wastewater treatment processes and they pose an unknown risk to consumers due to long-term consumption of low concentrations of these compounds. This study utilized pilot-scale conventional and biological drinking water treatment processes to assess the removal of nine PhACs and EDCs, and two artificial sweeteners. Conventional treatment (coagulation, flocculation, settling, non-biological dual-media filtration) was compared to biofilters with or without the addition of in-line coagulant (0.2-0.8 mg Al(3+)/L; alum or PACl). A combination of biofiltration, with or without in-line alum, and conventional filtration was able to reduce 7 of the 9 PhACs and EDCs by more than 50% from river water while artificial sweeteners were inconsistently removed by conventional treatment or biofiltration. Increasing doses of PACl from 0 to 0.8 mg/L resulted in average removals of PhACs, EDCs increasing from 39 to 70% and artificial sweeteners removal increasing from ~15% to ~35% in lake water. These results suggest that a combination of biological, chemical and physical treatment can be applied to effectively reduce the concentration of EDCs, PhACs, and artificial sweeteners.

  14. Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Szlag

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC, as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

  15. Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlag, David C.; Sinclair, James L.; Southwell, Benjamin; Westrick, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC), as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA. PMID:26075379

  16. Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlag, David C; Sinclair, James L; Southwell, Benjamin; Westrick, Judy A

    2015-06-12

    An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC), as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA.

  17. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional Treatment and Lime Softening in Bench-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immedia...

  18. Performance of conventional multi-barrier drinking water treatment plants for the removal of four artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Storck, Florian R; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T

    2010-06-01

    Due to incomplete removal of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants some of these compounds end up in receiving surface waters, which are used for drinking water production. The sum of removal efficiency of single treatment steps in multi-barrier treatment systems affects the concentrations of these compounds in the provided drinking water. This is the first systematic study revealing the effectiveness of single treatment steps in laboratory experiments and in waterworks. Six full-scale waterworks using surface water influenced raw water were sampled up to ten times to study the fate of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose. For the most important treatment technologies the results were confirmed by laboratory batch experiments. Saccharin and cyclamate proved to play a minor role for drinking water treatment plants as they were eliminated by nearly 100% in all waterworks with biologically active treatment units like river bank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge. Acesulfame and sucralose were not biodegraded during RBF and their suitability as wastewater tracers under aerobic conditions was confirmed. Sucralose proved to be persistent against ozone and its transformation was < 20% in lab and field investigations. Remaining traces were completely removed by subsequent granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. Acesulfame readily reacts with ozone (pseudo first-order rate constant k = 1.3 x 10(-3) s(-1) at 1 mg L(-1) ozone concentration). However, the applied ozone concentrations and contact times under typical waterworks conditions only led to an incomplete removal (18-60%) in the ozonation step. Acesulfame was efficiently removed by subsequent GAC filters with a low throughput of less than 30 m(3) kg(-1), but removal strongly depended on the GAC preload. Thus, acesulfame was detected up to 0.76 microg L(-1) in finished water.

  19. Applicability of universal Bacteroidales genetic marker for microbial monitoring of drinking water sources in comparison to conventional indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, A; Nikaeen, M; Khiadani Hajian, M; Nabavi, F; Hatamzadeh, M; Hassanzadeh, A

    2014-11-01

    Water quality monitoring is essential for the provision of safe drinking water. In this study, we compared a selection of fecal indicators with universal Bacteroidales genetic marker to identify fecal pollution of a variety of drinking water sources. A total of 60 samples were collected from water sources. The microbiological parameters included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci as the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Clostridium perfringens and H2S bacteria as alternative indicators, universal Bacteroidales genetic marker as a promising alternative fecal indicator, and Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and E. coli O157 as pathogenic bacteria. From 60 samples analyzed, Bacteroidales was the most frequently detected indicator followed by total coliforms. However, the Bacteroidales assay failed to detect the marker in nine samples positive for FIB and other alternative indicators. The results of our study showed that the absence of Bacteroidales is not necessarily an evidence of fecal and pathogenic bacteria absence and may be unable to ensure the safety of the water. Further research, however, is required for a better understanding of the use of a Bacteroidales genetic marker as an indicator in water quality monitoring programs.

  20. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag; Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ovidiu Călin Safirescu; Mihaela Hetvary; Ioan Gheorghe Oroian; Dumitru Vâju

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green tech...

  1. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  2. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  3. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  4. Drinking Water and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  5. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  6. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  7. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  8. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  9. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  10. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles removal on drinking water quality produced by conventional treatment C/F/S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrão Sousa, Vânia; Corniciuc, Claudia; Ribau Teixeira, Margarida

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles, namely titanium dioxide (TiO2), are emerging contaminants widely used to commercial and industrial applications, are a potential hazard and can cause damage to environment and human health due to their toxicity. Therefore, their removal from the water is urgent to minimize or eliminate the adverse environmental and human effects. This work, investigates the efficiency of conventional coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation (C/F/S) from drinking water treatment to remove TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) from surface waters, and pretends to understand if the removal of TiO2 NPs affects the ability of C/F/S to remove natural organic matter (NOM) and turbidity, and consequently affects the quality of the treated water. Results show that TiO2 NPs removal is high (>90%) for all the waters studied (hydrophobic and hydrophilic waters) and the treated water quality is not compromised (turbidity, Ti and Al concentrations, pH and conductivity are below the national and international guidelines). In addition, TiO2 initial concentrations, ranging between 0.2 and 10 mg/L, have not a significant impact on NPs removal by C/F/S. Therefore, the widely used polyaluminium based coagulants are effective in the removal of TiO2 NPs by conventional C/F/S treatment, but removal is strongly influenced by the water characteristics. Hydrophobic waters need a higher coagulant dose than hydrophilic waters to achieve the same TiO2 NPs removals, as well as water with higher UV254nm values. The principal mechanism involved in TiO2 NPs removal is charge neutralisation.

  11. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boleda, Ma Rosa [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Galceran, Ma Teresa [University of Barcelona, Department Analytical Chemistry, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ventura, Francesc, E-mail: fventura@agbar.es [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and carbon filtration) and advanced (ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) to be further blended, chlorinated and distributed. Full removals were reached for most of the compounds. Iopromide (up to 17.2 ng/L), nicotine (13.7 ng/L), benzoylecgonine (1.9 ng/L), cotinine (3.6 ng/L), acetaminophen (15.6 ng/L), erythromycin (2.0 ng/L) and caffeine (6.0 ng/L) with elimination efficiencies {>=}94%, were the sole compounds found in the treated water. The advanced treatment process showed a slightly better efficiency than the conventional treatment to eliminate pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. - Highlights: > The presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in surface water was demonstrated. > Elimination in both potabilization processes reached levels >99% for most compounds. > Four pharmaceuticals and three drugs of abuse survived the potabilization process. - The efficiency of potabilization processes to eliminate or transform pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs is evaluated.

  12. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  13. Drinking water and cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, R D

    1995-01-01

    Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these,...

  14. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  15. Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in N.E. Spanish surface waters and their removal in a drinking water treatment plant that combines conventional and advanced treatments in parallel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Cintia; Ventura, Francesc; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; Caixach, Josep

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are two emerging contaminants that have been detected in all environmental compartments. However, while most of the studies in the literature deal with their presence or removal in wastewater treatment, few of them are devoted to their detection in treated drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment. In this study, analyses of PFOS and PFOA have been carried out in river water samples and in the different stages of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) which has recently improved its conventional treatment process by adding ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in a parallel treatment line. Conventional and advanced treatments have been studied in several pilot plants and in the DWTP, which offers the opportunity to compare both treatments operating simultaneously. From the results obtained, neither preoxidation, sand filtration, nor ozonation, removed both perfluorinated compounds. As advanced treatments, reverse osmosis has proved more effective than reverse electrodialysis to remove PFOA and PFOS in the different configurations of pilot plants assayed. Granular activated carbon with an average elimination efficiency of 64±11% and 45±19% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively and especially reverse osmosis, which was able to remove ≥99% of both compounds, were the sole effective treatment steps. Trace levels of PFOS (3.0-21 ng/L) and PFOA (water were significantly lowered in comparison to those measured in precedent years. These concentrations represent overall removal efficiencies of 89±22% for PFOA and 86±7% for PFOS.

  16. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  17. Water Fit to Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  18. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  19. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  20. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during convention

  1. Pesticides in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Grmek-Košnik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of pesticides deceives of indisputable advantage, however remainders of pesticides in drinking water might represent potential danger for health on foodstuffs. In European Union (EU pesticides and their relevant metabolic, degrading and reactive products, with exception for aldrin, dieldrin, heptaclor and heptaclor epoxide, should not exceed the concentration of 0.10 μg/l. At limit value 0.10 μg/l we wish to achieve null value these substances in drinking water.Methods: In years 2004 and 2005 monitoring of pesticides in drinking waters on pipes of consumers in all larger towns in state was done. Majority of pesticides were analysed by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry while fluid cromatography was used primarily for badly volatile or polar and termolabile compound.Results: Results of analyses of drinking water and of ground waters for years 2004 and 2005 showed that levels of atrazine, desethyl-atrazine and 2.6 dichlorobenzamide were exceeded few times when compared to required levels. In 2005 bentazone, MCPP, metolachlor, terbuthylazin were exceeded. In 2004 concentration of pesticides were exceeded in 25 samples in 15 different areas, supplying 183,881 inhabitants. In 2005 concentration of pesticides were exceeded in 31 samples in 14 different areas, supplying 151,297 inhabitants. The distribution shows, that contamination was present mostly in the northeast part of Slovenia, where intensive agriculture takes place.Conclusions: Received status review acquired by monitoring of pesticides in drinking water is only an assessment of circumstances that will gain in representativity by enlarged number of sampling locations and longer observation time. For assessment of trends of pollution of drinking water in Slovenia it will be necessary to monitor concentration of pesticides through longer period. We could have unpolluted drinking water only with restricted use of pesticides on water-protection ranges or

  2. Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control treatment to prevent lead and copper from contaminating drinking water. Corrosion control treatment means utilities must ... Page How EPA Requires States and Public Water Systems to Protect Drinking Water The Safe Drinking Water ...

  3. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  4. Response to comment on “Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Henderson, Alden K.; Reissman, Dori B.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Centers for Disease Control thank Dr. Till for her comments concerning our research (Till, 2005) and welcome the opportunity to respond. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the potential for organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs), including pharmaceuticals, to survive a conventional drinking-water-treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies (Stackelberg et al., 2004). Our study was supported by two USGS laboratories: the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), which provided the HPLC/ESI-MS and CLLE GC/MS data and the Ocala Water Quality and Research Laboratory (OWQRL), which provided the LC/MS data (Stackelberg et al., 2004). Although discussed as distinct techniques by Dr. Till and indicated by differing acronyms to distinguish the laboratories producing the data, as described in our paper, the two LC/MS methods are very similar; they consist of a solid-phase extraction method with analysis of the extract produced using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer operated in the positive mode. The NWQL and OWQRL report ‘trace’ and ‘ultratrace’ determinations of analytes that provide significant benefit for describing the presence and fate of low-level contaminants. For mass spectral methods, an analyte is qualitatively identified by its retention time on the chromatographic column as well as the presence of two or more confirming ions with area ratios that match that of the reference standard compounds. Because of a recognized increased risk of false positives, these qualitative identification criteria are used in conjunction with abundant quality-control samples (detailed below) to confirm detection prior to making an estimate of the concentration. These qualitative identification criteria must be met before a compound is considered present (or detected) in a sample (Oblinger Childress et al., 1999). When a compound has been

  5. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate in drinking water to protect public health. The ...

  6. Time-integrated passive sampling as a complement to conventional point-in-time sampling for investigating drinking-water quality, McKenzie River Basin, Oregon, 2007 and 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB) supplies drinking water to approximately 200,000 people in Eugene, Oregon. The sole source of this water is the McKenzie River, which has consistently excellent water quality relative to established drinking-water standards. To ensure that this quality is maintained as land use in the source basin changes and water demands increase, EWEB has developed a proactive management strategy that includes a combination of conventional point-in-time discrete water sampling and time‑integrated passive sampling with a combination of chemical analyses and bioassays to explore water quality and identify where vulnerabilities may lie. In this report, we present the results from six passive‑sampling deployments at six sites in the basin, including the intake and outflow from the EWEB drinking‑water treatment plant (DWTP). This is the first known use of passive samplers to investigate both the source and finished water of a municipal DWTP. Results indicate that low concentrations of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organohalogen compounds are consistently present in source waters, and that many of these compounds are also present in finished drinking water. The nature and patterns of compounds detected suggest that land-surface runoff and atmospheric deposition act as ongoing sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some currently used pesticides, and several legacy organochlorine pesticides. Comparison of results from point-in-time and time-integrated sampling indicate that these two methods are complementary and, when used together, provide a clearer understanding of contaminant sources than either method alone.

  7. The risks of drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  8. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  9. Responsibility for drinking water; Verantwortung fuer Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lein, Peter [Ingenieurbuero Dipl.-Ing. Peter Lein, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Planners of drinking water supply systems, implementing sanitary companies as well as building owners probably can be made liable, if the user of drinking water supply systems suffer health damages by drinking water hygienic problems. The germinating of the drinking water with legionella often is the consequence of a not professional start-up of a plant immediately after completion.

  10. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  12. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  13. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... visit CDC's Giardia website. Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites ...

  14. DRINK WATER, WASTEWATER - CUSTOMERS` AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE

    OpenAIRE

    Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Mihaela TUTUNEA

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to establish behavioural patterns related to drink water and beliefs on water and on the water company.Four main issues are analysed: the awareness on the services delivered by the water company, the use of drink water from the tap, the evaluation of general quality of the water and the cause of dissatisfaction with the water quality. The results show good awarenesson drink water transportation, medium for raw water treatment, low for wastewater collection and tr...

  15. Manganese in Madison's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Hausbeck, John; Sorsa, Kirsti

    2008-12-01

    Public concern over events of manganese-discolored drinking water and the potential for adverse health effects from exposure to excess manganese reached a high level in 2005. In response, Public Health Madison Dane County, together with the Madison Water Utility, conceived and implemented a public health/water utility strategy to quantify the extent of the manganese problem, determine the potential for adverse human health effects, and communicate these findings to the community. This strategy included five basic parts: taking an inventory of wells and their manganese levels, correlating manganese concentration with turbidity, determining the prevalence and distribution of excess manganese in Madison households, reviewing the available scientific literature, and effectively communicating our findings to the community. The year-long public health/water utility strategy successfully resolved the crisis of confidence in the safety of Madison's drinking water.

  16. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy consumpti

  17. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy consumpti

  18. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy

  19. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  20. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  2. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Safe Drinking Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-23

    Listen to this podcast to learn more about the steps that are taken to bring you clean tap water.  Created: 4/23/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  4. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  5. Biological drinking water treatment of anaerobic groundwater in trickling filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water production from anaerobic groundwater is usually achieved by so called conventional techniques such as aeration and sand filtration. The notion conventional implies a long history and general acceptation of the application, but doesn’t necessarily mean a thorough understanding of the

  6. Biological drinking water treatment of anaerobic groundwater in trickling filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water production from anaerobic groundwater is usually achieved by so called conventional techniques such as aeration and sand filtration. The notion conventional implies a long history and general acceptation of the application, but doesn’t necessarily mean a thorough understanding of the

  7. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  8. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    contamination. In karstic aquifers, however, there is an increased probability that if any ENPs enter the groundwater system they will reach the extraction point of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The ability to remove ENPs during water treatment depends on the specific design of the treatment process. In conventional DWTPs with no flocculation step a proportion of ENPs, if present in the raw water, may reach the final drinking water. The use of ultrafiltration techniques improves drinking water safety with respect to ENP contamination.

  9. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According

  10. Development and application of innovative technologies for drinking water quality assurance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jiuhui; YIN Chengqing; YANG Min; LIU Huijuan

    2007-01-01

    The continuously deteriorating quality of source water is threatening the safety of drinking water in China.Various efforts have been made to update water treatment processes to decrease the pollution problems of drinking water,such as protection of drinking water sources,enhancement of conventional treatment processes,and development of new or advanced treatment technologies.This paper reviews a variety of protection and remediation methods for drinking water sources,development and application of drinking water treatment technologies,new technologies for special pollutants removal from groundwater,and the latest research progress on water distribution systems in China.

  11. DRINKING WATER RESOURCES IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Mayer

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Annualy renewed resources of drinking water on the Earth are about 45000 cu. km. With today's stage of development that quantity is enough for living 4.5 to 9 billion of people. As it is expected that by 2025 the population on our planet will be over 8.5 billion people, it is clear that the next century will be characterized by the problem of ensuring enaugh quantities of drinking water. This problem will be particularly emphasized in the developing countries and large cities. In the poor countries of arid and subarid areas water deficit will cause the food production crisis and large migrations of the population with almost unpredistable sociological, economical and political consequences could be expected. In the developed world the "water crisis" will stimulate scientific and tehnological progress. The Republic of Croatia, if examined as a whole, regarding the climatic, hydrological, hydrogeological and demographic conditions, has planty of good quality water. It is our duty to preserve this resources for future generations (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess the potent......Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  13. Water Districts - MO 2010 Active Public Drinking Water Systems (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This point layer represents active public drinking water systems. Each public drinking water system's distribution or service area is represented by a single point.

  14. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  15. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  16. Pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products and their wastes play a major role in the degradation of environment. These drugs have positive as well as negative consequences on different environmental components including biota in different ways. Many types of pharmaceutical substances have been detected with significant concentrations through various advanced instrumental techniques in surface water, subsurface water, ground water, domestic waste water, municipal waste water and industrial effluents. The central as well as state governments in India are providing supports by creating excise duty free zones to promote the pharmaceutical manufacturers for their production. As a result, pharmaceutical companies are producing different types of pharmaceutical products at large scale and also producing complex non-biodegradable toxic wastes byproducts and releasing untreated or partially treated wastes in the environment in absence of strong regulations. These waste pollutants are contaminating all types of drinking water sources. The present paper focuses on water quality pollution by pharmaceutical pollutants, their occurrences, nature, metabolites and their fate in the environment.

  17. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  18. Iron and manganese removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Elena Pascu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to find a suitable method for removal of iron and manganese from ground water, considering bothlocal economical and environmental aspects. Ground water is a highly important source of drinking water in Romania. Ground water is naturally pure from bacteria at a 25 m depth or more. However, solved metals may occur and if the levels are too high, the water is not drinkable. Different processes, such as electrochemical and combined electrochemical-adsorption methods have been applied to determine metals content in accordance to reports of National Water Agency from Romania (ANAR. Every water source contains dissolved or particulate compounds. The concentrations of these compounds can affect health, productivity, compliance requirements, or serviceability and cannot be economically removed by conventional filtration means. In this study, we made a comparison between the electrochemical and adsorption methods (using membranes. Both methods have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iron and manganese removal at various times and temperatures. We used two membrane types: composite and cellulose, respectively. Different approaches, including lowering the initial current density and increasing the initial pH were applied. Reaction kinetics was achieved using mathematical models: Jura and Temkin.

  19. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined.

  20. Occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in finished drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, Kathryn L.; Pflug, Nicholas C.; DeWald, Eden M.; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cwiertny, David M.; LeFevre, Gergory H.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin is susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo at least partial transformation during chlorination. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as an effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.

  1. Drinking water safety and the development of purification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guibai

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the evolution of purification technology for drinking water over time. After description of the 1st generation processes in the beginning of the 20th century -- conventional processes and the 2nd generation processes in 1970s -- advanced treatment processes, a tertiary processes -- UF (ultrafiltration) based on integrated processes was proposed. Moreover, reaction measures (dosing variety of regents for different contaminants) for urban source water emergencies.were illustrated in brief. A new technology of KMnO4 and potassium permanganate composite (PPC) for drinking water purification which was developed by Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) was concisely introduced.

  2. Safe drinking water: the toxicologist's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, F X

    2000-01-01

    The production of adequate and safe drinking water is a high priority issue for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. Traditionally, microbiological quality of drinking water has been the main concern, but over the last decades the attention of the general public and health officials on the importance of chemical quality and the threat of chemical pollutants have increased with the increase of our knowledge on the hazards of chemical substances. There are many sources of contamination of drinking water. Broadly they can be divided into two categories: contaminants originating from surface and groundwater, and contaminants used or formed during the treatment and distribution of drinking water. Contaminants in surface and groundwater can range from natural substances such as arsenic and manganese leaching from soil, to contaminants introduced by human activities, such as run-off from agricultural activities, controlled discharge from sewage treatment works and industrial plants, and uncontrolled discharges or leakage from landfill sites and from chemical accidents. Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products are well known contaminants resulting from the processes used by the drinking water industry for the treatment and distribution of water. The basic question in the production of drinking water is how to rid drinking water of potentially dangerous microorganisms and chemicals without introducing new hazards that might pose new and different threats to human health. It is the responsibility of toxicologists to provide risk assessments for chemical pollutants and to derive guidelines or standards for drinking water quality below which no significant health risk is encountered, to assure consumers that drinking water is safe and can be consumed without any risk. This paper will focus on the toxicological procedures used by the World Health Organization to derive guideline values for chemical compounds in drinking water, and will touch

  3. 75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... AGENCY Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Water Operator Certification Program, effective October 1, 2010. The program enables qualified drinking..., operators learn how to supply drinking water that meets national standards and gain understanding of...

  4. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  5. Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO.

  6. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, Jonathan P.; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E.; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J. D.; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R.; Clark, Joanna M.

    2016-11-01

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions through management of ecosystem service provision.

  7. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resistant materials. The containers shall be marked with the words “Drinking Water.” ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in...

  8. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  9. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at source ... and lower educational standard were associated with poorer water quality, ... Keywords: drinking water; point of use; water quality; water quantity; hygiene; sanitation ...

  10. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-08-31

    A screening investigation of radioactivity in Danish drinking water has been carried out during 2001-2003. Samples of drinking water were collected from 296 water supplies representing more than 40% of the water delivered from water works in the country. Total alpha and total beta radioactivity was determined in the samples and compared with screening levels of 0.1 Bq/l total alpha and 1 Bq/l total beta radioactivity. The levels for total beta radioactivity were met in all the water works while total alpha radioactivity exceeded the screening levels for 13 water supplies. Further investigations were carried out for the water works with concentrations of alpha radioactivity above the screening levels in Ebeltoft, Grenae and Frederikssund to estimate the total indicative dose from the water. The elevated levels were found to be due to uranium in the water from individual boreholes. Radiation doses from consumption of water at these uranium levels are estimated to be well below the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/y specified in the Drinking Water Directive Groundwater used for drinking water was collected from different types of geological structures including bed rock and areas with potentially elevated levels of natural radioactivity. Also in these cases the concentrations of radioactivity were sufficiently low to meet the requirements in the Drinking Water Directive. In view of the results it seems probable that the risk of finding drinking water in Denmark with unacceptable concentrations of radioactivity is very small. Therefore there is no need for further radiological investigations of the Danish water supply based on natural groundwaters. (au)

  11. US Forest Service Surface Drinking Water Importance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting watershed indexes to help identify areas of interest for protecting surface drinking water quality. The dataset depicted in this...

  12. Drinking Water Mapping Application (DWMA) - Public Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Mapping Application (DWMA) is a web-based geographic information system (GIS) that enhances the capabilities to identify major contaminant risks...

  13. Drinking Water Mapping Application (DWMA) - Public Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Mapping Application (DWMA) is a web-based geographic information system (GIS) that enhances the capabilities to identify major contaminant risks...

  14. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  15. Drinking Water Microbiome as a Screening Tool for Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water utilities in the US using chloramine as disinfectant treatment in their distribution systems have experienced nitrification episodes, which detrimentally impact the water quality. A chloraminated drinking water distribution system (DWDS) simulator was operated throug...

  16. Presence of the β-triketone herbicide tefuryltrione in drinking water sources and its degradation product in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Motoyuki; Asami, Mari; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  18. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J.; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  19. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  20. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Surface Water Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of surface water intakes. These intake locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  1. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air and aqueous solution. Operating parameters were optimized to improve imaging of structural details for a mature biofilm in liquid. By using a soft cantilever (0.03 N/m) and slow scan rate (0.5 Hz), biofilm and individual bacterial cell’s structural topography were resolved and continuously imaged in liquid without loss of spatial resolution or sample damage. The developed methodology will allow future in situ investigations to temporally monitor mixed culture drinking water biofilm structural changes during disinfection treatments. Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air and aqueous solution. Operating parameters were optimized to improve imaging of structural details for a mature biofilm in liquid. By using a soft cantilever (0.03 N/m) and slow scan rate (0.5 Hz), biofilm and individual bacterial cell’s structural topography were resolved and continuously imaged in liquid without loss of spatial resolution or sample damage. The developed methodo

  2. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  3. Basic Information about Chloramines and Drinking Water Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  4. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the...

  5. Anencephalus, drinking water, geomagnetism and cosmic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, V E

    1979-01-01

    The mortality rates from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in Canadian cities are shown to be strongly correlated with city growth rate and with horizontal geomagnetic flux, which is directly related to the intensity of cosmic radiation. They are also shown to have some association with the magnesium content of drinking water. Prior work with these data which showed associations with magnesium in drinking water, mean income, latitude and longitude was found to be inadequate because it dismissed the observed geographic associations as having little biological meaning, and because the important variables of geomagnetism and city growth rate were overlooked.

  6. Estimated water requirements for the conventional flotation of copper ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water used by a conventional copper flotation plant. Water is required for many activities at a mine-mill site, including ore production and beneficiation, dust and fire suppression, drinking and sanitation, and minesite reclamation. The water required to operate a flotation plant may outweigh all of the other uses of water at a mine site, [however,] and the need to maintain a water balance is critical for the plant to operate efficiently. Process water may be irretrievably lost or not immediately available for reuse in the beneficiation plant because it has been used in the production of backfill slurry from tailings to provide underground mine support; because it has been entrapped in the tailings stored in the TSF, evaporated from the TSF, or leaked from pipes and (or) the TSF; and because it has been retained as moisture in the concentrate. Water retained in the interstices of the tailings and the evaporation of water from the surface of the TSF are the two most significant contributors to water loss at a conventional flotation circuit facility.

  7. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  8. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  9. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    , it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration.

  10. A sub-tank water-saving drinking water station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    "Thousands of boiling water" problem has been affecting people's quality of life and good health, and now most of the drinking fountains cannot effectively solve this problem, at the same time, ordinary drinking water also has high energy consumption, there are problems such as yin and yang water. Our newly designed dispenser uses a two-tank heating system. Hot water after heating, into the insulation tank for insulation, when the water tank in the water tank below a certain water level, the cold water and then enter the heating tank heating. Through the water flow, tank volume and other data to calculate the time required for each out of water, so as to determine the best position of the water level control, summed up the optimal program, so that water can be continuously uninterrupted supply. Two cans are placed up and down the way, in the same capacity on the basis of the capacity of the container, the appropriate to reduce its size, and increase the bottom radius, reduce the height of its single tank to ensure that the overall height of two cans compared with the traditional single change. Double anti-dry design, to ensure the safety of the use of drinking water. Heating tank heating circuit on and off by the tank of the float switch control, so that the water heating time from the tank water level control, to avoid the "thousands of boiling water" generation. The entry of cold water is controlled by two solenoid valves in the inlet pipe, and the opening and closing of the solenoid valve is controlled by the float switch in the two tanks. That is, the entry of cold water is determined by the water level of the two tanks. By designing the control scheme cleverly, Yin and yang water generation. Our design completely put an end to the "thousands of boiling water", yin and yang water, greatly improving the drinking water quality, for people's drinking water safety provides a guarantee, in line with the concept of green and healthy development. And in the small

  11. Polyfluorinated chemicals in European surface waters, ground- and drinking waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschauzier, C.; de Voogt, P.; Brauch, H.-J.; Lange, F.T.; Knepper, T.P.; Lange, F.T.

    2012-01-01

    Polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), especially short chain fluorinated alkyl sulfonates and carboxylates, are ubiquitously found in the environment. This chapter aims at giving an overview of PFC concentrations found in European surface, ground- and drinking waters and their behavior during

  12. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

  13. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  14. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article’s organization matches that of M53, as follows: • wate...

  15. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

  16. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment

  17. Region 9 Drinking Water Wells (LD-SDWIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  18. A drinking water quality framework for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Framework for South Africa to enable effective management of drinking water quality and the protection of public health. ... to monitor, manage, communicate and regulate drinking water quality. ... Inadequate WSA institutional capacity (staffing, funding, .... Although demonstrating compliance with regulatory limits.

  19. Sole Source Aquifer Program | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    The Safe Drinking Water Act gives EPA the authority to designate aquifers which are the sole or principal drinking water source for an area, and which, if contaminated, would create a significant hazard to public health.

  20. Monitoring for the Presence of Parasitic Protozoa and Free-living Amoebae in Drinking Water Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Saad Amer.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms represents a major human health hazard in many parts of the world. The main objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. A number of processes; namely water treatment, disinfection and changes influence the quality of drinking water delivered to the customer’s tap during transport of treated water via the distribution system. At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have reported. In this study, drinking water from treatment plants evaluated for the presence of parasitic protozoa. Water samples collected from two main points: (a outlet of the water treatment plants (b distribution system at different distances from the water treatment plants. Protozoa were concentrated from each water sample by adsorption and accumulation on the nitrocellulose membrane filters (0.45 μm pore size and detected by conventional staining methods.

  1. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptáková, Anna; Derco, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite.

  2. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  3. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

  4. Microbial Characterization of Biological Filters Used for Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Deborah M.; Summers, R. Scott; Breen, Alec

    1998-01-01

    The impact of preozonation and filter contact time (depth) on microbial communities was examined in drinking water biofilters treating Ohio River water which had undergone conventional treatment (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation) or solutions of natural organic matter isolated from groundwater (both ozonated and nonozonated). With respect to filter depth, compared to filters treating nonozonated waters, preozonation of treated water led to greater differences in community phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, utilization of sole carbon sources (Biolog), and arbitrarily primed PCR fingerprints. PLFA profiles indicated that there was a shift toward anaerobic bacteria in the communities found in the filter treating ozonated water compared to the communities found in the filter treating nonozonated settled water, which had a greater abundance of eukaryotic markers. PMID:9647864

  5. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  6. Health assessment of toluene in California drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, N.; Reed, W.; Beltran, L.; Li, R.; Encomienda, I.

    1989-03-08

    This report reviews existing literature pertinent to the health risk posed by the use of toluene-contaminated drinking water. Also included in the study is an estimate of the toluene exposure of California residents based on the most recent data on toluene concentrations in California drinking water supplies. The concentration of toluene in drinking water that may cause adverse health effects is delineated.

  7. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  8. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Farhadkhani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers.A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC, temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total organic carbon (TOC. Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA.The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified.A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  9. Climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmeczi, Pál; Homolya, Emese; Rotárné Szalkai, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions in Hungary led to difficulties in drinking water management on diverse occasions in the past. Due to reduced water resources and the coexisting high demand for drinking water in dry summer periods the availability of a number of water supplies became insufficient therefore causing limitations in water access. In some other cases, as a result of floods and flash floods over karstic areas evolving in consequence of excessive precipitation, several water supplies had to be excluded in order to avoid the risk of infections. More frequent occurrence of extreme weather conditions and further possible changes in the future induce the necessity for an analysis of the vulnerability of drinking water resources to climate change. Since 95% of the total drinking water supply in Hungary originates from subsurface layers, significance of groundwater resources is outstanding. The aim of our work carried out in the frames of the NAGiS (National Adaptation Geo-information System) project was to build up a methodology for the study and determination of the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to climate. The task covered analyses of climatic parameters influencing drinking water supplies principally and hydrogeological characteristics of the geological media that significantly determines vulnerability. Effects on drinking water resources and their reduction or exclusion may imply societal and economic consequences therefore we extended the analyses to the investigation of possibilities concerning the adaptation capacity to changed conditions. We applied the CIVAS (Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme) model developed in the frames of the international climate research project CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) to characterize climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies. The CIVAS model, being based on the combined evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, provides a unified

  10. THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

  11. THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

  12. [Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M Y; Midio, A F

    1999-08-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic).

  13. Drinking-water safety: challenges for community-managed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizak, S; Hrudey, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    A targeted review of documented waterborne disease outbreaks over the past decades reveals some recurring themes that should be understood by drinking-water suppliers. Evidence indicates the outbreaks are often linked to some significant change in conditions that provides a sudden challenge to a water system. Severe weather events, such as heavy rainfall or runoff from snow melt, as well as treatment process and system changes, are common risk factors for drinking-water outbreaks. Failure to recognise warning signs and complacency are important contributors to drinking water becoming unsafe. Drinking-water suppliers must focus on competence and vigilance in maintaining effective multiple barriers appropriate to the challenges facing the drinking-water system. Understanding the risk factors and failure modes of waterborne disease outbreaks is an essential component for effective management of community drinking-water supplies and ensuring the delivery of safe drinking-water to consumers.

  14. Phosphorus limitation on bacterial regrowth in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Jun-qiang; ZHANG Xi-hui; YU Guo-zhong; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test and bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) analysis were used to investigate the effect of phosphorus on bacterial regrowth in the drinking water that was made from some raw water taken from a reservoir located in northern China. It was shown that AOC of the drinking water samples increased by 43.9%-59.6% and BRP increased by 100%-235% when 50 μg/L PO3-4-P(as NaH2 PO4 ) was added alone to the drinking water samples. This result was clear evidence of phosphorus limitation on bacteria regrowth in the drinking water. This investigation indicated the importance of phosphorus in ensuring biological stability of drinking water and offered a novel possible option to restrict microbial regrowth in drinking water distribution system by applying appropriate technologies to remove phosphorus efficiently from drinking water in China.

  15. [Present-day problems of complex hygienic evaluation of drinking water use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulakin, A V; Novikov, Iu V; Tsyplakova, G V; Ampleeva, G P; Shukelaĭt', A B

    2005-01-01

    The authors offer substantiated methodical approaches to complex evaluation of the sanitary reliability of drinking water supply systems. They recommend not only evaluating drinking water quality, but also assessing the sanitary state of water sources (catchment areas), the reliability of water preparation and transportation, the standards of water supply and the reliability of production laboratory control. A range of complex hygienic studies have demonstrated that the problems of Voronezh interurban reservoir as a water source are caused by its multi-purpose use. Under these conditions insufficient hygienic efficiency of the conventional water preparation schemes and low sanitary reliability of water transportation systems favors negative influence of water factor on population mortality. The offered methodical approaches give the systematic idea of factors that determine drinking water quality. Operative administrative decisions concerning hygienic safety of public water use may be made with these methodical approaches taken into consideration.

  16. Drinking Water Consequences Tools. A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    In support of the goals of Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) National Protection and Programs Directorate and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the DHS Office of Science and Technology is seeking to develop and/or modify consequence assessment tools to enable drinking water systems owner/operators to estimate the societal and economic consequences of drinking water disruption due to the threats and hazards. This work will expand the breadth of consequence estimation methods and tools using the best-available data describing water distribution infrastructure, owner/assetlevel economic losses, regional-scale economic activity, and health. In addition, this project will deploy the consequence methodology and capability within a Web-based platform. This report is intended to support DHS effort providing a review literature review of existing assessment tools of water and wastewater systems consequences to disruptions. The review includes tools that assess water systems resilience, vulnerability, and risk. This will help to understand gaps and limitations of these tools in order to plan for the development of the next-generation consequences tool for water and waste water systems disruption.

  17. TRIHALOMETHANES IN THE DRINKING WATER OF TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Vaezi

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural sources of water contain some halogenated organic compounds after disinfection by chlorine. Trihalomethanes are one group of the chlorination by products that suspected of being carcinogenic inhuman unfortunately, these compounds are in finished water of all treatment plants that use chlorine as a disinfectant. In this study, the concentration of total THMS of water treated in the water treatment plant No.1 of Tehran had been measured by spectrophotometric method, along the month of June, 1371. Results of experiments have shown that organic contents of Tehran drinking water were not considerable in the period of survey. The mean concentration of TTHMS in water samples is estimated to be 28 micrograms per liter and none of the analyzed samples was considered polluted.

  18. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  19. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Tammie L., E-mail: Tammie.Gerke@miamioh.edu [Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0013 (United States); Little, Brenda J., E-mail: brenda.little@nrlssc.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 (United States); Barry Maynard, J., E-mail: maynarjb@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0013 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+}) and hollandite (Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+}), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+}), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. - Highlights: • Oxidation and deposition of Mn deposits in drinking water distribution pipes • In-situ synchrotron-based μ-XANES and μ-XRF mapping • Toxic metal sorption in Mn deposits.

  20. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater.

  1. Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

  2. Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... game, or just working out or playing hard, drink water before, during, and after playing. Don't forget ... is very dark yellow, it's holding on to water, so it's probably time to drink up. You can help your body by drinking ...

  3. [Revision of the drinking water regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswirth, S

    2011-11-01

    The revision the Drinking Water Regulations will come into effect on 01.11.2011. Surveillance authorities and owners of drinking water supply systems had hoped for simplifications and reductions because of the new arrangements. According to the official statement for the revision the legislature intended to create more clarity, consider new scientific findings, to change regulations that have not been proved to close regulatory gaps, to deregulate and to increase the high quality standards. A detailed examination of the regulation text, however, raises doubts. The new classification of water supply systems requires different modalities of registration, water analyses and official observation, which will complicate the work of the authorities. In particular, the implementation of requirements of registration and examination for the owners of commercial and publicly-operated large hot-water systems in accordance with DVGW Worksheet W 551 requires more effort. According to the estimated 30 000 cases of legionellosis in Germany the need for a check of such systems for Legionella, however, is not called into question. Furthermore, the development of sampling plans and the monitoring of mobile water supply systems requires more work for the health authorities.

  4. Sonication for advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-ming; WEI Xi-zhu; LI Xiang-kun; ZHANG Jie; DOU Zi-bo

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigated the feasibility of sonication as an advanced treatment method for drinking water production and used comprehensive indexes of water quality to examine its efficiency. Results show that sonication significantly reduces the toxicity of water. Sonication with 5 W/L at 90 kHz lasting for 30 min decreases he water SUVA and the disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) by 38.7% and 27.2% respective ly. Sonieation also decreases the UV254 by more than 50% through destroying unsaturated chemical bonds.Higher sound intensity and higher frequency benefit the reduction of TOC and UV254, Besides, sonication significantly increases the affinity of organics with granular activated carbon (GAC), and thus the hybrid sonication-GAC method reduces the water TOC, COD, UV254, and DBPFP by 78. 3%, 69.4%, 75.7%, and 70. 0% respectively. Therefore, sonieation and the hybrid sonieation-GAC method are proposed as advanced treatment methods for drinking water.

  5. Estimation of nitrite, nitrate, and N-nitrosamines in drinking water and soft drinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwan, S.M.; Jawad, I.M.; Abdul-Rahman, S.K.; Al-Kafaji, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    A survey for the determination of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in drinking water and selected soft drinks was achieved, using a GLC method. This shows that these substances occur predominantly in the drinks. The average contents of dimethylnitrosamine and diethylnitrosamine in drinking water were 4.1 ..mu..g/L and 0.2 ..mu..g/L respectively, while they were approximately 3.9 ..mu..g/L and 0.43 ..mu..g/L in soft drinks. Nitrite and nitrate contents in drinking water samples were also estimated, as potential factors for the formation of N-nitrosamines. The mean contents of nitrite and nitrate in drinking water were 65 g/L and 10.8 g/L respectively.

  6. 75 FR 54871 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The.... Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division (Mail...

  7. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan. PMID:28884130

  8. Defluoridation of drinking water by using Calcium loaded Bentonite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.M.Singanan

    Hence, this process can be recommended for the water treatment. The untreated ... KEY WORDS: Drinking water, fluoride removal, bentonite C and red clay. INTRODUCTION. Water is ... find alternative water sources and suitable cost effective ...

  9. Some Aspects of Surface Water Treatment Technology in Tirana Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    , Tania Floqi; , Aleksandër Trajçe; , Daut Vezi

    2009-01-01

    Tirana’s Bovilla treatment plant was the Şrst of its kind for Albania, which treats surface water. The input water comes from the Bovilla artiŞcial lake, around which, the presence of villages induces pollution in the surface water and therefore affects the efŞciency of treatment plant and consequently the quality of drinking water. The treatment plant is a simple conventional system and includes pre-oxidation, coagulation, şocculation & sedimentation, fast Şltration, post-oxidation. ...

  10. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Fu; Binghui Zheng; Xingru Zhao; Lijing Wang; Changming Liu

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009.The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces,5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated.The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater.The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 t0 2008,while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources.The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions.In river drinking water sources,the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally.The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region,while the lowest value was found in Southwest region.In lake/reservoir drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions.In underground drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions.In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels,there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  11. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  12. Benefits of Safer Drinking Water: The Value of Nitrate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Crutchfield, Stephen R.; Cooper, Joseph C.; Hellerstein, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Nitrates in drinking water, which may come from nitrogen fertilizers applied to crops, are a potential health risk. This report evaluates the potential benefits of reducing human exposure to nitrates in the drinking water supply. In a survey, respondents were asked a series of questions about their willingness to pay for a hypothetical water filter, which would reduce their risk of nitrate exposure. If nitrates in the respondent's drinking water were to exceed the EPA minimum safety standard,...

  13. Biological stability of drinking water: Controlling factors, methods, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and ca

  14. Biological stability of drinking water: Controlling factors, methods, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and ca

  15. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  16. Biological stability of drinking water: Controlling factors, methods, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and

  17. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY COAGULATION/FILTRATION AND LIME SOFTENING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance (one year) study of 3 water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. The 3 plants consisted of 2 conventional coagulation/filtration plants and 1 lime softening plant. The study involved the collecting of weekly...

  19. Lithium in drinking water and thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Karin; Concha, Gabriela; Engström, Karin; Lindvall, Magnus; Grandér, Margareta; Vahter, Marie

    2011-06-01

    High concentrations of lithium in drinking water were previously discovered in the Argentinean Andes Mountains. Lithium is used worldwide for treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment-resistant depression. One known side effect is altered thyroid function. We assessed associations between exposure to lithium from drinking water and other environmental sources and thyroid function. Women (n=202) were recruited in four Andean villages in northern Argentina. Lithium exposure was assessed based on concentrations in spot urine samples, measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Thyroid function was evaluated by plasma free thyroxine (T4) and pituitary gland thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), analyzed by routine immunometric methods. The median urinary lithium concentration was 3,910 μg/L (5th, 95th percentiles, 270 μg/L, 10,400 μg/L). Median plasma concentrations (5th, 95th percentiles) of T4 and TSH were 17 pmol/L (13 pmol/L, 21 pmol/L) and 1.9 mIU/L, (0.68 mIU/L, 4.9 mIU/L), respectively. Urine lithium was inversely associated with T4 [β for a 1,000-μg/L increase=-0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.31 to -0.068; p=0.002] and positively associated with TSH (β=0.096; 95% CI, 0.033 to 0.16; p=0.003). Both associations persisted after adjustment (for T4, β=-0.17; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.015; p=0.032; for TSH: β=0.089; 95% CI, 0.024 to 0.15; p=0.007). Urine selenium was positively associated with T4 (adjusted T4 for a 1 μg/L increase: β=0.041; 95% CI, 0.012 to 0.071; p=0.006). Exposure to lithium via drinking water and other environmental sources may affect thyroid function, consistent with known side effects of medical treatment with lithium. This stresses the need to screen for lithium in all drinking water sources.

  20. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  1. Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in drinking water, Thailand, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Aanensen, David; Ngamwilai, Sujittra; Saiprom, Natnaree; Rongkard, Patpong; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Kanoksil, Manas; Chantratita, Narisara; Day, Nicholas P J; Peacock, Sharon J

    2014-02-01

    We identified 10 patients in Thailand with culture-confirmed melioidosis who had Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from their drinking water. The multilocus sequence type of B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens and water samples were identical for 2 patients. This finding suggests that drinking water is a preventable source of B. pseudomallei infection.

  2. Start-up of a drinking water biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren; Søborg, Ditte; Breda, Inês Lousinha Ribeiro

    When virgin filter media is placed in drinking water biofilters, a start-up period of some months typically ensues. During this period, the necessary inorganic coating and bacterial community are established on the filter medium, after which the treated water complies with drinking water criteria...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the...

  4. Continous assessment of a drinking water PVC pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques Arsenio, A.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Wielinga, M.P.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 the Dutch drinking water network stretched for almost 116,000 km supplying water to more than 16 million people. Almost 50% was made of PVC. The analysis of the failure registration of 5 Dutch drinking water companies showed that ca. 29 % of the total number of failures in the PVC Dutch netw

  5. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  6. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring.

  7. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution......, since the method is very sensitive (detects 0.5 ng ATP/L) and results are obtained within minutes. When calculating the ATP value a number of parameters need to be considered. These were investigate by use of two different reagent kits (PCP-kit and Lumin(ATE)/Lumin(EX)-kit), internal standard...... and an Advance Coupe luminometer. The investigations showed a 60 times higher response of the PCP-kit, making it more suitable for measurement of samples with low ATP content. ATP-standard dilutions prepared in tap water were stable for at least 15 months when stored frozen at -80ºC, and storage of large...

  8. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution......, since the method is very sensitive (detects 0.5 ng ATP/L) and results are obtained within minutes. When calculating the ATP value a number of parameters need to be considered. These were investigate by use of two different reagent kits (PCP-kit and Lumin(ATE)/Lumin(EX)-kit), internal standard...... and an Advance Coupe luminometer. The investigations showed a 60 times higher response of the PCP-kit, making it more suitable for measurement of samples with low ATP content. ATP-standard dilutions prepared in tap water were stable for at least 15 months when stored frozen at -80ºC, and storage of large...

  9. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

  10. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals at drinking water purification plants in Japan and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simazaki, Dai; Kubota, Reiji; Suzuki, Toshinari; Akiba, Michihiro; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine the occurrence of 64 pharmaceuticals and metabolites in source water and finished water at 6 drinking water purification plants and 2 industrial water purification plants across Japan. The analytical methods employed were sample concentration using solid-phase extraction cartridges and instrumental analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS), or trimethylsilyl derivatization followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-seven of the 64 target substances were detected in the source water samples. The maximum concentrations in the source water were mostly below 50 ng/L except for 13 substances. In particular, residual concentrations of iopamidol (contrast agent) exceeded 1000 ng/L at most facilities. Most of the residual pharmaceuticals and metabolites in the source water samples were removed in the course of conventional and/or advanced drinking water treatments, except for 7 pharmaceuticals and 1 metabolite, i.e., amantadine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, epinastine, fenofibrate, ibuprofen, iopamidol, and oseltamivir acid. The removal ratios of the advanced water treatment processes including ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration were typically much higher than those of the conventional treatment processes. The margins of exposure estimated by the ratio of daily minimum therapeutic dose to daily intake via drinking water were substantial, and therefore the pharmacological and physiological impacts of ingesting those residual substances via drinking water would be negligible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems: A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the distribut

  12. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems: A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the

  13. [The EU drinking water recommendations: objectives and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöch, H

    2011-12-01

    Protection of our drinking water resources and provision of safe drinking water are key requirements of modern water management and health policy. Microbiological and chemical quality standards have been established in the EU water policy since 1980, and are now complemented by a comprehensive protection of water as a resource. This contribution reflects a presentation at the scientific conference of the Federal Associations of Physicians and Dentists within the Public Health Service in May 2011 and provides an overview on objectives and challenges for drinking water protection at the European level.

  14. MAGNESIUM, DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different countries suggest and justify an integrated laboratory and epidemiological research program with an aim to reject or accept the magnesium – CVD (cardiovascular disease hypothesis. The studies shown in this paper that have investigated the relationship between water hardness, especially magnesium and CVD indicate that, even though there has been an ongoing research for nearly half a century (1957-2004, it has not been completed yet. Different study designs (obductional, clinical, ecological, case-control and cohort restrict an adequate comparison of their results as well as the deduction of results applicable on each territorial level.The majority of researchers around the world, using populational and individual studies, have found an inverse (protective association between mortality and morbidity from CVD and the increase in water hardness, especially the increase in the concentration of magnesium. The most frequent benefit of the water with an optimal mineral composition is the reduction of mortality from ischemic heart disease.It was suggested that Mg from water is a supplementary source of Mg of high biological value, because magnesium from water is absorbed around 30% better than Mg in a diet. The vast majority of studies consider lower concentrations of Mg in the water, in the range of 10% of the total daily intake of Mg.Future research efforts must give better answers to low Mg concentrations in the drinking water, before any concrete recommendations are given to the public. Moreover, the researchers must also determine which chemical form of Mg is most easily absorbed and has the greatest impact.Additional research is necessary in order to further investigate the interrelation between different water and food components as well as individual risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD.

  15. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    manner that is not otherwise accomplished through conventional processes of drinking water treatment (e.g. coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation). 3. Evaluate changes in the character of NOM upon ground passage from the river to the wells. The experimental approach entailed monitoring the performance of three different RBF systems along the Ohio, Wabash, and Missouri Rivers in the Midwestern United States and involved a cooperative effort between the American Water Works Company, Inc. and Johns Hopkins University. Samples of the river source waters and the bank-filtered well waters were analyzed for a range of water quality parameters including TOC, DOC, UV-absorbance at 254-nm (UV-254), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), biologically assimilable organic carbon (AOC), inorganic species, DBP formation potential, and microorganisms. In the second year of the project, river waters were subjected to a bench-scale conventional treatment train consisting of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, glass-fiber filtration, and ozonation. The treated river waters were compared with the bank-filtered waters in terms of TOC, DOC, UV-254, and DBP formation potential. In the third and fourth years of the project, NOM from the river and well waters was characterized using the XAD-8 resin adsorption fractionation method (Leenheer, 1981; Thurman &Malcolm, 1981). XAD-8 adsorbing (hydrophobic) and non-adsorbing (hydrophilic) fractions of the river and well waters were compared with respect to DOC, UV-254, and DBP formation potential to determine whether RBF alters the character of the source water NOM upon ground passage and if so, which fractions are preferentially removed. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of RBF at removing the organic precursors to potentially carcinogenic DBPs. When compared to a bench-scale conventional treatment train optimized for turbidity removal, RBF performed as well as the treatment at one of the sites and significantly better than the

  16. Should children drink more water?: the effects of drinking water on cognition in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Burford, Denise

    2009-06-01

    While dehydration has well-documented negative effects on adult cognition, there is little research on hydration and cognitive performance in children. We investigated whether having a drink of water improved children's performance on cognitive tasks. Fifty-eight children aged 7-9 years old were randomly allocated to a group that received additional water or a group that did not. Results showed that children who drank additional water rated themselves as significantly less thirsty than the comparison group (p=0.002), and they performed better on visual attention tasks (letter cancellation, p=0.02; spot the difference memory tasks, ps=0.019 and 0.014).

  17. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  18. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; Gaalen FW van; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; Technische Universiteit Delft; LWD

    2001-01-01

    The 'Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer' (TAPWAT) model has been developed for describing drinking-water quality in integral studies in the context of the Environmental Policy Assessment of the RIVM. The model consists of modules that represent individual steps in a treatment

  19. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Borger, K.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filt

  20. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; Gaalen FW van; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; Technische Universiteit Delft; LWD

    2001-01-01

    The 'Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer' (TAPWAT) model has been developed for describing drinking-water quality in integral studies in the context of the Environmental Policy Assessment of the RIVM. The model consists of modules that represent individual steps in a treatment

  1. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school.

  2. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment plants

  3. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm under Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air...

  4. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment plants

  5. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  6. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  7. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm under Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air...

  8. Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

  9. Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Lee

    1991-01-01

    The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

  10. Meeting drinking water and sanitation targets of MDGs. Water use & competition in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek van der, Marjolijn

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is of vital importance for human beings. Improving the access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developing countries is therefore one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be me

  11. Single particle ICP-MS characterization of titanium dioxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-02-01

    One of the most direct means for human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) released into the environment is drinking water. Therefore, it is critical to understand the occurrence and fate of NPs in drinking water systems. The objectives of this study were to develop rapid and reliable analytical methods and apply them to investigate the fate and transportation of NPs during drinking water treatments. Rapid single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) methods were developed to characterize and quantify titanium-containing, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold NP concentration, size, size distribution, and dissolved metal element concentration in surface water and treated drinking water. The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatments (including lime softening, alum coagulation, filtration, and disinfection) to remove NPs from surface water was evaluated using six-gang stirrer jar test simulations. The selected NPs were nearly completely (97 ± 3%) removed after lime softening and alum coagulation/activated carbon adsorption treatments. Additionally, source and drinking waters from three large drinking water treatment facilities utilizing similar treatments with the simulation test were collected and analyzed by the SP-ICP-MS methods. Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti were present in the river water samples, but Ag and Au were not present. Treatments used at each drinking water treatment facility effectively removed over 93% of the Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti from the source water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drinking water quality monitoring and surveillance for safe water supply in Gangtok, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Gajanan K; Kalita, Morami; Pimpalkar, Sarika N; Labhsetwar, Pawan K

    2011-07-01

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied, water quality monitoring and surveillance was conducted in Gangtok city at various treatment stages, service reservoirs, distribution network, public standposts, and households. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/l in the sump water/finished water. Throughout the year (i.e., during summer, winter, and monsoon seasons), the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were ranged from nil to 7 CFU/100 ml and nil to 3 CFU/100 ml, respectively, in sump water of Selep and VIP complex water treatment plant; however, at consumer end, those were observed as nil to 210 CFU/100 ml and nil to 90 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These variations in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicates that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physicochemical characteristics.

  13. Nitrates in drinking water and the risk of death from rectal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ching; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Deng-Chuang; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and increased risk of death from rectal cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of nitrate on development of rectal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from rectal cancer and exposure to nitrate in drinking water in Taiwan. All rectal cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N), Ca, and Mg in drinking water was collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's NO(3)-N, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose NO(3)-N exposure level was water with a NO(3)-N exposure > or =0.38 ppm. There was no apparent evidence of an interaction between drinking water NO(3)-N levels with low Mg intake via drinking water. However, evidence of a significant interaction was noted between drinking-water NO(3)-N concentrations and Ca intake via drinking water. Our findings showed that the correlation between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of rectal cancer development was influenced by Ca in drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca intake from drinking water on the association between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of rectal cancer occurrence. Increased knowledge of the mechanistic interaction between Ca and NO(3)-N in reducing rectal cancer risk will aid in public policymaking and setting threshold standards.

  14. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from rectal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Chen, Pei-Shih; Ho, Shu-Chen; Wang, Li-Yu; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of rectal cancer development and (2) to determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of TTHM on risk of developing rectal cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to rectal cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All rectal cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels in drinking water were collected from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Information on the levels of Ca and Mg in drinking water was obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level was water with a TTHM exposure >or=4.9 ppb. There was no evidence of an interaction of drinking-water TTHM levels with low Ca intake via drinking water. However, evidence of an interaction was noted between drinking-water TTHM concentrations and Mg intake via drinking water. Our findings showed that the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of rectal cancer is influenced by Mg in drinking water. Increased knowledge of the interaction between Mg and TTHM in reducing rectal cancer risk will aid in public policymaking and standard setting.

  15. Assessment of changes in drinking water quality during distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... turbidity, feacal coliforms, manganese, lead, zinc and residual chlorine. ... Tap water at Area 25 Township is generally safe for human consumption. Key words: Drinking water, distribution system, biochemical parameters, human health.

  16. Drinking Water Quality in Hospitals and Other Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water quality entering large buildings is generally adequately controlled by the water utility, but localized problems may occur within building or “premise” plumbing. Particular concerns are loss of disinfectant residual and temperature variability, which may enhance pa...

  17. COMPARISON OF THE NEW IRON DOSAGE METHODS FOR DRINKING WATER PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    Arsenic is considered as one of the most concerned pollutants in the world due to its adverse health effects. Therefore, its content in drinking water has been recommended to be limited to 10 μg/L (WHO 2006). On of the conventional methods for arsenic removal is based on the addition of ferrous...

  18. Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiting; Zhang, Jingxu; Mi, Zilong; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.

  19. 75 FR 61751 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). This 15-member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical and independent advice, consultation and recommendations...

  20. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users.

  1. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Walter J; Brady, Michael T

    2009-06-01

    Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms and cause illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation. With few exceptions, well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children's ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This policy statement provides recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children.

  2. Safe drinking water: Experience with Water Safety Plans and assessment of risk factors in water supply

    OpenAIRE

    María J. Gunnarsdóttir 1947

    2012-01-01

    Access to adequate and clean drinking water is one of the fundamentals of a good and prosperous society. A comprehensive regulatory framework as well as institutional guidelines and procedures are necessary to secure this at any time. Iceland was one of the first countries to categorize drinking water as food in legislation passed in 1995. According to the legislation water utilities are obligated to implement systematic preventive management, Water Safety Plan (WSP), to ensure good quality w...

  3. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  4. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from esophageal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of esophageal cancer occurrence and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk to develop esophageal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to esophageal cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All esophageal cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 2006 through 2010 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels in drinking water were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Information on the levels of Ca and Mg in drinking water was obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level water with a TTHM exposure ≥4.9 ppb. There was evidence of an interaction between drinking-water TTHM levels and low Ca and Mg intake. Our findings showed that the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of esophageal cancer development was influenced by Ca and Mg levels in drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca and Mg intake from drinking water on the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of esophageal cancer occurrence. Increased knowledge of the interaction between Ca, Mg, and TTHM in reducing risk of esophageal cancer development will aid in public policymaking and standard setting for drinking

  5. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  6. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, H M; Kumar, Nanditha; Anand, S R; Prashant, G M; Chandu, G N

    2010-01-01

    The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  7. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtibay, Bonifacio; Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems - source, storage and distribution - the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster.

  8. Does calcium in drinking water modify the association between nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Pei-Shih; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether calcium (Ca) levels in drinking water modified the effects of nitrate on colon cancer risk. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from colon cancer and exposure to nitrate in drinking water in Taiwan. All colon cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and Ca in drinking water have been collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's NO(3)-N and Ca exposure via drinking water. We observed evidence of an interaction between drinking water NO(3)-N and Ca intake via drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca intake from drinking water on the association between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of colon cancer mortality.

  9. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 μg As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 μg As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

  10. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  11. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.

  12. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  13. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  14. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  15. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  16. Conventional and Alternative Disinfection Methods of Legionella in Water Distribution Systems – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pūle Daina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Legionella in drinking water distribution systems is a widespread problem. Outbreaks of Legionella caused diseases occur despite various disinfectants are used in order to control Legionella. Conventional methods like thermal disinfection, silver/copper ionization, ultraviolet irradiation or chlorine-based disinfection have not been effective in the long term for control of biofilm bacteria. Therefore, research to develop more effective disinfection methods is still necessary.

  17. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  18. Tourism and Water: Themes of the Alpine Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, R.

    2012-04-01

    1) The contribution reflects the personal opinion of the author and does not necessarily reflect the point of view of the Permanent Secretariat. The Alpine Convention is a multilateral framework treaty signed in 1991 by the eight states of the Alpine bow as well as the European Community. Its main objectives are the sustainable development of the Alpine territory and the safeguarding of the interests of the people living within it, embracing the environmental, social and economic dimensions in the broadest sense. In order to achieve its objectives, over the years the Framework Convention has been equipped with a large number of thematic protocols, e.g. on tourism. The overall objective of the Protocol on Tourism, which first came into force in 2002, is to contribute to sustainable development in the Alpine region within the existing institutional framework, by encouraging environmentally-friendly tourism through specific measures and recommendations which take the interests of both the local population and tourists into account. The provisions of the Protocol on Tourism primarily concern tourism management and controlling tourist flows, structural developments such as ski lifts and ski slopes, accommodation and the balanced development of economically weak areas. Guidelines, development plans, sectoral plans have to be adopted at the appropriate territorial level in order to enable to assess the impact of tourism development on, inter alia, water. This extends also to ski slopes developments. For example the production of artificial snow production may be authorized only if the location's hydrological, climatic and ecological conditions allow. Water is listed among the twelve themes in relation to which the Contracting Parties are supposed to take measures and coordinate their policies (Article 2 of the Framework Convention). The Alpine Convention aims to preserve and re-establish healthy water systems, especially keeping waters clean and protecting the natural

  19. Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerslice, James

    2011-12-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States-Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight.

  20. Drinking Water Infrastructure and Environmental Disparities: Evidence and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States–Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight. PMID:21836110

  1. Microbial analysis of in situ biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems: implications for monitoring and control of drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, Isabel; Jackson, M; Solomon, C; Boxall, J

    2016-04-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) is influenced by the source water, the supply infrastructure and the operation of the system. A holistic approach was used to advance knowledge on the development of mixed species biofilms in situ, by using biofilm sampling devices installed in chlorinated networks. Key physico-chemical parameters and conventional microbial indicators for drinking water quality were analysed. Biofilm coverage on pipes was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The microbial community structure, bacteria and fungi, of water and biofilms was assessed using pyrosequencing. Conventional wisdom leads to an expectation for less microbial diversity in groundwater supplied systems. However, the analysis of bulk water showed higher microbial diversity in groundwater site samples compared with the surface water site. Conversely, higher diversity and richness were detected in biofilms from the surface water site. The average biofilm coverage was similar among sites. Disinfection residual and other key variables were similar between the two sites, other than nitrates, alkalinity and the hydraulic conditions which were extremely low at the groundwater site. Thus, the unexpected result of an exceptionally low diversity with few dominant genera (Pseudomonas and Basidiobolus) in groundwater biofilm samples, despite the more diverse community in the bulk water, is attributed to the low-flow hydraulic conditions. This finding evidences that the local environmental conditions are shaping biofilm formation, composition and amount, and hence managing these is critical for the best operation of DWDS to safeguard water quality.

  2. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Lead Ions in Drinking Water Based on a Strip Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlai Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have first developed a rapid and sensitive strip immunosensor based on two heterogeneously-sized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs probes for the detection of trace lead ions in drinking water. The sensitivity was 4-fold higher than that of the conventional LFA under the optimized conditions. The visual limit of detection (LOD of the amplified method for qualitative detection lead ions was 2 ng/mL and the LOD for semi-quantitative detection could go down to 0.19 ng/mL using a scanning reader. The method suffered from no interference from other metal ions and could be used to detect trace lead ions in drinking water without sample enrichment. The recovery of the test samples ranged from 96% to 103%. As the detection method could be accomplished within 15 min, this method could be used as a potential tool for preliminary monitoring of lead contamination in drinking water.

  3. Rapid and highly sensitive detection of lead ions in drinking water based on a strip immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Hua; Xing, Changrui; Hao, Changlong; Liu, Liqiang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-03-28

    In this study, we have first developed a rapid and sensitive strip immunosensor based on two heterogeneously-sized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) probes for the detection of trace lead ions in drinking water. The sensitivity was 4-fold higher than that of the conventional LFA under the optimized conditions. The visual limit of detection (LOD) of the amplified method for qualitative detection lead ions was 2 ng/mL and the LOD for semi-quantitative detection could go down to 0.19 ng/mL using a scanning reader. The method suffered from no interference from other metal ions and could be used to detect trace lead ions in drinking water without sample enrichment. The recovery of the test samples ranged from 96% to 103%. As the detection method could be accomplished within 15 min, this method could be used as a potential tool for preliminary monitoring of lead contamination in drinking water.

  4. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  5. [DIRECTIONALITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, K K; Karasev, A K; Marasanov, A V; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V

    2015-01-01

    There have been performed the studies of the dimensional parameters of peroxide associates in drinking water, per- forming regulatory functions in cellular metabolism, that determine the character of the biological response of the human body to drinking water The direction of action of peroxide associates type Σ [(HO2-(*) ... OH-(*) (H2O) tp)]q, (where (H2O) tp is an associate with the tetragonal structure (Walrafen pentamer Is ice VI), q is the degree of association p--parameter of ion coordination) on the cellular structures of the organism is associated with their quantum properties, determining the macroscopic parameters of the electron wave packets. Research has confirmed the addressness of the nonlocal entering electron to certain cellular structures of the body, which is determined by the structural similarity of centers of condensation of electrons in the cells of systems and organs of the body with the parameters of the electron wave packets in the associates. Methodology for the estimation of the orientation of biological effect of the drinking water to the systems of the body on the base of the analysis of variations in heart rhythm under non-contact influence of water on the human body and its relationship with the dimensional parameters and peroxide activity of associates in drinking water can be suggested for the implementation of screening tests for drinking water quality, taking into account both the individualfeatures of responses of body systems to drinking water and its group action.

  6. Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based .... The measures for improvement of monitoring were: .... purposes, the effectiveness and desirability of a government.

  7. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

  9. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvo, M.; Ekstrand, K.; Arvin, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Apart from the well-documented effect of fluoride in drinking water on dental caries, little is known about other chemical effects. Since other ions in drinking water may also theoretically influence caries, as well as binding of fluoride in the oral environment, we hypothesized that the effect...... of drinking water on caries may not be limited to fluoride only. Among 22 standard chemical variables, including 15 ions and trace elements as well as gases, organic compounds, and physical measures, iterative search and testing identified that calcium and fluoride together explained 45% of the variations...... in the numbers of decayed, filled, and missing tooth surfaces (DMF-S) among 52,057 15-year-old schoolchildren in 249 Danish municipalities. Both ions had reducing effects on DMF-S independently of each other, and could be used in combination for the design of optimal drinking water for caries control...

  10. Aircraft Drinking Water Rule Public Meetings and Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In developing the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule, EPA used a collaborative process to obtain a broad range of views including the airlines, flight attendants, passengers, pilots, airports, laboratories, public health officials and environmental organizations

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...

  14. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    .... Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others...

  15. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Sewer Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of sewer treatment plants. These facility locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  16. The generation of oxygen radicals after drinking of oxygenated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, M H; Hierl, T C; Zhao, J; Wohlgemuth, N; Nilsson, U A

    2002-03-28

    It has been speculated whether ingestion of oxygenated water can lead to an enhanced generation of oxygen radicals. The purpose of three prospective randomized blinded clinical studies was therefore to measure if, when and at which oxygen content in the water,drinking of oxygenated water induces the generation of radicals. Moreover in the fourth prospective,randomized, blinded study possible longterm effects of drinking oxygenated water were examined. Altogether 66 volunteers were drinking 300 ml oxygenated or tap water within 15 minutes. Before drinking, altogether 15 ml of blood from the antecubital vein was collected for determination of ascorbyl radicals with ESR, routine laboratory data (hemoglobin, erythrocytes, hematocrit, leukocytes, thrombocytes, uric acid) and the vitamins A,C,E by HPLC. After drinking the ascorbyl radical measurements were repeated from blood of the antecubital vein. In the longterm study ( fourth study) the volunteers had to undergo the same procedure, as described above, at day 1 and day 21. In the meantime they were drinking per day three times 300 ml either oxygenated water or tap water. All subjects exhibited normal vitamin levels in all three studies. Concommitantly in the fourth study there was no statistically relevant alteration of vitamin concentrations during the observation period of three weeks in the verum and placebo-group. 30 minutes after drinking oxygenated water the concentration of ascorbyl radicals increased significantly by median 42 % from median 48 to 65 nmol/l. This increase of ascorbyl radicals after 30 minutes was reproducible in all studies. The levels of ascorbyl radicals remained elevated for 60 minutes after drinking and returned to normal after 120 minutes. This increase was independent of the oxygen concentration in the water, beginning at 30 mg oxygen/l. Water containing 15 mg oxygen/l did not lead to an enhanced radical formation. Longterm consumption of oxygenated water attenuated the ascorbyl radical

  17. Mutagenic activity of drinking water in Wroclaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowski, K; Szyba, K; Sawicka, J; Gulanowski, B

    1993-01-01

    The Salmonella mutagenicity test was applied to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of Wroclaw drinking water. Contaminants of water samples were concentrated by adsorption on XAD-2 resin. After while they were eluted sequentially with acetone, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1, v/v) and methanol, and then obtained organic extracts were evaporated to dryness. The extracts were then dissolved in DMSO and examined by using the Ames test. The results proved significant contamination of drinking water with mutagenic substances. Hydroxyapatite column chromatography performed after direct incubation of standard DNA probes with tested water extracts showed that drinking water was contaminated with DNA interstrand cross-linking substances. Filtration of tap water through carbon filters markedly reduced mutagenic activity of tested water extracts, whereas ceramic filters were more efficient in depleting of DNA interstrand cross-linking contaminants.

  18. Lead in Drinking Water in Slovenian Kindergartens and Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitenc K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to determine how high are the concentrations of lead in drinking water in older Slovenian kindergartens and primary schools and to demonstrate that lead can also migrate from newer materials used for the construction of water distribution networks. To determine the concentrations of lead in drinking water, it is needed to take 250 ml of drinking water that stood in the pipes from 8 to 18hours. It is also applied a method for determining the migration from different materials. An old lead pipe is utilized, as well as new materials (PEX-Al-PEX, copper, galvanized pipes and stainless steel pipes. Sampling showed that 6 samples of 39 had levels of lead higher than 10 µg/l, two of them highly exceeded that level. Negative correlation between the level of pH and concentration of lead in drinking water is moderate. Implementation of lead migration from various types of pipes demonstrated the migration from galvanized pipes in all simulants. Furthermore, the migration of lead from galvanized pipes is dependent on water temperature. The migration was confirmed from the lead pipe as expected. Study points to a problem with elevated concentrations of lead in drinking water faced by older kindergartens and primary schools in Slovenia. All concentrations of lead after flushing the pipes were below the 10 µg/l, which shows that the most effective action to lower the concentrations of lead is flushing the water pipes. For the purposes of national monitoring of drinking water is necessary to apply a better method for determining lead levels in drinking water namely the sampling of water that stood in the pipes at least 8 to 18 hours. This study has demonstrated the migration of lead from galvanized pipes. This material is also installed in 54 % of kindergartens and primary schools that participated in the study.

  19. [Hygienic requirements on materials in contact with drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, F-U; Schuster, R; Rapp, T

    2007-03-01

    In Germany the hygienic requirements on materials used to supply drinking water are a part of the technical standards. These regulations have to ensure that legal requirements on drinking water are met at the tap. The hygienic harmlessness is assured by requirements on the composition of materials and by test procedures including parametric limits. Historically, the requirements on different types of materials are a part of different technical standards.

  20. Arsenic contamination of drinking water and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shyamal; Krause, Annabelle; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of drinking arsenic contaminated water on mental health. Drinking water with an unsafe arsenic level for a prolonged period can lead to arsenicosis, which includes symptoms such as black spots on the skin and subsequent illnesses such as various cancers. We collected household survey data from Bangladesh, a country with wide arsenic contamination of groundwater to construct several measures for arsenic contamination that include the actual arsenic level in t...

  1. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Liu; Yanmei Zhao; Christopher WK Chow; Dongsheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study.Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared.The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low.The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chiorodibromoacetic acid.The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality.The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  2. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  3. Isotopic Fingerprint for Phosphorus in Drinking Water Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooddy, Daren C; Lapworth, Dan J; Ascott, Matthew J; Bennett, Sarah A; Heaton, Timothy H E; Surridge, Ben W J

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate dosing of drinking water supplies, coupled with leakage from distribution networks, represents a significant input of phosphorus to the environment. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)OPO4), a novel stable isotope tracer for phosphorus, offers new opportunities to understand the importance of phosphorus derived from sources such as drinking water. We report the first assessment of δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. A total of 40 samples from phosphate-dosed distribution networks were analyzed from across England and Wales. In addition, samples of the source orthophosphoric acid used for dosing were also analyzed. Two distinct isotopic signatures for drinking water were identified (average = +13.2 or +19.7‰), primarily determined by δ(18)OPO4 of the source acid (average = +12.4 or +19.7‰). Dependent upon the source acid used, drinking water δ(18)OPO4 appears isotopically distinct from a number of other phosphorus sources. Isotopic offsets from the source acid ranging from -0.9 to +2.8‰ were observed. There was little evidence that equilibrium isotope fractionation dominated within the networks, with offsets from temperature-dependent equilibrium ranging from -4.8 to +4.2‰. While partial equilibrium fractionation may have occurred, kinetic effects associated with microbial uptake of phosphorus or abiotic sorption and dissolution reactions may also contribute to δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies.

  4. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip John

    Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream......, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short......, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using...

  5. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  6. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the third in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  7. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  8. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the second in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  9. 76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection...

  10. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  11. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  12. Discolouration in drinking water systems: a particular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the Netherlands meets high standards as is annually reported by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM)(Versteegh and Dik, 2006). Also the water companies themselves report in the voluntary Benchmark that water quality is one of the least

  13. Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3) cells mL(-1) to 4.66×10(5) cells mL(-1) in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4) cells mL(-1) in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5) cells mL(-1). This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

  14. Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nescerecka

    Full Text Available The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3 cells mL(-1 to 4.66×10(5 cells mL(-1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4 cells mL(-1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5 cells mL(-1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

  15. Refractive Errors in Northern China Between the Residents with Drinking Water Containing Excessive Fluorine and Normal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Ge; Liu, Haifeng; Zhao, Chunyuan; Zhou, Guangkai; Ding, Xuchen; Zhang, Na; Xu, Yongfang; Qi, Yanhua

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the refractive errors and the demographic associations between drinking water with excessive fluoride and normal drinking water among residents in Northern China. Of the 1843 residents, 1415 (aged ≥40 years) were divided into drinking-water-excessive fluoride (DWEF) group (>1.20 mg/L) and control group (≤1.20 mg/L) on the basis of the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Of the 221 subjects in the DWEF group, with 1.47 ± 0.25 mg/L (fluoride concentrations in drinking water), the prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were 38.5 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 32.1-45.3), 19.9 % (95 % CI = 15-26), and 41.6 % (95 % CI = 35.1-48.4), respectively. Of the 1194 subjects in the control group with 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/L, the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were 31.5 % (95 % CI = 28.9-34.2), 27.6 % (95 % CI = 25.1-30.3), and 45.6 % (95 % CI = 42.8-48.5), respectively. A statistically significant difference was not observed in the association of spherical equivalent and fluoride concentrations in drinking water (P = 0.84 > 0.05). This report provides the data of the refractive state of the residents consuming drinking water with excess amounts of fluoride in northern China. The refractive errors did not result from ingestion of mild excess amounts of fluoride in the drinking water.

  16. Chemical quality and regulatory compliance of drinking water in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Jonsson, Gunnar St; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-11-01

    Assuring sufficient quality of drinking water is of great importance for public wellbeing and prosperity. Nations have developed regulatory system with the aim of providing drinking water of sufficient quality and to minimize the risk of contamination of the water supply in the first place. In this study the chemical quality of Icelandic drinking water was evaluated by systematically analyzing results from audit monitoring where 53 parameters were assessed for 345 samples from 79 aquifers, serving 74 water supply systems. Compliance to the Icelandic Drinking Water Regulation (IDWR) was evaluated with regard to parametric values, minimum requirement of sampling, and limit of detection. Water quality compliance was divided according to health-related chemicals and indicators, and analyzed according to size. Samples from few individual locations were benchmarked against natural background levels (NBLs) in order to identify potential pollution sources. The results show that drinking compliance was 99.97% in health-related chemicals and 99.44% in indicator parameters indicating that Icelandic groundwater abstracted for drinking water supply is generally of high quality with no expected health risks. In 10 water supply systems, of the 74 tested, there was an indication of anthropogenic chemical pollution, either at the source or in the network, and in another 6 water supplies there was a need to improve the water intake to prevent surface water intrusion. Benchmarking against the NBLs proved to be useful in tracing potential pollution sources, providing a useful tool for identifying pollution at an early stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.

  19. Drinking Water Sources with Surface Intakes from LDHH source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [drinking_water_surface_intakes_LDHH_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for 87 public drinking water sources with surface intakes. It was derived from a larger statewide general drinking water source dataset...

  20. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p drink with sodium.

  1. The role of advanced oxidation processes in drinking water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe, Karine K.

    2010-01-01

    Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) is an ever growing challenge for water utilities as many surface waters used for drinking water in the UK exhibit increasing organics levels and it is well known that these organics can lead to problems such as water colouration, unpleasant odour and taste, bacterial growth and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. NOM is traditionally removed by coagulation, however in the case of hydrophilic organic matter rich waters the performances of these pr...

  2. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  3. Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1988-04-10

    The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards; (6) Canadian National Health and Welfare Drinking Water Quality Guidelines--Maximum Acceptable Concentrations; (7) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Filtration and Disinfection Turbidity, Giardia Lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; (8) Public Water Supply Manual--Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Program; (9) Public Water Supply Manual--Emergency Response; (10) U.S. EPA Approved Krofta Chemicals; (11) NY-DOH Approved Krofta Chemicals.

  4. Removal naturally occurring radionuclides from drinking water using a filter specifically designed for Drinking Water Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Ontalba-Salamanca, M Á; Jiménez-Ramos, M C

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water can pose health hazards in some populations, especially taking into account that routine procedures in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) are normally unable to remove them efficiently from drinking water. In fact, these procedures are practically transparent to them, and in particular to radium. In this paper, the characterization and capabilities of a patented filter designed to remove radium from drinking water with high efficiency is described. This filter is based on a sandwich structure of silica and green sand, with a natural high content manganese oxide. Both sands are authorized by Spanish authorities to be used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants. The Mn distribution in the green sand was found to be homogenous, thus providing a great number of adsorption sites for radium. Kinetic studies showed that the (226)Ra adsorption on green sand was influenced by the content of major cations solved in the treated water, but the saturation level, about 96-99%, was not affected by it. The physico-chemical parameters of the treated water were unaltered by the filter. The efficiency of the filter for the removal of (226)Ra remained unchanged with large water volumes passed through it, proving its potential use in DWTP. This filter was also able to remove initially the uranium content due to the presence of Fe2O3 particles in it, although it is saturated faster than radium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from kidney cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Ching; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of development of kidney cancer and (2) determine whether hardness levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk of kidney cancer induction. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to kidney cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All kidney cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels and levels of hardness in drinking water were also collected. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM and hardness exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level was water with a TTHM exposure ≥4.9 ppb. However, evidence of an interaction was noted between the use of soft water and drinking water TTHM concentrations. Increased knowledge of the interaction between hardness and TTHM levels in reducing risk of kidney cancer development will aid in public policy decision and establishing standards to prevent disease occurrence.

  6. Nitrates in drinking water and the risk of death from brain cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Ya-Hui; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and risk of death from brain cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the influence of nitrates on development of brain cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from brain cancer and exposure to nitrates in drinking water in Taiwan. All brain cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2008 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N), Ca, and Mg in drinking water was obtained from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's NO₃-N, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose NO₃-N exposure level was water with a NO₃-N exposure ≥ 0.38 ppm. No marked effect modification was observed due to Ca and Mg intake via drinking water on brain cancer occurrence.

  7. Contribution of drinking water to dietary requirements of essential metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Drinking water can be a source of essential metals, but only one study published thus far has compared the intake of essential metals in drinking water to dietary reference intakes. This assessment compares the ingestion of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) from drinking water at the maximum concentrations that should be found in water, or at concentrations that are potentially more likely to be found in Canadian water, to the recommended dietary allowance or adequate intake values established by the Institute of Medicine. At guideline limits, water provides sufficient Cr and Cu to meet nutritional requirements, and Mn and Zn levels are sufficient for some age categories to meet nutritional requirements. At concentrations that are more likely to be found in Canadian water, adequate intakes for Cr and Mn may be met by water alone for bottle-fed infants, and water was estimated to provide 23-66% of daily Cu requirements. Drinking water might become a significant source of some essential metals in individuals whose diets are low in these metals, especially in the case of Cu.

  8. The 1991 Lead/Copper Drinking Water Rule and the 1995 Decision Not to Revise the Arsenic Drinking Water Rule: Two Case Studies in EPA's Use of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses EPA's acquisition and use of science in two decisions under the Safe Drinking Water Act: the 1991 revision of the lead drinking water regulations and the 1995 decision to pursue additional research instead of revising the arsenic in drinking water standard. In the first case, a committed band of policy entrepreneurs within EPA mobilized and supplemented scientific information which had accumulated in the agency's air program to force lead in drinking water up the agency's...

  9. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  10. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  11. Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Falconer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where he effluent is directly or indirectly in

  12. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Borger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a unit is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes. Using this library, a hydraulic model was set up and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek.

  13. Nitrate intake from drinking water on Tenerife island (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Mesa, J M; Rubio Armendáriz, C; Hardisson de la Torre, A

    2003-01-20

    Although meat and vegetable products contain higher concentrations of nitrate, drinking water is the fastest and most direct form of nitrate consumption by the population. It becomes contaminated with nitrates when sea water infiltrates fresh water aquifers and when rain and irrigation water wash through soils that have been excessively treated with nitrated fertilizers. Nitrates are of great toxicological interest as they are involved in the origin of nitrites and nitrosamines and the development of metahaemoglobinaemia in infants. The objective of this study was to determine the quantities of NO(3)(-) in the water supply of each of the Island's municipalities and in the leading brands of bottled waters consumed by the population of Tenerife. This parameter is necessary for the determination of Acceptable Daily Intake (A.D.I.) of nitrates from drinking water. With one unremarkable exception, the nitrate levels found in the water analyzed were optimum for human consumption and amply complied with current European Legislation.

  14. Laboratory investigation of drinking water sources of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S D; Panda, A K

    2012-06-01

    A total of 70 drinking water sources including piped water supply (n = 36), ground water sources (n = 24, hand pumps and bore wells) and natural water sources (n = 10, springs/step-wells) from various parts of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh were investigated for their suitability for drinking purpose by presumptive coliform test. Three samples were collected from each source during different parts of the year. Piped water sources (91.7%) were most contaminated followed by natural water sources (90%) and ground water sources (62.5%). 70.5% of the total water samples (n = 210) were positive for coliforms. All the three samples from 8.3% (n = 3), 37.5% (n = 9) and 10% (n = 1) piped water, ground water and natural sources respectively, were negative for coliform organisms. A variety of organisms including Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pasteurella, Enterobacter and Serratia liquefaciens were isolated from water samples positive for coliforms in presumptive coliform test. Thermo-tolerant coliform organisms; Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were 71.2% (n = 52) of the total bacterial isolations. These findings suggest absence of adequate treatment and disinfection of the water sources supplying drinking water in district Kangra.

  15. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  16. Removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages during drinking water treatment at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaud, Nicolas; Machinal, Claire; David, Fabienne; Fréval-Le Bourdonnec, Armelle; Jossent, Jérôme; Bakanga, Fanny; Arnal, Charlotte; Jaffrezic, Marie Pierre; Oberti, Sandrine; Gantzer, Christophe

    2012-05-15

    The removal of MS2, Qβ and GA, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, potential surrogates for pathogenic waterborne viruses, was investigated during a conventional drinking water treatment at pilot scale by using river water, artificially and independently spiked with these bacteriophages. The objective of this work is to develop a standard system for assessing the effectiveness of drinking water plants with respect to the removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages by a conventional pre-treatment process (coagulation-flocculation-settling-sand filtration) followed or not by an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (complete treatment process). The specific performances of three UF membranes alone were assessed by using (i) pre-treated water and (ii) 0.1 mM sterile phosphate buffer solution (PBS), spiked with bacteriophages. These UF membranes tested in this work were designed for drinking water treatment market and were also selected for research purpose. The hypothesis serving as base for this study was that the interfacial properties for these three bacteriophages, in terms of electrostatic charge and the degree of hydrophobicity, could induce variations in the removal performances achieved by drinking water treatments. The comparison of the results showed a similar behaviour for both MS2 and Qβ surrogates whereas it was particularly atypical for the GA surrogate. The infectious character of MS2 and Qβ bacteriophages was mostly removed after clarification followed by sand filtration processes (more than a 4.8-log reduction) while genomic copies were removed at more than a 4.0-log after the complete treatment process. On the contrary, GA bacteriophage was only slightly removed by clarification followed by sand filtration, with less than 1.7-log and 1.2-log reduction, respectively. After the complete treatment process achieved, GA bacteriophage was removed with less than 2.2-log and 1.6-log reduction, respectively. The effectiveness of the three UF membranes tested in terms of

  17. Occurrence, Monitoring and Treatment of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2014 a number of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) on Lake Erie supplied water samples on a monthly basis for analysis. Chlorophyll-a measurements, LC/MS/MS and ELISA techniques specific to microcystins were employed to measure potential harmful algal bloom...

  18. Effect of the Distribution System on Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grünwald

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to characterise the main aspects of water quality deterioration in a distribution system. The effect of residence time on chlorine uptake and the formation and evolution of disinfection by-products in distributed drinking water are discussed.

  19. physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of drinking water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2, July, 2012, pp. ... (10) geo-referenced points in five communities of Ibeno Local Government Area ... water works for provision of good quality drinking water, modern sanitary ... health of the people of Ibeno Local Government Area. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... hazards such as gas flaring, oil spillage, washing of.

  20. Health surveys of cyanobacteria in drinking and recreational waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Martínez Juárez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental surveys of drinking and recreational waters with the objective of related health risk control are a common component in public health policy. Based in updated scientific knowledge proliferation of Cyanobacteria constitutes a new risk, and it should be considered in public health programs. The principal objective of this work is to assess the presence of cyanobacteria and microcystins in drinking and recreational waters. Results of a four year survey in the sanitary department of Talavera de la Reina are presented. A descriptive study of the presence of cyanobacteria and microcystins, in non treated water from two reservoirs at the pick up point and after treatment in the exit point from two treatment plants. The same approach has been used in two recreational summer natural water reservoirs. Every fifteen days samples were analysed for cyanobateria recount and free microcystin level determination by ELISA essay. From the results of the analysis in drinking water we concluded that microcystines levels in non treated water from reservoirs are not high, less than 6 per cent of samples showed a positive results for microcystins. Treatment was effective as no sample after treatment showed a positive result for microcystins. 48 per cent of recreational water samples showed levels above 100,000 cells per ml, which corresponds to the WHO moderate adverse effect risk guide level. Public health policy should include systematic level survey of cyanobaterias from drinking and recreational water. Exposure related health adverse effects surveys should be conducted.

  1. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  2. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  3. Developments in Biotechnology of Relevance to Drinking Water Preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Witholt, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies to increase the feasibility of microorganisms for the removal of toxic xenobiotics from waste water and drinking water. Based on the principles of adaptational mutations and genetic exchange of catabolic activities, it becomes possible to select and engineer

  4. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.; van der Kooij, M.M.E.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we d

  5. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.; van der Kooij, M.M.E.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we

  6. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  7. Disinfection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavano, Giuditta Fiorella; De Santi, Mauro; Sisti, Maurizio; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio

    2017-09-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are resistant to conventional water treatments, and are opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in hospitalized patients. The aim of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet UV-C lamp treatment against Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water. Ultraviolet treatments (0 - 192 mJ/cm(2)) were performed using UV lamp immerged onto cylindrical glass tubes containing artificially contaminated water. The results showed that susceptibility to UV varied considerably according to the strains and the diameter of the tube. With a dose of 32 mJ/cm(2), a significant inactivation (pUV disinfection of drinking water. In conclusion, it may be difficult to standardize a UV dose for the elimination of waterborne mycobacteria.

  8. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay.

  9. [On the rating of Helicobacter pylori in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedichkina, T P; Solenova, L G; Zykova, I E

    2014-01-01

    There are considered the issues related to the possibility to rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) content in drinking water. There is described the mechanism of of biofilm formation. The description refers to the biofilm formation mechanism in water supply systems and the existence of H. pylori in those systems. The objective premises of the definition of H. pylori as a potential limiting factor for assessing the quality of drinking water have been validated as follows: H. pylori is an etiologic factor associated to the development of chronic antral gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer either, in the Russian population the rate of infection with H. pylori falls within range of 56 - 90%, water supply pathway now can be considered as a source of infection of the population with H. pylori, the existence of WHO regulatory documents considering H. pylori as a candidate for standardization of the quality of the drinking water quite common occurrence of biocorrosion, the reduction of sanitary water network reliability, that creates the possibility of concentrating H. pylori in some areas of the water system and its delivery to the consumer of drinking water, and causes the necessity of the prevention of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology of the population. A comprehensive and harmonized approach to H. pylori is required to consider it as a candidate to its rating in drinking water. Bearing in mind the large economic losses due to, on the one hand, the prevalence of disease caused by H. pylori, and, on the other hand, the biocorrosion of water supply system, the problem is both relevant in terms of communal hygiene and economy.

  10. Removal of arsenic from drinking water using rice husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Rice husk adsorption column method has proved to be a promising solution for arsenic (As) removal over the other conventional methods. The present work investigates the potential of raw rice husk as an adsorbent for the removal of arsenic [As(V)] from drinking water. Effects of various operating parameters such as diameter of column, bed height, flow rate, initial arsenic feed concentration and particle size were investigated using continuous fixed bed column to check the removal efficiency of arsenic. This method shows maximum removal of As, i.e., 90.7 % under the following conditions: rice husk amount 42.5 g; 7 mL/min flow rate in 5 cm diameter column at the bed height of 28 cm for 15 ppb inlet feed concentration. Removal efficiency was increased from 83.4 to 90.7 % by reducing the particle size from 1.18 mm to 710 µm for 15 ppb concentration. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were employed to discuss the adsorption behavior. The effect of different operating parameters on the column adsorption was determined using breakthrough curves. In the present study, three kinetic models Adam-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson were applied to find out the saturated concentration, fixed bed adsorption capacity and time required for 50 % adsorbate breakthrough, respectively. At the end, solidification was done for disposal of rice husk.

  11. Determination of strontium in drinking water and consequences of radioactive elements present in drinking water for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of strontium and uranium content in drinking water has been done, indirectly, according to the scale which originates from drinking water in water-supply system of the city of Belgrade. Gamaspectrometric analysis showed the presence of free natural radionuclide in low activities. The activity of 90Sr in scale which is 0.72±0.11 Bq/kg was determined by radiochemical. Because of the small quantities of fur in the house heater this activity can be considered as irrelevant, but the accumulation of scale can have intensified influence. In this paper, the analysis of effects of the radioactive isotopes presence (first of all 238U and 235U in drinking water on human health has been done. .

  12. 75 FR 54872 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ..., contact Shari Bauman, Standards and Risk Management Division, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water... (202) 564-0293 or bauman.shari@epa.gov . For more information about the Drinking Water Strategy,...

  13. Report: EPA Lacks Internal Controls to Prevent Misuse of Emergency Drinking Water Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0001, October 12, 2010. EPA cannot accurately assess the risk of public water systems delivering contaminated drinking water from emergency facilities because of limitations in Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) data management.

  14. Updating national standards for drinking-water: a Philippine experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomboy, M; Riego de Dios, J; Magtibay, B; Quizon, R; Molina, V; Fadrilan-Camacho, V; See, J; Enoveso, A; Barbosa, L; Agravante, A

    2017-04-01

    The latest version of the Philippine National Standards for Drinking-Water (PNSDW) was issued in 2007 by the Department of Health (DOH). Due to several issues and concerns, the DOH decided to make an update which is relevant and necessary to meet the needs of the stakeholders. As an output, the water quality parameters are now categorized into mandatory, primary, and secondary. The ten mandatory parameters are core parameters which all water service providers nationwide are obligated to test. These include thermotolerant coliforms or Escherichia coli, arsenic, cadmium, lead, nitrate, color, turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, and disinfectant residual. The 55 primary parameters are site-specific and can be adopted as enforceable parameters when developing new water sources or when the existing source is at high risk of contamination. The 11 secondary parameters include operational parameters and those that affect the esthetic quality of drinking-water. In addition, the updated PNSDW include new sections: (1) reporting and interpretation of results and corrective actions; (2) emergency drinking-water parameters; (3) proposed Sustainable Development Goal parameters; and (4) standards for other drinking-water sources. The lessons learned and insights gained from the updating of standards are likewise incorporated in this paper.

  15. Accumulation of arsenic in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas J; Frietch, Christy

    2004-10-15

    The tendency for iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic is well-known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove arsenic. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in drinking water distribution systems, have similar adsorptive properties and could therefore concentrate arsenic and potentially re-release it into the distribution system. The arsenic composition of solids collected from drinking water distribution systems (pipe sections and hydrant flush solids), where the waters had measurable amounts of arsenic in their treated water, were determined. The elemental composition and mineralogy of 67 solid samples collected from 15 drinking water utilities located in Ohio (7), Michigan (7), and Indiana (1) were also determined. The arsenic content of these solids ranged from 10 to 13 650 microg of As/g of solid (as high as 1.37 wt %), and the major element of most solids was iron. Significant amounts of arsenic were even found in solids from systems that were exposed to relatively low concentrations of arsenic (water.

  16. Beyond Flint: National Trends in Drinking Water Quality Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Wu, H.; Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the U.S. represents an emerging challenge. Aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances may increase vulnerability of water systems to quality violations. In the aftermath of Flint, there is a great need to assess the current state of U.S. drinking water quality. How widespread are violations? What are the spatial and temporal patterns in water quality? Which types of communities and systems are most vulnerable? This is the first national assessment of trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. In 2015, 9% of community water systems violated health-related water quality standards. These non-compliant systems served nearly 23 million people. Thus, the challenge of providing safe drinking water extends beyond Flint and represents a nationwide concern. We use a panel dataset that includes every community water system in the United States from 1981 to 2010 to identify factors that lead to regulatory noncompliance. This study focuses on health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Lasso regression informed selection of appropriate covariates, while logistic regressions modeled the probability of noncompliance. We find that compliance is positively associated with private ownership, purchased water supply, and greater household income. Yet, greater concentration of utility ownership and violations in prior years are associated with a higher likelihood of violation. The results suggest that purchased water contracts, which are growing among small utilities, could serve as a way to improve regulatory compliance in the future. However, persistence of violations and ownership concentration deserve attention from policymakers. Already, the EPA has begun to prioritize enforcement of persistent violators. Overall, as the revitalization of U.S. water infrastructure becomes a growing priority area, results of this study are intended to inform investment and

  17. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  18. Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reasoner, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

  19. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  20. Chemical and bioanalytical assessments on drinking water treatments by quaternized magnetic microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Ma, Rong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Wu, Bing; Miao, Yu; Chen, Xun; Zhang, Xuxiang

    2015-03-21

    This study aimed to compare the toxicity reduction performance of conventional drinking water treatment (CT) and a treatment (NT) with quaternized magnetic microspheres (NDMP) based on chemical analyses. Fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix combined with parallel factor analysis identified four components in source water of different rivers or lake, and the abundance of each component differed greatly among the different samples. Compared with the CT, the NT evidently reduced the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), bromide and disinfection by-products. Toxicological evaluation indicated that the NT completely eliminated the cytotoxicity, and greatly reduced the genotoxicity and oxidative stress of all raw water. In contrast, the CT increased the cytotoxicity of Taihu Lake and the Zhongshan River water, genotoxicity of Taihu Lake and the Mangshe River water, as well as the levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde of the Mangshe River water. Correlation analysis indicated that the AOX of the treated samples was significantly correlated with the genotoxicity and glutathione concentration, but exhibited no correlation with either of them for all the samples. As it can effectively reduce pollutant levels and the toxicities of drinking water, NDMP might be widely used for drinking water treatment in future.

  1. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer.

  2. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2017-08-28

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F(-) removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F(-) removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F(-) at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milli was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively...

  4. A brief overview on radon measurements in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Viktor; Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Malo, Petya; Tanner, Vesa; Hult, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present information about currently used standard and routine methods for radon analysis in drinking waters. An overview is given about the current situation and the performance of different measurement methods based on literature data. The following parameters are compared and discussed: initial sample volume and sample preparation, detection systems, minimum detectable activity, counting efficiency, interferences, measurement uncertainty, sample capacity and overall turnaround time. Moreover, the parametric levels for radon in drinking water from the different legislations and directives/guidelines on radon are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility Test of Refill Drinking Water in Batam

    OpenAIRE

    ., Hazimah; Triwuri, Nurlinda Ayu

    2016-01-01

    According to the Regulation of the Minister of Health No.492 Year 2010, drinking water quality is assessed from the chemistry parameters, one of them is aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), kloride (Cl) and copper (Cu), it should meet the standards that have been defined. The aim of this research is to find out the quality of refill drinking water in Batam with indicator aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), kloride (Cl) and copper (Cu). The research was conducted in the laboratory of PT. Sucofindo Batam, Riau Is...

  6. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF HOUSEHOLD DRINKING WATER FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jezierska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of household drinking water filtration. This article demonstrates the possibilities of using study on the reaction of ascorbic acid degradation in aqueous solutions to develop a new method for determining the effectiveness of household drinking water filtration. Based on the measurements of absorbance of ascorbic acid a new parameters WCW (Coeffi cient of Water Purity and SF (Filtration Degree were defined. Correlations between the SF and the amount of filtered water (filter usage were investigated. With the filter usage decreasing effectiveness of calcium ions removal and drop of differences in conductivity between the tap and filtered water were observed. SF decreases proportionally to the filter usage and therefore the proposed method can be an effective tool to determine the effectiveness of domestic water filters.

  7. Latest Technologies and Equipment to Obtain High Quality Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharuk, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A principally new concept of providing the Ukrainian population with quality drinking water have been proposed. It is based on a system of autonomous complexes for water purification in places of direct consumption. Water treatment autonomous complexes for collective and individual use with biotesting and analytical quality control of drinking water have been developed. The choice of the cleaning methods of tap and other waters up to the quality of genetic safe is performed in accordance with its composition and is based on a block concept that provides the possibility of varying the number of units depending on the composition of the source water. The proposed technology and equipment at cost and complex problems to be solved have no analogues in the world. Over thousand of modular installations «Vega» and disinfecting vehicles «Promin» are implemented in many settlement in all regions of Ukraine.

  8. Plant wide chemical water stability modelling with PHREEQC for drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Hooft, J.F.M.; De Moel, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In practice, drinking water technologists use simplified calculation methods for aquatic chemistry calculations. Recently, the database stimela.dat is developed especially for aquatic chemistry for drinking water treatment processes. The database is used in PHREEQC, the standard in geohydrology for

  9. Plant wide chemical water stability modelling with PHREEQC for drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Hooft, J.F.M.; De Moel, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In practice, drinking water technologists use simplified calculation methods for aquatic chemistry calculations. Recently, the database stimela.dat is developed especially for aquatic chemistry for drinking water treatment processes. The database is used in PHREEQC, the standard in geohydrology for

  10. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in wat...

  11. Relationship Between Microcystin in Drinking Water and Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of microcystin (MC) in drinking water with the incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods The study was designed as a retrospective cohort. Eight townships or towns were randomly selected as the study sites in Haining City of Zhejiang Province, China. 408 cases of colon and rectum carcinomas diagnosed from 1977 to 1996 in the study sites were included, and a survey on types of drinking water of these patients was conducted. Samples of different water sources (well, tap, river and pond) were collected separately and microcystin concentrations were determined by indirect competitive ELISA method. Results The incidence rate of colorectal cancer was significantly higher in population who drank river and pond water than those who drank well and tap water. Compared to well water, the relative risk (RR) for colorectal cancer was 1.88 (tap), 7.94 (river) and 7.70 (pond) respectively. The positive rate (>50 pg/mL) of microcystin in samples of well, tap, river and pond water was 0, 0, 36.23% and 17.14% respectively. The concentration of microcystin in river and pond water was significantly higher than that in well and tap water (P<0.01). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that in the study sites, the microcystin concentration of river and pond water was positively associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (rs= 0.881, P<0.01). Conclusions The types of drinking water are positively associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer in the study sites, and this may be related to microcystin contamination of drinking water. Further biological study is needed to support the possible causative role of mycrocystin in carcinogenesis of colon and rectum.

  12. Exploring Perceptions and Behaviors about Drinking Water in Australia and New Zealand: Is It Risky to Drink Water, When and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crampton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumers in most developed countries, including Australia and New Zealand, presume their drinking water is safe. How social perceptions about drinking water are formed, however, remains inadequately explored in the research literature. This research contributes exploratory insights by examining factors that affect consumer perceptions and behaviors. Individual perceptions of drinking water quality and actions undertaken to mitigate perceived risks were collected during 183 face-to-face interviews conducted at six research sites. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed the majority did not consider drinking water a “risky” activity, trusted water management authorities to manage all safety issues and believed self-evaluation of drinking water’s taste and appearance were sufficient measures to ensure safe consumption. Quantitatively, significant relationships emerged between water quality perceptions and sex, employment status, drinking water treatment and trust in government to provide safe water. Expert advice was rarely sought, even by those who believed drinking tap water posed some health risks. Generational differences emerged in media usage for drinking water advice. Finally, precautionary measures taken at home and abroad often failed to meet national drinking water guidelines. Three major conclusions are drawn: a. broad lack of awareness exists about the most suitable and safe water treatment activities, as well as risks posed; b. health literacy and interest may be improved through greater consumer involvement in watershed management; and c. development of health campaigns that clearly communicate drinking water safety messages in a timely, relevant and easily understandable fashion may help mitigate actual risks and dispel myths.

  13. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water (Supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to...

  14. Performance evaluation of conventional and water saving taps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidar, A M; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2016-01-15

    The rapid pace of urbanisation comes with considerable environmental implications including pressures on already stressed limited water resources. In urban areas, most of the water use is associated with water consumption in buildings. The second largest use of water is via taps. It is often assumed that water taps with low flow rates can contribute to reduced per capita water consumption. However, this is based on very little evidence. This paper presents the synthesis of a 13,000 high resolution observations made to investigate the actual water consumption of innovative (water saving) electronic taps and conventional mixer taps. High resolution flow-meters and data loggers were fitted into two washrooms in two different buildings of a higher education institution to record the water use through the basin taps. The recorded data provided information on duration, frequency of use and volume of water consumption per use. The data was helpful in identifying trends in hot and cold water use and therefore can be useful in estimating energy for producing hot water and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Analysis of the observed data suggests that the low flow taps have greater mean water consumption per event than the conventional taps and water consumption is more influenced by user behaviour rather than the technology.

  15. CO2 emissions from German drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Helmi; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify total emission of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany and to identify major drivers. All reservoirs were a net CO2 source with a median flux of 167gCm(-2)y(-1), which makes gaseous emissions a relevant process for the carbon budget of each reservoir. Fluxes varied seasonally with median fluxes of 13, 48, and 201gCm(-2)y(-1) in spring, summer, and autumn respectively. Differences between reservoirs appeared to be primarily caused by the concentration of CO2 in the surface water rather than by the physical gas transfer coefficient. Consideration of short term fluctuations of the gas transfer coefficient due to varying wind speed had only a minor effect on the annual budgets. High CO2 emissions only occurred in reservoirs with pHCO2 emissions correlated exponentially with pH but not with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). There was significant correlation between land use in the catchment and CO2 emissions. In total, German drinking water reservoirs emit 44000t of CO2 annually, which makes them a negligible CO2 source (CO2 emissions) in Germany.

  16. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  17. Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2011-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities.

  18. Water quality and management of private drinking water wells in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swistock, Bryan R; Clemens, Stephanie; Sharpe, William E; Rummel, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania has over three million rural residents using private water wells for drinking water supplies but is one of the few states that lack statewide water well construction or management standards. The study described in this article aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of common health-based pollutants in water wells and evaluate the need for regulatory management along with voluntary educational programs. Water samples were collected throughout Pennsylvania by Master Well Owner Network volunteers trained by Penn State Extension. Approximately 40% of the 701 water wells sampled failed at least one health-based drinking water standard. The prevalence of most water quality problems was similar to past studies although both lead and nitrate-N were reduced over the last 20 years. The authors' study suggests that statewide water well construction standards along with routine water testing and educational programs to assist water well owners would result in improved drinking water quality for private well owners in Pennsylvania.

  19. 75 FR 53267 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to... 30 days the public comment period for a proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulation, the... inquiries, contact Sean Conley, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (MC 4607M), U.S....

  20. 78 FR 48158 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    .... SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This meeting is scheduled... associated with drinking water protection and public water systems. During this meeting, the Council...

  1. 76 FR 67187 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting AGENCY..., Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (Mail Code 4601M), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC... the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 to provide practical and independent advice,...

  2. Safe Drinking Water for Alaska: Curriculum for Grades 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    Presented is a set of 10 lessons on safe drinking water in Alaska for use by elementary school teachers. The aim is to provide students with an understanding of the sources of the water they drink, how drinking water can be made safe, and the health threat that unsafe water represents. Although this curriculum relates primarily to science, health,…

  3. 78 FR 73206 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On November 23, 2013 the... requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs...-142-F. The action concerns the public water system the defendant, Bryan Pownall (``Defendant'')...

  4. Heavy metal pollution in drinking water - a global risk for human health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal pollution in drinking water - a global risk for human health: A review. ... is currently facing critical water supply and drinking water quality problems. ... the HM pollution in drinking water, the incorporation of them into the food chain, ...

  5. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  6. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  7. Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission.

  8. Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly affects the quality of reclaimed water and drinking water. Reclaimed water potable reuse is an effective way to augment drinking water source and de facto reuse exists worldwide. Hence, when reclaimed water source (namely secondary effluent) is blended with drinking water source, understanding the difference in DOM between drinking water source (dDOM) and reclaimed water source (rDOM) is essential. In this study, composition, transformation, and potential risk of dDOM from drinking water source and rDOM from secondary effluent were compared. Generally, the DOC concentration of rDOM and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in reclaimed water source were higher but rDOM exhibited a lower aromaticity. Besides, rDOM comprises a higher proportion of hydrophilic fractions and more low-molecular weight compounds, which are difficult to be removed during coagulation. Although dDOM exhibited higher specific disinfection byproducts formation potential (SDBPFP), rDOM formed more total disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination including halomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) due to high DOC concentration. Likewise, in consideration of DOC basis, rDOM contained more absolute assimilable organic carbon (AOC) despite showing a lower specific AOC (normalized AOC per unit of DOC). Besides, rDOM exhibited higher biotoxicity including genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Therefore, rDOM presents a greater potential risk than dDOM does. Reclaimed water source needs to be treated carefully when it is blended with drinking water source.

  9. Arsenic in drinking water and adverse birth outcomes in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Kirsten S; Turyk, Mary E; Jones, Rachael M; Rankin, Kristin; Freels, Sally; Graber, Judith M; Stayner, Leslie T

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in areas with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. Less is known about the reproductive effects of arsenic at lower levels. This research examined the association between low-level arsenic in drinking water and small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (term LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), and very preterm birth (VPTB) in the state of Ohio. Exposure was defined as the mean annual arsenic concentration in drinking water in each county in Ohio from 2006 to 2008 using Safe Drinking Water Information System data. Birth outcomes were ascertained from the birth certificate records of 428,804 births in Ohio from the same time period. Multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between arsenic and each birth outcome separately. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the roles of private well use and prenatal care utilization in these associations. Arsenic in drinking water was associated with increased odds of VLBW (AOR 1.14 per µg/L increase; 95% CI 1.04, 1.24) and PTB (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06, 1.15) among singleton births in counties where water was positively associated with VLBW and PTB in a population where nearly all (>99%) of the population was exposed under the current maximum contaminant level of 10µg/L. Current regulatory standards may not be protective against reproductive effects of prenatal exposure to arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluoride in Drinking Water -Its Effects and Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Gopal

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of fluoride in water, its metabolism, excretion. effect oingestion in human and cattle system and methods of fluoridation and defluoridation have been discussed. The presence of fluoride in waters occurring in India, with special reference to Rajasthan desert has been reviewed. Based on the survey and physico-chemical analyses of about 2,700 water samples of Rajasthan, distribution of fluoride in this area has been discussed wrth reference to drinking water standards. A water resources map showing concentrations of fluoride in four arid districts of Rajasthan is also presented.

  11. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in drinking water from pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera-Muro, Victor M; Jacques, Mario; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Avelar-González, Francisco J; Loera Muro, Abraham; Ramírez-López, Elsa M; Medina-Figueroa, Alejandra; González-Reynaga, Higinio M; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma L

    2013-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and is normally transmitted by aerosols and direct contact between animals. A. pleuropneumoniae has traditionally been considered an obligate pathogen of pigs and its presence in the environment has yet to be investigated. Here, the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in drinking water of pig farms in Mexico using a PCR specific for the RTX toxin gene, apxIV. The presence of A. pleuropneumoniae in farm drinking water was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific polyclonal antibody and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Viable bacteria from the farm drinking water were detected using the Live/Dead BacLight stain. Additionally, viable A. pleuropneumoniae was selected and isolated using the cAMP test and the identity of the isolated bacteria were confirmed by Gram staining, a specific polyclonal antibody and an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific PCR. Furthermore, biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy in A. pleuropneumoniae-positive samples. In conclusion, our data suggest that viable A. pleuropneumoniae is present in the drinking water of swine farms and may use biofilm as a strategy to survive in the environment.

  12. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section 3.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care,...

  13. Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A metagenome-based approach was utilized for assessing the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free chlorine (CHL) and monochloramine (CHM) treated drinking water (DW). A total of 1,024, 242 (averaging 544 bp) and 849, 349 (averaging 554 bp) ...

  14. Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking Care of Your Skin Taking Care of Your Teeth El cuidado de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go KidsHealth > For Kids > ...

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... for 1.5 mg∙ℓ-1 fluoride for the method using chrome azurol B were ... in drinking water can give rise to a number of adverse effects ... reagents, due to their spectrophotometric properties described .... Possible structure for aluminium chrome azurol B 1:2 complex ..... zirconium-eriochrome cyanine R. Anal.

  16. COMPARATIVE RISK DILEMNAS IN DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION [EDITORIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection of drinking water supplies has been one of the most succesful public health interventions of the twentieth century. It has virtually eliminated outbreaks of serious waterborne infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. there are still, however, an average of...

  17. Pipe failure predictions in drinking water systems using satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsénio, André Marques; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanssen, Ramon; Vreeburg, Jan; Rietveld, Luuk

    2015-01-01

    Soil deformation is believed to play a crucial role in the onset of failures in the underground infrastructure. This article describes a method to generate a replacement-prioritisation map for underground drinking water pipe networks using ground movement data. A segment of the distribution netwo

  18. Pipe failure predictions in drinking water systems using satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsénio, André Marques; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanssen, Ramon; Vreeburg, Jan; Rietveld, Luuk

    2015-01-01

    Soil deformation is believed to play a crucial role in the onset of failures in the underground infrastructure. This article describes a method to generate a replacement-prioritisation map for underground drinking water pipe networks using ground movement data. A segment of the distribution

  19. Drinking water assessment of 4 locations from Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Bisht

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study drinking water samples from 4 different locations in Ghaziabad were collected by random grab sampling. These were analyzed for physiochemical and elemental parameters. The parameters tested were pH, Nitrate, Fluoride, Chloride, Sulphate, Total Dissolved solids, Hardness, Alkalinity, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Boron, Zinc, Selenium, Manganese, Iron, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic and Mercury.

  20. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; van Gaalen FW; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; LWD

    2001-01-01

    Het model TAPWAT (Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer), is ontwikkeld om de drinkwaterkwaliteit te beschrijven voor integrale studies in het kader van het planbureau Milieu en Natuur van het RIVM. Het model bestaat uit modules die de individuele zuiveringsstappen van het

  1. Dimethylamine biodegradation by mixed culture enriched from drinking water biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylamine (DMA) is one of the important precursors of drinking water disinfection by-product N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Reduction of DMA to minimize the formation of carcinogenic NDMA in drinking water is of practical importance. Biodegradation plays a major role in elimination of DMA pollution in the environment, yet information on DMA removal by drinking water biofilter is still lacking. In this study, microcosms with different treatments were constructed to investigate the potential of DMA removal by a mixed culture enriched from a drinking water biofilter and the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. DMA could be quickly mineralized by the enrichment culture. Amendment of a carbon source, instead of a nitrogen source, had a profound impact on DMA removal. A shift in bacterial community structure was observed with DMA biodegradation, affected by carbon and nitrogen sources. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum group in DMA-degrading microcosms. Microorganisms from a variety of bacterial genera might be responsible for the rapid DMA mineralization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

  3. Prokaryotic communities in drinking water biofilters using alternative filter medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Inês Lousinha Ribeiro; Roslev, Peter; Ramsay, Loren

    Biofilters are often the heart of drinking water treatment systems in Europe. The effect that alternative filter media may have on the microbial communities and therefore in the duration of the start-up period has received little attention. This project investigates the microbial communities...

  4. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

  5. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

  6. Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A metagenome-based approach was utilized for assessing the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free chlorine (CHL) and monochloramine (CHM) treated drinking water (DW). A total of 1,024, 242 (averaging 544 bp) and 849, 349 (averaging 554 bp) ...

  7. Geospatial examination of lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbich Marco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lithium as a substance occurring naturally in food and drinking water may exert positive effects on mental health. In therapeutic doses, which are more than 100 times higher than natural daily intakes, lithium has been proven to be a mood-stabilizer and suicide preventive. This study examined whether natural lithium content in drinking water is regionally associated with lower suicide rates. Methods Previous statistical approaches were challenged by global and local spatial regression models taking spatial autocorrelation as well as non-stationarity into account. A Geographically Weighted Regression model was applied with significant independent variables as indicated by a spatial autoregressive model. Results The association between lithium levels in drinking water and suicide mortality can be confirmed by the global spatial regression model. In addition, the local spatial regression model showed that the association was mainly driven by the eastern parts of Austria. Conclusions According to old anecdotic reports the results of this study support the hypothesis of positive effects of natural lithium intake on mental health. Both, the new methodological approach and the results relevant for health may open new avenues in the collaboration between Geographic Information Science, medicine, and even criminology, such as exploring the spatial association between violent or impulsive crime and lithium content in drinking water.

  8. Model-Based Control of Drinking-Water Treatment Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schagen, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process technologist

  9. 77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act at mobile home parks operated by defendants in Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia. The defendants treat sewage and provide drinking water at a number of its mobile... about drinking water problems. The Consent Decree requires payment of a civil penalty of...

  10. New chlorinated amphetamine-type-stimulants disinfection-by-products formed during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Fontela, Maria; Pineda, Oriol; Ventura, Francesc; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2012-06-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated high removal rates of amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATSs) through conventional drinking water treatments; however the behaviour of these compounds through disinfection steps and their transformation into disinfection-by-products (DBPs) is still unknown. In this work, for the first time, the reactivity of some ATSs such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) with chlorine has been investigated under simulated and real drinking water treatment conditions in order to evaluate their ability to give rise to transformation products. Two new DBPs from these illicit drugs have been found. A common chlorinated-by-product (3-chlorobenzo)-1,3-dioxole, was identified for both MDA and MDEA while for MDMA, 3-chlorocatechol was found. The presence of these DBPs in water samples collected through drinking water treatment was studied in order to evaluate their formation under real conditions. Both compounds were generated through treatment from raw river water samples containing ATSs at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 15 ng/L for MDA and from 2.3 to 78 ng/L for MDMA. One of them, (3-chlorobenzo)-1,3-dioxole, found after the first chlorination step, was eliminated after ozone and GAC treatment while the MDMA DBP mainly generated after the postchlorination step, showed to be recalcitrant and it was found in final treated waters at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.8 ng/L.

  11. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Smith, Christian

    2014-01-01

    in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more......Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface...

  12. Drinking water contamination and treatment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-08-01

    Water is of fundamental importance for life on earth. The synthesis and structure of cell constituents and transport of nutrients into the cells as well as body metabolism depend on water. The contaminations present in water disturb the spontaneity of the mechanism and result in long/short-term diseases. The probable contaminations and their possible routes are discussed in the present review. Continued research efforts result in some processes/technologies to remove the contaminations from water. The review includes concepts and potentialities of the technologies in a comprehensible form. It also includes some meaningful hybrid technologies and promising awaited technologies in coming years.

  13. Drinking water contamination and treatment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-06-01

    Water is of fundamental importance for life on earth. The synthesis and structure of cell constituents and transport of nutrients into the cells as well as body metabolism depend on water. The contaminations present in water disturb the spontaneity of the mechanism and result in long/short-term diseases. The probable contaminations and their possible routes are discussed in the present review. Continued research efforts result in some processes/technologies to remove the contaminations from water. The review includes concepts and potentialities of the technologies in a comprehensible form. It also includes some meaningful hybrid technologies and promising awaited technologies in coming years.

  14. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L(-1). Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial community in drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Suárez-Arriaga, Mayra C; Rojas-Valdes, Aketzally; Montoya-Ciriaco, Nina M; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; Dendooven, Luc

    2013-07-01

    Wells used for drinking water often have a large biomass and a high bacterial diversity. Current technologies are not always able to reduce the bacterial population, and the threat of pathogen proliferation in drinking water sources is omnipresent. The environmental conditions that shape the microbial communities in drinking water sources have to be elucidated, so that pathogen proliferation can be foreseen. In this work, the bacterial community in nine water wells of a groundwater aquifer in Northern Mexico were characterized and correlated to environmental characteristics that might control them. Although a large variation was observed between the water samples, temperature and iron concentration were the characteristics that affected the bacterial community structure and composition in groundwater wells. Small increases in the concentration of iron in water modified the bacterial communities and promoted the growth of the iron-oxidizing bacteria Acidovorax. The abundance of the genera Flavobacterium and Duganella was correlated positively with temperature and the Acidobacteria Gp4 and Gp1, and the genus Acidovorax with iron concentrations in the well water. Large percentages of Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas bacteria were found, and this is of special concern as bacteria belonging to both genera are often biofilm developers, where pathogens survival increases.

  16. Presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, W J; van den Berg, H H J L; Rutjes, S A; de Roda Husman, A M

    2010-09-01

    The quality of drinking water in The Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur.

  17. Are NORMs Accumulated in Filters of Drinking Water Facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, S.; Shin, W.; Park, M.; Han, J. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Han, W. S.; Chang, B. U.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is used as raw water to produce mineral drinking water through filtering processes in bottled water facilities. Although natural occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) exist in groundwater, accumulation of NORMs were rarely studied due to their low concentrations in groundwater. The goal of this study is to evaluate potential accumulation of NORMs in filters used at the drinking water facilities. Raw water and treated water after each filtering step, bottled water, and used filters were collected from a total of 13 bottled water facilities to analyze major dissolved ions and NORMs. Additionally, surface radioactive dose rate were measured at individual filter housings. The measured concentrations of NORMs in raw and treated water were quite low. However, the surface radioactivity dose rates dramatically increased around filter housing located at very first step regardless of filter type (i.e., activated carbon or membrane filter) in 4 out of 6 facilities. Some used filters showed approximately 20 times greater contents of Pb-210 than the Korean regulation level of 1 Bq g-1. Also, the concentrations of uranium and thorium were detected up to 75 µg g-1filter and 2 µg g-1filter, respectively, in 4 water facilities. These results implies potential accumulation of NORMs in filters used at bottled water facilities. Therefore, the filters need to be monitored during manufacturing processes of bottled water, and may be properly managed after use.

  18. Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

  19. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  20. Bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water in Dharan municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Poudyal, Nimesh; Bhattacharya, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-06-07

    Water-related diseases are of great concern in developing countries like Nepal. Every year, there are countless morbidity and mortality due to the consumption of unsafe drinking water. Recently, there have been increased uses of bottled drinking water in an assumption that the bottled water is safer than the tap water and its use will help to protect from water-related diseases. So, the main objective of this study was to analyze the bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water and that of municipal tap water. A total of 100 samples (76 tap water and 24 bottled water) were analyzed for bacteriological quality and pH. The methods used were spread plate method for total plate count (TPC) and membrane filter method for total coliform count (TCC), fecal coliform count (FCC), and fecal streptococcal count (FSC). pH meter was used for measuring pH. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 87.5 % of the bottled water samples were found to be contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria. Of the tap water samples, 55.3 % were positive for total coliforms, compared with 25 % of the bottled water. No bottled water samples were positive for fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, in contrast to 21.1 % and 14.5 % of the tap water samples being contaminated with fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, respectively. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 54.2 % of the bottled water samples had pH in the acceptable range. All of the municipal tap water samples and most of the bottled drinking water samples distributed in Dharan municipality were found to be contaminated with one or more than one type of indicator organisms. On the basis of our findings, we may conclude that comparatively, the bottled drinking water may have been safer (than tap water) to drink.

  1. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  2. A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

  3. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for drinking water treatment in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow tube well drinking water is an urgent health problem in Bangladesh. Current arsenic mitigation solutions, including (household) arsenic removal options, do not always provide a sustainable alternative for safe drinking water. A novel technology, Subsurface Arsenic

  4. Radioactivity in drinking water supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M; Wallner, G; Jennings, P

    2014-04-01

    Radiochemical analysis was carried out on 52 drinking water samples taken from public outlets in the southwest of Western Australia. All samples were analysed for Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210. Twenty five of the samples were also analysed for Po-210, and 23 were analysed for U-234 and U-238. Ra-228 was found in 45 samples and the activity ranged from Ra-226 was detected in all 52 samples and the activity ranged from 3.200 to 151.1 mBq L(-1). Po-210 was detected in 24 samples and the activity ranged from 0.000 to 114.2 mBq L(-1). These data were used to compute the annual radiation dose that persons of different age groups and also for pregnant and lactating females would receive from drinking this water. The estimated doses ranged from 0.001 to 2.375 mSv y(-1) with a mean annual dose of 0.167 mSv y(-1). The main contributing radionuclides to the annual dose were Ra-228, Po-210 and Ra-226. Of the 52 drinking water samples tested, 94% complied with the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, while 10% complied with the World Health Organization's radiological guidelines which many other countries use. It is likely that these results provide an overestimate of the compliance, due to limitations, in the sampling technique and resource constraints on the analysis. Because of the increasing reliance of the Western Australian community on groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, it is likely that the radiological content of the drinking water will increase in the future. Therefore there is a need for further monitoring and analysis in order to identify problem areas.

  5. Organic mutagens and drinking water in The Netherlands : a study on mutagenicity of organic constituents in drinking water in The Netherlands and their possible carcinogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Several mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds have been detected in Dutch surface waters and in drinking water prepared from these surface waters. Although the levels of these compounds in drinking- and surface water are relatively low, in general below μg per litre, it appeared that organic

  6. Organic mutagens and drinking water in the Netherlands : a study on mutagenicity of organic constituents in drinking water in The Netherlands and their possible carcinogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Several mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds have been detected in Dutch surface waters and in drinking water prepared from these surface waters. Although the levels of these compounds in drinking- and surface water are relatively low, in general below μg per litre, it appeared that organic

  7. Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water of Kermanshah Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfooz Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical quality of drinking water has a direct impact on consumer health and fluoride, nitrite, nitrate, total dissolved solids compounds and pH are their important parameters that have closely relationship with community health. In many cases, source nitrate of water is due to agriculture activities, landfill sites and also potassium nitrate that used in the manufacture of glass, nitrite in form of sodium nitrite used as a food preservative too.

  8. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Rietveld; Borger, K.J.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; G. I. M. Worm

    2008-01-01

    For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a un...

  9. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the ?Water Security initiative (WSi).? The Cincinnati pilot has been f...

  10. Assessment of asbestos in drinking water in alexandria, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Gihan; Akel, Mekkawy

    2006-01-01

    Over the past several years, the presence of fibrous asbestos particulates has been observed in a number of municipal water supplies throughout the USA, Canada, and several other regions all over the world. The possible health hazards which these fibers present have spurred a great deal of interest in the problems of detection and removal of the submicroscopic particulates in water. Asbestos is a group of fibrous metamorphic silicate minerals that is ubiquitous in the environment as a result of its extensive industrial use and the dissemination of fibers from natural sources. The health hazards associated with inhalation of asbestos in the occupational environment have long been recognized including asbestosis, bronchial carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and possibly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and larynx. It is introduced into water by the dissolution of asbestos-containing minerals and ores, and from industrial effluents, atmospheric pollution and erosion of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water. In Alexandria, most of the pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water are asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe system. Drinking water samples (1 liter each) were collected in glass containers from different regions in Alexandria and filtered in cellulose filters (mixed cellulose ester type filters of pore size 0.2 mum) within less than 48 hours. Filters were allowed to dry, gold plated and scanned microscopically. Asbestos fibers were detected in all water samples collected from regions having A/C pipe drainage system. No fibers detected in regions, where the pipe distribution system was poly venyl pipe system or changed from A/C pipe to cast iron pipe system. The determination of asbestos fibers in drinking water of Alexandria should have particular concern because of the health hazards that might be associated with their presence.

  11. Pesticides in Drinking Water – The Brazilian Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Auria M. C.; Solano, Marize de L. M.; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the world largest pesticide consumer; therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of these chemicals in the water used by population. The Ministry of Health coordinates the National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program (Vigiagua) with the objective to monitor water quality. Water quality data are introduced in the program by state and municipal health secretariats using a database called Sisagua (Information System of Water Quality Monitoring). Brazilian drinking water norm (Ordinance 2914/2011 from Ministry of Health) includes 27 pesticide active ingredients that need to be monitored every 6 months. This number represents <10% of current active ingredients approved for use in the country. In this work, we analyzed data compiled in Sisagua database in a qualitative and quantitative way. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 169,000 pesticide analytical results were prepared and evaluated, although approximately 980,000 would be expected if all municipalities registered their analyses. This shows that only 9–17% of municipalities registered their data in Sisagua. In this dataset, we observed non-compliance with the minimum sampling number required by the norm, lack of information about detection and quantification limits, insufficient standardization in expression of results, and several inconsistencies, leading to low credibility of pesticide data provided by the system. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate exposure of total Brazilian population to pesticides via drinking water using the current national database system Sisagua. Lessons learned from this study could provide insights into the monitoring and reporting of pesticide residues in drinking water worldwide. PMID:26581345

  12. PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATER - THE BRAZILIAN MONITORING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auria Maria Cavalvante Barbosa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world largest pesticide consumer, therefore it is important to monitor the levels of these chemicals in the water used by population. The Ministry of Health coordinates the National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program (Vigiagua with the objective to monitor water quality. Water quality data are introduced in the program by state and municipal health secretariats using a database called Sisagua (Information System of Water Quality Monitoring. Brazilian drinking water norm (Ordinance 2914/2011 from Ministry of Health includes 27 pesticide active ingredients that need to be monitored every six months. This number represents less than 10% of current active ingredients approved for use in the country. In this work we analyzed data compiled in Sisagua database in a qualitative and quantitative way. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 169,000 pesticide analytical results were prepared and evaluated, although approximately 980,000 would be expected if all municipalities registered their analyses. This shows that only 9 to 17% of municipalities registered their data in Sisagua. In this dataset we observed noncompliance with the minimum sampling number required by the norm, lack of information about detection and quantification limits, insufficient standardization in expression of results, and several inconsistencies, leading to low credibility of pesticide data provided by the system. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate exposure of total Brazilian population to pesticides via drinking water using the current national database system Sisagua. Lessons learned from this study could provide insights into the monitoring and reporting of pesticide residues in drinking water worldwide.

  13. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H;

    2001-01-01

    was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.93). This indicates that good quality drinking water provides additional health benefits only when...... and have a continuous water supply for sanitation and hygiene. Irrigation water management clearly has an impact on health and bridging the gap between the irrigation and drinking water supply sectors could provide important health benefits by taking into account the domestic water availability when......BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...

  14. Bacterial community analysis of drinking water biofilms in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührig, Katharina; Canbäck, Björn; Paul, Catherine J; Johansson, Tomas; Persson, Kenneth M; Rådström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of the V1-V2 and V3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene generated a total of 674,116 reads that described six distinct bacterial biofilm communities from both water meters and pipes. A high degree of reproducibility was demonstrated for the experimental and analytical work-flow by analyzing the communities present in parallel water meters, the rare occurrence of biological replicates within a working drinking water distribution system. The communities observed in water meters from households that did not complain about their drinking water were defined by sequences representing Proteobacteria (82-87%), with 22-40% of all sequences being classified as Sphingomonadaceae. However, a water meter biofilm community from a household with consumer reports of red water and flowing water containing elevated levels of iron and manganese had fewer sequences representing Proteobacteria (44%); only 0.6% of all sequences were classified as Sphingomonadaceae; and, in contrast to the other water meter communities, markedly more sequences represented Nitrospira and Pedomicrobium. The biofilm communities in pipes were distinct from those in water meters, and contained sequences that were identified as Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Desulfovibrio, and Sulfuricurvum. The approach employed in the present study resolved the bacterial diversity present in these biofilm communities as well as the differences that occurred in biofilms within a single distribution system, and suggests that next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons can show changes in bacterial biofilm communities associated with different water qualities.

  15. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Wakasa area, Fukui Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuyama, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi [Fukui Prefectural Environmental Radiation Research and Monitoring Center, Tsuruga (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentration in drinking water was surveyed to make basic data for the investigation of radiation dose due to natural radioisotopes in the general public. Here, the survey data in the Wakasa region were reported. Sampling was carried out at 126 points in this region (ca. 70x50 km{sup 2}). A total of 167 samples were taken from the tap of private wells, and small and large public water supplies. The radon concentration was determined by direct measuring method. The mean concentration of ground water from the wells was 28.5 Bq/l, significantly higher than those of the tap water from small and large water supplies, 5.0 and 11.2 Bq/l, respectively. Rn concentration of ground water was dependent on geological features and it was comparatively high in the granite region. Ground water containing a high concentration of Rn was mixed into the water of some large water supply in the cities, showing that its Rn concentration was higher compared to those for the small water supply. This survey was conducted only in the winter seasons from 1989 to 1993. Therefore, there are no data concerning seasonal changes in Rn concentration to drinking water. (M.N.)

  16. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  17. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otto Schwake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.

  18. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Disease in Chile, California and Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Dauphine, David

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water. An ancient poison, arsenic occurs naturally in groundwater and geothermal springs. Removing arsenic from drinking water costs about $200 million every year in the United States alone. The brunt of this is borne by California and other western states, where groundwater is needed more for drinking water. Arsenic in drinking water causes cardiovascular death, cognitive deficits in children, reproductive problems, and cancer. Surprising...

  19. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Tox Town (Tox Town - National Library of Medicine) - Description of what agricultural runoff is and its hazardous effects on the environment. Commercially Bottled Water (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - Provides information about different types ...

  20. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  1. Dynamics of Biofilm Regrowth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Husband, S; Loza, V; Boxall, J

    2016-07-15

    The majority of biomass within water distribution systems is in the form of attached biofilm. This is known to be central to drinking water quality degradation following treatment, yet little understanding of the dynamics of these highly heterogeneous communities exists. This paper presents original information on such dynamics, with findings demonstrating patterns of material accumulation, seasonality, and influential factors. Rigorous flushing operations repeated over a 1-year period on an operational chlorinated system in the United Kingdom are presented here. Intensive monitoring and sampling were undertaken, including time-series turbidity and detailed microbial analysis using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results show that bacterial dynamics were influenced by differences in the supplied water and by the material remaining attached to the pipe wall following flushing. Turbidity, metals, and phosphate were the main factors correlated with the distribution of bacteria in the samples. Coupled with the lack of inhibition of biofilm development due to residual chlorine, this suggests that limiting inorganic nutrients, rather than organic carbon, might be a viable component in treatment strategies to manage biofilms. The research also showed that repeat flushing exerted beneficial selective pressure, giving another reason for flushing being a viable advantageous biofilm management option. This work advances our understanding of microbiological processes in drinking water distribution systems and helps inform strategies to optimize asset performance. This research provides novel information regarding the dynamics of biofilm formation in real drinking water distribution systems made of different materials. This new knowledge on microbiological process in water supply systems can be used to optimize the performance of the distribution network and to guarantee safe and good-quality drinking water to consumers. Copyright © 2016 Douterelo et al.

  2. Evaluation of drinking water treatment combined filter backwash water recycling technology based on comet and micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Xu, Yongpeng; Liu, Zhiquan; Zhu, Shijun; Shi, Wenxin; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-04-01

    Based on the fact that recycling of combined filter backwash water (CFBW) directly to drinking water treatment plants (WTP) is considered to be a feasible method to enhance pollutant removal efficiency, we were motivated to evaluate the genotoxicity of water samples from two pilot-scale drinking water treatment systems, one with recycling of combined backwash water, the other one with a conventional process. An integrated approach of the comet and micronucleus (MN) assays was used with zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate the water genotoxicity in this study. The total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), of the recycling process were lower than that of the conventional process. All the results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the conventional and recycling processes, and indicated that the genotoxicity of water samples from the recycling process did not accumulate in 15 day continuous recycling trial. It was worth noting that there was correlation between the concentrations of TOC, DOC, UV254, and THMFPs in water and the DNA damage score, with corresponding R(2) values of 0.68, 0.63, 0.28, and 0.64. Nevertheless, both DNA strand breaks and MN frequency of all water samples after disinfection were higher than that of water samples from the two treatment units, which meant that the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed by disinfection could increase the DNA damage. Both the comet and MN tests suggest that the recycling process did not increase the genotoxicity risk, compared to the traditional process.

  3. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  4. The corrosive nature of manganese in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Bastida, C. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Colón y Tollocan s/n, C.P. 50000, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Martínez-Miranda, V.; Vázquez-Mejía, G. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Solache-Ríos, M., E-mail: marcos.solache@inin.gob.mx [Departamento de Química, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandón, Delegación Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801 México, D.F. (Mexico); Fonseca-Montes de Oca, G. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Trujillo-Flores, E. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 50130, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion problems having to do with drinking water distribution systems are related to many processes and factors and two of them are ionic acidity and carbon dioxide, which were considered in this work. The corrosion character of water is determined by the corrosion indexes of Langelier, Ryznar, Larson, and Mojmir. The results show that pipes made of different materials, such as plastics or metals, are affected by corrosion, causing manganese to be deposited on materials and dissolved in water. The deterioration of the materials, the degree of corrosion, and the deposited corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. High levels of manganese and nitrate ions in water may cause serious damage to the health of consumers of water. Three wells were examined, one of them presented a high content of manganese; the others had high levels of nitrate ions, which increased the acidity of the water and, therefore, the amount of corrosion of the materials in the distribution systems. - Highlights: ► Corrosion of distribution systems affects the quality of drinking water. ► Corrosion in water distribution systems is related to acidity and carbon dioxide. ► Pipes are corroded and manganese is deposited on pipes and dissolved in water. ► The deterioration of the pipes and the corrosion products were determined. ► Nitrate ions increase the acidity of water in the wells.

  5. 76 FR 38158 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act,'' notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 300f et...

  6. 77 FR 34382 - Meetings of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meetings AGENCY.../conference call and one in-person meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The Council will consider various issues associated...

  7. 78 FR 61867 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... Safe Drinking Water Act On September 26, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent... pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 300g-3,300i of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA'') for violations at five public... operation of the PMU to ensure proper operation of the drinking water systems on the Reservation....

  8. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  9. 75 FR 70918 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act,'' notice is ] hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 300f et...

  10. 78 FR 65981 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The meeting is scheduled for December 11 and 12, 2013. This meeting of...

  11. 76 FR 22100 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee... Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Drinking Water Committee Augmented for the Review of... through drinking water results primarily from the corrosion of lead pipes and plumbing materials....

  12. 75 FR 30401 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... AGENCY RIN 2040-AE90 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards and Request for Public Comment and/or Information on Related... the public comment period for the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of...

  13. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water... research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013... research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. The...

  14. 78 FR 36183 - State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... AGENCY State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program AGENCY... Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the revised Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) allotments that... enacted. These allotments reflect the results from EPA's most recent Drinking Water Infrastructure...

  15. 76 FR 8674 - Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1 Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water... the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List 3. EPA recently announced its intentions to develop drinking water regulatory actions for perchlorate and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs)....

  16. 77 FR 52023 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This meeting was originally scheduled (and announced in a...

  17. 77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 29... the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f through 300j-26, including violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs''), at Lincoln Road RV Park, Inc.'s...

  18. 75 FR 35801 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act,'' notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 300f et...

  19. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water... underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of...

  20. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that pursuant to Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the... Aquifer System located in Kitsap County, Washington is the sole or principle source of drinking water...

  1. 78 FR 68838 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... candidates to be considered for a three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). The 15 member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...

  2. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List... contaminants for possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA is... information contact the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or email: hotline-sdwa@epa.gov ....

  3. 21 CFR 520.1696b - Penicillin G potassium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. 520....1696b Penicillin G potassium in drinking water. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. Turkeys—(1) Amount. 1,500,000 units per gallon drinking water...

  4. Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Non-Residential Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual demonstrates how drinking water in schools and non-residential buildings can be tested for lead and how contamination problems can be corrected when found. The manual also provides background information concerning the sources and health effects of lead, how lead gets into drinking water, how lead in drinking water is regulated, and…

  5. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  6. The new German drinking water directive; Die neue Trinkwasserverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell-Exner, C. [Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches - Technisch-wissenschatlicher Verein, Bonn (Germany); Seeliger, P. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Gas- und Wasserwirtschaft e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    With effect from 1 January 2003 the new German statutory instrument on drinking water will implement the EC drinking water directive as amended at the end of 1998 under national legislation. The paper presents drinking water quality requirements as set out in the draft statutory instrument and compares these with current provisions. The paper discusses in detail changes in quality standards (provisions concerning the preparation of untreated water with microbiological contamination, differentiation of chemical parameters according to their degradation in both public and domestic distribution systems, deletion of parameters not considered as health-relevant, introduction of so-called 'indicator parameters', etc.) and quality assurance (analysis methods and analysis agencies, monitoring, duties of the Public Health Office, responsibilities of owners of premises), as well as examining in depth legal aspects, such as premises where water is supplied for human consumption, measures in the event of noncompliance, notification and investigation obligations, point of compliance, criminal offences and non-criminal offences. (orig.)

  7. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  8. Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards. PMID:22216417

  9. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguerra, F.; Albrechtsen, H.; Binning, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method of Morris was employed to identify the dominant model parameters. Results showed that the presence of an aquitard and its characteristics (degree of fracturing and thickness), pollutant properties and well depth are the crucial factors affecting the risk of drinking water well contamination from surface water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model and observed data.

  10. High-throughput profiling of antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water treatment plants and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Like; Ouyang, Weiying; Qian, Yanyun; Su, Chao; Su, Jianqiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in surface water and often cannot be completely eliminated by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Improper elimination of the ARG-harboring microorganisms contaminates the water supply and would lead to animal and human disease. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to determine the most effective ways by which DWTPs can eliminate ARGs. Here, we tested water samples from two DWTPs and distribution systems and detected the presence of 285 ARGs, 8 transposases, and intI-1 by utilizing high-throughput qPCR. The prevalence of ARGs differed in the two DWTPs, one of which employed conventional water treatments while the other had advanced treatment processes. The relative abundance of ARGs increased significantly after the treatment with biological activated carbon (BAC), raising the number of detected ARGs from 76 to 150. Furthermore, the final chlorination step enhanced the relative abundance of ARGs in the finished water generated from both DWTPs. The total enrichment of ARGs varied from 6.4-to 109.2-fold in tap water compared to finished water, among which beta-lactam resistance genes displayed the highest enrichment. Six transposase genes were detected in tap water samples, with the transposase gene TnpA-04 showing the greatest enrichment (up to 124.9-fold). We observed significant positive correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the distribution systems, indicating that transposases and intI-1 may contribute to antibiotic resistance in drinking water. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the diversity and abundance of ARGs in drinking water treatment systems utilizing high-throughput qPCR techniques in China.

  11. IMPROVING CYANOBACTERIA AND CYANOTOXIN MONITORING IN SURFACE WATERS FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria in fresh water can cause serious threats to drinking water supplies. Managing cyanobacterial blooms particularly at small drinking water treatment plants is challenging. Because large amount of cyanobacteria may cause clogging in the treatment process and various cyanotoxins are hard to remove, while they may cause severe health problems. There is lack of instructions of what cyanobacteria/toxin amount should trigger what kind of actions for drinking water management except for Microcystins. This demands a Cyanobacteria Management Tool (CMT to help regulators/operators to improve cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin monitoring in surface waters for drinking water supply. This project proposes a CMT tool, including selecting proper indicators for quick cyanobacteria monitoring and verifying quick analysis methods for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin. This tool is suggested for raw water management regarding cyanobacteria monitoring in lakes, especially in boreal forest climate. In addition, it applies to regions that apply international WHO standards for water management. In Swedish context, drinking water producers which use raw water from lakes that experience cyanobacterial blooms, need to create a monitoring routine for cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin and to monitor beyond such as Anatoxins, Cylindrospermopsins and Saxitoxins. Using the proposed CMT tool will increase water safety at surface water treatment plants substantially by introducing three alerting points for actions. CMT design for each local condition should integrate adaptive monitoring program.

  12. ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

  13. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  14. Reproductive performance of artificially inseminated hens receiving saline drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Moreng, R E; Balnave, D

    1991-04-01

    Laying hens were selected at random and placed in individual cages in a commercial type layer shed. One hundred hens received town water and one hundred received town water supplemented with 2 g NaCl/L. Half the hens on each water treatment were inseminated every 7 days with mixed semen collected from six cockerels of a commercial table egg strain maintained on town water. The remaining hens were inseminated with semen from six cockerels receiving town water supplemented with 2 g NaCl/L. Eggs were collected and stored at 12 C over a 7-day period before eggs with defective shells were identified and removed. All remaining eggs were incubated and candled at 7 and 18 days of incubation to detect infertile eggs and embryonic deaths. Data from six consecutive hatches were analyzed. The incidence of eggs with defective shells doubled in hens receiving the saline drinking water. These hens had a significantly (twofold) higher incidence of embryonic deaths and a significantly lower (13%) hatchability of fertile eggs. For every 100 eggs laid the numbers of settable eggs and chicks hatched were significantly reduced in hens receiving the saline drinking water. The saline water reduced the numbers hatched by 20% for every 100 eggs laid. The water treatment given to the cockerels had little effect on reproductive performance.

  15. Estrogen-related receptor γ disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors.Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects.To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported.We used ERRγtwo-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRγ disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonisfic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT).Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes.Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction.Results showed that ERRγ antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found.When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 μg/L.In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRγ antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRγ antagonistic activity.The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRγ antagonists.To our knowledge,the occurrence of ERRγ disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously.It is vital, therefore,to increase our understanding of ERRγdisrupting activities in drinking water.

  16. Drinking water standard for tritium-what's the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, D C; Hoffman, F O

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an assessment of lifetime risks of cancer incidence associated with the drinking water standard for tritium established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); this standard is an annual-average maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 740 Bq L(-1). This risk assessment has several defining characteristics: (1) an accounting of uncertainty in all parameters that relate a given concentration of tritium in drinking water to lifetime risk (except the number of days of consumption of drinking water in a year and the number of years of consumption) and an accounting of correlations of uncertain parameters to obtain probability distributions that represent uncertainty in estimated lifetime risks of cancer incidence; (2) inclusion of a radiation effectiveness factor (REF) to represent an increased biological effectiveness of low-energy electrons emitted in decay of tritium compared with high-energy photons; (3) use of recent estimates of risks of cancer incidence from exposure to high-energy photons, including the dependence of risks on an individual's gender and age, in the BEIR VII report; and (4) inclusion of risks of incidence of skin cancer, principally basal cell carcinoma. By assuming ingestion of tritium in drinking water at the MCL over an average life expectancy of 80 y in females and 75 y in males, 95% credibility intervals of lifetime risks of cancer incidence obtained in this assessment are (0.35, 12) × 10(-4) in females and (0.30, 15) × 10(-4) in males. Mean risks, which are considered to provide the best single measure of expected risks, are about 3 × 10(-4) in both genders. In comparison, USEPA's point estimate of the lifetime risk of cancer incidence, assuming a daily consumption of drinking water of 2 L over an average life expectancy of 75.2 y and excluding an REF for tritium and incidence of skin cancer, is 5.6 × 10(-5). Probability distributions of annual equivalent doses to the whole body associated with the drinking

  17. Radioactivity in drinking water Radiactividad en aguas de consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Estrada Vélez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Directive on the quality of drinking water in 2003 establishing limits on the values of the radioactive parameters concerning the quality of drinking waters was translated to the Spanish legislation on 2003. These parameters are the gross alpha and beta indexes, tritium content and total indicative dose. The corresponding Spanish Royal Decree came into force in 2008. Not only tap drinking water is subjected to control of radioactivity but also commercial drinking water. Different estudies have been carried out all over the world in both cases. There is a wide range of techniques for the measurement of radioactivity in water. This article describes these techniques and shows when they must be applied. Finally the most important results obtained after analysis in tap water and commercial water are shown both in Spanish and non-Spanish waters. The results show that limits are overtaken in some cases and special care must be taken in order to reduce the levels of radioactivity in drinking water as much as possible.La directiva europea sobre calidad en el agua potable del año 2003 estableció los límites para los valores de los parámetros radiactivos. Esta directiva europea fue incorporada a la legislación 2003. Los parámetros a analizar son los índices alfa y beta total, el contenido en tritio y la dosis indicativa total. El correspondiente real decreto, en el caso de España, se comenzó a aplicar en el año 2008. No solamente el agua potable procedente de captaciones públicas está sujeta a control, sino que también se deben controlar las aguas comerciales. En ambos casos se han llevado a cabo estudios en todo el mundo. Existe un rango amplio de técnicas para la medida de la radiactividad en el agua de consumo. Este artículo describe tales técnicas e indica cuando se debe aplicar cada una de ellas. Por último, se muestran los resultados más importantes obtenidos tras el análisis de aguas potables y comerciales, tanto en

  18. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giorgio; Cavallotti, Ivan; Arnese, Antonio; Amiranda, Ciro; Anastasi, Daniela; Angelillo, Italo F

    2010-01-26

    Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and information about the date of installation, time since last ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of water coolers was collected. In all samples the chemical parameters (nitrite, ammonium, free active chlorine residual) did not exceed the reference values of the drinking water regulation; the pH value in 86.8% samples of the carbonated waters was lower than the reference limit. The microbiological results indicated that the bacteria count at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C was higher than the required values in 71% and 81% for the non-carbonated water and in 86% and 88% for the carbonated one, respectively. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the water samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in only one sample of the tap water and in 28.9% and 23.7% of the non-carbonated and carbonated water samples, respectively. No statistically significant differences in bacterial counts at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C have been found between the non-carbonated and carbonated water from the sampled coolers in relation with the time since the last filter was substituted. The bacteriological quality of tap water was superior to that of non-carbonated and carbonated water from coolers. The results emphasize the importance of adopting appropriate routinely monitoring system in order to prevent or to diminish the chances of contamination of this water source.

  19. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasi Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. Methods For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and information about the date of installation, time since last ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of water coolers was collected. Results In all samples the chemical parameters (nitrite, ammonium, free active chlorine residual did not exceed the reference values of the drinking water regulation; the pH value in 86.8% samples of the carbonated waters was lower than the reference limit. The microbiological results indicated that the bacteria count at 22°C and 37°C was higher than the required values in 71% and 81% for the non-carbonated water and in 86% and 88% for the carbonated one, respectively. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the water samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in only one sample of the tap water and in 28.9% and 23.7% of the non-carbonated and carbonated water samples, respectively. No statistically significant differences in bacterial counts at 22°C and 37°C have been found between the non-carbonated and carbonated water from the sampled coolers in relation with the time since the last filter was substituted. The bacteriological quality of tap water was superior to that of non-carbonated and carbonated water from coolers. Conclusion The results emphasize the importance of adopting appropriate routinely monitoring system in order to prevent or to diminish the chances of contamination of this water source.

  20. Water resources management in soft drink industry-water use and wastewater generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Hsine, E; Benhammou, A; Pons, M N

    2005-12-01

    Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimisation. In Morocco, water use in the food and drink industry is extensive at approximately 24 million m3 per year including 14% of drinking water in 1994. This study was conducted in a carbonate soft drink industry plant, during two years, 2001 and 2002. We have investigated the state of consumption and use of fresh water and the generation of the effluent in the factory. The aim of the study is to identify potential opportunities for reducing fresh water intake and minimising wastewater production by studying the posibility of reuse, recycling and treatment.

  1. Framework for Shared Drinking Water Risk Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Binning, David [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States); Meszaros, Jenny [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Central to protecting our nation's critical infrastructure is the development of methodologies for prioritizing action and supporting resource allocation decisions associated with risk-reduction initiatives. Toward this need a web-based risk assessment framework that promotes the anonymous sharing of results among water utilities is demonstrated. Anonymous sharing of results offers a number of potential advantages such as assistance in recognizing and correcting bias, identification of 'unknown, unknowns', self-assessment and benchmarking for the local utility, treatment of shared assets and/or threats across multiple utilities, and prioritization of actions beyond the scale of a single utility. The constructed framework was demonstrated for three water utilities. Demonstration results were then compared to risk assessment results developed using a different risk assessment application by a different set of analysts.

  2. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  3. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  4. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  5. Detecting Contaminated Drinking Water: Harnessing Consumer Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-10

    decrease in the flavor intensity. If a toxicant is injected into the water, it is likely that the FAC concentration will decrease. This change may be...Sharp, pungent , irritating Colorless No Free chlorine Astringent Chlorinous Colorless No Hydrogen cyanide* Bitter, metallic Almond, peach kernels... Pungent , hydrocarbon Varies Yes Sewage Salty Septic Gary, brown Yes Soman Not reported Fruity, camphor Colorless No Sulfur mustard Not reported

  6. Measurement of Lead In Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    GF-AA exist the PSA measurements always fall between. These results indicate that within experimental error field measurement using PSA will give...District which uses ground water as a source. In Figure 7 a single sample was measured nineteen times, the relative standard deviation of all... measured nineteen times. The relative standard deviation for this data set is 3.17%. Correlation PSA vs GFAA R2 = 0.9502 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

  7. Drinking Water Dashboard Help | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  8. Taste and odour issues in South Korea's drinking water industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, B U; Shin, H S; Choi, J J

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews taste and odour (T&O) issues of South Korea's water industry. For this purpose, an overview of the water supply systems and drinking water standards is presented and some results from citizen surveys for customer satisfaction are included. A case study is presented in which the water intake was shifted from inside a main reservoir to a downstream location due to T&O problems. It is true that the South Korean water industry has long relied on the tolerance of consumers for periodic T&O events. Recently the South Korean water industry has become aware that the T&O problems are at the centre of consumers' concerns and has taken several positive approaches. These include monitoring T&O events using sensory and instrumental methods, installation of a baffled-channel PAC contactor and application of advanced water treatment processes.

  9. A cross-omics toxicological evaluation of drinking water treated with different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Jia, Shuyu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Zhao, Fuzheng; Chen, Yajun; Zhou, Qing; Cheng, Shupei; Li, Ai-Min

    2014-04-30

    Cross-omics profiling and phenotypic analysis were conducted to comprehensively assess the toxicities of source of drinking water (SDW), effluent of conventional treatment (ECT) and effluent of advanced treatment (EAT) in a water treatment plant. SDW feeding increased body weight, and relative liver and kidney weights of mice. Hepatic histopathological damages and serum biochemical alterations were observed in the mice fed with SDW and ECT, but EAT feeding showed no obvious effects. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that exposure to water samples caused differential expression of hundreds of genes in livers. Cluster analysis of the differentially expressed genes which generated by both microarrays and digital gene expression showed similar grouping patterns. Proteomic and metabolomics analyses indicated that drinking SDW, ECT and EAT generated 59, 145 and 41 significantly altered proteins in livers and 8, 2 and 0 altered metabolites in serum, respectively. SDW was found to affect several metabolic pathways including metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 and fatty acid metabolism. SDW and ECT might induce molecular toxicities to mice, but the advanced treatment process can reduce the potential health risk by effectively removing toxic chemicals in drinking water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Manganese-oxidizing and -reducing microorganisms isolated from biofilms in chlorinated drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, José M; Falkinham, Joseph O; Dietrich, Andrea M; Knocke, William R; McKinney, Chad W; Pruden, Amy

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of chemical, physical and biological factors that affect the fate, transport and redox cycling of manganese in engineered drinking water systems is not clearly understood. This research investigated the presence of Mn-oxidizing and -reducing bacteria in conventional water treatment plants exposed to different levels of chlorine. Mn(II)-oxidizing and Mn(IV)-reducing bacteria, principally Bacillus spp., were isolated from biofilm samples recovered from four separate drinking water systems. Rates of Mn-oxidation and -reduction for selected individual isolates were represented by pseudo-first-order kinetics. Pseudo-first-order rate constants were obtained for Mn-oxidation (range: 0.106-0.659 days(-1)), aerobic Mn-reduction (range: 0.036-0.152 days(-1)), and anaerobic Mn-reduction (range: 0.024-0.052 days(-1)). The results indicate that microbial-catalyzed Mn-oxidation and -reduction (aerobic and anaerobic) can take place simultaneously in aqueous environments exposed to considerable oxygen and chlorine levels and thus affect Mn-release and -deposition in drinking water systems. This has important implications for Mn-management strategies, which typically assume Mn-reduction is not possible in the presence of chlorine and oxidizing conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drinking water in Michigan: source, quality, and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Vincent R

    2006-01-01

    The Michigan Safe Drinking Water Act (Act 399) was enacted in 1976 and enables the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to maintain the state's authority over drinking water in the state. The DEQ also contracts with local health departments to maintain non-community programs in each county. Private water wells throughout the state are clearly the most troublesome for users and regulators. An abundant array of contaminants (e.g., pesticides, metals, etc.) may impact wells without the user's knowledge. Most private wells are only inspected when they are installed and have no further regulatory requirements. With regards to contaminants in public systems, lead is problematic. Irregardless of the source or treatment, the piping infrastructure leading to and inside the home can be a source affecting the quality. Thus, the problem of lead in drinking water can be from the service lines, the pipes inside the home, the solder connecting the pipes, or in some case the treatment chemicals used for disinfection.

  12. Drinking Water Salinity and Raised Blood Pressure: Evidence from a Cohort Study in Coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline FD; Chowdhury, Muhammad A H; Haines, Andy; Alam, Dewan S; Hoque, Mohammad A; Butler, Adrian P; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh K; Blangiardo, Marta A G; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2017-05-30

    Millions of coastal inhabitants in Southeast Asia have been experiencing increasing sodium concentrations in their drinking-water sources, likely partially due to climate change. High (dietary) sodium intake has convincingly been proven to increase risk of hypertension; it remains unknown, however, whether consumption of sodium in drinking water could have similar effects on health. We present the results of a cohort study in which we assessed the effects of drinking-water sodium (DWS) on blood pressure (BP) in coastal populations in Bangladesh. DWS, BP, and information on personal, lifestyle, and environmental factors were collected from 581 participants. We used generalized linear latent and mixed methods to model the effects of DWS on BP and assessed the associations between changes in DWS and BP when participants experienced changing sodium levels in water, switched from "conventional" ponds or tube wells to alternatives [managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and rainwater harvesting] that aimed to reduce sodium levels, or experienced a combination of these changes. DWS concentrations were highly associated with BP after adjustments for confounding factors. Furthermore, for each 100 mg/L reduction in sodium in drinking water, systolic/diastolic BP was lower on average by 0.95/0.57 mmHg, and odds of hypertension were lower by 14%. However, MAR did not consistently lower sodium levels. DWS is an important source of daily sodium intake in salinity-affected areas and is a risk factor for hypertension. Considering the likely increasing trend in coastal salinity, prompt action is required. Because MAR showed variable effects, alternative technologies for providing reliable, safe, low-sodium fresh water should be developed alongside improvements in MAR and evaluated in "real-life" salinity-affected settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP659.

  13. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network

    KAUST Repository

    El Chakhtoura, Joline

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic.

  14. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline; Prest, Emmanuelle; Saikaly, Pascal; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Hammes, Frederik; Vrouwenvelder, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of microsporidia in drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Fernando; Castro Hermida, José Antonio; Fenoy, Soledad; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; del Aguila, Carmen

    2011-10-15

    Diarrhea is the main health problem caused by human-related microsporidia, and waterborne transmission is one of the main risk factors for intestinal diseases. Recent studies suggest the involvement of water in the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis. However, studies related to the presence of microsporidia in different types of waters from countries where human microsporidiosis has been described are still scarce. Thirty-eight water samples from 8 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), 8 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 6 recreational river areas (RRAs) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been analyzed. One hundred liters of water from DWTPs and 50 L of water from WWTPs and RRAs were filtered to recover parasites, using the IDEXX Filta-Max® system. Microsporidian spores were identified by Weber's stain and positive samples were analyzed by PCR, using specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon hellem. Microsporidia spores were identified by staining protocols in eight samples (21.0%): 2 from DWTPs, 5 from WWTPs, and 1 from an RRA. In the RRA sample, the microsporidia were identified as E. intestinalis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human-pathogenic microsporidia in water samples from DWTPs, WWTPs and RRAs in Spain. These observations add further evidence to support that new and appropriate control and regulations for drinking, wastewater, and recreational waters should be established to avoid health risks from this pathogen.

  16. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  17. Data analytics methodology for monitoring quality sensors and events in the Barcelona drinking water network

    OpenAIRE

    García Valverde, Diego; Creus Rodriguez, Ramon; Minoves Ruiz, Meritxell; Pardo, Xavier; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    Water quality management is a key area to guarantee drinking water safety to users. This task is based on disinfection techniques, such as chlorination, applied to the drinking water network to prevent the growth of microorganisms present in the water. The continuous monitoring of water quality parameters is fundamental to assess the sanitary conditions of the drinking water and to detect unexpected events. The whole process is based on the assumption that the information retrieved from quali...

  18. Contamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    Mompelat, S.; Thomas, Olivier; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The occurrence of 20 human pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites from 10 representative therapeutic classes was analysed from resource and drinking water in two catchment basins located in north-west France. 98 samples were analysed from 63 stations (surface water and drinking water produced from surface water). Of the 20 human pharmaceutical compounds selected, 16 were quantified in both the surface water and drinking water, with 22% of the values above the limit o...

  19. [Study on the optimization of monitoring indicators of drinking water quality during health supervision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; E, Xueli; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    To optimize non-regular drinking water quality indices (except Giardia and Cryptosporidium) of urban drinking water. Several methods including drinking water quality exceed the standard, the risk of exceeding standard, the frequency of detecting concentrations below the detection limit, water quality comprehensive index evaluation method, and attribute reduction algorithm of rough set theory were applied, redundancy factor of water quality indicators were eliminated, control factors that play a leading role in drinking water safety were found. Optimization results showed in 62 unconventional water quality monitoring indicators of urban drinking water, 42 water quality indicators could be optimized reduction by comprehensively evaluation combined with attribute reduction of rough set. Optimization of the water quality monitoring indicators and reduction of monitoring indicators and monitoring frequency could ensure the safety of drinking water quality while lowering monitoring costs and reducing monitoring pressure of the sanitation supervision departments.

  20. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  1. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    methods are vital for an improved surveillance and distribution of clean and safe drinking water. One of these rapid methods is the ATP assay. This thesis encompasses various methodological aspects of the ATP assay describing the principal and theory of the ATP assay measurement. ATP is the main energy...... carrying molecule in living cells, thus ATP can be used as a parameter for microbial activity. ATP is extracted from cells through cell lysis and subsequently assayed with the luciferase enzyme and its substrate luciferin, resulting in bioluminescence, i.e. light emission which can be quantified....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate various methodological features of the ATP assay for a potential implementation on a sensor platform as a real-time parameter for continuous on-line monitoring of microbial drinking water quality. Commercial reagents are commonly used to determine ATP...

  2. Drinking water and biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, F; Madeira, L M; Juhna, T; Block, J C

    2013-10-01

    A Fenton-like disinfection process was conducted with Fenton's reagent (H2O2) at pH 3 or 5 on autochthonous drinking water biofilms grown on corroded or non-corroded pipe material. The biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like oxidation was limited by the low content of iron and copper in the biomass grown on non-corroded plumbing. It was slightly improved by spiking the distribution system with some additional iron source (soluble iron II or ferrihydrite particles appeared as interesting candidates). However successful in situ disinfection of biofilms was only achieved in fully corroded cast iron pipes using H2O2 and adjusting the pH to 5. These new results provide additional support for the use of Fenton's processes for cleaning drinking water distribution systems contaminated with biological agents or organics.

  3. Exposure assessment of natural uranium from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Rajan; Mehra, Rohit; Mittal, H M

    2016-12-08

    The uranium concentration in the drinking water of the residents of the Jaipur and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan has been measured for exposure assessment. The daily intake of uranium from the drinking water for the residents of the study area is found to vary from 0.4 to 123.9 μg per day. For the average uranium ingestion rate of 35.2 μg per day for a long term exposure period of 60 years, estimations have been made for the retention of uranium in different body organs and its excretion with time using ICRP's biokinetic model of uranium. Radioactive and chemical toxicity of uranium has been reported and discussed in detail in the present manuscript.

  4. Radon Concentration in the Drinking Water of Aliabad Katoul, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinehvand, Karim; Sahebnasagh, Amin; Hashemi-Tilehnoee, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the world health organization, radon is a leading cause of cancer in various internal organs and should be regarded with concern. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentration of soluble radon in the drinking water of the city of Aliabad Katoul, Iran. Materials and Methods The radon concentration was measured by using a radon meter, SARADTM model RTM 1688-2, according to accepted standards of evaluation. Results The mean radon concentration in the drinking water of Aliabad Katoul is 2.90 ± 0.57 Bq/L. Conclusions The radon concentration in Aliabad Katoul is below the limit for hazardous levels, but some precautions will make conditions even safer for the local populace. PMID:27651948

  5. Investigating aftergrowth potential of polymers in drinking water – the effect of water replacement and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    no significant effect on the aftergrowth potential of the water. The background biomass production could be affected by the choice of caps for the test bottles, since ‘blue caps’ of polyethylene leached significant amounts of AOCP17 compared to ‘red caps’ containing teflon inlayers. There was no or only slightly......The aftergrowth potential of polymers used in drinking water distribution was investigated by a batch set-up, where test pieces were incubated in biostable, inorganic nutrient amended drinking water inoculated with surface water. Biomass production was measured as ATP and followed over 16 weeks...... in the water phase and on the material surface. Supplementary measurements of HPC and NVOC were applied when investigating the biostability within the test system, and the effect of water replacement and temperature. Addition of inorganic nutrients and inoculum to the biostable drinking water had...

  6. [Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorp, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5 µg/L. The maximum level was 14 µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur.

  7. Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2014-01-01

    Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy.

  8. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations over 500 μg L−1, causes death in 1 in 10 adults. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is currently confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Serbia, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are mostly lower than the European drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it is concluded that at this level health risks cannot be excluded. As consumers in European countries expect the drinking water to be of impeccable quality, it is recommended that water supply companies optimize arsenic removal to a level of <1 μg L−1, which is technically feasible.

  9. Forecasting Drinking and Household Water Requirement of the Thrace Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Konukcu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at future forecasting drinking and household water requirements of the Thrace region by the aid of a scientific perspective. To realise this, first future population of the region was predicted and then the water requirements were calculated. As results, water requirements of the city and the countryside for the years 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 were computed as 1.45, 1.94, 2.58 and 3.44 km3, respectively. Beside, rapidly increasing drinking and household water requirements due to fast population growth and immense amount of migration into the region, demands by agriculture and intensive industry suggest that the present total water potential of about 4.0 km3 will not be sufficient and a great water crisis may be experienced. Adverse effects of a probable global climate change on water resources make the situation more acute. To overcome this crisis, governmental agencies and civil societies are called work together to produce and implement rational strategies.

  10. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard.

  11. Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI LU; XIAO-JIAN ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To define the influence of some parameters, including assimilable organic carbon (AOC), chloramine residual, etc. on the bacterial growth in drinking water distribution systems. Methods Three typical water treatment plants in a northern city (City T) of China and their corresponding distribution systems were investigated. Some parameters of the water samples, such as heterotrophic plate content (HPC), AOC, CODMn, TOC, and phosphate were measured. Results The AOC in most water samples were more than 100 μg/L, or even more than 200 μg/L in some cases. The HPC in distribution systems increased significantly with the decrease of residual chlorine. When the residual chlorine was less than 0.1 mg/L, the magnitude order of HPC was 104 CFU/mL; when it was 0.5-0.7 mg/L, the HPC was about 500 CFU/mL. Conclusion For controlling the biostability of drinking water, the controlling of AOC and residual chlorine should be considered simultaneously. The influence of phosphors on the AOC tests of water is not significant. Phosphors may not be the limiting nutrient in the water distribution systems.

  12. Politics and Public Health: The Flint Drinking Water Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2016-07-01

    The Flint, Michigan, lead drinking water crisis is perhaps the most vivid current illustration of health inequalities in the United States. Since 2014, Flint citizens-among the poorest in America, mostly African American-had complained that their tap water was foul and discolored. But city, state, and federal officials took no heed. In March 2016, an independent task force found fault at every level of government and also highlighted what may amount to criminal negligence for workers who seemingly falsified water-quality results, allowing the people of Flint to continue to be exposed to water well above the federally allowed lead levels. It would have been possible to prevent lead seeping into the drinking water by treating the pipes with federally approved anticorrosives for around $100 per day. But today the cost of repairing the Flint water system is estimated at $1.5 billion, and fixing the ageing and lead-laden system across the United States would cost at least $1.3 trillion. How will Flint residents get justice and fair compensation for the wrongs caused by individual and systemic failures? And how will governments rebuild a water infrastructure that is causing and will continue to cause toxic conditions, particularly in economically marginalized cities and towns across America?

  13. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Luby, SP; Halder, AK; Huda, TM; Unicomb, L; Islam, MS; Arnold, BF; Johnston, RB

    2015-01-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every...

  14. Tracks FAQs: What Chemicals Are In My Drinking Water?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-10

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how you can use the Tracking Network to determine what chemicals are in your drinking water. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 8/10/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 8/10/2011.

  15. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; Almeida, André; González-Warleta, Marta; Correia Da Costa, José Manuel; Mezo, Mercedes

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the influent and final effluent of sixteen drinking water treatment plants located in a hydrographic basin in Galicia (NW Spain) - in which the principal river is recognised as a Site of Community Importance (SCI) - estimate the efficiency of treatment plants in removing these protozoans and determine the species and genotypes of the parasites by means of a molecular assay. All plant samples of influent and final effluent (50-100 l) were examined in the spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2007. A total of 128 samples were analysed by method 1623, developed by US Environmental Protection Agency for isolation and detection of both parasites. To identify the genotypes present the following genes were amplified and sequenced: 18S SSU rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp.) and b-giardina (G. duodenalis). The mean concentrations of parasites in the influent were 0.0-10.5 Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre and 1.0-12.8 of G. duodenalis cysts per litre. In the final treated effluent, the mean concentration of parasites ranged from 0.0-3.0 oocysts per litre and 0.5-4.0 cysts per litre. The distribution of results by season revealed that in all plants, the highest numbers of (oo)cysts were recorded in spring and summer. Cryptosporidium parvum, C. andersoni, C. hominis and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were detected. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were consistently found at high concentrations in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in the hydrographic basin under study, in Galicia (NW Spain). It is important that drinking water treatment authorities rethink the relevance of contamination levels of both parasites in drinking water and develop adequate countermeasures.

  16. World Health Organization discontinues its drinking-water guideline for manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Dustin, Hannah; Maynard, Donald M; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in July 2011. In this edition, the 400-µg/L drinking-water guideline for manganese (Mn) was discontinued with the assertion that because "this health-based value is well above concentrations of manganese normally found in drinking water, it is not considered necessary to derive a formal guideline value." In this commentary, we review the WHO guideline for Mn in drinking water--from its introduction in 1958 through its discontinuation in 2011. For the primary references, we used the WHO publications that documented the Mn guidelines. We used peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, published conference proceedings, and theses to identify countries with drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies exceeding 400 µg/L Mn and peer-reviewed journal articles to summarize the health effects of Mn. Drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies with Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L are found in a substantial number of countries worldwide. The drinking water of many tens of millions of people has Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L. Recent research on the health effects of Mn suggests that the earlier WHO guideline of 400 µg/L may have been too high to adequately protect public health. The toxic effects and geographic distribution of Mn in drinking-water supplies justify a reevaluation by the WHO of its decision to discontinue its drinking-water guideline for Mn.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: assessment of risk from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardalo, C; Edberg, S C

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous environmental bacterium. It can be recovered, often in high numbers, in common food, especially vegetables. Moreover, it can be recovered in low numbers in drinking water. A small percentage of clones of P. aeruginosa possesses the required number of virulence factors to cause infection. However, P. aeruginosa will not proliferate on normal tissue but requires previously organs. Further narrowing the risk to human health is that only certain specific hosts are at risk, including patients with profound neutropenia, cystic fibrosis, severe burns, and those subject to foreign device installation. Other than these very well-defined groups, the general population is refractory to infection with P. aeruginosa. Because of its ubiquitous nature, it is not only not practical to eliminate P. aeruginosa from our food and drinking water, but attempts to do so would produce disinfection byproducts more hazardous than the species itself. Moreover, because there is no readily available sensitive and specific means to detect and identify P. aeruginosa available in the field, any potential regulation governing its control would not have a defined laboratory test measure of outcome. Accordingly, attempts to regulate P. aeruginosa in drinking water would not yield public health protection benefits and could, in fact, be counterproductive in this regard.

  18. The efficiency of a membrane bioreactor in drinking water denitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovič Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The membrane bioreactor (MBR system was investigated regarding its nitrate removal capacity from drinking water. The performance of a pilot-scale MBR was tested, depending on the operational parameters, using sucrose as a carbon source. Drinking water from the source was introduced into the reactor in order to study the influence of flow-rate on the nitrate removal and denitrification efficiency of drinking water. The content of the nitrate was around 70 mg/L and the C/N ratio was 3:1. Nitrate removal efficiencies above 90% were obtained by flow-rates lower than 4.8 L/h. The specific denitrification rates varied between 0.02 and 0.16 g/L NO3/ (g/L MLSS•d. The efficiencies and nitrate removal were noticeably affected by the flow-rate and hydraulic retention times. At the maximum flow-rate of 10.2 L/h still 68% of the nitrate had been removed, whilst the highest specific denitrification rate was achieved at 0.2738 g/L NO3/ (g/L MLSS•d. The maximum reactor removal capacity was calculated at 8.75 g NO3/m3•h.

  19. Function of Serum Complement in Drinking Water Arsenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila N. Islam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum complement function was evaluated in 125 affected subjects suffering from drinking water arsenic toxicity. Their mean duration of exposure was 7.4±5.3 yrs, and the levels of arsenic in drinking water and urine samples were 216±211 and 223±302 μg/L, respectively. The mean bactericidal activity of complement from the arsenic patients was 92% and that in the unexposed controls was 99% (P<0.01, but heat-inactivated serum showed slightly elevated activity than in controls. In patients, the mean complement C3 was 1.56 g/L, and C4 was 0.29 g/L compared to 1.68 g/L and 0.25 g/L, respectively, in the controls. The mean IgG in the arsenic patients was 24.3 g/L that was highly significantly elevated (P<0.001. Arsenic patients showed a significant direct correlation between C3 and bactericidal activity (P=0.014. Elevated levels of C4 indicated underutilization and possibly impaired activity of the classical complement pathway. We conclude reduced function of serum complement in drinking water arsenic toxicity.

  20. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  1. Removal of Chloroform (CHCl3 from Tehran Drinking Water by GAC and Air Stripping Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Samadi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, M R Alizadefard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful substances, defined as trihalomethanes (THMs, were found to be formed during the disinfection of drinking water when chlorine was used as the disinfectant. In this research, the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC and air stripping (AS packed column for the removal of chloroform (CHCl3 (as THMs basic indicator compound in many resources in range of 50 to300µg/L, from drinking water was studied. Pilots of GAC and air stripping columns were designed and set up. The study was carried out for the two cases of deionized and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Also the effects of flow rate, chloroform and TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems. Gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD was used for determination of chloroform concentration in inlet and outlet samples. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate and chloroform concentration, and removal efficiencies. The average of variations of removal efficiencies for AS and GAC columns with deionized water samples were, 89.9%, 71.2% and for chlorinated Tehran tap water were 91.2% and 76.4%, respectively. The removal of feed residual chlorine in these columns with 0.5, 0.8 ppm was 100%, respectively and re-chlorination for finishing water was recommended. Results showed AS to be considered more effective in chloroform removal for conventional water treatment plants as a finishing process.

  2. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tiejun; Yu, Zhengrong; Zhang, Xihui; Au, Doris W T

    2011-11-01

    Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water was investigated in southern China. Fifteen and twelve PPCPs were detected with concentrations of 0-36 ng L(-1) in source water and of 0-20 ng L(-1) in treated water, respectively. Four PPCPs were detected with concentrations of approximately 1 ng L(-1) in drinking water of distribution network. Conventional water treatment processes removed the types and average concentrations of PPCPs by 30% and above 50%, respectively. Advanced water treatment processes were more efficient in the removal of most PPCPs, with the types and concentrations reduced by 50% and approximately 90%, respectively. Molecular properties of PPCPs had an important influence on their behaviors during water treatment. pK(a) (acidity coefficient) and K(oc) (organic carbon partition coefficient) of PPCPs appeared to have a combined effect on PPCPs removal during coagulation and oxidation. Adsorption and biodegradation were two possible mechanisms responsible for PPCPs removal during sand filtration.

  3. Physicochemical and microbiological assessment of recreational and drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra; Tripathi, Vinayak R; Garg, Satyendra K

    2012-05-01

    The present study was aimed to make an assessment of health risk due to pollution and human pathogenic bacteria associated with the recreational and drinking water sources in twin densely populated holy Indian cities Ayodhya and Faizabad. Though physicochemical studies revealed that the water available in the area is under recommended limits for human use, it is unsafe on account of poor microbiological quality of surface and ground water in the region. The most probable number (MPN) test results revealed the preponderance of ≥2,400 total coliforms (TC) (100 ml)(-1) in river, pond, dug well and kund waters. Contrary to that, 94% tube wells, 32% hand pumps and 25% piped supply water were under safe limits having water logging and presence of septic tanks in the near vicinity are the possible reasons of poor microbial quality of hand pump drinking water. The municipal supply water passes along sewage line where loose connections and/or cracks in pipe lead to mixing and contamination. The significant best quality of tube well water evident from the absence of TC could be attributed to the depth of well ≥150 ft and usually their location away from the habitation. A total of 263 bacteria from 186 water samples were isolated, and at least five genera of enteric bacteria from various water sources were identified morphologically and biochemically as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Shigella sp. and Salmonella sp. The serotyping of 72 E. coli and 36 Salmonella sp. revealed 51 as E. coli O157 and 20 as Salmonella sp. The presence of enteric pathogens in water sources pose threat to human health and therefore call for immediate remedial measures.

  4. Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mehrunisa; Soomro, Mohammed Saleh; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Memon, Kazi Suleman

    2011-06-01

    The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts of Thatta, Badin, and Thar by measuring physical, chemical, and biological (total coliform) quality parameters. All four water bodies (dug wells, shallow pumps canal water, and water supply schemes) exceeded WHO MPL for turbidity (24%, 28%, 96%, 69%), coliform (96%, 77%, 92%, 81%), and electrical conductivity (100%, 99%, 44%, 63%), respectively. However, the turbidity was lower in underground water, i.e., 24% and 28% in dug wells and shallow pumps as compared to open water, i.e., 96% and 69% in canal and water supply schemes, respectively. In dug wells and shallow pumps, limits for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, and sodium exceeded, respectively, by 63% and 33%; 59% and 70%, 40% and 27%, and 78% and 26%. Sodium was major problem in dug wells and shallow pumps of district Thar and considerable percent in shallow pumps of Badin. Iron was major problem in all water bodies of district Badin ranging from 50% to 69% and to some extent in open waters of Thatta. Other parameters as pH, copper, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus were within standard permissible limits of World Health Organization. Some common diseases found in the study area were gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting, kidney, and skin problems.

  5. Leaching of heavy metals from water bottle components into the drinking water of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals.

  6. Chemical and Physical Indicators in Drinking Water and Water Sources of Boroujerd Using Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi , M. (MSC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Quality control of drinking water is important for maintaining health and safety of consumers, and the first step is to study the water quality variables. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical indicators, water quality variables and qualitative classification of drinking water stations and water sources in Boroujerd. Material and Methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was conducted on 70 samples of drinking water and 10 samples from sources in 2011-2012. Nine Water quality variables were measured and coded using STATISTICA10 Software. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed for qualitative classification of water samples and determination of water quality variables. Results: Based on PCA, chemical variables such as fluoride, nitrate, total hardness and iron, and physical variables such as pH and TDS were paramount importance to water quality. According to T-test, the average concentration of fluoride and iron, and the turbidity in all samples were significantly less than the standard. But other variables were up to standard. Conclusion: For the large water quality data, the use of PCA to identify the main qualitative variables and to classify physical and chemical variables can be used as an effective way in water quality management. Keywords: Physical and Chemical Indicators, Drinking Water and Sources, Boroujerd, Principal Component Analysis

  7. Drinking water biofilm cohesiveness changes under chlorination or hydrodynamic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, L; Bertrand, I; Abe, Y; Angel, E; Block, J C; Skali-Lami, S; Francius, G

    2014-05-15

    Attempts at removal of drinking water biofilms rely on various preventive and curative strategies such as nutrient reduction in drinking water, disinfection or water flushing, which have demonstrated limited efficiency. The main reason for these failures is the cohesiveness of the biofilm driven by the physico-chemical properties of its exopolymeric matrix (EPS). Effective cleaning procedures should break up the matrix and/or change the elastic properties of bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the cohesive strength of two-month-old drinking water biofilms under increasing hydrodynamic shear stress τw (from ∼0.2 to ∼10 Pa) and shock chlorination (applied concentration at T0: 10 mg Cl2/L; 60 min contact time). Biofilm erosion (cell loss per unit surface area) and cohesiveness (changes in the detachment shear stress and cluster volumes measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM)) were studied. When rapidly increasing the hydrodynamic constraint, biofilm removal was found to be dependent on a dual process of erosion and coalescence of the biofilm clusters. Indeed, 56% of the biofilm cells were removed with, concomitantly, a decrease in the number of the 50-300 μm(3) clusters and an increase in the number of the smaller (i.e., 600 μm(3)) ones. Moreover, AFM evidenced the strengthening of the biofilm structure along with the doubling of the number of contact points, NC, per cluster volume unit following the hydrodynamic disturbance. This suggests that the compactness of the biofilm exopolymers increases with hydrodynamic stress. Shock chlorination removed cells (-75%) from the biofilm while reducing the volume of biofilm clusters. Oxidation stress resulted in a decrease in the cohesive strength profile of the remaining drinking water biofilms linked to a reduction in the number of contact points within the biofilm network structure in particular for the largest biofilm cluster volumes (>200 μm(3)). Changes in the cohesive

  8. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Provisions § 144.7 Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. (a) The..., except where exempted under paragraph (b) of this section, as an underground source of drinking...

  9. Drinking water treatment for a rural karst region in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, K.; Schott, C.; Anggraini, A. K.; Silva, A.; Diedel, R.; Mühlebach, H.; Fuchs, S.; Obst, U.; Brenner-Weiss, G.

    2016-09-01

    An interdisciplinary German-Indonesian joint research project on Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted technologies to improve the water supply situation in a model karst region in southern Java. The project involving 19 sub-projects covers exploration of water resources, water extraction, distribution as well as water quality assurance, and waste water treatment. For the water quality assurance, an appropriate and sustainable drinking water treatment concept was developed and exemplarily implemented. Monitoring results showed that the main quality issue was the contamination with hygienically relevant bacteria. Based on the gained results, a water treatment concept was developed consisting of a central sand filtration prior to the distribution network, a semi-central hygienization where large water volumes are needed to remove bacteria deriving from water distribution and a final point-of-use water treatment. This paper focuses on the development of a central sand filtration plant and some first analysis for the development of a recipe for the local production of ceramic filters for household water treatment. The first results show that arsenic and manganese are leaching from the filters made of local raw material. Though discarding the first, filtrates should be sufficient to reduce arsenic and manganese concentration effectively. Moreover, hydraulic conductivities of filter pots made of 40 % pore-forming agents are presented and discussed.

  10. Following the water: a controlled study of drinking water storage in northern coastal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2008-11-01

    To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important.

  11. Detection of zinc oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles during drinking water treatment by rapid single particle ICP-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering water systems are an emerging concern as NPs are more frequently manufactured and used. Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) methods were validated to detect Zn- and Ce-containing NPs in surface and drinking water using a short dwell time of 0.1 ms or lower, ensuring precision in single particle detection while eliminating the need for sample preparation. Using this technique, information regarding NP size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved ion concentrations was obtained simultaneously. The fates of Zn- and Ce-NPs, including those found in river water and added engineered NPs, were evaluated by simulating a typical drinking water treatment process. Lime softening, alum coagulation, powdered activated carbon sorption, and disinfection by free chlorine were simulated sequentially using river water. Lime softening removed 38-53 % of Zn-containing and ZnO NPs and >99 % of Ce-containing and CeO2 NPs. Zn-containing and ZnO NP removal increased to 61-74 % and 77-79 % after alum coagulation and disinfection, respectively. Source and drinking water samples were collected from three large drinking water treatment facilities and analyzed for Zn- and Ce-containing NPs. Each facility had these types of NPs present. In all cases, particle concentrations were reduced by a minimum of 60 % and most were reduced by >95 % from source water to finished drinking water. This study concludes that uncoated ZnO and CeO2 NPs may be effectively removed by conventional drinking water treatments including lime softening and alum coagulation.

  12. [KEEPING THE ELECTRON-DONOR PROPERTIES OF DRINKING WATER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, K K; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V; Sul'ina, Iu S

    2015-01-01

    In a study there was performed the experimental evaluation of long-term structural--physical changes of the phase of associated water in drinking water treated in hypomagnetic conditions according to the the technology providing the retention of of ortho/para isomers of water in the presence of a catalyst--triplet oxygen. According to the results of measurements ofparameters of nano-associates formed in the water there was found a series ofconsistencies, allowing to determine the mechanisms of the impact of hypomagnetic treatment on the catalytic properties ofwater and long-term stability of its activated state, that provides the long-term maintenance of high biological activity of drinking water. In particular, under hypomagnetic conditions of the treatment there is formed denser packing of amorphous ice--VI in the composition of associates peroxide, serving as a kind of "reservoir" of atmospheric gases. In such a "reservoir" there realized higher pressure, compared with normal geophysical conditions, that stimulates the gas-phase reactions with the formation of dimers and trimers of oxygen existing in the 2-electron--active configurations with binding energies of 0.3 eVand ~0.2 eV providing phase modulation, resulting in condensation of environment additional electrons on paramagnetic oxygen, which provides the long-term maintenance of the electron--donor ability of water and electrically non-equilibrium state.

  13. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  14. Framework for continuous performance improvement in small drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Haider, Husnain; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Continuous performance improvement (CPI) can be a useful approach to overcome water quality problems impacting small communities. Small drinking water systems (SDWSs) struggle to meet regulatory requirements and often lack the economic and human resource flexibility for immediate improvement. A CPI framework is developed to provide SDWS managers and operators an approach to gauge their current performance against similar systems and to track performance improvement from the implementation of the new technologies or innovations into the future. The proposed CPI framework incorporates the use of a water quality index (WQI) and functional performance benchmarking to evaluate and compare drinking water quality performance of an individual water utility against that of a representative benchmark. The results are then used to identify and prioritize the most vulnerable water quality indicators and subsequently identify and prioritize performance improvement strategies. The proposed CPI framework has been demonstrated using data collected from SDWSs in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada and using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) WQI.

  15. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings.

  16. Impact of Hydraulic Well Restoration on Native Bacterial Communities in Drinking Water Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Karwautz, Clemens; Lueders, Tillmann

    2014-01-01

    The microbial monitoring of drinking water production systems is essential to assure water quality and minimize possible risks. However, the comparative impact of microbes from the surrounding aquifer and of those established within drinking water wells on water parameters remains poorly understood. High pressure jetting is a routine method to impede well clogging by fine sediments and also biofilms. In the present study, bacterial communities were investigated in a drinking water production ...

  17. Bulk water phase and biofilm growth in drinking water at low nutrient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    to quantify the effect of retention times at hydraulic conditions similar to those in drinking water distribution networks. Water and pipe wall samples were taken and examined during the experiment. The pipes had been exposed to drinking water at approximately 131C, for at least 385 days to allow......In this study, the bacterial growth dynamics of a drinking water distribution system at low nutrient conditions was studied in order to determine bacterial growth rates by a range of methods, and to compare growth rates in the bulk water phase and the biofilm. A model distribution system was used...... the formation of a mature quasi-stationary biofilm. At retention times of 12 h, total bacterial counts increased equivalent to a net bacterial growth rate of 0.048 day1. The bulk water phase bacteria exhibited a higher activity than the biofilmbacteria in terms of culturability, cell-specific ATP content...

  18. Relating Water Quality and Age in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using Self-Organising Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Mirjam Blokker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing water quality in drinking water distribution system is essential for public health and wellbeing, but is challenging due to the number and complexity of interacting physical, chemical and biological processes occurring within vast, deteriorating pipe networks. In this paper we explore the application of Self Organising Map techniques to derive such understanding from international data sets, demonstrating how multivariate, non-linear techniques can be used to identify relationships that are not discernible using univariate and/or linear analysis methods for drinking water quality. The paper reports on how various microbial parameters correlated with modelled water ages and were influenced by water temperatures in three drinking water distribution systems.

  19. Assessing the impact of water treatment on bacterial biofilms in drinking water distribution systems using high-throughput DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jennifer L A; Monis, Paul; Fabris, Rolando; Ho, Lionel; Braun, Kalan; Drikas, Mary; Cooper, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Biofilm control in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) is crucial, as biofilms are known to reduce flow efficiency, impair taste and quality of drinking water and have been implicated in the transmission of harmful pathogens. Microorganisms within biofilm communities are more resistant to disinfection compared to planktonic microorganisms, making them difficult to manage in DWDSs. This study evaluates the impact of four unique drinking water treatments on biofilm community structure using metagenomic DNA sequencing. Four experimental DWDSs were subjected to the following treatments: (1) conventional coagulation, (2) magnetic ion exchange contact (MIEX) plus conventional coagulation, (3) MIEX plus conventional coagulation plus granular activated carbon, and (4) membrane filtration (MF). Bacterial biofilms located inside the pipes of each system were sampled under sterile conditions both (a) immediately after treatment application ('inlet') and (b) at a 1 km distance from the treatment application ('outlet'). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the outlet biofilms were more diverse than those sampled at the inlet for all treatments. The lowest number of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and lowest diversity was observed in the MF inlet. However, the MF system revealed the greatest increase in diversity and OTU count from inlet to outlet. Further, the biofilm communities at the outlet of each system were more similar to one another than to their respective inlet, suggesting that biofilm communities converge towards a common established equilibrium as distance from treatment application increases. Based on the results, MF treatment is most effective at inhibiting biofilm growth, but a highly efficient post-treatment disinfection regime is also critical in order to prevent the high rates of post-treatment regrowth.

  20. Water Quality Modeling in the Dead End Sections of Drinking Water Distribution Networks -journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Wate...

  1. Effectiveness of table top water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, Roxanna; Liefeld, Amanda; Jackson, Brian P; Hampton, Thomas H; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the United States ~3 million individuals drink well water that contains arsenic levels above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10μg/L. Several technologies are available to remove arsenic from well water including anion exchange, adsorptive media and reverse osmosis. In addition, bottled water is an alternative to drinking well water contaminated with arsenic. However, there are several drawbacks associated with these approaches including relatively high cost and, in the case of bottled water, the generation of plastic waste. In this study, we tested the ability of five tabletop water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water. We report that only one tabletop water pitcher filter tested, ZeroWater®, reduced the arsenic concentration, both As(3+) and As(5+), from 1000μg/L to water and its use reduces plastic waste associated with bottled water. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of mineral water types and comparison with drinking water standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, NGFM van der

    2003-01-01

    In a study of 291 mineral waters from 41 different countries, 9-20% exceeded the Dutch drinking water standards for chloride, calcium, magnesium, kalium, sodium, sulphate and fluorine. The mineral water quality cannot be qualified as bad since the standards for these compounds with the exception of

  3. Classification of mineral water types and comparison with drinking water standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, NGFM van der

    2003-01-01

    In a study of 291 mineral waters from 41 different countries, 9-20% exceeded the Dutch drinking water standards for chloride, calcium, magnesium, kalium, sodium, sulphate and fluorine. The mineral water quality cannot be qualified as bad since the standards for these compounds with the exception of

  4. Review: Drinking water for liquid-fed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Chiron, J; Etore, F; Fabre, A; Laval, A; Pol, F; Prunier, A; Ramonet, Y; Nielsen, B L

    2016-11-07

    Liquid feeding has the potential to provide pigs with sufficient water to remain hydrated and prevent prolonged thirst. However, lack of permanent access to fresh water prevents animals from drinking when they are thirsty. Moreover, individual differences between pigs in a pen may result in uneven distribution of the water provided by the liquid feed, leading to some pigs being unable to meet their water requirements. In this review, we look at the need for and provision of water for liquid-fed pigs in terms of their production performance, behaviour, health and welfare. We highlight factors which may lead to water ingestion above or below requirements. Increases in the need for water may be caused by numerous factors such as morbidity, ambient temperature or competition within the social group, emphasising the necessity of permanent access to water as also prescribed in EU legislation. The drinkers can be the target of redirected behaviour in response to feed restriction or in the absence of rooting materials, thereby generating water losses. The method of water provision and drinker design is critical to ensure easy access to water regardless of the pig's physiological state, and to limit the amount of water used, which does not benefit the pig.

  5. [Drinking water hardness and chronic degenerative diseases. II. Cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarca, S; Zerbini, I; Simonati, C; Gelatti, U

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1950s a causal relation between water hardness and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in humans has been hypothesized. In order to evaluate the influence of calcium and magnesium, the minerals responsible for the hardness of drinking water, on human health, a review of all the articles published on the subject from 1980 up to today has been carried out. Many but not all geographic correlation studies showed an inverse association between water hardness and mortality for CVD. Most case-control and one cohort studies showed an inverse relation, statistically significant, between mortality from CVD and water levels of magnesium, but not calcium. Consumption of water containing high concentrations of magnesium seems to reduce of about 30-35% the mortality for CVD, but not the incidence. This inverse association is supported by clinical and experimental findings and is biologically plausible and in line with Hill's criteria for a cause-effect relationship.

  6. 76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby... ``Fort Gay'') for permanent injunctive relief and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26; the West Virginia Water...

  7. How can we restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children? A proposal for a World Health Organization-sponsored framework convention to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G

    2017-04-17

    High-sugar drinks, including fruit drinks, soft drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks, are of no nutritional value and contribute to the burden of dental disease in all age groups. The manufacturers of sports and energy drinks have elected to target children in their marketing campaigns and promote a misleading association between their products, healthy lifestyles and sporting prowess. The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged that strategies aimed at prevention of dental disease are the only economically viable options for managing the oral health of children in low- and middle-income countries. Developed nations will also be advantaged by preventive programmes given that the cost of providing dental care to those who cannot pay draws valuable resources away from more pressing health issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) obligates governments to develop legislation to protect the health of children. A framework convention modelled on the existing Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, supported by the WHO, would assist governments to proactively legislate to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children. This article will consider how a framework convention would be an advantage with reference to the strategies used by sports and energy drink manufacturers in Australia. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  8. A novel technology to improve drinking water quality using natural treatment methods in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogo, Shaaban Aman

    2008-03-01

    It is estimated that one billion people worldwide do not have access to treated drinking water. This paper reports on an investigation into the potential of indigenous or natural water treatment methods as alternatives to conventional chemical water treatment methods. The seeds of five natural plant species--Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus mungo, Glycine max, Pisum sativam, and Arachis hypogea--were evaluated for the removal of turbidity, and their efficiency was compared with that of alum. The use of a solar energy-saving method to disinfect drinking water--leaving it to heat under the sun to reduce bacteria colonies--also was evaluated, The study revealed that for raw water with turbidity of 482 nephelometric turbidity units, coagulation with seed extracts from natural plant species reduced natural turbidity by 96.7 to 100 percent when the seed extract was used as the primary coagulant and by 100 percent when it was used as a coagulant aid. The study showed further that natural coagulants were as effective as commercial alum [Al2(SO4)3] and even superior for clarification because the optimum dosage was low compared with that of alum. Leaving samples of water clarified by natural coagulants on a black-painted roof for 8 hours achieved up to 100 percent bacteria kill.

  9. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  10. Water Safety Plan for drinking water risk management: the case study of Mortara (Pavia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sorlini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water Safety Plan (WSP approach is an iterative method focused on analyzing the risks of water contamination in a drinking water supply system, from catchment to consumer, in order to protect human health. This approach is aimed at identifying and drastically reducing water contamination in the entire drinking water system, through the identification and mitigation or, if possible, elimination of all factors that may cause a chemical, physical, microbiological and radiological risk for water. This study developed a proposal of WSP for the drinking water supply system (DWSS of Mortara, Italy, in order to understand which are the preliminary evaluation aspects to be considered in the elaboration of a WSP. The DWSS of Mortara (a town of 15,500 inhabitants, located in northern Italy consists of three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs, considering the following main contaminants: arsenic, iron, manganese and ammonia. Potential hazardous events and associated hazards were identified in each part of the water supply system. The risk assessment was carried out following the semi quantitative approach. The WSP proposal for Mortara was very useful not only as a risk mitigation approach, but also as a cost-effective tool for water suppliers. Furthermore, this approach will reduce public health risk, ensure a better compliance of water quality parameters with regulatory requirements, increase confidence of consumers and municipal authorities, and improve resource management due to intervention planning. Further, some new control measures are proposed by the WSP team within this work.

  11. Chitosan-Based Nanocomposite Beads for Drinking Water Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheane, ML; Nthunya, LN; Sambaza, SS; Malinga, SP; Nxumalo, EN; Mamba, BB; Mhlanga, SD

    2017-05-01

    Potable drinking water is essential for the good health of humans and it is a critical feedstock in a variety of industries such as food and pharmaceutical industries. For the first time, chitosan-alumina/functionalised multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) nanocomposite beads were developed and investigated for the reduction of various physico-chemical parameters from water samples collected from open wells used for drinking purposes by a rural community in South Africa. The water samples were analysed before and after the reduction of the identified contaminants by the nanocomposite beads. The nanocomposite beads were effective in the removal of nitrate, chromium and other physico-chemical parameters. Although, the water samples contained these contaminants within the WHO and SANS241 limits for no risk, the long-term exposure and accumulation is an environmental and health concern. The reduction of these contaminants was dependent on pH levels. At lower pH, the reduction was significantly higher, up to 99.2% (SPC), 91.0% (DOC), 92.2% (DO), 92.2% (turbidity), 96.5% (nitrate) and 97.7% (chromium). Generally, the chitosan-alumina/f-MWCNT nanocomposite beads offer a promising alternative material for reduction and removal of various physico-chemical parameters for production portable water.

  12. Boron contamination in drinking - irrigation water and boron removal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Bilici Başkan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron presents in IIIA group of periodic table and has high ionization capacity. Therefore it is classified as a metalloid. Average boron concentration in earth's crust is 10 mg/kg. It presents in the environment as a salts of Ca, Na, and Mg. Boron reserves having high concentration and economical extent are found mostly in Turkey and in arid, volcanic and high hydrothermal activity regions of U.S. as compounds of boron attached to oxygen. Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, although it may be toxic at higher levels. The range in which it is converted from a nutrient to a contaminant is quite narrow. Boron presents in water environment as a boric acid and rarely borate salts. The main boron sources, whose presence is detected in surface waters, are urban wastes and industrial wastes, which can come from a wide range of different activities as well as several chemical products used in agriculture. In Turkey, the most pollutant toxic element in drinking and irrigation water is boron. Therefore boron removal is very important in terms of human health and agricultural products in high quality. Mainly boron removal methods from drinking water and irrigation water are ion exchange, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorption.

  13. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  14. Risk factors associated with the choice to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-01-30

    A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  15. Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Keil, L. C.; Morse, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The interactions between fluid intake and balance, and plasma ion, osmotic, and endocrine responses during dehydration produced by exercise in cool and warm environments during acclimation are explored. Two groups of five male subjects performed 8 days of ergometer exercise in hot and thermoneutral conditions, respectively. The exercise trials lasted 2 hr each. Monitoring was carried out on the PV, osmotic, sodium, and endocrine concentrations, voluntary fluid intake, fluid balances, and fluid deficits. A negative correlation was observed between the plasma sodium and osmolality during acclimation. The presence of hypervolemia during acclimation is suggested as a cause of drinking, while the vasopressin concentration was not found to be a significant factor stimulating drinking. Finally, the predominant mechanism in fluid intake during exercise and heat exposure is concluded to be the renin-angiotensin II system in the presence of reductions in total body water and extracellular plasma volumes.

  16. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    0.001) or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p <

  17. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A; Raju O; Kurthukoti A; Vishwas T

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, bo...

  18. Presence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in surface water and drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters in the nano- to microgram per liter range, and in drinking water in the nanogram/L range. The environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters have been evaluated and generally found to be low if the wastewater is treated...... before release to the environment. The human health risks of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals in drinking water have however not been evaluated in any great depth. Preliminary screening level assessments suggest risk to be low – but the public and decision-makers are concerned and would like the matter...... investigated more thoroughly, especially with regards to mixture effects, chronic long-term effects and sensitive sub-populations. The World Health Organization is currently evaluating the need for credible health based guidance associated with low concentrations of pharmaceuticals in drinking water....

  19. Presence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in surface water and drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters in the nano- to microgram per liter range, and in drinking water in the nanogram/L range. The environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters have been evaluated and generally found to be low if the wastewater is treated...... before release to the environment. The human health risks of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals in drinking water have however not been evaluated in any great depth. Preliminary screening level assessments suggest risk to be low – but the public and decision-makers are concerned and would like the matter...... investigated more thoroughly, especially with regards to mixture effects, chronic long-term effects and sensitive sub-populations. The World Health Organization is currently evaluating the need for credible health based guidance associated with low concentrations of pharmaceuticals in drinking water....

  20. How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiede, Karen; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    drinking waters. Worst case predicted concentrations in drinking waters were in the low- to sub-µg/l range and more realistic estimates were tens of ng/l or less. For the majority of product types, human exposure via drinking water was predicted to be less important than exposure via other routes......This study explored the potential for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to contaminate the UK drinking water supplies and established the significance of the drinking water exposure route compared to other routes of human exposure. A review of the occurrence and quantities of ENPs in different...... product types on the UK market as well as release scenarios, their possible fate and behaviour in raw water and during drinking water treatment was performed. Based on the available data, all the ENPs which are likely to reach water sources were identified and categorized. Worst case concentrations...