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Sample records for conventional dcs reduce

  1. State-of-art neuroanatomical target analysis of high-definition and conventional tDCS montages used for migraine and pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Alexandre F; Truong, Dennis Q; DosSantos, Marcos F; Toback, Rebecca L; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2015-01-01

    Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies promise to modulate cortical regions associated with pain, the electric current produced usually spreads beyond the area of the electrodes' placement. Using a forward-model analysis, this study compared the neuroanatomic location and strength of the predicted electric current peaks, at cortical and subcortical levels, induced by conventional and High-Definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS) montages developed for migraine and other chronic pain disorders. The electrodes were positioned in accordance with the 10-20 or 10-10 electroencephalogram (EEG) landmarks: motor cortex-supraorbital (M1-SO, anode and cathode over C3 and Fp2, respectively), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) bilateral (DLPFC, anode over F3, cathode over F4), vertex-occipital cortex (anode over Cz and cathode over Oz), HD-tDCS 4 × 1 (one anode on C3, and four cathodes over Cz, F3, T7, and P3) and HD-tDCS 2 × 2 (two anodes over C3/C5 and two cathodes over FC3/FC5). M1-SO produced a large current flow in the PFC. Peaks of current flow also occurred in deeper brain structures, such as the cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus and brainstem. The same structures received significant amount of current with Cz-Oz and DLPFC tDCS. However, there were differences in the current flow to outer cortical regions. The visual cortex, cingulate and thalamus received the majority of the current flow with the Cz-Oz, while the anterior parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri displayed an intense amount of current with DLPFC montage. HD-tDCS montages enhanced the focality, producing peaks of current in subcortical areas at negligible levels. This study provides novel information regarding the neuroanatomical distribution and strength of the electric current using several tDCS montages applied for migraine and pain control. Such information may help clinicians and researchers in deciding the most appropriate tDCS montage to treat each pain disorder.

  2. State-of-art neuroanatomical target analysis of high-definition and conventional tDCS montages used for migraine and pain control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre F DaSilva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS studies promise to modulate cortical regions associated with pain, the electric current produced usually spreads beyond the area of the electrodes’ placement. Using a forward-model analysis, this study compared the neuroanatomic location and strength of the predicted electric current peaks, at cortical and subcortical levels, induced by conventional and High-Definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS montages developed for migraine and other chronic pain disorders. The electrodes were positioned in accordance with the 10-20 or 10-10 electroencephalogram (EEG landmarks: motor cortex-supraorbital (M1-SO, anode and cathode over C3 and Fp2, respectively, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilateral (DLPFC, anode over F3, cathode over F4, vertex-occipital cortex (anode over Cz and cathode over Oz, HD-tDCS 4x1 (one anode on C3, and four cathodes over Cz, F3, T7, and P3 and HD-tDCS 2x2 (two anodes over C3/C5 and two cathodes over FC3/FC5. M1-SO produced a large current flow in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Peaks of current flow also occurred in deeper brain structures, such as the cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus and brainstem. The same structures received significant amount of current with Cz-Oz and DLPFC tDCS. However, there were differences in the current flow to outer cortical regions. The visual cortex, cingulate and thalamus received the majority of the current flow with the Cz-Oz, while the anterior parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri displayed an intense amount of current with DLPFC montage. HD-tDCS montages enhanced the focality, producing peaks of current in subcortical areas at negligible levels. This study provides novel information regarding the neuroanatomical distribution and strength of the electric current using several tDCS montages applied for migraine and pain control. Such information may help clinicians and researchers in deciding the most appropriate tDCS montage to treat each pain

  3. The effects of anodal-tDCS on corticospinal excitability enhancement and its after-effects: conventional versus unihemispheric concurrent dual-site stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita eVaseghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have approved the ability of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 to enhance corticospinal excitability (CSE. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of concurrent stimulation of M1 and a functionally connected cortical site of M1 on CSE modulation. This new technique is called unihemispheric concurrent dual-site a-tDCS (a-tDCSUHCDS. The secondary aim was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of this new approach in healthy individuals. In a randomized crossover study, 12 healthy right-handed volunteers received a-tDCS under five conditions: a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCSUHCDS of M1– dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, a-tDCSUHCDS of M1– primary sensory cortex (S1, a-tDCSUHCDS of M1– primary visual cortex (V1, and sham a-tDCSUHCDS. Peak-to-peak amplitude of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS induced MEPs, short-interval intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation were assessed before and four times after each condition. A-tDCSUHCDS conditions induced larger MEPs than conventional a-tDCS. The level of M1 CSE was significantly higher following a-tDCSUHCDS of M1-DLPFC than other a-tDCSUHCDS conditions (P < 0.001, and lasted for over 24 hours. The paired-pulse TMS results after a-tDCS of M1-DLPFC showed significant facilitatory increase and inhibitory change. A-tDCSUHCDS of M1-DLPFC increases M1 CSE twofold that of conventional a-tDCS. A-tDCSUHCDS of M1-DLPFC enhances the activity of glutamergic mechanisms for at least 24 hours. Such long-lasting M1 CSE enhancement induced by a-tDCSUHCDS of M1-DLPFC could be a valuable finding in clinical scenarios such as learning, motor performance, or pain management.The present study has been registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ with registry number of ACTRN12614000817640.

  4. The Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on Reducing Depression Severity and Automatic Thoughts in Depressed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Masaf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is a common disorder that is often associated with other mental and physical disorders. One of the innovative approaches applied in depressed patients is transcranial direct current stimulation. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of transcranial direct electrical stimulations on reducing the severity of depression and negative automatic thoughts. Method: This study is a quasi-experimental study. The population of it all depressed women formed in Tehran in 2015-16. A total of 24 subjects were selected by convenience sampling and randomly assigned into two test (n=12 and control (n=12 groups. The assessment tool used in the clinical interview was Beck Depression Inventory (BDI- Form 21 and automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ respectively. The treatment sessions with a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS included 15-20 min anodal stimulation of T3 region, and Kathodal stimulation of FD1 with a current of 2 mA. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and a dependent t-test. Results: Analysis of the data using analysis of covariance showed that there is a significant difference between tDCS and control groups in the rates of depression (p<0.05. There was also a significant difference between tDCS and control groups in terms of belief and the frequency of automatic thoughts (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that transcranial direct current stimulation can reduce the severity of depression. Therefore, psychologists and psychotherapists can use it as a method of intervention used to improve symptoms in patients with depression

  5. Cyclophosphamide and IL-12-transduced DCs enhance the antitumor activity of tumor antigen-stimulated DCs and reduce Tregs and MDSCs number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossowska, Joanna; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Anger, Natalia; Wojas-Turek, Justyna; Kicielińska, Jagoda; Piasecki, Egbert; Duś, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    A hostile tumor microenvironment, characterized by an abundance of T regulatory cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), considerably limits the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines. The intention of this study was to enhance the antitumor activity of vaccines consisting of bone marrow-derived DCs stimulated with TAg (BMDC/TAg) via single administration of cyclophosphamide and multiple injections of interleukin (IL)-12-transduced DCs (BMDC/IL-12). The combined chemoimmunotherapy was applied in the treatment of mice with subcutaneously (SC) growing, advanced MC38 colon carcinoma. The highest level of tumor growth inhibition, accompanied by high cytotoxic activity of effector cells, and their increased influx into tumor tissue, was observed after application of cyclophosphamide in combination with BMDC/TAg and BMDC/IL-12. The effect was probably associated with the elimination of T regulatory cells from spleens and tumors, but most of all with changes in the number and differentiation stage of MDSCs. After the therapy, the percentage of granulocytic and monocytic MDSCs in spleens was significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, MDSCs derived from spleens and tumors showed increased expression of MHC class II, which may indicate the higher maturation stage of the myeloid cells as well as their enhanced capacity toward antigen presentation. The obtained data indicate that the optimal composition of antitumor vaccines able to limit the suppressor activity of MDSCs is essential to enhance the elimination of tumor cells and to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect.

  6. Zapping the gap: Reducing the multisensory temporal binding window by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Zmigrod, Leor

    2015-09-01

    Synchrony among the senses lies at the heart of our possession of a unified conscious perception of the world. However, due to discrepancies in physical and neural information processing from different senses, the brain accommodates a limited range of temporal asynchronies between sensory inputs, i.e. the multisensory temporal binding window (TBW). Using non-invasive brain stimulation, we sought to modulate the audio-visual TBW and to identify cortical areas implicated in the conscious perception of multisensory synchrony. Participants performed a simultaneity judgment task while experiencing anodal (Experiment 1) or cathodal (Experiment 2) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over parietal and frontal regions. The results demonstrate that stimulating the right posterior parietal cortex significantly reduces the audio-visual TBW by approximately 30%, thereby causally linking this region to the plasticity of the TBW. This highlights a potential interventional technique for populations with a wider TBW, such as in autism and dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-22

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions.

  8. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  9. CD45 ligation expands Tregs by promoting interactions with DCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camirand, Geoffrey; Wang, Ying; Lu, Yuning; Wan, Yisong Y; Lin, Yan; Deng, Songyan; Guz, Galip; Perkins, David L; Finn, Patricia W; Farber, Donna L; Flavell, Richard A; Shlomchik, Warren D; Lakkis, Fadi G; Rudd, Christopher E; Rothstein, David M

    2014-10-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which express CD4 and FOXP3, are critical for modulating the immune response and promoting immune tolerance. Consequently, methods to expand Tregs for therapeutic use are of great interest. While transfer of Tregs after massive ex vivo expansion can be achieved, in vivo expansion of Tregs would be more practical. Here, we demonstrate that targeting the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase with a tolerogenic anti-CD45RB mAb acutely increases Treg numbers in WT mice, even in absence of exogenous antigen. Treg expansion occurred through substantial augmentation of homeostatic proliferation in the preexisting Treg population. Moreover, anti-CD45RB specifically increased Treg proliferation in response to cognate antigen. Compared with conventional T cells, Tregs differentially regulate their conjugation with DCs. Therefore, we determined whether CD45 ligation could alter interactions between Tregs and DCs. Live imaging showed that CD45 ligation specifically reduced Treg motility in an integrin-dependent manner, resulting in enhanced interactions between Tregs and DCs in vivo. Increased conjugate formation, in turn, augmented nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and Treg proliferation. Together, these results demonstrate that Treg peripheral homeostasis can be specifically modulated in vivo to promote Treg expansion and tolerance by increasing conjugation between Tregs and DCs.

  10. Reduction of conventional dendritic cells during Plasmodium infection is dependent on activation induced cell death by type I and II interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiko; Kimura, Kazumi; Yui, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Shigeto

    2015-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in innate and adaptive immunity and in pathogenesis during the blood stage of malaria infection. The mechanisms underlying DC homeostasis during malaria infection are not well understood. In this study, the numbers of conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in the spleens after lethal rodent malaria infection were examined, and were found to be significantly reduced. Concomitant with up-regulation of maturation-associated molecules, activation of caspase-3 was significantly increased, suggesting induction of cell death. Studies using neutralizing antibody and gene-deficient mice showed that type I and II interferons were critically involved in activation induced cell death of cDCs during malaria infection. These results demonstrate that DCs rapidly disappeared following IFN-mediated DC activation, and that homeostasis of DCs was significantly impaired during malaria infection.

  11. MDT DCS Electronics System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Gazis, Evangelos; Tsipolitis, Georgios

    This note has the aim to present the Detector Control System for the Monitor- ing of the electronics values of MDT chambers in ATLAS experiment in CERN. This system is decided to be called in short ELTX. The principal task of DCS is to enable and ensure the coherent and safe oper- ation of the detector. The interaction of detector expers, users or shifters to the detector hardware is also done via DCS. This is the responsible system of moni- toring the operational parameters and the overall state of the detector, the alarm generation and handling, the connection of hardware values to databases and the interaction with the DAQ system. Through this thesis, one can see what ELTX system has to offer as a Detector Control System and in detail, what is the hardware to be controlled and monitored. Moreover it is presented the mainstream of central Atlas DCS concerning the active interfaces.ELTX is a system following these standards.

  12. Type I IFN signaling in CD8– DCs impairs Th1-dependent malaria immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ashraful; Best, Shannon E.; Montes de Oca, Marcela; James, Kylie R.; Ammerdorffer, Anne; Edwards, Chelsea L.; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Amante, Fiona H.; Bunn, Patrick T.; Sheel, Meru; Sebina, Ismail; Koyama, Motoko; Varelias, Antiopi; Hertzog, Paul J.; Kalinke, Ulrich; Gun, Sin Yee; Rénia, Laurent; Ruedl, Christiane; MacDonald, Kelli P.A.; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites, suppress cellular immune responses through activation of type I IFN signaling. Recent evidence suggests that immune suppression and susceptibility to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is mediated by type I IFN; however, it is unclear how type I IFN suppresses immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium parasites. During experimental severe malaria, CD4+ Th cell responses are suppressed, and conventional DC (cDC) function is curtailed through unknown mechanisms. Here, we tested the hypothesis that type I IFN signaling directly impairs cDC function during Plasmodium infection in mice. Using cDC-specific IFNAR1-deficient mice, and mixed BM chimeras, we found that type I IFN signaling directly affects cDC function, limiting the ability of cDCs to prime IFN-γ–producing Th1 cells. Although type I IFN signaling modulated all subsets of splenic cDCs, CD8– cDCs were especially susceptible, exhibiting reduced phagocytic and Th1-promoting properties in response to type I IFNs. Additionally, rapid and systemic IFN-α production in response to Plasmodium infection required type I IFN signaling in cDCs themselves, revealing their contribution to a feed-forward cytokine-signaling loop. Together, these data suggest abrogation of type I IFN signaling in CD8– splenic cDCs as an approach for enhancing Th1 responses against Plasmodium and other type I IFN–inducing pathogens. PMID:24789914

  13. A Comparative Study of Reduced-Variables-Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2013-01-01

    the advantages of the reduced-variables methods in their recent paper. A fair comparison between the reduced-variables-based flash and the conventional flash is not straightforward because it is difficult to formulate the former as unconstrained minimization problems, and the flash calculation time is also...... related to the implementation quality. With the recent formulations by Nichita and Graciaa (2011), it is possible to code the reduced-variables methods without extensive modifications of Michelsen's conventional flash algorithm. A minimization-based reduced-variables algorithm was coded and compared...... with the conventional minimization-based flash. A test with the use of the SPE 3 example (Kenyon and Behie 1987) showed that the best reduction in time was less than 20% for the extreme situation of 25 components and just one row/column with nonzero BIPs. A better performance can be achieved by a simpler implementation...

  14. A Comparative Study of Reduced Variables Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Michael Locht; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Speeding up flash calculation is a central issue in compositional reservoir simulations since phase equilibrium calculation is the most time-consuming part in those simulations. The reduced variables methods, or the reduction methods, reformulate the original phase equilibrium problem with a smal......Speeding up flash calculation is a central issue in compositional reservoir simulations since phase equilibrium calculation is the most time-consuming part in those simulations. The reduced variables methods, or the reduction methods, reformulate the original phase equilibrium problem....... Most of the studies in the last decade suggest that the reduced variables methods are much more efficient than the conventional flash method. However, Haugen and Beckner questioned the advantages of the reduced variables methods in their recent paper (SPE 141399). A fair comparison between the reduced...... variables based flash and the conventional flash is not straightforward since the former is difficult to be formulated as unconstrained minimization and involves more complicated composition derivatives. With the recent formulations by Nichita and Graciaa (2010), it is possible to code the reduced variables...

  15. Human TSLP-Educated DCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiongkun Wang; Feiyue Xing

    2008-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an IL-7-related cytokine, is widely expressed by epithelial cells in many tissues with different biological effects. Human TSLP (hTSLP) has been shown to play an important role in promoting T cell homeostasis, developing nondeletional central tolerance, amplifying epithelium-induced class switching, inducing atopic diseases and maintaining intestinal noninflammatory environment. Among diverse cells responding to hTSLP, dendritic cells (DCs) are the most obviously characterized target cells. In this review, we attempt to outline an effect of the functional versatility of hTSLP-activated DCs (hTSLP-DCs) on T cells.

  16. Treatment of visuospatial neglect with biparietal tDCS and cognitive training: a single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Anna-Katharine; Unterburger, Evelyn; Speight, Irving; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of visuospatial neglect occur frequently after unilateral brain damage. Neglect hampers rehabilitation progress and is associated with reduced quality of life. However, existing treatment methods show limited efficacy. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique, which can be used to increase or decrease brain excitability. Its combination with conventional neglect therapy may enhance treatment efficacy. A 72-year-old male with a subacute ischemic stroke of the right posterior cerebral artery suffering from visuospatial neglect, hemianopia, and hemiparesis was treated with biparietal tDCS and cognitive neglect therapy in a double-blind, sham-controlled single-case study. Four weeks of daily treatment sessions (5 days per week, 30 min) were started 26 days post-stroke. During week 1 and 4 the patient received conventional neglect therapy, during week 2, conventional neglect therapy was combined once with sham and once with real biparietal tDCS. Week 3 consisted of daily sessions of real biparietal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) combined with neglect therapy. Outcome measures were assessed before, immediately after, as well as 1 week and 3 months after the end of treatment. They included subtests of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP): covert attention (main outcome), alertness, visual field; the Neglect-Test (NET): line bisection, cancelation, copying; and activities of daily living (ADL). After real stimulation, covert attention allocation toward left-sided invalid stimuli was significantly improved, and line bisection and copying improved qualitatively as compared to sham stimulation. ADL were only improved at the 3-month follow-up. This single-case study demonstrates for the first time that combined application of tDCS and cognitive training may enhance training-induced improvements in measures of visuospatial neglect and is applicable in a clinical context.

  17. Treatment of visuospatial neglect with biparietal tDCS and cognitive training: a single-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharine eBrem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of visuospatial neglect occur frequently after unilateral brain damage. Neglect hampers rehabilitation progress and is associated with reduced quality of life. However, existing treatment methods show limited efficacy. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory technique, which can be used to increase or decrease brain excitability. Its combination with conventional neglect therapy may enhance treatment efficacy.A 72-year-old male with a subacute ischaemic stroke of the right posterior cerebral artery suffering from visuospatial neglect, hemianopia, and hemiparesis was treated with biparietal tDCS and cognitive neglect therapy in a double-blind, sham-controlled single-case study. Four weeks of daily treatment sessions (5 days per week, 30 min were started 26 days post-stroke. During week 1 and 4 the patient received conventional neglect therapy, during week 2, conventional neglect therapy was combined once with sham and once with real biparietal tDCS. Week 3 consisted of daily sessions of real biparietal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min combined with neglect therapy. Outcome measures were assessed before, immediately after, as well as 1 week and 3 months after the end of treatment. They included subtests of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP: covert attention (main outcome, alertness, visual field; the Neglect-Test (NET: line bisection, cancellation, copying; and activities of daily living (ADL. After real stimulation, covert attention allocation towards left-sided invalid stimuli was significantly improved, and line bisection and copying improved qualitatively as compared to sham stimulation. ADL were only improved at the 3-month follow-up. This single-case study demonstrates for the first time that combined application of tDCS and cognitive training may enhance training-induced improvements in measures of visuospatial neglect and is applicable in a clinical context.

  18. MiR-34a promotes DCs development and inhibits their function on T cell activation by targeting WNT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Xia, Fei; Sun, Di; Fang, Deyu; Xiong, Sidong; Jin, Liping; Zhang, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs serve important functions in numerous biological processes. Whether microRNAs also act on dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and function remains unclear. In this study, both conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were increased in miR-34a overexpressing bone marrow chimeric and transgenic (TG) mice. Further experiments showed that miR-34a promoted preDC differentiated into cDCs and pDCs without affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of DCs. Luciferase report assay and Western blot experiments demonstrated that WNT1 is the direct target of miR-34a in DCs. Interestingly, miR-34a overexpressing cDCs also produced a large amount of IL-17a and suppressed T cell activation because of the inhibition of TCF1 expression, thus increasing RORγT expression. Taken together, miR-34a promotes preDC to differentiate into cDCs and pDCs, as well as inhibits the function of cDCs on the activation of CD4+ T cells by producing IL-17a. PMID:28199987

  19. Conventional and reduced radiation dose of 16-MDCT for detection of nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Erik K; Weaver, Carolyn; Ho, Lisa M; Martin, Lucie; Li, Jianying; Darsie, James; Frush, Donald P

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to prospectively compare the reader compatibility and acceptability of a range of reduced-dose 16-MDCT images with standard-dose 16-MDCT images for the detection of nephroureterolithiasis using a dose reduction simulation technique. The study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Fifty consecutive patients with suspected nephrolithiasis were recruited to undergo conventional renal stone unenhanced 16-MDCT with at least 160 mA. Noise was then artificially introduced to simulate levels of 70, 100, and 130 mA. Three blinded independent readers interpreted the original and simulated-dose scans for the location and number of renal and ureteral calculi and secondary signs of obstruction using a 5-point confidence scale. Reader acceptability of scans was inversely related to noise. There was no significant reduction in readers' confidence in detection or exclusion of renal collecting system calculi with simulated reduction of mA of 70, 100, and 130 compared with the standard-dose study. However, for ureteral calcifications, there was a decrease in confidence for the detection or exclusion of ureterolithiasis at an mA of 70 (35 mAs). An mA as low as 70 (35 mAs) is acceptable for evaluation of nephrolithiasis. However, the evaluation of ureterolithiasis is compromised with an mA of 70.

  20. Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to study and treat aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazbanou Nozari

    2014-04-01

    - What are the challenges of using tDCS for hypothesis testing and how can I reduce the risk of misinterpreting my results? In summary, the symposium is designed to (a promote the theoretical understanding of the basic science of tDCS, and (b to tackle several pragmatic issues when designing tDCS studies, with the ultimate goal of cultivating higher standards for using a potentially invaluable technique for both clinical and research purposes. Given the growing interest in the aphasia community for using tDCS and the sophistication of the audience, we believe that the Academy’s annual meeting is the ideal venue for this symposium.

  1. Third-party tolerogenic dendritic cells reduce allo-reactivity in vitro and ameliorate the severity of acute graft-versus-host disease in allo-bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, R; Ren, Y; Yang, Y; Xie, R; Fan, H

    2013-12-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) potently induce and maintain tolerance based on their distinct characteristics compared with conventional DCs. Recent reports show that donor or host tDCs promote allograft survival in mice. In this study, the efficacy of third-party tDCs in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was evaluated. In vitro, tDCs derived from the bone marrow (BM) of D1 mice were induced by GM-CSF, IL-10 and TGF-β1. The phenotypes, expression of cytokines and suppression of tDCs were analysed. In vivo, the effects of adoptive transfer of third-party-tDCs were evaluated in an MHC-mismatched aGVHD mouse model. Survival, body weight, GVHD scoring, histopathological specimens and serum cytokines were analysed in tDC-treated mice and untreated controls. Tolerogenic DCs had low expression of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules, expressed high levels of 'immunosuppressive' cytokines and suppressed allo-CD4(+) T cell proliferation. In the B6→D2 mouse model, all aGVHD mice died within 18 days. Fortunately, third-party tDCs transferred at low doses (10(4)) effectively prolonged survival after allo-BMT. Furthermore, in the mice treated with 10(4) tDCs, serum levels of IL-10/TGF-β were significantly higher and the percentage of Foxp3(+) cells continually increased compared with the mice treated with other doses of tDCs. Third-party tDCs play a crucial role in reducing the severity of aGVHD by modulating the secretion of various cytokines and expanding Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, which suggests the possibility of using third-party tDCs for therapeutic applications. Furthermore, special attention should be paid to the optimal range of tDCs for preventing allograft rejection.

  2. Long-term treatment with cinacalcet and conventional therapy reduces parathyroid hyperplasia in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Petrucci, Ilaria; Barsotti, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    Background. The effect of cinacalcet on the structural pattern of hyperplastic parathyroid glands was evaluated, using high-resolution colour Doppler (CD) sonography, in haemodialysis patients with severe, inadequately controlled, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). Methods. Nine patients (6 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD, 55.5 ± 12.6 years) received cinacalcet, with adaptation of existing concomitant therapies. Biochemical parameters and the morphology and vascular pattern of hyperplastic parathyroid glands were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter, for a follow-up period of 24–30 months. Results. At baseline, 28 hyperplastic glands were identified. Cinacalcet led to a reduction in glandular volume during the course of the study: 68% in glands with a baseline volume <500 mm3 and 54% in glands with a baseline volume ≥500 mm3. The mean volume ± SD of glands <500 mm3 changed significantly from the baseline (233 ± 115 mm3) to the end of follow-up (102 ± 132 mm3, P = 0.007). Levels of mean serum phosphorus, calcium and calcium–phosphorus product decreased, but not significantly, whereas there were significant decreases in mean parathyroid hormone ± SD levels (1196 ± 381 pg/ml versus 256 ± 160 pg/ml; P < 0.0001) and alkaline phosphatase ± SD levels (428 ± 294 versus 223 ± 88 IU/l; P = 0.04), accompanied by an improvement in a subjective clinical score. Conclusions. Cinacalcet, in combination with conventional treatments, led to an improvement in biochemical and clinical parameters of sHPT and reduced glandular volume in patients with severe sHPT. Volume reduction was more evident in smaller glands. Longer term, larger, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings and to further define a more systematic approach in the treatment of sHPT. PMID:19181759

  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - application in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Il; Foerster, Águida; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation is a versatile tool to modulate psychological processes via alterations of brain activity, and excitability. It is applied to explore the physiological basis of cognition and behavior, as well as to reduce clinical symptoms in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Neuromodulatory brain stimulation via transcranial direct currents (tDCS) has gained increased attention recently. In this review we will describe physiological mechanisms of action of tDCS, and summarize its application to modulate psychological processes in healthy humans and neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, beyond giving an overview of the state of the art of tDCS, including limitations, we will outline future directions of research in this relatively young scientific field.

  4. Mouse CD8α+ DCs and human BDCA3+ DCs are major producers of IFN-λ in response to poly IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Henning; Bathke, Barbara; Gilles, Stefanie; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Luber, Christian A.; Fejer, György; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Davey, Gayle M.; Vremec, David; Kallies, Axel; Wu, Li; Shortman, Ken; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; O’Keeffe, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly IC), a double-stranded RNA, is an effective adjuvant in vivo. IFN-λs (also termed IL-28/29) are potent immunomodulatory and antiviral cytokines. We demonstrate that poly IC injection in vivo induces large amounts of IFN-λ, which depended on hematopoietic cells and the presence of TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3), IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3), IRF7, IFN-I receptor, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL), and IRF8 but not on MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), Rig-like helicases, or lymphocytes. Upon poly IC injection in vivo, the IFN-λ production by splenocytes segregated with cells phenotypically resembling CD8α+ conventional dendritic cells (DCs [cDCs]). In vitro experiments revealed that CD8α+ cDCs were the major producers of IFN-λ in response to poly IC, whereas both CD8α+ cDCs and plasmacytoid DCs produced large amounts of IFN-λ in response to HSV-1 or parapoxvirus. The nature of the stimulus and the cytokine milieu determined whether CD8α+ cDCs produced IFN-λ or IL-12p70. Human DCs expressing BDCA3 (CD141), which is considered to be the human counterpart of murine CD8α+ DCs, also produced large amounts of IFN-λ upon poly IC stimulation. Thus, IFN-λ production in response to poly IC is a novel function of mouse CD8α+ cDCs and their human equivalents. PMID:20975040

  5. Mouse CD8alpha+ DCs and human BDCA3+ DCs are major producers of IFN-lambda in response to poly IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Henning; Bathke, Barbara; Gilles, Stefanie; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Luber, Christian A; Fejer, György; Freudenberg, Marina A; Davey, Gayle M; Vremec, David; Kallies, Axel; Wu, Li; Shortman, Ken; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; O'Keeffe, Meredith; Hochrein, Hubertus

    2010-11-22

    Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly IC), a double-stranded RNA, is an effective adjuvant in vivo. IFN-λs (also termed IL-28/29) are potent immunomodulatory and antiviral cytokines. We demonstrate that poly IC injection in vivo induces large amounts of IFN-λ, which depended on hematopoietic cells and the presence of TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3), IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3), IRF7, IFN-I receptor, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL), and IRF8 but not on MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), Rig-like helicases, or lymphocytes. Upon poly IC injection in vivo, the IFN-λ production by splenocytes segregated with cells phenotypically resembling CD8α(+) conventional dendritic cells (DCs [cDCs]). In vitro experiments revealed that CD8α(+) cDCs were the major producers of IFN-λ in response to poly IC, whereas both CD8α(+) cDCs and plasmacytoid DCs produced large amounts of IFN-λ in response to HSV-1 or parapoxvirus. The nature of the stimulus and the cytokine milieu determined whether CD8α(+) cDCs produced IFN-λ or IL-12p70. Human DCs expressing BDCA3 (CD141), which is considered to be the human counterpart of murine CD8α(+) DCs, also produced large amounts of IFN-λ upon poly IC stimulation. Thus, IFN-λ production in response to poly IC is a novel function of mouse CD8α(+) cDCs and their human equivalents.

  6. Spatial and polarity precision of concentric high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahtab; Truong, Dennis Q.; Khadka, Niranjan; Bikson, Marom

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies low amplitude current via electrodes placed on the scalp. Rather than directly eliciting a neuronal response, tDCS is believed to modulate excitability—enhancing or suppressing neuronal activity in regions of the brain depending on the polarity of stimulation. The specificity of tDCS to any therapeutic application derives in part from how electrode configuration determines the brain regions that are stimulated. Conventional tDCS uses two relatively large pads (>25 cm2) whereas high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) uses arrays of smaller electrodes to enhance brain targeting. The 4  ×  1 concentric ring HD-tDCS (one center electrode surrounded by four returns) has been explored in application where focal targeting of cortex is desired. Here, we considered optimization of concentric ring HD-tDCS for targeting: the role of electrodes in the ring and the ring’s diameter. Finite element models predicted cortical electric field generated during tDCS. High resolution MRIs were segmented into seven tissue/material masks of varying conductivities. Computer aided design (CAD) model of electrodes, gel, and sponge pads were incorporated into the segmentation. Volume meshes were generated and the Laplace equation (\

  7. Modulation of selective attention by polarity-specific tDCS effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchinenda, Anna; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-02-01

    Selective attention relies on working memory to maintain an attention set of task priorities. Consequently, selective attention is more efficient when working memory resources are not depleted. However, there is some evidence that distractors are processed even when working memory load is low. We used tDCS to assess whether boosting the activity of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC), involved in selective attention and working memory, would reduce interference from emotional distractors. Findings showed that anodal tDCS over the DLPFC was not sufficient to reduce interference from angry distractors. In contrast, cathodal tDCS over the DLPFC reduced interference from happy distractors. These findings show that altering the DLPFC activity is not sufficient to establish top-down control and increase selective attention efficiency. Although, when the neural signal in the DLPFC is altered by cathodal tDCS, interference from emotional distractors is reduced, leading to an improved performance.

  8. DCS emulator development for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y. [Hitachi Canada Ltd., Power and Industry Div., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ishii, K.; Chiba, D. [Hitachi Ltd., Information and Control Systems Div., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Continual training of operators is one of the principal means by which Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operational efficiency can be improved. Since this training cannot take place in the actual NPP, NPP simulator applications must be used instead. While digitalization scope of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems has been expanded to the entire plant by using Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation, Hitachi has implemented DCS emulator on a general purpose Personal Computer (PC) and applied it to simulator applications. This paper reviews such DCS emulator development for NPP by Hitachi. (author)

  9. CD103+ Conventional Dendritic Cells Are Critical for TLR7/9-Dependent Host Defense against Histoplasma capsulatum, an Endemic Fungal Pathogen of Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Van Prooyen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune cells shape the host response to microbial pathogens. Here we elucidate critical differences in the molecular response of macrophages vs. dendritic cells (DCs to Histoplasma capsulatum, an intracellular fungal pathogen of humans. It has long been known that macrophages are permissive for Histoplasma growth and succumb to infection, whereas DCs restrict fungal growth and survive infection. We used murine macrophages and DCs to identify host pathways that influence fungal proliferation and host-cell viability. Transcriptional profiling experiments revealed that DCs produced a strong Type I interferon (IFN-I response to infection with Histoplasma yeasts. Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 (TLR7/9, which recognize nucleic acids, were required for IFN-I production and restriction of fungal growth in DCs, but mutation of TLR7/9 had no effect on the outcome of macrophage infection. Moreover, TLR7/9 were essential for the ability of infected DCs to elicit production of the critical cytokine IFNγ from primed CD4+ T cells in vitro, indicating the role of this pathway in T cell activation. In a mouse model of infection, TLR7/9 were required for optimal production of IFN-I and IFNγ, host survival, and restriction of cerebral fungal burden. These data demonstrate the critical role of this pathway in eliciting an appropriate adaptive immune response in the host. Finally, although other fungal pathogens have been shown to elicit IFN-I in mouse models, the specific host cell responsible for producing IFN-I has not been elucidated. We found that CD103+ conventional DCs were the major producer of IFN-I in the lungs of wild-type mice infected with Histoplasma. Mice deficient in this DC subtype displayed reduced IFN-I production in vivo. These data reveal a previously unknown role for CD103+ conventional DCs and uncover the pivotal function of these cells in modulating the host immune response to endemic fungi.

  10. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  11. Conventional curing practices reduce generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. on dry bulb onions produced with contaminated irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, Alexander W; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2016-02-01

    Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) has emphasized microbial risks associated with irrigation water. Treasure Valley (eastern Oregon/western Idaho) has the highest yield of dry bulb onions in the country; however, their irrigation water is often non-compliant with current industry and proposed federal standards for fresh produce. Conventional curing practices may provide a mechanism to mitigate irrigation water quality to comply with FSMA regulations. Dry bulb onions were grown in Owyhee silt loam and Semiahmoo muck soils in greenhouses and irrigated with water containing a cocktail of rifampicin-resistant generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (4.80 log CFU/ml). To mimic conventional practices, mature onions remained undisturbed in soil without irrigation for 12 days prior to being lifted and cured for 16 additional days. Surviving generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. were selectively enumerated on using standard plating (Hektoen Enteric Agar with rifampicin; HE + rif) or most probable number (lactose broth with rifampicin; HE + rif) methods. Generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. on onions decreased 0.19-0.26 log CFU/g·d during the initial 12 days of finishing. At lifting, generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. had been reduced to <1 CFU/g and persisted through the end of curing. This study demonstrates conventional curing practices as an effective mitigation strategy for dry bulb onions produced with water of poor microbiological quality.

  12. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases the amplitudes of long-latency stretch reflexes in cerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Manto, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that the neuromodulation of the cerebellum using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could represent a new therapeutic strategy for the management of cerebellar disorders. Anodal tDCS of the cerebellum increases the excitability of the cerebellar cortex. We tested the effects of anodal tDCS applied over the cerebellum in ataxic patients. We studied (a) stretch reflexes (SR) in upper limb (SLSR: short-latency stretch reflexes; LLSR: long-latency stretch reflexes), (b) a coordination functional task in upper limbs based on mechanical counters (MCT: mechanical counter test), and (c) computerized posturography. tDCS did not change the amplitude of SLSR, but reduced significantly the amplitudes of LLSR. tDCS did not improve the MCT scores and did not modify posture. We suggest that anodal tDCS of the cerebellum reduces the amplitudes of LLSR by increasing the inhibitory effect exerted by the cerebellar cortex upon cerebellar nuclei. The absence of effect upon upper limb coordination and posture suggests that the cerebello-cerebral networks subserving these functions are less responsive to anodal tDCS of the cerebellum. Anodal tDCS of the cerebellum represents a novel experimental tool to investigate the effects of the cerebellar cortex on the modulation of the amplitudes of LLSR.

  13. Effects of reduced-rate methyl bromide applications under conventional and virtually impermeable plastic film in perennial crop field nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Bradley D; Gerik, James S; Schneider, Sally M

    2010-08-01

    Producers of perennial crop nursery stock in California use preplant soil fumigation to meet state phytosanitary requirements. Although methyl bromide (MB) has been phased out in many agricultural industries, it is still the preferred treatment in the perennial nursery industry and is used under Critical Use Exemptions and Quarantine/Preshipment provisions of the Montreal Protocol. The present research was conducted to evaluate reduced-rate MB applications sealed with conventional and low-permeability plastic films compared with the primary alternative material. Reduced rates (100-260 kg ha(-1)) of MB applied in combination with chloropicrin (Pic) and sealed with a low-permeability plastic film provided weed and nematode control similar to the industry standard rate of 392 kg ha(-1) MB:Pic (98:2) sealed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film. However, the primary alternative chemical, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), tended to provide slightly lower pest control even on sites with relatively low plant parasitic nematode, soil-borne pathogen and weed pest pressure. If California regulations change to allow the use of low-permeability films in broadcast fumigant applications, the results of this research suggest that reduced rates of MB in perennial crop nurseries could serve as a bridge strategy until more technically, economically and environmentally acceptable alternatives are developed. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of frontal cortex decreases performance on the WAIS-IV intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Kristin K; Mellin, Juliann M; Lustenberger, Caroline M; Boyle, Michael R; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants were included in the final analysis. These participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA at each anode for 20 min) or active sham tDCS (2 mA for 40 s), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA for 20 min). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of cortical plasticity in older adults following tDCS and motor training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Goodwill

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration accompanies the process of natural ageing, reducing the ability to perform functional daily activities. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS alters neuronal excitability and motor performance; however its beneficial effect on the induction of primary motor cortex (M1 plasticity in older adults is unclear. Moreover, little is known as to whether the tDCS electrode arrangement differentially affects M1 plasticity and motor performance in this population. In a double-blinded, cross-over trial, we compared unilateral, bilateral and sham tDCS combined with visuomotor tracking, on M1 plasticity and motor performance of the non-dominant upper limb, immediately post and 30 minutes following stimulation. We found (a unilateral and bilateral tDCS decreased tracking error by 12-22% at both time points; with sham decreasing tracking error by 10% at 30 minutes only, (b at both time points, motor evoked potentials (MEPs were facilitated (38-54% and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI was released (21-36% for unilateral and bilateral conditions relative to sham, (c there were no differences between unilateral and bilateral conditions for any measure. These findings suggest that tDCS modulated elements of M1 plasticity, which improved motor performance irrespective of the electrode arrangement. The results provide preliminary evidence indicating that tDCS is a safe non-invasive tool to preserve or improve neurological function and motor control in older adults.

  16. Formation of cortical plasticity in older adults following tDCS and motor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Alicia M; Reynolds, John; Daly, Robin M; Kidgell, Dawson J

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration accompanies the process of natural aging, reducing the ability to perform functional daily activities. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters neuronal excitability and motor performance; however its beneficial effect on the induction of primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity in older adults is unclear. Moreover, little is known as to whether the tDCS electrode arrangement differentially affects M1 plasticity and motor performance in this population. In a double-blinded, cross-over trial, we compared unilateral, bilateral and sham tDCS combined with visuomotor tracking, on M1 plasticity and motor performance of the non-dominant upper limb, immediately post and 30 min following stimulation. We found (a) unilateral and bilateral tDCS decreased tracking error by 12-22% at both time points; with sham decreasing tracking error by 10% at 30 min only, (b) at both time points, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were facilitated (38-54%) and short-interval intracortical inhibition was released (21-36%) for unilateral and bilateral conditions relative to sham, (c) there were no differences between unilateral and bilateral conditions for any measure. These findings suggest that tDCS modulated elements of M1 plasticity, which improved motor performance irrespective of the electrode arrangement. The results provide preliminary evidence indicating that tDCS is a safe non-invasive tool to preserve or improve neurological function and motor control in older adults.

  17. Maturation and upregulation of functions of murine dendritic cells (DCs) under the influence of purified aromatic-turmerone (AR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonggang, Tan; Yiming, Meng; Heying, Zhang; Cheng, Sun; Qiushi, Wang; Xianghong, Yang; Wei, Zheng; Huawei, Zhou; Shan, Fengping

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of purified aromatic-turmerone (ar-turmerione, AR) on murine dendritic cells (DCs). These impacts of AR on DCs from bone marrow derived DCs(BMDCs) were assessed with use of conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytochemistry assay, FITC-dextran, bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that AR induced phenotypic maturation as evidenced by increased expression of CD86, CD40, CD83, CD80 and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II). The functional tests showed the activity of acidic phosphatase (ACP) inside the DCs were downregulated after treatment with AR (which occurs when phagocytosis of DCs were decreased). Finally, we proved that AR increased the production of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). These data suggested that AR could promote phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs and this adjuvant-like activity may have potential therapeutic value. It is therefore concluded that AR could exert positive modulation on murine DCs.

  18. Comparison of the efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal (Carisolv) with that of conventional excavation in reducing the cariogenic flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrak, B; Callaway, A; Grundheber, A; Stender, E; Willershausen, B

    2004-05-01

    The usage of minimally invasive procedures and attention to patient comfort are of great importance, especially for dental treatment in small children. This has led to the development of chemomechanical methods for caries removal. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal with that of conventional excavation in reducing the count of the cariogenic flora. Subjects for this study were chosen from children admitted to dental clinic for restorative procedures under general anaesthesia. Twenty-one children (mean age 43.5 +/- 12.0 months) with early childhood caries were included in this study. Two primary teeth with comparable degrees of carious destruction were chosen in each child (n = 42) for caries removal with Carisolv' or by means of rotary instruments. Samples from carious dentine were taken with a sterile scraping instrument, then all softened dentine was removed and a second sample was taken. All samples (n = 84) were serially diluted and plated on two different nutrient agar plates. After 24 h of incubation, colony forming units were determined for total bacterial counts and lactobacilli. Twelve per cent of the samples from carious dentine contained more than 10(6) bacteria, 23.8% contained more than 10(5) lactobacilli. Both methods of caries removal produced a statistically significant reduction in the bacterial counts (P = 0.0001). In at least 90.5% of the samples taken after the removal, the total bacterial count was below 10(2), and in 95.2% lactobacilli fell below 10(2). These results indicate that the efficacy of chemomechanical removal of carious dentine in children by means of Carisolv' is comparable to the results obtained by conventional methods, and thus might serve as a suitable alternative.

  19. Spatial and polarity precision of concentric high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahtab; Truong, Dennis Q; Khadka, Niranjan; Bikson, Marom

    2016-06-21

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies low amplitude current via electrodes placed on the scalp. Rather than directly eliciting a neuronal response, tDCS is believed to modulate excitability-enhancing or suppressing neuronal activity in regions of the brain depending on the polarity of stimulation. The specificity of tDCS to any therapeutic application derives in part from how electrode configuration determines the brain regions that are stimulated. Conventional tDCS uses two relatively large pads (>25 cm(2)) whereas high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) uses arrays of smaller electrodes to enhance brain targeting. The 4  ×  1 concentric ring HD-tDCS (one center electrode surrounded by four returns) has been explored in application where focal targeting of cortex is desired. Here, we considered optimization of concentric ring HD-tDCS for targeting: the role of electrodes in the ring and the ring's diameter. Finite element models predicted cortical electric field generated during tDCS. High resolution MRIs were segmented into seven tissue/material masks of varying conductivities. Computer aided design (CAD) model of electrodes, gel, and sponge pads were incorporated into the segmentation. Volume meshes were generated and the Laplace equation ([Formula: see text] · (σ [Formula: see text] V)  =  0) was solved for cortical electric field, which was interpreted using physiological assumptions to correlate with stimulation and modulation. Cortical field intensity was predicted to increase with increasing ring diameter at the cost of focality while uni-directionality decreased. Additional surrounding ring electrodes increased uni-directionality while lowering cortical field intensity and increasing focality; though, this effect saturated and more than 4 surround electrode would not be justified. Using a range of concentric HD-tDCS montages, we showed that cortical region of influence can be

  20. Effectiveness of a new toothbrush design versus a conventional tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing tongue microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Assirati Casemiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30 had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05. When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group. The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning.

  1. Catalytic modification of conventional SOFC anodes with a view to reducing their activity for direct internal reforming of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boder, M.; Dittmeyer, R. [Research Group Technical Chemistry, Karl-Winnacker-Institut, DECHEMA e.V., Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2006-04-18

    When using natural gas as fuel for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), direct internal reforming lowers the requirement for cell cooling and, theoretically, offers advantages with respect to capital cost and efficiency. The high metal content of a nickel/zirconia anode and the high temperature, however, cause the endothermic reforming reaction to take place very fast. The resulting drop of temperature at the inlet produces thermal stresses, which may lower the system efficiency and limit the stack lifetime. To reduce the reforming rate without lowering the electrochemical activity of the cell, a wet impregnation procedure for modifying conventional cermets by coverage with a less active metal was developed. As the coating material copper was chosen. Copper is affordable, catalytically inert for the reforming reaction and exhibits excellent electronic conductivity. The current density-voltage characteristics of the modified units showed that it is possible to maintain a good electrochemical performance of the cells despite the catalytic modification. A copper to nickel ratio of 1:3 resulted in a strong diminution of the catalytic reaction rate. This indicates that the modification could be a promising method to improve the performance of solid oxide fuel cells with direct internal reforming of hydrocarbons. (author)

  2. Cumulative effects of anodal and priming cathodal tDCS on pegboard test performance and motor cortical excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, Monica; Rafolt, Dietmar; Gallasch, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocols applied over the primary motor cortex are associated with changes in motor performance. This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study examines whether cathodal tDCS prior to motor training, combined with anodal tDCS during motor training improves motor performance and off-line learning. Three study groups (n=36) were trained on the grooved pegboard test (GPT) in a randomized, between-subjects design: SHAM-sham stimulation prior and during training, STIM1-sham stimulation prior and atDCS during training, STIM2-ctDCS stimulation prior and atDCS during training. Motor performance was assessed by GPT completion time and retested 14 days later to determine off-line learning. Cortical excitability was assessed via TMS at baseline (T0), prior training (T1), after training (T2), and 60 min after training (T3). Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded from m. abductor pollicis brevis of the active left hand. GPT completion time was reduced for both stimulated groups compared to SHAM. For STIM2 this reduction in time was significantly higher than for STIM1 and further off-line learning occurred after STIM2. After ctDCS at T1, MEP amplitude and intracortical facilitation was decreased and intracortical inhibition was increased. After atDCS at T2, an opposite effect was observed for STIM1 and STIM2. For STIM2 these neuromodulatory effects were retained until T3. It is concluded that application of atDCS during the training improves pegboard performance and that additional priming with ctDCS has a positive effect on off-line learning. These cumulative behavioral gains were indicated by the preceding neuromodulatory changes.

  3. Emergence dynamics of barnyardgrass and jimsonweed from two depths when switching from conventional to reduced and no-till conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios P. Vasileiadis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A cylinder experiment was conducted in northern Greece during 2005 and 2006 to assess emergence dynamics of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L. Beauv. and jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. in the case of a switch from conventional to conservation tillage systems (CT. Emergence was surveyed from two burial depths (5 and 10 cm and with simulation of reduced tillage (i.e. by soil disturbance and no-till conditions. Barnyardgrass emergence was significantly affected by burial depth, having greater emergence from 5 cm depth (96% although even 78% of seedlings emerged from 10 cm depth after the two years of study. Emergence of barnyardgrass was stable across years from the different depths and tillage regimes. Jimsonweed seeds showed lower germination than barnyardgrass during the study period, whereas its emergence was significantly affected by soil disturbance having 41% compared to 28% without disturbance. A burial depth x soil disturbance interaction was also determined, which showed higher emergence from 10 cm depth with soil disturbance. Jimsonweed was found to have significantly higher emergence from 10 cm depth with soil disturbance in Year 2. Seasonal emergence timing of barnyardgrass did not vary between the different burial depth and soil disturbance regimes, as it started in April and lasted until end of May in both years. Jimsonweed showed a bimodal pattern, with first emergence starting end of April until mid-May and the second ranging from mid-June to mid-August from 10 cm burial depth and from mid-July to mid-August from 5 cm depth, irrespective of soil disturbance in both cases.

  4. Emergence dynamics of barnyardgrass and jimsonweed from two depths when switching from conventional to reduced and no-till conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileiadis, V.; Froud-Williams, R.J.; Loddo, D.; Eleftherohorinos, I.G.

    2016-11-01

    A cylinder experiment was conducted in northern Greece during 2005 and 2006 to assess emergence dynamics of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) and jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) in the case of a switch from conventional to conservation tillage systems (CT). Emergence was surveyed from two burial depths (5 and 10 cm) and with simulation of reduced tillage (i.e. by soil disturbance) and no-till conditions. Barnyardgrass emergence was significantly affected by burial depth, having greater emergence from 5 cm depth (96%) although even 78% of seedlings emerged from 10 cm depth after the two years of study. Emergence of barnyardgrass was stable across years from the different depths and tillage regimes. Jimsonweed seeds showed lower germination than barnyardgrass during the study period, whereas its emergence was significantly affected by soil disturbance having 41% compared to 28% without disturbance. A burial depth x soil disturbance interaction was also determined, which showed higher emergence from 10 cm depth with soil disturbance. Jimsonweed was found to have significantly higher emergence from 10 cm depth with soil disturbance in Year 2. Seasonal emergence timing of barnyardgrass did not vary between the different burial depth and soil disturbance regimes, as it started in April and lasted until end of May in both years. Jimsonweed showed a bimodal pattern, with first emergence starting end of April until mid-May and the second ranging from mid-June to mid-August from 10 cm burial depth and from mid-July to mid-August from 5 cm depth, irrespective of soil disturbance in both cases. (Author)

  5. The timing of cognitive plasticity in physiological aging: a tDCS study of naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFertonani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on physiologically aging adults performing a naming task. tDCS is a method that modulates human cortical excitability. Neuroplasticity is considered to have its foundation in cortical excitability as a property that adjusts the connection strength between neurons in the brain. Language efficiency, as all functions, relies on integration of information (i.e., effectiveness of connectivity through neurons in the brain. So the use of tDCS, to modulate cortical excitability, can help to define the state of cognitive plasticity in the aging brain. Based on Hebb’s rule, an increase in synaptic efficacy does not rely only on the increase of excitability but also on the timing of activation. Therefore, a key issue in this study is the timing of tDCS application in relation to a task: When to deliver tDCS to induce modulatory effects on task execution to facilitate naming.Anodal tDCS was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of older and young adults before and during a naming task.In older adults, tDCS improved naming performance and decreased the verbal reaction times only if it was applied during the task execution, whereas in young subjects both stimulation conditions improved naming performance.These findings highlight that in healthy aging adults, the cerebral network dedicated to lexical retrieval processing may be facilitated only if stimulation is applied to an active neural network. We hypothesise that this change is due to the neuronal synaptic changes, in the aging brain, which reduce the window of when cortical excitability can facilitate synaptic efficacy and therefore plasticity.

  6. Test System for Standard ALICE DCS Components

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160773

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the ALICE DCS project is supervising equipment installed in the ALICE experiment site at CERN. Hence, the aim of this project was to provide a test bench in the DCS lab, where a real equipment and software tools will be deployed. Using this test bench, test procedures which exercise the devices under the test in a configurable way and provide logging and trending of the acquired data were implemented. The setup was devised using the ALICE software framework and Siemens SCADA system WINCC OA, providing the same functionality as the systems installed in ALICE, and will be used for the commissioning of the new software and hardware, burn-in tests of new modules and log-term stability tests of ALICE hardware.

  7. Reduced discomfort during high-definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Febles, Nicole; Minhas, Preet; Hahn, Christoph; Bikson, Marom

    2014-01-01

    Background: High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) allows for non-invasive neuromodulation using an array of compact (approximately 1 cm2 contact area) “High-Definition” (HD) electrodes, as compared to conventional tDCS (which uses two large pads that are approximately 35 cm2). In a previous transcutaneous study, we developed and validated designs for HD electrodes that reduce discomfort over >20 min session with 2 mA electrode current. Objective: The purpose of ...

  8. tDCS-enhanced motor and cognitive function in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöel, Agnes

    2014-01-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation tool that is now being widely used in neuroscientific and clinical research in humans. While initial studies focused on modulation of cortical excitability, the technique quickly progressed to studies on motor and cognitive functions in healthy humans and in patients with neurological diseases. In the present review we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of tDCS. In the main part, we will outline recent studies with tDCS that aimed at enhancing behavioral outcome or disease-specific symptoms in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, and epilepsy, or persistent deficits after stroke. The review will close with a summary statement on the present use of tDCS in the treatment of neurological disorders, and an outlook to further developments in this realm. tDCS may be an ideal tool to be administered in parallel to intensive cognitive or motor training in neurological disease, but efficacy for the areas of activities and participation still needs to be established in controlled randomized trials. Its use in reducing disease-specific symptoms like dystonia or epileptic seizures is still unclear.

  9. Facilitative effects of bi-hemispheric tDCS in cognitive deficits of Parkinson disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Gonçalves, Oscar F; Carvalho, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily characterized by motor symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, stiffness, slowness and impaired equilibrium. Although the motor symptoms have been the focus in PD, slight cognitive deficits are commonly found in non-demented and non-depressed PD patients, even in early stages of the disease, which have been linked to the subsequent development of pathological dementia. Thus, strongly reducing the quality of life (QoL). Both levodopa therapy and deep brain stimulation (DBS) have yield controversial results concerning the cognitive symptoms amelioration in PD patients. That does not seems to be the case with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), although better stimulation parameters are needed. Therefore we hypothesize that simultaneously delivering cathodal tDCS (or ctDCS), over the right prefrontal cortex delivered with anodal tDCS (or atDCS) to left prefrontal cortex could be potentially beneficial for PD patients, either by mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity and by increases in the extracellular dopamine levels over the striatum.

  10. ATLAS Muon DCS Upgrades and Optimizations

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalis, Christos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Muon subsystem is comprised of four detector types: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) and Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) for trigger purposes, and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) and Muon Drift Tubes (MDT) for muon track reconstruction. The MDTs cover a large area at the outer part of the detector. In total, there are over a 1’000 MDT chambers, which are made of about 350’000 tubes. The luminosity upgrade of the HL-LHC is expected to pose a serious challenge to the MDTs. The expected increase of particle flux will set new, higher standards regarding the operation and control of the chambers. A step towards optimizing the ATLAS Muon Detector Control System (DCS) was to develop several DCS tools, namely a High Luminosity vs Trip Limit panel with its accompanying scripts and managers. The ultimate goal of this tool is to protect the MDT chambers from the rising particle flux and its associated increase in chamber current. In addition to optimizing the ATLAS Muon DCS, several tasks to accommodate the newly installed B...

  11. Reprint of: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - Application in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Il; Foerster, Águida; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation is a versatile tool to modulate psychological processes via alterations of brain activity, and excitability. It is applied to explore the physiological basis of cognition and behavior, as well as to reduce clinical symptoms in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Neuromodulatory brain stimulation via transcranial direct currents (tDCS) has gained increased attention recently. In this review we will describe physiological mechanisms of action of tDCS, and summarize its application to modulate psychological processes in healthy humans and neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, beyond giving an overview of the state of the art of tDCS, including limitations, we will outline future directions of research in this relatively young scientific field.

  12. Zero-valent iron-biosand filtration is capable of reducing antimicrobials and generic E. coli concentrations in unbuffered conventionally-treated reclaimed water: a CONSERVE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: If conventionally treated reclaimed water (RW) is to be adopted as analternative to freshwater irrigation, it is necessary to investigate reuse site-based mitigation options that can further reduce contaminantssuch as foodborne pathogens andpharmaceuticals and personal care products (P...

  13. The closely related CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) and lymphoid-resident CD8+ DCs differ in their inflammatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhijun; Bedoui, Sammy; Brady, Jamie L; Walter, Anne; Chopin, Michael; Carrington, Emma M; Sutherland, Robyn M; Nutt, Stephen L; Zhang, Yuxia; Ko, Hyun-Ja; Wu, Li; Lew, Andrew M; Zhan, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.

  14. The closely related CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs and lymphoid-resident CD8+ DCs differ in their inflammatory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Jiao

    Full Text Available Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.

  15. System Control for the Transitional DCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    Hour Display 94 3-9 Trunk Status Summary Display 95 3-10 Routing Control Display for Hillingdon 95 4-1 CRU in the DCS Multiplex Hierarchy 109 4-2 CRU...SUMMARY Figure 3-10. Routing Control Display for Hillingdon 95 route and typing over it with the name of another route. If the controller simply wants...Control Functions for Croughton and Hillingdon , " Contract No. F1 9628- 73-C- 0220, Maclean, Virginia, March 1974.1. 11.* GTE Sylvania, "Digital Network

  16. SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs by dNTP depletion, but its expression in DCs and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes cannot be upregulated by interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St Gelais Corine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAMHD1 is an HIV-1 restriction factor in non-dividing monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs, macrophages, and resting CD4+ T-cells. Acting as a deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP triphosphohydrolase, SAMHD1 hydrolyzes dNTPs and restricts HIV-1 infection in macrophages and resting CD4+ T-cells by decreasing the intracellular dNTP pool. However, the intracellular dNTP pool in DCs and its regulation by SAMHD1 remain unclear. SAMHD1 has been reported as a type I interferon (IFN-inducible protein, but whether type I IFNs upregulate SAMHD1 expression in primary DCs and CD4+ T-lymphocytes is unknown. Results Here, we report that SAMHD1 significantly blocked single-cycle and replication-competent HIV-1 infection of DCs by decreasing the intracellular dNTP pool and thereby limiting the accumulation of HIV-1 late reverse transcription products. Type I IFN treatment did not upregulate endogenous SAMHD1 expression in primary DCs or CD4+ T-lymphocytes, but did in HEK 293T and HeLa cell lines. When SAMHD1 was over-expressed in these two cell lines to achieve higher levels than that in DCs, no HIV-1 restriction was observed despite partially reducing the intracellular dNTP pool. Conclusions Our results suggest that SAMHD1-mediated reduction of the intracellular dNTP pool in DCs is a common mechanism of HIV-1 restriction in myeloid cells. Endogenous expression of SAMHD1 in primary DCs or CD4+ T-lymphocytes is not upregulated by type I IFNs.

  17. Does "transition shoe" promote an intermediate biomechanical condition compared to running in conventional shoe and in reduced protection condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Azevedo, Ana Paula; Mezêncio, Bruno; Valvassori, Raísa; Mochizuki, Luis; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio Cerca

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated if running in a "transition shoe" commercially available results in intermediate mechanical load upon lower extremities compared to conventional shoe and minimalist shoe/barefoot. Kinematic and kinetic parameters while running in different shoe conditions were compared. Fourteen runners (12 men, 2 women; age=28.4±7.3 years), inexperienced in minimalist shoes and barefoot running, ran on an instrumented treadmill within four experimental conditions (conventional shoe - CS, transition shoe - TrS, minimalist shoe - MS, and barefoot - BF). Running was performed at 9km/h for 10min in each experimental condition. Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and two-dimensional kinematic variables of lower limbs (both legs) were recorded. Nine data acquisitions (10s) were conducted for each footwear condition. Transition shoe lead to significant changes in VGRF variables related to impact control, while kinematic parameters were little affected. The TrS had smaller first peak of VGRF (Fy1) than CS (p≤0.001) and higher than MS (p=0.050) and BF (p≤0.001). Time to first peak of VGRF (tFy1) of TrS was smaller than CS (p≤0.001) and higher than MS (p≤0.001) and BF (p≤0.001). The TrS and MS induced to lesser knee flexion (prunning shoe to minimalist shoe/barefoot.

  18. Modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells (DCs) by purified Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaxuan; Meng, Jingjuan; Chen, Wenna; Liu, Jingling; Li, Xuan; Li, Weiwei; Lu, Changlong; Shan, Fengping

    2011-08-01

    There are a large number of interactions at molecular and cellular levels between the plant polysaccharides and immune system. Plant polysaccharides present an interesting effects as immunomodulators, particularly in the induction of the cells both in innate and adaptive immune systems. Activation of DCs could improve antitumoral responses usually diminished in cancer patients, and natural adjuvants provide a possibility of inducing this activation. ABP is a purified polysaccharide isolated from Achyranthes bidentata, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this study is to investigate modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine DCs by ABP. Both phenotypic and functional activities were assessed with use of conventional scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) for the morphology of the DC, transmitted electron microscopy (TEM) for intracellular lysosomes inside the DC, cellular immunohistochemistry for phagocytosis by the DCs, flow cytometry (FCM) for the changes in key surface molecules, bio-assay for the activity of acidic phosphatases (ACP), and ELISA for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12. In fact, we found that purified ABP induced phenotypic maturation revealed by increased expression of CD86, CD40, and MHC II. Functional experiments showed the down-regulation of ACP inside DCs (which occurs when phagocytosis of DCs is decreased, and antigen presentation increased with maturation). Finally, ABP increased the production of IL-12. These data reveal that ABP promotes effective activation of murine DCs. This adjuvant-like activity may have therapeutic applications in clinical settings where immune responses need boosting. It is therefore concluded that ABP can exert positive modulation to murine DCs.

  19. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on multiscale complexity of dual-task postural control in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Diange; Zhou, Junhong; Chen, Hu; Manor, Brad; Lin, Jianhao; Zhang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the prefrontal cortex reduces the size and speed of standing postural sway in younger adults, particularly when performing a cognitive dual task. Here, we hypothesized that tDCS would alter the complex dynamics of postural sway as quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE). Twenty healthy older adults completed two study visits. Center-of-pressure (COP) fluctuations were recorded during single-task (i.e., quiet standing) and dual-task (i.e., standing while performing serial subtractions) conditions, both before and after a 20-min session of real or sham tDCS. MSE was used to estimate COP complexity within each condition. The percentage change in complexity from single- to dual-task conditions (i.e., dual-task cost) was also calculated. Before tDCS, COP complexity was lower (p = 0.04) in the dual-task condition as compared to the single-task condition. Neither real nor sham tDCS altered complexity in the single-task condition. As compared to sham tDCS, real tDCS increased complexity in the dual-task condition (p = 0.02) and induced a trend toward improved serial subtraction performance (p = 0.09). Moreover, those subjects with lower dual-task COP complexity at baseline exhibited greater percentage increases in complexity following real tDCS (R = −0.39, p = 0.05). Real tDCS also reduced the dual-task cost to complexity (p = 0.02), while sham stimulation had no effect. A single session of tDCS targeting the prefrontal cortex increased standing postural sway complexity with concurrent non-postural cognitive task. This form of noninvasive brain stimulation may be a safe strategy to acutely improve postural control by enhancing the system's capacity to adapt to stressors. PMID:25963755

  20. Patella Eversion Reduces Early Knee Range of Motion and Muscle Torque Recovery after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Comparison between Minimally Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty and Conventional Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokifumi Majima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that patella eversion during total knee arthroplasty (TKA reduces early return of active knee extension and flexion, quadriceps muscle strength, and postoperative pain. In 100 conventional TKA knees and 100 minimally invasive TKA (MIS TKA knees, we compared knee range of motion (ROM, postoperative pain, and quadriceps muscle strength at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after surgery. The differences of surgical approach between MIS TKA and conventional TKA of this study are length of skin incision with subcutaneal flap and patella eversion. In MIS TKA, skin incision is shorter than conventional TKA. Furthermore, patella is not everted in MIS TKA procedure. There were no significant differences in preoperative factors. Postoperative improvement of ROM, postoperative muscle strength recovery, and postoperative improvement of visual analog scale were faster in patients with MIS TKA when compared to that in patients with conventional TKA. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in complication, 5-year clinical results of subjective knee function score, and the postoperative component angle and lower leg alignment. These results indicate that patella eversion may affect muscle strength recovery and postoperative pain.

  1. Improvement on Transportation Safety on Bus by Installing A Speed Limiter in Conventional Engine to Reduce Speed Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving is one of the conditions when the driver should be given special attention to make the motor vehicle in driving way and the driver should be in a good condition. However, the problem is in a certain condition the driver lost their control speed due to their target and minimize the driving time and it led the high potential to accident. Therefore, speed limiter which applied in the bus is urgently needed to reduce the accident and improve their awareness of road safety. Developed speed limiter is completed by fuel cut-off system to prevent the engine and maintain the speed. Limitation of speed be adapted by government regulation. From the results show that the highest and average speed of 136 km/h and 123.5 km/h is observed by bus speed prior to use speed limiter. After speed limiter applied in the bus, the approved maximum speed is 90 km/h. Those data approve that the speed limiter can reduce 83% from the top speed before speed limiter applied.

  2. Combining conventional and thermal drilling in order to increase speed and reduce costs of drilling operations to access deep geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Edoardo; Kant, Michael A.; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    The exploitation of deep geothermal resources for energy production relies on finding cost effective solutions to increase the drilling performance in hard rocks. Conventional rotary drilling techniques, based on mechanical rock exportation, result in high rates of drilling tool wearing, causing significant costs. Additionally, rotary drilling results in low drilling speeds in the typically hard crystalline basement rocks targeted for enhanced geothermal energy utilization technologies. Furthermore, even lower overall drilling rates result, when considering tripping times required to exchange worn drill tools. Therefore, alternative drilling techniques, such as hammering, thermal drilling, plasma drilling, and jetting processes are widely investigated in order to provide cost-effective alternatives to conventional drilling methods. A promising approach, that combines conventional rotary and thermal drilling techniques, is investigated in the present work. Here, the rock material is thermally weakened before being exported by conventional cutters. Heat is locally provided by a flame, which moves over the rock surface, heat-treating the material. Besides reducing the rock strength, an in-depth smoothening effect of the mechanical rock properties is observed due to the thermal treatment. This results in reduced rates of drill bit wearing and higher rates of penetration, which in turn decreases drilling costs significantly, particularly for deep-drilling projects. Due to the high heating rates, rock-hardening, commonly observed at moderate temperatures, can be avoided. The flame action can be modelled as a localized, high heat transfer coefficient flame treatment, which results in orders of magnitude higher heating rates than conventional oven treatments. Therefore, we analyse rock strength variations after different maximum temperatures, flame-based heating rates, and rock confinement pressures. The results show that flame treatments lead to a monotonous decrease of

  3. Impact of low-trans fat compositions on the quality of conventional and fat-reduced puff pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    Four vegetable fat blends (FBs) with low trans-fatty acid (TFA ≤ 0.6 %) content with various ratios of palm stearin (PS) and rapeseed oil (RO) were characterised and examined for their application in puff pastry production. The amount of PS decreased from FB1 to FB4 and simultaneously the RO content increased. A range of analytical methods were used to characterise the FBs, including solid fat content (SFC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cone penetrometry and rheological measurements. The internal and external structural quality parameters of baked puff pastry were investigated using texture analyser equipped with an Extended Craft Knife (ECK), VolScan and C-Cell image system. Puff pastry containing FB1 and FB2 achieved excellent baking results for full fat and fat-reduced puff pastry; hence these FBs contained adequate shortening properties. A fat reduction by 40 % using FB2 and a reduction of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) by 49 %, compared to the control, did not lead to adverse effects in lift and specific volume. The higher amount of RO and the lower SAFA content compared to FB1 coupled with the satisfying baking results makes FB2 the fat of choice in this study. FB3 and FB4 were found to be unsuitable for puff pastry production because of their melting behaviour.

  4. MIF Promotes Classical Activation and Conversion of Inflammatory Ly6Chigh Monocytes into TipDCs during Murine Toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Ruiz-Rosado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF mediates immunity against Toxoplasma gondii infection by inducing inflammatory cytokines required to control the parasite replication. However, the role of this inflammatory mediator in the cell-mediated immune response against this infection is still poorly understood. Here, we used T. gondii-infected WT and Mif−/− mice to analyze the role of MIF in the maturation of CD11b+ and CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs. We found that MIF promotes maturation of CD11b+ but not CD8α+ DCs, by inducing IL-12p70 production and CD86 expression. Infected Mif−/− mice showed significantly lower numbers of TNF and inducible nitric oxide synthase- (iNOS- producing DCs (TipDCs compared to infected WT mice. The adoptive transfer of Ly6Chigh monocytes into infected WT or Mif−/− mice demonstrated that MIF participates in the differentiation of Ly6Chigh monocytes into TipDCs. In addition, infected Mif−/− mice display a lower percentage of IFN-γ-producing natural killer (NK cells compared to WT mice, which is associated with reducing numbers of TipDCs in Mif−/− mice. Furthermore, administration of recombinant MIF (rMIF into T. gondii-infected Mif−/− mice restored the numbers of TipDCs and reversed the susceptible phenotype of Mif−/− mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate an important role for MIF inducing cell-mediated immunity to T. gondii infection.

  5. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  6. Low central venous pressure versus acute normovolemic hemodilution versus conventional fluid management for reducing blood loss in radical retropubic prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ashraf S; Moul, Judd W; Polascik, Thomas J; Robertson, Cary N; Roche, Anthony M; White, William D; Hill, Stephen E; Nosnick, Israel; Gan, Tong J

    2014-05-01

    To compare acute normovolemic hemodilution versus low central venous pressure strategy versus conventional fluid management in reducing intraoperative estimated blood loss, hematocrit drop and need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy under general anesthesia. Patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy under general anesthesia were randomized to conventional fluid management, acute normovolemic hemodilution or low central venous pressure (≤5 mmHg). Treatment effects on estimated blood loss and hematocrit change were tested in multivariable regression models accounting for surgeon, prostate size, and all two-way interactions. Ninety-two patients completed the study. Estimated blood loss (mean ± SD) was significantly lower with low central venous pressure (706 ± 362 ml) compared to acute normovolemic hemodilution (1103 ± 635 ml) and conventional (1051 ± 714 ml) groups (p = 0.0134). There was no difference between the groups in need for blood transfusion, or hematocrit drop from preoperative values. The multivariate model predicting estimated blood loss showed a significant effect of treatment (p = 0.0028) and prostate size (p = 0.0323), accounting for surgeon (p = 0.0013). In the model predicting hematocrit change, accounting for surgeon difference (p = 0.0037), the treatment effect depended on prostate size (p = 0.0007) with the slope of low central venous pressure differing from the other two groups. Hematocrit was predicted to drop more with increased prostate size in acute normovolemic hemodilution and conventional groups but not with low central venous pressure. Limitations include the inability to blind providers to group assignment, possible variability between providers in estimation of blood loss, and the relatively small sample size that was not powered to detect differences between the groups in need for blood transfusion. Maintaining low central venous

  7. The effects of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on food craving and temporal discounting in women with frequent food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekic, Maria; McClelland, Jessica; Campbell, Iain; Nestler, Steffen; Rubia, Katya; David, Anthony S; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    Bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and some forms of obesity are characterised by compulsive overeating that is often precipitated by food craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to suppress food cravings, but there is insufficient evidence to support its application in clinical practice. Furthermore, the potential moderating role of impulsivity has not been considered. This study used a randomised within-subjects crossover design to examine whether a 20-minute session of sham-controlled bilateral tDCS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (anode right/cathode left) would transiently modify food cravings and temporal discounting (TD; a measure of choice impulsivity) in 17 healthy women with frequent food cravings. Whether the effects of tDCS on food craving were moderated by individual differences in TD behaviour was also explored. Participants were exposed to food and a film of people eating, and food cravings and TD were assessed before and after active and sham stimulation. Craving for sweet but not savoury foods was reduced following real tDCS. Participants that exhibited more reflective choice behaviour were more susceptible to the anti-craving effects of tDCS than those that displayed more impulsive choice behaviour. No differences were seen in TD or food consumption after real versus sham tDCS. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS in temporarily lowering food cravings and identify the moderating role of TD behaviour.

  8. The HLT, DAQ and DCS TDR

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F. J

    At the end of June the Trigger-DAQ community achieved a major milestone with the submission to the LHCC of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for DAQ, HLT and DCS. The first unbound copies were handed to the LHCC referees on the scheduled date of 30th June, this was followed a few days later by a limited print run which produced the first bound copies (see Figure 1). As had previously been announced both to the LHCC and the ATLAS Collaboration it was not possible on this timescale to give a complete validation of all of the aspects of the architecture in the TDR. So it had been agreed that further work would continue over the summer to provide more complete results for the formal review by the LHCC of the TDR in September. Thus there followed an intense programme of measurements and analysis: especially to provide results for HLT both in testbeds and for the event selection software itself; to provide additional information on scaling of the dataflow aspects; to provide first results on the new prototype ROBin...

  9. Dcs Data Viewer, an Application that Accesses ATLAS DCS Historical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchas, C.; Schlenker, S.; Dimitrov, G.; Jahn, G.

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is one of the four Large Hadron Collider experiments. The Detector Control System (DCS) of ATLAS is responsible for the supervision of the detector equipment, the reading of operational parameters, the propagation of the alarms and the archiving of important operational data in a relational database (DB). DCS Data Viewer (DDV) is an application that provides access to the ATLAS DCS historical data through a web interface. Its design is structured using a client-server architecture. The pythonic server connects to the DB and fetches the data by using optimized SQL requests. It communicates with the outside world, by accepting HTTP requests and it can be used stand alone. The client is an AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) interactive web application developed under the Google Web Toolkit (GWT) framework. Its web interface is user friendly, platform and browser independent. The selection of metadata is done via a column-tree view or with a powerful search engine. The final visualization of the data is done using java applets or java script applications as plugins. The default output is a value-over-time chart, but other types of outputs like tables, ascii or ROOT files are supported too. Excessive access or malicious use of the database is prevented by a dedicated protection mechanism, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of inexperienced users. The current configuration of the client and of the outputs can be saved in an XML file. Protection against web security attacks is foreseen and authentication constrains have been taken into account, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of users world wide. Due to its flexible interface and its generic and modular approach, DDV could be easily used for other experiment control systems.

  10. A novel JAK inhibitor JTE-052 reduces skin inflammation and ameliorates chronic dermatitis in rodent models: Comparison with conventional therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Atsuo; Shinozaki, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Yasuo; Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Taniai-Riya, Eriko; Toyoda, Kaoru; Kakimoto, Kochi; Kimoto, Yukari; Amano, Wataru; Konishi, Noriko; Hayashi, Mikio

    2017-04-19

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are required for several inflammatory cytokine signalling pathways and are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. JAK inhibitors are therefore promising therapeutic candidates for chronic dermatitis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the novel JAK inhibitor JTE-052 on inflammatory responses associated with chronic dermatitis, and compared its profile with those of conventional therapeutic agents in rodent models of chronic dermatitis. JTE-052 inhibited the Th1-, Th2- and Th17-type inflammatory responses of human T cells and mast cells in vitro. Oral administration of JTE-052 inhibited skin inflammation in hapten-induced chronic dermatitis in mice, associated with reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in the skin and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in serum. In contrast, although ciclosporin partly inhibited skin inflammation, it did not reduce interleukin (IL)-4 production in skin, and enhanced IgE production in serum. Oral administration of JTE-052 also inhibited skin inflammation in mouse models of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis induced by a mite extract, thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-23. The maximal efficacy of JTE-052 in these dermatitis models was superior to the conventional therapeutic agents, ciclosporin and methotrexate. Topical application of JTE-052 ointment ameliorated hapten-induced chronic dermatitis in rats more effectively than tacrolimus ointment. Furthermore, JTE-052 ointment did not cause the thinning of normal skin associated with topical corticosteroids. These results indicate that JTE-052 is a promising candidate as an anti-inflammatory drug for various types of chronic dermatitis, with a distinctly different profile from conventional therapy following either oral or topical application. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Dermatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Task-specific effects of tDCS-induced cortical excitability changes on cognitive and motor sequence set shifting performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Leite

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on two set shifting tasks. Set shifting ability is defined as the capacity to switch between mental sets or actions and requires the activation of a distributed neural network. Thirty healthy subjects (fifteen per site received anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or the primary motor cortex (M1. We measured set shifting in both cognitive and motor tasks. The results show that both anodal and cathodal single session tDCS can modulate cognitive and motor tasks. However, an interaction was found between task and type of stimulation as anodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 was found to increase performance in the cognitive task, while cathodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 had the opposite effect on the motor task. Additionally, tDCS effects seem to be most evident on the speed of changing sets, rather than on reducing the number of errors or increasing the efficacy of irrelevant set filtering.

  12. Emotional distraction and bodily reaction: Modulation of autonomous responses by anodal tDCS to the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Alexander Schroeder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal electric stimulation has been demonstrated to effectively modulate cognitive processing. Specifically, the amelioration of cognitive control over emotional distraction by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS points towards targeted therapeutic applications in various psychiatric disorders. In addition to behavioral measures, autonomous nervous system (ANS responses are fundamental bodily signatures of emotional information processing. However, interactions between the modulation of cognitive control by tDCS and ANS responses have received limited attention. We here report on ANS data gathered in healthy subjects that performed an emotional cognitive control task parallel to the modulation of left prefrontal cortical activity by 1mA anodal or sham tDCS. Skin conductance responses (SCRs to negative and neutral pictures of human scenes were reduced by anodal as compared to sham tDCS. Individual SCR amplitude variations were associated with the amount of distraction. Moreover, the stimulation-driven performance- and SCR-modulations were related in form of a quadratic, inverse-U function. Thus, our results indicate that non-invasive brain stimulation (i.e., anodal tDCS can modulate autonomous responses synchronous to behavioral improvements, but the range of possible concurrent improvements from prefrontal stimulation is limited. Interactions between cognitive, affective, neurophysiological, and vegetative responses to emotional content can shape brain stimulation effectiveness and require theory-driven integration in potential treatment protocols.

  13. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cognition, symptoms, and smoking in schizophrenia: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert C; Boules, Sylvia; Mattiuz, Sanela; Youssef, Mary; Tobe, Russell H; Sershen, Henry; Lajtha, Abel; Nolan, Karen; Amiaz, Revital; Davis, John M

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by cognitive deficits which persist after acute symptoms have been treated or resolved. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to improve cognition and reduce smoking craving in healthy subjects but has not been as carefully evaluated in a randomized controlled study for these effects in schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled study of the effects of 5 sessions of tDCS (2 milliamps for 20minutes) on cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and smoking and cigarette craving in 37 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were current smokers. Thirty subjects provided evaluable data on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), with the primary outcome measure, the MCCB Composite score. Active compared to sham tDCS subjects showed significant improvements after the fifth tDCS session in MCCB Composite score (p=0.008) and on the MCCB Working Memory (p=0.002) and Attention-Vigilance (p=0.027) domain scores, with large effect sizes. MCCB Composite and Working Memory domain scores remained significant at Benjamini-Hochberg corrected significance levels (α=0.05). There were no statistically significant effects on secondary outcome measures of psychiatric symptoms (PANSS scores), hallucinations, cigarette craving, or cigarettes smoked. The positive effects of tDCS on cognitive performance suggest a potential efficacious treatment for cognitive deficits in partially recovered chronic schizophrenia outpatients that should be further investigated.

  14. Characterization and properties of biosurfactants produced by a newly isolated strain Bacillus methylotrophicus DCS1 and their applications in enhancing solubility of hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemil, Nawel; Ben Ayed, Hanen; Hmidet, Noomen; Nasri, Moncef

    2016-11-01

    Six biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Sfax, Tunisia. Isolates were screened for biosurfactant production by different conventional methods including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop-collapsing and oil displacement tests. All these screening tests show that all the isolates behave differently. Among the isolated bacteria, DCS1 strain was selected for further studies based on its highest activities and it was identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus DCS1. This strain was found to be a potent producer of biosurfactant when cultivated in mineral-salts medium supplemented with diesel oil (2 %, v/v) as a sole carbon source. Physicochemical properties and stability of biosurfactants synthesized by B. methylotrophicus DCS1 were investigated. The produced biosurfactants DCS1, from Landy medium, possess high surface activity that could lower the surface tension of water to a value of 31 from 72 mN m(-1) and have a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 100 mg L(-1). Compared with SDS and Tween 80, biosurfactants showed excellent emulsification activities against different hydrocarbon substrates and high solubilization efficiency towards diesel oil. Biosurfactants DCS1 showed good stability in a wide range of temperature, pH and salinity. These results suggested that biosurfactants produced by B. methylotrophicus DCS1 could be an alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants for use in bioremediation processes to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic compounds.

  15. Tolerogenic pDCs: spotlight on Foxo3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Vincenzo

    2011-04-01

    Cancer creates a peculiar inflammatory environment enriched for transcription factors with a negative influence on adaptive immunity. In this issue of the JCI, Watkins and colleagues identify Foxo3 as a master regulator of the tolerogenic program in tumor-associated, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Foxo3 enables pDCs to induce tolerance in tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, turning them into regulatory lymphocytes capable of inhibiting nearby CD8+ T lymphocytes. Provision of tumor-specific CD4+ T helper cells interrupts this circuit by inhibiting Foxo3 expression and fully licensing the antigen-presenting ability of pDCs. These data identify a new target for therapeutic intervention and provide insight into the transcription factor interplay in myeloid cells recruited to the cancer microenvironment.

  16. IRF8 Transcription Factor Controls Survival and Function of Terminally Differentiated Conventional and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells, Respectively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichien, Dorine; Scott, Charlotte L; Martens, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) has been proposed to be essential for development of monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1s) and remains highly expressed in differentiated DCs. Transcription factors that are required to maintain the ide...

  17. Considering the influence of stimulation parameters on the effect of conventional and high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Wing Ting; Hart, John; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recently, techniques to non-invasively modulate specific brain areas gained popularity in the form of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation. These non-invasive techniques have already shown promising outcomes in various studies with healthy subjects as well as patient populations. Despite widespread dissemination of tDCS, there remain significant unknowns about the influence of a diverse number of tDCS parameters (e.g. polarity, size, position of electrodes & duration of stimulation) in inducing neurophysiological and behavioral effects. This article explores both techniques starting with the history of tDCS, to the differences between conventional tDCS and high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation, the underlying physiological mechanism, the (in)direct effects, the applications of tDCS with varying parameters, the efficacy, the safety issues and the opportunities for future research.

  18. Longitudinal tDCS: Consistency across Working Memory Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Berryhill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in enhancing and maintaining cognitive function. In recent years, advances in noninvasive brain stimulation devices, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, have targeted working memory in particular. Despite controversy surrounding outcomes of single-session studies, a growing field of working memory training studies incorporate multiple sessions of tDCS. It is useful to take stock of these findings because there is a diversity of paradigms employed and the outcomes observed between research groups. This will be important in assessing cognitive training programs paired with stimulation techniques and identifying the more useful and less effective approaches. Here, we treat the tDCS+ working memory training field as a case example, but also survey training benefits in other neuromodulatory techniques (e.g., tRNS, tACS. There are challenges associated with the broad parameter space including: individual differences, stimulation intensity, duration, montage, session number, session spacing, training task selection, timing of follow up testing, near and far transfer tasks. In summary, although the field of assisted cognitive training is young, some design choices are more favorable than others. By way of heuristic, the current evidence supports including more training/tDCS sessions (5+, applying anodal tDCS targeting prefrontal regions, including follow up testing on trained and transfer tasks after a period of no contact. What remains unclear, but important for future translational value is continuing work to pinpoint optimal values for the tDCS parameters on a per cognitive task basis. Importantly the emerging literature shows notable consistency in the application of tDCS for WM across various participant populations compared to single session experimental designs.

  19. Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (ctDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Argyropoulos, Georgios P.; Bastian, Amy; Cortes, Mar; Davis, Nicholas J.; Edwards, Dylan J.; Ferrucci, Roberta; Fregni, Felipe; Galea, Joseph M.; Hamada, Masahi; Manto, Mario; Miall, R. Chris; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Pope, Paul A.; Priori, Alberto; Rothwell, John; Tomlinson, S. Paul; Celnik, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum is critical for both motor and cognitive control. Dysfunction of the cerebellum is a component of multiple neurological disorders. In recent years, interventions have been developed that aim to excite or inhibit the activity and function of the human cerebellum. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum (ctDCS) promises to be a powerful tool for the modulation of cerebellar excitability. This technique has gained popularity in recent years as it can be used to investigate human cerebellar function, is easily delivered, is well tolerated, and has not shown serious adverse effects. Importantly, the ability of ctDCS to modify behavior makes it an interesting approach with a potential therapeutic role for neurological patients. Through both electrical and non-electrical effects (vascular, metabolic) ctDCS is thought to modify the activity of the cerebellum and alter the output from cerebellar nuclei. Physiological studies have shown a polarity-specific effect on the modulation of cerebellar–motor cortex connectivity, likely via cerebellar–thalamocortical pathways. Modeling studies that have assessed commonly used electrode montages have shown that the ctDCS-generated electric field reaches the human cerebellum with little diffusion to neighboring structures. The posterior and inferior parts of the cerebellum (i.e., lobules VI-VIII) seem particularly susceptible to modulation by ctDCS. Numerous studies have shown to date that ctDCS can modulate motor learning, and affect cognitive and emotional processes. Importantly, this intervention has a good safety profile; similar to when applied over cerebral areas. Thus, investigations have begun exploring ctDCS as a viable intervention for patients with neurological conditions. PMID:25406224

  20. Simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG): Assessing the impact of tDCS on slow cortical magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Cossio, E.; Witkowski, M.; Robinson, S.E.; Cohen, L.G.; Birbaumer, N.; Soekadar, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence cognitive, affective or motor brain functions. Whereas previous imaging studies demonstrated widespread tDCS effects on brain metabolism, direct impact of tDCS on electric or magnetic source activity in task-related brain areas could not b

  1. Repulsive guidance molecule a blockade exerts the immunoregulatory function in DCs stimulated with ABP and LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuxu; Gao, Yan; Zhai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shuo; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan

    2016-08-02

    Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is an axonal guidance molecule that has recently found to exert function in immune system. This study evaluated the function of RGMa in modulation of dendritic cells (DCs) function stimulated with Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a RGMa-neutralizing antibody. Compared with the Control-IgG/ABP and Control-IgG/LPS groups, DCs in the Anti-RGMa/ABP and Anti-RGMa/LPS groups 1) showed small, round cells with a few cell processes and organelles, and many pinocytotic vesicles; 2) had decreased MHC II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 expression; 3) displayed the decreased IL-12p70, IL-1β and TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 secretion; 4) had a high percentage of FITC-dextran uptake; and 5) displayed a reduced ability to drive T cell proliferation and reinforced T cell polarization toward a Th2 cytokine pattern. We conclude that DCs treated with RGMa-neutralizing antibodies present with tolerogenic and immunoregulatory characteristics, which provides new insights into further understanding of the function of RGMa.

  2. The Value of CO2-Geothermal Bulk Energy Storage to Reducing CO2 Emissions Compared to Conventional Bulk Energy Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland-Hand, J.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary basin geothermal resources and CO2 that is captured from large point sources can be used for bulk energy storage (BES) in order to accommodate higher penetration and utilization of variable renewable energy resources. Excess energy is stored by pressurizing and injecting CO2 into deep, porous, and permeable aquifers that are ubiquitous throughout the United States. When electricity demand exceeds supply, some of the pressurized and geothermally-heated CO2 can be produced and used to generate electricity. This CO2-BES approach reduces CO2 emissions directly by storing CO2 and indirectly by using some of that CO2 to time-shift over-generation and displace CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants that would have otherwise provided electricity. As such, CO2-BES may create more value to regional electricity systems than conventional pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) or compressed air energy storage (CAES) approaches that may only create value by time-shifting energy and indirectly reducing CO2 emissions. We developed and implemented a method to estimate the value that BES has to reducing CO2 emissions from regional electricity systems. The method minimizes the dispatch of electricity system components to meet exogenous demand subject to various CO2 prices, so that the value of CO2 emissions reductions can be estimated. We applied this method to estimate the performance and value of CO2-BES, PHES, and CAES within real data for electricity systems in California and Texas over the course of a full year to account for seasonal fluctuations in electricity demand and variable renewable resource availability. Our results suggest that the value of CO2-BES to reducing CO2 emissions may be as much as twice that of PHES or CAES and thus CO2-BES may be a more favorable approach to energy storage in regional electricity systems, especially those where the topography is not amenable to PHES or the subsurface is not amenable to CAES.

  3. Complement regulates conventional DC-mediated NK-cell activation by inducing TGF-β1 in Gr-1+ myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiaoping; Koo, Gloria C; Salmon, Jane E

    2012-07-01

    Complement activation modulates DC-mediated T-cell activation, but whether complement affects DC-mediated priming of NK cells is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that conventional DCs (cDCs) from C3(-/-) and C5aR(-/-) mice are hyperresponsive to polyI:C, a TLR3 ligand, leading to enhanced NK-cell activation. We found that cDCs lack C5a receptor (C5aR) and do not respond to C5a directly. Depletion of Gr-1(+) myeloid cells augments polyI:C-induced cDC activation in WT but not in C3(-/-) or C5aR(-/-) mice, indicating that the effect of complement activation on cDCs is indirectly mediated through C5aR-expressing Gr-1(+) myeloid cells. We further demonstrated that the mechanism by which Gr-1(+) myeloid cells regulate the activity of cDCs involves C5a-dependent TGF-β1 production in Gr-1(+) myeloid cells. C5a enhances and blocking C5aR decreases TGF-β1 production in cultured bone marrow Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells. C5aR deficiency is associated with reduced circulating TGF-β1 levels, while depleting Gr-1(+) myeloid cells abrogates this difference between WT and C5aR(-/-) mice. Lastly, we showed that enhanced cDC-NK-cell activity in C3(-/-) mice led to delayed melanoma tumor growth. Thus, complement activation indirectly regulates cDC-NK-cell activation in response to inflammatory stimuli such as TLR3 by promoting TGF-β1 production in Gr-1(+) myeloid cells at steady state.

  4. Frontal tDCS modulates orbitofrontal reality filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, A L; David, A W; Bikson, M; Schnider, A

    2014-04-18

    Orbitofrontal reality filtering denotes a memory control mechanism necessary to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. Its failure induces reality confusion as evident in confabulation and disorientation. In the present study, we explored the influence of orbitofrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on reality filtering. Twenty healthy human subjects made a reality filtering task, while receiving cathodal, anodal, or sham stimulation over the frontal pole in three sessions separated by at least 1week. Computational models predicted that this montage can produce polarity-specific current flow across the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In agreement with our hypothesis, we found that cathodal tDCS over the frontal pole specifically impaired reality filtering in comparison to anodal and sham stimulation. This study shows that reality filtering, an orbitofrontal function, can be modulated with tDCS.

  5. Understanding public (misunderstanding of tDCS for enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yenisa Cabrera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain insight into the public’s perspective on using the minimally invasive technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as an enhancement tool, we analyzed and compared online comments in key popular press articles from two different periods (pre-commercialization and post-commercialization. The main conclusion drawn from this exploratory investigation is that public perception regarding tDCS has shifted from misunderstanding to cautionary realism. This change in attitude can be explained as moving from a focus on an emergent technology to a focus on its applications, benefits, and risks as the technology becomes more grounded within the public domain. Future governance of tDCS should include the concerns and enthusiasms of the public.Keywords: cognitive enhancement, neuroethics, public understanding, transcranial direct current stimulation, brain stimulation, public policy.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in behavioral and food addiction: A systematic review of efficacy, technical and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSauvaget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.

  7. Communication between Trigger/DAQ and DCS in ATLAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Burckhart; R.Hart; 等

    2001-01-01

    Within the ATLAS experiment Trigger/DAQ and DCS are both logically and physically separated.Nevertheless there is a need to communicate.The initial problem definition and analysis suggested three subsystems the Trigger/DAQ DCS Communication (DDC) project should support the ability to :1.exchange data between Trigger/DAQ and DCS;2.send alarm messages from DCS to Trigger/DAQ;3.issue commands to DCS from Trigger/DAQ.Each subsystem is developed and implemented independently using a common software infrastructure.Among the various subsystems of the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ the Online is responsible for the control and configuration.It is the glue connecting the different systems such as data flow.level 1 and high-level triggers.The DDC uses the various Online components as an interface point on the Trigger/DAQ side with the PVSS II SCADA system on the DCS side and addresses issues such as partitioning,time stamps,event numbers,hierarchy,authorization and security,PVSS II is a commercial product chosen by CERN to be the SCADA system for all LHC experiments,Its API provides full access to its database,which is sufficient to implement the 3 subsystems of the DDC software,The DDC project adopted the Online Software Process,which recommends a basic software life-cycle:problem statement,analysis,design,implementation and testing.Each phase results in a corresponding document or in the case of the implementation and testing,a piece of code,Inspection and review take a major role in the Online software process,The DDC documents have been inspected to detect flaws and resulted in a improved quality.A first prototype of the DDC is ready and foreseen to be used at the test-beam during summer 2001.

  8. Reduced field-of -view diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas: Comparison with conventional single-shot echo-planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Jang, Jin Young; Kim, Sun Whe; Ryu, Ji Kon; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kannengiesser, Stephan [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    To investigate the image quality (IQ) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of reduced field-of-view (FOV) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of pancreas in comparison with full FOV DWI. In this retrospective study, 2 readers independently performed qualitative analysis of full FOV DWI (FOV, 38 × 38 cm; b-value, 0 and 500 s/mm{sup 2}) and reduced FOV DWI (FOV, 28 × 8.5 cm; b-value, 0 and 400 s/mm{sup 2}). Both procedures were conducted with a two-dimensional spatially selective radiofrequency excitation pulse, in 102 patients with benign or malignant pancreatic diseases (mean size, 27.5 ± 14.4 mm). The study parameters included 1) anatomic structure visualization, 2) lesion conspicuity, 3) artifacts, 4) IQ score, and 5) subjective clinical utility for confirming or excluding initially considered differential diagnosis on conventional imaging. Another reader performed quantitative ADC measurements of focal pancreatic lesions and parenchyma. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare qualitative scores and ADCs between DWI sequences. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare ADCs between the lesions and parenchyma. On qualitative analysis, reduced FOV DWI showed better anatomic structure visualization (2.76 ± 0.79 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 2.81 ± 0.64 at b = 400 s/mm{sup 2}), lesion conspicuity (3.11 ± 0.99 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 3.15 ± 0.79 at b = 400 s/mm{sup 2}), IQ score (8.51 ± 2.05 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 8.79 ± 1.60 at b = 400 s/mm{sup 2}), and higher clinical utility (3.41 ± 0.64), as compared to full FOV DWI (anatomic structure, 2.18 ± 0.59 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 2.56 ± 0.47 at b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}; lesion conspicuity, 2.55 ± 1.07 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 2.89 ± 0.86 at b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}; IQ score, 7.13 ± 1.83 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 8.17 ± 1.31 at b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}; clinical utility, 3.14 ± 0.70) (p < 0.05). Artifacts were significantly improved on reduced FOV DWI (2.65 ± 0.68) at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} (full FOV DWI, 2.41 ± 0.63) (p

  9. CD40-signalling abrogates induction of RORγt+ Treg cells by intestinal CD103+ DCs and causes fatal colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Christian; Ogrinc, Ana; Steyer, Verena; Meier, Stefanie; Simon, Ferdinand; Wimmer, Maria; Blutke, Andreas; Straub, Tobias; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Lutgens, Esther; Marconi, Peggy; Ohnmacht, Caspar; Garzetti, Debora; Stecher, Bärbel; Brocker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Immune homeostasis in intestinal tissues depends on the generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) acquire microbiota-derived material from the gut lumen for transport to draining lymph nodes and generation of receptor-related orphan γt+ (RORγt+) Helios−-induced Treg (iTreg) cells. Here we show CD40-signalling as a microbe-independent signal that can induce migration of CD103+ DCs from the lamina propria (LP) to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Transgenic mice with constitutive CD11c-specific CD40-signalling have reduced numbers of CD103+ DCs in LP and a low frequency of RORγt+Helios− iTreg cells, exacerbated inflammatory Th1/Th17 responses, high titres of microbiota-specific immunoglobulins, dysbiosis and fatal colitis, but no pathology is detected in other tissues. Our data demonstrate a CD40-dependent mechanism capable of abrogating iTreg cell induction by DCs, and suggest that the CD40L/CD40-signalling axis might be able to intervene in the generation of new iTreg cells in order to counter-regulate immune suppression to enhance immunity. PMID:28276457

  10. Focused transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates specific domains of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripfl, Jürgen; Lamm, Claus

    2015-02-01

    Recent neuroscience theories suggest that different kinds of self-regulation may share a common psychobiological mechanism. However, empirical evidence for a domain general self-regulation mechanism is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether focused anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), facilitating the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), acts on a domain general self-regulation mechanism and thus modulates both affective and appetitive self-regulation. Twenty smokers participated in this within-subject sham controlled study. Effects of anodal left, anodal right and sham tDCS over the dlPFC on affective picture appraisal and nicotine craving-cue appraisal were assessed. Anodal right tDCS over the dlPFC reduced negative affect in emotion appraisal, but neither modulated regulation of positive emotion appraisal nor of craving appraisal. Anodal left stimulation did not induce any significant effects. The results of our study show that domain specific self-regulation networks are at work in the prefrontal cortex. Focused tDCS modulation of this specific self-regulation network could probably be used during the first phase of nicotine abstinence, during which negative affect might easily result in relapse. These findings have implications for neuroscience models of self-regulation and are of relevance for the development of brain stimulation based treatment methods for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with self-regulation deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter DCS for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pedro Martins, Filipe Manuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    TileCal is one of the ATLAS subdetectors operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is taking data since 2010. Seventy thousand (70000) parameters are used for control and monitoring purposes, requiring an automated system. The Detector Control System (DCS) was developed to ensure the coherent and safe operation of the whole ATLAS detector. The TileCal DCS is mainly responsible for the control and monitoring of the high and low voltage systems but it also supervises the detector infrastructure (cooling and racks), calibration systems, data acquisition and safety. During the first period of data taking (Run 1, 2010-12) the TileCal DCS allowed a smooth detector operation and should continue to do so for the second period (Run 2) that started in 2015. The TileCal DCS was updated in order to cope with the hardware and software requirements for Run 2 operation. These updates followed the general ATLAS guidelines on the software and hardware upgrade but also the new requirements from the TileCal detector. ...

  12. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter DCS for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pedro Martins, Filipe Manuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    TileCal is one of the ATLAS sub-detectors operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is taking data since 2010. The Detector Control System (DCS) was developed to ensure the coherent and safe operation of the whole ATLAS detector. Seventy thousand (70000) parameters are used for control and monitoring purposes of TileCal, requiring an automated system. The TileCal DCS is mainly responsible for the control and monitoring of the high and low voltage systems but it also supervises the detector infrastructure (cooling and racks), calibration systems, data acquisition and safety. During the first period of data taking (Run 1, 2010-12) the TileCal DCS allowed a smooth detector operation and should continue to do so for the second period (Run 2) that started in 2015. The TileCal DCS was updated in order to cope with the hardware and software requirements for Run 2 operation. These updates followed the general ATLAS guidelines on the software and hardware upgrade but also the new requirements from the TileCa...

  13. Task-specificity of unilateral anodal and dual-M1 tDCS effects on motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karok, Sophia; Fletcher, David; Witney, Alice G

    2017-01-08

    Task-specific effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning were investigated in 30 healthy participants. In a sham-controlled, mixed design, participants trained on 3 different motor tasks (Purdue Pegboard Test, Visuomotor Grip Force Tracking Task and Visuomotor Wrist Rotation Speed Control Task) over 3 consecutive days while receiving either unilateral anodal over the right primary motor cortex (M1), dual-M1 or sham stimulation. Retention sessions were administered 7 and 28 days after the end of training. In the Purdue Pegboard Test, both anodal and dual-M1 stimulation reduced average completion time approximately equally, an improvement driven by online learning effects and maintained for about 1 week. The Visuomotor Grip Force Tracking Task and the Visuomotor Wrist Rotation Speed Control Task were associated with an advantage of dual-M1 tDCS in consolidation processes both between training sessions and when testing at long-term retention; both were maintained for at least 1 month. This study demonstrates that M1-tDCS enhances and sustains motor learning with different electrode montages. Stimulation-induced effects emerged at different learning phases across the tasks, which strongly suggests that the influence of tDCS on motor learning is dynamic with respect to the functional recruitment of the distributed motor system at the time of stimulation. Divergent findings regarding M1-tDCS effects on motor learning may partially be ascribed to task-specific consequences and the effects of offline consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced discomfort during High-Definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine

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    Berkan eGuleyupoglu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS allows for non-invasive neuromodulation using an array of compact (approximately 1 cm2 contact area High-Definition (HD electrodes, as compared to conventional tDCS (which uses two large pads that are approximately 35cm2. In a previous transcutaneous study, we developed and validated designs for HD electrodes that reduce discomfort over >20 min session with 2 mA electrode current.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a chemical pretreatment with 6% benzocaine (topical numbing agent to further reduce subjective discomfort during transcutaneous stimulation and to allow for better sham controlled studies.MethodsPre-treatment with 6% benzocaine was compared with control (no pretreatment for 22 minutes 2 mA of stimulation, with either CCNY-4 or Lectron II electroconductive gel, for both cathodal and anodal transcutaneous (forearm stimulation (8 different combinations.Results Results show that for all conditions and polarities tested, stimulation with HD electrodes is safe and well tolerated and that pretreatment further reduced subjective discomfort. ConclusionPretreatment with a mild analgesic reduces discomfort during HD-tDCS.

  15. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a target of the dorsolateral prefrontal modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Lopes, Isabela Bittencourt Coutinho; Souza, Rodolpho Albuquerque; Klauss, Jaisa; Batista, Edson Kruger; Conti, Catarine Lima; Moscon, Janine Andrade; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report some electrophysiologic and imaging effects of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in drug addiction, notably in alcohol and crack-cocaine dependence. The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis obtained through event-related potentials (ERPs) under drug-related cues, more specifically in its P3 segment (300-500 ms) in both, alcoholics and crack-cocaine users, showed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was the brain area with the largest change towards increasing activation under drug-related cues in those subjects that kept abstinence during and after the treatment with bilateral tDCS (2 mA, 35 cm(2), cathodal left and anodal right) over dlPFC, applied repetitively (five daily sessions). In an additional study in crack-cocaine, which showed craving decreases after repetitive bilateral tDCS, we examined data originating from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and we found increased DTI parameters in the left connection between vmPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), such as the number of voxels, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in tDCS-treated crack-cocaine users when compared to the sham-tDCS group. This increasing of DTI parameters was significantly correlated with craving decreasing after the repetitive tDCS. The vmPFC relates to the control of drug seeking, possibly by extinguishing this behavior. In our studies, the bilateral dlPFC tDCS reduced relapses and craving to the drug use, and increased the vmPFC activation under drug cues, which may be of a great importance in the control of drug use in drug addiction.

  16. Closed loop control of ZVS half bridge DC-DC converter with DCS PWM Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANAPATI SIVAVARA PRASAD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The main drawback of the conventional symmetric control is that both primary switches in the converter operate at hard switching condition. Moreover, during the off-time period of two switches, the oscillation between the transformer leakage inductance and junction capacitance of the switches results in energy dissipation and electromagnetic interference (EMI emissions due to reverse recovery of MOSFETs body diodes. The asymmetric (complementary control was proposed to achieve ZVS operation for HB switches. However, asymmetric stresses distribution on the corresponding components may occur due to the asymmetric duty cycle distribution for the two primary switches. A new control scheme, to be known as duty-cycle shifted PWM (DCS PWM control, is proposed and applied to the conventional HB dc–dc converters to achieve ZVS for both the  switches without adding extra components and without adding asymmetric penalties of the complementary control. The concept of this new control scheme is shifting one of the two symmetric PWM driving signals close to the other, such that ZVS may be achieved for the lagging switch due to the shortened resonant interval. Moreover, based on the DCS PWM control, a new half-bridge topology is proposed to achieve ZVS for both the main switches and auxiliary switch by adding an auxiliary switch and diode in the proposed half bridge. ZVS for the  switch is achieved by utilizing the energy trapped in the leakage inductance. There are two control schemes. One is open loop and the other is closed loop. In open loop scheme, the given dc-dc converter is operating under disturbance. This disturbance effect is eliminated in closed loop scheme.

     

  17. Corticospinal excitability changes to anodal tDCS elucidated with NIRS-EEG joint-imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindal, Utkarsh; Sood, Mehak; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy;

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate corticospinal excitability. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) - electroencephalography (EEG) joint-imaging during and after anodal tDCS to measure changes in mean cerebral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2) along...... with changes in the log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5 Hz - 11.25 Hz. In two separate studies, we investigated local post-tDCS alterations from baseline at the site of anodal tDCS using NIRS-EEG/tDCS joint-imaging as well as local post-tDCS alterations in motor evoked potentials (MEP...... that the innovative technologies for portable NIRS-EEG neuroimaging may be leveraged to objectively quantify the progress (e.g., corticospinal excitability alterations) and dose tDCS intervention as an adjuvant treatment during neurorehabilitation....

  18. Design of a DCS Based Model for Continuous Leakage Monitoring System of Rotary Air Preheater of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan BHOWMICK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage in rotary air preheater makes a considerable contribution to the reduced overall efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants and increase the effect on environment. Since it is normal phenomenon, continuous monitoring of leakage is generally omitted in most power plants. But for accurate analysis of the operation of the thermal power plant, this leakage monitoring plays a vital role. In the present paper, design of a DCS based model for continuous leakages monitoring of rotary air preheater has been described. In the proposed model, the existing DCS based instrumentation system has been modified and online leakage monitoring system has been developed. This model has been installed in a captive power plant with high capacity boilers and very much satisfactory operation of this system has been observed. The observed online data along with their analysis results are presented in this paper.

  19. Effect of a tDCS electrode montage on implicit motor sequence learning in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Eun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a combination of excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the contralateral motor cortex and inhibitory cathodal tDCS to the ipsilateral motor cortex of the motor performing hand (Bi-tDCS would elicit more implicit motor sequence learning than anodal tDCS applied to the contralateral motor cortex alone (Uni-tDCS. Methods Eleven healthy right-handed adults underwent a randomized crossover experiment of Uni-tDCS, Bi-tDCS, or sham stimulation. Subjects performed a 12-digit finger sequence serial reaction time task with the right hand at baseline (Pre, at immediately (Post 1, and 24 hours after stimulation (Post 2. The ratios of reaction times of predetermined repeating sequence versus random sequence were subjected to statistical analysis. Results The paired t test showed that reaction time ratios were significant decreased by all stimulation types at Post 1 versus Pre (P Conclusions No significant difference was found between Uni-tDCS and Bi-tDCS in terms of induced implicit motor sequence learning, but tDCS led to greater consolidation of the learned motor sequence than sham stimulation. These findings need to be tested in the context of stroke hand motor rehabilitation.

  20. Optimization of focality and direction in dense electrode array transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Seyhmus; Dannhauer, Moritz; Erem, Burak; Macleod, Rob; Tucker, Don; Turovets, Sergei; Luu, Phan; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) aims to alter brain function non-invasively via electrodes placed on the scalp. Conventional tDCS uses two relatively large patch electrodes to deliver electrical current to the brain region of interest (ROI). Recent studies have shown that using dense arrays containing up to 512 smaller electrodes may increase the precision of targeting ROIs. However, this creates a need for methods to determine effective and safe stimulus patterns as the number of degrees of freedom is much higher with such arrays. Several approaches to this problem have appeared in the literature. In this paper, we describe a new method for calculating optimal electrode stimulus patterns for targeted and directional modulation in dense array tDCS which differs in some important aspects with methods reported to date. Approach. We optimize stimulus pattern of dense arrays with fixed electrode placement to maximize the current density in a particular direction in the ROI. We impose a flexible set of safety constraints on the current power in the brain, individual electrode currents, and total injected current, to protect subject safety. The proposed optimization problem is convex and thus efficiently solved using existing optimization software to find unique and globally optimal electrode stimulus patterns. Main results. Solutions for four anatomical ROIs based on a realistic head model are shown as exemplary results. To illustrate the differences between our approach and previously introduced methods, we compare our method with two of the other leading methods in the literature. We also report on extensive simulations that show the effect of the values chosen for each proposed safety constraint bound on the optimized stimulus patterns. Significance. The proposed optimization approach employs volume based ROIs, easily adapts to different sets of safety constraints, and takes negligible time to compute. An in-depth comparison study gives

  1. Inhibitory effect of immature dendritic cells (iDCs phagocytizing apoptotic lymphocytes on LPS-mediated activation of iDCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xiang WEI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of immature dendritic cells(iDCs on LPS-mediated maturation of iDCs phagocytizing allogeneic spleen lymphocytes after being treated bypsoralen plus ultraviolet A(PUVA. Methods Bone marrow-derived DCs were obtained from bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 mice by co-cultivation with recombinant mouse IL-4 and GM-CSF. Spleenlymphocytes(SLP of BALB/c mice were isolated and transformed to PUVA-SLP by treatment with 8-methoxy PUVA irradiation.The bone marrow-derived iDCs of C57BL/6 were co-cultured with PUVA-SLP of BALB/c mice to obtain PUVA¬SLPDCs. After incubation, iDCs and PUVA-SP DCs were induced to maturation by LPS(10ng/ml,24h, and then they were analyzed by flow cytometry.At the same time,the concentrations of the immunoreactive proteins IL-12p70,IL-12p40andIL-10 in cell supernatants were determined by ELISA kits according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Results PUVA-SLP DCs and iDCs were compared in terms of LPS responsiveness.The phenotype of iDCs(CD40,CD80, andCD86 was 50.58%, 66.29%, 71.20%, respectively, showed more rapid changes from immature to mature statein response to LPS stimulation compared with PUVA-SP DCs, the phenotype of which was 21.26%,38.50% and 39.78%, respectively(P0.05.PUVA-SPDCs secreted high levels of IL-10(435.6±13.9, but lowlevels of IL-12(p7018.56±1.3,p4015.22±1.2, as compared with those of iDCs (132.6±2.8, p70192.1±5.9, p40999.8±26.9, P<0.01 after LPS stimulation. Conclusions Although PUVA-SLPDCs do not express as immature phenotype, they can be readily induced to differentiate into mature DCs in the presence of antigen or LPS. It may be suitable to use iDCs clinically in autoimmune diseases and transplantation.

  2. Evaluation of DCS III Transmission Alternatives. Phase 1A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-26

    Waves . . . . ... . 3-13 3.4 EHF Satellite Communicatins ... 3-15 *3.5 Optical Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 3.5.1 Optical Fiber...Defense and Space Systems Group, TRW Inc. and by TRW’s subcontractor, Page Communications Engineers, Inc., Northrop Corporation . 1.1 Purpose of the DCS III...tactical and long haul communicatins systems study have been sponsored by the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy also is working on submarine fiber optics

  3. The role of the right parietal lobe in the perception of causality: a tDCS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Benjamin; Wolk, David; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-12-01

    Inferring causality is a fundamental feature of human cognition that allows us to predict outcomes in everyday events. Here, we use direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate the role of the right parietal lobe in the perception of causal events. Based on the results of a previous fMRI investigation, we hypothesized that the right parietal lobe plays a specific role in the processing of spatial attributes that contribute to judgments of causality. In line with our hypothesis, we found polarization-dependent modulation of causal judgments and corresponding reaction times (RTs) for trials with increasing violation of spatial contiguity in launching events. This effect was further modulated by temporal violations, as the effect of tDCS on the use of spatial information for causality judgements was strongest for trials with high temporal violations. Thus, especially for ambiguous trials with regard to temporal patterns, cathodal stimulation led to more liberal causality judgments for trials with high angles in movement trajectory. Furthermore, we found faster RTs after anodal stimulation of the right parietal lobe. These findings suggest a reduced influence of spatial attributes on the perception of causality after cathode stimulation of the right parietal lobe and an increased processing efficiency after anodal stimuli of the same region. These data demonstrate polarization-dependent tDCS modulation of spatial processing mechanisms within the right parietal lobe that contribute to the perception of causality.

  4. DCS: A Case Study of Identification of Knowledge and Disposition Gaps Using Principles of Continuous Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2011-01-01

    The Human Research Program (HRP) is formulated around the program architecture of Evidence-Risk-Gap-Task-Deliverable. Review of accumulated evidence forms the basis for identification of high priority risks to human health and performance in space exploration. Gaps in knowledge or disposition are identified for each risk, and a portfolio of research tasks is developed to fill them. Deliverables from the tasks inform the evidence base with the ultimate goal of defining the level of risk and reducing it to an acceptable level. A comprehensive framework for gap identification, focus, and metrics has been developed based on principles of continuous risk management and clinical care. Research towards knowledge gaps improves understanding of the likelihood, consequence or timeframe of the risk. Disposition gaps include development of standards or requirements for risk acceptance, development of countermeasures or technology to mitigate the risk, and yearly technology assessment related to watching developments related to the risk. Standard concepts from clinical care: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and surveillance, can be used to focus gaps dealing with risk mitigation. The research plan for the new HRP Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) used the framework to identify one disposition gap related to establishment of a DCS standard for acceptable risk, two knowledge gaps related to DCS phenomenon and mission attributes, and three mitigation gaps focused on prediction, prevention, and new technology watch. These gaps were organized in this manner primarily based on target for closure and ease of organizing interim metrics so that gap status could be quantified. Additional considerations for the knowledge gaps were that one was highly design reference mission specific and the other gap was focused on DCS phenomenon.

  5. Anatomical Parameters of tDCS to Modulate the Motor System after Stroke: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Stephanie; Liew, Sook-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method to modulate the local field potential in neural tissue and consequently, cortical excitability. As tDCS is relatively portable, affordable, and accessible, the applications of tDCS to probe brain–behavior connections have rapidly increased in the last 10 years. One of the most promising applications is the use of tDCS to modulate excitability in the motor cortex after stroke and promote motor recovery. However, the results of clinical studies implementing tDCS to modulate motor excitability have been highly variable, with some studies demonstrating that as many as 50% or more of patients fail to show a response to stimulation. Much effort has therefore been dedicated to understand the sources of variability affecting tDCS efficacy. Possible suspects include the placement of the electrodes, task parameters during stimulation, dosing (current amplitude, duration of stimulation, frequency of stimulation), individual states (e.g., anxiety, motivation, attention), and more. In this review, we first briefly review potential sources of variability specific to stroke motor recovery following tDCS. We then examine how the anatomical variability in tDCS placement [e.g., neural target(s) and montages employed] may alter the neuromodulatory effects that tDCS exerts on the post-stroke motor system. PMID:28232816

  6. The effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotics on reduced processing speed and psychomotor slowing in schizophrenia: A cross-sectional exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia, but little is known about its nature or to what extent it is influenced by antipsychotics. The Symbol-Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is an appropriate tool for assessing reduced processing speed, whereas performance on copying

  7. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING IN ADJUNCT TO CONVENTIONAL THERAPY IN REDUCING PAIN AND IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN INDIVIDUALS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Tulasi Ratna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of foot. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition has a dramatic impact on physical mobility and function. Treatment of this condition is usually conservative; however, review of literature revealed no clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy of any targeted treatment for this condition. Methods: This was a prospective study which included 60 subjects with plantar fasciitis, who were randomly divided into two groups. Subjects in group I received ultrasound and exercise therapy while subjects in group II received kinesio tape in addition to ultrasound and exercise therapy. Patients were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at the end of three weeks using VAS (visual analogue scale for pain intensity, PFPS (plantar fasciitis pain / disability scale for functional ability and ultra sonography for any change in the caliber of plantar fascia. Results: A statistically significant difference in improvement was noted within the groups and between the groups in terms of visual analogue scale and plantar fasciitis pain /disability scale score (p0.05. Conclusion: Kinesio taping can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy in clinical application for greater improvement in pain levels and functional ability in patients with plantar fasciitis.

  8. 化工企业 DCS 与 SIS 一体化分析与探讨%Analysis and Discussion of DCS and SIS for Chemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳松

    2016-01-01

    根据作者的多年实践,目前有为数不少的化工企业在如何保证工艺过程控制系统与 SIS 系统的独立性及可靠性方面存在困惑。本文以 DCS 系统为例,探讨了在本质安全的前提下,实现 DCS 与 SIS 一体化的可行性与设计构想。%According to the author ˊs years of practice,a number of chemical enterprise are confused on how to ensure the independence and reliability of the process control system and SIS. Based on DCS system as an example,this paper achieve the integration of DCS and SIS feasibility and design idea based on the intrinsically safe premise.

  9. [The correction of anemia with a high requirement for transfusion in patients on maintenance hemodialysis by conventional and reduced doses of recombinant human erythropoietin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, L; Scuteri, R M; Cavalli, N H; Gotlieb, D; López Blanco, O A

    1992-01-01

    The hematologic findings of chronic renal failure are consistent with hypoproliferative anemia; the pathogenesis of the anemia is primarily due to decreased erythropoietin production by the diseased kidneys. There are aggravating factors (AF) contributing to this primordial cause: inhibitors to erythroid marrow function, shortened red cell survival, nonevident chronic blood loss (owing to uremic platelet dysfunction), iron and/or folate deficiency, aluminium toxicity, hemolysis (acute or chronic), etc. Ten patients with end stage renal disease, treated with maintenance hemodialysis and high transfusional requirement (more than 300 ml/month) are presented; in five the AF were discarded by a previously presented protocol (Table 1) and they were treated with human recombinant erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) intravenously, in conventional schemes (three times a week) and doses (195 +/- 41 Units/Kg)-Group A-. The AF were not studied in the other five and the r-HuEPO treatment employed different doses (125 +/- 70 U/K/W) and protocols (1.7 +/- 0.5 times a week)-Group B-(Table 2). The transfusional requirement disappeared and the hematocrit and the hemoglobin rose significantly in both groups (more in group A) (Table 3). The significant drop in ferritin levels (147 +/- 30 ng/ml vs 27.5 +/- 11 ng/ml at the 12th week) and the stabilization in reticulocyte count (1.4% at start vs 2% at 12th week) indicate iron consumption; in the meantime, the persistent increment in reticulocyte production index (1 at start vs 3 at 12th week) revealed a continuous stimulation of the erythropoiesis (Fig. 1). No clinical and/or vascular complications were observed; arterial pressure and serum potassium levels did not rise significantly so that r-HuEPO treatment was not canceled in any case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Transmission of chimeric HIV by mating in conventional mice: prevention by pre-exposure antiretroviral therapy and reduced susceptibility during estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Eran; Chao, Wei; He, Hongxia; Saini, Manisha; Daley, Eleen; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Bentsman, Galina; Ganz, Eric; Volsky, David J; Potash, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Heterosexual transmission accounts for the majority of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases worldwide. The current approach to investigate HIV heterosexual transmission in animals involves application of virus stock to the vaginal surface, a method that does not reproduce the physiological conditions of vaginal intercourse that influence the rate of transmission. We have previously described efficient infection of conventional mice using EcoHIV/NL4-3 and EcoHIV/NDK, chimeric HIV molecular clones constructed to express all HIV structural and regulatory genes except envelope, which is replaced by a rodent-tropic envelope gene. Here we investigated whether EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice transmit virus to females during coitus, and the sensitivity of this transmission to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and the estrus state. Our general approach was to allow mating between EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice and uninfected females for 1-7 nights. At 1-6 weeks after mating, mice were euthanized and virus burdens were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of HIV RNA or DNA in peritoneal macrophages, inguinal lymph node cells, spleen cells or vas deferens, or by ELISA for antibodies to HIV Gag. We found that 70-100% of female mice mated to EcoHIV/NDK-infected males acquired infection. Pericoital treatment of females with either 2',3'-dideoxcytidine (ddC) or tenofovir largely prevented their EcoHIV/NDK infection by mating (P<0.05 and P<0.003, respectively). In males, T cells were dispensable for virus transmission. The rate of EcoHIV/NDK sexual transmission to females in estrus declined sharply (P=0.003) but their infection by injection was unaffected, indicating that the local environment in the female reproductive tract influences susceptibility to HIV. We conclude that this system of EcoHIV/NDK transmission during mouse mating reproduces key features of heterosexual transmission of HIV in humans and can be used to investigate its biology and control.

  11. Transmission of chimeric HIV by mating in conventional mice: prevention by pre-exposure antiretroviral therapy and reduced susceptibility during estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Hadas

    2013-09-01

    Heterosexual transmission accounts for the majority of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases worldwide. The current approach to investigate HIV heterosexual transmission in animals involves application of virus stock to the vaginal surface, a method that does not reproduce the physiological conditions of vaginal intercourse that influence the rate of transmission. We have previously described efficient infection of conventional mice using EcoHIV/NL4-3 and EcoHIV/NDK, chimeric HIV molecular clones constructed to express all HIV structural and regulatory genes except envelope, which is replaced by a rodent-tropic envelope gene. Here we investigated whether EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice transmit virus to females during coitus, and the sensitivity of this transmission to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and the estrus state. Our general approach was to allow mating between EcoHIV/NDK-infected male mice and uninfected females for 1–7 nights. At 1–6 weeks after mating, mice were euthanized and virus burdens were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR amplification of HIV RNA or DNA in peritoneal macrophages, inguinal lymph node cells, spleen cells or vas deferens, or by ELISA for antibodies to HIV Gag. We found that 70–100% of female mice mated to EcoHIV/NDK-infected males acquired infection. Pericoital treatment of females with either 2′,3′-dideoxcytidine (ddC or tenofovir largely prevented their EcoHIV/NDK infection by mating (P<0.05 and P<0.003, respectively. In males, T cells were dispensable for virus transmission. The rate of EcoHIV/NDK sexual transmission to females in estrus declined sharply (P=0.003 but their infection by injection was unaffected, indicating that the local environment in the female reproductive tract influences susceptibility to HIV. We conclude that this system of EcoHIV/NDK transmission during mouse mating reproduces key features of heterosexual transmission of HIV in humans and can be used to investigate its biology and control.

  12. tDCS for the treatment of depression: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Ulrich; Hasan, Alkomiet; Strube, Wolfgang; Padberg, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been investigated for the treatment of major depressive disorders in recent years. Here, we review the implications of current research for the clinical use of tDCS in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Meta-analyses, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, open-label trials, case reports and review articles were identified through a systematic search of the literature database of the National Institutes of Health (USA). Available articles were evaluated with regard to their clinical relevance. Results of tDCS efficacy are inconsistent due to the small sample sizes, the heterogeneous patient samples and the partially high treatment resistance in some studies. Overall, tDCS has very low side effects. Meta-analyses suggest some efficacy of tDCS in the treatment of acute depressive disorder with moderate effect size, and low efficacy in treatment-resistant depression. A general statement about the efficacy of tDCS as a therapeutic tool in major depression seems to be premature. tDCS is considered as a safe therapeutic option and is associated with only minor side effects. The effectiveness of tDCS decreases with resistance to treatment. Psychotropic drugs may attenuate or amplify its effects. The use of 2 mA current strength over 20 min per day over a short time span can be considered as safe.

  13. Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Learning to control our movements accompanies neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e. the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: 1) firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, 2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and 3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns. With these principles in mind, we review the effects of tDCS on motor control, motor learning, and clinical applications. The increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates may account for the modulation of dexterity in non-learning tasks by tDCS. The facilitation of new association may account for the effect of tDCS on learning in sequence tasks while the ability of tDCS to strengthen memories of new firing patterns may underlie the effect of tDCS on consolidation of skills. We then describe the mechanisms of neuroplasticity of motor cortical areas and how they might be influenced by tDCS. We end with current challenges for the fields of brain stimulation and motor learning. PMID:25200178

  14. Enhancement of selective attention by tDCS: Interaction with interference in a Sternberg task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladwin, T.E.; Uyl, T. den; Fregni, F.F.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) enhances performance on working memory tasks. However, such effects may be dependent on modulation of specific aspects of working memory. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tDCS improves selective attention in the context of a Sternberg task. Subje

  15. Effects of different language and tDCS interventions in PPA and their neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrana Tsapkini

    2015-05-01

    Results: First, we replicated our previous results obtained with fewer participants: all improved in both tDCS and sham conditions on trained items. Generalization of treatment on untrained items was significant only in tDCS condition. Therapy gains lasted longer in tDCS condition as well. Second, preliminary analyses of rs-fMRI show changes of functional connectivity between written language areas in the tDCS and sham conditions. Conclusions: tDCS represents an increasingly valuable treatment option in language rehabilitation even in neurodegeneration. Late intervention is as beneficial as early intervention but improvement seems more dramatic in early cases. Different possibilities are discussed: tDCS may indeed change the course of the disease, i.e., it may slow down the rate of decline or, language improvement due to tDCS (or delay in language deterioration due to the course of the disease may hold the spread of decline in other cognitive functions, thus, early interventions appear more beneficial. The correlation between functional connectivity and language production outcomes is expected to shed light on how tDCS works in the brains of people with a neurodegenerative disease. Implications of functional connectivity changes between language areas involved in the targeted language function will inform further interventions.

  16. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Behaviour and Electrophysiology of Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Miranka; Rahman, Rasha Abdel; Kuenecke, Janina; Koenig, Thomas; Horn, Helge; Sommer, Werner; Dierks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) over the left dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) has been shown to improve language production. The present study examined neurophysiological underpinnings of this effect. In a single-blinded within-subject design, we traced effects of A-tDCS compared to sham stimulation over the left…

  17. Enhancement of selective attention by tDCS: interaction with interference in a Sternberg task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladwin, T.E.; den Uyl, T.E.; Fregni, F.F.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) enhances performance on working memory tasks. However, such effects may be dependent on modulation of specific aspects of working memory. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tDCS improves selective attention in the context of a Sternberg task.

  18. Enhancement of selective attention by tDCS: interaction with interference in a Sternberg task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladwin, T.E.; den Uyl, T.E.; Fregni, F.F.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) enhances performance on working memory tasks. However, such effects may be dependent on modulation of specific aspects of working memory. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tDCS improves selective attention in the context of a Sternberg task. Subje

  19. Plasmacytoid DCs regulate recall responses by rapid induction of IL-10 in memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, Espen O; Fløisand, Yngvar; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Rollag, Halvor; Farkas, Lorant; Ghanekar, Smita; Brandtzaeg, Per; Jahnsen, Frode L; Olweus, Johanna

    2007-04-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to regulate T cell-mediated immunity primarily by directing differentiation of naive T cells. Here, we show that a large fraction of CD4(+) memory cells produce IL-10 within the first hours after interaction with plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs). In contrast, CD11c(+) DCs induce IFN-gamma and little IL-10. IL-10-secreting T cells isolated after 36 hours of culture with PDCs suppressed antigen-induced T-cell proliferation by an IL-10-dependent mechanism, but were distinct from natural and type 1 regulatory T cells. They proliferated strongly and continued to secrete IL-10 during expansion with PDCs, and after restimulation with immature monocyte-derived DCs or CD11c(+) DCs. The IL-10-producing T cells acquired the ability to secrete high levels of IFN-gamma after isolation and subsequent coculture with PDCs or CD11c(+) DCs. Compared to CD11c(+) DCs, PDCs were superior in their ability to selectively expand T cells that produced cytokines on repeated antigenic challenge. The DC-dependent differences in cytokine profiles were observed with viral recall antigen or staphylococcal enterotoxin B and were independent of extracellular type I interferon or IL-10. Our results show that DCs can regulate memory responses and that PDCs rapidly induce regulatory cytokines in effector T cells that can suppress bystander activity.

  20. The application of tDCS in psychiatric disorders: a brain imaging view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baeken

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive, non-convulsive technique for modulating brain function. In contrast to other non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, where costs, clinical applicability, and availability limit their large-scale use in clinical practices, the low-cost, portable, and easy-to-use tDCS devices may overcome these restrictions. Objective: Despite numerous clinical applications in large numbers of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, it is not quite clear how tDCS influences the mentally affected human brain. In order to decipher potential neural mechanisms of action of tDCS in patients with psychiatric conditions, we focused on the combination of tDCS with neuroimaging techniques. Design: We propose a contemporary overview on the currently available neurophysiological and neuroimaging data where tDCS has been used as a research or treatment tool in patients with psychiatric disorders. Results: Over a reasonably short period of time, tDCS has been broadly used as a research tool to examine neuronal processes in the healthy brain. tDCS has also commonly been applied as a treatment application in a variety of mental disorders, with to date no straightforward clinical outcome and not always accompanied by brain imaging techniques. Conclusion: tDCS, as do other neuromodulation devices, clearly affects the underlying neuronal processes. However, research on these mechanisms in psychiatric patients is rather limited. A better comprehension of how tDCS modulates brain function will help us to define optimal parameters of stimulation in each indication and may result in the detection of biomarkers in favor of clinical response.

  1. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C

    2014-01-01

    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  2. tDCS application over the STG improves the ability to recognize and appreciate elements involved in humor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado; Gonçalves Donate, Ana Paula; Macarini Gonçalves Vieira, Sofia; Comfort, William Edgar; De Araújo Andreoli, Mariana; Boggio, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-03-15

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) has been found to play a crucial role in the recognition of actions and facial expressions and may, therefore, be critical for the processing of humorous information. Here we investigated whether tDCS application to the STG would modulate the ability to recognize and appreciate the comic element in serious and comedic situations of misfortune. To this aim, the effects of different types of tDCS stimulation on the STG were analyzed during a task in which the participants were instructed to categorize various misfortunate situations as "comic" or "not comic". Participants underwent three different tDCS conditions: Anodal-right/Cathodal-left; Cathodal-right/Anodal-left; Sham. Images depicting people involved in accidents were grouped into three categories based on the facial expression of the victim: angry or painful (Affective); bewildered and funny (Comic); and images that did not contain the victim's face (No Face). An improvement in mean reaction times in response to both the Comic and No Face stimuli was observed following Anodal-left/Cathodal-right stimulation when compared to sham stimulation. This suggests that this stimulation type reduced the reaction times to socio-emotional complex scenes, regardless of facial expression. The Anodal-right/Cathodal-left stimulation reduced the mean reaction times for Comic stimuli only, suggesting that specifically the right STG may be involved in facial expression recognition and in the appreciation of the comic element in misfortunate situations. These results suggest a functional hemispheric asymmetry in STG response to social stimuli: the left STG might have a role in a general comprehension of social complex situations, while the right STG may be involved in the ability to recognize and integrate specific emotional aspects in a complex scene.

  3. An adjuvant role of in situ dendritic cells (DCs) in linking innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kanako; Fujii, Shin-ichiro

    2008-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) work as a natural adjuvant to elicit T cell immunity. Though DCs have been widely used in immunotherapy, little is known about their number and function in patients with cancer or autoimmune disease. In recent studies, antigen has been targeted to DCs through DC-specific receptors, such as DEC205, the mannose receptor and dying cell receptors. However, antigen captured by DCs in the absence of danger signals induces tolerance. Therefore, the duration and/or magnitude of danger signals plays a crucial role in generating an immunogeneic response. Various danger signals, i.e., pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and the activation of innate lymphocytes, serve as maturation signals for DCs. An immunotherapeutic approach which delivers both maturation signals and antigen to DCs would link the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system for a more effective and global immune response. It is therefore crucial to determine optimal conditions for antigen delivery to DCs in an environment suited to maximally stimulate the immune system.

  4. Impact of antipsychotic medication on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Bose, Anushree; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Chhabra, Harleen; Kalmady, Sunil V; Varambally, Shivarama; Nitsche, Michael A; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2016-01-30

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has generated interest as a treatment modality for schizophrenia. Dopamine, a critical pathogenetic link in schizophrenia, is also known to influence tDCS effects. We evaluated the influence of antipsychotic drug type (as defined by dopamine D2 receptor affinity) on the impact of tDCS in schizophrenia. DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed schizophrenia patients [N=36] with persistent auditory hallucinations despite adequate antipsychotic treatment were administered add-on tDCS. Patients were divided into three groups based on the antipsychotic's affinity to D2 receptors. An auditory hallucinations score (AHS) was measured using the auditory hallucinations subscale of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS). Add-on tDCS resulted in a significant reduction inAHS. Antipsychotic drug type had a significant effect on AHS reduction. Patients treated with high affinity antipsychotics showed significantly lesser improvement compared to patients on low affinity antipsychotics or a mixture of the two. Furthermore, a significant sex-by-group interaction occurred; type of medication had an impact on tDCS effects only in women. Improvement differences could be due to the larger availability of the dopamine receptor system in patients taking antipsychotics with low D2 affinity. Sex-specific differences suggest potential estrogen-mediated effects. This study reports a first-time observation on the clinical utility of antipsychotic drug type in predicting tDCS effects in schizophrenia.

  5. Hits and Misses: Leveraging tDCS to Advance Cognitive Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E Berryhill

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques in basic, commercial, and applied settings grew tremendously over the last decade. Here, we focus on one popular neurostimulation method: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Many assumptions regarding the outcomes of tDCS are based on the results of stimulating motor cortex. For instance, the primary motor cortex is predictably suppressed by cathodal tDCS or made more excitable by anodal tDCS. However, wide-ranging studies testing cognition provide more complex and sometimes paradoxical results that challenge this heuristic. Here, we first summarize successful efforts in applying tDCS to cognitive questions, with a focus on working memory. These recent findings indicate that tDCS can result in cognitive task improvement or impairment regardless of stimulation site or direction of current flow. We then report working memory and response inhibition studies that failed to replicate and/or extend previously reported effects. From these opposing outcomes, we present a series of factors to consider that are intended to facilitate future use of tDCS when applied to cognitive questions. In short, common pitfalls include testing too few participants, using insufficiently challenging tasks, using heterogeneous participant populations, and including poorly motivated participants. Furthermore, the poorly understood underlying mechanism for long-lasting tDCS effects make it likely that other important factors predict responses. In conclusion, we argue that although tDCS can be used experimentally to understand brain function its greatest potential may be in applied or translational research.

  6. Task-concurrent anodal tDCS modulates bilateral plasticity in the human suprahyoid motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng eZhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive method to modulate cortical excitability in humans. Here, we examined the effects of anodal tDCS on suprahyoid motor evoked potentials (MEP when applied over the hemisphere with stronger and weaker suprahyoid/submental projections, respectively, while study participants performed a swallowing task. 30 healthy volunteers were invited to two experimental sessions and randomly assigned to one of two different groups. While in the first group stimulation was targeted over the hemisphere with stronger suprahyoid projections, the second group received stimulation over the weaker suprahyoid projections. tDCS was applied either as anodal or sham stimulation in a random cross-over design. Suprahyoid MEPs were assessed immediately before intervention, as well as 5, 30, 60, and 90 min after discontinuation of stimulation from both the stimulated and non-stimulated contralateral hemisphere. We found that anodal tDCS (a-tDCS had long-lasting effects on suprahyoid MEPs on the stimulated side in both groups (tDCS targeting the stronger projections: F(1,14 = 96.2, p < 0.001; tDCS targeting the weaker projections: F(1,14 = 37.45, p < 0.001. While MEPs did not increase when elicited from the non-targeted hemisphere after stimulation of the stronger projections (F(1,14 = 0.69, p = 0.42, we found increased MEPs elicited from the non-targeted hemisphere after stimulating the weaker projections (at time points 30 to 90 min (F(1,14 = 18.26, p = 0.001. We conclude that anodal tDCS has differential effects on suprahyoid MEPs elicited from the targeted and non-targeted hemisphere depending on the site of stimulation. This finding may be important for the application of a-tDCS in patients with dysphagia, for example after stroke.

  7. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Antal, Andrea; Ayache, Samar S; Benninger, David H; Brunelin, Jérôme; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Cotelli, Maria; De Ridder, Dirk; Ferrucci, Roberta; Langguth, Berthold; Marangolo, Paola; Mylius, Veit; Nitsche, Michael A; Padberg, Frank; Palm, Ulrich; Poulet, Emmanuel; Priori, Alberto; Rossi, Simone; Schecklmann, Martin; Vanneste, Sven; Ziemann, Ulf; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Paulus, Walter

    2017-01-01

    A group of European experts was commissioned by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology to gather knowledge about the state of the art of the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from studies published up until September 2016, regarding pain, Parkinson's disease, other movement disorders, motor stroke, poststroke aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease, tinnitus, depression, schizophrenia, and craving/addiction. The evidence-based analysis included only studies based on repeated tDCS sessions with sham tDCS control procedure; 25 patients or more having received active treatment was required for Class I, while a lower number of 10-24 patients was accepted for Class II studies. Current evidence does not allow making any recommendation of Level A (definite efficacy) for any indication. Level B recommendation (probable efficacy) is proposed for: (i) anodal tDCS of the left primary motor cortex (M1) (with right orbitofrontal cathode) in fibromyalgia; (ii) anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (with right orbitofrontal cathode) in major depressive episode without drug resistance; (iii) anodal tDCS of the right DLPFC (with left DLPFC cathode) in addiction/craving. Level C recommendation (possible efficacy) is proposed for anodal tDCS of the left M1 (or contralateral to pain side, with right orbitofrontal cathode) in chronic lower limb neuropathic pain secondary to spinal cord lesion. Conversely, Level B recommendation (probable inefficacy) is conferred on the absence of clinical effects of: (i) anodal tDCS of the left temporal cortex (with right orbitofrontal cathode) in tinnitus; (ii) anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC (with right orbitofrontal cathode) in drug-resistant major depressive episode. It remains to be clarified whether the probable or possible therapeutic effects of tDCS are clinically meaningful and how to optimally perform tDCS

  8. Cyber security risk assessment for SCADA and DCS networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, P A S; Graham, J H; Hieb, J L

    2007-10-01

    The growing dependence of critical infrastructures and industrial automation on interconnected physical and cyber-based control systems has resulted in a growing and previously unforeseen cyber security threat to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and distributed control systems (DCSs). It is critical that engineers and managers understand these issues and know how to locate the information they need. This paper provides a broad overview of cyber security and risk assessment for SCADA and DCS, introduces the main industry organizations and government groups working in this area, and gives a comprehensive review of the literature to date. Major concepts related to the risk assessment methods are introduced with references cited for more detail. Included are risk assessment methods such as HHM, IIM, and RFRM which have been applied successfully to SCADA systems with many interdependencies and have highlighted the need for quantifiable metrics. Presented in broad terms is probability risk analysis (PRA) which includes methods such as FTA, ETA, and FEMA. The paper concludes with a general discussion of two recent methods (one based on compromise graphs and one on augmented vulnerability trees) that quantitatively determine the probability of an attack, the impact of the attack, and the reduction in risk associated with a particular countermeasure.

  9. LHCb Silicon Tracker DAQ and DCS Online Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Esperante-Pereira, D; Büchler, A; Keune, A; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Bettler, M O; Conti, G; Fave, V; Frei, R; Perrin, A; Potterat, C; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Hofmann, W; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Straumann, U; Anderson, J; Chiapolini, N; Hangartner, V; Salzmann, S; Steiner, A; Steinkamp, O; Van Tilburg, J; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Adeva, B; Fungueirino Pazos, A; Gallas, A; Pazos-Alvarez, A; Pérez-Trigo, E; Pló Casasús, M; Saborido, J; Vázquez, P; Gong, A; Iavenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva Switzerland is specialized on precision measurements of b quark decays. The Silicon Tracker (ST) contributes a crucial part in tracking the particle trajectories and consists of two silicon micro-strip detectors, the Tracker Turicensis upstream of the LHCb magnet and the Inner Tracker downstream. The radiation and the magnetic field represent new challenges for the implementation of a Detector Control System (DCS) and the data acquisition (DAQ). The DAQ has to deal with more than 270K analog readout channels, 2K readout chips and real time DAQ at a rate of 1.1 MHz with data processing at TELL1 level. The TELL1 real time algorithms for clustering thresholds and other computations run on dedicated FPGAs that implement 13K configurable parameters per board, in total 1.17 K parameters for the ST. After data processing the total throughput amounts to about 6.4 Gbytes from an input data rate of around ~337 Gbytes per second. A finite state mac...

  10. LHCb Silicon Tracker DAQ and DCS Online Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Buechler, A; Rodriguez, P

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva Switzerland is specialized on precision measurements of b quark decays. The Silicon Tracker (ST) contributes a crucial part in tracking the particle trajectories and consists of two silicon micro-strip detectors, the Tracker Turicensis upstream of the LHCb magnet and the Inner Tracker downstream. The radiation and the magnetic field represent new challenges for the implementation of a Detector Control System (DCS) and the data acquisition (DAQ). The DAQ has to deal with more than 270K analog readout channels, 2K readout chips and real time DAQ at a rate of 1.1 MHz with data processing at TELL1 level. The TELL1 real time algorithms for clustering thresholds and other computations run on dedicated FPGAs that implement 13K configurable parameters per board, in total 1.17 K parameters for the ST. After data processing the total throughput amounts to about 6.4 Gbytes from an input data rate of around ~337 Gbytes per second. A finite state ma...

  11. Lactobacillus crispatus strain SJ-3C-US induces human dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and confers an anti-inflammatory phenotype to DCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Solat; Hadjati, Jamshid; Motevaseli, Elahe; Mirzaei, Reza; Farashi Bonab, Samad; Ansaripour, Bita; Khoramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the most predominant species in the healthy vagina microbiota. Nevertheless, the interactions between this commensal bacterium and the immune system are largely unknown. Given the importance of the dendritic cells (DCs) in the regulation of the immunity, this study was performed to elucidate the influence of vaginal isolated L. crispatus SJ-3C-US from healthy Iranian women on DCs, either directly by exposure of DCs to ultraviolet-inactivated (UVI) and heat-killed (HK) L. crispatus SJ-3C-US or indirectly to its cell-free supernatant (CFS), and the outcomes of immune response. In this work we showed that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US induced strong dose-dependent activation of dendritic cells and production of high levels of IL-10, whereas IL-12p70 production was induced at low level in an inverse dose-dependent manner. This stimulation skewed T cells polarization toward CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) Treg cells and production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) test. The mode of bacterial inactivation did not affect the DCs activation pattern, upon encounter with L. crispatus SJ-3C-US. Moreover, while DCs stimulated with CFS showed moderate phenotypic maturation and IL-10 production, it failed to skew T cells polarization toward CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and production of IL-10. This study showed that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US confers an anti-inflammatory phenotype to DCs through up-regulation of anti-inflammatory/regulatory IL-10 cytokine production and induction of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T cells at optimal dosage. Our findings suggest that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US could be a potent candidate as protective probiotic against human immune-mediated pathologies, such as chronic inflammation, vaginitis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

  12. Impact of Ultra Wide Band (UWB on Macrocell Downlink of DCS-1800 and GSM-900 Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Haro-Ariet

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of UWB interference on the DCS-1800 and GSM-900 downlink is studied for different UWB power density. For high UWB power density (-70 dBm/MHz, the effect of UWB signals is very high when the distance between UWB transmitter and DCS-1800 receiver is less than 1 m. For low UWB power density (-100 dBm/MHz, the effect of the UWB signals is quasi null even if the distance between the UWB transmitter and the DCS-1800 receiver is 0.5 m. It is found that the spectrum mask proposed by the FCC for indoor application (-53 dBm/MHz in the DCS-1800 band and -41 dBm/MHz in the GSM-900 band is very high to be tolerated by the two mobile systems and we have to propose another spectrum mask with lower UWB power density.

  13. Cooperation Not Competition: Bihemispheric tDCS and fMRI Show Role for Ipsilateral Hemisphere in Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sheena; Wiestler, Tobias; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2017-08-02

    What is the role of ipsilateral motor and premotor areas in motor learning? One view is that ipsilateral activity suppresses contralateral motor cortex and, accordingly, that inhibiting ipsilateral regions can improve motor learning. Alternatively, the ipsilateral motor cortex may play an active role in the control and/or learning of unilateral hand movements. We approached this question by applying double-blind bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over both contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortex in a between-group design during 4 d of unimanual explicit sequence training in human participants. Independently of whether the anode was placed over contralateral or ipsilateral motor cortex, bihemispheric stimulation yielded substantial performance gains relative to unihemispheric or sham stimulation. This performance advantage appeared to be supported by plastic changes in both hemispheres. First, we found that behavioral advantages generalized strongly to the untrained hand, suggesting that tDCS strengthened effector-independent representations. Second, functional imaging during speed-matched execution of trained sequences conducted 48 h after training revealed sustained, polarity-independent increases in activity in both motor cortices relative to the sham group. These results suggest a cooperative rather than competitive interaction of the two motor cortices during skill learning and suggest that bihemispheric brain stimulation during unimanual skill learning may be beneficial because it harnesses plasticity in the ipsilateral hemisphere.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many neurorehabilitation approaches are based on the idea that is beneficial to boost excitability in the contralateral hemisphere while attenuating that of the ipsilateral cortex to reduce interhemispheric inhibition. We observed that bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the excitatory anode either over contralateral or ipsilateral motor cortex

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving aphasia in patients with aphasia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Bernhard; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and aphasia among survivors is common. Current speech and language therapy (SLT) strategies have only limited effectiveness in improving aphasia. A possible adjunct to SLT for improving SLT outcomes might be non-invasive brain stimulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate cortical excitability and hence to improve aphasia. To assess the effects of tDCS for improving aphasia in people who have had a stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, November 2014), MEDLINE (1948 to November 2014), EMBASE (1980 to November 2014), CINAHL (1982 to November 2014), AMED (1985 to November 2014), Science Citation Index (1899 to November 2014) and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registers and reference lists, handsearched conference proceedings and contacted authors and equipment manufacturers. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and randomised controlled cross-over trials (from which we only analysed the first period as a parallel group design) comparing tDCS versus control in adults with aphasia due to stroke. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. If necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. We collected information on dropouts and adverse events from the trials. We included 12 trials involving 136 participants for qualitative assessment. None of the included studies used any formal outcome measure for our primary outcome measure of functional communication - that is, measuring aphasia in a real-life communicative setting. We did a meta-analysis of six trials with 66 participants of correct picture naming as our secondary outcome measure, which demonstrated that tDCS may not enhance SLT outcomes (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.37, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.92; P

  15. The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on Multitasking Throughput Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Nelson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multitasking has become an integral attribute associated with military operations within the past several decades. As the amount of information that needs to be processed during these high level multitasking environments exceeds the human operators’ capabilities, the information throughput capacity reaches an asymptotic limit. At this point, the human operator can no longer effectively process and respond to the incoming information resulting in a plateau or decline in performance. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-invasive brain stimulation technique known as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied to a scalp location over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC to improve information processing capabilities during a multitasking environment. Methods: The study consisted of 20 participants from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (16 male and 4 female with an average age of 31.1 (SD = 4.5. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups, each consisting of eight males and two females. Group one received 2mA of anodal tDCS and group two received sham tDCS over the lDLPFC on their testing day. Results: The findings indicate that anodal tDCS significantly improves the participants’ information processing capability resulting in improved performance compared to sham tDCS. For example, the multitasking throughput capacity for the sham tDCS group plateaued near 1.0 bits/s at the higher baud input (2.0 bits/s whereas the anodal tDCS group plateaued near 1.3 bits/s. Conclusion: The findings provided new evidence that tDCS has the ability to augment and enhance multitasking capability in a human operator. Future research should be conducted to determine the longevity of the enhancement of transcranial direct current stimulation on multitasking performance, which has yet to be accomplished.

  16. tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex improves speech production in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eMarangolo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and an intensive Conversational therapy treatment on discourse skills in twelve persons with chronic aphasia. Six short videoclips depicting everyday life contexts were prepared. Three videoclips were used to elicit spontaneous conversation during treatment. The remaining three were presented only before and after the therapy. Participants were prompted to talk about the contents of each videoclip while stimulated with tDCS (20 minutes, 1mA over the left hemisphere in three conditions: anodic tDCS over the Broca’s area, anodic tDCS over the Wernicke’s area, and a sham condition. Each experimental condition was performed for ten consecutive daily sessions with 14 days of intersession interval. After stimulation over Broca’s area, the participants produced more Content Units, verbs and sentences than in the remaining two conditions. Importantly, this improvement was still detectable one month after the end of treatment and its effects were generalized also to the three videoclips that had been administered at the beginning and at the end of the therapy sessions. In conclusion, anodic tDCS applied over the left Broca’s area together with an intensive Conversational Therapy treatment improves informative speech in persons with chronic aphasia. We believe that positive tDCS effects may be further extended to other language domains, such as the recovery of speech production.

  17. Cerebellar tDCS: A Novel Approach to Augment Language Treatment Post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rajani; Saxena, Sadhvi; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Faria, Andreia V; Long, Charltien; Wright, Amy; Davis, Cameron; Tippett, Donna C; Mourdoukoutas, Antonios P; Bikson, Marom; Celnik, Pablo; Hillis, Argye E

    2016-01-01

    People with post-stroke aphasia may have some degree of chronic deficit for which current rehabilitative treatments are variably effective. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for enhancing the effects of behavioral aphasia treatment. However, it remains unclear which brain regions should be stimulated to optimize effects on language recovery. Here, we report on the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS in augmenting language recovery in SMY, who sustained bilateral MCA infarct resulting in aphasia and anarthria. We investigated the effects of 15 sessions of anodal cerebellar tDCS coupled with spelling therapy using a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled within-subject crossover trial. We also investigated changes in functional connectivity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and 2 months post-treatment. Both anodal and sham treatments resulted in improved spelling to dictation for trained and untrained words immediately after and 2 months post-treatment. However, there was greater improvement with tDCS than with sham, especially for untrained words. Further, generalization to written picture naming was only noted during tDCS but not with sham. The resting state functional connectivity data indicate that improvement in spelling was accompanied by an increase in cerebro-cerebellar network connectivity. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS to augment spelling therapy in an individual with large bilateral chronic strokes.

  18. Functional connectivity substrates for tDCS response in Minimally Conscious State patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cavaliere

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive technique recently employed in disorders of consciousness, and determining a transitory recovery of signs of consciousness in almost half of minimally conscious state (MCS patients. Although the rising evidences about its possible role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric conditions, no evidences exist about brain functional connectivity substrates underlying tDCS response. We retrospectively evaluated resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI of 16 sub-acute and chronic MCS patients (6 tDCS responders who successively received a single left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC tDCS in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial. A seed-based approach for regions of left extrinsic control network and default-mode network was performed.TDCS responders showed an increased left intra-network connectivity for regions co-activated with left DLPFC, and significantly with left inferior frontal gyrus. Non-responders MCS patients showed an increased connectivity between left DLPFC and midline cortical structures, including anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus.Our findings suggest that a prior high connectivity with regions belonging to extrinsic control network can facilitate transitory recovery of consciousness in a subgroup of MCS patients that underwent tDCS treatment. Therefore, resting state-fMRI could be very valuable in detecting the neuronal conditions necessary for tDCS to improve behavior in MCS.

  19. Delayed plastic responses to anodal tDCS in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakuei eFujiyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of research reporting the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in healthy young adults and clinical populations, the extent of potential neuroplastic changes induced by tDCS in healthy older adults is not well understood. The present study compared the extent and time course of anodal tDCS-induced plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1 in young and older adults. Furthermore, as it has been suggested that neuroplasiticity and associated learning depends on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene polymorphisms, we also assessed the impact of BDNF polymorphism on these effects. Corticospinal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation before and following (0, 10, 20, 30 min anodal tDCS (30 min, 1 mA or sham in young and older adults. While the overall extent of increases in corticospinal excitability induced by anodal tDCS did not vary reliably between young and older adults, older adults exhibited a delayed response; the largest increase in corticospinal excitability occurred 30 min following stimulation for older adults, but immediately post-stimulation for the young group. BDNF genotype did not result in significant differences in the observed excitability increases for either age group. The present study suggests that tDCS-induced plastic changes are delayed as a result of healthy aging, but that the overall efficacy of the plasticity mechanism remains unaffected.

  20. Cerebellar tDCS: A Novel Approach to Augment Language Treatment Post-stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rajani; Saxena, Sadhvi; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Faria, Andreia V.; Long, Charltien; Wright, Amy; Davis, Cameron; Tippett, Donna C.; Mourdoukoutas, Antonios P.; Bikson, Marom; Celnik, Pablo; Hillis, Argye E.

    2017-01-01

    People with post-stroke aphasia may have some degree of chronic deficit for which current rehabilitative treatments are variably effective. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for enhancing the effects of behavioral aphasia treatment. However, it remains unclear which brain regions should be stimulated to optimize effects on language recovery. Here, we report on the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS in augmenting language recovery in SMY, who sustained bilateral MCA infarct resulting in aphasia and anarthria. We investigated the effects of 15 sessions of anodal cerebellar tDCS coupled with spelling therapy using a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled within-subject crossover trial. We also investigated changes in functional connectivity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and 2 months post-treatment. Both anodal and sham treatments resulted in improved spelling to dictation for trained and untrained words immediately after and 2 months post-treatment. However, there was greater improvement with tDCS than with sham, especially for untrained words. Further, generalization to written picture naming was only noted during tDCS but not with sham. The resting state functional connectivity data indicate that improvement in spelling was accompanied by an increase in cerebro-cerebellar network connectivity. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS to augment spelling therapy in an individual with large bilateral chronic strokes. PMID:28127284

  1. Aging Impairs the Ability of Conventional Dendritic Cells to Cross-Prime CD8+ T Cells upon Stimulation with a TLR7 Ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía R Zacca

    Full Text Available The aging process is accompanied by altered immune system functioning and an increased risk of infection. Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen-presenting cells that play a key role in both adaptive and innate immunity, but how aging affects DCs and their influence on immunity has not been thoroughly established. Here we examined the function of conventional DCs (cDCs in old mice after TLR7 stimulation, focusing on their ability to cross-prime CD8+ T cells. Using polyU, a synthetic ssRNA analog, as TLR7 ligand and OVA as an antigen (Ag model, we found that cDCs from old mice have a poor ability to stimulate a CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxic response. cDCs from old mice exhibit alterations in Ag-processing machinery and TLR7 activation. Remarkably, CD8α+ cDCs from old mice have an impaired ability to activate naïve CD8+ T cells and, moreover, a lower capacity to mature and to process exogenous Ag. Taken together, our results suggest that immunosenescence impacts cDC function, affecting the activation of naïve CD8+ T cells and the generation of effector cytotoxic T cells.

  2. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) study of blood flow changes during low level laser therapy (LLLT): a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sagar; Wang, Xinlong; Liu, Hanli; Tian, Fenghua

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation with low-power, high-fluence light in the near-infrared range (600-1100nm), also known as low level laser therapy (LLLT), has been used for promoting healing of wounds, reducing pain, and so on. Understanding its physiological effect is essential for treatment optimization and evaluation. In this study, we used diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to investigate the changes of regional blood flow in skeletal muscle induced by a single session of LLLT. DCS is an emerging optical modality to probe microvascular blood flow in human tissues in vivo. We have developed a software-based autocorrelator system with the benefits such as flexibility in raw photon count data processing, portability and low cost. LLLT was administered at the human forearm with a 1064-nm, continuous-wave laser. The emitting power was 3.4 W in an area of 13.6 cm2, corresponding to 0.25W/cm2 irradiance. The emitting duration was 10 minutes. Eight healthy adults of any ethnic background, in an age range of 18-40 years old were included. The results indicate that LLLT causes reliable changes in regional blood flow. However, it remains unclear whether these changes are physiological or attributed to the heating effect of the stimulation laser.

  3. A simultaneous modulation of reactive and proactive inhibition processes by anodal tDCS on the right inferior frontal cortex.

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    Toni Cunillera

    Full Text Available Proactive and reactive inhibitory processes are a fundamental part of executive functions, allowing a person to stop inappropriate responses when necessary and to adjust performance in in a long term in accordance to the goals of a task. In the current study, we manipulate, in a single task, both reactive and proactive inhibition mechanisms, and we investigate the within-subjects effect of increasing, by means of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, the involvement of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC. Our results show a simultaneous enhancement of these two cognitive mechanisms when modulating the neural activity of rIFC. Thus, the application of anodal tDCS increased reaction times on Go trials, indicating a possible increase in proactive inhibition. Concurrently, the stop-signal reaction time, as a covert index of the inhibitory process, was reduced, demonstrating an improvement in reactive inhibition. In summary, the current pattern of results validates the engagement of the rIFC in these two forms of inhibitory processes, proactive and reactive inhibition and it provides evidence that both processes can operate concurrently in the brain.

  4. Active dissemination of cellular antigens by DCs facilitates CD8(+) T-cell priming in lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Irina; Feferman, Tali; Milo, Idan; Tal, Orna; Golani, Ofra; Drexler, Ingo; Shakhar, Guy

    2017-09-05

    Antigen (Ag)-specific activation of naïve T cells by migrating dendritic cells (DCs) is a highly efficient process, although the chances for their co-localization in lymph nodes (LNs) appear low. Ag presentation may be delegated from Ag-donor DCs to the abundant resident DCs, but the routes of Ag transfer and how it facilitates T-cell activation remain unclear. We visualized CD8(+) T cell-DC interactions to study the sites, routes and cells mediating Ag transfer in mice. In vitro, Ag transfer from isolated ovalbumin (OVA)(+) bone marrow (BM)-DCs triggered widespread arrest, Ca(2+) flux and CD69 upregulation in OT-I T cells contacting recipient DCs. Intravital two-photon imaging revealed that survival of Ag-donor DCs in LNs was required for Ag dissemination among resident CD11c(+) DCs. Upon interaction with recipient DCs, CD8(+) T cells clustered, upregulated CD69, proliferated and differentiated into effectors. Few DCs sufficed for activation, and for efficient Ag dissemination LFA-1 expression on recipient DCs was essential. Similar findings characterized DCs infected with a replication-deficient OVA-expressing Vaccinia virus known to downregulate MHC-I. Overall, active Ag dissemination from live incoming DCs helped activate CD8(+) T cells by increasing the number of effective presenting cells and salvaged T-cell priming when Ag-donor DCs could not present Ag. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging artifacts induced by electrical stimulation during conventional fMRI of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Andrea; Bikson, Marom; Datta, Abhishek; Lafon, Belen; Dechent, Peter; Parra, Lucas C; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain activation during transcranial electrical stimulation is used to provide insight into the mechanisms of neuromodulation and targeting of particular brain structures. However, the passage of current through the body may interfere with the concurrent detection of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which is sensitive to local magnetic fields. To test whether these currents can affect concurrent fMRI recordings we performed conventional gradient echo-planar imaging (EPI) during transcranial direct current (tDCS) and alternating current stimulation (tACS) on two post-mortem subjects. tDCS induced signals in both superficial and deep structures. The signal was specific to the electrode montage, with the strongest signal near cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and scalp. The direction of change relative to non-stimulation reversed with tDCS stimulation polarity. For tACS there was no net effect of the MRI signal. High-resolution individualized modeling of current flow and induced static magnetic fields suggested a strong coincidence of the change EPI signal with regions of large current density and magnetic fields. These initial results indicate that (1) fMRI studies of tDCS must consider this potentially confounding interference from current flow and (2) conventional MRI imaging protocols can be potentially used to measure current flow during transcranial electrical stimulation. The optimization of current measurement and artifact correction techniques, including consideration of the underlying physics, remains to be addressed.

  6. tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex enhances cognitive control for positive affective stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulation technique with promising results for enhancing cognitive information processes. So far, however, research has mainly focused on the effects of tDCS on cognitive control operations for non-emotional material. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive control considering negative versus positive material. For this sham-controlled, within-subjects study, we selected a homogeneous sample of twenty-five healthy participants. By using behavioral measures and event related potentials (ERP as indexes, we aimed to investigate whether a single session of anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would have specific effects in enhancing cognitive control for positive and negative valenced stimuli. After tDCS over the left DLPFC (and not sham control stimulation, we observed more negative N450 amplitudes along with faster reaction times when inhibiting a habitual response to happy compared to sad facial expressions. Gender did not influence the effects of tDCS on cognitive control for emotional information. In line with the Valence Theory of side-lateralized activity, this stimulation protocol might have led to a left dominant (relative to right prefrontal cortical activity, resulting in augmented cognitive control specifically for positive relative to negative stimuli. To verify that tDCS induces effects that are in line with all aspects of the well known Valence Theory, future research should investigate the effects of tDCS over the left vs. right DLPFC on cognitive control for emotional information.

  7. Reduced Affective Biasing of Instrumental Action With tDCS Over the Prefrontal Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ly, V.; Bergmann, T.O.; Gladwin, T.E.; Volman, I.; Usberti, N.; Cools, R.; Roelofs, K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Instrumental action is well known to be vulnerable to affective value. Excessive transfer of affective value to instrumental action is thought to contribute to psychiatric disorders. The brain region most commonly implicated in overriding such affective biasing of instrumental action is

  8. Combining Exosomes Derived from Immature DCs with Donor Antigen-Specific Treg Cells Induces Tolerance in a Rat Liver Allograft Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ben; Yang, Jing-Yue; Song, Wen-jie; Ding, Rui; Zhang, Zhuo-chao; Ji, Hong-chen; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-lin; Yang, Xi-sheng; Tao, Kai-shan; Dou, Ke-feng; Li, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Allograft tolerance is the ultimate goal in the field of transplantation immunology. Immature dendritic cells (imDCs) play an important role in establishing tolerance but have limitations, including potential for maturation, short lifespan in vivo and short storage times in vitro. However, exosomes (generally 30–100 nm) from imDCs (imDex) retain many source cell properties and may overcome these limitations. In previous reports, imDex prolonged the survival time of heart or intestine allografts. However, tolerance or long-term survival was not achieved unless immune suppressants were used. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can protect allografts from immune rejection, and our previous study showed that the effects of imDex were significantly associated with Tregs. Therefore, we incorporated Tregs into the treatment protocol to further reduce or avoid suppressant use. We defined the optimal exosome dose as approximately 20 μg (per treatment before, during and after transplantation) in rat liver transplantation and the antigen-specific role of Tregs in protecting liver allografts. In the co-treatment group, recipients achieved long-term survival, and tolerance was induced. Moreover, imDex amplified Tregs, which required recipient DCs and were enhanced by IL-2. Fortunately, the expanded Tregs retained their regulatory ability and donor-specificity. Thus, imDex and donor-specific Tregs can collaboratively induce graft tolerance. PMID:27640806

  9. A comparison between uni- and bilateral tDCS effects on functional connectivity of the human motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eSehm

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to induce changes in motor performance and learning. Recent studies indicate that tDCS is capable of modulating widespread neural network properties within the brain. However the temporal evolution of online- and after- effects of tDCS on functional connectivity within and across the stimulated motor cortices (M1 still remain elusive. In the present study, two different tDCS setups were investigated: (i unilateral M1 tDCS (anode over right M1, cathode over the contralateral supraorbital region and (ii bilateral M1 tDCS (anode over right M1, cathode over left M1. In a randomized single-blinded crossover design, 12 healthy subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest (rs-fMRI before, during and after 20 min of either bi-, unilateral or sham M1 tDCS. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis (FC was used to investigate tDCS-induced changes across and within M1. We found that bilateral M1 tDCS induced (a a decrease in interhemispheric FC during stimulation and (b an increase in intracortical FC within right M1 after termination of the intervention. While unilateral M1 tDCS also resulted in similar effects during stimulation, no such changes could be observed after termination of tDCS. Our results provide evidence that depending on the electrode montage, tDCS acts upon a modulation of either intracortical and/or interhemispheric processing of M1.

  10. Cerebellar tDCS Effects on Conditioned Eyeblinks using Different Electrode Placements and Stimulation Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Linda; Batsikadze, Giorgi; Timmann, Dagmar; Gerwig, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    There is good evidence that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition and timing of classically conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Animal studies suggest that the cerebellum is also important in CR extinction and savings. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was reported to modulate CR acquisition and timing in a polarity dependent manner. To extent previous findings three experiments were conducted using standard delay eyeblink conditioning. In a between-group design, effects of tDCS were assessed with stimulation over the right cerebellar hemisphere ipsilaterally to the unconditioned stimulus (US). An extracephalic reference electrode was used in Experiment 1 and a cephalic reference in Experiment 2. In both parts the influence on unconditioned eyeblink responses (UR) was investigated by starting stimulation in the second half of the pseudoconditioning phase lasting throughout the first half of paired trials. In a third experiment, effects of cerebellar tDCS during 40 extinction trials were assessed on extinction and reacquisition on the next day. In each experiment, 30 subjects received anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation in a double-blinded fashion. Using the extracephalic reference electrode, no significant effects on CR incidences comparing stimulation groups were observed. Using the cephalic reference anodal as well as cathodal cerebellar tDCS increased CR acquisition compared to sham only on a trend level. Analysis of timing parameters did not reveal significant effects on CR onset and peaktime latencies nor on UR timing. In the third experiment, cerebellar tDCS during extinction trials had no significant effect on extinction and savings on the next day. The present study did not reveal clear polarity dependent effects of cerebellar tDCS on CR acquisition and timing as previously described. Weaker effects may be explained by start of tDCS before the learning phase i.e., offline, individual thresholds and current flow based

  11. Cerebellar tDCS Effects on Conditioned Eyeblinks using Different Electrode Placements and Stimulation Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Linda; Batsikadze, Giorgi; Timmann, Dagmar; Gerwig, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    There is good evidence that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition and timing of classically conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Animal studies suggest that the cerebellum is also important in CR extinction and savings. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was reported to modulate CR acquisition and timing in a polarity dependent manner. To extent previous findings three experiments were conducted using standard delay eyeblink conditioning. In a between-group design, effects of tDCS were assessed with stimulation over the right cerebellar hemisphere ipsilaterally to the unconditioned stimulus (US). An extracephalic reference electrode was used in Experiment 1 and a cephalic reference in Experiment 2. In both parts the influence on unconditioned eyeblink responses (UR) was investigated by starting stimulation in the second half of the pseudoconditioning phase lasting throughout the first half of paired trials. In a third experiment, effects of cerebellar tDCS during 40 extinction trials were assessed on extinction and reacquisition on the next day. In each experiment, 30 subjects received anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation in a double-blinded fashion. Using the extracephalic reference electrode, no significant effects on CR incidences comparing stimulation groups were observed. Using the cephalic reference anodal as well as cathodal cerebellar tDCS increased CR acquisition compared to sham only on a trend level. Analysis of timing parameters did not reveal significant effects on CR onset and peaktime latencies nor on UR timing. In the third experiment, cerebellar tDCS during extinction trials had no significant effect on extinction and savings on the next day. The present study did not reveal clear polarity dependent effects of cerebellar tDCS on CR acquisition and timing as previously described. Weaker effects may be explained by start of tDCS before the learning phase i.e., offline, individual thresholds and current flow based

  12. Motor cortex tDCS does not improve strength performance in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Montenegro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS upon maximal strength performance in exercises recruiting large muscle mass has not been established in healthy populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anodal tDCS was able to increase the performance during maximal strength exercise (MSEX in healthy subjects. Fourteen volunteers (age: 26 ± 4 yrs performed two MSEX after anodal or sham tDCS (2mA; 20min prior MSEX, involving knee extensors and flexors in concentric isokinetic muscle actions of the dominant limb (3 sets of 10 repetitions. The electrical muscle activity (sEMG of four recruited muscles was recorded during MSEX. Anodal tDCS was not able to improve force production (i.e., total work and peak torque, fatigue resistance, or electromyographic activity during MSEX when compared to sham condition. In conclusion, anodal tDCS applied upon the contralateral motor cortex was not capable of increasing the strength performance of knee extensors and flexors in young healthy subjects.

  13. Anodal tDCS targeting the right orbitofrontal cortex enhances facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Megan L; Murphy, Jillian M; Ridley, Nicole J; Vercammen, Ans

    2015-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in the capacity to accurately recognise facial expressions. The aim of the current study was to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the right OFC in healthy adults would enhance facial expression recognition, compared with a sham condition. Across two counterbalanced sessions of tDCS (i.e. anodal and sham), 20 undergraduate participants (18 female) completed a facial expression labelling task comprising angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, sad and neutral expressions, and a control (social judgement) task comprising the same expressions. Responses on the labelling task were scored for accuracy, median reaction time and overall efficiency (i.e. combined accuracy and reaction time). Anodal tDCS targeting the right OFC enhanced facial expression recognition, reflected in greater efficiency and speed of recognition across emotions, relative to the sham condition. In contrast, there was no effect of tDCS to responses on the control task. This is the first study to demonstrate that anodal tDCS targeting the right OFC boosts facial expression recognition. This finding provides a solid foundation for future research to examine the efficacy of this technique as a means to treat facial expression recognition deficits, particularly in individuals with OFC damage or dysfunction.

  14. Time- but not sleep-dependent consolidation of tDCS-enhanced visuomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janine; Fischer, Jan Torben; Prichard, George; Weiller, Cornelius; Cohen, Leonardo G; Fritsch, Brita

    2015-01-01

    Consolidation of motor skills after training can occur in a time- or sleep-dependent fashion. Recent studies revealed time-dependent consolidation as a common feature of visuomotor tasks. We have previously shown that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in combination with repeated motor training benefits consolidation by the induction of offline skill gains in a complex visuomotor task, preventing the regular occurrence of skill loss between days. Here, we asked 2 questions: What is the time course of consolidation between days for this task and do exogenously induced offline gains develop as a function of time or overnight sleep? We found that both the development of offline skill loss in sham-stimulated subjects and offline skill gains induced by anodal tDCS critically depend on the passage of time after training, but not on overnight sleep. These findings support the view that tDCS interacts directly with the physiological consolidation process. However, in a control experiment, anodal tDCS applied after the training did not induce skill gains, implying that coapplication of tDCS and training is required to induce offline skill gains, pointing to the initiation of consolidation already during training.

  15. tDCS stimulation segregates words in the brain: evidence from aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eFiori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have already shown that modulating cortical activity by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves noun or verb naming in aphasic patients. However, it is not yet clear whether these effects are equally obtained through stimulation over the frontal or the temporal regions. In the present study, the same group of aphasic subjects participated in two randomized double-blind experiments involving two intensive language treatments for their noun and verb retrieval difficulties. During each training, each subject was treated with tDCS (20 min., 1mA over the left hemisphere in three different conditions: anodic tDCS over the temporal areas, anodic tDCS over the frontal areas and sham stimulation, while they performed a noun and an action naming tasks. Each experimental condition was run in five consecutive daily sessions over three weeks with 6 days of intersession interval. The order of administration of the two language trainings was randomly assigned to all patients. Overall, with respect to the other two conditions, results showed a significant greater improvement in noun naming after stimulation over the temporal region, while verb naming recovered significantly better after stimulation of the frontal region. These improvements persisted at one month after the end of each treatment suggesting a long-term effect on recovery of the patients’ noun and verb difficulties. These data clearly suggest that the mechanisms of recovery for naming can be segregated coupling tDCS with an intensive language training.

  16. No significant effect of prefrontal tDCS on working memory performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna eNilsson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been put forward as a non-pharmacological alternative for alleviating cognitive decline in old age. Although results have shown some promise, little is known about the optimal stimulation parameters for modulation in the cognitive domain. In this study, the effects of tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC on working memory performance were investigated in thirty older adults. An N-back task assessed working memory before, during and after anodal tDCS at a current strength of 1mA and 2mA, in addition to sham stimulation. The study used a single-blind, cross-over design. The results revealed no significant effect of tDCS on accuracy or response times during or after stimulation, for any of the current strengths. These results suggest that a single session of tDCS over the dlPFC is unlikely to improve working memory, as assessed by an N-back task, in old age.

  17. Hitachi's proposed DCS solution for new build CANDU EC6 using the G-HIACS unified platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, D.; Ishii, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Uemura, K., E-mail: daisuke.tan.ye@hitachi.com [Hitachi Ltd., Infrastructure Systems Co., Ibaraki (Japan); Marko, P.E. [Hitachi Power Systems Canada Ltd., Power and Industry Div., Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Hitachi Ltd. has developed the safe and secure functional safety DCS controller for potential new build NPP projects in the global market. Hitachi has improved the availability, maintainability, and reliability for its latest DCS systems named G-HIACS. In this latest paper on its DCS product development program, Hitachi would like to report a proposed DCS solution for new build CANDU NSP and BOP based on the G-HIACS Unified Architecture (R800FS/HSC800FS vSAFE Functional Safety Controller and R900/HSC900 General Purpose Controller) hybrid control system. (author)

  18. Analysis of Survivin-Specific T Cells in Breast Cancer Patients Using Human DCs Engineered with Survivin mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Met, Ozcan; Svane, Inge Marie

    2013-01-01

    vaccines, it may be beneficial to analyze preexistent immunity against TAAs in cancer patients because it may be easier to expand a memory pool of T cells compared to generating new immunity. Recent research shows that engineering DCs to synthesize tumor epitopes endogenously by transfecting DCs with m......The observation that dendritic cells (DCs) charged with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is a potent strategy to elicit protective immunity in tumor-bearings hosts has prompted extensive testing of DCs as cellular adjuvant in cancer vaccines. To improve the clinical development of DC-based cancer...

  19. Motor Sequence Learning in Healthy Older Adults Is Not Necessarily Facilitated by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Raw, RK; Allen, RJ; Mon-Williams, M; Wilkie, RM

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can modulate neuronal activity, and improve performance of basic motor tasks. The possibility that tDCS could assist in rehabilitation (e.g., for paresis post-stroke) offers hope but the evidence base is incomplete, with some behavioural studies reporting no effect of tDCS on complex motor learning. Older adults who show age-related decline in movement and learning (skills which tDCS could potentially ...

  20. The Integration of DCS I/O to an Existing PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debashis; Mihevic, John

    2013-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Existing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) I/O was replaced with Distributed Control System (DCS) I/O, while keeping the existing PLC sequence Logic. The reason for integration of the PLC logic and DCS I/O, along with the evaluation of the resulting system is the subject of this paper. The pros and cons of the old system and new upgrade are described, including operator workstation screen update times. Detail of the physical layout and the communication between the PLC, the DCS I/O and the operator workstations are illustrated. The complex characteristics of a central process control system and the plan to remove the PLC processors in future upgrades is also discussed.

  1. Impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on neuronal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Das

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, modulates neuronal excitability by the application of a small electrical current. The low cost and ease of the technique has driven interest in potential clinical applications. However, outcomes are highly sensitive to stimulation parameters, leading to difficulty maximizing the technique’s effectiveness. Although reversing the polarity of stimulation often causes opposite effects, this is not always the case. Effective clinical application will require an understanding of how tDCS works; how it modulates a neuron; how it affects the local network; and how it alters inter-network signaling. We have summarized what is known regarding the mechanisms of tDCS from sub-cellular processing to circuit level communication with a particular focus on what can be learned from the polarity specificity of the effects.

  2. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Dambacher

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP. We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of tDCS

  3. Monitoring cognitive function and need with the automated neuropsychological assessment metrics in Decompression Sickness (DCS) research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesthus, Thomas E.; Schiflett, Sammuel G.

    1993-01-01

    Hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS) research presents the medical monitor with the difficult task of assessing the onset and progression of DCS largely on the basis of subjective symptoms. Even with the introduction of precordial Doppler ultrasound techniques for the detection of venous gas emboli (VGE), correct prediction of DCS can be made only about 65 percent of the time according to data from the Armstrong Laboratory's (AL's) hypobaric DCS database. An AL research protocol concerned with exercise and its effects on denitrogenation efficiency includes implementation of a performance assessment test battery to evaluate cognitive functioning during a 4-h simulated 30,000 ft (9144 m) exposure. Information gained from such a test battery may assist the medical monitor in identifying early signs of DCS and subtle neurologic dysfunction related to cases of asymptomatic, but advanced, DCS. This presentation concerns the selection and integration of a test battery and the timely graphic display of subject test results for the principal investigator and medical monitor. A subset of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) developed through the Office of Military Performance Assessment Technology (OMPAT) was selected. The ANAM software provides a library of simple tests designed for precise measurement of processing efficiency in a variety of cognitive domains. For our application and time constraints, two tests requiring high levels of cognitive processing and memory were chosen along with one test requiring fine psychomotor performance. Accuracy, speed, and processing throughout variables as well as RMS error were collected. An automated mood survey provided 'state' information on six scales including anger, happiness, fear, depression, activity, and fatigue. An integrated and interactive LOTUS 1-2-3 macro was developed to import and display past and present task performance and mood-change information.

  4. Fast diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Parisa; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Kuan-Cheng; Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Tamborini, Davide; Dubb, Jay; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2017-02-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has a key role in the management of neurosurgical and neurological injuries. Currently, the standard clinical monitoring of ICP requires an invasive transducer into the parenchymal tissue or the brain ventricle, with possibility of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. A non-invasive method for measuring ICP, would be highly preferable, as it would allow clinicians to promptly monitor ICP during transport and allow for monitoring in a larger number of patients. We have introduced diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) as a non-invasive ICP monitor by fast measurement of pulsatile cerebral blood flow (CBF). The method is similar to Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), which derives ICP from the amplitude of the pulsatile cerebral blood flow velocity, with respect to the amplitude of the pulsatile arterial blood pressure. We believe DCS measurement is superior indicator of ICP than TCD estimation because DCS directly measures blood flow, not blood flow velocity, and the small cortical vessels measured by DCS are more susceptible to transmural pressure changes than the large vessels. For fast DCS measurements to recover pulsatile CBF we have developed a custom high-power long-coherent laser and a strategy for delivering it to the tissue within ANSI standards. We have also developed a custom FPGA-based correlator board, which facilitates DCS data acquisitions at 50-100 Hz. We have tested the feasibility of measuring pulsatile CBF and deriving ICP in two challenging scenarios: humans and rats. SNR is low in human adults due to large optode distances. It is similarly low in rats because the fast heart rate in this setting requires a high repetition rate.

  5. Applying anodal tDCS during tango dancing in a patient with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, D; Allum, J H; Bronstein, A M; Dominguez, R O

    2014-05-07

    Gait disturbance in patients with Parkinson's disease remains a therapeutic challenge, given its poor response to levodopa. Dance therapy is of recognised benefit in these patients, particularly partnered dance forms such as the tango. In parallel, non-invasive brain stimulation has begun to show promise for the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's disease, although effects on gait, compared to upper limbs, have been less well defined. We applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a 79 year old male patient with moderate Parkinson's disease during tango dancing to assess its effect on trunk motion and balance. The patient performed a total of four dances over two days, two 'tango+tDCS' and two 'tango+sham' in a randomised double-blind fashion. In a separate experimental session we also assessed the isolated effect of tDCS (and sham) on gait without tango dancing. For the dance session, trunk peak velocity during tango was significantly greater during tDCS compared to sham stimulation. In the gait experiments we observed a modest but significant reduction in the time taken to complete the 3m 'timed up and go' and 6m walk, and an increase in overall gait velocity and peak pitch trunk velocity with tDCS compared to sham. Our findings suggest that tDCS may be a useful adjunct to gait rehabilitation for patients with PD, although studies in a larger group of patients are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of non-invasive brain stimulation during dance therapy.

  6. Induction of visual dream reports after transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCs) during Stage 2 sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Antonia J; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Conduit, Russell

    2012-08-01

    REM sleep is a unique brain state characterized by frontal deactivation alongside activation of the posterior association and limbic cortices. Human brain lesion studies have found that the loss of dreaming is characterized by damage to the frontal and posterior parieto-temporo-occipital association cortex. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the function of these brain regions might encapsulate the neural processes of dreaming. The aim of the following two experiments was to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCs), applied simultaneously to the frontal and right posterior parietal cortex during Stage 2 sleep, on dreaming. In Experiment 1, 17 healthy participants received tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) and low-intensity tDCs as well as no tDCs (blank control) during Stage 2 sleep in a counterbalanced order across the night. Dream reports were collected upon awakening after each of the three conditions. In Experiment 2, 10 participants received tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal), no tDCs (blank control) and two additional control conditions (reversed polarity and other-cephalic tDCs). In both experiments a significantly greater number of imagery reports were found on awakening after tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal), compared to the blank control conditions. However, in Experiment 2 the frequency of imagery reports from the tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) was not significantly different from the other two tDC conditions, suggesting a non-specific effect of tDCs. Overall, it was concluded that tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) increased the frequency of dream reports with visual imagery, possibly via a general arousing effect and/or recreating specific cortical neural activity involved in dreaming. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. 新型GSM/DCS1800双模系统天线推出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    融合了50年天线生产经验的美国亚伦电信公司Decibel Producis分部最近推出了同时支持GSM与DCS1800系统的双模板状天线DB762/DB764系列。因而在CSM与DCS1800系统共存的情况下,只需采用这一种天线而无需分别采用两个频段的天线。

  8. Investigating the cortical regions involved in MEP modulation in tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eSalvador

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is used in several studies to evaluate cortical excitability changes induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the primary motor cortex. Interpretation of these results, however, is hindered by the very different spatial distribution of the electric field (E-field induced by the two techniques and by the different target neurons that they might act upon. In this study we used the finite element method to calculate the E-field distribution induced by TMS and tDCS in a realistically shaped model of a human head. A model of a commercially available figure-8 coil was placed over a position above the identified hand knob (HK region. We also modelled two configurations of bipolar tDCS montages with one of the electrodes placed over the HK and a return electrode over the contralateral orbital region. The electrodes over the HK were either rectangular in shape, with an area of 35cm2 or cylindrical with an area of π cm2 (1 cm radius. To compare the E-field distribution in TMS and the two tDCS models, average values of the E-field’s magnitude as well as the polar and azimuthal angle were investigated in the HK region and premotor areas. The results show that both techniques induce fields with different magnitudes and directions in the HK: the field in tDCS is predominantly perpendicular to the cortical surface, contrary to what happens in TMS where the field is mostly parallel to it. In the premotor areas, the magnitude of the E-field induced in TMS was well below the accepted threshold for MEP generation, 100 V/m. In tDCS, the magnitude of the field in these areas was comparable to that induced at the HK with a significant component perpendicular to the cortical surface. These results indicate that tDCS and TMS target preferentially different neuronal structures at the HK. Besides, they show that premotor areas may play a role in the tDCS-induced after effects on motor cortex excitability.

  9. The Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type II DCS: An Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11062 TITLE: The Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type 11 DCS: An...Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type II DCS: An Overview of the Literature Joan Saary, MD, MSc and Gary Gray, MD, PhD Division of Occupational...ON Toronto, ON Canada, M5B 1W8 Canada M3M 3B9 joan.saary(autoronto.ca 2ary.2ray(aidciem.dnd.ca The significance of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the

  10. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  11. Impact of tDCS on Performance and Learning of Target Detection: Interaction with Stimulus Characteristics and Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, B. A.; Trumbo, M. C.; Flores, R. A.; Garcia, C. M.; van der Merwe, A. J.; Wassermann, E. M.; Weisend, M. P.; Clark, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously found that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over right inferior frontal cortex (RIFC) enhances performance during learning of a difficult visual target detection task (Clark et al., 2012). In order to examine the cognitive mechanisms of tDCS that lead to enhanced performance, here we analyzed its differential…

  12. DMPD: RAPping production of type I interferon in pDCs through mTOR. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18800159 RAPping production of type I interferon in pDCs through mTOR. Costa-Mattio...li M, Sonenberg N. Nat Immunol. 2008 Oct;9(10):1097-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show RAPping production... of type I interferon in pDCs through mTOR. PubmedID 18800159 Title RAPping production of type I interferon

  13. Effect of tDCS with an extracephalic reference electrode on cardio-respiratory and autonomic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamart Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is used in human physiological studies and for therapeutic trials in patients with abnormalities of cortical excitability. Its safety profile places tDCS in the pole-position for translating in real-world therapeutic application. However, an episode of transient respiratory depression in a subject receiving tDCS with an extracephalic electrode led to the suggestion that such an electrode montage could modulate the brainstem autonomic centres. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the midline frontal cortex in 30 healthy volunteers (sham n = 10, cathodal n = 10, anodal n = 10 with an extracephalic reference electrode would modulate brainstem activity as reflected by the monitoring and stringent analysis of vital parameters: heart rate (variability, respiratory rate, blood pressure and sympatho-vagal balance. We reasoned that this study could lead to two opposite but equally interesting outcomes: 1 If tDCS with an extracephalic electrode modulated vital parameters, it could be used as a new tool to explore the autonomic nervous system and, even, to modulate its activity for therapeutic purposes. 2 On the opposite, if applying tDCS with an extracephalic electrode had no effect, it could thus be used safely in healthy human subjects. This outcome would significantly impact the field of non-invasive brain stimulation with tDCS. Indeed, on the one hand, using an extracephalic electrode as a genuine neutral reference (as opposed to the classical "bi-cephalic" tDCS montages which deliver bi-polar stimulation of the brain would help to comfort the conclusions of several modern studies regarding the spatial location and polarity of tDCS. On the other hand, using an extracephalic reference electrode may impact differently on a given cortical target due to the change of direct current flow direction; this may enlarge the potential interventions with tDCS. Results Whereas the respiratory

  14. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Power Spectral Parameters: a tDCS/EEG co-registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Mangia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS delivers low electric currents to the brain through the scalp. Constant electric currents induce shifts in neuronal membrane excitability, resulting in secondary changes in cortical activity. Concomitant electroencephalography (EEG monitoring during tDCS can provide valuable information on the tDCS mechanisms of action. This study examined the effects of anodal tDCS on spontaneous cortical activity in a resting brain to disclose possible modulation of spontaneous oscillatory brain activity. EEG activity was measured in ten healthy subjects during and after a session of anodal stimulation of the postero-parietal cortex to detect the tDCS-induced alterations. Changes in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma power bands were investigated. Three main findings emerged: 1 an increase in theta band activity during the first minutes of stimulation; 2 an increase in alpha and beta power during and after stimulation; 3 a widespread activation in several brain regions.

  15. Modulation of Total Sleep Time by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Lukas; Piosczyk, Hannah; Zittel, Sulamith; Jahn, Friederike; Selhausen, Peter; Krone, Lukas; Feige, Bernd; Mainberger, Florian; Maier, Jonathan G; Kuhn, Marion; Klöppel, Stefan; Normann, Claus; Sterr, Annette; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nitsche, Michael A; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Arousal and sleep are fundamental physiological processes, and their modulation is of high clinical significance. This study tested the hypothesis that total sleep time (TST) in humans can be modulated by the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting a 'top-down' cortico-thalamic pathway of sleep-wake regulation. Nineteen healthy participants underwent a within-subject, repeated-measures protocol across five nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring (adaptation, baseline, three experimental nights). tDCS was delivered via bi-frontal target electrodes and bi-parietal return electrodes before sleep (anodal 'activation', cathodal 'deactivation', and sham stimulation). Bi-frontal anodal stimulation significantly decreased TST, compared with cathodal and sham stimulation. This effect was location specific. Bi-frontal cathodal stimulation did not significantly increase TST, potentially due to ceiling effects in good sleepers. Exploratory resting-state EEG analyses before and after the tDCS protocols were consistent with the notion of increased cortical arousal after anodal stimulation and decreased cortical arousal after cathodal stimulation. The study provides proof-of-concept that TST can be decreased by non-invasive bi-frontal anodal tDCS in healthy humans. Further elucidating the 'top-down' pathway of sleep-wake regulation is expected to increase knowledge on the fundamentals of sleep-wake regulation and to contribute to the development of novel treatments for clinical conditions of disturbed arousal and sleep.

  16. Potentials and limits to enhance cognitive functions in healthy and pathological aging by tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin ePrehn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is increasingly used in research and clinical settings to enhance the effects of cognitive training. In our present review, we will first summarize studies using tDCS alone and in combination with cognitive training in older adults and patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD. We will also review one study (Meinzer et al., 2014 that showed an improvement in cognitive performance during anodal tDCS over the left inferior frontal cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, which is regarded as a prodromal stage of AD. Although promising short-term results have been reported, evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs with sufficient sample sizes is scarce. In addition, stimulation protocols (in terms of intensity, duration, and repetition of stimulation that lead to sustained improvements in outcome measures relevant for daily life still remain to be established. Following, we will discuss modulating factors such as technical parameters as well as the question if there are specific cognitive functions (e.g., learning, memory consolidation, executive control which are more amenable to tDCS enhancement than others. Finally, we will highlight future directions and limitations in this field and emphasize the need to conduct RCTs to establish efficacy of interventions for activities of daily life for a given patient population.

  17. Anodal tDCS of dorsolateral prefontal cortex during an Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladwin, T.E.; den Uyl, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Anodal stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex by transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance performance on working memory tasks. However, it is not yet known precisely which aspects of working memory - a broad theoretical concept including short-term memory and v

  18. DCS-SVM: a novel semi-automated method for human brain MR image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Ali; Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Hajiali, Mohammadtaghi

    2016-12-08

    In this paper, a novel method is proposed which appropriately segments magnetic resonance (MR) brain images into three main tissues. This paper proposes an extension of our previous work in which we suggested a combination of multiple classifiers (CMC)-based methods named dynamic classifier selection-dynamic local training local Tanimoto index (DCS-DLTLTI) for MR brain image segmentation into three main cerebral tissues. This idea is used here and a novel method is developed that tries to use more complex and accurate classifiers like support vector machine (SVM) in the ensemble. This work is challenging because the CMC-based methods are time consuming, especially on huge datasets like three-dimensional (3D) brain MR images. Moreover, SVM is a powerful method that is used for modeling datasets with complex feature space, but it also has huge computational cost for big datasets, especially those with strong interclass variability problems and with more than two classes such as 3D brain images; therefore, we cannot use SVM in DCS-DLTLTI. Therefore, we propose a novel approach named "DCS-SVM" to use SVM in DCS-DLTLTI to improve the accuracy of segmentation results. The proposed method is applied on well-known datasets of the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR) and promising results are obtained.

  19. Effects of tDCS on executive function in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Deniz; Gray, Zachary; Bravo, Gabriela L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-10-17

    Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are often poorly recognized, significantly impair quality of life and cause severe disability. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide treatment of associated psychiatric and cognitive problems. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques have emerged as non-pharmacological alternatives to target cognitive symptoms without worsening motor function. In this context, we conducted a multicenter, sham controlled, double-blinded study to assess the immediate and long-term effects of ten consecutive sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the anode on the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (n=5), left DLPFC (n=6) or sham (n=7). We assessed cognitive functions, depressive symptoms and motor functions in 18 PD patients at baseline, at the end of the 2-week stimulation sessions and at 1-month follow-up. Our results showed that active stimulation of both left and right DLPFC resulted in prolonged improvements in Trail Making Test B, an established test to measure executive function, compared to sham tDCS at the 1-month follow-up. These results suggest the existence of a beneficial long-term effect on executive functions in PD patients following active tDCS over the DLPFC. Thus, our findings encourage further investigation exploring tDCS as an adjuvant therapy for cognitive and behavioral treatment in PD.

  20. Semantic Feature Training in Combination with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS for Progressive Anomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Hung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effectiveness of a 2-week regimen of a semantic feature training in combination with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for progressive naming impairment associated with primary progressive aphasia (N = 4 or early onset Alzheimer’s Disease (N = 1. Patients received a 2-week regimen (10 sessions of anodal tDCS delivered over the left temporoparietal cortex while completing a language therapy that consisted of repeated naming and semantic feature generation. Therapy targets consisted of familiar people, household items, clothes, foods, places, hygiene implements, and activities. Untrained items from each semantic category provided item level controls. We analyzed naming accuracies at multiple timepoints (i.e., pre-, post-, 6-month follow-up via a mixed effects logistic regression and individual differences in treatment responsiveness using a series of non-parametric McNemar tests. Patients showed advantages for naming trained over untrained items. These gains were evident immediately post tDCS. Trained items also showed a shallower rate of decline over 6-months relative to untrained items that showed continued progressive decline. Patients tolerated stimulation well, and sustained improvements in naming accuracy suggest that the current intervention approach is viable. Future implementation of a sham control condition will be crucial toward ascertaining whether neurostimulation and behavioral treatment act synergistically or alternatively whether treatment gains are exclusively attributable to either tDCS or the behavioral intervention.

  1. Multisession Anodal tDCS Protocol Improves Motor System Function in an Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dumel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of five consecutive, daily 20-minute sessions of M1 a-tDCS on motor learning in healthy, cognitively intact, aging adults. Design. A total of 23 participants (51 to 69 years old performed five consecutive, daily 20-minute sessions of a serial reaction time task (SRT task concomitant with either anodal (n=12 or sham (n=11 M1 a-tDCS. Results. We found a significant group × training sessions interaction, indicating that whereas aging adults in the sham group exhibited little-to-no sequence-specific learning improvements beyond the first day of training, reproducible improvements in the ability to learn new motor sequences over 5 consecutive sessions were the net result in age-equivalent participants from the M1 a-tDCS group. A significant main effect of group on sequence-specific learning revealed greater motor learning for the M1 a-tDCS group when the five learning sessions were averaged. Conclusion. These findings raise into prominence the utility of multisession anodal TDCS protocols in combination with motor training to help prevent/alleviate age-associated motor function decline.

  2. Anodal tDCS of dorsolateral prefontal cortex during an Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladwin, T.E.; den Uyl, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Anodal stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex by transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance performance on working memory tasks. However, it is not yet known precisely which aspects of working memory - a broad theoretical concept including short-term memory and v

  3. Impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on neuronal functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S. (Suman); P. Holland (Peter); M.A. Frens (Maarten); O. Donchin (Opher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, modulates neuronal excitability by the application of a small electrical current. The low cost and ease of the technique has driven interest in potential clinical applications. However, outcomes a

  4. Blood flow measurement of human skeletal muscle during various exercise intensity using diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuya; Ono, Yumie; Ichinose, Masashi

    2017-02-01

    We studied blood flow dynamics of active skeletal muscle using diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), an emerging optical modality that is suitable for noninvasive quantification of microcirculation level in deep tissue. Seven healthy subjects conducted 0.5 Hz dynamic handgrip exercise for 3 minutes at intensities of 10, 20, 30, and 50 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). DCS could detect the time-dependent increase of the blood flow response of the forearm muscle for continuous exercises, and the increase ratios of the mean blood flow through the exercise periods showed good correlation with the exercise intensities. We also compared blood flow responses detected from DCS with two different photon sampling rates and found that an appropriate photon sampling rates should be selected to follow the wide-ranged increase in the muscle blood flow with dynamic exercise. Our results demonstrate the possibility for utilizing DCS in a field of sports medicine to noninvasively evaluate the dynamics of blood flow in the active muscles.

  5. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS for Clinical Trials: Guidelines for Technology and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh E Charvet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is cumulative. Treatment protocols typically require multiple consecutive sessions spanning weeks or months. However, traveling to clinic for a tDCS session can present an obstacle to subjects and their caregivers. With modified devices and headgear, tDCS treatment can be administered remotely under clinical supervision, potentially enhancing recruitment, throughput, and convenience. Here we propose standards and protocols for clinical trials utilizing remotely-supervised tDCS with the goal of providing safe, reproducible and well-tolerated stimulation therapy outside of the clinic. The recommendations include: 1 training of staff in tDCS treatment and supervision, 2 assessment of the user’s capability to participate in tDCS remotely, 3 ongoing training procedures and materials including assessments of the user and/or caregiver, 4 simple and fail-safe electrode preparation techniques and tDCS headgear, 5 strict dose control for each session, 6 ongoing monitoring to quantify compliance (device preparation, electrode saturation/placement, stimulation protocol, with corresponding corrective steps as required, 7 monitoring for treatment-emergent adverse effects, 8 guidelines for discontinuation of a session and/or study participation including emergency failsafe procedures tailored to the treatment population’s level of need. These guidelines are intended to provide a minimal level of methodological rigor for clinical trials seeking to apply tDCS outside a specialized treatment center. We outline indication-specific applications (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Multiple Sclerosis, Palliative Care following these recommendations that support a standardized framework for evaluating the tolerability and reproducibility of remote-supervised tDCS that, once established, will allow for translation of tDCS clinical trials to a greater size and range of patient populations.

  6. tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voarino, Nathalie; Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technology to enhance cognitive and physical performance. One of the major areas of interest is the enhancement of memory function in healthy individuals. The early arrival of tDCS on the market for lifestyle uses and cognitive enhancement purposes lead to the voicing of some important ethical concerns, especially because, to date, there are no official guidelines or evaluation procedures to tackle these issues. The aim of this article is to review ethical issues related to uses of tDCS for memory enhancement found in the ethics and neuroscience literature and to evaluate how realistic and scientifically well-founded these concerns are? In order to evaluate how plausible or speculative each issue is, we applied the methodological framework described by Racine et al. (2014) for “informed and reflective” speculation in bioethics. This framework could be succinctly presented as requiring: (1) the explicit acknowledgment of factual assumptions and identification of the value attributed to them; (2) the validation of these assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) the adoption of a broad perspective to support more comprehensive reflection on normative issues. We identified four major considerations associated with the development of tDCS for memory enhancement: safety, autonomy, justice and authenticity. In order to assess the seriousness and likelihood of harm related to each of these concerns, we analyzed the assumptions underlying the ethical issues, and the level of evidence for each of them. We identified seven distinct assumptions: prevalence, social acceptance, efficacy, ideological stance (bioconservative vs. libertarian), potential for misuse, long term side effects, and the delivery of complete and clear information. We conclude that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would

  7. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  8. Neonatal plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs display subset variation but can elicit potent anti-viral innate responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhang

    Full Text Available Neonates are highly susceptible to infectious diseases and defective antiviral pDC immune responses have been proposed to contribute to this phenomenon. Isolated cord blood pDCs innately responded to a variety of TLR7 and TLR9 dependent viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or herpes-simplex virus (HSV by efficiently producing IFN-α, TNF-α as well as chemokines. Interestingly, following activation by CpGA, but not viruses, cord pDCs tend to survive less efficiently. We found that a hallmark of pDCs in neonates is an extended CD2+pDCs compartment compared to adult pDCs without affecting the antiviral IFN-α response. Within CD2+pDCs, we identified a subpopulation expressing CD5 and responsible for IL-12p40 production, however this population is significantly decreased in cord blood compared to adult blood. Therefore, neonatal pDCs clearly display variation in phenotype and subset composition, but without major consequences for their antiviral responses.

  9. Changes in corticomotor excitability and intracortical inhibition of the primary motor cortex forearm area induced by anodal tDCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have investigated how tDCS over the primary motor cortex modulates excitability in the intrinsic hand muscles. Here, we tested if tDCS changes corticomotor excitability and/or cortical inhibition when measured in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR and if these aftereffects can be successfully assessed during controlled muscle contraction. METHODS: We implemented a double blind cross-over design in which participants (n = 16 completed two sessions where the aftereffects of 20 min of 1 mA (0.04 mA/cm2 anodal vs sham tDCS were tested in a resting muscle, and two more sessions where the aftereffects of anodal vs sham tDCS were tested in an active muscle. RESULTS: Anodal tDCS increased corticomotor excitability in ECR when aftereffects were measured with a low-level controlled muscle contraction. Furthermore, anodal tDCS decreased short interval intracortical inhibition but only when measured at rest and after non-responders (n = 2 were removed. We found no changes in the cortical silent period. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that targeting more proximal muscles in the upper limb with anodal tDCS is achievable and corticomotor excitability can be assessed in the presence of a low-level controlled contraction of the target muscle.

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the supplementary motor area (SMA) influences performance on motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfeld, K E; Ketcham, C J; Schneider, H D

    2017-03-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) is believed to be highly involved in the planning and execution of both simple and complex motor tasks. This study aimed to examine the role of the SMA in planning the movements required to complete reaction time, balance, and pegboard tasks using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which passes a weak electrical current between two electrodes, in order to modulate neuronal activity. Twenty healthy adults were counterbalanced to receive either tDCS (experimental condition) or no tDCS (control condition) for 3 days. During administration of tDCS, participants performed a balance task significantly faster than controls. After tDCS, subjects significantly improved their simple and choice reaction time. These results demonstrate that the SMA is highly involved in planning and executing fine and gross motor skill tasks and that tDCS is an effective modality for increasing SMA-related performance on these tasks. The findings may be generalizable and therefore indicate implications for future interventions using tDCS as a therapeutic tool.

  11. Flow cytometry assay of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) in peripheral blood during acute hepatitis C: Possible pathogenetic mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Perrella; Oreste Perrella; Luigi Atripaldi; Pasquale Bellopede; Tommaso Patarino; Costanza Sbreglia; Giovanni Tarantino; Paolo Sorrentino; Paolo Conca; Luca Ruggiero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To asses the expression of myeloid dendritic cells (CD11c+) subset during acute HCV hepatitis and its possible involvement in natural history of the infection.METHODS: We enrolled 11 patients with acute hepatitis C (AHC) (Group A), 10 patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) (as infective control-Group B) and 10 healthy donors (group C) in this study. All patients underwent selective flow cytometry gating strategies to assess the peripheral number of the myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs)to understand the possible role and differences during acute hepatitis.RESULTS: Eight of 11 patients with acute HCV hepatitis did not show any increase of mDCs compared to healthy individuals, while a significant decrease of mDCs was found in absolute cell count (z=-2.37; P<0.05) and percentage (z=-2.30; P<0.05) as compared with AHA.On the contrary, The remaining three patients of the group A had a higher mDCs number and percentage as occur in group B. Interestingly, after six months, those patients did not show any increase of mDCs subset were chronically infected. while the three subjects with an increase of peripheral mDCs, as in HAV acute infection,resolved the illness.CONCLUSION: The lack of increase of mDCs during acute hepatitis C might be an important factor involved in chronicization of the infection.

  12. Assessment of anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a very weak constant current to temporarily excite (anodal stimulation) or inhibit (cathodal stimulation) activity in the brain area of interest via small electrodes placed on the scalp. Currently, tDCS of the frontal cortex is being used as a tool to investigate cognition in healthy controls and to improve symptoms in neurological and psychiatric patients. tDCS has been found to facilitate cognitive performance on measures of attention, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Recently, a short session of anodal tDCS over the temporal lobe has been shown to increase auditory sensory processing as indexed by the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). This preliminary pilot study examined the separate and interacting effects of both anodal and cathodal tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory pitch discrimination. In a randomized, double blind design, the MMN was assessed before (baseline) and after tDCS (2mA, 20min) in 2 separate sessions, one involving 'sham' stimulation (the device is turned off), followed by anodal stimulation (to temporarily excite cortical activity locally), and one involving cathodal stimulation (to temporarily decrease cortical activity locally), followed by anodal stimulation. Results demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the temporal cortex increased MMN-indexed auditory detection of pitch deviance, and while cathodal tDCS decreased auditory discrimination in baseline-stratified groups, subsequent anodal stimulation did not significantly alter MMN amplitudes. These findings strengthen the position that tDCS effects on cognition extend to the neural processing of sensory input and raise the possibility that this neuromodulatory technique may be useful for investigating sensory processing deficits in clinical populations.

  13. Time-course of corticospinal excitability and autonomic function interplay during and following monopolar tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eSantarnecchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While polarity-specific after-effects of monopolar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on cortico-spinal excitability are well-documented, modulation of vital parameters due to current spread through the brainstem is still a matter of debate, raising potential concerns about its use through the general public, as well as for neurorehabilitation purposes. We monitored online and after-effects of monopolar tDCS (primary motor cortex in ten healthy subjects by adopting a neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS/tDCS combined protocol. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs together with vital parameters (e.g. blood pressure, heart-rate variability and sympathovagal balance were recorded and monitored before, during and after anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS. Ten MEPs every 2.5-minute time windows were recorded from the right First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, while 5-minute epochs were used to record vital parameters. The protocol included 15 minutes of pre-tDCS and of online-tDCS, (anodal, cathodal or sham. After effects were recorded for 30 minutes. We showed a polarity-independent stabilization of cortical excitability level, a polarity-specific after-effects for cathodal and anodal stimulation, and an absence of persistent excitability changes during online stimulation. No significant effects on vital parameters emerged both during and after tDCS, while a linear increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart-rate variability was observed during each tDCS condition, as a possible unspecific response to experimental demands. Taken together, current findings provide new insights on the safety of monopolar tDCS, promoting its application both in research and clinical settings.

  14. Multi-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS elicits inflammatory and regenerative processes in the rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adele Rueger

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is increasingly being used in human studies as an adjuvant tool to promote recovery of function after stroke. However, its neurobiological effects are still largely unknown. Electric fields are known to influence the migration of various cell types in vitro, but effects in vivo remain to be shown. Hypothesizing that tDCS might elicit the recruitment of cells to the cortex, we here studied the effects of tDCS in the rat brain in vivo. Adult Wistar rats (n = 16 were randomized to either anodal or cathodal stimulation for either 5 or 10 consecutive days (500 µA, 15 min. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU was given systemically to label dividing cells throughout the experiment. Immunohistochemical analyses ex vivo included stainings for activated microglia and endogenous neural stem cells (NSC. Multi-session tDCS with the chosen parameters did not cause a cortical lesion. An innate immune response with early upregulation of Iba1-positive activated microglia occurred after both cathodal and anodal tDCS. The involvement of adaptive immunity as assessed by ICAM1-immunoreactivity was less pronounced. Most interestingly, only cathodal tDCS increased the number of endogenous NSC in the stimulated cortex. After 10 days of cathodal stimulation, proliferating NSC increased by ∼60%, with a significant effect of both polarity and number of tDCS sessions on the recruitment of NSC. We demonstrate a pro-inflammatory effect of both cathodal and anodal tDCS, and a polarity-specific migratory effect on endogenous NSC in vivo. Our data suggest that tDCS in human stroke patients might also elicit NSC activation and modulate neuroinflammation.

  15. The effects of tDCS across the Spatial Frequencies and Orientations that comprise the Contrast Sensitivity Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eRichard

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trans-cranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has recently been employed in traditional psychophysical paradigms in an effort to measure direct manipulations on spatial frequency channel operations in the early visual system. However, the effects of tDCS on contrast sensitivity have only been measured at a single spatial frequency and orientation. Since contrast sensitivity is known to depend on spatial frequency and orientation, we ask how the effects of anodal and cathodal tDCS may vary according to these dimensions. We measured contrast sensitivity with sinusoidal gratings at four different spatial frequencies (0.5, 4, 8, and 12 cycles/°, two orientations (45° Oblique and Horizontal, and for two stimulus size conditions [fixed size (3 degrees and fixed period (1.5 cycles]. The results showed that only contrast sensitivity measured with a 45° oblique grating with a spatial frequency of 8 cycles/° (period = 1.5 cycles demonstrated clear polarity specific effects of tDCS, whereby cathodal tDCS increased, and anodal tDCS decreased contrast sensitivity. Overall, effects of tDCS were largest for oblique stimuli presented at high spatial frequencies (i.e., 8 and 12 cycles/°, and were absent at lower spatial frequencies. Further, the modulatory effects of tDCS were dependent on the sensitivity of the observer to the stimulus, and its spatial characteristics. It therefore seems that the effects of tDCS are only found for high spatial frequency stimuli that generally elicit lower contrast sensitivity, while the effects are diminished, or absent to stimuli that elicit higher contrast sensitivity.

  16. CD1c-related DCs that express CD207/langerin, but are distinguishable from Langerhans cells, are consistently present in human tonsils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eDe Monte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several subsets of dendritic cells (DCs are present in the oropharyngeal tonsillar tissues and are thought to behave as major actors in development and regulation of immunity by acting as a first line of recognition for airborne and alimentary antigens. We previously discovered in human adult tonsils infected with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV a subset of DCs that expressed langerin/CD207, a lectin usually recognized as a hallmark of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs. In the present study, we analyzed the content of several child and adult tonsils in order to characterize in more detail the phenotype of these tonsillar CD207-expressing DCs (tCD207 DCs and to compare it with that of other human DC subsets. We showed that all the human tonsils studied (n=12 contained significant proportions of tCD207 DCs among tonsillar cells expressing HLA-DR. Moreover, the presence of tCD207 DCs in tonsils from young children free of EBV infection indicated that these cells could be established early in the tonsil independently of EBV infection. We also showed that tCD207 DCs, that were found mainly located within the tonsillar lymphoid stroma, were distinguishable from LCs by the level of expression of CD1a and EpCAM, and also from human inflammatory DCs (infDCs by the lack of CD1a, CD206 and CD14 expression. Detailed analysis of cell surface DC markers showed that tCD207 DCs were unrelated to CD141+ DCs or macrophages, but defined a subtype of tonsillar DCs closely related to myeloid resident CD1c DCs. Since it was established that blood CD1c myeloid DCs exhibit plasticity and are capable of expressing CD207 notably in the presence of inflammatory cytokines, it is tempting to speculate that CD207+ CD1c+ DCs may play a specific immune role.

  17. tDCS and Robotics on Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation: Effect Modification by Stroke Duration and Type of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Straudi; Felipe Fregni; Carlotta Martinuzzi; Claudia Pavarelli; Stefano Salvioli; Nino Basaglia

    2016-01-01

    Objective:. The aim of this exploratory pilot study is to test the effects of bilateral tDCS combined with upper extremity robot-assisted therapy (RAT) on stroke survivors. Methods. We enrolled 23 subjects who were allocated to 2 groups: RAT + real tDCS and RAT + sham-tDCS. Each patient underwent 10 sessions (5 sessions/week) over two weeks. Outcome measures were collected before and after treatment: (i) Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), (ii) Box and Block Test (BBT), and (iii) ...

  18. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  19. Alpha-defensins 1-3 release by dendritic cells is reduced by estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperling Rhoda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During pregnancy the immune system of the mother must protect any activation that may negatively affect the fetus. Changes in susceptibility to infection as well as resolution of some autoimmune disorders represent empirical evidence for pregnancy related alterations in immunity. Sex hormones reach extremely high levels during pregnancy and have been shown to have direct effects on many immune functions including the antiviral response of dendritic cells. Among the immunologically active proteins secreted by monocyte derived DCs (MDDC are the alpha-defensins 1-3. This family of cationic antimicrobial peptides has a broad spectrum of microbicidal activity and has also been shown to link innate to adaptive immunity by attracting T cells and immature DCs, which are essential for initiating and polarizing the immune response. Methods We compare culture-generated monocyte derived DCs (MDDCs with directly isolated myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs and measure their alpha-defensins 1-3 secretion by ELISA both, in basal situations and after hormone (E2 or PG treatments. Moreover, using a cohort of pregnant women we isolated mDCs from blood and also measure the levels of these anti-microbial peptides along pregnancy. Results We show that mDCs and pDCs constitutively produce alpha-defensins 1-3 and at much higher levels than MDDCs. Alpha-defensins 1-3 production from mDCs and MDDCs but not pDCs is inhibited by E2. PG does not affect alpha-defensins 1-3 in any of the populations. Moreover, alpha-defensins 1-3 production by mDCs was reduced in the later stages of pregnancy in 40% of the patients. Conclusions Here, we demonstrate that mDCs and pDCs secrete alpha-defensins 1-3 and present a novel effect of E2 on the secretion of alpha-defensins 1-3 by dendritic cells.

  20. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients scheduled for clcctive unilateral lower limb surgery. ... the conventional group were turned supine immediately after injection. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen .... Characteristic Type of spinal anaesthcsia P-value.

  1. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Human Memory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Training a person in a new knowledge base or skill set is extremely time consuming and costly, particularly in highly specialized domains such as the military and the intelligence community. Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has suggested that a technique called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has the potential to revolutionize training by enabling learners to acquire new skills faster, more efficiently, and more robustly (Bullard et al., 2011). In this project, we tested the effects of tDCS on two types of memory performance that are critical for learning new skills: associative memory and working memory. Associative memory is memory for the relationship between two items or events. It forms the foundation of all episodic memories, so enhancing associative memory could provide substantial benefits to the speed and robustness of learning new information. We tested the effects of tDCS on associative memory, using a real-world associative memory task: remembering the links between faces and names. Working memory refers to the amount of information that can be held in mind and processed at one time, and it forms the basis for all higher-level cognitive processing. We investigated the degree of transfer between various working memory tasks (the N-back task as a measure of verbal working memory, the rotation-span task as a measure of visuospatial working memory, and Raven's progressive matrices as a measure of fluid intelligence) in order to determine if tDCS-induced facilitation of performance is task-specific or general.

  2. The Decapping Scavenger Enzyme DCS-1 Controls MicroRNA Levels in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In metazoans, microRNAs play a critical role in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes required for cell proliferation and differentiation. microRNAs themselves are regulated by a multitude of mechanisms influencing their transcription and post-transcriptional maturation. However, there is only sparse knowledge on pathways regulating the mature, functional form of a microRNA. Here, we identify a new player in the control of microRNA turnover, the decapping scavenger protein DCS-1. In Ca...

  3. Augmenting Visual Search Performance with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    used for patients undergoing treatment for major depressive disorders (Mar- tin et al., 2011), stroke rehabilitation (Fusco et al., 2013), and...improve human performance and cognition. The application of tDCS has been administered over the prefrontal cortex to improve working memory and accel...derhasselt (2014) confirms that the application of the anodal electrode over the scalp will slightly depolarizes the membrane potential of the

  4. Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of tDCS on Cognition and Neurologic Recovery of Rats with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Hun; Park, Seong Doo; Sim, Ki Chel

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on neurologic recovery and cognitive function of rats with Alzheimer-like dementia induced by scopolamine injections. [Subjects] To create a cognition dysfunction model, intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine was given to Sprague-Dawley rats that subsequently received tDCS for 4 weeks. [Methods] Changes in motor behavior were evaluated by conducting an open field test. Acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was examined for a biochemical assessment. [Results] With respect to changes in motor behavior, group II showed the most meaningful difference after scopolamine injection, followed by group III. In the biochemical assessment, the results of the examination of acetylcholine content in the tissue of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus on the 14th and 28th days, respectively, showed the most significant increase in group II, followed by group III. [Conclusion] The above findings confirm that tDCS application after the onset of cognitive dysfunction caused by Alzheimer's disease leads to a positive effect on motor behavior and biochemical changes, and this effect is maintained over a specific period of time.

  6. Differential influences of unilateral tDCS over the intraparietal cortex on numerical cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eArtemenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuro-imaging research identified the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS to be a key area associated with number processing. However, causal structure-function relationships are hard to evaluate from neuro-imaging techniques such as fMRI. Nevertheless, brain stimulation methods like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS allow for investigating the functional relevance of the IPS for number processing. Following up on a study using bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over the IPS, the current study aimed at evaluating the differential lateralized functional contributions of the left and right IPS to number processing using unilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over either the left or right IPS. Results indicated a right lateralization for the processing of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. Importantly, the processing of number magnitude information was not affected by unilateral IPS corroborating the assumption that number magnitude is processed in the bilateral IPS. Taken together, these data suggest that even though number magnitude is represented bilaterally, the left and right IPS seem to contribute differentially to numerical cognition with respect to the processing of specific other aspects of numerical information.

  7. CD1c-Related DCs that Express CD207/Langerin, but Are Distinguishable from Langerhans Cells, Are Consistently Present in Human Tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Anne; Olivieri, Charles-Vivien; Vitale, Sébastien; Bailleux, Sonanda; Castillo, Laurent; Giordanengo, Valérie; Maryanski, Janet L; Segura, Elodie; Doglio, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Several subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) are present in the oropharyngeal tonsillar tissues and are thought to behave as major actors in development and regulation of immunity by acting as a first line of recognition for airborne and alimentary antigens. We previously discovered in human adult tonsils infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a subset of DCs that expressed langerin/CD207, a lectin usually recognized as a hallmark of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). In the present study, we analyzed the content of several child and adult tonsils in order to characterize in more detail the phenotype of these tonsillar CD207-expressing DCs (tCD207 DCs) and to compare it with that of other human DC subsets. We showed that all the human tonsils studied (n = 12) contained significant proportions of tCD207 DCs among tonsillar cells expressing HLA-DR. Moreover, the presence of tCD207 DCs in tonsils from young children free of EBV infection indicated that these cells could be established early in the tonsil independently of EBV infection. We also showed that tCD207 DCs, that were found mainly located within the tonsillar lymphoid stroma, were distinguishable from LCs by the level of expression of CD1a and EpCAM, and also from human inflammatory DCs by the lack of CD1a, CD206, and CD14 expression. Detailed analysis of cell surface DC markers showed that tCD207 DCs were unrelated to CD141(+) DCs or macrophages, but defined a subtype of tonsillar DCs closely related to myeloid resident CD1c DCs. Since it was established that blood CD1c myeloid DCs exhibit plasticity and are capable of expressing CD207 notably in the presence of inflammatory cytokines, it is tempting to speculate that CD207(+) CD1c(+) DCs may play a specific immune role.

  8. Impact of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy on brain activation to cocaine cues in cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, James J; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; Saladin, Michael E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2013-09-01

    The development of addiction is marked by a pathological associative learning process that imbues incentive salience to stimuli associated with drug use. Recent efforts to treat addiction have targeted this learning process using cue exposure therapy augmented with d-cycloserine (DCS), a glutamatergic agent hypothesized to enhance extinction learning. To better understand the impact of DCS-facilitated extinction on neural reactivity to drug cues, the present study reports fMRI findings from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DCS-facilitated cue exposure for cocaine dependence. Twenty-five participants completed two MRI sessions (before and after intervention), with a cocaine-cue reactivity fMRI task. The intervention consisted of 50mg of DCS or placebo, combined with two sessions of cocaine cue exposure and skills training. Participants demonstrated cocaine cue activation in a variety of brain regions at baseline. From the pre- to post-study scan, participants experienced decreased activation to cues in a number of regions (e.g., accumbens, caudate, frontal poles). Unexpectedly, placebo participants experienced decreases in activation to cues in the left angular and middle temporal gyri and the lateral occipital cortex, while DCS participants did not. Three trials of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy for cocaine dependence have found that DCS either increases or does not significantly impact response to cocaine cues. The present study adds to this literature by demonstrating that DCS may prevent extinction to cocaine cues in temporal and occipital brain regions. Although consistent with past research, results from the present study should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toward unraveling reading-related modulations of tDCS-induced neuroplasticity in the human visual cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Antal, Andrea; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Chaieb, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation using weak electrical direct currents has shown to be capable of inducing polarity-dependent diminutions or elevations in motor and visual cortical excitability. The aim of the present study was to test if reading during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to modify stimulation-induced plasticity in the visual cortex. Phosphene thresholds (PTs) in 12 healthy subjects were recorded before and after 10 min of anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS in combination with rea...

  10. Efficacy and Interindividual Variability in Motor-Cortex Plasticity following Anodal tDCS and Paired-Associative Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Strube; Tilmann Bunse; Berend Malchow; Alkomiet Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual response variability to various motor-cortex stimulation protocols has been recently reported. Comparative data of stimulation protocols with different modes of action is lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and response variability of two LTP-inducing stimulation protocols in the human motor cortex: anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) and paired-associative stimulation (PAS25). In two experiments 30 subjects received 1mA a-tDCS and PAS25. Data analysi...

  11. Anodal tDCS over the Primary Motor Cortex Facilitates Long-Term Memory Formation Reflecting Use-Dependent Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjon Rroji

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1 modulates NMDA receptor dependent processes that mediate synaptic plasticity. Here we test this proposal by applying anodal versus sham tDCS while subjects practiced to flex the thumb as fast as possible (ballistic movements. Repetitive practice of this task has been shown to result in performance improvements that reflect use-dependent plasticity resulting from NMDA receptor mediated, long-term potentiation (LTP-like processes. Using a double-blind within-subject cross-over design, subjects (n=14 participated either in an anodal or a sham tDCS session which were at least 3 months apart. Sham or anodal tDCS (1 mA was applied for 20 min during motor practice and retention was tested 30 min, 24 hours and one week later. All subjects improved performance during each of the two sessions (p < 0.001 and learning gains were similar. Our main result is that long term retention performance (i.e. 1 week after practice was significantly better when practice was performed with anodal tDCS than with sham tDCS (p < 0.001. This effect was large (Cohen's d=1.01 and all but one subject followed the group trend. Our data strongly suggest that anodal tDCS facilitates long-term memory formation reflecting use-dependent plasticity. Our results support the notion that anodal tDCS facilitates synaptic plasticity mediated by an LTP-like mechanism, which is in accordance with previous research.

  12. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara triggers type I IFN production in murine conventional dendritic cells via a cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihong Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is an attenuated poxvirus that has been engineered as a vaccine against infectious agents and cancers. Our goal is to understand how MVA modulates innate immunity in dendritic cells (DCs, which can provide insights to vaccine design. In this study, using murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we assessed type I interferon (IFN gene induction and protein secretion in response to MVA infection. We report that MVA infection elicits the production of type I IFN in murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, but not in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. Transcription factors IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3 and IRF7, and the positive feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1 (IFN alpha/beta receptor 1, are required for the induction. MVA induction of type I IFN is fully dependent on STING (stimulator of IFN genes and the newly discovered cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. MVA infection of cDCs triggers phosphorylation of TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1 and IRF3, which is abolished in the absence of cGAS and STING. Furthermore, intravenous delivery of MVA induces type I IFN in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking STING or IRF3. Treatment of cDCs with inhibitors of endosomal and lysosomal acidification or the lysosomal enzyme Cathepsin B attenuated MVA-induced type I IFN production, indicating that lysosomal enzymatic processing of virions is important for MVA sensing. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of the cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway for type I IFN induction in cDCs by MVA. We present evidence that vaccinia virulence factors E3 and N1 inhibit the activation of IRF3 and the induction of IFNB gene in MVA-infected cDCs.

  13. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara triggers type I IFN production in murine conventional dendritic cells via a cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peihong; Wang, Weiyi; Cao, Hua; Avogadri, Francesca; Dai, Lianpan; Drexler, Ingo; Joyce, Johanna A; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Zhijian; Merghoub, Taha; Shuman, Stewart; Deng, Liang

    2014-04-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated poxvirus that has been engineered as a vaccine against infectious agents and cancers. Our goal is to understand how MVA modulates innate immunity in dendritic cells (DCs), which can provide insights to vaccine design. In this study, using murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we assessed type I interferon (IFN) gene induction and protein secretion in response to MVA infection. We report that MVA infection elicits the production of type I IFN in murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), but not in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Transcription factors IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3) and IRF7, and the positive feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1 (IFN alpha/beta receptor 1), are required for the induction. MVA induction of type I IFN is fully dependent on STING (stimulator of IFN genes) and the newly discovered cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase). MVA infection of cDCs triggers phosphorylation of TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1) and IRF3, which is abolished in the absence of cGAS and STING. Furthermore, intravenous delivery of MVA induces type I IFN in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking STING or IRF3. Treatment of cDCs with inhibitors of endosomal and lysosomal acidification or the lysosomal enzyme Cathepsin B attenuated MVA-induced type I IFN production, indicating that lysosomal enzymatic processing of virions is important for MVA sensing. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of the cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway for type I IFN induction in cDCs by MVA. We present evidence that vaccinia virulence factors E3 and N1 inhibit the activation of IRF3 and the induction of IFNB gene in MVA-infected cDCs.

  14. Modelling the effect of electrode displacement on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraju, Sriharsha; Roula, Mohammed Ali; McCarthy, Peter

    2017-09-19

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers a low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas with the purpose of modulating underlying brain activity. Recent studies have reported inconsistencies in tDCS outcomes. The underlying assumption of many tDCS studies has been that replication of electrode montage equates to replicating stimulation conditions. It is possible however that anatomical difference between subjects, as well as inherent inaccuracies in montage placement, could affect current flow to targeted areas. The hypothesis that stimulation of a defined brain region will be stable under small displacements was tested. Approach: Initially, we compared the total simulated current flowing through ten specific brain areas for four commonly used tDCS montages: F3-Fp2, C3-Fp2, Fp1-F4, and P3-P4 using the software tool COMETS. The effect of a slight (~1cm in each of four directions) anode displacement on the simulated regional current density for each of the four tDCS montages was then determined. Current flow was calculated and compared through 10 segmented brain areas to determine the effect of montage type and displacement. The regional currents, as well as the localised current densities, were compared with the original electrode location, for each of these new positions. Results: Recommendations for montages that maximise stimulation current for the ten brain regions are considered. We noted that the extent to which stimulation is affected by electrode displacement varies depending on both area and montage type. The F3-Fp2 montage was found to be the least stable with up to 38% change in average current density in the left frontal lobe while the Fp1-F4 montage was found to the most stable exhibiting only 1% change when electrodes were displaced. Significance: These results indicate that even relatively small changes in stimulation electrode placement appear to result in surprisingly large changes in current

  15. Enhancing performance in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic using transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias U. Hauser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to accurately process numerical magnitudes and solve mental arithmetic is of highest importance for schooling and professional career. Although impairments in these domains in disorders such as developmental dyscalculia (DD are highly detrimental, remediation is still sparse. In recent years, transcranial brain stimulation methods such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS have been suggested as a treatment for various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC is known to be crucially involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. In this study, we evaluated whether tDCS has a beneficial effect on numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Due to the unclear lateralization, we stimulated the left, right as well as both hemispheres simultaneously in two experiments. We found that left anodal tDCS significantly enhanced performance in a number comparison and a subtraction task, while bilateral and right anodal tDCS did not induce any improvements compared to sham. Our findings demonstrate that the left PPC is causally involved in numerical magnitude processing and mental arithmetic. Furthermore, we show that these cognitive functions can be enhanced by means of tDCS. These findings encourage to further investigate the beneficial effect of tDCS in the domain of mathematics in healthy and impaired humans.

  16. Combined motor point associative stimulation (MPAS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves plateaued manual dexterity performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Munoz-Rubke, Felipe; Wan, Hsuan-Yu; Block, Hannah J

    2016-10-28

    Motor point associative stimulation (MPAS) in hand muscles is known to modify motor cortex excitability and improve learning rate, but not plateau of performance, in manual dexterity tasks. Central stimulation of motor cortex, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can have similar effects if accompanied by motor practice, which can be difficult and tiring for patients. Here we asked whether adding tDCS to MPAS could improve manual dexterity in healthy individuals who are already performing at their plateau, with no motor practice during stimulation. We hypothesized that MPAS could provide enough coordinated muscle activity to make motor practice unnecessary, and that this combination of stimulation techniques could yield improvements even in subjects at or near their peak. If so, this approach could have a substantial effect on patients with impaired dexterity, who are far from their peak. MPAS was applied for 30min to two right hand muscles important for manual dexterity. tDCS was simultaneously applied over left sensorimotor cortex. The motor cortex input/output (I/O) curve was assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and manual dexterity was assessed with the Purdue Pegboard Test. Compared to sham or cathodal tDCS combined with MPAS, anodal tDCS combined with MPAS significantly increased the plateau of manual dexterity. This result suggests that MPAS has the potential to substitute for motor practice in mediating a beneficial effect of tDCS on manual dexterity.

  17. DCS软件修正在电站汽轮机主线仪表回装优化中的应用%Application of the DCS Software Modification to Optimize the Turbine Main Instruments Fit Back in Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林远; 侯耀; 张成立; 张海滨

    2012-01-01

    This text expand on how to use the software modification, of the DCS (Distribute Control System) to optimize the main instruments fit back, and realize to reduce lots of time of the main instruments fit back. It has a good reference for the combinative application of firing back and DCS software modification on the donestic and foreign similar instrument.%利用DCS(Distribute Control System)系统软件修正功能进行汽轮机主线仪表回装过程的优化,达到了大幅缩短汽轮机主线仪表回装时间的目的,对国内外同行同类仪表的回装与DCS软件功能的结合应用,具有良好的参考意义。

  18. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces psychophysically measured surround suppression in the human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Spiegel

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe, non-invasive technique for transiently modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition within the human brain. It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex. As GABA mediated inhibition is thought to be a key modulator of plasticity within the adult brain, these findings have broad implications for the future use of tDCS. It is important, therefore, to establish whether tDCS can exert similar effects within non-motor brain areas. The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex. Psychophysical measures of surround suppression were used as an index of inhibition within V1. Overlay suppression, which is thought to originate within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, was also measured as a control. Anodal stimulation of the occipital poles significantly reduced psychophysical surround suppression, but had no effect on overlay suppression. This effect was specific to anodal stimulation as cathodal stimulation had no effect on either measure. These psychophysical results provide the first evidence for tDCS-induced reductions of intracortical inhibition within the human visual cortex.

  19. Dual-tDCS enhances online motor skill learning and long-term retention in chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eLefebvre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Since motor learning is a key component for stroke recovery, enhancing motor skill learning is a crucial challenge for neurorehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a promising approach for improving motor learning. The aim of this trial was to test the hypothesis that dual-tDCS applied bilaterally over the primary motor cortices (M1 improves online motor skill learning with the paretic hand and its long-term retention. Methods Eighteen chronic stroke patients participated in a randomised, cross-over, placebo-controlled, double bind trial. During separate sessions, dual-tDCS or sham dual-tDCS was applied over 30 min while stroke patients learned a complex visuomotor skill with the paretic hand: using a computer mouse to move a pointer along a complex circuit as quickly and accurately as possible. A learning index involving the evolution of the speed/accuracy trade-off was calculated. Performance of the motor skill was measured at baseline, after intervention and one week later. Results After sham dual-tDCS, eight patients showed worsening performance. In contrast, dual-tDCS enhanced the amount and speed of online motor skill learning compared to sham (p < 0.001 in all patients; this superiority was maintained throughout the hour following. The speed/accuracy trade-off was shifted more consistently after dual-tDCS (n=10 than after sham (n=3. More importantly, one week later, online enhancement under dual-tDCS had translated into superior long-term retention (+44% compared to sham (+4%. The improvement generalised to a new untrained circuit and to digital dexterity. Conclusion A single session of dual-tDCS, applied while stroke patients trained with the paretic hand significantly enhanced online motor skill learning both quantitatively and qualitatively, leading to successful long-term retention and generalisation. The combination of motor skill learning and dual-tDCS is promising for improving post

  20. The effects of 1 Hz rTMS preconditioned by tDCS on gait kinematics in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Papen, Mitra; Fisse, Mirabell; Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Fink, Gereon R; Nowak, Dennis A

    2014-07-01

    Hypokinetic gait is a common and very disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the motor cortex has been used with variable effectiveness to treat hypokinesia in PD. Preconditioning rTMS by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance its effectiveness to treat hypokinetic gait in PD. Three-dimensional kinematic gait analysis was performed (1) prior to, (2) immediately after and (3) 30 min after low-frequency rTMS (1 Hz, 900 pulses, 80% of resting motor threshold) over M1 contralateral to the more affected body side preconditioned by (1) cathodal, (2) anodal or (3) sham tDCS (amperage: 1 mA, duration: 10 min) in ten subjects with PD (7 females, mean age 63 ± 9 years) and ten healthy subjects (four females, mean age 50 ± 11 years). The effects of tDCS-preconditioned rTMS on gait kinematics were assessed by the following parameters: number of steps, step length, stride length, double support time, cadence, swing and stance phases. Our data suggest a bilateral improvement of hypokinetic gait in PD after 1 Hz rTMS over M1 of the more affected body side preceded by anodal tDCS. In contrast, 1 Hz rTMS alone (preceded by sham tDCS) and 1 Hz rTMS preceded by cathodal tDCS were ineffective to improve gait kinematics in PD. In healthy subjects, gait kinematics was unaffected by either intervention. Preconditioning motor cortex rTMS by tDCS is a promising approach to treat hypokinetic gait in PD.

  1. Electric fields of motor and frontal tDCS in a standard brain space: A computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Mikkonen, Marko; Koyama, Soichiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-08-15

    The electric field produced in the brain is the main physical agent of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Inter-subject variations in the electric fields may help to explain the variability in the effects of tDCS. Here, we use multiple-subject analysis to study the strength and variability of the group-level electric fields in the standard brain space. Personalized anatomically-accurate models of 62 subjects were constructed from T1- and T2-weighted MRI. The finite-element method was used to computationally estimate the individual electric fields, which were registered to the standard space using surface based registration. Motor cortical and frontal tDCS were modelled for 16 electrode montages. For each electrode montage, the group-level electric fields had a consistent strength and direction in several brain regions, which could also be located at some distance from the electrodes. In other regions, the electric fields were more variable, and thus more likely to produce variable effects in each individual. Both the anode and cathode locations affected the group-level electric fields, both directly under the electrodes and elsewhere. For motor cortical tDCS, the electric fields could be controlled at the group level by moving the electrodes. However, for frontal tDCS, the group-level electric fields were more variable, and the electrode locations had only minor effects on the group average fields. Our results reveal the electric fields and their variability at the group level in the standard brain space, providing insights into the mechanisms of tDCS for plasticity induction. The data are useful for planning, analysing and interpreting tDCS studies.

  2. Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (ctDCS): A Novel Approach to Understanding Cerebellar Function in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Argyropoulos, Georgios P; Bastian, Amy; Cortes, Mar; Davis, Nicholas J; Edwards, Dylan J; Ferrucci, Roberta; Fregni, Felipe; Galea, Joseph M; Hamada, Masahi; Manto, Mario; Miall, R Chris; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Pope, Paul A; Priori, Alberto; Rothwell, John; Tomlinson, S Paul; Celnik, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The cerebellum is critical for both motor and cognitive control. Dysfunction of the cerebellum is a component of multiple neurological disorders. In recent years, interventions have been developed that aim to excite or inhibit the activity and function of the human cerebellum. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum (ctDCS) promises to be a powerful tool for the modulation of cerebellar excitability. This technique has gained popularity in recent years as it can be used to investigate human cerebellar function, is easily delivered, is well tolerated, and has not shown serious adverse effects. Importantly, the ability of ctDCS to modify behavior makes it an interesting approach with a potential therapeutic role for neurological patients. Through both electrical and non-electrical effects (vascular, metabolic) ctDCS is thought to modify the activity of the cerebellum and alter the output from cerebellar nuclei. Physiological studies have shown a polarity-specific effect on the modulation of cerebellar-motor cortex connectivity, likely via cerebellar-thalamocortical pathways. Modeling studies that have assessed commonly used electrode montages have shown that the ctDCS-generated electric field reaches the human cerebellum with little diffusion to neighboring structures. The posterior and inferior parts of the cerebellum (i.e., lobules VI-VIII) seem particularly susceptible to modulation by ctDCS. Numerous studies have shown to date that ctDCS can modulate motor learning, and affect cognitive and emotional processes. Importantly, this intervention has a good safety profile; similar to when applied over cerebral areas. Thus, investigations have begun exploring ctDCS as a viable intervention for patients with neurological conditions.

  3. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression.

  4. Lesion correlates of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in chronic nonfluent aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIYANKA P SHAH

    2014-04-01

    We conclude that patients exhibiting differential patterns of damage involving the frontotemporal language areas may respond to stimulation differently. Integrity of left temporal language areas appears crucial for responsiveness to the anodal or excitatory stimulation of the damaged, left frontal areas. If temporal areas are not spared, extensive damage in specific frontotemporal areas including the surrounding white matter predicts responsiveness to cathodal or inhibitory stimulation of the left frontal areas. We posit that tDCS-induced normalization of the intra-hemispheric inhibition [3] may be the underlying mechanism of improvement in these patients.

  5. On the importance of electrode parameters for shaping electric field patterns generated by tDCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Saturnino, Guilherme; Antunes, André; Thielscher, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses electrode pads placed on the head to deliver weak direct current to the brain and modulate neuronal excitability. The effects depend on the intensity and spatial distribution of the electric field. This in turn depends on the geometry and electric...... electrode modeling influences the calculated electric field in the brain. We take into account electrode shape, size, connector position and conductivities of different electrode materials (including saline solutions and electrode gels). These factors are systematically characterized to demonstrate...

  6. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  7. Low Intensity Focused tDCS Over the Motor Cortex Shows Inefficacy to Improve Motor Imagery Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma N. Angulo-Sherman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a brain stimulation technique that can enhance motor activity by stimulating the motor path. Thus, tDCS has the potential of improving the performance of brain-computer interfaces during motor neurorehabilitation. tDCS effects depend on several aspects, including the current density, which usually varies between 0.02 and 0.08 mA/cm2, and the location of the stimulation electrodes. Hence, testing tDCS montages at several current levels would allow the selection of current parameters for improving stimulation outcomes and the comparison of montages. In a previous study, we found that cortico-cerebellar tDCS shows potential of enhancing right-hand motor imagery. In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effects of the focal stimulation of the motor cortex over motor imagery. In particular, the effect of supplying tDCS with a 4 × 1 ring montage, which consists in placing an anode on the motor cortex and four cathodes around it, over motor imagery was assessed with different current densities. Electroencephalographic (EEG classification into rest or right-hand/feet motor imagery was evaluated on five healthy subjects for two stimulation schemes: applying tDCS for 10 min on the (1 right-hand or (2 feet motor cortex before EEG recording. Accuracy differences related to the tDCS intensity, as well as μ and β band power changes, were tested for each subject and tDCS modality. In addition, a simulation of the electric field induced by the montage was used to describe its effect on the brain. Results show no improvement trends on classification for the evaluated currents, which is in accordance with the observation of variable EEG band power results despite the focused stimulation. The lack of effects is probably related to the underestimation of the current intensity required to apply a particular current density for small electrodes and the relatively short inter-electrode distance. Hence, higher current

  8. Direct drug-eluting stenting to reduce stent restenosis : a randomized comparison of direct stent implantation to conventional stenting with pre-dilation or provisional stenting in elective PCI patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remkes, Wouter S; Somi, Samer; Roolvink, Vincent; Rasoul, Saman; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Gosselink, A T Marcel; Hoorntje, Jan C A; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Suryapranata, Harry; van 't Hof, Arnoud W J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate whether a strategy of direct drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation without pre-dilation is associated with a reduced incidence of restenosis compared with CS with pre-dilation or provisional stenting (PS). BACKGROUND: Previous studies were performed comparing d

  9. tDCS and Robotics on Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation: Effect Modification by Stroke Duration and Type of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Straudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this exploratory pilot study is to test the effects of bilateral tDCS combined with upper extremity robot-assisted therapy (RAT on stroke survivors. Methods. We enrolled 23 subjects who were allocated to 2 groups: RAT + real tDCS and RAT + sham-tDCS. Each patient underwent 10 sessions (5 sessions/week over two weeks. Outcome measures were collected before and after treatment: (i Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE, (ii Box and Block Test (BBT, and (iii Motor Activity Log (MAL. Results. Both groups reported a significant improvement in FMA-UE score after treatment (p<0.01. No significant between-groups differences were found in motor function. However, when the analysis was adjusted for stroke type and duration, a significant interaction effect (p<0.05 was detected, showing that stroke duration (acute versus chronic and type (cortical versus subcortical modify the effect of tDCS and robotics on motor function. Patients with chronic and subcortical stroke benefited more from the treatments than patients with acute and cortical stroke, who presented very small changes. Conclusion. The additional use of bilateral tDCS to RAT seems to have a significant beneficial effect depending on the duration and type of stroke. These results should be verified by additional confirmatory studies.

  10. Allergen uptake, activation, and IL-23 production by pulmonary myeloid DCs drives airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma-susceptible mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian P Lewkowich

    Full Text Available Maladaptive, Th2-polarized inflammatory responses are integral to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. As regulators of T cell activation, dendritic cells (DCs are important mediators of allergic asthma, yet the precise signals which render endogenous DCs "pro-asthmatic", and the extent to which these signals are regulated by the pulmonary environment and host genetics, remains unclear. Comparative phenotypic and functional analysis of pulmonary DC populations in mice susceptible (A/J, or resistant (C3H to experimental asthma, revealed that susceptibility to airway hyperresponsiveness is associated with preferential myeloid DC (mDC allergen uptake, and production of Th17-skewing cytokines (IL-6, IL-23, whereas resistance is associated with increased allergen uptake by plasmacytoid DCs. Surprisingly, adoptive transfer of syngeneic HDM-pulsed bone marrow derived mDCs (BMDCs to the lungs of C3H mice markedly enhanced lung IL-17A production, and rendered them susceptible to allergen-driven airway hyperresponsiveness. Characterization of these BMDCs revealed levels of antigen uptake, and Th17 promoting cytokine production similar to that observed in pulmonary mDCs from susceptible A/J mice. Collectively these data demonstrate that the lung environment present in asthma-resistant mice promotes robust pDC allergen uptake, activation, and limits Th17-skewing cytokine production responsible for driving pathologic T cell responses central to the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

  11. Efficacy and interindividual variability in motor-cortex plasticity following anodal tDCS and paired-associative stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube, Wolfgang; Bunse, Tilmann; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual response variability to various motor-cortex stimulation protocols has been recently reported. Comparative data of stimulation protocols with different modes of action is lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and response variability of two LTP-inducing stimulation protocols in the human motor cortex: anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) and paired-associative stimulation (PAS25). In two experiments 30 subjects received 1mA a-tDCS and PAS25. Data analysis focused on motor-cortex excitability change and response defined as increase in MEP applying different cut-offs. Furthermore, the predictive pattern of baseline characteristics was explored. Both protocols induced a significant increase in motor-cortical excitability. In the PAS25 experiments the likelihood to develop a MEP response was higher compared to a-tDCS, whereas for intracortical facilitation (ICF) the likelihood for a response was higher in the a-tDCS experiments. Baseline ICF (12 ms) correlated positively with an increase in MEPs only following a-tDCS and responders had significantly higher ICF baseline values. Contrary to recent studies, we showed significant group-level efficacy following both stimulation protocols confirming older studies. However, we also observed a remarkable amount of nonresponders. Our findings highlight the need to define sufficient physiological read-outs for a given plasticity protocol and to develop predictive markers for targeted stimulation.

  12. tDCS and Robotics on Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation: Effect Modification by Stroke Duration and Type of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straudi, Sofia; Fregni, Felipe; Martinuzzi, Carlotta; Pavarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Basaglia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this exploratory pilot study is to test the effects of bilateral tDCS combined with upper extremity robot-assisted therapy (RAT) on stroke survivors. Methods. We enrolled 23 subjects who were allocated to 2 groups: RAT + real tDCS and RAT + sham-tDCS. Each patient underwent 10 sessions (5 sessions/week) over two weeks. Outcome measures were collected before and after treatment: (i) Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), (ii) Box and Block Test (BBT), and (iii) Motor Activity Log (MAL). Results. Both groups reported a significant improvement in FMA-UE score after treatment (p stroke type and duration, a significant interaction effect (p stroke duration (acute versus chronic) and type (cortical versus subcortical) modify the effect of tDCS and robotics on motor function. Patients with chronic and subcortical stroke benefited more from the treatments than patients with acute and cortical stroke, who presented very small changes. Conclusion. The additional use of bilateral tDCS to RAT seems to have a significant beneficial effect depending on the duration and type of stroke. These results should be verified by additional confirmatory studies.

  13. T Cell Help Amplifies Innate Signals in CD8+ DCs for Optimal CD8+ T Cell Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Greyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DCs often require stimulation from CD4+ T cells to propagate CD8+ T cell responses, but precisely how T cell help optimizes the priming capacity of DCs and why this appears to differ between varying types of CD8+ T cell immunity remains unclear. We show that CD8+ T cell priming upon HSV-1 skin infection depended on DCs receiving stimulation from both IFN-α/β and CD4+ T cells to provide IL-15. This was not an additive effect but resulted from CD4+ T cells amplifying DC production of IL-15 in response to IFN-α/β. We also observed that increased innate stimulation reversed the helper dependence of CD8+ T cell priming and that the innate stimulus, rather than the CD4+ T cells themselves, determined how “help’” was integrated into the priming response by DCs. These findings identify T cell help as a flexible means to amplify varying suboptimal innate signals in DCs.

  14. Dual-hemisphere tDCS facilitates greater improvements for healthy subjects' non-dominant hand compared to uni-hemisphere stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerruti Carlo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive technique that has been found to modulate the excitability of neurons in the brain. The polarity of the current applied to the scalp determines the effects of tDCS on the underlying tissue: anodal tDCS increases excitability, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases excitability. Research has shown that applying anodal tDCS to the non-dominant motor cortex can improve motor performance for the non-dominant hand, presumably by means of changes in synaptic plasticity between neurons. Our previous studies also suggest that applying cathodal tDCS over the dominant motor cortex can improve performance for the non-dominant hand; this effect may result from modulating inhibitory projections (interhemispheric inhibition between the motor cortices of the two hemispheres. We hypothesized that stimultaneously applying cathodal tDCS over the dominant motor cortex and anodal tDCS over the non-dominant motor cortex would have a greater effect on finger sequence performance for the non-dominant hand, compared to stimulating only the non-dominant motor cortex. Sixteen right-handed participants underwent three stimulation conditions: 1 dual-hemisphere – with anodal tDCS over the non-dominant motor cortex, and cathodal tDCS over the dominant motor cortex, 2 uni-hemisphere – with anodal tDCS over the non-dominant motor cortex, and 3 sham tDCS. Participants performed a finger-sequencing task with the non-dominant hand before and after each stimulation. The dependent variable was the percentage of change in performance, comparing pre- and post-tDCS scores. Results A repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant effect of tDCS condition (F(2,30 = 4.468, p = .037. Post-hoc analyses revealed that dual-hemisphere stimulation improved performance significantly more than both uni-hemisphere (p = .021 and sham stimulation (p = .041. Conclusion We propose that simultaneously applying cathodal tDCS

  15. Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregni, F; Nitsche, MA; Loo, C.K.; Brunoni, AR; Marangolo, P; Leite, J; Carvalho, S; Bolognini, N; Caumo, W; Paik, NJ; Simis, M; Ueda, K; Ekhitari, H; Luu, P; Tucker, DM; Tyler, WJ; Brunelin, J; Datta, A; Juan, CH; Venkatasubramanian, G; Boggio, PS; Bikson, M

    2014-01-01

    The field of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has experienced significant growth in the past 15 years. One of the tES techniques leading this increased interest is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Significant research efforts have been devoted to determining the clinical potential of tDCS in humans. Despite the promising results obtained with tDCS in basic and clinical neuroscience, further progress has been impeded by a lack of clarity on international regulatory pathways. We therefore convened a group of research and clinician experts on tDCS to review the research and clinical use of tDCS. In this report, we review the regulatory status of tDCS, and we summarize the results according to research, off-label and compassionate use of tDCS in the following countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, Taiwan and United States. Research use, off label treatment and compassionate use of tDCS are employed in most of the countries reviewed in this study. It is critical that a global or local effort is organized to pursue definite evidence to either approve and regulate or restrict the use of tDCS in clinical practice on the basis of adequate randomized controlled treatment trials. PMID:25983531

  16. A comprehensive database of published tDCS clinical trials (2005-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2016-12-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique of noninvasive cortical stimulation allowing significant modification of brain functions. Clinical application of this technique was reported for the first time in March 2005. This paper presents a detailed list of the 340 articles (excluding single case reports) which have assessed the clinical effect of tDCS in patients, at least when delivered to cortical targets. The reviewed conditions were: pain syndromes, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, cerebral palsy, post-stroke limb motor impairment, post-stroke neglect, post-stroke dysphagia, post-stroke aphasia, primary progressive aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, tinnitus, depression, auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, addiction and craving, autism, and attention disorders. The following data were collected: (i) clinical condition; (ii) study design; (iii) sample size; (iv) anode and cathode locations; (v) stimulation intensity and electrode area; (vi) number and duration of sessions; (vii) clinical outcome measures and results. This article does not include any meta-analysis and aims simply at providing a comprehensive overview of the raw data reported in this field to date, as an aid to researchers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Projected current density comparison in tDCS block and smooth FE modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indahlastari, Aprinda; Chauhan, Munish; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2016-08-01

    Current density distribution and projected current density calculation following transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) forward model in a human head were compared between two modeling pipelines: block and smooth. Block model was directly constructed from MRI voxel resolution and simulated in C. Smooth models underwent a boundary smoothing process by applying recursive Gaussian filters and simulated in COMSOL. Three smoothing levels were added to determine their effects on current density distribution compared to block models. Median current density percentage differences were calculated in anterior superior temporal gyrus (ASTG), hippocampus (HIP), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), occipital lobes (OCC) and precentral gyrus (PRC) and normalized against a baseline value. A maximum of + 20% difference in median current density was found for three standard electrode montages: F3-RS, T7-T8 and Cz-Oz. Furthermore, median current density percentage differences in each montage target brain structures were found to be within + 7%. Higher levels of smoothing increased median current density percentage differences in T7-T8 and Cz-Oz target structures. However, while demonstrating similar trends in each montage, additional smoothing levels showed no clear relationship between their smoothing effects and calculated median current density in the five cortical structures. Finally, relative L2 error in reconstructed projected current density was found to be 17% and 21% for block and smooth pipelines, respectively. Overall, a block model workflow may be a more attractive alternative for simulating tDCS stimulation because involves a shorter modeling time and independence from commercial modeling platforms.

  18. Cathodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex diminishes choice-induced preference change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, Flavia; Spoglianti, Silvia; Avenanti, Alessio; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    In everyday life, people often find themselves facing difficult decisions between options that are equally attractive. Cognitive dissonance theory states that after making a difficult choice between 2 equally preferred options, individuals no longer find the alternatives similarly desirable. Rather, they often change their existing preferences to align more closely with the choice they have just made. Despite the relevance of cognitive dissonance in modulating behavior, little is known about the brain processes crucially involved in choice-induced preference change. In the present study, we applied cathodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with the aim of downregulating the activity of the left or the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during a revised version of Brehm's (in 1956. Post-decision changes in the desirability of alternatives. J Abnorm Soc Psychol. 52:384-389) free-choice paradigm. We found that cathodal tDCS over the left, but not over the right, DLPFC caused a reduction of the typical behavior-induced preference change relative to sham stimulation. Our findings highlight the role of prefrontal cortex in cognitive dissonance and provide evidence that left DLPFC plays a necessary role in the implementation of choice-induced preference change. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  20. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  1. Infiltration of local immune cells in the sow reproductive tracts after intra-uterine and deep intra-uterine insemination with a reduced number of spermatozoa is less than conventional artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Tienthai, Paisan

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigated the infiltration of leukocyte subpopulations in the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and each part of the oviducts at about 24 hr after intra-uterine insemination (IUI) and deep intra-uterine insemination (DIUI) compared to conventional artificial insemination (CAI) in sows. Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire multiparous sows were used (CAI, n=5; IUI, n=5; DIUI, n=5). The sperm dose contained 3,000 × 10(6) (100 ml), 1,000 × 10(6) (50 ml) and 150 × 10(6) (5 ml) motile spermatozoa for CAI, IUI and DIUI, respectively. The sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen at 6 to 8 hr prior to the expected time of ovulation. At 25.2 ± 1.6 hr after insemination, the oviducts and the UTJ were collected. The tissue samples of UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla were transversely cut to a thickness of 5 µm and stained with H&E. The total numbers of lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils and plasma cells were determined under light microscope. It was found that the numbers of lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages after CAI, IUI and DIUI were not significantly different (P>0.1) in both epithelial and sub-epithelial connective tissue layer of the UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. Intra-epithelial neutrophils in the UTJ were higher than cranial isthmus (P<0.05) and ampulla (P<0.05). In the UTJ, the intra-epithelial neutrophil in the CAI group was higher than DIUI group (P<0.01). Plasma cells in sub-epithelial layer of the endosalpinx in the CAI group were higher than DIUI group (P<0.05) and tended to be higher than the IUI group (P=0.08). In conclusion, compared to CAI, IUI and DIUI do not influence the infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and eosinophils in the UTJ and the oviduct prior to fertilization. But a lower number of neutrophils in the intra-epithelial layer of the UTJ and plasma cells in the sub-epithelial layers of the oviduct was observed in the DIUI group compared to CAI.

  2. Polarity-Dependent Misperception of Subjective Visual Vertical during and after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza E G Santos-Pontelli

    Full Text Available Pathologic tilt of subjective visual vertical (SVV frequently has adverse functional consequences for patients with stroke and vestibular disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the supramarginal gyrus can produce a transitory tilt on SVV in healthy subjects. However, the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on SVV has never been systematically studied. We investigated whether bilateral tDCS over the temporal-parietal region could result in both online and offline SVV misperception in healthy subjects. In a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind crossover pilot study, thirteen healthy subjects performed tests of SVV before, during and after the tDCS applied over the temporal-parietal region in three conditions used on different days: right anode/left cathode; right cathode/left anode; and sham. Subjects were blind to the tDCS conditions. Montage-specific current flow patterns were investigated using computational models. SVV was significantly displaced towards the anode during both active stimulation conditions when compared to sham condition. Immediately after both active conditions, there were rebound effects. Longer lasting after-effects towards the anode occurred only in the right cathode/left anode condition. Current flow models predicted the stimulation of temporal-parietal regions under the electrodes and deep clusters in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The present findings indicate that tDCS over the temporal-parietal region can significantly alter human SVV perception. This tDCS approach may be a potential clinical tool for the treatment of SVV misperception in neurological patients.

  3. Effects of anodal tDCS and occupational therapy on fine motor skill deficits in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Nela V; Dubljanin-Raspopović, Emilija; Nedeljković, Una; Tomanović-Vujadinović, Sanja; Milanović, Sladjan D; Petronić-Marković, Ivana; Ilić, Tihomir V

    2016-11-22

    A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness of using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with chronic hand motor impairment resulting from stroke. In this study, we investigate and compare the combined effects of anodal tDCS and occupational therapy (OT) to sham stimulation with OT (control) on fine motor skill deficits of chronic stroke patients. A total of 26 stroke patients (at ≥ 9 months) were randomly assigned to an active treatment or a control group in a double-blinded, sham-controlled, parallel design study. Each group received OT for 45 min/day (10 sessions for 2 weeks). Treatment was preceded by either 20 minutes of 2 mA anodal tDCS over ipsilesional M1 or sham tDCS. A modified Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (mJTHFT) was administered as primary outcome measure, and handgrip dynamometer and upper limb Fugl-Meyer (ULFM) assessments were performed as secondary outcomes. The assessment was done at baseline (T0), after the interventions on day 1(T1), day 10 (T2) and day 40 (T3). We observed a statistically significant effect in the tDCS group when the results were compared to the sham group. The mJTHFT times were significantly shorter immediately after treatment and at day 40. The intervention had no effect on handgrip strength or ULFM score. Fine motor skill deficits in chronic stroke survivors can be improved when intensive OT is primed with anodal tDCS over the ipsilesional hemisphere.

  4. A systematic review of the clinical efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekic, Maria; Boysen, Elena; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, which can be used to selectively disrupt patterns of neural activity that are associated with symptoms of mental illness. tDCS has been implemented in numerous therapeutic trials across a range of patient populations, with a rapidly increasing number of studies being published each year. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tDCS in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Four electronic databases were searched from inception until December 2015 by two independent reviewers, and 66 eligible studies were identified. Depression was the most extensively researched condition, followed by schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Data on obsessive compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, and anorexia nervosa were also obtained. The quality of included studies was appraised using a standardised assessment framework, which yielded a median score corresponding to "weak" on the three-point scale. This improved to "moderate" when case reports/series were excluded from the analysis. Overall, data suggested that tDCS interventions comprising multiple sessions can ameliorate symptoms of several major psychiatric disorders, both acutely and in the long-term. Nevertheless, the tDCS field is still in its infancy, and several methodological and ethical issues must be addressed before clinical efficacy can truly be determined. Studies probing the mechanisms of action of tDCS and those facilitating the definition of optimised stimulation protocols are warranted. Furthermore, evidence from large-scale, multi-centre randomised controlled trials is required if the transition of this therapy from the laboratory to the clinic is to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Finite element model predicts current density distribution for clinical applications of tDCS and tACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toralf eNeuling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been applied in numerous scientific studies over the past decade. However, the possibility to apply tDCS in therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders is still debated. While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been approved for treatment of major depression in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, tDCS is not as widely accepted. One of the criticisms against tDCS is the lack of spatial specificity. Focality is limited by the electrode size (35 cm2 are commonly used and the bipolar arrangement. However, a current flow through the head directly from anode to cathode is an outdated view. Finite element (FE models have recently been used to predict the exact current flow during tDCS. These simulations have demonstrated that the current flow depends on tissue shape and conductivity. Toface the challenge to predict the location, magnitude and direction of the current flow induced by tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS, we used a refined realistic FE modeling approach. With respect to the literature on clinical tDCS and tACS, we analyzed two common setups for the location of the stimulation electrodes which target the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe, respectively. We compared lateral and medial electrode configuration with regard to theirusability. We were able to demonstrate that the lateral configurations yielded more focused stimulation areas as well as higher current intensities in the target areas. The high resolution of our simulation allows one to combine the modeled current flow with the knowledge of neuronal orientation to predict the consequences of tDCS and tACS. Our results not only offer a basis for a deeper understanding of the stimulation sites currently in use for clinical applications but also offer a better interpretation of observed effects.

  6. DCS (Digital Control System) application of three generations; Aplicacao de um SDCD (Sistemas Digitais de Controle Distribuido) de tres geracoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Celso Roberto Molinaro [PETROBRAS S.A., Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Refinaria Henrique Lage (REVAP)

    2004-07-01

    Digital Control System are three generations of hardware and software platforms in process automation , but DCS is using the same functions and presents the reliability and availability . The challenge in automation has to maintain the old and the newest system operating and integrated perhaps the different times of platforms to guarantee the actual investments and in the future. A new generation of DCS using field equipment to control or the actual architecture with a lot of new information are coming with the technologies. (author)

  7. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  8. Key role of splenic myeloid DCs in the IFN-alphabeta response to adenoviruses in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Fejer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The early systemic production of interferon (IFN-alphabeta is an essential component of the antiviral host defense mechanisms, but is also thought to contribute to the toxic side effects accompanying gene therapy with adenoviral vectors. Here we investigated the IFN-alphabeta response to human adenoviruses (Ads in mice. By comparing the responses of normal, myeloid (mDC- and plasmacytoid (pDC-depleted mice and by measuring IFN-alphabeta mRNA expression in different organs and cells types, we show that in vivo, Ads elicit strong and rapid IFN-alphabeta production, almost exclusively in splenic mDCs. Using knockout mice, various strains of Ads (wild type, mutant and UV-inactivated and MAP kinase inhibitors, we demonstrate that the Ad-induced IFN-alphabeta response does not require Toll-like receptors (TLR, known cytosolic sensors of RNA (RIG-I/MDA-5 and DNA (DAI recognition and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3, but is dependent on viral endosomal escape, signaling via the MAP kinase SAPK/JNK and IRF-7. Furthermore, we show that Ads induce IFN-alphabeta and IL-6 in vivo by distinct pathways and confirm that IFN-alphabeta positively regulates the IL-6 response. Finally, by measuring TNF-alpha responses to LPS in Ad-infected wild type and IFN-alphabetaR(-/- mice, we show that IFN-alphabeta is the key mediator of Ad-induced hypersensitivity to LPS. These findings indicate that, like endosomal TLR signaling in pDCs, TLR-independent virus recognition in splenic mDCs can also produce a robust early IFN-alphabeta response, which is responsible for the bulk of IFN-alphabeta production induced by adenovirus in vivo. The signaling requirements are different from known TLR-dependent or cytosolic IFN-alphabeta induction mechanisms and suggest a novel cytosolic viral induction pathway. The hypersensitivity to components of the microbial flora and invading pathogens may in part explain the toxic side effects of adenoviral gene therapy and contribute to the

  9. What constitutes a convention? : implications for the coexistence of conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    A model of repeated play of a coordination game, where stage games have a location in social space, and players receive noisy signals of the true location of their games, is reviewed. Sugden (1995) suggests that in such a model, there can be a stationary state of convention coexistence only if interaction is non-uniform across social space. This paper shows that an alternative definition of conventions, which links conventions to actions rather than expectations, permits convention coexistenc...

  10. Imaging transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex-correlation or causality in stimulation-mediated effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörsching, Jana; Padberg, Frank; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Kumpf, Ulrike; Kirsch, Beatrice; Keeser, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Transcranial current stimulation approaches include neurophysiologically distinct non-invasive brain stimulation techniques widely applied in basic, translational and clinical research: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (otDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). Prefrontal tDCS seems to be an especially promising tool for clinical practice. In order to effectively modulate relevant neural circuits, systematic research on prefrontal tDCS is needed that uses neuroimaging and neurophysiology measures to specifically target and adjust this method to physiological requirements. This review therefore analyses the various neuroimaging methods used in combination with prefrontal tDCS in healthy and psychiatric populations. First, we provide a systematic overview on applications, computational models and studies combining neuroimaging or neurophysiological measures with tDCS. Second, we categorise these studies in terms of their experimental designs and show that many studies do not vary the experimental conditions to the extent required to demonstrate specific relations between tDCS and its behavioural or neurophysiological effects. Finally, to support best-practice tDCS research we provide a methodological framework for orientation among experimental designs.

  11. A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, AJ; Antal, A; Bikson, M; Boggio, PS; Brunoni, AR; Celnik, P; Cohen, LG; Fregni, F; Herrmann, CS; Kappenman, ES; Knotkova, H; Liebetanz, D; Miniussi, C; Miranda, PC; Paulus, W; Priori, A; Reato, D; Stagg, C; Wenderoth, N; Nitsche, MA

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques increasingly used for modulation of central nervous system excitability in humans. Here we address methodological issues required for tES application. This review covers technical aspects of tES, as well as applications like exploration of brain physiology, modelling approaches, tES in cognitive neurosciences, and interventional approaches. It aims to help the reader to appropriately design and conduct studies involving these brain stimulation techniques, understand limitations and avoid shortcomings, which might hamper the scientific rigor and potential applications in the clinical domain. PMID:26652115

  12. ERTS-1 DCS technical support provided by Wallops Station. [ground truth stations and DCP repair depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    1975-01-01

    Wallops Station accepted the tasks of providing ground truth to several ERTS investigators, operating a DCP repair depot, designing and building an airborne DCP Data Acquisition System, and providing aircraft underflight support for several other investigators. Additionally, the data bank is generally available for use by ERTS and other investigators that have a scientific interest in data pertaining to the Chesapeake Bay area. Working with DCS has provided a means of evaluating the system as a data collection device possibly applicable to ongoing Earth Resources Program activities in the Chesapeake Bay area as well as providing useful data and services to other ERTS investigators. The two areas of technical support provided by Wallops, ground truth stations and repair for DCPs, are briefly discussed.

  13. The Role of the Lactadherin in Promoting Intestinal DCs Development In Vivo and Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jun Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactadherin, as one of the immune components in the breast milk, might play a role in the intestinal immune system of newborn. Therefore, we investigated the effect of lactadherin-feeding in early time on the development of intestinal immune system compared with naturally rearing and artificially rearing (non-lactadherin. In the present study, we observed that the Peyer's Patches (PP from the pups of artificially reared group with lactadherin added were characterized by an excess of OX62+CD4+SIRP+ DC cells and a higher expression of CD3+CD4+CD25+T cells. Additionally, this study also demonstrated that IL-10 production was dramatically increased when lactadherin was present in culture medium compared with lactadherin-absent culture. These results suggested that lactadherin could adjust intestinal DCs activity, induce CD3+CD4+CD25+T cell differentiation, and enhance IL-10 production.

  14. Bandwidth optimization of compact microstrip antenna for PCS/DCS/bluetooth application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod; Ali, Zakir; Ayub, Shahanaz; Singh, Ashutosh

    2014-09-01

    A novel compact broadband microstrip patch antenna is presented for various wireless applications. The proposed antenna has been fabricated and the impedance bandwidth and radiation pattern are measured. The simulated and measured antenna characteristics along with radiation pattern and gain are presented. It is stated that the proposed designed antenna can completely cover the required band widths of Digital communication system (DCS 1.71-1.88 GHz), Personal communication system (PCS 1.85-1.88 GHz) and IEEE 802.11b/g (2.4-2.485 GHz) with satisfactory radiation characteristics. The Experimental result shows that the proposed antenna presents a bandwidth 60.25% covering the range of 1.431-2.665 GHz with the maximum radiation efficiency 90%.

  15. Connectivity between Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Supplementary Motor Area Predicts After-Effects of Right Frontal Cathodal tDCS on Picture Naming Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Valabregue, R.; Arbizy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right frontal cortex improves language abilities in post-stroke aphasic patients. Yet little is known about the effects of right frontal cathodal tDCS on normal language function. Objective/hypothesis: To explore...... the cathodal tDCS effects of the right-hemispheric homologue of Broca’s area on picture naming in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that cathodal tDCS improves Picture naming and that this effect is determined by the anatomical and functional connectivity of the targeted region. Methods: Cathodal and sham t......DCS were applied to the right inferior frontal gyrus in 24 healthy subjects before a picture-naming task. All participants were studied with magnetic resonance imaging at pre-interventional baseline. Probabilistic tractography and dynamic causal modeling of functional brain activity during a word...

  16. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  17. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  18. tDCS of the cerebellum: where do we stand in 2016? Technical issues and critical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim evan Dun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is an up-and-coming electrical neurostimulation technique increasingly used both in healthy subjects and in selected groups of patients. Due to the high density of neurons in the cerebellum, its peculiar anatomical organization with the cortex lying superficially below the skull and its diffuse connections with motor and associative areas of the cerebrum, the cerebellum is becoming a major target for neuromodulation of the cerebellocerebral networks. We discuss the recent studies based on cerebellar tDCS with a focus on the numerous technical and open issues which remain to be solved. Our current knowledge of the physiological impacts of tDCS on cerebellar circuitry is criticized. We provide a comparison with transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS, another promising transcranial electrical neurostimulation technique. Although both tDCS and tACS are becoming established techniques to modulate the cerebellocerebral networks, it is surprising that their impacts on cerebellar disorders remains unclear. A major reason is that the literature lacks large trials with a double-blind, sham-controlled and cross-over experimental design in cerebellar patients.

  19. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalization after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Aguiar, Vania; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Capasso, Rita; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Rossi, Giorgio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance

  20. Targeting nanosystems to human DCs via Fc receptor as an effective strategy to deliver antigen for immunotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, L.J.; Rueda, F.; Cordobilla, B.; Simon, L.; Hosta, L.; Albericio, F.; Domingo, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are increasingly being explored as cellular vaccines for tumor immunotherapy, since they provide an effective system of antigen presentation both in vitro and in vivo. An additional advantage of this cell type is that it is possible to target specific antigens through the

  1. Resource Allocation in a Frequency Hopping PCS1900/GSM/DCS1800 Type of Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Wigard, Jeroen; Michaelsen, Per-Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Resource allocation in a frequency hopping network is even more problematic than in a traditional network. The combined effect from all serving frequencies has to be considered directly in the allocation process. An algorithm doing this for a PCS1900/GSM/DCS1800 type of network is presented...

  2. tDCS of the Cerebellum: Where Do We Stand in 2016? Technical Issues and Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dun, Kim; Bodranghien, Florian C A A; Mariën, Peter; Manto, Mario U

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is an up-and-coming electrical neurostimulation technique increasingly used both in healthy subjects and in selected groups of patients. Due to the high density of neurons in the cerebellum, its peculiar anatomical organization with the cortex lying superficially below the skull and its diffuse connections with motor and associative areas of the cerebrum, the cerebellum is becoming a major target for neuromodulation of the cerebellocerebral networks. We discuss the recent studies based on cerebellar tDCS with a focus on the numerous technical and open issues which remain to be solved. Our current knowledge of the physiological impacts of tDCS on cerebellar circuitry is criticized. We provide a comparison with transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), another promising transcranial electrical neurostimulation technique. Although both tDCS and tACS are becoming established techniques to modulate the cerebellocerebral networks, it is surprising that their impacts on cerebellar disorders remains unclear. A major reason is that the literature lacks large trials with a double-blind, sham-controlled, and cross-over experimental design in cerebellar patients.

  3. CD99 isoforms regulate CD1a expression in human monocyte-derived DCs through ATF-2/CREB-1 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiddine, Karim; Mallavialle, Aude; Bziouech, Hanen; Larbret, Frédéric; Bernard, Alain; Bernard, Ghislaine

    2016-06-01

    CD1a expression is considered one of the major characteristics qualifying in vitro human dendritic cells (DCs) during their generation process. Here, we report that CD1A transcription is regulated by a mechanism involving the long and short isoforms of CD99. Using a lentiviral construct encoding for a CD99 short hairpin RNA, we were able to inhibit CD99 expression in human primary DCs. In such cells, CD1a membrane expression increased and CD1A transcripts were much higher in abundance compared to cells expressing CD99 long form (CD99LF). We also show that CD1A transcription is accompanied by a switch in expression from CD99LF to expression at comparable levels of both CD99 isoforms during immature DCs generation in vitro. We demonstrate that CD99LF maintains a lower level of CD1A transcription by up-regulating the phosphorylated form of the ATF-2 transcription factor and that CD99 short form (SF) is required to counteract this regulatory mechanism. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms related to CD99 alternative splicing will be very helpful to better understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CD1a molecules during DCs differentiation and its involvement in the immune response. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Serial Anodal tDCS on Motion Perception in Subjects with Occipital Stroke Measured in the Unaffected Visual Hemifield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olma, M. C.; Dargie, R. A.; Behrens, J. R.; Kraft, A.; Irlbacher, K.; Fahle, M.; Brandt, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a novel neuromodulatory tool that has seen early transition to clinical trials, although the high variability of these findings necessitates further studies in clinically relevant populations. The majority of evidence into effects of repeated tDCS is based on research in the human motor system, but it is unclear whether the long-term effects of serial tDCS are motor-specific or transferable to other brain areas. This study aimed to examine whether serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex can exogenously induce long-term neuroplastic changes in the visual cortex. However, when the visual cortex is affected by a cortical lesion, up-regulated endogenous neuroplastic adaptation processes may alter the susceptibility to tDCS. To this end, motion perception was investigated in the unaffected hemifield of subjects with unilateral visual cortex lesions. Twelve subjects with occipital ischemic lesions participated in a within-subject, sham-controlled, double-blind study. MRI-registered sham or anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, 20 min) was applied on five consecutive days over the visual cortex. Motion perception was tested before and after stimulation sessions and at 14- and 28-day follow-up. After a 16-day interval an identical study block with the other stimulation condition (anodal or sham tDCS) followed. Serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex resulted in an improvement in motion perception, a function attributed to MT/V5. This effect was still measurable at 14- and 28-day follow-up measurements. Thus, this may represent evidence for long-term tDCS-induced plasticity and has implications for the design of studies examining the time course of tDCS effects in both the visual and motor systems. PMID:23805097

  5. A pilot study of the tolerability and effects of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) on pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Bikson, Marom; Frohman, Heather; Reeves, Scott T; Datta, Abhishek; Bansal, Varun; Madan, Alok; Barth, Kelly; George, Mark S

    2012-02-01

    Several brain stimulation technologies are beginning to evidence promise as pain treatments. However, traditional versions of 1 specific technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), stimulate broad regions of cortex with poor spatial precision. A new tDCS design, called high definition tDCS (HD-tDCS), allows for focal delivery of the charge to discrete regions of the cortex. We sought to preliminarily test the safety and tolerability of the HD-tDCS technique as well as to evaluate whether HD-tDCS over the motor cortex would decrease pain and sensory experience. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers underwent quantitative sensory testing before and after 20 minutes of real (n = 13) or sham (n = 11) 2 mA HD-tDCS over the motor cortex. No adverse events occurred and no side effects were reported. Real HD-tDCS was associated with significantly decreased heat and cold sensory thresholds, decreased thermal wind-up pain, and a marginal analgesic effect for cold pain thresholds. No significant effects were observed for mechanical pain thresholds or heat pain thresholds. HD-tDCS appears well tolerated, and produced changes in underlying cortex that are associated with changes in pain perception. Future studies are warranted to investigate HD-tDCS in other applications, and to examine further its potential to affect pain perception. This article presents preliminary tolerability and efficacy data for a new focal brain stimulation technique called high definition transcranial direct current stimulation. This technique may have applications in the management of pain. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Long-term effects of serial anodal tDCS on motion perception in subjects with occipital stroke measured in the unaffected visual hemifield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel C Olma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a novel neuromodulatory tool that has seen early transition to clinical trials, although the high variability of these findings necessitates further studies in clincally-relevant populations. The majority of evidence into effects of repeated tDCS is based on research in the human motor system, but it is unclear whether the long-term effects of serial tDCS are motor-specific or transferable to other brain areas. This study aimed to examine whether serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex can exogenously induce long-term neuroplastic changes in the visual cortex. However, when the visual cortex is affected by a cortical lesion, up-regulated endogenous neuroplastic adaptation processes may alter the susceptibility to tDCS. To this end, motion perception was investigated in the unaffected hemifield of subjects with unilateral visual cortex lesions. Twelve subjects with occipital ischaemic lesions participated in a within-subject, sham-controlled, double-blind study. MRI-registered sham or anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, 20 minutes was applied on five consecutive days over the visual cortex. Motion perception was tested before and after stimulation sessions and at 14- and 28-day follow-up. After a 16-day interval an identical study block with the other stimulation condition (anodal or sham tDCS followed. Serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex resulted in an improvement in motion perception, a function attributed to MT/V5. This effect was still measurable at 14- and 28-day follow-up measurements. Thus, this may represent evidence for long-term tDCS-induced plasticity and has implications for the design of studies examining the time course of tDCS effects in both the visual and motor systems.

  7. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Hyvärinen

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA or sham stimulation (0.3 mA for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, was found (mean change -5.0 points, p < 0.05, but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response-as measured by THI-with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study

  8. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  9. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-07-15

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (<2 mA) is applied across the scalp to modulate brain function. High-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) is a technique used to increase the spatial focality of tDCS by passing current across the scalp using <12 mm diameter electrodes. The purpose of this study was to design and optimize "high-definition" electrode-gel parameters for electrode durability, skin safety and subjective pain. Anode and cathode electrode potential, temperature, pH and subjective sensation over time were assessed during application of 2 mA direct current, for up to 22 min on agar gel or subject forearms. A selection of five types of solid-conductors (Ag pellet, Ag/AgCl pellet, rubber pellet, Ag/AgCl ring and Ag/AgCl disc) and seven conductive gels (Signa, Spectra, Tensive, Redux, BioGel, Lectron and CCNY-4) were investigated. The Ag/AgCl ring in combination with CCNY-4 gel resulted in the most favorable outcomes. Under anode stimulations, electrode potential and temperature rises were generally observed in all electrode-gel combinations except for Ag/AgCl ring and disc electrodes. pH remained constant for all solid-conductors except for both Ag and rubber pellet electrodes with Signa and CCNY-4 gels. Sensation ratings were independent of stimulation polarity. Ag/AgCl ring electrodes were found to be the most comfortable followed by Ag, rubber and Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes across all gels.

  10. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalizion after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia ede Aguiar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance generalization has not been systematically investigated. Here, we test the efficacy of ACTION (a linguistically motivated protocol and tDCS in producing item-specific and generalized improvement in aphasia.Method. Nine individuals with post-stroke aphasia participated in this study. Participants were pre-tested with a diagnostic language battery and a cognitive screening. Experimental tasks were administered over multiple baselines. Production of infinitives, of finite verbs and of full sentences were assessed before and after each treatment phase. Nonword repetition was used as a control measure. Each subject was treated in two phases. Ten daily 1-hour treatment sessions were provided per phase, in a double-blind, cross-over design. Linguistically-motivated language therapy focusing on verb inflection and sentence construction was provided in both phases. Each session began with 20 minutes of real or sham tDCS. Stimulation site was determined individually, based on MRI scans.Results. Group data showed improved production of treated and untreated verbs, attesting the efficacy of behavioral treatment, and its potential to yield generalization. Each individual showed significant item-specific improvement. Generalization occurred in the first phase of treatment for all subjects, and in the second phase for two subjects. Stimulation effects at the group level were significant for treated and untreated verbs altogether, but a ceiling effect for Sham cannot be excluded, as scores between real tDCS and Sham differed only before treatment.Conclusion. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of ACTION and suggest that tDCS may enhance both item-specific effects and

  11. The nucleosome (histone-DNA complex is the TLR9-specific immunostimulatory component of Plasmodium falciparum that activates DCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj M Gowda

    Full Text Available The systemic clinical symptoms of Plasmodium falciparum infection such as fever and chills correspond to the proinflammatory cytokines produced in response to the parasite components released during the synchronized rupture of schizonts. We recently demonstrated that, among the schizont-released products, merozoites are the predominant components that activate dendritic cells (DCs by TLR9-specific recognition to induce the maturation of cells and to produce proinflammatory cytokines. We also demonstrated that DNA is the active constituent and that formation of a DNA-protein complex is essential for the entry of parasite DNA into cells for recognition by TLR9. However, the nature of endogenous protein-DNA complex in the parasite is not known. In this study, we show that parasite nucleosome constitute the major protein-DNA complex involved in the activation of DCs by parasite nuclear material. The parasite components were fractionated into the nuclear and non-nuclear materials. The nuclear material was further fractionated into chromatin and the proteins loosely bound to chromatin. Polynucleosomes and oligonucleosomes were prepared from the chromatin. These were tested for their ability to activate DCs obtained by the FLT3 ligand differentiation of bone marrow cells from the wild type, and TLR2(-/-, TLR9(-/- and MyD88(-/- mice. DCs stimulated with the nuclear material and polynucleosomes as well as mono- and oligonucleosomes efficiently induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in a TLR9-dependent manner, demonstrating that nucleosomes (histone-DNA complex represent the major TLR9-specific DC-immunostimulatory component of the malaria parasite nuclear material. Thus, our data provide a significant insight into the activation of DCs by malaria parasites and have important implications for malaria vaccine development.

  12. The right inferior frontal cortex in response inhibition: A tDCS-ERP co-registration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunillera, Toni; Brignani, Debora; Cucurell, David; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-10-15

    In any given common situation, when an individual controls him/herself or obeys and stops a current action when asked to do, it is because the brain executes an inhibitory process. This ability is essential for adaptive behaviour, and it is also a requirement for accurate performance in daily life. It has been suggested that there are two main inhibitory functions related to behaviour, as inhibition is observed to affect behaviour at different time intervals. Proactive inhibition permits the subject to control his behavioural response over time by creating a response tendency, while reactive inhibition is considered to be a process that usually inhibits an already initiated response. In this context, it has been established that inhibitory function is implemented by specific fronto-basal-ganglia circuits. In the present study, we investigated the role of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) in response inhibition by combining into a single task the Go-NoGo task and the Stop-Signal task. Concurrently, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the IFC and recorded electroencephalography (EEG). Thus, we obtained online EEG measurements of the tDCS-induced modifications in the IFC together with the participant's performance in a response inhibition task. We found that applying bilateral tDCS on the IFC (right anodal/left cathodal) significantly increased proactive inhibition, although the behavioural parameters indicative of reactive inhibition were unaffected by the stimulation. Finally, the inhibitory-P3 component reflected a similar modulation under both inhibitory conditions induced by the stimulation. Our data indicates that an online tDCS-ERP approach is achievable, but that a tDCS bilateral montage may not be the most efficient one for modulating the rIFC.

  13. Macrophage and dendritic cell subsets in IBD: ALDH+ cells are reduced in colon tissue of patients with ulcerative colitis regardless of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, M. K.; Brynjólfsson, S. F.; Dige, A.

    2016-01-01

    and ulcerative colitis (UC) as well as mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) draining these sites. Increased CD14+DRint MQs characterized inflamed intestinal mucosa while total CD141+ or CD1c+ DCs numbers were unchanged. However, CD103+ DCs, including CD141+CD103+ and CD1c+CD103+ DCs, were reduced in inflamed intestine....... In MLNs, two CD14− DC populations were identified: CD11cintHLADRhi and CD11chiHLADRint cells. A marked increase of CD11chiHLADRint DC, particularly DRintCD1c+ DCs, characterized MLNs draining inflamed intestine. The fraction of DC and MQ populations expressing aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity......, reflecting retinoic acid synthesis, in UC colon, both in active disease and remission, were reduced compared to controls and inflamed Crohn’s colon. In contrast, no difference in the frequency of ALDH+ cells among blood precursors was detected between UC patients and non-inflamed controls. This suggests...

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) priming of 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates experimental pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Tonya M; Witney, Alice G

    2013-02-08

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex (M1) modulate cortical excitability. Both techniques have been demonstrated to modulate chronic pain and experimental pain thresholds, but with inconsistent effects. Preconditioning M1 with weak tDCS (1mA) standardizes the effects of subsequent stimulation via rTMS on levels of cortical excitability. Here we examine whether 1Hz rTMS, primed with tDCS, could effectively standardize the modulation of pain thresholds. Thermal pain thresholds were determined using quantitative sensory testing (QST) of the palmar thenar of both hands in 12 healthy males pre and post tDCS - 1Hz rTMS over the hand area of the left M1. Cathodal tDCS preconditioning of 1Hz rTMS successfully reversed the normal suppressive effect of low frequency rTMS and effectively modulated cold and heat pain thresholds. Conversely, anodal tDCS - 1Hz rTMS led to a decrease in cold pain thresholds. Therefore, this study supports that preconditioning M1 using cathodal tDCS before subsequent stimulation via 1Hz rTMS facilitates the production of analgesia.

  15. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over supplementary motor area (SMA) but not pre-SMA promotes short-term visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Henning; Conde, Virginia; Sewerin, Sebastian; Taubert, Marco; Sehm, Bernhard; Witte, Otto W; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate cortical excitability and thereby influencing motor behaviour and learning. While there is increasing knowledge about the importance of the primary motor cortex (M1) in short- and long-term motor skill learning, little is known about the role of secondary motor areas such as the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area (SMA/pre-SMA) especially in short-term motor performance. Since SMA but not pre-SMA is directly connected to M1, we hypothesize that anodal tDCS over SMA but not pre-SMA will facilitate visuomotor learning. We applied anodal tDCS (tDCS(anodal)) over left SMA, pre-SMA or M1 (n=12 in each group) while subjects performed a visuomotor pinch force task (VPFT) with their right hand and compared VPFT performance relative to sham (tDCS(sham)). For the first time, we could show that apart from tDCS(anodal) over left M1 also SMA but not pre-SMA stimulation promotes short-term improvements in visuomotor learning relative to tDCS(sham). Our findings provide novel evidence about the role of SMA in short-term visuomotor performance. This knowledge might be beneficial in developing hypothesis-driven clinical studies in neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of event-related desynchronization during motor imagery with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Yuko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Matsushika, Yayoi; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Hase, Kimitaka; Ushiyama, Junichi; Ushiba, Junichi; Liu, Meigen

    2012-09-01

    Electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface (BCI) has been developed as a new neurorehabilitative tool for patients with severe hemiparesis. However, its application has been limited because of difficulty detecting stable brain signals from the affected hemisphere. It has been reported that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate event-related desynchronization (ERD) in healthy persons. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that anodal tDCS could modulate ERD in patients with severe hemiparetic stroke. The participants were six patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke (mean age, 56.8 ± 9.5 years; mean time from the onset, 70.0 ± 19.6 months; Fugl-Meyer Assessment upper extremity motor score, 30.8 ± 16.5). We applied anodal tDCS (10 min, 1 mA) and sham stimulation over the affected primary motor cortex in a random order. ERD of the mu rhythm (mu ERD) with motor imagery of extension of the affected finger was assessed before and after anodal tDCS and sham stimulation. Mu ERD of the affected hemisphere increased significantly after anodal tDCS, whereas it did not change after sham stimulation. Our results show that anodal tDCS can increase mu ERD in patients with hemiparetic stroke, indicating that anodal tDCS could be used as a conditioning tool for BCI in stroke patients.

  17. Functional improvement and neuroplastic effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) delivered 1 day vs. 1 week after cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Oh, Byung-Mo; Kim, Dae-Yul

    2012-05-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging tool for improving recovery from stroke. However, there has been no trial to determine whether it has a therapeutic benefit in the early stage of cerebral ischemia, and there is no consensus on the optimal time window of stimulation. Here, we described the effects of anodal tDCS in early cerebral ischemia, assessing functional improvements and changes in neuronal plasticity, and identifying the optimal time window for delivering tDCS to maximize functional gains. Thirty rats were randomly assigned to three groups: sham (n=10); early tDCS (ET), receiving tDCS 1day after ischemia for 5 days (n=10), and late tDCS (LT), receiving tDCS 1 week after ischemia for 5 days (n=10). Both ET and LT groups showed improved Barnes maze performance and motor behavioral index scores. However, only the LT group exhibited improvement in beam balance test. Immunohistochemical stainings showed that the ET group reinforced notable MAP-2 expression and the LT group enhanced mainly the level of GAP-43 in both peri-lesional and contralesional cortex. These immunohistochemical results had significant correlation with behavioral and cognitive functions. However, brain MRI and (1)H MRS showed no significant differences among the three groups in ischemic volume and metabolic alteration. These results suggest that anodal tDCS has the potential to modulate neural plasticity around the ischemic penumbra and even in the contralesional area without aggravating infarction volume and metabolic alteration. The degree of functional improvement was slightly greater when tDCS was applied 1 week rather than 1 day after ischemic injury.

  18. The cytokines IL-21 and GM-CSF have opposing regulatory roles in the apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chi-Keung; Oh, Jangsuk; Li, Peng; West, Erin E; Wong, Elizabeth A; Andraski, Allison B; Spolski, Rosanne; Yu, Zu-Xi; He, Jianping; Kelsall, Brian L; Leonard, Warren J

    2013-03-21

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has broad actions on T and B cells, but its actions in innate immunity are poorly understood. Here we show that IL-21 induced apoptosis of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via STAT3 and Bim, and this was inhibited by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed genome-wide binding competition between GM-CSF-induced STAT5 and IL-21-induced STAT3. Expression of IL-21 in vivo decreased cDC numbers, and this was prevented by GM-CSF. Moreover, repetitive α-galactosylceramide injection of mice induced IL-21 but decreased GM-CSF production by natural killer T (NKT) cells, correlating with decreased cDC numbers. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4+ T cells caused more severe colitis with increased DCs and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T cells in Il21r(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice (which lack T cells and have IL-21-unresponsive DCs) than in Rag2(-/-) mice. Thus, IL-21 and GM-CSF exhibit cross-regulatory actions on gene regulation and apoptosis, regulating cDC numbers and thereby the magnitude of the immune response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Chavdoula, Evangelia D; Nezis, Ioannis P; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2007-01-10

    In the present study, the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay--a well known technique widely used for detecting fragmented DNA in various types of cells--was used to detect cell death (DNA fragmentation) in a biological model, the early and mid stages of oogenesis of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The flies were exposed in vivo to either GSM 900-MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) or DCS 1800-MHz (Digital Cellular System) radiation from a common digital mobile phone, for few minutes per day during the first 6 days of their adult life. The exposure conditions were similar to those to which a mobile phone user is exposed, and were determined according to previous studies of ours [D.J. Panagopoulos, A. Karabarbounis, L.H. Margaritis, Effect of GSM 900-MHz mobile phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, Electromagn. Biol. Med. 23 (1) (2004) 29-43; D.J. Panagopoulos, N. Messini, A. Karabarbounis, A.L. Philippetis, L.H. Margaritis, Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within "safety levels" alters the physiological function of insects, in: P. Kostarakis, P. Stavroulakis (Eds.), Proceedings of the Millennium International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 17-20, 2000, pp. 169-175, ISBN: 960-86733-0-5; D.J. Panagopoulos, L.H. Margaritis, Effects of electromagnetic fields on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, in: P. Stavroulakis (Ed.), Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, 2003, pp. 545-578], which had shown a large decrease in the oviposition of the same insect caused by GSM radiation. Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of cells

  20. Conventional Phenylketonuria Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillén-López Sara MS, RD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is caused by a deficient activity of enzyme phenylalanine (Phe hydroxylase, which results in high Phe blood concentration, which is toxic to the central nervous system. The fundamental purpose of nutritional treatment is to reduce and maintain blood Phe between 2 mg/dL (120 µmol/L and 6 mg/dL (360 µmol/L in order to prevent neuropathogenic complications. At the same time, nutrition support must provide enough energy and nutrients to promote normal growth and development and also to avoid vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Phenylketonuria treatment must be maintained long-life and its adherence must be frequently assessed. The amount of Phe required by patients with PKU varies throughout life and must be adjusted according to individual tolerance, residual phenylalanine hydroxylase enzymatic activity, age, sex, growth rate, protein intake, and nutritional and biochemical status among others. Treatment must be done by trained personnel. It is necessary to unify treatment criteria and further research must be done.

  1. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  2. Combining migration and optimisation of DCS in an existing scheduled maintenance. Use of simulator for a faultless DCS commissioning and start-up; Leittechnische Migration und Optimierung im Windschatten einer Revision. Simulatoreinsatz sichert fehlerfreie IBS und Blockanfahrt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroek, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Grevenbroich (Germany). Technische Dienste; Albrecht, Ingo [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Stuerenburg, Horst-Guenther [Kraftwerksschule e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    During outage for a scheduled maintenance, the existing SPPA-T2000 control system of unit K (BoA 1) at RWE Power AG's Niederaussem power plant was to be replaced by the SPPA-T3000 control system. At the same time an increase in the unit's flexibility with regard to primary and secondary control operation, a reduction of smallest exporting load as well as a reduction of start-up time were intended. In order to accomplish these goals, the SPPA-S3000 simulator 1100 MW block unit G (BoA 3) of RWE Power AG's Neurath power plant owned by KWS supporting the new DCS was planned to be used for advance-commissioning and subsequent optimisation of the DCS. The operating personnel, which had already been trained on the SPPA-T3000 control system, actively assisted the commissioning of the real unit, successfully safeguarding plant operations.

  3. 虎皮楠内生真菌Aspergillus sp.DCS31化学成分研究%Chemical Constituents from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp.DCS31 of Daphniphyllum longeracemosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟欣欣; 葛锋; 曾英; 赵沛基

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. DCS31 was isolated from Daphniphyllum longeracemosum and identified to be Aspergillus by ITS sequence. Five compounds were isolated from the solid-state fermentation product of endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. DCS31. Their structures were identified as asperpyrone D (1) , asperpyrone A (2),flavasperone (3) ,1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid bis(2α-methyl hepryl) ester (4) and 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (5). Compounds 1-4 were isolated from the endophytic fungus of Daphniphyllum longeracemosum for the first time.%从长序虎皮楠韧皮部分离到内生真菌Aspergillus sp.DCS31,经ITS序列分析将该株菌鉴定为曲霉属真菌.我们从该菌的固体发酵物中分离得到了5个化合物,经质谱和核磁共振波谱解析,分别鉴定为asperpyroneD(1)、asperpyrone A(2)、flavasperone(3)、1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis(2α-methyl heptyl)ester (4)、2,5-di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester(5).化合物1、2、3、4为首次从虎皮楠内生真菌中分离得到.

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a realistic head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Rosalind J; Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Schretlen, David J; Gordon, Barry

    2010-07-15

    Distributions of current produced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans were predicted by a finite-element model representing several individual and collective refinements over prior efforts. A model of the entire human head and brain was made using a finely meshed (1.1x1.1x1.4mm(3) voxel) tissue dataset derived from the MRI data set of a normal human brain. The conductivities of ten tissues were simulated (bone, scalp, blood, CSF, muscle, white matter, gray matter, sclera, fat, and cartilage). We then modeled the effect of placing a "stimulating" electrode with a saline-like conductivity over F3, and a similar "reference" electrode over a right supraorbital (RS) location, as well as the complements of these locations, to compare expectations derived from the simulation with experimental data also using these locations in terms of the presence or absence of subjective and objective effects. The sensitivity of the results to changes in conductivity values were examined by varying white matter conductivity over a factor of ten. Our simulations established that high current densities were found directly under the stimulating and reference electrodes, but values of the same order of magnitude occurred in other structures, and many areas of the brain that might be behaviorally active were also subjected to what may be substantial amounts of current. The modeling also suggests that more targeted stimulations might be achieved by different electrode topologies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct current stimulation (tDCS) reveals parietal asymmetry in local/global and salience-based selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Kanai, Ryota; Mapelli, Daniela; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Data from neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies indicate hemispheric asymmetries in processing object's global form versus local parts. However the attentional mechanisms subtending visual selection of different levels of information are poorly understood. The classical left hemisphere/local-right hemisphere/global dichotomy has been recently challenged by studies linking the asymmetry of activation in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) with the relative salience of the stimulus rather than with the local/global level. The present study aimed to assess hemispheric asymmetry in local-global and salience-based selection in hierarchical stimuli by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). To this end, tDCS has been applied to the PPC of both the hemispheres. Our data revealed that tDCS did affect the selection of the target on the basis of its relative salience in a manner that depended on the tDCS polarity applied to the two hemispheres. This result is in line with previous findings that the left PPC is critically involved in attention for low-salience stimuli in the presence of high-salience distractor information, while right PPC is involved in attending to more salient stimuli. Hemispheric asymmetries were also found in local/global selection. Overall the results suggest that neural activation in the PPC is related to both the salience and the level of stimulus representations mediating responses to hierarchical stimuli. The comparison of the results from Experiments 1 and 2 in local/global-based selection suggests that the effect of stimulation could be completely opposite depending on subtle differences in demands of attentional control (sustained attention vs task switching).

  6. Controlling the Anchoring Effect through Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective accessibility mechanisms indicate that anchoring effects are results of selective retrieval of working memory. Neuroimaging studies have revealed that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is closely related to memory retrieval and performance. However, no research has investigated the effect of changing the cortical excitability in right DLPFC on anchoring effects. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can modulate the excitability of the human cerebral cortex, while anodal and cathodal tDCS are postulated to increase or decrease cortical activity, respectively. In this study, we used tDCS to investigate whether effects of increased or decreased right DLPFC excitability influence anchoring effects in willingness to pay (WTP experiments. Ninety participants were first randomly assigned to receive either anodal, cathodal, or sham stimulation of 15 min, then they performed a valuation task regarding WTP. The results showed that anchoring effects were negatively related to activities of right DLPFC: the anodal stimulation diminished anchoring effects while the cathodal stimulation increased anchoring effects. These outcomes provide one of the first instances of neural evidence for the role of the right DLPFC in anchoring effects and support psychological explanations of the selective accessibility mechanisms and cognitive sets.

  7. Enhancing verbal creativity: modulating creativity by altering the balance between right and left inferior frontal gyrus with tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayseless, N; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2015-04-16

    Creativity is the production of novel ideas that have value. Previous research indicated that while regions in the right hemisphere are implicated in the production of new ideas, damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is associated with increased creativity, indicating that the left IFG damage may have a "releasing" effect on creativity. To examine this, in the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate activity of the right and the left IFG. In the first experiment we show that whereas anodal tDCS over the right IFG coupled with cathodal tDCS over the left IFG increases creativity as measured by a verbal divergent thinking task, the reverse stimulation does not affect creative production. To further confirm that only altering the balance between the two hemispheres is crucial in modulating creativity, in the second experiment we show that stimulation targeting separately the left IFG (cathodal stimulation) or the right IFG (anodal stimulation) did not result in changes in creativity as measured by verbal divergent thinking. These findings support the balance hypothesis, according to which verbal creativity requires a balance of activation between the right and the left frontal lobes, and more specifically, between the right and the left IFG. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo approaches reveal a key role for DCs in CD4+ T cell activation and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental blood-stage malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Borges da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are phagocytes that are highly specialized for antigen presentation. Heterogeneous populations of macrophages and DCs form a phagocyte network inside the red pulp (RP of the spleen, which is a major site for the control of blood-borne infections such as malaria. However, the dynamics of splenic DCs during Plasmodium infections are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge regarding their protective role in malaria. Here, we used in vivo experimental approaches that enabled us to deplete or visualize DCs in order to clarify these issues. To elucidate the roles of DCs and marginal zone macrophages in the protection against blood-stage malaria, we infected DTx (diphtheria toxin-treated C57BL/6.CD11c-DTR mice, as well as C57BL/6 mice treated with low doses of clodronate liposomes (ClLip, with Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc parasites. The first evidence suggesting that DCs could contribute directly to parasite clearance was an early effect of the DTx treatment, but not of the ClLip treatment, in parasitemia control. DCs were also required for CD4+ T cell responses during infection. The phagocytosis of infected red blood cells (iRBCs by splenic DCs was analyzed by confocal intravital microscopy, as well as by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, at three distinct phases of Pc malaria: at the first encounter, at pre-crisis concomitant with parasitemia growth and at crisis when the parasitemia decline coincides with spleen closure. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of the spleen revealed that DCs actively phagocytize iRBCs and interact with CD4+ T cells both in T cell-rich areas and in the RP. Subcapsular RP DCs were highly efficient in the recognition and capture of iRBCs during pre-crisis, while complete DC maturation was only achieved during crisis. These findings indicate that, beyond their classical role in antigen presentation, DCs also contribute to the direct elimination of iRBCs during acute Plasmodium infection.

  9. In Vivo Approaches Reveal a Key Role for DCs in CD4+ T Cell Activation and Parasite Clearance during the Acute Phase of Experimental Blood-Stage Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges da Silva, Henrique; Fonseca, Raíssa; Cassado, Alexandra dos Anjos; Machado de Salles, Érika; de Menezes, Maria Nogueira; Langhorne, Jean; Perez, Katia Regina; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Ryffel, Bernhard; Barreto, Vasco M.; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Boscardin, Silvia Beatriz; Álvarez, José Maria; D’Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Tadokoro, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are phagocytes that are highly specialized for antigen presentation. Heterogeneous populations of macrophages and DCs form a phagocyte network inside the red pulp (RP) of the spleen, which is a major site for the control of blood-borne infections such as malaria. However, the dynamics of splenic DCs during Plasmodium infections are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge regarding their protective role in malaria. Here, we used in vivo experimental approaches that enabled us to deplete or visualize DCs in order to clarify these issues. To elucidate the roles of DCs and marginal zone macrophages in the protection against blood-stage malaria, we infected DTx (diphtheria toxin)-treated C57BL/6.CD11c-DTR mice, as well as C57BL/6 mice treated with low doses of clodronate liposomes (ClLip), with Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc) parasites. The first evidence suggesting that DCs could contribute directly to parasite clearance was an early effect of the DTx treatment, but not of the ClLip treatment, in parasitemia control. DCs were also required for CD4+ T cell responses during infection. The phagocytosis of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) by splenic DCs was analyzed by confocal intravital microscopy, as well as by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, at three distinct phases of Pc malaria: at the first encounter, at pre-crisis concomitant with parasitemia growth and at crisis when the parasitemia decline coincides with spleen closure. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of the spleen revealed that DCs actively phagocytize iRBCs and interact with CD4+ T cells both in T cell-rich areas and in the RP. Subcapsular RP DCs were highly efficient in the recognition and capture of iRBCs during pre-crisis, while complete DC maturation was only achieved during crisis. These findings indicate that, beyond their classical role in antigen presentation, DCs also contribute to the direct elimination of iRBCs during acute Plasmodium infection. PMID:25658925

  10. CD1c-related DCs that express CD207/langerin, but are distinguishable from Langerhans cells, are consistently present in human tonsils

    OpenAIRE

    Anne eDe Monte; Charles-Vivien eOLIVIERI; Sebastien eVITALE; Sonanda eBAILLEUX; Laurent eCASTILLO; Valerie eGIORDANENGO; Maryanski, Janet L.; Elodie eSegura; Alain eDOGLIO

    2016-01-01

    Several subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) are present in the oropharyngeal tonsillar tissues and are thought to behave as major actors in development and regulation of immunity by acting as a first line of recognition for airborne and alimentary antigens. We previously discovered in human adult tonsils infected with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) a subset of DCs that expressed langerin/CD207, a lectin usually recognized as a hallmark of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). In the present study, we anal...

  11. CD1c-Related DCs that Express CD207/Langerin, but Are Distinguishable from Langerhans Cells, Are Consistently Present in Human Tonsils

    OpenAIRE

    De Monte, Anne; Olivieri, Charles-Vivien; Vitale, Sébastien; Bailleux, Sonanda; Castillo, Laurent; Giordanengo, Valérie; Maryanski, Janet L.; Segura, Elodie; Doglio, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Several subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) are present in the oropharyngeal tonsillar tissues and are thought to behave as major actors in development and regulation of immunity by acting as a first line of recognition for airborne and alimentary antigens. We previously discovered in human adult tonsils infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a subset of DCs that expressed langerin/CD207, a lectin usually recognized as a hallmark of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). In the present study, we ana...

  12. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference...

  13. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  14. In-vivo Imaging of Magnetic Fields Induced by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Human Brain using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Mayank V.; Smith, Robert X.; Jann, Kay; Dunn, Walter; Lafon, Belen; Truong, Dennis; Wu, Allan; Parra, Lucas; Bikson, Marom; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2016-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies mA currents at the scalp to modulate cortical excitability. Here, we present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, which detects magnetic fields induced by tDCS currents. This technique is based on Ampere’s law and exploits the linear relationship between direct current and induced magnetic fields. Following validation on a phantom with a known path of electric current and induced magnetic field, the proposed MRI technique was applied to a human limb (to demonstrate in-vivo feasibility using simple biological tissue) and human heads (to demonstrate feasibility in standard tDCS applications). The results show that the proposed technique detects tDCS induced magnetic fields as small as a nanotesla at millimeter spatial resolution. Through measurements of magnetic fields linearly proportional to the applied tDCS current, our approach opens a new avenue for direct in-vivo visualization of tDCS target engagement.

  15. Wearable functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS: Expanding Vistas for Neurocognitive Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eMcKendrick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary studies with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS provide a growing base of evidence for enhancing cognition through the non-invasive delivery of weak electric currents to the brain. The main effect of tDCS is to modulate cortical excitability depending on the polarity of the applied current. However, the underlying mechanism of neuromodulation is not well understood. A new generation of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS systems is described that are miniaturized, portable, and include wearable sensors. These developments provide an opportunity to couple fNIRS with tDCS, consistent with a neuroergonomics approach for joint neuroimaging and neurostimulation investigations of cognition in complex tasks and in naturalistic conditions. The effects of tDCS on complex task performance and the use of fNIRS for monitoring cognitive workload during task performance are described. Also explained is how fNIRS + tDCS can be used simultaneously for assessing spatial working memory. Mobile optical brain imaging is a promising neuroimaging tool that has the potential to complement tDCS for realistic applications in natural settings.

  16. The ABC of tDCS: Effects of Anodal, Bilateral and Cathodal Montages of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Patients with Stroke—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fusco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive technique that is emerging as a prospective therapy for different neurologic disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that anodal and cathodal stimulation can improve motor performance in terms of dexterity and manual force. The objective of this study was to determine whether different electrodes’ setups (anodal, cathodal, and simultaneous bilateral tDCS provide different motor performance and which montage was more effective. As secondary outcome, we have asked to the patients about their satisfaction, and to determine if the bilateral tDCS was more uncomfortable than unilateral tDCS. Nine patients with stroke in subacute phase were enrolled in this study and randomly divided in three groups. Our results showed that tDCS was an effective treatment if compared to Sham stimulation (. In particular, anodal stimulation provided the higher improvement in terms of manual dexterity. Cathodal stimulation seemed to have a little effect in terms of force improvement, not observed with other setups. Bipolar stimulation seemed to be the less effective. No significant differences have been noted for the different set-ups for patients’ judgment. These results highlight the potential efficacy of tDCS for patients with stroke in subacute phase.

  17. The ABC of tDCS: Effects of Anodal, Bilateral and Cathodal Montages of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Patients with Stroke—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, A.; De Angelis, D.; Morone, G.; Maglione, L.; Paolucci, T.; Bragoni, M.; Venturiero, V.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that is emerging as a prospective therapy for different neurologic disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that anodal and cathodal stimulation can improve motor performance in terms of dexterity and manual force. The objective of this study was to determine whether different electrodes' setups (anodal, cathodal, and simultaneous bilateral tDCS) provide different motor performance and which montage was more effective. As secondary outcome, we have asked to the patients about their satisfaction, and to determine if the bilateral tDCS was more uncomfortable than unilateral tDCS. Nine patients with stroke in subacute phase were enrolled in this study and randomly divided in three groups. Our results showed that tDCS was an effective treatment if compared to Sham stimulation (P = 0.022). In particular, anodal stimulation provided the higher improvement in terms of manual dexterity. Cathodal stimulation seemed to have a little effect in terms of force improvement, not observed with other setups. Bipolar stimulation seemed to be the less effective. No significant differences have been noted for the different set-ups for patients' judgment. These results highlight the potential efficacy of tDCS for patients with stroke in subacute phase. PMID:23365790

  18. Bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity modulates bilateral cognitive processes differentially [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Klein

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is an innovative method to explore the causal structure-function relationship of brain areas. We investigated the specificity of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity (e.g., cathodal on both hemispheres applied to intraparietal cortices bilaterally using a combined between- and within-task approach. Regarding between-task specificity, we observed that bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS affected a numerical (mental addition but not a control task (colour word Stroop, indicating a specific influence of tDCS on numerical but not on domain general cognitive processes associated with the bilateral IPS. In particular, the numerical effect of distractor distance was more pronounced under cathodal than under anodal stimulation. Moreover, with respect to within-task specificity we only found the numerical distractor distance effect in mental addition to be modulated by direct current stimulation, whereas the effect of target identity was not affected. This implies a differential influence of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS on the recruitment of different processing components within the same task (number magnitude processing vs. recognition of familiarity. In sum, this first successful application of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity in numerical cognition research corroborates the specific proposition of the Triple Code Model that number magnitude information is represented bilaterally in the intraparietal cortices.

  19. Thinking Cap Plus Thinking Zap: tDCS of Frontopolar Cortex Improves Creative Analogical Reasoning and Facilitates Conscious Augmentation of State Creativity in Verb Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Spiegel, Katherine A; Giangrande, Evan J; Weinberger, Adam B; Gallagher, Natalie M; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates neural mechanisms that support transient improvements in creative performance (augmented state creativity) in response to cognitive interventions (creativity cueing). Separately, neural interventions via tDCS show encouraging potential for modulating neuronal function during creative performance. If cognitive and neural interventions are separately effective, can they be combined? Does state creativity augmentation represent "real" creativity, or do interventions simply yield divergence by diminishing meaningfulness/appropriateness? Can augmenting state creativity bolster creative reasoning that supports innovation, particularly analogical reasoning? To address these questions, we combined tDCS with creativity cueing. Testing a regionally specific hypothesis from neuroimaging, high-definition tDCS-targeted frontopolar cortex activity recently shown to predict state creativity augmentation. In a novel analogy finding task, participants under tDCS formulated substantially more creative analogical connections in a large matrix search space (creativity indexed via latent semantic analysis). Critically, increased analogical creativity was not due to diminished accuracy in discerning valid analogies, indicating "real" creativity rather than inappropriate divergence. A simpler relational creativity paradigm (modified verb generation) revealed a tDCS-by-cue interaction; tDCS further enhanced creativity cue-related increases in semantic distance. Findings point to the potential of noninvasive neuromodulation to enhance creative relational cognition, including augmentation of the deliberate effort to formulate connections between distant concepts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Grace, Patricia S; Ernst, Joel D

    2016-01-13

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from bacterial strategies that manipulate host adaptive immune responses. Infected dendritic cells (DCs) transport M. tuberculosis to local lymph nodes but activate CD4 T cells poorly, suggesting bacterial manipulation of antigen presentation. However, M. tuberculosis antigens are also exported from infected DCs and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming this blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Here we show that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. Kinesin-2 is required for antigen export and depletion of this microtubule-based motor increases activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by infected cells and improves control of intracellular infection. Thus, although antigen transfer enables presentation by bystander cells, it does not compensate for reduced antigen presentation by infected cells and represents a bacterial strategy for CD4 T cell evasion.

  1. DCS - A High Flux Beamline for Time Resolved Dynamic Compression Science – Design Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); D' Amico, Kevin L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nudell, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Collins, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schmidt, Oliver [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm2. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm2. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  2. DCS - A high flux beamline for time resolved dynamic compression science – Design highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D., E-mail: capatina@aps.anl.gov; D’Amico, K., E-mail: kdamico@aps.anl.gov; Nudell, J., E-mail: jnudell@aps.anl.gov; Collins, J., E-mail: collins@aps.anl.gov; Schmidt, O., E-mail: oschmidt@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm{sup 2}. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm{sup 2}. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  3. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha Juliette Albert; Seshasayanan Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to p...

  4. Improving the efficiency of measurement procedures for assessing human exposure in the vicinity of mobile phone (GSM/DCS/UMTS) base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neskovic, N; Koprivica, M; Neskovic, A; Paunovic, G

    2012-04-01

    Standards stipulate 6-min time interval of averaging for measurements of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to assess human exposure to non-ionising radiation. Having in mind the base stations of public land mobile systems, the time interval defined in such a way noticeably limits the number of measuring points in practical applications. In this paper, based on the results of measurements in the vicinity of a multisystem base station (Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM], Digital Communication System [DCS] and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System [UMTS]), it was shown that the measurement process can be significantly accelerated by using shorter time intervals of averaging--15 s, 30 s and 1 min. It was found that measurement results differed from the 6-min root-mean-square mean by 10.5 %, 15.9 and 19 %, respectively, while the uncertainty of the measurements was increased by 3.0 %, 3.8 and 4.4 %, respectively. Shorter time-averaging intervals would reduce the total duration of the exposure assessment survey, while not compromising too much on measurement quality.

  5. Human pDCs display sex-specific differences in type I interferon subtypes and interferon α/β receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Susanne M; Beisel, Claudia; Sutter, Kathrin; Griesbeck, Morgane; Hildebrandt, Heike; Hagen, Sven H; Dittmer, Ulf; Altfeld, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    The outcomes of many diseases differ between women and men, with women experiencing a higher incidence and more severe pathogenesis of autoimmune and some infectious diseases. It has been suggested that this is partially due to activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), the main producers of interferon (IFN)-α, in response to toll-like receptor (TLR)7 stimulation. We investigated the induction of type I IFN (IFN-I) subtypes upon TLR7 stimulation on isolated pDCs. Our data revealed a sex-specific differential expression of IFN-Is, with pDCs from females showing a significantly higher mRNA expression of all 13 IFN-α subtypes. In addition, pDCs from females had higher levels of IFN-β mRNA after stimulation, indicating that sex differences in IFN-I production by pDCs were mediated by a signaling event upstream of the first loop of IFN-I mRNA transcription. Furthermore, the surface expression levels of the common IFN-α/β receptor subunit 2 were significantly higher on pDCs from females in comparison to males. These data indicate that higher IFN-α production is already established at the mRNA level and propose a contribution of higher IFN-α/β receptor 2 expression on pDCs to the immunological differences in IFN-I production observed between females and males. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Computational Pipeline for NIRS-EEG Joint Imaging of tDCS-Evoked Cerebral Responses—An Application in Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Debarpan; Dutta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical neural activity and hemodynamics. Electrophysiological methods (electroencephalography-EEG) measure neural activity while optical methods (near-infrared spectroscopy-NIRS) measure hemodynamics coupled through neurovascular coupling (NVC). Assessment of NVC requires development of NIRS-EEG joint-imaging sensor montages that are sensitive to the tDCS affected brain areas. In this methods paper, we present a software pipeline incorporating freely available software tools that can be used to target vascular territories with tDCS and develop a NIRS-EEG probe for joint imaging of tDCS-evoked responses. We apply this software pipeline to target primarily the outer convexity of the brain territory (superficial divisions) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). We then present a computational method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition of NIRS and EEG time series into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and then perform a cross-correlation analysis on those IMFs from NIRS and EEG signals to model NVC at the lesional and contralesional hemispheres of an ischemic stroke patient. For the contralesional hemisphere, a strong positive correlation between IMFs of regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation and the log-transformed mean-power time-series of IMFs for EEG with a lag of about −15 s was found after a cumulative 550 s stimulation of anodal tDCS. It is postulated that system identification, for example using a continuous-time autoregressive model, of this coupling relation under tDCS perturbation may provide spatiotemporal discriminatory features for the identification of ischemia. Furthermore, portable NIRS-EEG joint imaging can be incorporated into brain computer interfaces to monitor tDCS-facilitated neurointervention as well as cortical reorganization. PMID:27378836

  7. The effect of the interval-between-sessions on prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cognitive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedoncker, Josefien; Brunoni, Andre R; Baeken, Chris; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there has been wide interest in the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on cognitive functioning. However, many methodological questions remain unanswered. One of them is whether the time interval between active and sham-controlled stimulation sessions, i.e. the interval between sessions (IBS), influences DLPFC tDCS effects on cognitive functioning. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed of experimental studies published in PubMed, Science Direct, and other databases from the first data available to February 2016. Single session sham-controlled within-subject studies reporting the effects of tDCS of the DLPFC on cognitive functioning in healthy controls and neuropsychiatric patients were included. Cognitive tasks were categorized in tasks assessing memory, attention, and executive functioning. Evaluation of 188 trials showed that anodal vs. sham tDCS significantly decreased response times and increased accuracy, and specifically for the executive functioning tasks, in a sample of healthy participants and neuropsychiatric patients (although a slightly different pattern of improvement was found in analyses for both samples separately). The effects of cathodal vs. sham tDCS (45 trials), on the other hand, were not significant. IBS ranged from less than 1 h to up to 1 week (i.e. cathodal tDCS) or 2 weeks (i.e. anodal tDCS). This IBS length had no influence on the estimated effect size when performing a meta-regression of IBS on reaction time and accuracy outcomes in all three cognitive categories, both for anodal and cathodal stimulation. Practical recommendations and limitations of the study are further discussed.

  8. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Juliette Albert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  9. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  10. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...... of such to evolutionary game theoretical frameworks inspired by the models of (Maynard Smith & Price 1973), (Taylor & Jonker 1978) and (Maynard Smith 1982). By providing an account of equilibrium selection these are thought to work as well-defined metaphors of learning processes upon which a revised theory of convention...

  11. Subcutaneous dissociative conscious sedation (sDCS an alternative method for airway regional blocks: a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Mihan J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicted difficult airway is a definite indication for awake intubation and spontaneous ventilation. Airway regional blocks which are commonly used to facilitate awake intubation are sometimes impossible or forbidden. On the other hand deep sedation could be life threatening in the case of compromised airway. The aim of this study is evaluating "Subcutaneous Dissociative Conscious Sedation" (sDCS as an alternative method to airway regional blocks for awake intubation. Methods In this prospective, non-randomized study, 30 patients with predicted difficult airway (laryngeal tumors, who were scheduled for direct laryngoscopic biopsy (DLB, underwent "Subcutaneous Dissociative Conscious Sedation" (sDCS exerted by intravenous fentanyl 3-4ug/kg and subcutaneous ketamine 0.6-0.7 mg/kg. The tongue and pharynx were anesthetized with lidocaine spray (4%. 10 minutes after a subcutaneous injection of ketamine direct laryngoscopy was performed. Extra doses of fentanyl 50-100 ug were administered if the patient wasn't cooperative enough for laryngoscopy. Patients were evaluated for hemodynamic stability (heart rate and blood pressure, oxygen saturation (Spo2, patient cooperation (obedient to open the mouth for laryngoscopy and the number of tries for laryngoscopy, patient comfort (remaining moveless, hallucination, nystagmus and salivation (need for aspiration before laryngoscopy. Results Direct laryngoscopy was performed successfully in all patients. One patient needed extra fentanyl and then laryngoscopy was performed successfully on the second try. All patients were cooperative enough during laryngoscopy. Hemodynamic changes more than 20% occurred in just one patient. Oxygen desaturation (spo2 Conclusions Subcutaneous Dissociative Conscious Sedation (sDCS as a new approach to airway is an acceptable and safe method for awake intubation and it can be suggested as a noninvasive substitute of low complication rate for regional airway

  12. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...

  13. National Convention on Family Life Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    This secretarial report gives brief comments on some discussion of topics at the National Convention on Family Life Education. Discussion included: 1) legalized prostitution as a means to reduce venereal disease; 2) family life education promotion by government and civic groups; 3) more authority for the Population Council; 4) more liberal abortion legislation than previously; 5) statutory notification of veneral disease by medical practitioners; 6) compensatory measures for working women with young children, and 7) the need for modernization of legislation pertaining to child health, adoption, paternity, the Persons Act, infant life preservation, drugs, age of consent, and the age of minority.

  14. Hydrogen storage: beyond conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebrook, Andrew F; Gan, Weijia; Grasemann, Martin; Moret, Séverine; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2013-10-09

    The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid.

  15. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  16. Inventory non-conventional gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Ter Heege, J.H.; Van Bergen, F.; Schavemaker, Y.A.; Van Gessel, S.F.; De Jong, M.L.; Nelskamp, S.; Van Thienen-Visser, K.; Guasti, E.; Van den Belt; Marges, V.C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    This report describes the results of the inventory for each non-conventional gas resource expected to be present in the Netherlands, which are: Tight Gas, Shallow gas, Coal bed Methane (CBM), Shale gas, Basin Centered Gas, Aquifer Gas and Stratigraphic traps.

  17. Canine-DCs using different serum-free methods as an approach to provide an animal-model for immunotherapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bund, Dagmar; Buhmann, Raymund; Gökmen, Füsun; Kremser, Andreas; Dreyssig, Julia; Kolb, Hans Jochem; Schmetzer, Helga Maria

    2010-01-01

    Animal-models are the basis of DC-based human immunotherapies. We describe the standardization of a canine-DC-generation protocol using different cytokines and characterize the quality and functional repertoire of the obtained canine-DCs. DCs were generated from healthy dog-PBMCs under serum-free and serum-containing conditions. DC-quality and -quantity was determined by FACS studying the expression-profiles of DC-/costimulatory- and maturation-antigens before/after culture with canine and human monoclonal-antibodies (cmabs/hmabs). Individual DCAgs-(DC-antigens)-expression-profiles were found before and after culture depending on the agents' mode-of-action. With at least one of three serum-free methods (Ca-Ionophore, Picibanil, Cytokines) sufficient DC-amounts were generated. So, canine-DCs can be regularly generated under serum-free conditions and hmabs additionally to cmabs qualify for staining/quantification of canine-cells/DCs. The canine-DCs were functional, shown by T-cell-activation, -proliferation and antigen-specific CTL-responses. In summary, successful, quantitative DC-generation is possible with serum-free methods. DC-based T-cell-vaccination-strategies evaluated for e.g. AML-patients can be tested in the dog and estimated in clinical studies for DC-vaccination-strategies.

  18. Applications of ERTS-1 Data Collection System (DCS) in the Arizona Regional Ecological Test Site (ARETS). [water management, streamflow rates, flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, H. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The DCS water-stage data from the USGS streamflow gaging station on the Verde River near Camp Verde furnished information sufficient for the accurate computation of daily mean streamflow rates during the first 2 months of operation. Daily mean flow rates computed from the DCS data agreed with those computed from the digital recorder data within + or - 5% during periods of stable or slowly changing flow and within + or - 10% during periods of rapidly changing high flow. The SRP was furnished near-real time DCS information on snow moisture content and streamflow rates for use in the management and operation of the multiple-use reservoir system. The SRP, by prudent water management and the use of near-real time hydrologic data furnished by microwave and ERTS DCS telemetry, was successful in anticipating the amount of flow into the Salt and Verde Rivers and in the subsequent release of water at rates that did not create flooding in metropolitan Phoenix. Only minor flooding occurred along the Gila River west of Phoenix. According to the Maricopa County Civil Defense agency, wage and salary losses of about $11,400,000 resulted from closing of roads across the Salt River in the winter and spring of 1972-73; however, the number and duration of the closing were minimized by use of DCS data.

  19. The Ineffective Role of Cathodal tDCS in Enhancing the Functional Motor Outcomes in Early Phase of Stroke Rehabilitation: An Experimental Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Fusco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive technique that could improve the rehabilitation outcomes in stroke, eliciting neuroplastic mechanisms. At the same time conflicting results have been reported in subacute phase of stroke, when neuroplasticity is crucial. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, and sham-controlled study was to determine whether a treatment with cathodal tDCS before the rehabilitative training might augment the final outcomes (upper limb function, hand dexterity and manual force, locomotion, and activities of daily living in respect of a traditional rehabilitation for a sample of patients affected by ischemic stroke in the subacute phase. An experimental group (cathodal tDCS plus rehabilitation and a control group (sham tDCS plus rehabilitation were assessed at the beginning of the protocol, after 10 days of stimulation, after 30 days from ending of stimulation, and at the end of inpatient rehabilitation. Both groups showed significant improvements for all the assessed domains during the rehabilitation, except for the manual force, while no significant differences were demonstrated between groups. These results seem to indicate that the cathodal tDCS, provided in an early phase of stroke, does not lead to a functional improvement. To depict a more comprehensive scenario, further studies are needed.

  20. 废纸回用过程中硅藻土对白水中DCS的影响研究%Effect of Diatomite on DCS in White Water during the Process of Waste Paper Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠琳; 张健; 孙广卫; 刘秉钺; 卜杨

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing of waste paper recycling degree in papermaking industry,more attention was paid on how to solve resin trouble and stickies rouble effectively in the process of second fiber utilization industry.Diatomite was selected to be used as resin adsorbent in waste paper system.The effect of diatomite on dissolved and colloidal substances(DCS)accumulation in white-water,pulp drainage and paper performance was investigated.The improvement of diatomite on resin trouble was analyzed as well.Results showed that the addition of diatomite as resin adsorbent can relieve DCS accumulation and resin trouble effectively in waste paper recycling process.Under the help of diatomite,the drainage time was reduced about 25.8 % and the effect of retention and drainage was improved greatly.As for the paper sheet property,the ash and brightness were increased 9.13 % and 5.30 % respectively.The break length and sizing degree were reduced 14.43% and 18% respectively,but it can still meet the requirement of customers.%利用硅藻土作树脂吸附剂加填到废纸回用体系中,探讨了硅藻土的加入对白水中肢体和溶解物质(DCS)累积、浆料滤水以及成纸性能的影响,分析硅藻土对树脂障碍的缓解改善情况.研究表明废纸回用体系中硅藻土的加入可以缓解白水中DCS的积累和胶黏物问题,有利于白水循环程度的提高.研究表明浆料滤水时间减少25.8%,助留助滤效果明显.成纸灰分和白度分别提高9.13%和5.30%,裂断长和施胶度分别降低14.43%和18%,物理强度和施胶度均可满足用户要求.

  1. Anodal tDCS to Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Facilitates Performance for Novice Jazz Improvisers but Hinders Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David S; Erickson, Brian; Kim, Youngmoo E; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy H; Kounios, John

    2016-01-01

    Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1) or executive, controlled (Type-2) processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC), a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing. We used anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over r-DLPFC with the reference electrode on the contralateral mastoid (1.5 mA for 15 min, except for sham) to modulate the quality of the pianists' performances while they improvised over chords with drum and bass accompaniment. Jazz experts rated each improvisation for creativity, esthetic appeal, and technical proficiency. There was no main effect of anodal or cathodal stimulation on ratings compared to sham; however, a significant interaction between anodal tDCS and expertise emerged such that stimulation benefitted musicians with less experience but hindered those with more experience. We interpret these results as evidence for a dual-process model of creativity in which novices and experts differentially engage Type-1 and Type-2 processes during creative production.

  2. Literature Review on the Effects of tDCS Coupled with Robotic Therapy in Post Stroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Simonetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today neurological diseases such as stroke represent one of the leading cause of long-term disability. Many research efforts have been focused on designing new and effective rehabilitation strategies. In particular, robotic treatment for upper limb stroke rehabilitation has received significant attention due to its ability to provide high-intensity and repetitive movement therapy with less effort than traditional methods. In addition, the development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has also demonstrated the capability of modulating brain excitability thus increasing motor performance. The combination of these two methods is expected to enhance functional and motor recovery after stroke; to this purpose, the current trends in this research field are presented and discussed through an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art. The heterogeneity and the restricted number of collected studies make difficult to perform a systematic review. However, the literature analysis of the published data seems to demonstrate that the association of tDCS with robotic training has the same clinical gain derived from robotic therapy alone. Future studies should investigate combined approach tailored to the individual patient's characteristics, critically evaluating the brain areas to be targeted and the induced functional changes.

  3. Literature Review on the Effects of tDCS Coupled with Robotic Therapy in Post Stroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Davide; Zollo, Loredana; Milighetti, Stefano; Miccinilli, Sandra; Bravi, Marco; Ranieri, Federico; Magrone, Giovanni; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Sterzi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Today neurological diseases such as stroke represent one of the leading cause of long-term disability. Many research efforts have been focused on designing new and effective rehabilitation strategies. In particular, robotic treatment for upper limb stroke rehabilitation has received significant attention due to its ability to provide high-intensity and repetitive movement therapy with less effort than traditional methods. In addition, the development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has also demonstrated the capability of modulating brain excitability thus increasing motor performance. The combination of these two methods is expected to enhance functional and motor recovery after stroke; to this purpose, the current trends in this research field are presented and discussed through an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art. The heterogeneity and the restricted number of collected studies make difficult to perform a systematic review. However, the literature analysis of the published data seems to demonstrate that the association of tDCS with robotic training has the same clinical gain derived from robotic therapy alone. Future studies should investigate combined approach tailored to the individual patient's characteristics, critically evaluating the brain areas to be targeted and the induced functional changes. PMID:28588467

  4. Enhancing the Activity of the DLPFC with tDCS Alters Risk Preference without Changing Interpersonal Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haoli; Wang, Siqi; Guo, Wenmin; Chen, Shu; Luo, Jun; Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal trust plays an essential role in economic interactions and social development. Extensive behavioral experiments have examined the nature of trust, particularly the question of whether trusting decisions are connected to risk preferences or risk attitudes. Various laboratory observations have been reported regarding the difference between trust and risk, and neural imaging studies have demonstrated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) is more activated when individuals decide to trust other human beings compared with individuals decide to invest in a non-social risk condition. Moreover, the rDLPFC has been found to exhibit an intimate relationship with risk preference in previous neuroscience studies. However, the causal relationship between the rDLPFC and trust has rarely been revealed. Whether modulating the excitability of the rDLPFC, which shares roles in both trust and risk decisions, alters the trust or risk preference of participants remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to provide evidence of a direct link between the neural and behavioral results through the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the rDLPFC. We found that activating the rDLPFC altered the risk preferences of our participants, whereas no such significant effect over interpersonal trust was observed. Our findings indicate that enhancing the excitability of the rDLPFC using tDCS leads to more conservative decision-makings in a risk game, and this effect is specific to non-social risk rather than social-related trust.

  5. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around...... knowledge to assumptions characterising agents as conditioned for playing certain strategies upon the population of which evolutionary processes operate. By providing accounts of equilibrium selection and stability properties of behaviours, the resulting frameworks have been brought to work as well...

  6. Conventional treatments for ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dougados, M; Dijkmans, B; Khan, M.(Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India); Maksymowych, W; van der Linden, S; Brandt, J

    2002-01-01

    Management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is challenged by the progressive nature of the disease. To date, no intervention is available that alters the underlying mechanism of inflammation in AS. Currently available conventional treatments are palliative at best, and often fail to control symptoms in the long term. Current drug treatment may perhaps induce a spurious state of "disease remission," which is merely a low level of disease activity. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first ...

  7. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia ANDRITOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference is important for the global awareness: “Human beings have the basic right for freedom, equality and conditions of a satisfying life, in an environment with a quality that allows him to live with dignity and well being. He has the solemn duty to protect and improve the environment for the present and future generations (…”. This article proclaims a right for the environment. A new law seems to have arisen with the apparition of this convention: the right of a healthy human being and of a healthy environment. This law is bipolar because it associates the human beings to nature. Human beings have the right to live in a healthy environment and this is why he has to protect nature. This does not represent a right of the human beings from a strict point of view. This is a right that has a universal value. The right to a healthy environment can not be put in the same category as the right to live or the right to be healthy, because this right contains the latter.

  8. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  9. Canine recombinant adenovirus vector induces an immunogenicity-related gene expression profile in skin-migrated CD11b⁺ -type DCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Contreras

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2 as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b(+ -type and CD103(+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b(+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103(+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b(+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b(+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103(+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness.

  10. tDCS Over the Motor Cortex Shows Differential Effects on Action and Object Words in Associative Word Learning in Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meret Branscheidt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by a continuous decline in cognitive functions. For example, the ability to learn languages decreases with age, while the neurobiological underpinnings for the decline in learning abilities are not known exactly. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, in combination with appropriate experimental paradigms, is a well-established technique to investigate the mechanisms of learning. Based on previous results in young adults, we tested the suitability of an associative learning paradigm for the acquisition of action- and object-related words in a cohort of older participants. We applied tDCS to the motor cortex (MC and hypothesized an involvement of the MC in learning action-related words. To test this, a cohort of 18 healthy, older participants (mean age 71 engaged in a computer-assisted associative word-learning paradigm, while tDCS stimulation (anodal, cathodal, sham was applied to the left MC. Participants’ task performance was quantified in a randomized, cross-over experimental design. Participants successfully learned novel words, correctly translating 39.22% of the words after 1 h of training under sham stimulation. Task performance correlated with scores for declarative verbal learning and logical reasoning. Overall, tDCS did not influence associative word learning, but a specific influence was observed of cathodal tDCS on learning of action-related words during the NMDA-dependent stimulation period. Successful learning of a novel lexicon with associative learning in older participants can only be achieved when the learning procedure is changed in several aspects, relative to young subjects. Learning success showed large inter-individual variance which was dependent on non-linguistic as well as linguistic cognitive functions. Intriguingly, cathodal tDCS influenced the acquisition of action-related words in the NMDA-dependent stimulation period. However, the effect was not specific for the associative

  11. Modulation of risk-taking in marijuana users by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Paulo S; Zaghi, Soroush; Villani, Ana Beatriz; Fecteau, Shirley; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

    2010-12-01

    Cognitive deficits that are reported in heavy marijuana users (attention, memory, affect perception, decision-making) appear to be completely reversible after a prolonged abstinence period of about 28 days. However, it remains unclear whether the reversibility of these cognitive deficits indicates that (1) chronic marijuana use is not associated with long-lasting changes in cortical networks or (2) that such changes occur but the brain adapts to and compensates for the drug-induced changes. Therefore, we examined whether chronic marijuana smokers would demonstrate a differential pattern of response in comparison to healthy volunteers on a decision-making paradigm (Risk Task) while undergoing sham or active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-five chronic marijuana users who were abstinent for at least 24h were randomly assigned to receive left anodal/right cathodal tDCS of DLPFC (n=8), right anodal/left cathodal tDCS of DLPFC (n=9), or sham stimulation (n=8); results on Risk Task during sham/active tDCS were compared to healthy volunteers from a previously published dataset. Chronic marijuana users demonstrated more conservative (i.e. less risky) decision-making during sham stimulation. While right anodal stimulation of the DLPFC enhanced conservative decision-making in healthy volunteers, both right anodal and left anodal DLPFC stimulation increased the propensity for risk-taking in marijuana users. These findings reveal alterations in the decision-making neural networks among chronic marijuana users. Finally, we also assessed the effects of tDCS on marijuana craving and observed that right anodal/left cathodal tDCS of DLPFC is significantly associated with a diminished craving for marijuana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Colonic surgery with accelerated rehabilitation or conventional care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Linda; Thorbøl, Jens Erik; Løssl, Kristine;

    2004-01-01

    after colonic resection with conventional care compared with fast-track multimodal rehabilitation. METHODS: One hundred thirty consecutive patients receiving conventional care (group 1) in one hospital were compared with 130 consecutive patients receiving multimodal, fast-track rehabilitation (group 2...... ( P complication rate (35 patients) was lower in group 2 ( P...... complications (5 patients; P 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Time to first defecation, hospital stay, and morbidity may be reduced after colonic resection with fast...

  13. Impact of replacement of conventional Recloser with PulseCloser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgert Metko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional recloser stresses the circuit with current fault every time they reclose into a fault. After clearing a fault, a conventional recloser simply recloses the interrupters to continuously test the presence of the fault. If the fault is still there, the interrupters are tripped again. Then, after a time delay, the interrupters are reclosed. During reclosing operation of Automatic Recloser, including the faster recloser one, powerful transient processes occurs and significant amount of energy is feeding the fault, resulting in system-damaging and voltage sags. Replacing conventional recloser with PulseCloser one minimizes these effects and creates the possibility to use multiple reclosing even when traditional autoreclosing can not be allowed.PulseCloser Technology drastically reduces overcurrent stress on the system. Once the PulseCloser interrupts a fault, it sends the impulses to intelligently tests for current fault before reclosing. The relative let-through energy of a pulseclosing operation is typically less than 2% of a conventional reclosing operation. Pulseclosing is superior to conventional reclosing. It greatly reduces stress on system components as well as voltage sags experienced by customers’ upstream fault.This paper analyzes transient processes during simulation of operation of traditional recloser and PulseCloser type. Simulations are performed using ATP software. The simulations show the remarkable difference in current versus time during fault testing in the transmission line equipped with conventional recloser and PulseCloser. The analysis justifies the replacement of Conventional Recloser with PulseCloser one.

  14. 造纸厂DCS系统的网络安全分析%Security Analysis of DCS Network in Pulp & Paper Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海君; 刘玉娟; 崔健

    2012-01-01

    The threat of network in mill automation system is becoming more and more seriously,so more and more investments are spent to support network security system improvement. This paper analysed the characteristics of DCS network in pulp & paper mills,the related solutions for network security improvement were suggested.%针对造纸厂典型集散控制系统(DCS)网络的特点,从提高网络安全性的角度提出应对方案.

  15. Clinical Observation of Conventional Added Vitamin B Complex to Reduce the Incidence of Bed-ridden Pressure Sores in Elderly Patients%常规补充复合B族维生素减少长期卧床老年患者压疮发生率的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察和分析常规补充复合B族维生素后是否能够减少长期卧床老年病人压疮的发生率.方法:选择 60例长期卧床住院病人随机分为两组,原发病治疗同时给予常规补充复合B族维生素组( 治疗组,n=30,复合维生素B片2片 3次/d) 原发病治疗组( 对照组,n=30 ),两组治疗疗程均为6个月,观察两组疗效.结果:治疗组压疮发生率3.33%,对照组压疮发生率26.67%; 两组比较,治疗组优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:给予长期卧床老年病人常规补充复合B族维生素可减少压疮疾病的发生率,用药经济合理,安全无毒副作用,对于提高长期卧床老年病人生活质量和延长老人寿命有着积极意义.%Objective: To observe and analyze whether conventional added vitamin B complex can reduce the incidence of bed-ridden elderly patients with pressure sores. Method: 60 bed-ridden elderly patients were randomly divided into two groups, Primary diseases were given vitamin B complex group( treatment group ,n = 30 ),vitamin B complex tablets,2 tablets of three times per day;Primary diseases treatment group( control group, n = 30 ),two groups treatment duration are all 6 months. Two groups were observed efficacy. Result: The incidence of pressure sores was 3. 33% in treatment group, and 26. 67% in control group;Two groups of comparisons, the treatment group than in control group, the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: Give bedridden elderly patients routine supplementation of vitamin-B complex can reduce the incidence of pressure sores , drug is economic and reasonable, safe and non-toxic side effects, improving the bed-ridden elderly patients quality of life and extend elderly life.

  16. Perceptual decisions regarding object manipulation are selectively impaired in apraxia or when tDCS is applied over the left IPL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carys; Edwards, Martin G; Taylor, Lawrence J; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated whether apraxia can be understood as due to impaired motor representations or motor imagery necessary for appropriate object-use, imitation, and pantomime. The causal role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), which is heavily implicated in apraxia, is also evaluated. These processes are appraised in light of the proposed ventro-dorsal sub-stream of the classic two visual pathway model, where perceptual information from the ventral stream and the dorsal action stream are integrated and essential for object manipulation. Using a task assessing object-use perception, stroke patients with apraxia demonstrated a selective deficit during perceptual decisions reliant on the integration of visible and known object properties to select the appropriate grasp for object-use. This deficit increased with apraxia severity. A dissociation was evident in these patients showing intact non-motoric perceptual decisions regarding the functional semantic relationship between two objects in the absence of the actor (e.g. how a hammer hits a nail). Converging evidence was found using a modified version of the same task in a neuromodulation study that directly targeted the left IPL in healthy participants using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Application of inhibitory stimulation over the left IPL reduced performance during perceptual decisions regarding object manipulation whilst performance was unaffected during functional semantic decisions. Excitatory stimulation of the left IPL did not affect performance in either task. Combined, these results suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe is critical for motor imagery, and that apraxia may be caused by an inability to use internal motor representations of object manipulation. These results are discussed in terms of motoric and non-motoric perceptual processes and the proposal of an additional ventro-dorsal sub-stream within the dorsal and ventral visual pathways model. Copyright © 2016

  17. High-frequency TRNS reduces BOLD activity during visuomotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Saiote

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS consist in the application of electrical current of small intensity through the scalp, able to modulate perceptual and motor learning, probably by changing brain excitability. We investigated the effects of these transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in the early and later stages of visuomotor learning, as well as associated brain activity changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We applied anodal and cathodal tDCS, low-frequency and high-frequency tRNS (lf-tRNS, 0.1-100 Hz; hf-tRNS 101-640 Hz, respectively and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1 during the first 10 minutes of a visuomotor learning paradigm and measured performance changes for 20 minutes after stimulation ceased. Functional imaging scans were acquired throughout the whole experiment. Cathodal tDCS and hf-tRNS showed a tendency to improve and lf-tRNS to hinder early learning during stimulation, an effect that remained for 20 minutes after cessation of stimulation in the late learning phase. Motor learning-related activity decreased in several regions as reported previously, however, there was no significant modulation of brain activity by tDCS. In opposition to this, hf-tRNS was associated with reduced motor task-related-activity bilaterally in the frontal cortex and precuneous, probably due to interaction with ongoing neuronal oscillations. This result highlights the potential of lf-tRNS and hf-tRNS to differentially modulate visuomotor learning and advances our knowledge on neuroplasticity induction approaches combined with functional imaging methods.

  18. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  19. A finite element analysis of the effect of electrode area and inter-electrode distance on the spatial distribution of the current density in tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Paula; Hallett, Mark; Miranda, Pedro Cavaleiro

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effect of electrode area and inter-electrode distance on the spatial distribution of the current density in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). For this purpose, we used the finite element method to compute the distribution of the current density in a four-layered spherical head model using various electrode montages, corresponding to a range of electrode sizes and inter-electrode distances. We found that smaller electrodes required slightly less current to achieve a constant value of the current density at a reference point on the brain surface located directly under the electrode center. Under these conditions, smaller electrodes also produced a more focal current density distribution in the brain, i.e. the magnitude of the current density fell more rapidly with distance from the reference point. The combination of two electrodes with different areas produced an asymmetric current distribution that could lead to more effective and localized neural modulation under the smaller electrode than under the larger one. Focality improved rapidly with decreasing electrode size when the larger electrode sizes were considered but the improvement was less marked for the smaller electrode sizes. Also, focality was not affected significantly by inter-electrode distance unless two large electrodes were placed close together. Increasing the inter-electrode distance resulted in decreased shunting of the current through the scalp and the cerebrospinal fluid, and decreasing electrode area resulted in increased current density on the scalp under the edges of the electrode. Our calculations suggest that when working with conventional electrodes (25-35 cm(2)), one of the electrodes should be placed just 'behind' the target relative to the other electrode, for maximum current density on the target. Also electrodes with areas in the range 3.5-12 cm(2) may provide a better compromise between focality and current density in the scalp than the traditional

  20. The combined effects of neurostimulation and priming on creative thinking. A preliminary tDCS study on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Noemi; Simonelli, Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham) × 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent) design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants' creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). After 20 min of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming), whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming). Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants' physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a finding which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. Differences in individual levels of creativity as assessed by the Product Improvement test were not influential. The involvement of DLPFC in creativity has

  1. Implementation of the Aarhus convention - A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Malis Sazdovska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legislation on global and regional level in the field of environmental protection is characterized by the adoption of international conventions and agreements that attempt to regulate this matter legally. As an extremely important area, which exceeds the boundaries of nation-state and as a global environmental problem, the issues of environmental protection are a major concern to international organizations. It is directly linked to reducing the jurisdiction of the States and transfer of competences to international organizations and institutions in order to solve the problems in a global experience. In order to overcome the problems regarding the implementation of international documents, the creation of certain policies by international organizations and institutions is required to promote the idea of environmental protection as a basic mo$ o of the global world. Taking into account the recommendations of Brundtland Commission, humanity has a moral obligation to preserve natural resources for future generations. Main objective of this article is the presentation of research on the implementation of the Aarhus Convention and the proposal of measures for the creation of ideas and policies on improving access to information in the field. The research is done with the students from the faculty of Security which accessed the information in environmental matters.

  2. The Behavioral Effects of tDCS on Visual Search Performance Are Not Influenced by the Location of the Reference Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ellison

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of reference electrode placement (ipsilateral v contralateral frontal pole on conjunction visual search task performance when the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS cathode is placed over right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC and over right frontal eye fields (rFEF, both of which have been shown to be causally involved in the processing of this task using TMS. This resulted in four experimental manipulations in which sham tDCS was applied in week one followed by active tDCS the following week. Another group received sham stimulation in both sessions to investigate practice effects over 1 week in this task. Results show that there is no difference between effects seen when the anode is placed ipsi or contralaterally. Cathodal stimulation of rPPC increased search times straight after stimulation similarly for ipsi and contralateral references. This finding does not extend to rFEF stimulation. However, for both sites and both montages, practice effects as seen in the sham/sham condition were negated. This can be taken as evidence that for this task, reference placement on either frontal pole is not important, but also that care needs to be taken when contextualizing tDCS “effects” that may not be immediately apparent particularly in between-participant designs.

  3. Cortico-cortical connectivity between right parietal and bilateral primary motor cortices during imagined and observed actions: A combined TMS/tDCS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eFeurra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous TMS studies showed functional connections between the parietal cortex (PC and the primary motor cortex (M1 during tasks of different reaching-to-grasp movements. Here, we tested whether the same network is involved in cognitive processes such as imagined or observed actions. Single pulse TMS of the right and left M1 during rest and during a motor imagery and an action observation task (i.e. an index-thumb pinch grip in both cases was used to measure corticospinal excitability changes before and after conditioning of the right PC by 10 minutes of cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Corticospinal excitability was indexed by the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the contralateral FDI (target and ADM (control muscles. Results showed selective ipsilateral effects on the M1 excitability, exclusively for motor imagery processes: anodal tDCS enhanced the MEPs’ size from the FDI muscle, whereas cathodal tDCS decreased it. Only cathodal tDCS impacted corticospinal facilitation induced by action observation. Sham stimulation was always uneffective. These results suggest that motor imagery, differently from action observation, is sustained by a strictly ipsilateral parieto-motor cortex circuits. Results might have implication for neuromodulatory rehabilitative purposes.

  4. Precondition of right frontal region with anodal tDCS can restore the fear memory impairment induced by ACPA in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteghi, Fariborz; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Fear memory and learning cause behavioural patterns such as fight or flight responses, which increase survival probability, but unfit processing of fear memory and learning can lead to maladaptive behaviours and maladies such as phobias, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorders. The growing prevalence of these maladies shows the need to quest novel methods for their treatment. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the right frontal region as a precondition neuromodulator and arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA), a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, as a fear memory impairing agent to assess their effects on contextual and auditory fear conditioning (reliable model for fear studies). Right frontal anodal tDCS (0.2 mA for. 20 minutes) 24 hours before the train did not alter contextual and auditory learning and memory in short-term (24 hrs after the training phase). Moreover, intraperitoneal pre-train injection of ACPA (0.1 mg/kg) alone, decreased both contextual and auditory learning and memory in short- but not long-term. Right frontal anodal tDCS improved short-term contextual fear memory in subthreshold doses of ACPA. On the other hand, right frontal anodal tDCS in long-term improved (lower doses of ACPA) and restored (higher doses of ACPA) both fear memories. These findings showed that, aforementioned approach could cause durable learning and memory improvements. Also this combined modality could be useful for fear extinction training and maladies which inflict amnesia. PMID:28337114

  5. HMI conventions for process control graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    Process operators supervise and control complex processes. To enable the operator to do an adequate job, instrumentation and process control engineers need to address several related topics, such as console design, information design, navigation, and alarm management. In process control upgrade projects, usually a 1:1 conversion of existing graphics is proposed. This paper suggests another approach, efficiently leading to a reduced number of new powerful process graphics, supported by a permanent process overview displays. In addition a road map for structuring content (process information) and conventions for the presentation of objects, symbols, and so on, has been developed. The impact of the human factors engineering approach on process control upgrade projects is illustrated by several cases.

  6. Conventionalism and integrable Weyl geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheu, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Since the appearance of Einstein's general relativity, gravitation has been associated to the space-time curvature. This theory introduced a geometrodynamic language which became a convenient tool to predict matter behaviour. However, the properties of space-time itself cannot be measurable by experiments. Taking Poincaré idea that the geometry of space-time is merely a convention, we show that the general theory of relativity can be completely reformulated in a more general setting, a generalization of Riemannian geometry, namely, the Weyl integrable geometry. The choice of this new mathematical language implies, among other things, that the path of particles and light rays should now correspond to Weylian geodesies. Such modification in the dynamic of bodies brings a new perception of physical phenomena that we will explore.

  7. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  8. Adaptive immune response in JAM-C-deficient mice: normal initiation but reduced IgG memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Claudia; Lee, Boris P L; Palmer, Gaby; Gabay, Cem; Adams, Ralf; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Imhof, Beat A

    2009-04-15

    We have recently shown that junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C-deficient mice have leukocytic pulmonary infiltrates, disturbed neutrophil homeostasis, and increased postnatal mortality. This phenotype was partially rescued when mice were housed in ventilated isolators, suggesting an inability to cope with opportunistic infections. In the present study, we further examined the adaptive immune responses in JAM-C(-/-) mice. We found that murine conventional dendritic cells express in addition to Mac-1 and CD11c also JAM-B as ligand for JAM-C. By in vitro adhesion assay, we show that murine DCs can interact with recombinant JAM-C via Mac-1. However, this interaction does not seem to be necessary for dendritic cell migration and function in vivo, even though JAM-C is highly expressed by lymphatic sinuses of lymph nodes. Nevertheless, upon immunization and boosting with a protein Ag, JAM-C-deficient mice showed decreased persistence of specific circulating Abs although the initial response was normal. Such a phenotype has also been observed in a model of Ag-induced arthritis, showing that specific IgG2a Ab titers are reduced in the serum of JAM-C(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that JAM-C deficiency affects the adaptive humoral immune response against pathogens, in addition to the innate immune system.

  9. Spared Primary Motor Cortex and the Presence of MEP in Cerebral Palsy Dictate the Responsiveness to tDCS During Gait Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanda Collange Grecco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current priority of investigations involving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and neurorehabilitation is to identify biomarkers associated with the positive results of the interventions such that respondent and non-respondent patients can be identified in the early phases of treatment. The aims were to determine whether; 1 present motor evoked potential (MEP and, 2 injuries involving the primary motor cortex, are associated with tDCS-enhancement in functional outcome following gait training in children with cerebral palsy (CP. We reviewed the data from our parallel, randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind studies. Fifty-six children with spastic CP received gait training (either treadmill training or virtual reality training and tDCS (active or sham. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify clinical, neurophysiologic and neuroanatomic predictors associated with the responsiveness to treatment with tDCS. MEP presence during the initial evaluation and the subcortical injury were associated with positive effects in the functional results. The logistic regression revealed that present MEP was a significant predictor for the six-minute walk test (p=0.003 and gait speed (p=0.028, whereas the subcortical injury was a significant predictor of gait kinematics (p=0.013 and gross motor function (p = 0.021. In this preliminary study involving children with CP, two important prediction factors of good responses to anodal tDCS combined with gait training were identified. Apparently, MEP (integrity of the corticospinal tract and subcortical location of the brain injury exerted different influences on aspects related to gait, such as velocity and kinematics.

  10. Estradiol Enhances CD4+ T-Cell Anti-Viral Immunity by Priming Vaginal DCs to Induce Th17 Responses via an IL-1-Dependent Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anipindi, Varun C; Bagri, Puja; Roth, Kristy; Dizzell, Sara E; Nguyen, Philip V; Shaler, Christopher R; Chu, Derek K; Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Liang, Hong; Swift, Stephanie; Nazli, Aisha; Kafka, Jessica K; Bramson, Jonathan; Xing, Zhou; Jordana, Manel; Wan, Yonghong; Snider, Denis P; Stampfli, Martin R; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-05-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have shown that estradiol (E2) confers protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism. Better protection in E2-treated mice, immunized against genital HSV-2, coincided with earlier recruitment and higher proportions of Th1 and Th17 effector cells in the vagina post-challenge, compared to placebo-treated controls. Vaginal APCs isolated from E2-treated mice induced 10-fold higher Th17 and Th1 responses, compared to APCs from progesterone-treated, placebo-treated, and estradiol-receptor knockout mice in APC-T cell co-cultures. CD11c+ DCs in the vagina were the predominant APC population responsible for priming these Th17 responses, and a potent source of IL-6 and IL-1β, important factors for Th17 differentiation. Th17 responses were abrogated in APC-T cell co-cultures containing IL-1β KO, but not IL-6 KO vaginal DCs, showing that IL-1β is a critical factor for Th17 induction in the genital tract. E2 treatment in vivo directly induced high expression of IL-1β in vaginal DCs, and addition of IL-1β restored Th17 induction by IL-1β KO APCs in co-cultures. Finally, we examined the role of IL-17 in anti-HSV-2 memory T cell responses. IL-17 KO mice were more susceptible to intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, compared to WT controls, and vaginal DCs from these mice were defective at priming efficient Th1 responses in vitro, indicating that IL-17 is important for the generation of efficient anti-viral memory responses. We conclude that the genital mucosa has a unique microenvironment whereby E2 enhances CD4+ T cell anti-viral immunity by priming vaginal DCs to induce Th17 responses through an IL-1-dependent pathway.

  11. Estradiol Enhances CD4+ T-Cell Anti-Viral Immunity by Priming Vaginal DCs to Induce Th17 Responses via an IL-1-Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anipindi, Varun C.; Dizzell, Sara E.; Nguyen, Philip V.; Shaler, Christopher R.; Chu, Derek K.; Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Liang, Hong; Swift, Stephanie; Nazli, Aisha; Kafka, Jessica K.; Bramson, Jonathan; Xing, Zhou; Jordana, Manel; Wan, Yonghong; Snider, Denis P.; Stampfli, Martin R.; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have shown that estradiol (E2) confers protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism. Better protection in E2-treated mice, immunized against genital HSV-2, coincided with earlier recruitment and higher proportions of Th1 and Th17 effector cells in the vagina post-challenge, compared to placebo-treated controls. Vaginal APCs isolated from E2-treated mice induced 10-fold higher Th17 and Th1 responses, compared to APCs from progesterone-treated, placebo-treated, and estradiol-receptor knockout mice in APC-T cell co-cultures. CD11c+ DCs in the vagina were the predominant APC population responsible for priming these Th17 responses, and a potent source of IL-6 and IL-1β, important factors for Th17 differentiation. Th17 responses were abrogated in APC-T cell co-cultures containing IL-1β KO, but not IL-6 KO vaginal DCs, showing that IL-1β is a critical factor for Th17 induction in the genital tract. E2 treatment in vivo directly induced high expression of IL-1β in vaginal DCs, and addition of IL-1β restored Th17 induction by IL-1β KO APCs in co-cultures. Finally, we examined the role of IL-17 in anti-HSV-2 memory T cell responses. IL-17 KO mice were more susceptible to intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, compared to WT controls, and vaginal DCs from these mice were defective at priming efficient Th1 responses in vitro, indicating that IL-17 is important for the generation of efficient anti-viral memory responses. We conclude that the genital mucosa has a unique microenvironment whereby E2 enhances CD4+ T cell anti-viral immunity by priming vaginal DCs to induce Th17 responses through an IL-1-dependent pathway. PMID:27148737

  12. Coordinate expression of NADPH-dependent flavin reductase, Fre-1, and Hint-related 7meGMP-directed hydrolase, DCS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dorota A; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Thacker, Colin; Brenner, Charles; Vincent, Steven R

    2003-10-03

    A novel human cytosolic flavin reductase, Nr1, was recently described that contains FMN, FAD, and NADPH cofactors. Though the targets of the related NADPH-dependent flavoprotein reductases, cytochrome P450 reductase, methionine synthase reductase, and nitric oxide synthase, are known, the cellular function of Nr1 is not clear. To explore expression and regulation of Nr1, we cloned fre-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of Nr1, and discovered that it is transcribed as a bicistronic pre-mRNA together with dcs-1, the ortholog of the recently described scavenger mRNA decapping enzyme. We used the novel substrate, 7meGpppBODIPY, to demonstrate that DCS-1 has low micromolar specificity for guanine ribonucleotides with the 7me modification, whereas trimethylated G substrates are poor competitors. Contrary to earlier classification, DCS-1 is not a pyrophosphatase but a distant member of the Hint branch of the histidine triad superfamily of nucleotide hydrolases and transferases. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that DCS-1 homologs may function in the metabolism of capped oligonucleotides generated following exosome-dependent degradation of short-lived mRNA transcripts. We find that fre-1 and dcs-1 are coordinately expressed through worm development, are induced by heat shock, and have a nearly identical expression profile in human tissues. Furthermore, immunocytochemical analysis of the endogenous proteins in COS cells indicates that both are present in the nucleus and concentrated in a distinct perinuclear structure. Though no connection between these enzymes had been anticipated, our data and data from global expression and protein association studies suggest that the two enzymes jointly participate in responses to DNA damage, heat shock, and other stresses.

  13. Estradiol Enhances CD4+ T-Cell Anti-Viral Immunity by Priming Vaginal DCs to Induce Th17 Responses via an IL-1-Dependent Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun C Anipindi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental studies have shown that estradiol (E2 confers protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism. Better protection in E2-treated mice, immunized against genital HSV-2, coincided with earlier recruitment and higher proportions of Th1 and Th17 effector cells in the vagina post-challenge, compared to placebo-treated controls. Vaginal APCs isolated from E2-treated mice induced 10-fold higher Th17 and Th1 responses, compared to APCs from progesterone-treated, placebo-treated, and estradiol-receptor knockout mice in APC-T cell co-cultures. CD11c+ DCs in the vagina were the predominant APC population responsible for priming these Th17 responses, and a potent source of IL-6 and IL-1β, important factors for Th17 differentiation. Th17 responses were abrogated in APC-T cell co-cultures containing IL-1β KO, but not IL-6 KO vaginal DCs, showing that IL-1β is a critical factor for Th17 induction in the genital tract. E2 treatment in vivo directly induced high expression of IL-1β in vaginal DCs, and addition of IL-1β restored Th17 induction by IL-1β KO APCs in co-cultures. Finally, we examined the role of IL-17 in anti-HSV-2 memory T cell responses. IL-17 KO mice were more susceptible to intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, compared to WT controls, and vaginal DCs from these mice were defective at priming efficient Th1 responses in vitro, indicating that IL-17 is important for the generation of efficient anti-viral memory responses. We conclude that the genital mucosa has a unique microenvironment whereby E2 enhances CD4+ T cell anti-viral immunity by priming vaginal DCs to induce Th17 responses through an IL-1-dependent pathway.

  14. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  15. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  16. Clinical effectiveness of conventional influenza vaccination in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A J; Hak, E; Stalman, W A B; van Essen, G A; Hoes, A W; Verheij, Th J M

    2002-01-01

    Influenza immunization rates among young asthmatics remain unsatisfactory due to persistent concern about the impact of influenza and the benefits of the vaccine. We assessed the effectiveness of the conventional inactivated trivalent sub-unit influenza vaccine in reducing acute respiratory disease

  17. Civilian preparedness and counter-terrorism: conventional weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, Edward B

    2006-06-01

    Most terrorist attacks involve conventional weapons. These explosive devices produce injury patterns that are sometimes predict-able. The chaos produced from these weapons can be greatly reduced with prior planning, response practice, and realization by the entire medical community of the need to participate in preparation for these devastating events.

  18. Conventional therapy for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carsten Büning; Herbert Lochs

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder of unknown cause. Outstanding progress regarding the pathophysiology of CD has led to the development of innovative therapeutic concepts. Numerous controlled trials have been performed in CD over the last years. However, many drugs have not been approved by regulatory authorities due to lack of efficacy or severe side effects. Therefore, well-known drugs, including 5-ASA, systemic or topical corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, are still the mainstay of CD therapy. Importantly, biologicals such as infliximab have shown to be efficacious in problematic settings such as fistulizing or steroid-dependent CD. This review is intended to give practical guidelines to clinicians for the conventional treatment of CD. We concentrated on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses, when available, that provide the highest degree of evidence. We provide evidence-based treatment algorithms whenever possible. However, many clinical situations have not been answered by controlled clinical trials and it is important to fill these gaps through expert opinions. We hope that this review offers a useful tool for clinicians in the challenging treatment of CD.

  19. Comparison of Surface Water Quality and Yields from Organically and Conventionally Produced Sweet Corn Plots with Conservation and Conventional Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Joshua; Osmond, D L; Line, D E; Hoyt, G D; Grossman, J M; Larsen, E M

    2015-11-01

    Organic agricultural systems are often assumed to be more sustainable than conventional farming, yet there has been little work comparing surface water quality from organic and conventional production, especially under the same cropping sequence. Our objective was to compare nutrient and sediment losses, as well as sweet corn ( L. var. ) yield, from organic and conventional production with conventional and conservation tillage. The experiment was located in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four treatments, replicated four times, had been in place for over 18 yr and consisted of conventional tillage (chisel plow and disk) with conventional production (CT/Conven), conservation no-till with conventional production (NT/Conven), conventional tillage with organic production (CT/Org), and conservation no-till with organic production (NT/Org). Water quality (surface flow volume; nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations) and sweet corn yield data were collected in 2011 and 2012. Sediment and sediment-attached nutrient losses were influenced by tillage and cropping system in 2011, due to higher rainfall, and tillage in 2012. Soluble nutrients were affected by the nutrient source and rate, which are a function of the cropping system. Sweet corn marketable yields were greater in conventional systems due to high weed competition and reduced total nitrogen availability in organic treatments. When comparing treatment efficiency (yield kg ha /nutrient loss kg ha ), the NT/Conven treatment had the greatest sweet corn yield per unit of nutrient and sediment loss. Other treatment ratios were similar to each other; thus, it appears the most sustainably productive treatment was NT/Conven.

  20. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A; Wold, Agnes E; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violet low) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells.

  1. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  2. Relationships between IL-17(+) subsets, Tregs and pDCs that distinguish among SIV infected elite controllers, low, medium and high viral load rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Mayne, Ann E; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive studies of the frequencies and absolute numbers of the various cell lineages that synthesize IL-17 in the blood and corresponding gastrointestinal (GI) tissues, their correlation with CD4(+) Tregs, CD8(+) Tregs, total and IFN-α synthesizing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) relative to plasma viral load in SIV infection has been lacking. The unique availability of SIV infected rhesus macaques (RM) classified as Elite Controllers (EC), and those with Low, Intermediate and High Viral Loads (HVL) provided a unique opportunity to address this issue. Results of these studies showed that EC demonstrated a remarkable ability to reverse changes that are induced acutely by SIV in the various cell lineages. Highlights of the differences between EC and HVL RM within Gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT) was the maintenance and/or increases in the levels of IL-17 synthesizing CD4, CD8, and NK cells and pDCs associated with slight decreases in the levels of CD4(+) Tregs and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in EC as compared with decreases in the levels of IL-17 synthesizing CD4, CD8 and NK cells associated with increases in pDCs and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in HVL monkeys. A previously underappreciated role for CD8(+) Tregs was also noted with a moderate increase in ECs but further increases of CD8(+) Tregs with increasing VL in viremic monkeys. Positive correlations between plasma VL and decreases in the levels of Th17, Tc17, NK-17, CD4(+) Tregs and increases in the levels of CD8(+) Tregs, total and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs were also noted. This study also identified 2 additional IL-17(+) subsets in GIT as CD3(-/)CD8(+)/NKG2a(-) and CD3(+)/CD8(+)/NKG2a(+) subsets. Studies also suggest a limited role for IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in chronic immune activation despite persistent up-regulation of ISGs. Finally, elevated persistent innate immune responses appear associated with poor prognosis. These findings provide an initial foundation for markers important to follow for vaccine

  3. Relationships between IL-17(+ subsets, Tregs and pDCs that distinguish among SIV infected elite controllers, low, medium and high viral load rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Khowawisetsut

    Full Text Available Comprehensive studies of the frequencies and absolute numbers of the various cell lineages that synthesize IL-17 in the blood and corresponding gastrointestinal (GI tissues, their correlation with CD4(+ Tregs, CD8(+ Tregs, total and IFN-α synthesizing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC relative to plasma viral load in SIV infection has been lacking. The unique availability of SIV infected rhesus macaques (RM classified as Elite Controllers (EC, and those with Low, Intermediate and High Viral Loads (HVL provided a unique opportunity to address this issue. Results of these studies showed that EC demonstrated a remarkable ability to reverse changes that are induced acutely by SIV in the various cell lineages. Highlights of the differences between EC and HVL RM within Gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT was the maintenance and/or increases in the levels of IL-17 synthesizing CD4, CD8, and NK cells and pDCs associated with slight decreases in the levels of CD4(+ Tregs and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in EC as compared with decreases in the levels of IL-17 synthesizing CD4, CD8 and NK cells associated with increases in pDCs and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in HVL monkeys. A previously underappreciated role for CD8(+ Tregs was also noted with a moderate increase in ECs but further increases of CD8(+ Tregs with increasing VL in viremic monkeys. Positive correlations between plasma VL and decreases in the levels of Th17, Tc17, NK-17, CD4(+ Tregs and increases in the levels of CD8(+ Tregs, total and IFN-α synthesizing pDCs were also noted. This study also identified 2 additional IL-17(+ subsets in GIT as CD3(-/CD8(+/NKG2a(- and CD3(+/CD8(+/NKG2a(+ subsets. Studies also suggest a limited role for IFN-α synthesizing pDCs in chronic immune activation despite persistent up-regulation of ISGs. Finally, elevated persistent innate immune responses appear associated with poor prognosis. These findings provide an initial foundation for markers important to follow for vaccine

  4. Exopolysaccharides from Cyanobacterium aponinum from the Blue Lagoon in Iceland increase IL-10 secretion by human dendritic cells and their ability to reduce the IL-17+RORγt+/IL-10+FoxP3+ ratio in CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Asa B; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Brynjolfsdottir, Asa; Paulsen, Berit S; Olafsdottir, Elin S; Freysdottir, Jona

    2015-02-01

    Regular bathing in the Blue Lagoon in Iceland has beneficial effects on psoriasis. Cyanobacterium aponinum is a dominating member of the Blue Lagoon's microbial ecosystem. The aim of the study was to determine whether exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted by C. aponinum (EPS-Ca) had immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were matured in the absence or presence of EPS-Ca and the effects were determined by measuring the secretion of cytokines by ELISA and the expression of surface molecules by flow cytometry. DCs matured with EPS-Ca at 100 μg/ml secreted higher levels of IL-10 than untreated DCs. Subsequently, DCs matured in the presence or absence of EPS-Ca were co-cultured with allogeneic CD4(+) T cells and their effects on T cell activation analysed by measuring expression of intracellular and surface molecules and cytokine secretion. Supernatant from allogeneic T cells co-cultured with EPS-Ca-exposed DCs had raised levels of IL-10 compared with control. A reduced frequency of IL-17(+)RORγt(+) T cells was observed when co-cultured with EPS-Ca-exposed DCs and a tendency towards increased frequency of FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) T cells, resulting in a lower IL-17(+)RORγt(+)/FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) ratio. The study shows that EPSs secreted by C. aponinum stimulate DCs to produce vast amounts of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. These DCs induce differentiation of allogeneic CD4(+) T cells with an increased Treg but decreased Th17 phenotype. These data suggest that EPSs from C. aponinum may play a role in the beneficial clinical effect on psoriasis following bathing in the Blue Lagoon.

  5. Investigation of the relationships between DCS cloud properties, lifecycle, and precipitation with meteorological regimes and aerosol sources at the ARM SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiquan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-10-26

    In this proposed research, we will investigate how different meteorological regimes and aerosol sources affect DCS properties, diurnal and life cycles, and precipitation using multiple observational platforms (surface, satellite, and aircraft) and NARR reanalysis at the ARM SGP site. The Feng et al. (2011, 2012) DCS results will serve as a starting point for this proposed research, and help us to address some fundamental issues of DCSs, such as convective initiation, rain rate, areal extent (including stratiform and convective regions), and longevity. Convective properties will be stratified by meteorological regime (synoptic/mesoscale patterns) identified by reanalysis. Aerosol information obtained from the ARM SGP site will also be stratified by meteorological regimes to understand their effects on convection. Finally, the aircraft in-situ measurements and various radar observations and retrievals during the MC3E campaign will provide a “cloud-truth” dataset and are an invaluable data source for verifying the findings and investigating the proposed hypotheses in Objective 1.

  6. Exploring the impact of laterality and polarity of tDCS on therapy for post-stroke anomia: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Woollams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anomia is a frequent and persistent symptom of post-stroke aphasia. Cortical neuroplasticity plays a significant role in language recovery following stroke and can be facilitated by behavioural speech and language therapy (e.g. Fridriksson et al., 2012. Existing research suggests that complementing therapy for anomia with neurostimulation techniques (such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, or tDCS can lead to greater therapeutic gains, with studies suggesting that applying anodal (excitatory tDCS to the left hemisphere and/or cathodal (inhibitory tDCS to the right hemisphere may be particularly beneficial (e.g. Baker et al., 2010; Rosso et al., 2014. However, the effects of varying both polarity and laterality of tDCS have yet to be systematically investigated. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the optimal tDCS parameters to increase naming ability in an 81 year old right-handed male (JS with chronic non-fluent post stroke anomia. Results of a pre-therapy screening assessment were used to create 12, 20-item therapy sets (6 treated and 6 untreated, matched across a range of psycholinguistic variables. JS completed two therapy runs over 7 months. The three therapy conditions within each run involved either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation. Stimulation sites were determined on the basis of a previous MRI structural scan. In the first run, stimulation targeted the perilesional left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and in the second run, stimulation targeted its right homologue. In all six cycles, JS received 20 minutes of 1mA tDCS (electrodes 5cm x 7cm on three consecutive days alongside computerised naming therapy. In the sham conditions, anodal stimulation was applied for one minute before being slowly turned off. The percentage of correctly named treated items increased in all conditions immediately following therapy. As shown in the Figure, for items consistently incorrect over both of the screening sessions, only the

  7. DCS控制系统网络堵塞的分析及处理措施%The analysis and measures of network congestion of DCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建生; 毕新熙; 吴全志; 郭晓博

    2013-01-01

    Combined with the DCS control system of thermal power plant,this article mainly analyzes several reasons of network paralysis of DCS.One factor relatively overlooked is especial y explained and the mechanism of the factors is presented.Final y we put forward the method and measures to avoid the network paralysis.%  本文结合热电厂DCS控制系统,主要分析了造成网络瘫痪的几个原因,重点介绍了一个比较容易忽视的因素,阐述了该因素的产生机理,提出了避免造成网络瘫痪的方法和措施。

  8. The relation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and regulatory T-cells (Tregs) with HPV persistence in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Howard D; Martinson, Jeffrey; Desai, Seema; Xie, Xianhong; Burk, Robert D; Anastos, Kathryn; Massad, L Stewart; Minkoff, Howard; Xue, Xiaonan; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Levine, Alexandra M; Colie, Christine; Watts, D Heather; Palefsky, Joel M; Landay, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Other than CD4+ count, the immunologic factors that underlie the relationship of HIV/AIDS with persistent oncogenic HPV (oncHPV) and cervical cancer are not well understood. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are of particular interest. pDCs have both effector and antigen presenting activity and, in HIV-positive patients, low pDC levels are associated with opportunistic infections. Tregs downregulate immune responses, and are present at high levels in HIV-positives. The current pilot study shows for the first time that low pDC and high Treg levels may be significantly associated with oncHPV persistence in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Larger studies are now warranted.

  9. D-cycloserine Reduces the Context-Specificity of Pavlovian Extinction of Cocaine Cues Through Actions in the Nucleus Accumbens

    OpenAIRE

    Torregrossa, Mary M.; Sanchez, Hayde; Taylor, Jane R

    2010-01-01

    Extinction therapy has been proposed as a method to reduce the motivational impact of drug-associated cues to prevent relapse. Cue extinction therapy, however, takes place in a novel context (e.g., treatment facility), and is unlikely to be effective due to the context specificity of extinction. We tested the hypothesis that d-cycloserine (DCS), which enhances extinction in other procedures, would enhance extinction of cocaine-associated cues in a novel context to reduce cue-induced reinstate...

  10. Beta band transcranial alternating (tACS and direct current stimulation (tDCS applied after initial learning facilitate retrieval of a motor sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eKrause

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary motor cortex (M1 contributes to the acquisition and early consolidation of a motor sequence. Although the relevance of M1 excitability for motor learning has been supported, the significance of M1 oscillations remains an open issue. This study aims at investigating to what extent retrieval of a newly learned motor sequence can be differentially affected by motor-cortical transcranial alternating (tACS and direct current stimulation (tDCS. Alpha (10 Hz, beta (20 Hz or sham tACS was applied in 36 right-handers. Anodal or cathodal tDCS was applied in 30 right-handers. Participants learned an eight-digit serial reaction time task (SRTT; sequential vs. random with the right hand. Stimulation was applied to the left M1 after SRTT acquisition at rest for ten minutes. Reaction times were analyzed at baseline, end of acquisition, retrieval immediately after stimulation and reacquisition after eight further sequence repetitions.Reaction times during retrieval were significantly faster following 20 Hz tACS as compared to 10 Hz and sham tACS indicating a facilitation of early consolidation. TDCS yielded faster reaction times, too, independent of polarity. No significant differences between 20 Hz tACS and tDCS effects on retrieval were found suggesting that 20 Hz effects might be associated with altered motor-cortical excitability. Based on the behavioural modulation yielded by tACS and tDCS one might speculate that altered motor-cortical beta oscillations support early motor consolidation possibly associated with neuroplastic reorganization.

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improve memory function%经颅直流电刺激提高记忆功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭恒; 何莉; 周仁来

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation revived in last years as non-invasive method of brain stimulation with features of safety, low-cost, lightweight. Transcranial direct current stimulation can produce a series of physiological changes, and has advantages compared to the traditional method of brain imaging. There were some applications in fields of working memory, declarative memory, procedural memory and combining tDCS with the cognitive training. tDCS can not pinpoint, but can affect cognitive processes of perception, attention, memory based on brain region. Not only tDCS can be used as a treatment in clinical practice, but also used as neural training methods for healthy people. tDCS has good prospects.%经颅直流电刺激是最近复兴的非侵入性无创脑刺激方法,具有轻便、廉价、较为安全的特点。经颅直流电刺激能产生一系列生理变化,相比传统脑成像方法具有优势,在工作记忆、陈述性记忆、程序性记忆上已有应用,可与传统认知训练相结合。经颅直流电刺激虽然不能进行精确定位,但是能够基于脑区影响个体认知加工过程。经颅直流电刺激在临床上可以作为治疗手段,对健康人可以作为神经训练的方法,在心理学领域具有良好的研究前景。

  12. Activation of antigen-exposed iMC-DCs at the "right place" and "right time" promotes potent anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, David M

    2012-05-01

    To better control the "licensing" of pro-Th1 dendritic cells (DCs), Spencer and colleagues have developed a synthetic ligand-inducible chimeric receptor, iMyD88/CD40 (iMC), incorporating synergistic Toll-like receptor (TLR) and costimulatory signaling elements, permitting DC regulation in vivo within the context of an immunological synapse. This novel technology results in potent anti-cancer activity.

  13. DCS在多膛炉焙烧系统中的应用%DCS Applied in Multiple Hearth Furnace Roasting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翊飞

    2012-01-01

    设计DCS应用于多膛炉焙烧脱硫负压自动控制系统的方案,介绍系统配置、控制方案、布线方式、软件组态等。%The scheme of DCS applied in multiple hearth furnaces roasting desulfurization negative pressure automatic control system is designed. The system configurations, control scheme, wiring method, software configuration are introduced.

  14. Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S Boggio

    Full Text Available A recent study found that false memories were reduced by 36% when low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS was applied to the left anterior temporal lobe after the encoding (study phase. Here we were interested in the consequences on a false memory task of brain stimulation throughout the encoding and retrieval task phases. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS because it has been shown to be a useful tool to enhance cognition. Specifically, we examined whether tDCS can induce changes in a task assessing false memories. Based on our preliminary results, three conditions of stimulation were chosen: anodal left/cathodal right anterior temporal lobe (ATL stimulation ("bilateral stimulation"; anodal left ATL stimulation (with a large contralateral cathodal electrode--referred as "unilateral stimulation" and sham stimulation. Our results showed that false memories were reduced significantly after the two active conditions (unilateral and bilateral stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in veridical memories. Our findings show that false memories are reduced by 73% when anodal tDCS is applied to the anterior temporal lobes throughout the encoding and retrieval stages, suggesting a possible strategy for improving certain aspects of learning.

  15. Aquathermolysis of conventional heavy oil with superheated steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Guangshou; Zhou Tiyao; Cheng Linsong; Wang Yunxian; Tian Guoqing; Pi Jian; Zhang Zheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new aquathermolysis study of conventional heavy oil in superheated steam. A new high temperature autoclave was designed, where volume and pressure could be adjusted. Aquathermolysis was studied on two different conventional heavy oil samples under different reaction times and temperatures. Experimental results show that aquathermolysis does take place for conventional heavy oil. As reaction time increases, the oil viscosity reduces. However, the reaction will reach equilibrium after a certain period of time and won't be sensitive to any further reaction time any more. Analysis shows that, while resin and asphaltenes decrease, saturated hydrocarbons and the H/C ratio increase after reaction. The main mechanism of aquathermolysis includes hydrogenization, desulfuration reaction of resin and asphaltenes, etc.

  16. The framework convention on climate change a convention for sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassing, P.; Mendis, M.S.; Menezes, L.M.; Gowen, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, over 165 countries signed the United Nation`s Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). These countries have implicitly agreed to alter their `anthropogenic activities` that increase the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere and deplete the natural sinks for these same greenhouse gases. The energy sector is the major source of the primary anthropogenic GHGs, notably carbon dioxide and methane. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries presently account for the major share of GHG emissions from the energy sector. However, the developing countries are also rapidly increasing their contribution to global GHG emissions as a result of their growing consumption of fossil-based energy. Implementation of this global climate change convention, if seriously undertaken by the signatory countries, will necessitate changes in the energy mix and production processes in both the OECD and developing countries. International actions also will be needed to put the world on a sustainable energy path. By adoption of the FCCC, representatives of the world`s populations have indicated their desire to move toward such a path. The Conference of Parties to the Convention has just concluded its second meeting, at which the Parties endorsed a U.S. proposal that legally binding and enforceable emissions targets be adopted. It is clearly evident that the FCCC, as presently operating, cannot achieve the objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere unless it adopts a major protocol to significantly reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. As demonstrated here, a good starting point in determining the steps the Parties to the FCCC should take in designing a protocol is to remember that the primary source of anthropogenic GHG emissions is the consumption of fossil fuels and the future growth of GHG emissions will derive primarily from the ever-increasing demand for and consumption of these fuels.

  17. Intradermal immunization in the ear with cholera toxin and its non-toxic β subunit promotes efficient Th1 and Th17 differentiation dependent on migrating DCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Sánchez, David; Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; Sánchez-García, Javier; Moreno, José; Bonifaz, Laura C

    2011-10-01

    The nature of CD4(+) T-cell responses after skin immunization and the role of migrating DCs in the presence of adjuvants in the elicited response are interesting issues to be investigated. Here, we evaluated the priming of CD4(+) T cells following ear immunization with low doses of model antigens in combination with either cholera toxin (CT) or the non-toxic β CT subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant. Following immunization with CT, we found efficient antigen presentation that is reflected in the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells over IL-4 or IL-5 production. The CTB-induced activation of DCs in the ear occurred without visible inflammation, which reflects a similar type of CD4(+) T-cell differentiation. In both cases, the elicited response was dependent on the presence of migrating skin cells. Remarkably, immunization with CT or with CTB led to the induction of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in the ear. The DTH response that was induced by CT immunization was dependent on IL-17 and partially dependent on IFN-γ activity. These results indicate that both CT and CTB induce an efficient CD4(+) T-cell response to a co-administered antigen following ear immunization that is dependent on migrating DCs.

  18. Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on behavioral and spatial memory during the early stage of traumatic brain injury in the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chae, Seoung Wan; Park, Chae Ri; Kim, Dae Yul

    2016-03-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique to modulate the neural membrane potential. Its effects in the early stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have rarely been investigated. This study assessed the effects of anodal tDCS on behavioral and spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Thirty six rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (n=12), five-day tDCS over peri-lesional cortex at one (1W, n=12), or two (2W, n=12) weeks post-injury. The Barnes maze (BM) and Rotarod (RR) tests were evaluated in a blind manner on day 1, week 3 and week 5 post-injury. After three weeks, both the 1W and 2W groups showed significant improvements in the BM ratio (Pearly phase after TBI when it is delivered two weeks post-injury. Earlier stimulation (one week post-injury) improves spatial memory only. However, the beneficial effects did not persist after cessation of the anodal stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 基于CAN总线的一体化氧化沟DCS系统方案%Study of CAN-Based Integrated Oxidation Ditch DCS Systematic Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鸿权; 黄大贵; 张军; 孙秀斌

    2001-01-01

    To the control problems in the biology processing system of integrated oxidation ditch, the DCS system practical scheme that consists of practical, field bus based ADAM-5000/CAN series and IPC is presented to sewage treatment at some factory. The scheme that adoptes ADAM-5000/CAN in the field has the characteristics of multi-master structure, real-time capability and high reliability communication. Besides the IPC that integrates monitor with control has rich resource, thus the DCS system possesses reliable open system architecture, quality real-time capability, high reliability and expedient operability.%针对一体化氧化沟生物处理系统控制问题,给出一种实用、基于CAN总线的现场控制器与工业PC(IPC)组成污水处理分布控制(DCS)系统实现方案。由于该方案采用的现场控制器具有多主结构、实时能力和高可靠性通信,而集中监控的IPC资源丰富,故整个DCS系统开放性、实时性、可靠性和操作性良好。

  20. I/A DCS系统的PID参数优化整定%PID tuning for I/A DCS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟洋

    2013-01-01

    随着核电站的不断运行,需要对DCS系统的控制参数进行优化整定。本文针对I/A DCS系统中使用的PID控制回路,提出参数的优化整定方案,减少整定过程对正常生产的影响,提高控制的精确性和稳定性。首先利用系统辨识的方法建立系统模型,基于模型计算PID控制回路的经验参数,再利用I/A系统中的FBTUNE模块,得出优化的PID控制参数。%PID parameter tuning should be implemented when the DCS system has run for a long time.A tuning schedule is provided for PID controllers of I/A DCS system,which can improve accuracy and stability with less interruption to the process.Firstly,process model should be obtained with the method of system identiifcation.Then PID parameter should be calculated base on it.FBTUNE block of I/A DCS system should be implemented to get the optimal PID parameters.

  1. Capsaicin triggers immunogenic PEL cell death, stimulates DCs and reverts PEL-induced immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Marisa; Gilardini Montani, Maria Saveria; Filardi, Mariarosari; Faggioni, Alberto; Cirone, Mara

    2015-10-06

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper has been extensively studied for its many properties, especially the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant ones. It binds to vanilloid receptor 1, although it has been reported to be able to mediate some effects independently of its receptor. Another important property of Capsaicin is the anticancer activity against highly malignant tumors, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we found that Capsaicin induced an apoptotic cell death in PEL cells correlated with the inhibition of STAT3. STAT3 pathway, constitutively activated in PEL cells, is essential for their survival. By STAT3 de-phosphorylation, Capsaicin reduced the Mcl-1 expression level and this could represent one of the underlying mechanisms leading to the Capsaicin-mediated cell death and autophagy induction. Next, by pharmacological or genetic inhibition, we found that autophagy played a pro-survival role, suggesting that its inhibition could be exploited to increase the Capsaicin cytotoxic effect against PEL cells. Finally, we show that Capsaicin induced DAMP exposure, as for an immunogenic cell death, directly promoted DC activation and, more importantly, that it counteracted the immune-suppression, in terms of DC differentiation, mediated by the PEL released factors.

  2. A Postural Tremor Highly Responsive to Transcranial Cerebello-Cerebral DCS in ARCA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodranghien, Florian; Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Manto, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxias are disabling disorders that impact the quality of life of patients. In many cases, an effective treatment is missing. Despite the increasing knowledge on the pathogenesis of cerebellar disorders including genetic aspects, there is currently a gap in the therapeutical management of cerebellar deficits. Cerebellar ataxia associated with ANO10 mutation (ARCA3) presents a disabling cerebellar syndrome. The aim of this study is to report a patient with a marked postural tremor responding to transcranial cerebello-cerebral direct current stimulation (tCCDCS). We applied tCCDCS using anodal stimulation over the cerebellum with a return electrode on the contralateral motor cortex. We performed a clinical rating, accelerometry studies, and recordings of voluntary movements at baseline, after sham, and after active tCCDCS. A dramatic response of postural tremor was observed after tCCDCS, with a major drop of the power spectral density to 26.12% of basal values. The postural tremor of cerebellar ataxia associated with ANO10 mutation was highly responsive to tCCDCS in our patient. This case illustrates that tCCDCS is a novel therapeutic option in the treatment of cerebellar deficits and might represent a promising tool to reduce tremor in ARCA3.

  3. Cholera toxin adjuvant promotes a balanced Th1/Th2/Th17 response independently of IL-12 and IL-17 by acting on Gsα in CD11b⁺ DCs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mattsson, J; Schön, K; Ekman, L; Fahlén-Yrlid, L; Yrlid, U; Lycke, N Y

    Despite an extensive literature on the mechanism of action of cholera toxin (CT), we still lack critical information about how the toxin acts as an adjuvant and, especially, which dendritic cells (DCs...

  4. A comparative study of effect on reducing pain, inflammation and side effect of combination of enzymes (bacterial proteases, papain, bromelain, vitamin C and rutin versus conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac in patients of closed fracture lower end radius coming at orthopaedic department of a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas A. Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Diclofenac was better in reducing pain, while combination of enzymes used in the study was better in reducing oedema. Combination of the enzymes used in this study is safer than diclofenac in cases of the closed fracture lower end radius. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1017-1021

  5. Combined treatment of conventional techniques and acupressure in laryngectomized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Mora Yero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: the use of traditional medicine techniques, specifically acupressure, along with established techniques, is widely used in developed countries for the rehabilitation of the laryngectomized patients.Objective: to describe the effectiveness of the combination of conventional techniques and those using acupressure in laryngectomized patients seen at the department of speech and phoniatrics of Ernesto Guevara Hospital from January, 2013 to December, 2014.Methods: a quasi-experimental study was carried out on a sample of 24 patients who had undergone laryngectomy and presented voluntarily or were referred for voice rehabilitation in the period and place herein mentioned. The sample was divided into two groups of 12 each. The first group was treated by the conventional method and the second group was treated with a combination of the traditional method and acupressure.Results: in the group of patients that received a conventional treatment a 50 % achieved rehabilitation. In the group where conventional techniques were combined with acupressure, rehabilitation of a 91,6 % was achieved. No adverse effects were manifested.Conclusions: the unit of the conventional technique with acupressure reduced the time for the rehabilitation of patients and increased the number of patients rehabilitated.

  6. Energy balance in IPM rice farms compared to conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazeli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management based on Farmer Field Schools (IPM/FFS is a program aimed to guide farmers toward managing agricultural pests in an environmentally responsible manner. This program has been in practice during the recent decade in the north of Iran. A study was conducted to evaluate the overall impacts of IPM/FFS program on energy balance and economic revenue of paddy (Oryza sativa L. farms compared with conventional farms (no IPM. The data of inputs, management practices, and output (yield of 238 paddy farms (135 IPM farms and 103 conventional farms located in a semi-Mediterranean climate were collected in 2010 and 2011. Total energy input, energy output, energy efficiency, and energy productivity were determined as indicators of energy balance. The total energy requirement for paddy production in IPM system was 48756 MJ ha−1, indicating that 8% more energy was used in IPM farms than that in conventional farms. It was noticed that IPM program in this region failed to reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides in paddy farms and the conventional system was more energy efficient than IPM system. Although paddy yield of the two systems was similar, the economic net return in IPM system was almost 20% higher than the conventional system due to the higher price of paddy produced in IPM system.

  7. Noninvasive stimulation of prefrontal cortex strengthens existing episodic memories and reduces forgetting in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSandrini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory consolidation is a dynamic process. Reactivation of consolidated memories by a reminder triggers reconsolidation, a time-limited period during which existing memories can be modified (i.e. weakened or strengthened. Episodic memory refers to our ability to recall specific past events about what happened, including where and when. Difficulties in this form of long-term memory commonly occur in healthy aging. Because episodic memory is critical for daily life functioning, the development of effective interventions to reduce memory loss in elderly individuals is of great importance. A previous study in young adults showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC plays a causal role in strengthening of verbal episodic memories through reconsolidation. The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which facilitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC would strengthen existing episodic memories through reconsolidation in elderly individuals. On Day 1, older adults learned a list of 20 words. On Day 2 (24h later, they received a reminder or not, and after 10 minutes tDCS was applied over the left DLPFC. Memory recall was tested on Day 3 (48h later and Day 30 (1 month later. Surprisingly, anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC (i.e. with or without the reminder strengthened existing verbal episodic memories and reduced forgetting compared to sham stimulation. These results provide a framework for testing the hypothesis that facilitatory tDCS of prefrontal cortex might strengthen existing episodic memories and reduce memory loss in older adults with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

  8. Would transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhance the effects of working memory training in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Calvin P. W.; Chan, Sandra S. M.; Arthur D P Mak; Chan, Wai Chi; Cheng, Sheung Tak; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Lam, Linda Chiu-wa

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been longstanding interesting in cognitive training for older adults with cognitive impairment. In this study, we will investigate the effects of working memory training, and explore augmentation strategies that could possibly consolidate the effects in older adults with mild neurocognitive disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to affect the neuronal excitability and reported to enhance memory performance. As tDCS may also modulate...

  9. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  10. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  11. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  12. Ratio between conventional and renewable energy production in Germany with focus on 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziems, Christian; Weber, Harald [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Power Engineering; Meinke, Sebastian; Hassel, Egon; Nocke, Juergen [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Technical Thermodynamics

    2011-07-01

    The increasing influence of renewable power production into the existing electrical energy supply system leads to displacement of conventional power production. This also results in reduced inertia with negative effects on system stability. Investigations are required to examine the maximally possible integration of renewables-based power and adjusted modes of operation of conventional power plants and the effects on lifetime and efficiency. (orig.)

  13. Immediate Versus Early Loading and Conventional Loading in Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maghaireh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the risk of implant failures after their placement, dental implants are traditionally kept load-free for 3 to 8 months to establish osseointegration before connecting the prosthetic super-structure (conventional loading. However, implant dentists are under continuous pressure from the media and patients to speed up the treatment and reduce number of visits during the implant therapy. Immediate implant loading can also reduce the cost and might also improve aesthetics as claimed by some surgeons. This pressure from the media, patients and dentists was behind introducing changes into the loading protocols and nowadays implants are loaded early and even immediately and it would be useful to know whether there is a difference in success rates between immediately and early loaded implants compared with conventionally loaded implants. It is well known that whenever a clinician is faced with a clinical question, the answer(s should be evidence based to avoid the risk of bias as opinion based answers can be misleading and can cause more failures in the dental practice. This mini-review aims to evaluate the effects of (1 immediate (within 1 week, (2 early (between 1 week and 2 months, and (3 conventional (after 2 months loading of osseointegrated dental implants. The review found no evidence that attaching artificial teeth either immediately, after 6 weeks (early or after at least 3 months (conventional led to any important differences in the failure of the implant or the artificial tooth, or to the amount of bone which surrounded the implant (any bone loss would be an undesirable consequence. However, we found a trend of more failures and complications with early loading when compared to immediate or conventional loading. More research is needed in this area. - See more at: http://smiledentaljournal.com/article.php?id=59#sthash.mniQLIcf.dpuf

  14. A naming convention for atmospheric organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-06-01

    While the field of atmospheric organic aerosol scientific research has experienced thorough and insightful progress over the last half century, this progress has been accompanied by the evolution of a communicative and detailed yet, at times, complex and inconsistent language. The menagerie of detailed classification that now exists to describe organic compounds in our atmosphere reflects the wealth of observational techniques now at our disposal as well as the rich information provided by state-of-the-science instrumentation. However, the nomenclature in place to communicate these scientific gains is growing disjointed to the point that effective communication within the scientific community and to the public may be sacrificed. We propose standardizing a naming convention for organic aerosol classification that is relevant to laboratory studies, ambient observations, atmospheric models, and various stakeholders for air-quality problems. Because a critical aspect of this effort is to directly translate the essence of complex physico-chemical phenomena to a much broader, policy-oriented audience, we recommend a framework that maximizes comprehension among scientists and non-scientists alike. For example, to classify volatility, it relies on straightforward alphabetic terms (e.g., semivolatile, SV; intermediate volatility, IV; etc.) rather than possibly ambiguous numeric indices. This framework classifies organic material as primary or secondary pollutants and distinguishes among fundamental features important for science and policy questions including emission source, chemical phase, and volatility. Also useful is the addition of an alphabetic suffix identifying the volatility of the organic material or its precursor for when emission occurred. With this framework, we hope to introduce into the community a consistent connection between common notation for the general public and detailed nomenclature for highly specialized discussion. In so doing, we try to maintain

  15. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  16. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  17. Adapting conventional cancer treatment for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jian; Liu, Zhida; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of directly killing tumors by conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has been for several decades well established. But, a suppressed immune response might become a lethal side effect after repeated cycles of intensive treatment. Recently, achievements in immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell-mediated immunotherapies have resulted in changes in frontline management of advanced cancer diseases. However, accumulated evidence indicates that immunotherapeutic and conventional strategies alone are often ineffective to eradicate big tumors or metastasis. To improve the outcomes of treatment for advanced cancer diseases, the combination of conventional cancer treatment with various immunotherapeutic approaches has been attempted and has shown potential synergistic effects. Recent studies have unexpectedly demonstrated that some strategies of conventional cancer treatment can regulate the immune response positively, thus the understanding of how to adapt conventional treatment for immunotherapy is crucial to the design of effective combination therapy of conventional treatment with immunotherapy. Here, we review both experimental and clinical studies on the therapeutic effect and its mechanisms of combining conventional therapy with immunotherapy in treatment of cancer.

  18. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  19. Building Quality, Building Green: Conventions Theory and Industry Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Cidell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventions theory was developed in part to explain how heterogeneous actors with asymmetrical information manage to carry out economic transactions. In particular, how do these actors work together to reduce uncertainty about the quality of the commodities involved? While most applications of conventions theory have been in the agro-food industry, this paper looks at the newly developing green building industry as an example of economic production that relies on multiple constructions of quality in its production and consumption processes. Previous work has shown that conflicts over quality often arise when the parties involved are operating under different conventions, a danger with the multiple actors that must cooperate to produce (and consume a green building. Furthermore, in the case of green buildings, uncertainty about a product's performance does not end at the point of transaction; the quality of many of the materials or processes involved can only be proven over time. I argue that the producers of green buildings and green building materials have overcome the problems of a uncertainty over time and b conflicts over the meaning of quality by drawing on all four conventions simultaneously. Furthermore, this simultaneous incorporation of trust, third-party standards, price, and the common good, as enacted through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED standards of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC, is one of the main reasons for the phenomenal growth of the green building industry among public, private, and non-profit clients.

  20. Do Organic Cherry Vine Tomatoes Taste Better Than Conventional Cherry Vine Tomatoes? A Sensory and Instrumental Comparative Study from Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A consumer panel was able to distinguish a perceptible difference between organically farmed and conventionally produced tomatoes, and preferred the taste of the conventional tomatoes. The sensory evaluation results of the trained panel revealed that the conventional tomatoes were sweeter and less sour than the organic tomatoes. In addition to this, the conventional tomatoes showed significant differences for oBrix, reducing sugars and electrical conductivity. No significant differences were ...

  1. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  2. Less tachycardia during transnasal versus conventional gastroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenschwander, Anders U; Christensen, Merete; Schulze, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Transnasal endoscopy is well tolerated, but physiological benefits compared with conventional gastroscopy have not been studied in detail. The aims of this randomised study were to evaluate cardiopulmonary features, patient tolerance, and the endoscopist's evaluation of transnasal versus conventi...

  3. numerical assessment of conventional regulation effectiveness for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benkoussas B, Djedjig R, and Vauquelin O

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... International License. Libraries Resource ... Keywords: underground station; conventional regulation; ventilation strategies; smoke ... Intuitively, ventilation is the first practice which is applied to secure the space and users.

  4. Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning: Innovations ... using various blended learning media including print, ICTs, electronic platforms, ... Admittedly, the blending of offline and online learning enhances significantly ...

  5. Reflexive convention: civil partnership, marriage and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Brian

    2017-09-14

    Drawing on an analysis of qualitative interview data from a study of formalized same-sex relationships (civil partnerships) this paper examines the enduring significance of marriage and family as social institutions. In doing so, it intervenes in current debates in the sociology of family and personal life about how such institutions are undermined by reflexivity or bolstered by convention. Against the backdrop of dominating sociological frames for understanding the links between the changing nature of marriage and family and same-sex relationship recognition, the paper analyses the diverse and overlapping ways (including the simple, relational, strategic, ambivalent and critical ways) in which same-sex partners reflexively constructed and engaged with marriage and family conventions. My analysis suggests that instead of viewing reflexivity and convention as mutually undermining, as some sociologists of family and personal life do, it is insightful to explore how diverse forms of reflexivity and convention interact in everyday life to reconfigure the social institutions of marriage and family, but do not undermine them as such. I argue the case for recognizing the ways in which 'reflexive convention', or reflexive investment in convention, contributes to the continuing significance of marriage and family as social institutions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  6. DCS Cabinet Power Loss Analysis for CPR 1000 Nuclear Power Plant%CPR1000核电厂DCS机柜失电分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亮; 赵岩峰; 孙永滨

    2014-01-01

    The DCS overall structure of CRP1000 nuclear power plant was introduced . Based on the RPC ,the signal interface character and signal processing mechanism on the key root were analyzed .By the power loss analyzing of RPC ,the RPC loss power may lead reactor trip signal from anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) system .The results indicate that it is necessary to search DCS cabinet power loss analysis .Optimi‐zing and assigning the main waterflow signals can avoid trigger reactor trip signal by mistake .The DCS cabinet power loss analysis can optimize the I&C (instrumentation and control) design and increase the nuclear plant’s reliability .%介绍了CPR1000核电厂数字化控制系统(DCS)的总体结构,以反应堆保护机柜(RPC)为基础,分析RPC的信号接口特性和信号关键路径节点的信号处理机制。结合RPC Ⅳ保护通道失电造成未能停堆的预期瞬变(ATWS)系统误发停堆信号的原因进行分析及优化,结果表明:对DCS机柜失电分析的研究是必要的,通过对RPC Ⅳ的给水流量信息进行优化和合理分配,可避免误发停堆信号。失电分析可优化仪控的设计,提高核电厂的可靠性。

  7. Measurement of CD8+ and CD4+ T Cell Frequencies Specific for EBV LMP1 and LMP2a Using mRNA-Transfected DCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Sohn

    Full Text Available An EBV-specific cellular immune response is associated with the control of EBV-associated malignancies and lymphoproliferative diseases, some of which have been successfully treated by adoptive T cell therapy. Therefore, many methods have been used to measure EBV-specific cellular immune responses. Previous studies have mainly used autologous EBV-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs, recombinant viral vectors transfected or peptide pulsed dendritic cells (DCs as stimulators of CD8(+ and CD4(+ T lymphocytes. In the present study, we used an interferon-γ (IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assay by using isolated CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells stimulated with mRNA-transfected DCs. The frequency of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1-specific IFN-γ producing CD4(+ T cells was significantly higher than that of LMP2a. The frequency of IFN-γ producing CD4(+ T cells was significantly correlated with that of CD8(+ T cells in LMP1-specific immune responses (r = 0.7187, Pc < 0.0001. To determine whether there were changes in LMP1- or LMP2a-specific immune responses, subsequent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs samples were analyzed. Significant changes were observed in 5 of the 10 donors examined, and CD4(+ T cell responses showed more significant changes than CD8(+ T cell responses. CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells from EBV-seropositive donors secreted only the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, while Th2 (IL-4 and Th17 (IL-17a cytokines were not detected. CD4(+ T cells secreted significantly higher cytokine levels than did CD8(+ T cells. Analysis of EBV-specific T cell responses using autologous DCs transfected with mRNA might provide a comprehensive tool for monitoring EBV infection and new insights into the pathogenesis of EBV-associated diseases.

  8. Analysis And Improvement On Common Problems Of DCS Data Conifguration%DCS数据配置常见问题分析及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海涛

    2016-01-01

    方家山核电工程中,采用了DCS全数字化控制。本文简要介绍了方家山核电工程DCS的基本架构与分层设计,以及一、二层通讯原理。由于方家山核电工程一、二层设备供应商不同,不同厂家平台的数据类型也不同,导致调试中多次出现由数据配置错误引起得问题。本文通过分析一、二层数据配置常见问题,提出了相应的故障分析及改进措施,对后期的机组调试维护有一定借鉴意义。%Fang Jia Shan nuclear power plant use DCS control system. This paper briefly describes the architecture of DCS system in the Fang Jia Shan nuclear power plant. It also describes the communication principle between Level1 and Level2. We use different manufacturers to design Level 1 and Level 2 system. Data types of different manufacturers are different, lots of problems caucused by the wrong data configuration happened during the commissioning phase. By analyzing the common problems on DCS data configuration, this paper proposed the corresponding improvements for the problems. The suggestions in the paper can provide valuable preference for commissioning and maintenance in the furture.

  9. 基于Modbus RTU协议的燃气锅炉监控系统%DCS control system of gas boiler based on Modbus RTU protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆国; 林明

    2013-01-01

    在燃气锅炉监控系统中,DCS作为主站基于Modbus RTU协议,通过RS485总线与西门子S7-200 PLC、网络电力仪表ACR320E实现无缝连接,读取锅炉本体参数。DCS还作为从站基于Modbus RTU协议、以RS485总线方式与燃气调压站RTU通讯连接,被动接收燃气系统参数。DCS与S7-200 PLC、网络电力仪表ACR320E及燃气调压站RTU三者的互联,实现了燃气锅炉系统的全方位动态监控,运行效果良好。%In the control system of gas boiler,as a master station,DCS reads the boiler's parameter,achieves the seamless connection with Siemens S7-200 PLC and network power meter ACR320E by Modbus RTU protocol and RS485.In the other hand,being the slave station,DCS communicates with the gas regulator station's RTU by Modbus RTU and RS485,and receives gas system data passively.The network of DCS, S7-200 PLC,network power meters and gas regulator station's RTU ACR320E realizes the general and dynamic monitoring of gas boiler system,and has reliable operation status.

  10. DCS-5(5S)型电子定量包装机组通过省级鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于明忠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 前不久,山东省莱州市金秋实用技术研究所自主开发研制并具有专利技术知识产权的新型颗粒物料包装机械--DCS-5(5S)型电子定量包装机组通过了省级鉴定,专家一致认为,该项专利技术填补了国内空白,提高了包装速度,达到了国内同类产品的领先水平.

  11. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  12. Convalescence after colonic resection with fast-track versus conventional care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Jakobsen, D; Sonne, E; Basse, L;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multi-modal rehabilitation programmes may improve early postoperative body composition, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and reduce hospital stay. So far, no data are available on convalescence after discharge. AIM: The objectives were to compare convalescence data (fatigue, sleep...... results in earlier resumption of normal activities with reduced fatigue and need for sleep postoperatively compared to conventional care, and without increased need for nursing care or visits to general practitioners. However, readmissions may occur more frequently....... vs. 8 days in the fast-track vs. conventional care group, respectively (p sleep were increased in the conventional care group when compared with the fast-track group (p

  13. Late bilateral temporal lobe necrosis after conventional radiotherapy. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Michio; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kagami, Hiroshi; Murase, Ikurou; Nakatsukasa, Masashi [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with radionecrosis in the bilateral temporal lobes manifesting as dementia about 30 years after undergoing conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed edema and cystic lesions in both temporal lobes. The mass in the left temporal lobe was excised. MR imaging 12 days after surgery showed reduced edema. Her dementia had improved. Radionecrosis usually occurs between several months and a few years after radiotherapy. The incidence of radionecrosis is estimated as 5%, but may be higher with longer follow-up periods. Clinical reports have suggested that larger total doses of radiation are associated with earlier onset of delayed necrosis and the fractional dose is the most significant factor causing cerebral radionecrosis. Radionecrosis can occur long after conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery using a linac-based system or a gamma knife unit. (author)

  14. A conventional, massively parallel eigensolver for electronic structure theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, V.; Scheffler, M. [Fritz Haber Institute, Berlin (Germany); Johanni, R.; Lederer, H. [RZ Garching (Germany); Auckenthaler, T.; Huckle, T.; Bungartz, H.J. [TU Muenchen (Germany); Kraemer, L.; Willems, P.; Lang, B. [BU Wuppertal (Germany); Havu, V. [Aalto University, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate a robust large-scale, massively parallel conventional eigensolver for first-principles theory of molecules and materials. Despite much research into O(N) methods, standard approaches (Kohn-Sham or Hartree-Fock theory and excited-state formalisms) must still rely on conventional but robust O(N{sup 3}) solvers for many system classes, most notably metals. In particular, our eigensolver overcomes parallel scalability limitations where standard implementations of certain steps (reduction to tridiagonal form, solution of reduced tridiagonal eigenproblem) can be a serious bottleneck already for a few hundred CPUs. We demonstrate scalable implementations of these and all other steps of the full generalized eigenvalue problem. Our largest example is a production run with 1046 Pt (heavy-metal) atoms with converged all-electron accuracy in the numeric atom-centered orbital code FHI-aims, but the implementation is generic and should easily be portable to other codes.

  15. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, César A.; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Bonifaz, Laura; Terrazas, Luis I.; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens and initiate the T-cell response. The DC-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in DCs; as a result, these DCs display impaired responses to TLR stimulation and prime Th2-type responses. However, the DC receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the Th2 response are poorly understood. In this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by Taenia crassiceps (TcES) triggered cRAF phosphorylation through MGL, MR, and TLR2. TcES interfered with the LPS-induced NFκB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, TcES-induced cRAF signaling pathway was critical for down-regulation of the TLR-mediated DC maturation and secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, we show for the first time that blocking cRAF in DCs abolishes their ability to induce Th2 polarization in vitro after TcES exposure. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminths target intracellular pathways to block DC maturation and efficiently program Th2 polarization.—Terrazas, C. A., Alcántara-Hernández, M., Bonifaz, L., Terrazas, L. I., Satoskar, A. R. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway. PMID:23907435

  16. 核电厂DCS闭环测试平台的开发及应用%Development and Application of Nuclear Power Plant DCS Closed-Loop Test Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯东; 林萌; 杨宗伟; 刘鹏飞; 杨燕华

    2011-01-01

    开发了可用于核电厂数字化控制系统( DCS)闭环测试的测试平台,该平台具有较高的灵活性和可扩展性.建立了岭澳核电站二期系统模型,通过汽轮机10%FP(满功率)阶跃降负荷瞬态下的稳压器压力和液位控制系统测试,演示应用该平台进行DCS闭环测试和发现并查找问题的方法.该测试平台在岭澳核电站二期DCS闭环测试中得到了成功应用.%A simulation platform with high flexibility and extensibility for nuclear power plant DCS closed-loop test has been developed. The system modeling for Ling'ao Phase II nuclear power plant has been built. Through an example of pressurizer pressure and water level control system testing under the condition of a 10%FP turbine power step-down,the way of using the platform for closed-loop DCS test and how to locate DCS problems were demonstrated. This test platform has been applied to DCS closed-loop test in Ling'ao Phase II successfully.

  17. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  18. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  19. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  20. The collapse of the conventional career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, P

    The Collapse of the Conventional Career was commissioned by the ENB as 'the first in a number of discussion papers in which important issues were to be explored so that the professional could debate them fully' (Jean Hooper, chairwoman of the ENB, in her foreword). The author Celia Davis' premise was that, conventionally, a career was seen as comprising full-time work carried out without a break in service. Because many female nurses could not fulfil this expectation they were disadvantaged in a number of ways. In order to address the problems faced in practice by those who would not be able, for various reasons, to undertake a conventional career, Professor Davis looked at what changes in thinking and policy would be required.

  1. DCS控制系统在缓释肥生产中的应用%Application of DCS control system to slow release fertilizer production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石兆军

    2012-01-01

    The variable-ratio control, software configuration and equipment selection of DCS control system in slow release fertilizer production are introduced. DCS control system is used for 300 kt/a slow release fertilizer project in Jinshan Chemical Co., Ltd, the automatic control rate of equipment is 98%; the qualification rate of product is increased by 19 percentage points, reaching to 99%; the material cost of 14 RMB Yuan and energy of 8 kW·h can be saved every ton product; increasing the benefit 5.76 million RMB Yuan every year for enterprise.%介绍DCS控制系统在缓释肥生产中变比值控制方案和系统软件的配置,以及应用DCS控制系统的设备选型。金山化肥公司的300kt/a缓释肥项目采用DCS控制系统,设备自控率达到98%;产品合格率提高了19百分点,达到99%;生产每吨产品节约原料成本14元、节电8kW·h,每年为企业增加效益576万元。

  2. Using tDCS to Explore the Role of the Right Temporo-Parietal Junction in Theory of Mind and Cognitive Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Wenli; Hu, Xinmu; Zhen, Zhen; Xu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) is thought to be closely related to theory of mind (ToM) and cognitive empathy. In the present study, we investigated whether these socio-cognitive abilities could be modulated with non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the rTPJ. Participants received anodal (excitatory), cathodal (inhibitory), or sham stimulation before performing a social cognitive task which included inferring other's intention (the ToM condition) and inferring other's emotion (the cognitive empathy condition). Our results showed that the accuracy of both ToM and cognitive empathy decreased after receiving the cathodal stimulation, suggesting that altering the cortical excitability in the rTPJ could influence human's socio-cognitive abilities. The results of this study emphasize the critical role of the rTPJ in ToM and cognitive empathy and demonstrate that these socio-cognitive abilities could be modulated by the tDCS.

  3. Using tDCS to Explore the Role of the Right Temporo-Parietal Junction in Theory of Mind and Cognitive Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin eMai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ is thought to be closely related to theory of mind (ToM and cognitive empathy. In the present study, we investigated whether these socio-cognitive abilities could be modulated with noninvasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the rTPJ. Participants received anodal (excitatory, cathodal (inhibitory, or sham stimulation before performing a social cognitive task which included inferring other’s intention (the ToM condition and inferring other’s emotion (the cognitive empathy condition. Our results showed that the accuracy of both ToM and cognitive empathy decreased after receiving the cathodal stimulation, suggesting that altering the cortical excitability in the rTPJ could influence human’s socio-cognitive abilities. The results of this study emphasize the critical role of the rTPJ in ToM and cognitive empathy and demonstrate that these socio-cognitive abilities could be modulated by the tDCS.

  4. PTC热敏电阻在空分设备DCS系统中的应用%Application of PTC thermistor in DCS system of air separation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚瑞华; 金奎

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure dual protection of the low temperature liquid pump through invdrter and DCS system, the resistance value signal of motor and its rear bearing protective element PTC thermistor is transformed to dry contact point signal, which is then connected to DI channel of DCS system. Here, the work principle of PTC thermistor and signal transformation scheme are briefed, and the work principle of thermal relay is analyzed.%为实现对低温液体泵实行变频器和DCS系统的双重保护,将电机及其后轴承保护元件——PTC热敏电阻的阻值信号转换为干接点信号,接入DCS系统的DI通道。简介PTC热敏电阻的工作原理,介绍信号转换方案,分析热敏继电器的工作原理。

  5. Does excitatory fronto-extracephalic tDCS lead to improved working memory performance? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/216

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Níall Lally

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that excitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS may improve performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks. Due to the non-invasive and inexpensive nature of the method, harnessing its potential could be particularly useful for the treatment of neuropsychiatric illnesses involving cognitive dysfunction. However, questions remain regarding the efficacious stimulation parameters. Here, using a double-blind between-subjects design, we explored whether 1 mA excitatory (anodal left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex stimulation with a contralateral extracephalic reference electrode, leads to enhanced working memory performance across two days, relative to sham stimulation. Participants performed the 3-back, a test of working memory, at baseline, and during and immediately following stimulation on two days, separated by 24-48 hours. Active stimulation did not significantly enhance performance versus sham over the course of the experiment. However, exploratory comparisons did reveal a significant effect of stimulation group on performance during the first stimulation phase only, with active stimulation recipients performing better than sham. While these results do not support the hypothesis that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tDCS boosts working memory, they raise the possibility that its effects may be greatest during early learning stages.

  6. The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to relieve pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Antal, Andrea; Ahdab, Rechdi; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Fregni, Felipe; Khedr, Eman M; Nitsche, Michael; Paulus, Walter

    2008-10-01

    Chronic pain resulting from injury of the peripheral or central nervous system may be associated with a significant dysfunction of extensive neural networks. Noninvasive stimulation techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be suitable to treat chronic pain as they can act on these networks by modulating neural activities not only in the stimulated area, but also in remote regions that are interconnected to the site of stimulation. Motor cortex was the first cortical target that was proved to be efficacious in chronic pain treatment. At present, significant analgesic effects were also shown to occur after the stimulation of other cortical targets (including prefrontal and parietal areas) in acute provoked pain, chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, or visceral pain. Therapeutic applications of rTMS in pain syndromes are limited by the short duration of the induced effects, but prolonged pain relief can be obtained by repeating rTMS sessions every day for several weeks. Recent tDCS studies also showed some effects on various types of chronic pain. We review the evidence to date of these two techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation for the treatment of pain.

  7. Investigation of Surfaces after Non Conventional Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micietova, Anna; Neslusan, Miroslav; Cillikova, Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with analysis of surface integrity of steel after electro discharge machining (EDM), water jet machining, (WJM) laser beam machining (LBM) and plasma beam machining (PBM). The paper discusses surface integrity expressed in surface roughness, sample precision expressed in perpendicularity deviation as well as stress state. This study also demonstrates influence of the various non-conventional methods on structure transformations and reports about sensitivity of the different non-conventional methods of machining with regard to variable thickness of machined samples.

  8. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  9. 1985 CSEG/CGU National Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, John W.; Millington, Graham

    The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (CSEG) and the Canadian Geophysical Union (CGU) held their first joint national meeting in Calgary, Canada, May 7-10, 1985. As the CSEG represents primarily the oil exploration side of geophysics and the CGU represents mainly the academic side, both groups felt that a joint convention would broaden their perspectives. Some 1750 delegates and over 100 students registered for the meeting. The Convention Committee was chaired by Ian Baker (Atlantis Resources Ltd.), and CGU was represented by Peter Savage (Pan Canadian Petroleum Ltd.). The Technical Committee was chaired by John Peirce (Petro-Canada Inc.) for CGU and Graham Millington (Canadian Superior Oil Ltd.) for CSEG

  10. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    as 1) the reformulation of the theory of action focusing on the uncertainty of social action; 2) pointing to the importance of collective frames of reference for individual rationality; and 3) the elaboration of a theory of institutions, focusing on the importance of conventions as forming...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...

  11. Theories of inter-hemispheric interactions in aphasia: the role of tDCS in rehabilitation of post-stroke aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy H Hamilton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mounting data from behavioral and neuroimaging studies have shown that the process of recovery from aphasia is largely driven by the reorganization of brain networks related to language. Evidence implicates a variety of potential mechanisms in this reorganization, some of which involve substantive changes in brain functional activity within and between cerebral hemispheres. These changes include intrahemispheric recruitment of perilesional left-hemisphere regions and transcallosal interhemispheric interactions between lesioned left-hemisphere language areas and homologous regions in the right hemisphere. With respect to the role of the right hemisphere, it is debated whether interhemispheric interactions are beneficial or deleterious to recovering language networks. Recent years have also seen the emergence of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as potential novel treatments for post-stroke aphasia. Because these techniques are predicated on either focal excitation or inhibition of brain areas, characterization of the functional roles of the left and right hemispheres and transcallosal interactions in aphasia recovery is of central importance to the development and refinement of stimulation-based therapies. However, most treatment studies involving noninvasive brain stimulation in aphasia have tacitly accepted the interhemispheric inhibition model, in which right hemisphere activity interferes with language recovery that is mediated by left hemisphere perisylvian regions. Based on this account, many studies in aphasia involving TMS and tDCS have adopted one of two approaches consistent with the model: left hemisphere excitation or right hemisphere inhibition. In this presentation, we will review both clinical and cognitive neuroscience evidence that elucidates different hemispheric mechanisms that influence recovery from aphasia after stroke

  12. Spreading effect of tDCS in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as shown by functional cortical networks: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila eCosmo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is known to modulate spontaneous neural network excitability. The cognitive improvement observed in previous trials raises the potential of this technique as a possible therapeutic tool for use in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD population. However, to explore the potential of this technique as a treatment approach the functional parameters of brain connectivity and the extent of its effects need to be more fully investigated.The aim of this study was to investigate a functional cortical network model based on electroencephalographic activity for studying the dynamic patterns of brain connectivity modulated by tDCS and the distribution of its effects in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Sixty ADHD patients participated in a parallel, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Individuals underwent a single session of sham or anodal tDCS at 1 mA of current intensity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 20 minutes. The acute effects of stimulation on brain connectivity were assessed using the functional cortical network model based on electroencephalography (EEG activity.Comparing the weighted node degree within groups prior to and following the intervention, a statistically significant difference was found in the electrodes located on the target and correlated areas in the active group (p<0.05, while no statistically significant results were found in the sham group (p ≥0.05; paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test. Anodal tDCS increased functional brain connectivity in individuals with ADHD compared to data recorded in the baseline resting state. In addition, although some studies have suggested that the effects of tDCS are selective, the present findings show that its modulatory activity spreads. Further studies need to be performed to investigate the dynamic patterns and physiological mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of tDCS.

  13. Urban versus conventional agriculture, taxonomy of resource profiles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Fernandez, John

    2016-01-01

    footprint reduction require further exploration. (3) Urban agriculture benefits to both food supply chains and urban ecosystems vary considerably with system type. To facilitate the comparison of urban agriculture systems we propose a classification based on (1) conditioning of the growing space and (2...... performance relative to conventional food production. Our main findings are as follows: (1) benefits, such as reduced embodied greenhouse gases, urban heat island reduction, and storm water mitigation, have strong support in current literature. (2) Other benefits such as food waste minimization and ecological...... and the larger material and energy regimes of cities (the “urban metabolism”)....

  14. Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonney, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on disciplinary discourses, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic discourse. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…

  15. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, T.M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Kessler, T. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Lange, T. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Overbeck, J. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Fiebich, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients` follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 {mu}m. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ``inter-observer analysis`` was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  16. Children's Impressions of Moral and Conventional Transgressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1985-01-01

    Two studies examined children's inferences of personality for actors engaging in different domains of behavior. In both studies, first, fourth, and seventh graders were given two descriptions of actors engaging in either moral or conventional transgressions. Findings indicated that children's concepts of persons were inferred from information…

  17. Efficacy evaluation of fluoxetine combined with conventional drug treatment on unstable angina patients complicated with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Liao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the efficacy of fluoxetine combined with conventional drug treatment on unstable angina patients complicated with depression. Methods:120 cases of unstable angina patients with depression were randomly divided into two groups. The anti-depression group received fluoxetine combined with conventional drug therapy; the conventional group received conventional drug therapy. Then contents of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites, antioxidants and inflammatory mediators of both groups were compared. Results:Serum monoamine neurotransmitters NE, 5-HT and HA levels of the anti-depression group were higher than those of the conventional group and metabolites 5-HIAA and HVA contents were lower than those of the conventional group; serum SOD, CAT, GSH and HSP-70 contents of the anti-depression group were higher than those of the conventional group, and hs-CRP, MMP9, MCP1 and HMGB1 contents were lower than those of the conventional group. Conclusion:Fluoxetine combined with conventional drug therapy can increase the contents of monoamine neurotransmitters and antioxidants, and reduce oxidative stress response and inflammatory response; it is an ideal method for treating unstable angina complicated with depression.

  18. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  19. Assessment of panoramic and conventional night vision goggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents results obtained during a flight evaluation of Night Vision Devices (NVDs) equipped with a symbology injection capability. The NVDs used represented both conventional and wide (Panoramic) Field of View Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) systems. The evaluation was conducted at the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205 Flying Simulator under the auspices of the Technical Co-operation Programme. 6 Pilots from 4 nations participated in the trial and some 36 hours of flight data and pilot performance were recorded. The metrics used to evaluate Pilot performance included conventional Visual Cue Ratings, estimates of workload, and objective measures obtained through advanced data-analysis techniques. The trial used both conventional ADS-33D manoeuvres and a novel 'Racetrack" course. The paper concludes that although PNVG compare favourably with NVGs the clarity of image currently available in standard NVGs surpasses that of the PNVG and negates some of the advantages gained by the wider Field of View. The manoeuvres favoured by the NVG include those where a high degree of foveal attention demanding processing is being performed, for example navigation tasks. The manoeuvres favoured by the PNVG include those where a more automatic peripheral processing is being performed, for example in reducing drift in the hover.

  20. Upgrading the conventional grease trap using a tube settler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, W; Ng, F L

    2000-08-01

    Grease traps are widely used by most restaurants and food processing industries in Hong Kong to reduce oil and grease to an acceptable level before it can be discharged to public sewers. To meet demanding effluent standards in the future, it is necessary to polish the effluent by upgrading the conventional trap design. This study evaluated the possibility of upgrading traditional grease traps by installing tube settlers inside the trap. Their efficiency of removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil/grease was examined to justify the performance. It was found that installing a tube settler is a feasible and cheap way to upgrade the conventional grease trap, since it improved oil/grease removal efficiency by 8-10% compared to the conventional design. In addition, a remarkable improvement in COD removal was observed following a very short hydraulic detention time after the installation of tube settlers. This ensured acceptable effluent quality under peak flowrates. Two mathematical models were also proposed to facilitate trap design.

  1. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  2. QUESTIONING CONVENTIONS: ARE PRODUCT CONVENTIONS TRADING OFF THE USABILITY OF PRODUCTS FOR SHORT TERM USER SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gough Young

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping conventions are a key aspect of user centered design as they present users with familiar interactions in unfamiliar products. Conventions evolve over time and are slow to be adopted, requiring a high percentage of acceptance within a society, ensuring that conventions exhibit a sufficient level of usability. However this paper argues that while usability is a necessary condition for good interactions it is not a sufficient one. Therefore user centered design which accents individuals bias towards conventions my in fact be hindering the innovation of product interactions. This paper argues that a cognitive approach should be adopted in order understand and reassess product interactions. An experiment was carried out that demonstrates the influence that simple mappings can have on cognitive load. The results showed that basic mappings of the types that are found throughout product conventions can have a substantial impact on mental load and subsequently product interaction.

  3. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  4. COMPARITIVE STUDY BETWEEN STAPLED HEMORRHOIDOPEXY AND CONVENTIONAL HEMORRHOIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the results of stapled haemorroidopexy and open haemorrhoidectomy. METHODS: The study population consisted of 60 patients who were admitted with hemorrhoids to a Medical college hospital providing primary, secondary and tertiary care. Patients were allocated to both groups on random basis. The main outcome measures were, time taken for each surgical procedure, the intra- operative bleeding, Post- operative pain (visual analog scale, time taken for first defecation after operation, Duration of hospital stay and Time taken to return to work. Follow up was conducted for minimum period of 6 months. RESULTS: Stapled v/s conventional haemorrhoidectomy was associated with significantly reduced operating time (30.13±5.97 v/s 47.67±8.28 minutes; p= 0.001, Less blood loss during stapled v/s open haemorrhoidectomy (12.33 ml and 21.83 ml; p = 0.001, Reduced post-operative pain scores (Visual Anolog Score on the first 4 post-operative days (day 1: 4.63 v/s 5.70, day 2: 2.70 v/s 4.57, day 3: 1.83 v/s 3.70 and day 4: 1.2 v/s 3.10, where 0 indicates no pain and 10, maximum pain; p ≤ 0.001, Patients who underwent stapled haemorrhoidectomy passed stools earlier (22.10±3.75 hrs. and 26.03±3.77 hrs: p ≤ 0.001 than conventional group. Reduced number of hospital stay in stapled group (3.83±0.87 v/s 6.70±1.82 days: p≤0.001 compared to conventional group. Anal stricture noted in two patients in stapled group compared to 4 patients in open group. CONCLUSIONS: Stapled haemorroidopexy is associated with reduced operating time, less blood loss during surgery, reduced post-operative pain, less number of hospital admission days, early return to work. It is a safe and effective procedure for haemorrhoids; it may become a gold standard procedure for haemorrhoids in future

  5. Merging conventional and laser wakefield accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, Benno; Schnepp, Matthias; Gehrke, Tim; Gruener, Florian [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (Germany); Grebenyuk, Julia; Mehrling, Timon; Osterhoff, Jens [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Floettmann, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators deliver high quality electron beams in terms of emittance and bunch length. However there are also parameters which cannot compete with conventional machines, namely spectral width and shot to shot stability. One reason for that is that there is no direct access to the injection mechanism. Injecting a well-characterized electron beam produced by a conventional accelerator into a plasma wakefield could help to solve that problem, since such a pump-probe type experiment should allow for a direct reconstruction of the field distribution and a better understanding of the injection process. REGAE at DESY in Hamburg is a suited accelerator for such a type of experiment. We report on the status of the beamline extension at REGAE and the plans towards the external injection project with the goal to directly measure the wakefield and further improve the stability of laser wakefield accelerators.

  6. "Conventional" CT images from spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandary, Paurakh L.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging systems need to be able to produce "conventional" images, and it's been shown that systems with energy discriminating detectors can achieve higher CNR than conventional systems by optimal weighting. Combining measured data in energy bins (EBs) and also combining basis material images have previously been proposed, but there are no studies systematically comparing the two methods. In this paper, we analytically evaluate the two methods for systems with ideal photon counting detectors using CNR and beam hardening (BH) artifact as metrics. For a 120-kVp polychromatic simulations of a water phantom with low contrast inserts, the difference of the optimal CNR between the two methods for the studied phantom is within 2%. For a polychromatic spectrum, beam-hardening artifacts are noticeable in EB weighted images (BH artifact of 3.8% for 8 EB and 6.9% for 2 EB), while weighted basis material images are free of such artifacts.

  7. Non-conventional mesons at PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Non-conventional mesons, such as glueballs and tetraquarks, will be in the focus of the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. In this lecture we recall the basic properties of QCD and describe some features of unconventional states. We focus on the search of the not-yet discovered glueballs and the use of the extended Linear Sigma Model for this purpose, and on the already discovered but not-yet understood X, Y, Z states.

  8. Non conventional engines; Moteurs non conventionnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descombes, G. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Paris-6 Univ. Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, 75 (France). Laboratoire de mecanique physique; Magnet, J.L. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    The extraordinary realizations of the last century in words of piston engines, are always current events at the dawn of 2000. This paper deals with three types of non conventional engines: the reciprocating internal combustion engines (opposed piston engines, oscillating piston engines, variable geometry piston engines...); the internal combustion rotary engines(Wankel engine, blade engines...) and external combustion reciprocating engines (historical aspects, conception, thermodynamics and market). (A.L.B.)

  9. Dying Convention of Sanctuary for the Soul

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXIAOPING

    2004-01-01

    MEN of the Yi ethnic group living in the Liangshan Mountains of Sichuan Province have for the past 2,000 years followed the convention of wearing their hair as long as it will grow. According to legend, the custom originates in the epic hero Etilaba who prevailed over an evil celestial being by letting loose his long hair and letting it stream through the air, puzzling and confusing his enemy.

  10. Non-Conventional Treatment Approaches in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Çayırlı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus is a bullous auto-immune disease which has high mortality and morbidity rates and affects the skin and mucosa. Corticosteroids are still the baseline treatment modality of pemphigus management. However, non-steroidal drugs and methods have been used more frequently in patients with pemphigus who are non-responders to conventional therapy or have severe side effects. In this article we aimed to review unconventional therapy modalities in patients with pemphigus.

  11. Conventional Weapons Effects on Reinforced Soil Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    of the reinforced soil wall. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Reinforced soil, conventional weapons, protective structures, 388 geosynthetics ...high tensile strength materials such as steel strips or geosynthetics . A single face of a reinforced soil berm can be constructed to approximately...yards of geosynthetics representing $3.1 billion have been used in a wide range of civil engineering applications (Koerner, 1990). Between 1991 and 1992

  12. Archaeoastronomical Heritage and the World Heritage Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Michel

    In 2009, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) began a joint thematic study on astronomical heritage. The initial question was, "What are the best ways to support and encourage the inscription of the most outstanding examples of astronomical heritage onto a globally balanced World Heritage List?" That led us first to a large overview across ages and countries, because every civilization had a relationship with the sky. The result is far beyond what was anticipated, showing a richness and diversity of heritage, both for various civilizations around the world and throughout human history, especially for the proto-historical period and indigenous practices of observing the sky. This chapter also reviews the World Heritage Convention, its goals, evaluation tools, and trends. A strategy must be created for a credible dossier in the UNESCO-recommended format, with proper identification of "outstanding universal value" (OUV) as a key point for the World Heritage listing. To assist in reaching such ambitious goals, this chapter examines the layout of the convention related to astronomical and archaeoastronomical heritage, though the main requirements need to be recognized. A methodology is proposed for site analysis by examples and practices of the World Heritage Convention, with a description of its origins, favorite subjects, and recent evolutions. Pure astronomical heritage is rare on the World Heritage List, but astronomy is frequently present as an associated value for complex sites and as a specific attribute that increases a global sense of the heritage.

  13. PUBLIC POLICY VIOLATION UNDER NEW YORK CONVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ayu Chinta Kristy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of the use of arbitration in Asia has highlighted the significant influence of the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards. The New York Convention currently becomes the most widely accepted convention to which the courts would refer when recognizing and enforcing foreign arbitral awards. This article would firstly provide a comparative study of the court’s interpretation towards public policy as mentioned under Article V (2 b of the New York Convention between non-arbitration-friendly-law Indonesia and arbitration-friendly-law China. Subsequently, it will discuss whether uniformity in interpreting and reserving public policy is required or not. Peningkatan jumlah penggunaan lembaga arbitrasi di Asia mendorong peningkatan signifikansi pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Konvensi New York saat ini menjadi konvensi yang diterima secara luas dimana dijadikan referensi oleh pengadilan dalam hal pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Artikel ini akan pertama-tama membahas studi perbandingan atas interpretasi pengadilan mengenai penggunaan kebijakan publik sebagaimana tertera pada Pasal V (2 b Konvensi New York antara Indonesia yang hukumnya tidak mendukung dan China dengan hukum yang mendukung pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Apakah keseragaman antar negara dalam menginterpretasi dan menggunakan kebijakan publik diperlukan atau tidak dibahas pada diskusi selanjutnya.

  14. Einstein Synchronisation and the Conventionality of Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Domazet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a broad-range title the paper settles for the related issue of whether the Special Theory of Relativity (STR necessarily advocates the demise of an ontological difference between past and future events, between past and future in general. In the jargon of H. Stein: are we forced, within the framework of the STR, to choose only between ‘solipsism’ and ‘determinism’ exclusively? A special emphasis is placed on the role that the conventionality of simultaneity plays in the STR with regards to this question. The standard arguments rely on the relativity of simultaneity, the claim that the STR negates the existence of a universal ‘present’ that divides the ‘past’ and the ‘future’, so as to conclude that there is no ontological difference between past and future events, that both are equally determined/real (‘determinism’. This often neglects the fact that to establish the ontological claims related to relativity of simultaneity, one must first resolve the issues of conventionality of simultaneity within the STR. The paper will aim to show that by addressing the issue of conventionality from Dummett’s ‘purely philosophical’ determination of the difference between the past and the future, we develop an understanding of the said difference, within the framework of the STR, beyond the (unwanted strict ontological dichotomy of ‘solipsism/determinism’, given that the criterion that is provided by the STR is understood as epistemic and not ontological.

  15. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discours...... changes too during the career of the metaphor. Whereas the standard scientific article is central in experimentally researching and explaining the metaphor, a mixture of more popular scientific genres dominate in the innovative conceptual development of the metaphor.......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses....... But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from...

  16. Avaliação biomecânica da fixação da fratura supracondiliana do fêmur comparando placa-lâmina 95º com DCS Fixation of supracondylar femoral fractures: a biomechanical analysis comparingthe 95º blade plate and the dynamic condylar screw (DCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Percope Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar por meio de ensaios biomecânicos comparativos entre a placa-lâmina de 95º e o parafuso condilar dinâmico (Dynamic Condylar Screw - DCS, qual apresenta maior resistência às cargas compressivas e de flexão, bem como tentar correlacionar o tipo de falha apresentada durante os testes com cada um dos tipos de placa. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e cinco fêmures suínos foram submetidos a osteotomia em cunha de subtração medial de um centímetro (cm, na região metafisária distal do fêmur, com o objetivo de simular fratura supracondiliana instável. Foi realizada osteossíntese dessas peças, sendo 35 fixadas com placa-lâmina 95º e 30 com placas com DCS, submetendo-as a cargas em compressão axial e flexão. Outra variável estudada foi o tipo de falha apresentada em cada grupo com a tentativa de correlacioná-la com o tipo de placa. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante na resistência biomecânica entre os dois tipos de placas ou entre o tipo de falha e a placa utilizada na osteossíntese. CONCLUSÃO: Os dois tipos de placas se comportam de maneira semelhante, embora haja um indicativo de que a placa-lâmina seja, no ensaio de flexão, superior à placa DCS. Não foi observada diferença entre o tipo de falha e o tipo de placa utilizada.OBJECTIVE: to determine, by means of comparative biomechanical tests between the 95o angled blade plate and the dynamic condylar screw (DCS, the one that presents greater compressive load resistance and flexion, and to correlate the failure type presented during the tests with each type of plate. METHODS: Sixty-five porcine femurs were submitted to a 1 cm medial wedge osteotomy, in the metaphysic, to simulate an unstable supracondylar femoral fracture. Osteosynthesis of these pieces was performed: 35 were fixated with a 90o lateral blade plate, and 30 with DCS plates. Another variable studied was the failure type presented in each group, attempting

  17. Analysis of Non-Conventional Hybrid MOSFET Structure for Gate Leakage Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANA Ashwani K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A non-conventional hybrid MOSFET (HMOSstructure has been proposed to reduce the gate leakagecurrent. This non-conventional hybrid MOSFET consistsof source/drain-to-gate non-overlap region and high-kgate stack. The gate leakage behaviour of HMOS hasbeen investigated with the help of compact analyticalmodel, which is backed by Sentaurus Simulation. Ourmodel sustains a very good agreement between the modeland TCAD result. It is found that HMOS structure hasreduced the gate leakage current to great extent ascompared to conventional overlapped MOSFETstructure.

  18. Application of DCS Control System in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant%DCS在秦山核电控制系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧小军; 贾晓琼

    2013-01-01

    According to the application of backup recirculation cooling system in Qinshan phase III nuclear power plant, this paper introduces the characteristic of industry automatic control system of WebField ECS-100 DCS, which has been used in backup recirculation cooling system of nuclear power plant. The brief elaboration to main point of the this system's design is introduced.%根据秦山第三核电厂备用循环冷却水系统的实际应用,本文介绍了 WebField ECS-100分散控制系统的特点,及其在核电站备用循环冷却水控制系统上的应用,并对该系统的设计要州作了简要闸述.

  19. The Research of Safety DCS for CPR1000 Nuclear Power Plant%CPR1000核电厂安全级DCS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海峰

    2012-01-01

    目前在建CPR1000核电厂(红沿河、宁德、阳江、防城港等)仪控系统采用日本三菱电机和北京广利核联队提供的数字化仪控系统DCS,其中安全级DCS采用日本三菱电机的MLETAC系统,非安全级DCS采用和利时的HOLLAIS-N系统.安全级DCS系统设计遵循单一故障、多样性、独立性、冗余性等原则,本文将对安全级DCS进行介绍.

  20. Isobar analog states (IAS), double isobar analog states (DIAS), configuration states (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) in halo nuclei. Halo isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izosimov, I. N.

    2015-10-01

    It has been shown that IAS, DIAS, CS, and DCS can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in 6,7,8Li, 8,9,10Be, 8,10,11B, 10,11,12,13,14C, 13,14,15,16,17N, 15,16,17,19O, and 17F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state may have one.

  1. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  2. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  3. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, César A; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Bonifaz, Laura; Terrazas, Luis I; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2013-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens and initiate the T-cell response. The DC-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in DCs; as a result, these DCs display impaired responses to TLR stimulation and prime Th2-type responses. However, the DC receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the Th2 response are poorly understood. In this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by Taenia crassiceps (TcES) triggered cRAF phosphorylation through MGL, MR, and TLR2. TcES interfered with the LPS-induced NFκB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, TcES-induced cRAF signaling pathway was critical for down-regulation of the TLR-mediated DC maturation and secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, we show for the first time that blocking cRAF in DCs abolishes their ability to induce Th2 polarization in vitro after TcES exposure. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminths target intracellular pathways to block DC maturation and efficiently program Th2 polarization.

  4. Research and application of ModBus protocol based improved scheme for KRT and DCS communication in nuclear power plant%基于ModBus协议的核电厂KRT与DCS通信改进研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国庆; 汪富强; 孙瑜; 赖厚晶; 张黎明; 李飞; 盖文佳

    2016-01-01

    The network communication scheme between KRT and DCS in CPR1000 project in nuclear power station is intro-duced,and the problems existing in system operational process are presented. By analyzing the communication structure of KRT and DCS,a solution to add life signal and combine it with message mechanism of ModBus protocol exceptional response is pro-posed. The functions of automatic detection and redundancy switching when the data communication between KRT and DCS was abnormal were realized. The improved solution scheme has successfully solved the data communication problem between KRT and DCS by implementing and applying in CPR1000 project.%介绍了CPR1000项目核电站KRT与DCS系统的网络通信方案以及在系统运行过程中遇到的问题.通过对KRT与DCS系统通信结构的分析,提出了增加生命信号与ModBus协议异常响应报文机制相结合的改进处理方案,实现了KRT与DCS系统数据通信异常时的自动检测与冗余切换功能.该改进处理方案通过在CPR1000项目上的实施与应用,成功解决了KRT与DCS系统的数据通信问题.

  5. IL-10 promotes homeostatic proliferation of human CD8(+) memory T cells and, when produced by CD1c(+) DCs, shapes naive CD8(+) T-cell priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzoli, Giulia; Larghi, Paola; Paroni, Moira; Crosti, Maria Cristina; Moro, Monica; Neddermann, Petra; Caprioli, Flavio; Pagani, Massimiliano; De Francesco, Raffaele; Abrignani, Sergio; Geginat, Jens

    2016-07-01

    IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits maturation and cytokine production of dendritic cells (DCs). Although mature DCs have the unique capacity to prime CD8(+) CTL, IL-10 can promote CTL responses. To understand these paradoxic findings, we analyzed the role of IL-10 produced by human APC subsets in T-cell responses. IL-10 production was restricted to CD1c(+) DCs and CD14(+) monocytes. Interestingly, it was differentially regulated, since R848 induced IL-10 in DCs, but inhibited IL-10 in monocytes. Autocrine IL-10 had only a weak inhibitory effect on DC maturation, cytokine production, and CTL priming with high-affinity peptides. Nevertheless, it completely blocked cross-priming and priming with low-affinity peptides of a self/tumor-antigen. IL-10 also inhibited CD1c(+) DC-induced CD4(+) T-cell priming and enhanced Foxp3 induction, but was insufficient to induce T-cell IL-10 production. CD1c(+) DC-derived IL-10 had also no effect on DC-induced secondary expansions of memory CTL. However, IL-15-driven, TCR-independent proliferation of memory CTL was enhanced by IL-10. We conclude that DC-derived IL-10 selects high-affinity CTL upon priming. Moreover, IL-10 preserves established CTL memory by enhancing IL-15-dependent homeostatic proliferation. These combined effects on CTL priming and memory maintenance provide a plausible mechanism how IL-10 promotes CTL responses in humans.

  6. EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND NON CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Jyoti; Sahu Rajeshwari

    2012-01-01

    Plants and plant based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceutical we use today for our various aliment. Plant show medicinal properties as it contain phytochemical constituent. Phytochemical constituent are non nutritive plant chemical that have disease preventive properties .This paper reports an investigation of phytochemical constituent present in the Methanolic crude rhizome extract of conventional and non conventional Curcuma species i.e Curcuma caecia , Curcuma amad...

  7. The effectiveness of conventional trickling filter treatment plants at reducing concentrations of copper in wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Ziolko, D; Hala, D.; Lester, JN; Scrimshaw, MD

    2009-01-01

    This is the post-print version of the final paper published in Science of the Total Environment. The published article is available from the link below. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. Copyright @ 2009 Elsevier B.V. Eight different sewage treatment works we...

  8. Abundance, production and stabilization of microbial biomass under conventional and reduced tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van K.J.; Bloem, J.; Baath, E.; Boeckx, P.; Rousk, J.; Bodé, S.; Forristal, P.D.; Jones, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Soil tillage practices affect the soil microbial community in various ways, with possible consequences for nitrogen (N) losses, plant growth and soil organic carbon (C) sequestration. As microbes affect soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics largely through their activity, their impact may not be deduce

  9. Strategies to reduce mycotoxin and fungal alkaloid contamination in organic and conventional cereal production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Köpke, U.; Thiel, B.; Elmholt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites formed by specific fungi that grow on living plants and their residues under favourable conditions. They are undesirable ingredients of food and feed. Risks are also posed by the spores and toxin-contaminated raised dusts. Contamination by mycotoxins is a severe problem in food security. More than 300 species of fungi with the ability to form mycotoxins have been identified. More than 400 metabolites are assigned to the group of mycotoxins. Fortunately, only a...

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex reduces cue-reactivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietschorke, Katharina; Lippold, Julian; Jacob, Christian; Polak, Thomas; Herrmann, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol craving has been shown to be an important factor for relapses in alcohol-dependent patients. Furthermore, brain activity in reward-related areas in response to alcohol-related cues is positively related to the amount of post-relapse alcohol consumption. On the other hand, it has been shown that cue-exposure based extinction training (CET) leads to larger decrease of striatal and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) cue-induced activation compared to standard clinical day-care treatment, but the effect sizes are relatively small. The question of this study was, whether it is possible to change cue-reactivity and subjective craving by applying bilateral prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We stimulated 30 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (50 % with a sham and 50 % with left cathodal/right anodal stimulation) and presented emotional as well as alcohol-related pictures. We measured the emotional startle modulation and found significantly increased startle amplitudes in the verum stimulation condition for alcohol-related cues, indicating a more negative processing of this cues in alcohol-dependent patients after verum tDCS stimulation. Additionally we found tendencies for stronger reduction in subjective craving in verum-stimulated patients. Therefore our study underscores the positive value of DCS in reducing craving and might help to improve the understanding and therapy of alcohol dependence.

  11. The sustainability transition. Beyond conventional development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, P.; Chadwick, M.; Jackson, T.; Leach, G.

    1996-10-01

    This paper synthesizes findings of the first phase in SEI`s PoleStar Project - a project aimed at developing long-term strategies and policies for sustainable development. Taking a global and long-range perspective, the paper aims to describe a theoretical framework for addressing sustainability, to identify emerging issues and outline directions for future action. The paper begins by setting today`s development and environmental challenges in historical context, and describing the scenario method for envisioning and evaluating alternative futures, and identifying propitious areas for policy and action. It next summarizes a detailed scenario based on conventional development assumptions, and discusses the implications of this scenario for demographic and economic patterns, energy and water resources, land resources and agriculture, and pollution loads and the environment to the year 2050. The conventional scenario relies in part on the sectorally-oriented work discussed in Papers 3 through 6 of the PoleStar Project report series, and makes use of the PoleStar System, software designed for integrated resource, environment and socio-economic accounting and scenario analysis (described in Paper 2). The paper then examines the critical risks to social, resource and environmental systems lying ahead on the conventional development path. Finally, the paper surveys the requirements for sustainability across a number of policy dimensions, and raises key questions for the future. The PoleStar Project is proceeding to examine a range of alternative development scenarios, in the context of the work of the regionally-diverse Global Scenario Group, convened by SEI. The hope remains to offer wise counsel for a transition to an equitable, humane and sustainable future for the global community. 144 refs, 30 figs, 9 tabs

  12. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  13. 9th Structural Engineering Convention 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents research papers presented by academicians, researchers, and practicing structural engineers from India and abroad in the recently held Structural Engineering Convention (SEC) 2014 at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi during 22 – 24 December 2014. The book is divided into three volumes and encompasses multidisciplinary areas within structural engineering, such as earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, structural mechanics, finite element methods, structural vibration control, advanced cementitious and composite materials, bridge engineering, and soil-structure interaction. Advances in Structural Engineering is a useful reference material for structural engineering fraternity including undergraduate and postgraduate students, academicians, researchers and practicing engineers.

  14. Simulating a guitar with a conventional sonometer

    CERN Document Server

    Burstein, Zily; Varieschi, Gabriele U

    2011-01-01

    Musical acoustics is an interesting sub-field of physics which is usually able to engage students in a dual perspective, by combining science and art together. The physics principles involved in most musical instruments can be easily demonstrated with standard laboratory equipment and can become part of lecture or lab activities. In particular, we will show in this paper how to simulate a guitar using a conventional sonometer, in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on a guitar or similar string instruments.

  15. Simulating a Guitar with a Conventional Sonometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Zily; Gower, Christina M.; Varieschi, Gabriele U.

    Musical acoustics is an interesting sub-field of physics which is usually able to engage students in a dual perspective, by combining science and art together. The physics principles involved in most musical instruments can be easily demonstrated with standard laboratory equipment and can become part of lecture or lab activities. In particular, we will show in this paper how to simulate a guitar using a conventional sonometer, in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on a guitar or similar string instruments.

  16. Influence of alternative and conventional farming practices on subsurface drainage and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquist, K A; Strock, J S; Mulla, D J

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural runoff contributes nutrients to nonpoint-source pollution of surface waters. This study was conducted to investigate the potential use of alternative farming practices to improve water quality. The study examined the effects of both alternative and conventional farming practices on subsurface drainage and nitrogen and phosphorus loss through subsurface drainage from glacial till soils (i.e., Calciaquolls, Endoaquolls, Eutrudepts, Hapludolls) in southwest Minnesota. Alternative farming practices included organic management practices, species biodiversity, and/or practices that include reduced inputs of synthetic fertilizer and pesticides. Conventional farming practices include corn-soybean (Zea mays L.-Glycine max L., respectively) rotations and their associated recommended fertilizer rates as well as pesticide usage. Precipitation was highly variable during the 3-yr study period including a below-average year (2003), an average year (2002), and an above-average year (2004). Results indicate that alternative farming practices reduced subsurface drainage discharge by 41% compared with conventional practices. Flow-weighted mean nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) concentrations during tile flow were 8.2 and 17.2 mg L(-1) under alternative and conventional farming practices, respectively. Alternative farming practices reduced nitrate N losses by between 59 and 62% in 2002 and 2004 compared with conventional practices. Ammonium-nitrogen (ammonium N), orthophosphorus, and total phosphorus losses in subsurface drainage were very low and did not pose a substantial risk of pollution. Results suggest that alternative farming practices have the potential to reduce agricultural impacts on water quality.

  17. Skin-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Maurizio B; Cortinovis, Umberto; Ottolenghi, Joseph; Riggio, Egidio; Pennati, Angela; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Greco, Marco; Rovere, Guidubaldo Querci Della

    2006-09-01

    The authors propose a combined flap technique to reconstruct large and medium-sized ptotic breasts in a single-stage operation by use of anatomical permanent implants. The authors enrolled 28 patients fulfilling criteria for skin-sparing mastectomy and presenting with ptotic breasts whose areola-to-inframammary fold distance was more than 8 cm. All reconstructions were performed as a single-stage procedure. After preoperative planning, a large area in the lower half of the breast was deepithelialized according to the conventional Wise pattern. Mastectomy was then carried out. To perform reconstructions, the inferomedial fibers of the pectoralis major muscle were dissected and sutured to the superior border of the inferior dermal flap. An anatomical implant was then inserted into the pouch, which was closed laterally with the previously harvested serratus anterior fascia. Skin flaps were finally closed down to the inframammary fold. The authors performed 30 procedures on 28 patients. The medium size anatomical implants was 433 cc. Twelve women achieved symmetrization in a single stage ending in a symmetric inverted-T scar. The overall complication rate was 20 percent, with four cases (13 percent) complicated by severe, extensive necrosis of the skin flaps requiring implant removal. Breast cancer treatment must nowadays optimize cosmetic results. This can be accomplished in selected cases by means of a single-stage operation that the authors call "skin-reducing mastectomy." The final scars imitate those of cosmetic surgery. Careful patient selection and improvement in the learning curve may reduce the complication rate.

  18. Reduced-Dimension Multiuser Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...

  19. Conventional dental radiology; Konventionelle Dentalradiologie und Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssefzadeh, S.; Gahleitner, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Bernhart, D.; Bernhart, T. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Zahnheilkunde, Wien (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    Until recently, conventional dental radiology was performed by dentists and orofacial surgeons. Due to the rapid development of radiological technique, the demand of radiological advice is increasing. The radiologists see more and more dental patients in their daily routine. The aim of this article is to give an overview on established dental radiology and a glimpse into the future. Conventional dental radiology and digital radiography are presently in use. Intraoral technique comprises dental films, bite-wing views and occlusal radiographs. Panoramic views and cephalometric radiographs are done with extraoral technique. Digital radiography lacks all processes in behalf of film development. It leads to dose reduction and enables image manipulation. (orig.) [German] Die konventionelle Radiologie in der Zahnheilkunde (Dentalradiologie) wurde hauptsaechlich von den niedergelassenen Zahnaerzten und Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgen betrieben. Aufgrund der rasanten Entwicklung in der radiologischen Methodik wird die fachaerztliche Unterstuetzung durch den Radiologen immer notwendiger, und die raschen Fortschritte erfordern eine zunehmende Zusammenarbeit dieser medizinischen Faecher. Die fachspezifische Anforderung an den Radiologen tritt immer haeufiger im Routinebetrieb auf. Ziel dieses Artikels ist die Aufstellung der derzeit eingesetzten Technik sowie ein Ausblick in die nahe Zukunft. Prinzipiell wird zwischen der konventionellen Dentalradiologie und der digitalen Radiographie unterschieden. Die Dentalradiologie setzt sich aus der intraoralen Technik (Zahnfilme, Bissfluegelaufnahmen, Aufbissaufnahme) und der extraoralen Technik (Panoramaaufnahmen, Panoramaschichtaufnahmen, Fernroentgen) zusammen. Die digitale Radiographie ermoeglicht die Umgehung der konventionellen Entwicklungsverfahren, eine Strahlendosisreduktion und bietet die Moeglichkeit der Bildverarbeitung. (orig.)

  20. Non conventional fuel resources in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, G.; Dixit, S.; Tiwari, S.

    2006-03-15

    In India there is a shortage of energy resources. The conventional sources are incapable to mitigate this problem by providing sufficient amount of energy. The crisis is gradually becoming more acute particularly in the countryside thus hampering the economic growth. To deal with this problem some new strategies have been envisaged. Generation of energy to meet daily requirement from non-conventional sources is one of the steps in this regard. With the increasing popularity of biogas plants in rural as well as in urban areas of India, it has become essential to find various location specific organic substances that can be used as feed material in biogas plant. In this study we have concentrated on use of cow dung and water hyacinth as feed material in biogas plants. The objective of the study is to assess the suitability of using mixture of cow dung and water hyacinth as feed material in biogas plants. Attempt has been made to find out the optimum proportion of cow dung and water hyacinth. The 1:1 mixture of cow dung and water hyacinth is the optimum proportion as per the study conducted. (author)

  1. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  2. The EROI of Conventional Canadian Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Freise

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Canada was the world’s third largest natural gas producer in 2008, with 98% of its gas being produced by conventional, tight gas, and coal bed methane wells in Western Canada. Natural gas production in Western Canada peaked in 2001 and remained nearly flat until 2006 despite more than quadrupling the drilling rate. Canada seems to be one of many counter examples to the idea that oil and gas production can rise with sufficient investment. This study calculated the Energy Return on Energy Invested and Net Energy of conventional natural gas and oil production in Western Canada by a variety of methods to explore the energy dynamics of the peaking process. All these methods show a downward trend in EROI during the last decade. Natural gas EROI fell from 38:1 in 1993 to 15:1 at the peak of drilling in 2005. The drilling intensity for natural gas was so high that net energy delivered to society peaked in 2000–2002, while production did not peak until 2006. The industry consumed all the extra energy it delivered to maintain the high drilling effort. The inability of a region to increase net energy may be the best definition of peak production. This increase in energy consumption reduces the total energy provided to society and acts as a contracting pressure on the overall economy as the industry consumes greater quantities of labor, steel, concrete and fuel. It appears that energy production from conventional oil and gas in Western Canada has peaked and entered permanent decline.