WorldWideScience

Sample records for conventional building components

  1. Building Quality, Building Green: Conventions Theory and Industry Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Cidell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventions theory was developed in part to explain how heterogeneous actors with asymmetrical information manage to carry out economic transactions. In particular, how do these actors work together to reduce uncertainty about the quality of the commodities involved? While most applications of conventions theory have been in the agro-food industry, this paper looks at the newly developing green building industry as an example of economic production that relies on multiple constructions of quality in its production and consumption processes. Previous work has shown that conflicts over quality often arise when the parties involved are operating under different conventions, a danger with the multiple actors that must cooperate to produce (and consume a green building. Furthermore, in the case of green buildings, uncertainty about a product's performance does not end at the point of transaction; the quality of many of the materials or processes involved can only be proven over time. I argue that the producers of green buildings and green building materials have overcome the problems of a uncertainty over time and b conflicts over the meaning of quality by drawing on all four conventions simultaneously. Furthermore, this simultaneous incorporation of trust, third-party standards, price, and the common good, as enacted through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED standards of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC, is one of the main reasons for the phenomenal growth of the green building industry among public, private, and non-profit clients.

  2. Industrialisation of flyash based building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, C.; Lal, R. [National Council for Cement and Building Materials (India)

    1996-12-31

    There is an acute shortage of housing in India and the prevailing backlog of housing is increasing every year, as the rate of construction has not kept pace with population growth. One way of partially meeting the increasing demand for building materials is to make use of non-conventional materials and technologies based on the use of industrial by-products. Studies conducted have shown that manufacture of building materials or components, particularly bricks and blocks, is the most promising direction of fly ash utilization. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The case of Hong Kong : from conventional building to green building

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Wing-ming; 譚永明

    2013-01-01

    Resources like water and electricity are limited and the usage of these resources are increasing along with the city’s development. Information released by different environmental organizations suggests that the consumption of these limited resources by a conventional building is huge. Green building plays an important role in improving this situation. This dissertation first finds out the energy usage of conventional buildings from different environmental organizations and different scho...

  4. Actual service life prediction of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Niels-Jørgen; Brandt, Erik; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability and life cycle cost in the construction industry have been given great attention in many countries due to the heavy climatic and environmental impact from this sector. In Denmark, a sustainability certification scheme for buildings has been developed including...... such as economics, aesthetics and use of the building. Each of these factors is regarded as a stochastic variable and can be seen as competing causes of bringing service life to an end. A model is proposed for combining such variables resulting in the actual service life of building components. Furthermore...

  5. Durability of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    Durability of Building Materials and Components provides a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to the long-term performance and durability of construction and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of durability, service life prediction methodologies, the durability approach for historical and old buildings, asset and maintenance management and on the durability of materials, systems and components. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  6. Electronic building component catalogue; Realisierung elektronischer Bauteilkatalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolantonio, M. Di

    2007-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes an electronic building component catalogue developed to replace earlier printed documentation issued by the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects SIA. The catalogue, which is available on the Internet, is described and discussed. The paper describes the web site and its features that can be used for the selection of building components such as, for example, double-wall masonry. Here, the thickness of the brickwork and insulation layers can dynamically be selected in order to achieve the insulation properties required. Ecological factors are also dealt with and the XML interface provided for the electronic export of data is described.

  7. Susceptibility of green and conventional building materials to microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah-Attipoe, J; Reponen, T; Salmela, A; Veijalainen, A-M; Pasanen, P

    2015-06-01

    Green building materials are becoming more popular. However, little is known about their ability to support or limit microbial growth. The growth of fungi was evaluated on five building materials. Two green, two conventional building materials and wood as a positive control were selected. The materials were inoculated with Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum, in the absence and presence of house dust. Microbial growth was assessed at four different time points by cultivation and determining fungal biomass using the N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) enzyme assay. No clear differences were seen between green and conventional building materials in their susceptibility to support microbial growth. The presence of dust, an external source of nutrients, promoted growth of all the fungal species similarly on green and conventional materials. The results also showed a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.81 to 0.88 between NAHA activity and culturable counts. The results suggest that the growth of microbes on a material surface depends on the availability of organic matter rather than the classification of the material as green or conventional. NAHA activity and culturability correlated well indicating that the two methods used in the experiments gave similar trends for the growth of fungi on material surfaces.

  8. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-06

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  9. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria. Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  10. (Durability of building materials and components)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.

    1990-11-27

    The traveler participated in the fourth meeting of RILEM 100-TSL, Techniques for Service Life Prediction,'' and The Fifth International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components.'' In addition, the traveler met with staff members at Taywood Engineering Ltd., Electricite de France, and AEA Technology. The meeting pertained to performance of concrete materials in nuclear power plant structures, time variation of concrete material properties, methods for evaluating concrete structures, and modeling to predict the effects of degradation factors on concrete materials. As many of the concrete structures in general civil engineering applications as well as nuclear power plant applications in Europe are aging, there is increasing emphasis on assessing the durability of these structures. Information was provided of direct application to the Structural Aging Program which would not have been available without these visits. Of equal, or possibly more importance, was the individual contacts established at the organizations visited. Each organization was extremely interested in both the approach and scope of the Structural Aging Program and requested that they be informed of progress. The initial steps were taken to cooperate with several of these researchers and this should help the Structural Aging Program keep abreast of related European activities. In summary, information obtained during this trip will benefit the ongoing Structural Aging Program by informing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) of the extensive European research programs addressing the durability of concrete structures, and also by forming and strengthening acquaintances with counterparts in other countries, thus enhancing the basis for possible international cooperation.

  11. Modeling thermally active building components using space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank; Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    In order to efficiently implement thermally active building components in new buildings, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal interaction between them and other building components. Applying parameter investigation or numerical optimization methods to a differential-algebraic (DAE) model....... This paper describes the principle of the space mapping technique, and introduces a simple space mapping technique. The technique is applied to a lumped parameter model of a thermo active component, which provides a model of the thermal performance of the component as a function of two design parameters...... of a building provides a systematic way of estimating efficient building designs. However, using detailed numerical calculations of the components in the building is a time consuming process, which may become prohibitive if the DAE model is to be used for parameter variation or optimization. Unfortunately...

  12. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to mini

  13. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to mini

  14. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to

  15. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Shireesha, P; 10.5121/ijsea.2010.1303

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  16. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shireesha, P.; S.S.V.N.Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and ...

  17. Principles, components and appropriateness of capacity building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available become more skilled, but that they apply those skills, and that this brings about better results in terms of achieving whatever it is they have been capacitated to do. ? ? be supported by feedback, leading to continuous improvement ? in capacity..., the motivation and inspiration of people to improve their lives.? ? A less complex statement of unknown origin is that: ?Capacity building is the process of assisting people to develop the technical and decision making skills to address their own needs...

  18. Building Component Library: An Online Repository to Facilitate Building Energy Model Creation; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, K.; Long, N.; Swindler, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the Building Component Library (BCL), the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) online repository of building components that can be directly used to create energy models. This comprehensive, searchable library consists of components and measures as well as the metadata which describes them. The library is also designed to allow contributors to easily add new components, providing a continuously growing, standardized list of components for users to draw upon.

  19. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Shireesha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing newsoftware products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuserepository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describeshow a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking ifoptimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providingcoding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable componentsand guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  20. Investigation on Prefabricated Building System Skilled Component Installers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Rezuana Buyung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of an increasingly challenging era of globalization, skills and new equipments which includes prefabricated building components, known as Industrialized Building System (IBS has been introduced towards achievement of sustainable construction. IBS is a construction system in which the components are manufactured in a factory, on or off site, positioned and assembled into complete structures with minimal additional site work. IBS requires high construction precision and needs a higher skill level of workers. Compared to the conventional construction method, the skill level of IBS workers is more demanding. Although there are a lot benefits in implementing IBS, the construction industry still not rapidly implementing IBS. The IBS method still considered new and even though there are a lot of benefits it still faces barriers. In an IBS construction, the role of the contractor is shifted from a builder to an assembler on the site. Therefore, this requires the contractor to be prepared technologically with IBS knowledge and skills. It is generally perceived that the number of skilled IBS installers in Malaysia is still low even though the system has been implemented for a long time. This research is carried out to find out whether the existing number of IBS installer is sufficient. Primary data was collected by carrying out interviews with the contractors at the IBS construction site in Penang Island in order to get the contractor’s feedback regarding this issue. Meanwhile, the secondary data was collected from government agencies to get the number of existing IBS installer and the number of IBS projects done in government projects. The results from this study indicated that not all categories of skill workers are in shortage. However, the number of precast concrete installer is in a critical shortage.

  1. Building lifespan: effect on the environmental impact of building components in a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2017-01-01

    solutions, covering all primary building components and based on contemporary practice. A full statistical analysis is carried out, which shows a significant statistical correlation between changes in building lifespan and environmental impact for all primary building components, except windows....../rooflights. On average, a building lifespan of 80 years reduces environmental impact by 29 %, 100 years by 38 %, and 120 years by 44 %, all in relation to a lifespan of 50 years. The results show that if construction professionals and policy makers use short building lifespans, then resource allocation to reduce...

  2. Building Lifespan: Effect on the Environmental Impact of Building Components in a Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Construction professionals must now integrate environmental concerns with life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the procurement process. Building lifespan is important to LCA, since results must be normalized on an annualized basis for comparison. However, the scientific literature shows that issues...... of building lifespan are inadequately addressed. The aim of this research is therefore to explore how environmental impact from building components is affected by building lifespans of 50, 80, 100 and 120 years in a Danish context. LCAs are undertaken for 792 parametric variations of typical construction...... solutions, covering all primary building components and based on contemporary practice. A full statistical analysis is carried out, which shows a significant statistical correlation between changes in building lifespan and environmental impact for all primary building components, except windows...

  3. Modeling thermally active building components using space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank; Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    simplified models of the components do not always provide useful solutions, since they are not always able to reproduce the correct thermal behavior. The space mapping technique transforms a simplified, but computationally inexpensive model, in order to align it with a detailed model or measurements....... This paper describes the principle of the space mapping technique, and introduces a simple space mapping technique. The technique is applied to a lumped parameter model of a thermo active component, which provides a model of the thermal performance of the component as a function of two design parameters......In order to efficiently implement thermally active building components in new buildings, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal interaction between them and other building components. Applying parameter investigation or numerical optimization methods to a differential-algebraic (DAE) model...

  4. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    . The perhaps most important basic passive house concept requirement in a relatively cold Danish climate is envelope constructions with superior thermal insulation without thermal bridges. Some Danish producers of building components have during the last couple of years, developed new highly insulated...... tighter energy performance requirements in 2006 and a new classification system, where buildings can be classi¬fied as being a “Low energy building class 1 or 2”. These new requirements are based on the EU-directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, EPBD (2002/91/EC). The new classification system...... will make it possible for building contractors to better promote low energy houses and even passive houses to the consumers. The consumers will, in an easy way, be able to demand that their new house should have a better energy performan¬ce than the minimum requirements specified in the Building Regulations...

  5. Trenches for building blocks of advanced planar components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Trenches are fundamental structures used to build advanced optical planar waveguide components. In this letter, the fabrication of trenches across silica-on-silicon waveguides using inductively coupled plasma etching is presented. These trenches were etched deep into the silicon substrate...

  6. Durability of future energy-efficient building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Diana

    Over the last decade, there has been a goal-oriented focus in the European Union on energy efficiency in the building sector to free it from the use of fossil fuels. Increases in the energy efficiency of building components means increased initial costs, for both new buildings and renovations...... tools. The method includes both energy analysis compared to current and future energy requirements, and analysis of possible failures in the building design (Failure Mode and Effects analysis). The method also includes an economic perspective (Net present value) given that the choice of a specific...... that the maintenance is already thought into the solution, so that the work can be done fast and easily with a minimum of expense. Minimizing costs is an important aspect in the complete solution so that we not only develop energy-efficient solutions, but also solutions that are economical. Two case studies were...

  7. Construction cost prediction model for conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Subhi Alshamrani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature lacks in initial cost prediction models for college buildings, especially comparing costs of sustainable and conventional buildings. A multi-regression model was developed for conceptual initial cost estimation of conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America. RS Means was used to estimate the national average of construction costs for 2014, which was subsequently utilized to develop the model. The model could predict the initial cost per square feet with two structure types made of steel and concrete. The other predictor variables were building area, number of floors and floor height. The model was developed in three major stages, such as preliminary diagnostics on data quality, model development and validation. The developed model was successfully tested and validated with real-time data.

  8. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  9. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates. PMID:28117727

  10. Computer navigation experience in hip resurfacing improves femoral component alignment using a conventional jig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Morison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The use of computer navigation has been shown to improve the accuracy of femoral component placement compared to conventional instrumentation in hip resurfacing. Whether exposure to computer navigation improves accuracy when the procedure is subsequently performed with conventional instrumentation without navigation has not been explored. We examined whether femoral component alignment utilizing a conventional jig improves following experience with the use of imageless computer navigation for hip resurfacing. Materials and Methods:Between December 2004 and December 2008, 213 consecutive hip resurfacings were performed by a single surgeon. The first 17 (Cohort 1 and the last 9 (Cohort 2 hip resurfacings were performed using a conventional guidewire alignment jig. In 187 cases, the femoral component was implanted using the imageless computer navigation. Cohorts 1 and 2 were compared for femoral component alignment accuracy. Results:All components in Cohort 2 achieved the position determined by the preoperative plan. The mean deviation of the stem-shaft angle (SSA from the preoperatively planned target position was 2.2° in Cohort 2 and 5.6° in Cohort 1 ( P = 0.01. Four implants in Cohort 1 were positioned at least 10° varus compared to the target SSA position and another four were retroverted. Conclusions: Femoral component placement utilizing conventional instrumentation may be more accurate following experience using imageless computer navigation.

  11. Trends and Reliance on Foreign Labourers in Malaysia: Conventional Construction versus Industrialized Building System Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mydin M.A.O

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an influx of foreign labourers in Malaysia over the past decade due to sustained economic growth and a limited labour market. As a long term measure to ensure sustainable growth as well as to minimize socio-economic implications, a medium to longer-term policy on foreign workers will be devised with the goal of reducing overdependence on foreign workers while attracting more skilled and trained professionals. In order to reduce the number of foreign workers, the government has encouraged the implementation of an IBS. An Industrialized Building System (IBS is a construction system in which the components are manufactured in a factory, on or off site, positioned, and assembled into complete structures with minimal additional site work. This research has been carried out to discover trends, whether decreasing or increasing, in the employment of foreign labour in the Malaysian construction industry with reference to the Immigration Department of Malaysia. Additionally, interviews with construction labourers at IBS sites and conventional sites were carried out to identify the number of foreign labourers that are used in such projects.

  12. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of

  13. Embodied Energy Assessment and Comparisons for a Residential Building Using Conventional and Alternative Materials in Indian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kishore, K.; Chouhan, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Building sector is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use and 24 % of carbon dioxide emissions in India. The main source of green house gas emissions from buildings is due to energy consumption. This paper aims to assess the embodied energy index and environmental impact of a two storied residential building. The study proposes various alternative materials which can be used in day to day construction in order to mitigate the environmental impact and climate change due to construction activity in India. Two types of construction techniques have been considered for the study, namely load bearing and reinforced concrete framed construction. Embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions of walling and roofing components using conventional and alternative materials has also been analyzed and compared. The comparison is done based on two parameters namely, embodied energy/m2 and CO2 emissions per unit of floor area. The study shows that bricks, cement and steel are the three major contributors to the energy cost of constructing a building by conventional methods. A conventional two storied load bearing structure is 22 % more energy efficient when compared to a reinforced concrete structure. It has also been observed from the study that use of alternative material in the building envelope gives embodied energy savings between 50 and 60 % for a two storey load bearing structure and 30-42 % for a two storey reinforced concrete structure. Hence a load bearing construction is certainly a better alternative to RC framed construction for up to two storied structures in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts.

  14. 15 CFR 270.322 - Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to the building failure are located, and take...

  15. Drying and wetting of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book, Drying and Wetting of Building Materials and Components, provides a collection of recent contributions in the field of drying and wetting in porous building materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  16. Daylight buildings. A source book on daylighting systems and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruck, N.; Aschehoug, Oe.; Aydinli, S. (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This source book gives a comprehensive overview of innovative daylighting systems, the performance parameters by which they are judged, and an evaluation of their energy savings potential and user acceptance. The book has been written to overcome a lack of evidence of the advantages of daylighting in buildings and a lack of knowledge regarding the performance of innovative daylighting systems in buildings in various climatic zones around the world. The information presented here is intended to be used in the earliest stages of the building design process. Innovative daylighting systems are designed to redirect sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required, without glare. These systems use optical devices that initiate reflection, refraction, and/or use the total internal reflection of sunlight and skylight. Advanced daylighting systems can be designed to actively track the sun or passively control the direction of sunlight and skylight. The systems included in this book have been generally limited to passive devices. This book describes in detail the wide range of innovative daylighting systems available worldwide today, including information on their components, principles on which they are based, applications for which they are appropriate, production, control, costs and energy savings, maintenance, examples of use, and performance assessments. The performance assessment results were obtained by monitoring the system using physical models under sky simulators, or full-scale test rooms or actual buildings under real sky conditions. The types of innovative systems selected for testing are currently available in the marketplace or have been recently developed in laboratories. The results summarized here demonstrate that, if selected according to daylight climate and integrated appropriately With electric lighting and shading controls, the majority of these systems can enhance daylight in building interiors and thereby promote energy savings. It should be noted

  17. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as well as control strategies. But complexity also means costs and risks, and we need to discuss the means and effects. This discussion in particular is very interesting because here science and practice meet. The Journal of Facade Design and Engineering JFDE will actively follow and stimulate by providing high quality contributions. Four of the paper contributions have their origins in the Conference ‘Facades 2014’, held in November 2014 in Lucerne. The contributions have been carefully selected and have been subjected to the regular double blind review process of the journal. We want to thank Prof. Dr. Andres Luible for the help in making this issue happen. We are proud that JFDE is the scientific partner for a number of conferences such as ‘The Future Envelope’ Conference on Building Envelopes held yearly in Delft (NL or Bath (UK, the ICAE International Congress on Architectural Envelopes in San Sebastian (ES and the above mentioned conference ‘Facades’ in Lucerne (CH and Detmold (D. Our latest partner is the ICBEST 2017 - International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies in Istanbul. The growing number of partners indicates the relevance of JFDE for our growing discipline and will assure the continuity of the journal. Facade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ‘open access’ as the future publishing model

  18. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer;

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...... glasses will at elevated temperatures behave like a highly viscous liquid, which can easily form even complicated geometries in 1 step. The strengths and limitations of forming the 2 materials are analyzed for a micro 3D component in a silver alloy and an Mg-Cu-Y BMG. ©2007 American Institute of Physics...

  19. 15 CFR 270.321 - Entry and inspection of property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building failure are located. 270... of property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... building components, materials, artifacts and records with respect to a building failure are...

  20. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    tighter energy performance requirements in 2006 and a new classification system, where buildings can be classi¬fied as being a “Low energy building class 1 or 2”. These new requirements are based on the EU-directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, EPBD (2002/91/EC). The new classification system...

  1. Waste Generation and Recycling: Comparison of Conventional and Industrialized Building Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawshan A. Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the Malaysian construction industry, there is a pressing issue of minimizing construction waste, which cause significant impacts on the environment. With the increasing demand for major infrastructure projects, commercial buildings and housing development programmers, a large amount of construction waste is being produced. Adoption of prefabrication and industrialized building systems is now a priority in the industry and also an important means of reducing waste. Approach: Discussion of the prefabrication adoption were based on a comprehensive review of literatures and studies that contained data, information, findings and evidences related to prefabrication and industrial building systems in Malaysia. This study also highlighted a comparative study of material wastage and recycling based on two project sites e.g., conventional and prefabrication construction. Results: In the Malaysia construction industry, adoption of prefabrication and IBS is strongly encouraged to reduce construction time as well as the industry’s dependency on foreign workers. In addition, this study confirms that a huge amount of material wastage can be reduced by the adoption of prefabrication. This study also revealed that the rates of reused and recycled waste materials are relatively higher in projects that adopt prefabrication. Conclusion: Thus, the adoption of prefabrication and IBS has potential in the reduction of huge waste generation and management problems in the construction sector of Malaysia although there are some challenges in the adoption of prefabrication.

  2. 15 CFR 270.323 - Requests for permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Requests for permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building failure are...

  3. Achrotech: achromat cost versus performance for conventional, diffractive, and GRIN components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey; Wolf, Greg; Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Sparrold, Scott

    2016-09-01

    An achromatic component shares a common focus at two wavelengths and is a commonly used device in optical assemblies. This work explores the cost versus performance tradeoff for several types of achromatic lenses: conventional doublets with homogenous glass elements, hybrid doublets with a diffractive surface, axial GRadient INdex (GRIN) lenses (where the index of refraction changes along the length of the lens), and radial GRIN lenses (where the index of refraction changes depending on radial position). First order achromatic principles will be reviewed and applied to each system as a starting point and refined through the use of ray trace software. Optical performance will be assessed in terms of focusing efficiency and imaging. Cost will then be evaluated by accounting for current manufacturing costs and retail price through several distributors.

  4. Software Release Build Process and Components in ATLAS Offline.

    CERN Document Server

    Obreshkov, Emil; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the largest collaborations in the physical sciences. The collaboration involves 3000 scientists and engineers from 174 institutions in 38 countries. This geographically dispersed developer community produces a huge amount of software. The ATLAS Offline software code is organized in 10 projects and in this presentation we discuss how the software is built on variety of compiler and operating system combinations every night. File level parallelism and package level parallelism together with multi-core build servers are used to perform fast builds of the different platforms in several branches. We discuss the different tools involved during the software release build process and also the various mechanisms implemented to provide performance gains and error detection and retry mechanisms in order to counteract network and other instabilities that would otherwise degrade the robustness of the system. We provide to our developers and user quality software built as fast as possible ready for tests an...

  5. Flame ignition studies of conventional and alternative jet fuels and surrogate components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning

    Practical jet fuels are widely used in air-breathing propulsion, but the chemical mechanisms that control their combustion are not yet understood. Thousands of components are contained in conventional and alternative jet fuels, making thus any effort to model their combustion behavior a daunting task. That has been the motivation behind the development of surrogate fuels that contain typically a small number of neat components, whose physical properties and combustion behavior mimic those of the real jet fuel, and whose kinetics could be modeled with increased degree of confidence. Towards that end, a large number of experimental data are required both for the real fuels and the attendant surrogate components that could be used to develop and validate detailed kinetic models. Those kinetic models could be used then upon reduction to model a combustor and eventually optimize its performance. Among all flame phenomena, ignition is rather sensitive to the oxidative and pyrolytic propensity of the fuel as well as to its diffusivity. The counterflow configuration is ideal in probing both the fuel reactivity and diffusivity aspects of the ignition process and it was used in the present work to determine the ignition temperatures of premixed and non-premixed flames of a variety of fuels relevant to air-breathing propulsion. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, elevated unburned fuel mixture temperatures, and various strain rates that were measured locally. Several recent kinetic models were used in direct numerical simulations of the experiments and the computed results were tested against the experimental data. Furthermore, through sensitivity, reaction path, and structure analyses of the computed flames, insight was provided into the dominant mechanisms that control ignition. It was found that ignition is primarily sensitive to fuel diffusion and secondarily sensitive to chemical kinetics and intermediate species diffusivities under the low fuel

  6. 15 CFR 270.325 - Notice of authority to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Notice of authority to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... investigated has occurred, or where building components, materials, and artifacts with respect to the...

  7. Methods for designing building envelope components prepared for repair and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    2000-01-01

    to be prepared for repair and maintenance. Both of these components are insulation systems for flat roofs and low slope roofs; components where repair or replacement is very expensive if the roofing material fails in its function. The principle of both roofing insulation systems is that the insulation can...... in a different way for each component.Further development of building envelope components that through their design are prepared for repair and maintenance so that expensive repair and replacement may be avoided. Examples of components in need of such a design process could be internal insulation systems where......The dissertation consist of five parts:The purpose of the first part is to give the reader an introduction to the subjects of deterioration mechanisms, loss of function for building envelope components and prediction of service life for building envelope components.The purpose of the second part...

  8. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary co...

  9. Post Occupancy Evaluation: A New Component in the Building Delivery Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward T.

    1992-01-01

    Postoccupancy evaluation is a set of procedures and tools used to learn how well design ideas have worked in real buildings. Explores some of the important issues about postoccupancy evaluation using questions that are often asked about this new component in the building delivery system. (MLF)

  10. Format for description of building envelope components for use in an optimization process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    for describing building components is a uniform way. The aim of the report is to describe the format of the building envelope description making it possible to include several aspects into one common parameter which can or will make it possible to compare the performance of several alternatives....

  11. Methods for designing building envelope components prepared for repair and maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The dissertation consist of five parts:The purpose of the first part is to give the reader an introduction to the subjects of deterioration mechanisms, loss of function for building envelope components and prediction of service life for building envelope components.The purpose of the second part is to describe, compare and criticise the standards, guides and methods dealing with service life prediction which are currently available. The standards are not the only available information regardi...

  12. Addition of a Project-Based Component to a Conventional Expository Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Gorezi, Marianna

    2007-01-01

    Students should enjoy their laboratory classes and for this purpose a project-based activity is added to a conventional physical chemistry laboratory. Students were given project work instead of conventional experiment and then they had to make progress in the project according to instructions and then carry out experiments related to the project.

  13. Analysis 6. Component requirements, competition and export. A survey of innovation related to building components; Analyse 6. Komponentkrav, konkurrence og eksport. En kortlaegning af innovation i byggekomponenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend

    2011-02-15

    The report collates several sub-analyses about feasible developments in relation to improved energy requirements for the most important building parts, components and installations for low-energy buildings. The aim is to achieve 75% reduction of energy consumption in the future building class 2020. The findings will contribute to the plans of introducing new building component requirements to force Danish manufacturers to use innovative solutions and to force manufacturers from other countries to market the best products only. (LN)

  14. The ORC method. Effective modelling of thermal performance of multilayer building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akander, Jan

    2000-02-01

    The ORC Method (Optimised RC-networks) provides a means of modelling one- or multidimensional heat transfer in building components, in this context within building simulation environments. The methodology is shown, primarily applied to heat transfer in multilayer building components. For multilayer building components, the analytical thermal performance is known, given layer thickness and material properties. The aim of the ORC Method is to optimise the values of the thermal resistances and heat capacities of an RC-model such as to give model performance a good agreement with the analytical performance, for a wide range of frequencies. The optimisation procedure is made in the frequency domain, where the over-all deviation between model and analytical frequency response, in terms of admittance and dynamic transmittance, is minimised. It is shown that ORC's are effective in terms of accuracy and computational time in comparison to finite difference models when used in building simulations, in this case with IDA/ICE. An ORC configuration of five mass nodes has been found to model building components in Nordic countries well, within the application of thermal comfort and energy requirement simulations. Simple RC-networks, such as the surface heat capacity and the simple R-C-configuration are not appropriate for detailed building simulation. However, these can be used as basis for defining the effective heat capacity of a building component. An approximate method is suggested on how to determine the effective heat capacity without the use of complex numbers. This entity can be calculated on basis of layer thickness and material properties with the help of two time constants. The approximate method can give inaccuracies corresponding to 20%. In-situ measurements have been carried out in an experimental building with the purpose of establishing the effective heat capacity of external building components that are subjected to normal thermal conditions. The auxiliary

  15. Molecular Modeling as a Self-Taught Component of a Conventional Undergraduate Chemical Reaction Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Erhard W.; Zygmunt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    We inserted a self-taught molecular modeling project into an otherwise conventional undergraduate chemical-reaction-engineering course. Our objectives were that students should (a) learn with minimal instructor intervention, (b) gain an appreciation for the relationship between molecular structure and, first, macroscopic state functions in…

  16. Identification of the main thermal characteristics of building components using MATLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the IDENT Graphical User Interface of MATLAB to estimate the thermal properties of building components from outdoor dynamic testing, imposing appropriate physical constraints and assuming linear and time invariant parametric models. The theory is briefly des...

  17. Class separation of buildings with high and low prevalence of SBS by principal component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, L.; Fick, J.; Andersson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This method was able to separate buildings with high and low prevalence of SBS in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA). Data from the Northern Swedish Office Illness Study describing the presence and level of chemical compounds in outdoor, supply and room air, respective...

  18. A novel method to highly versatile monomeric PNA building blocks by multi component reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, Alexander; Chi, Kai-Zu; Barrère, Mathieux

    1999-01-01

    A novel approach to monomeric PNA building blocks by a solution phase Ugi multi component reaction (MCR) is described. The reaction is easily performed in 96 well plates. The products precipitate from the reaction solution and are thus obtained in high yields and purity. Those products are not amena

  19. Konference report: 8th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1999-01-01

    The report describes the activities of the author (2 oral presentations, 1 session chairman, participation in ISO/TC59/SC14 and CIB W80 meeetings) during the 8th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components held in Vancouver, Canada from 30 May 1999 to 6 June 1999....

  20. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below...

  1. Effect of the Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester Component on Conventional Diesel Fuel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME component in diesel fuel was assessed. Dynamic viscosity and density of blends were particularly observed. Measurements were performed at standard constant temperature. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In the case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and the blend of both, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found out and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data sources. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modelled using the 3rd degree polynomial. Temperature dependence of density was modelled using the 2nd degree polynomial. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  2. Improving Target Repeatability Yields Broader Results in Component Fabrication and Overall Build

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sallee; Gamboa, Eliseo; Gillespie, Robb; Huntington, Channing; Krauland, Christine; Kuranz, Carolyn; di Stefano, Carlos; Susalla, Peter; Lairson, Bruce; Elsner, Fred; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

    2012-10-01

    The University of Michigan has been fabricating targets for high energy density experiments since 2003. Our experiments study physics relevant to laboratory astrophysics. Machined acrylic structures serve as a backbone supporting all the components on our targets, as well as providing us with a method that eases our build. A most vital component to nearly every target we build, is shielding. Employing techniques to bend gold foils, enables complex geometries and eliminates seams that possibly allow unwanted emission in our diagnostics. Many of our experiments explore the dynamics of a radiative shock launched into xenon or argon gas. Polyimide (PI) tubing confines the gas and is transmissive to the diagnostic x-rays used to probe the experiment. Recent interest in the shock dynamics of non-axisymmetric shocks has lead to the development of PI tubes with non-circular cross sections. We present the techniques we use to produce repeatable targets as well as recent improvements in our techniques.

  3. Green Building between Tradition and Modernity Study Comparative Analysis between Conventional Methods and Updated Styles of Design and Architecture Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Elshimy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green house   concept appeared from the ancient to the modern age ages and there is a tendency to use a traditional architecture with a pristine ecological environment areas and through sophisticated systems arrived to modern systems of the upgraded systems by Treatment architectural achieve environmental   sustainability   in   recent   years,   sustainability concept has become the common interest of numerous disciplines. The reason for this popularity is to perform the sustainable development. The Concept of Green Architecture, also known as "sustainable architecture” or “green house,” is the theory, science and style of buildings designed and constructed in accordance   with environmentally   friendly   principles.   Green house strives to minimize the number of resources consumed in the   building's  construction,   use   and   operation,   as  well  as curtailing  the  harm  done  to  the  environment  through  the emission, pollution and waste of its components.To design, construct, operate and maintain buildings energy, water and new materials are utilized as well as amounts of waste causing negative effects to health and environment is generated. In order to limit these effects and design environmentally sound and resource efficient buildings; "green building systems" must be introduced, clarified, understood and practiced.This paper aims at highlighting these difficult and complex issues of sustainability which encompass the scope of almost every aspect of human life.

  4. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The....... These are the math service, navigational service, naming and location service and the storage service in addition to two communication protocols (TCP/IP and JAVA RMI)....

  5. PCM-enhanced building components an application of phase change materials in building envelopes and internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kosny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an overview of the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) within buildings, this book discusses the performance of PCM-enhanced building envelopes. It reviews the most common PCMs suitable for building applications, and discusses PCM encapsulation and packaging methods. In addition to this, it examines a range of PCM-enhanced building products in the process of development as well as examples of whole-building-scale field demonstrations. Further chapters discuss experimental and theoretical analyses (including available software) to determine dynamic thermal and energy performance ch

  6. Synergistic proinflammatory interactions of microbial toxins and structural components characteristic to moisture-damaged buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalainen, M; Täubel, M; Naarala, J; Kirjavainen, P; Koistinen, A; Hyvärinen, A; Komulainen, H; Viluksela, M

    2017-01-01

    Indoor exposure to microbes and their structural and metabolic compounds is notoriously complex. To study proinflammatory interactions between the multiple microbial agents, macrophages derived from human THP-1 monocytic cells were exposed to several concentrations of microbial toxins alone (emodin, enniatin B, physcion, sterigmatocystin, valinomycin) and in combination with microbial structural components (bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or fungal β-glucan). While the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β to single toxins alone was modest, low-dose co-exposure with structural components increased the responses of emodin, enniatin B, and valinomycin synergistically, both at the mRNA and protein level, as measured by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Co-exposure of toxins and β-glucan resulted in consistent synergistically increased expression of several inflammation-related genes, while some of the responses with LPS were also inhibitory. Co-exposure of toxins with either β-glucan or LPS induced also mitochondrial damage and autophagocytosis. The results demonstrate that microbial toxins together with bacterial and fungal structural components characteristic to moisture-damaged buildings can have drastic synergistic proinflammatory interactions at low exposure levels.

  7. LCA profiles for building components: strategies for the early design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    , a new approach explores how environmental information on building components can be simplified for strategic use early in the design process in a Danish context. In this paper, life cycle assessments (LCAs) are undertaken for several hundred typical external wall solutions, based on relevant standards......Construction professionals are required to integrate environmental concerns in the earliest design phases. However, environmental assessments need large amounts of precise data that are typically not available in the early design process, as most variables are still fluid. To address this concern....... This simplified LCA profile presents environmental data in a more understandable way, creating a strategic overview that can be easily used by non-technical clients and construction professionals in the early design stages. This has a scientific and statistical validity generated by environmental assessment...

  8. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  9. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  10. Fusion of LIDAR Data and Multispectral Imagery for Effective Building Detection Based on Graph and Connected Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, S. A. N.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2015-03-01

    Building detection in complex scenes is a non-trivial exercise due to building shape variability, irregular terrain, shadows, and occlusion by highly dense vegetation. In this research, we present a graph based algorithm, which combines multispectral imagery and airborne LiDAR information to completely delineate the building boundaries in urban and densely vegetated area. In the first phase, LiDAR data is divided into two groups: ground and non-ground data, using ground height from a bare-earth DEM. A mask, known as the primary building mask, is generated from the non-ground LiDAR points where the black region represents the elevated area (buildings and trees), while the white region describes the ground (earth). The second phase begins with the process of Connected Component Analysis (CCA) where the number of objects present in the test scene are identified followed by initial boundary detection and labelling. Additionally, a graph from the connected components is generated, where each black pixel corresponds to a node. An edge of a unit distance is defined between a black pixel and a neighbouring black pixel, if any. An edge does not exist from a black pixel to a neighbouring white pixel, if any. This phenomenon produces a disconnected components graph, where each component represents a prospective building or a dense vegetation (a contiguous block of black pixels from the primary mask). In the third phase, a clustering process clusters the segmented lines, extracted from multispectral imagery, around the graph components, if possible. In the fourth step, NDVI, image entropy, and LiDAR data are utilised to discriminate between vegetation, buildings, and isolated building's occluded parts. Finally, the initially extracted building boundary is extended pixel-wise using NDVI, entropy, and LiDAR data to completely delineate the building and to maximise the boundary reach towards building edges. The proposed technique is evaluated using two Australian data sets

  11. Characterisation of organic and conventional sweet basil leaves using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Gao, Boyan; Chen, Pei; Charles, Denys; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-07-01

    Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, is one of the most important and wildly used spices and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diarrheal activities. In this study, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were used to differentiate organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fingerprints indicated that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints could effectively detect the chemical differences in the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. This study suggested that the organic basil sample contained greater concentrations of almost all the major compounds than its conventional counterpart on a per same botanical weight basis. The FIMS method was able to rapidly differentiate the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples (1min analysis time), whereas the HPLC fingerprints provided more information about the chemical composition of the basil samples with a longer analytical time.

  12. Chinese wood frame buildings and the changing dimensions of their structural components in different time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujaba Binte Kabir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Features of the Chinese wood frame buildings are same in character from dynasty to dynasty. The study concentrates on 9 Chinese wood frame buildings from Tang to Yuan dynasty and tries to relate these buildings with the text described in a building manual book published in Song dynasty Yingzao fashi. The features of some buildings match with the text described in the book some do not. But on the other hand Liang Sicheng, scholar of Chinese architecture in his book claimed that Chinese wood frame architecture has a unique system of characteristics (Liang, 1984. The system of wood frame Chinese architecture did not change but the proportion of the features has changed in different dynasty. The aim of the paper is to compare the features of the buildings those have been studied according to Yingzao fashi with Liang's observation on the change of building style in different periods.

  13. Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Yosef; Tomasko, David L.; Trott, Bruce; Schlosser, Phil; Yang, Yong; Wilson, Tiffany M.; Merrill, John

    2008-01-01

    A micromanufacturing lab-on-a-chip project with a nanotechnology component was introduced as an alternate laboratory in the required first-year engineering curriculum at The Ohio State University. Nanotechnology is introduced in related reading and laboratory tours as well as laboratory activities including a quarter-length design, build, and test…

  14. Lab-on-a-Chip Design-Build Project with a Nanotechnology Component in a Freshman Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Yosef; Tomasko, David L.; Trott, Bruce; Schlosser, Phil; Yang, Yong; Wilson, Tiffany M.; Merrill, John

    2008-01-01

    A micromanufacturing lab-on-a-chip project with a nanotechnology component was introduced as an alternate laboratory in the required first-year engineering curriculum at The Ohio State University. Nanotechnology is introduced in related reading and laboratory tours as well as laboratory activities including a quarter-length design, build, and test…

  15. Object-Oriented Database for Managing Building Modeling Components and Metadata: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Brackney, L.

    2011-12-01

    Building simulation enables users to explore and evaluate multiple building designs. When tools for optimization, parametrics, and uncertainty analysis are combined with analysis engines, the sheer number of discrete simulation datasets makes it difficult to keep track of the inputs. The integrity of the input data is critical to designers, engineers, and researchers for code compliance, validation, and building commissioning long after the simulations are finished. This paper discusses an application that stores inputs needed for building energy modeling in a searchable, indexable, flexible, and scalable database to help address the problem of managing simulation input data.

  16. Identifying the damping contribution of building components based on measured top vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, R.L.J. van den; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a damping model for a high-rise building is introduced. This model is used to investigate the possibilities to identify the relative damping contribution of the internal material damping in building elements, energy loss at element interfaces and energy outflow at the interface with t

  17. Systems and components for intelligent buildings; Sistemi e componenti per la domotica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzi, F. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica

    2001-06-01

    The rapid development of automation and communication techniques involve also the intelligent buildings project. [Italian] Il rapido sviluppo delle tecniche di automazione e telecomunicazione investe anche la progettazione degli edifici intelligenti.

  18. Measurement and simulation of transparent building components with sun-shading; Messung und Simulation von transparenten Bauteilen mit Sonnenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Manz, H.; Haas, A. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Favarolo, P.A. [Universita Technica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    This paper takes a look at the construction and simulation of modern office buildings that often feature lightweight construction and a high proportion of glazing or even double building skins completely made of glass. In particular, those thermal comfort and cooling aspects are discussed that require that the solar attributes of facade elements are taken into account. Work done at the Swiss Federal materials institute EMPA as part of the International Energy Agency's IEA Task 27 'Performance, durability and sustainability of advanced windows and solar components for building envelopes' is discussed. The properties of glazing and shading systems are presented and discussed. Results obtained by calculation are compared with those obtained from measurements. Modules for the calculation of the properties of glazing elements and their simulation are discussed, as are transparent insulation systems.

  19. Measurement and simulation of transparent building components with sun-shading; Messung und Simulation von transparenten Bauteilen mit Sonnenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Manz, H.; Haas, A. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Favarolo, P.A. [Universita Technica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    This paper takes a look at the construction and simulation of modern office buildings that often feature lightweight construction and a high proportion of glazing or even double building skins completely made of glass. In particular, those thermal comfort and cooling aspects are discussed that require that the solar attributes of facade elements are taken into account. Work done at the Swiss Federal materials institute EMPA as part of the International Energy Agency's IEA Task 27 'Performance, durability and sustainability of advanced windows and solar components for building envelopes' is discussed. The properties of glazing and shading systems are presented and discussed. Results obtained by calculation are compared with those obtained from measurements. Modules for the calculation of the properties of glazing elements and their simulation are discussed, as are transparent insulation systems.

  20. Influences of the Indoor Environment on Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions in The Building Component: Boundary Conditions Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Rode, Carsten; Janssen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    used to investigate this influence. The research showed that the indoor environmental conditions and local airflow velocity have a relatively large influence on the predicted HAM conditions in a building component. The influence of the convective surface heat transfer coefficient on the HAM performance...... is not acceptable for the convective surface heat transfer coefficient. The study showed that the influence on the surface relative humidity is limited.......Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in building components assume uniform boundary conditions, both for the temperature and relative humidity of the air in an indoor space as well as for the surface transfer coefficients. Such models cannot accurately predict the HAM...

  1. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  2. Detailed Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Building Components in Steel-construction Residential Buildings%钢结构住宅建筑部品生命周期详单分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏醒; 张旭; 孙永强

    2011-01-01

    对某钢结构住宅小区内3幢不同层数建筑施工过程的建材耗量、建材来源进行调研统计,并结合BESLCI软件计算建筑结构、围护结构的生命周期能耗及环境排放.结果表明,钢构件、混凝土和水泥的生命周期能耗共占钢结构住宅建筑部品生命周期能耗的60%以上,钢结构住宅施工生命周期能耗仅为常规结构住宅的50%左右,建筑体量对钢结构住宅建筑部品生命周期清单影响不大.同国内外其他学者的钢结构建筑生命周期清单分析结果进行了比较,差异较大,分析发现数据获取的精确性、研究边界划分的合理性及缺少标准的清单分析数据库是造成差异的主要原因.%An in-situ research was made to investigate the building material consumption and source of three steel-construction residential buildings with different volumes. Then a comparative study was made of the life cycle energy consumption and environmental emissions of building structures and envelops with the BESLCI software. Results show that the steel component,concrete and cement consume more than 60% of the total life cycle energy; the life cycle energy consumption of steel construction residential building during construction stage is only 50% of that of conventional structure. The building volumes have little impact on inventory analysis results per building area unit. The results are different from the former research results because of the accuracy of inventory data, rationality of research boundary partition and the shortage of inventory analysis data base.

  3. StructuralComponents 4: Conceptual building models with structural design justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of computation in the building industry has led to the development of a range of tools intended for design. Although commonly used for detailed analysis (FEA) and documentation (CAD/BIM), few tools address the needs of the early design stages for flexibility and quick, insightful feedba

  4. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C...

  5. Study on Mechanical Properties and Components of HRB400 Steel for High-strength Building

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study took five samples of screw-thread steel III, i.e. HRB400 steel bar of different diameters: 10mm, 12mm, 16mm, 20mm and 25mm; and conducted contrast experiments of their mechanical properties and components. The 600 sets of data collected from the experiments were processed by multivariate regression analysis of mechanical properties and components by diameter with MATLAB. The result showed that differentHRB400 screw-thread steel bars have different components with the mechanical prop...

  6. TECHNIQUES OF 3D COMPONENT DATABASE ESTABLISHING AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WOODEN BUILDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the architectural survey project of “the Chi Lin Nunnery Redevelopment "in Hong Kong,this paper attempts to investigate the techniques of building 3D digital document of large_scale timber structure and quality con trol during construction by computer_based 3D simulation for the whole project.T here were several key issues including primary data acquisition,3D modeling and display,pre_assembling the total building and quality examination,etc.In this pa per,some useful experiments,such as the new applications of CCD digital cameras,image and graph processing software packages (CAD,Photoshop,Photomod eler,Vexcel,etc.) to the architectures are also presented.These methods intr oduced in this paper are suitable for image and graph integrated database buildi ng of complicated architectures,and useful for conveniently maintaining and rec onstructing the ancient architectures.

  7. Building automation system of payment platform weight component for large spacecraft reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. V.; Badanina, J. O.

    2016-04-01

    Considered Design and the logic of opening large convertible antenna. The necessity of compensation weight component in the assembly and testing of the design. Given the logic of the movement elements of power spokes, concluded that the use of the tracking system to compensate for the weight component. The analysis of the existing equipment and control systems. Produced selection of the manufacturer of automated equipment that meets the stated objectives of management and control. It is concluded that the design component of the weight compensation system based on servo controllers and sensors combined platform automation, controlled by special software. The structure of the platform automation, consistent workflow testing. It defines the principles of interaction between subsystems of the weight compensation component for receiving, processing and monitoring of process parameters testing. It is concluded that the proposed system can be integrated into the automation system and the perspective of process control testing of disclosure of large spacecraft.

  8. Experimental validation of coupled heat, air and moisture transfer modeling in multilayer building components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroukhi, M. Y.; Abahri, K.; Belarbi, R.; Limam, K.; Nouviaire, A.

    2016-10-01

    The present paper lies to study the coupled heat, air and moisture transfer in multi-layer building materials. Concerning the modeling part, the interest is to predict the hygrothermal behavior, by developing a macroscopic model that incorporates simultaneously the diffusive, convective and conductive effects on the building elements. Heat transfer is considered in the strongly coupled situation where the mass and heat flux are temperature, vapor pressure and total pressure dependents. The model input parameters are evaluated experimentally through the development of various experimental prototypes in the laboratory. Thereafter, an experimental setup has been established in order to evaluate the hygrothermal process of several multilayer walls configurations. The experimental procedure consists to follow the temperature and relative humidity evolutions within the samples thickness, submitted to controlled and fixed boundary conditions. This procedure points out diverging conclusion between different testing materials combinations (e.g. red-brick and polystyrene). In fact, the hygrothermal behavior of the tested configurations is completely dependent on both materials selection and their thermophysical properties. Finally, comparison between numerical and experimental results showed good agreement with acceptable errors margins with an average of 3 %.

  9. Building Block Approach' for Structural Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Components for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carello, M.; Amirth, N.; Airale, A. G.; Monti, M.; Romeo, A.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced thermoplastic prepreg composite materials stand out with regard to their ability to allow complex designs with high specific strength and stiffness. This makes them an excellent choice for lightweight automotive components to reduce mass and increase fuel efficiency, while maintaining the functionality of traditional thermosetting prepreg (and mechanical characteristics) and with a production cycle time and recyclability suited to mass production manufacturing. Currently, the aerospace and automotive sectors struggle to carry out accurate Finite Elements (FE) component analyses and in some cases are unable to validate the obtained results. In this study, structural Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) has been done on a thermoplastic fiber reinforced component designed and manufactured through an integrated injection molding process, which consists in thermoforming the prepreg laminate and overmolding the other parts. This process is usually referred to as hybrid molding, and has the provision to reinforce the zones subjected to additional stresses with thermoformed themoplastic prepreg as required and overmolded with a shortfiber thermoplastic resin in single process. This paper aims to establish an accurate predictive model on a rational basis and an innovative methodology for the structural analysis of thermoplastic composite components by comparison with the experimental tests results.

  10. Construction components and energy efficiency in buildings; Componentes de construccion y eficiencia energetica en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, N.K.; Bhandari, M.S.; Kummar, P.S. [Centro para el Estudio de Energia, Instituto Hindu de Tecnologia, Hauz Khas, Nueva Delhi (Indonesia)

    2005-01-15

    An energy efficiency analysis to a set of buildings was made in India to quantify the effects of the individual design concepts with respect to the energy system in general. The saving potential of energy of different concepts as well as the orientation, windows, air cavities, insulation, etc. was quantified for the different climatic conditions that prevail in most of the Central India regions. It is demonstrated that the specific requirement of heat energy can be reduced to 300 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edifice} = 2.13 W/m{sup 2} K) for a building of normal construction up to 143 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edifice} = 0.95 W/m{sup 2} K) when using ceiling insulation and walls and by means of the use of double glass windows. [Spanish] Se realizo el analisis de eficiencia de energia a un conjunto de edificios en la India, para cuantificar los efectos de los conceptos individuales de diseno respecto al sistema de energia en general. El potencial de ahorro de energia de distintos conceptos, como la orientacion, ventanas, cavidades de aire, aislamiento, etc. fue cuantificado para las distintas condiciones climaticas que prevalecen en la mayoria de las regiones de India central. Se demuestra que el requerimiento especifico de energia calorifica puede ser reducida de 300 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edificio} = 2.13 W/m{sup 2} K) para un edificio de construccion normal hasta 143 kWh/m{sup 2} a (U{sub edificio} = 0.95 W/m{sup 2} K) al usar un aislante en el techo, paredes y mediante el empleo de ventanas de doble vidrio.

  11. [Building artificial neural networks model on portable NIR integrity wheat component measuring apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hai-yan; Wen, Ming; Hao, Bin

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative analysis model of protein in integrity wheat was built by three layers back propagation artificial neural networks for portable near infrared (NIR) integrity wheat component measuring apparatus. The structure diagram of integrity wheat component measuring apparatus, light route structure of apparatus and the spectrum of integrity wheat were given in the present paper. The theory of artificial neural network was briefly introduced and the results of quantitative analysis model of protein were given. For calibration set and prediction set, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 and 0.96 respectively; the relative standard deviation is 3.77% and 4.46% respectively. Because of the influence of light route structure, electrical circuit, and integrity sample forms on the measuring apparatus, some nonlinearity exists between the spectral parameters and chemical values. The results of artificial neural networks nonlinear model were superior to linear model.

  12. Building a Data-Driven Vital Sign Indicator for an Economically Optimized Component Replacement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    Jardine & Tsang, 2013). The optimization of replacement decision policy based on component failure predictions has been critical in the area of...PROGNOSTICS AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOCIETY 2014 2 (Banjevic, Jardine , Makis, & Ennis, 2001)( Jardine , Banjevic, Montgomery, & Pak, 2008). In practice, the...of the American Statistical Association, 101(473). Banjevic, D., Jardine , A., Makis, V., & Ennis, M. (2001). A control-limit policy and software for

  13. Importance of Farmland in Urbanized Areas as a Landscape Component for Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica) Nesting on Concrete Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas.

  14. Summary of the Maritime Force Protection Technology Demonstration Project Underwater Threats Component Build 1 Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Figure 25: Barracuda 7-m RHIB outfitted as a response boat. Figure 26: GPS and WiMAX antennas mounted on mast (left) and mounting system for the...Underwater Threats Component of the MFP TDP. The Barracuda RHIB was loaned by MOG5, Lt(N) Guy Wheeler, and associated logistics were arranged by Mr Bernie...observing operations. Figure 25: Barracuda 7-m RHIB outfitted as a response boat. 6.1 Fit-out and Work-ups The RHIB is one of several “ Barracuda

  15. One pot three components microwave assisted and conventional synthesis of new 3-(4-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(substituted) thiazolidin-4-one as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansare, Dattatraya N; Mulla, Nayeem A; Pawar, Chandrakant D; Shende, Vikas R; Shinde, Devanand B

    2014-08-01

    A one-pot, three-component, microwave assisted and conventional synthesis of new 3-(4-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(substituted) thiazolidin-4-one (4a-n) was carried out by using N,N-dimethylformamide as a solvent with high product yield. Among these synthesized compounds (4f, 4g, 4l and 4m) were found to be a broad spectrum molecule active against all bacterial and fungus strains tested, except fungus Aspergillus niger. Amongst the compounds (4g, 4l and 4m) were found to be more potent than respective standard drugs used in the experiment against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus, respectively. All synthesized compounds were also tested for their cytotoxic activity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. This study shows that all compounds were non-cytotoxic in nature, and confirmed their antimicrobial specificity apart from any general cytotoxicity.

  16. Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol (GEM Ternary Blends utilization as an Alternative to Conventional Iraqi Gasoline to Suppress Emitted Sulfur and Lead Components to Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi conventional gasoline characterized by its low octane number not exceed 82 and high lead and sulfur content. In this paper tri-component or ternary, blends of gasoline, ethanol, and methanol presented as an alternative fuel for Iraqi conventional gasoline. The study conducted by using GEM blend that equals E85 blend in octane rating. The used GEM selected from Turner, 2010 collection. G37 E20 M43 (37% gasoline + 20% ethanol+ 43% methanol was chosen as GEM in present study. This blend used in multi-cylinder Mercedes engine, and the engine performance, and emitted emissions compared with that produced by a gasoline engine. The results show that this blend can formulate with available Iraqi produced materials. GEM ternary blend offers significant advantages in terms of engine performance compared to gasoline. Also, GEM higher useful compression ratio (HUCR = 9.25 while gasoline HUCR=7.5. The increment in engine bp was 24.12%, BSFC reduced by 13.9% and brake thermal efficiency increased by 19.59%. The volumetric efficiency increased by 8.06%. Also, CO, HC concentrations were reduced by 30.5%, 25.16% respectively. Smoke opacity reduced by 46.49% and CO2 concentrations reduced by 5% as well as NOx concentrations that reduced by 1.75%.

  17. Level of Presence in Team-Building Activities: Gaming Component in Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, Gianluca; Radici, Elena; Secrhist, Scott R; Mastaglio, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who repor...

  18. An information system for the building industries: A communication approach based on industrial components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Cutting-Decelle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SYDOX/MATCOMP/Xi project, funded by the French Ministry of Industry. The goal of the project was to provide the construction professionals with an on-line aid for component specification and selection at different levels of the construction life cycle. This two years project started in 1997 and involved several partners. This paper describes the main features of the information system: databases, query and communication systems. SYDOX(SYstème de DOnnées compleXes is aimed at defining and demonstrating a prototype to access information about MATerials and COMPonents used in construction, implemented on a WWW server. Though the objective is general, the work was focused on a restricted sub-section of the construction domain. We describe the domain and the scope of the project, the starting point and the lessons learnt from the development of the prototype. We also propose some important ideas on which this research is based.

  19. Overcoming the problem of residual microbial contamination in dental suction units left by conventional disinfection using novel single component suction handpieces in combination with automated flood disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Galvin, N; Swan, J; Coleman, D C

    2015-10-01

    Decontaminating dental chair unit (DCU) suction systems in a convenient, safe and effective manner is problematic. This study aimed to identify and quantify the extent of the problems using 25 DCUs, methodically eliminate these problems and develop an efficient approach for reliable, effective, automated disinfection. DCU suction system residual contamination by environmental and human-derived bacteria was evaluated by microbiological culture following standard aspiration disinfection with a quaternary ammonium disinfectant or alternatively, a novel flooding approach to disinfection. Disinfection of multicomponent suction handpieces, assembled and disassembled, was also studied. A prototype manual and a novel automated Suction Tube Cleaning System (STCS) were developed and tested, as were novel single component suction handpieces. Standard aspiration disinfection consistently failed to decontaminate DCU suction systems effectively. Semi-confluent bacterial growth (101-500 colony forming units (CFU) per culture plate) was recovered from up to 60% of suction filter housings and from up to 19% of high and 37% of low volume suction hoses. Manual and automated flood disinfection of DCU suction systems reduced this dramatically (ranges for filter cage and high and low volume hoses of 0-22, 0-16 and 0-14CFU/plate, respectively) (Psuction handpieces could not be adequately disinfected without prior removal and disassembly. Novel single component handpieces, allowed their effective disinfection in situ using the STCS, which virtually eliminated contamination from the entire suction system. Flood disinfection of DCU suction systems and single component handpieces radically improves disinfection efficacy and considerably reduces potential cross-infection and cross-contamination risks. DCU suction systems become heavily contaminated during use. Conventional disinfection does not adequately control this. Furthermore, multicomponent suction handpieces cannot be adequately

  20. Design methodologies for energy conservation and passive heating of buildings utilizing improved building components. Progress report No. 3, January 15--April 15, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habraken, N.J.; Johnson, T.E.

    1978-04-01

    The recently completed MIT Solar Building 5 demonstrates direct gain solar space heating through the use of new architectural finish materials. February 1978 measurements are summarized. Results indicate the building performed nearly as expected.

  1. Two-Dimensional Transient Modeling of Energy and Mass Transfer in Porous Building Components using COMSOL Multiphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Maliki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a transient heat, air and moisture transfer (HAM model. The governing partial-differential equations are simultaneously solved for temperature and capillary pressure through multi-layered porous media, including the non-linear transfer and storage properties of materials. Using partial differential equations functions, some thermo-physical properties of porous media are converted into coefficients depending on temperature and capillary pressure. Major features of the model are multi-dimensional and transient coupling of heat, air and moisture transport. The coupled equations are solved using the COMSOL Multiphysics time-dependent solver. This solver enables HAM (Heat, Air, Moisture modeling in porous media. Besides, the good agreements obtained with a 2D benchmark suggest that the model can be used to assess the hygrothermal performance of building envelope components. This paper concludes that the total heat flux in the insulated wall represents only the quarter of that crossing the uninsulated concrete roof. On the other hand, the concrete having the lowest water vapour permeability of all used materials allows maintaining the vapour pressure levels close to the initial value (103 Pa. This induces a situation of interstitial condensation within the concrete of the roof. Being able to evaluate the hygrothermal behaviour, the proposed model may turn out to be a valuable tool to solve other building problems.

  2. Comparison of user performance when applying system identification for assessment of the energy performance of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androutsopoulos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Buildings Department, 19th km Marathonos Av., 190 09 Pikermi (Greece); Bloem, J.J. [Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Renewable Energies Unit, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Italy); Dijk, H.A.L. van [TNO, Department of Building Physics, Indoor Climate and Systems, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands); Baker, P.H. [Centre for Research on Indoor Climate and Health, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    The application of system identification techniques to the energy performance assessment of buildings and building components requires a high level of knowledge of physical and mathematical processes. This factor, combined with the quality of the data, the description of the monitoring procedure and test environment, together with the experience of the user of the analysis software itself, can produce varying results from different users when applying different models and software packages. Past international system identification competitions (1994 and 1996) demonstrated the spread in results that can be expected regarding the application of different models and techniques to the same benchmark data. The PASLINK EEIG has attempted to consolidate and strengthen knowledge and expertise of system identification techniques within the grouping and also ensure that data analysis meets minimum quality levels. This paper compares the spread in results obtained during the previous competitions to that obtained during the workshops carried out by the PASLINK EEIG following 10 years of networking activities in the field. The objective is to identify the extent to which the networking activities have strengthened the position of the individual teams working in the field and to identify the areas where quality assurance is met and, furthermore, where further improvements can be made. A direct comparison of the quality of results obtained during data analysis from the previous decade is made with recent results after a significant period of collaboration and networking activities. (author)

  3. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    to reduce the reliance on import of external resources significantly. We compared a conventional system (C) and an organic system relying on manure import for soil fertility (O1) to two novel systems (O2 and O3) all based on the same crop rotation. The O2 and O3 systems represented new versions...... systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C......One of the core ideas behind organic production is that cropping systems should be less dependent on import of resources, and minimize negative effects on the surrounding environment compared to conventional production. However, even when clearly complying with regulations for organic production...

  4. Linking Regulation of Practitioner School Psychology and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Need to Build a Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child presents an opportunity for school psychology to evaluate its achievements relevant to the Convention, as well as its current and future strategic adherence to the Convention's principles. With analysis of key school psychology documentation from the UK, it…

  5. Linking Regulation of Practitioner School Psychology and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Need to Build a Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child presents an opportunity for school psychology to evaluate its achievements relevant to the Convention, as well as its current and future strategic adherence to the Convention's principles. With analysis of key school psychology documentation from the UK, it…

  6. Method for a component-based economic optimisation in design of whole building renovation versus demolishing and rebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2014-01-01

    of the method from macroeconomic and private financial perspectives. Conclusion: The example shows that the investment cost and future market value of the building are the dominant factors in deciding whether to renovate an existing building or to demolish it and thereafter erect a new building. Additionally...

  7. Effects of Cultural System (Organic and Conventional on Growth, Photosynthesis and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. under Semi-Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia EFTHIMIADOU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic sweet maize consists of a new industrial crop product. Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cultural systems on growth, photosynthesis and yield components of sweet maize crop (Zea mays L. F1 hybrid Midas. A randomized complete block design was employed with four replicates per treatment (organic fertilization: cow manure (5, 10 and 20 t ha1, poultry manure (5, 10 and 20 t ha1 and barley mulch (5, 10 and 20 t ha1, synthetic fertilizer (240 kg N ha1: 21-0-0 and control. The lowest dry weight, height and leaf area index and soil organic matter were measured in the control treatment. Organic matter content was proportionate to the amount of manure applied. The control plots had the lowest yield (1593 kg ha-1 and the double rate cow manure plots the had greatest one. (6104 kg ha-1. High correlation between sweet corn yield and organic matter was registered. Moreover, the lowest values of 1000-grain weight were obtained with control plot. The fertilizer plot gave values, which were similar to the full rate cow manure treatment. The photosynthetic rate of the untreated control was significantly lower than that of the other treatments. The photosynthetic rate increased as poultry manure and barley mulch rates decreased and as cow manure increased. Furthermore, the untreated control had the lowest stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content. Our results indicated that sweet corn growth and yield in the organic plots was significantly higher than those in the conventional plots.

  8. Re-defining the Architectural Design Process Through Building a Decision Support Framework for Design with Reused Building Materials and Components

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Waste from construction and demolition-building activities is increasing every day.Landfills have almost reached their capacity. When thinking about the negative impact ofdemolishing activities on the environment it becomes very necessary to think aboutreusing and recycling building materials in new construction or perhaps better recyclingour thoughts on how to make use of waste materials. In Kevin Lynch\\'s book, WastingAway, he wrote: "Architects must begin to think about holes in the ground...

  9. A longitudinal study of sick building syndrome among pupils in relation to microbial components in dust in schools in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinzhang0051@sxu.edu.cn [Research Center for Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanxi University, 030006 Taiyuan (China); Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University and University Hospital, 75185 Uppsala (Sweden); Zhao, Zhuohui [Department of Environmental Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, 030002 Shanghai (China); Nordquist, Tobias [Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University and University Hospital, 75185 Uppsala (Sweden); Larsson, Lennart; Sebastian, Aleksandra [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Medial Microbiology, University of Lund, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Norback, Dan [Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University and University Hospital, 75185 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    There are few longitudinal studies on sick building syndrome (SBS), which include ocular, nasal, throat, and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue. We studied the associations between selected microbial components, fungal DNA, furry pet allergens, and incidence and remission of SBS symptoms in schools in Taiyuan, China. The study was based on a two-year prospective analysis in pupils (N = 1143) in a random sample of schools in China. Settled dust in the classrooms was collected by vacuum cleaning and analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), muramic acid (MuA), and ergosterol (Erg). Airborne dust was collected in Petri dishes and analyzed for cat and dog allergens and fungal DNA. The relationship between the concentration of allergens and microbial compounds and new onset of SBS was analyzed by multi-level logistic regression. The prevalence of mucosal and general symptoms was 33% and 28%, respectively, at baseline, and increased during follow-up. At baseline, 27% reported at least one symptom that improved when away from school (school-related symptoms). New onset of mucosal symptoms was negatively associated with concentration of MuA, total LPS, and shorter lengths of 3-hydroxy fatty acids from LPS, C14, C16, and C18. Onset of general symptoms was negatively associated with C18 LPS. Onset of school-related symptoms was negatively associated with C16 LPS, but positively associated with total fungal DNA. In general, bacterial compounds (LPS and MuA) seem to protect against the development of mucosal and general symptoms, but fungal exposure measured as fungal DNA could increase the incidence of school-related symptoms. - Highlights: {yields} SBS symptoms increased during the two-year follow-up period in school children in Taiyuan, China {yields} We studied the associations between selected microbial components and incidence and remission of SBS symptoms. {yields} Bacterial compounds (LPS and MuA) seem to protect against the development of mucosal and general symptoms

  10. The Role of A Facilitated Online Workspace Component of A Community of Practice: Knowledge Building and Value Creation for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, B.

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the role of an online workspace component of a community in the work of a community of practice. Much has been studied revealing the importance of communities of practice to organizations, project success, and knowledge management and some of these same successes hold true for virtual communities of practice. Study participants were 75 Education and Public Outreach community members of NASA's Science Mission Directorate Earth Forum. In this mixed methods study, online workspace metrics were used to track participation and a survey completed by 21 members was used to quantify participation. For a more detailed analysis, 15 community members (5 highly active users, 5 average users, and 5 infrequent users) selected based on survey responses, were interviewed. Finally, survey data was gathered from 7 online facilitators to understand their role in the community. Data collected from these 21 community members and 5 facilitating members suggest that highly active users (logging into the workspace daily), were more likely to have transformative experiences, co-create knowledge, feel ownership of community knowledge, have extended opportunities for community exchange, and find new forms of evaluation. Average users shared some similar characteristics with both the highly active members and infrequent users, representing a group in transition as they become more engaged and active in the online workspace. Inactive users viewed the workspace as having little value, being difficult to navigate, being mainly for gaining basic information about events and community news, and as another demand on their time. Results show the online workspace component of the Earth Science Education and Outreach Forum is playing an important and emerging role for this community by supporting knowledge building and knowledge sharing, and growing in value for those that utilizing it more frequently. The evidence suggests that with increased participation or "usage" comes

  11. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  12. Topographica: building and analyzing map-level simulations from Python, C/C++, MATLAB, NEST, or NEURON components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Bednar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neural regions are arranged into two-dimensional topographic maps, such as the retinotopic maps in mammalian visual cortex. Computational simulations have led to valuable insights about how cortical topography develops and functions, but further progress has been hindered by the lack of appropriate tools. It has been particularly difficult to bridge across levels of detail, because simulators are typically geared to a specific level, while interfacing between simulators has been a major technical challenge. In this paper, we show that the Python-based Topographica simulator makes it straightforward to build systems that cross levels of analysis, as well as providing a common framework for evaluating and comparing models implemented in other simulators. These results rely on the general-purpose abstractions around which Topographica is designed, along with the Python interfaces becoming available for many simulators. In particular, we present a detailed, general-purpose example of how to wrap an external spiking PyNN/NEST simulation as a Topographica component using only a dozen lines of Python code, making it possible to use any of the extensive input presentation, analysis, and plotting tools of Topographica. Additional examples show how to interface easily with models in other types of simulators. Researchers simulating topographic maps externally should consider using Topographica's analysis tools (such as preference map, receptive field, or tuning curve measurement to compare results consistently, and for connecting models at different levels. This seamless interoperability will help neuroscientists and computational scientists to work together to understand how neurons in topographic maps organize and operate.

  13. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  14. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Potential for utilization of algae in engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances its potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  15. Motivational interviewing competencies among UK family nurse partnership nurses: a process evaluation component of the building blocks trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Sue; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Sanders, Julia; Cannings-John, Rebecca; Robertson, Laura; Bennert, Kristina; Butler, Christopher; Hood, Kerenza; Robling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a person-centred counselling approach to behaviour change which is increasingly being used in public health settings, either as a stand-alone approach or in combination with other structured programmes of health promotion. One example of this is the Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) a licensed, preventative programme for first time mothers under the age of 20, delivered by specialist family nurses who are additionally trained in MI. The Building Blocks trial was an individually randomised controlled trial comparing effectiveness of Family Nurse Partnership when added to usual care compared to usual care alone within 18 sites in England. The aim of this process evaluation component of the trial is to determine the extent to which Motivational Interviewing skills taught to Family Nurse Partnership nurses were used in their home visits with clients. Between July 2010 and November 2011, 92 audio-recordings of nurse-client consultations were collected during the 'pregnancy' and 'infancy' phases of the FNP programme. They were analysed using The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) coding system. A competent level of overall MI adherent practice according to the MITI criteria for 'global clinician ratings' was apparent in over 70 % of the consultations. However, on specific behaviours and the MITI-derived practitioner competency variables, there was a large variation in the percentage of recordings in which "beginner proficiency" levels in MI (as defined by the MITI criteria) was achieved, ranging from 73.9 % for the 'MI adherent behaviour' variable in the pregnancy phase to 6.7 % for 'percentage of questions coded as open' in the infancy phase. The results suggest that it is possible to deliver a structured programme in an MI-consistent way. However, some of the behaviours regarded as key to MI practice such as the percentage of questions coded as open can be more difficult to achieve in such a context. This is an

  16. Build/Couple/Pair Strategy Combining the Petasis 3-Component Reaction with Ru-Catalyzed Ring-Closing Metathesis and Isomerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascic, Erhad; Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    A “build/couple/pair” pathway for the systematic synthesis of structurally diverse small molecules is presented. The Petasis 3-component reaction was used to synthesize anti-amino alcohols displaying pairwise reactive combinations of alkene moieties. Upon treatment with a ruthenium alkylidene-cat......-catalyst, these dienes selectively underwent ring-closing metathesis reactions to form 5- and 7-membered heterocycles and cyclic aminals via a tandem isomerization/N-alkyliminium cyclization sequence....

  17. Method for component-based economical optimisation for use in design of new low-energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Increasing requirements for energy performance in new buildings mean the cost of incorporating energy-saving in buildings is also increasing. Building designers thus need to be aware of the long-term cost-effectiveness of potential energy-conserving measures. This paper presents a simplified and ...... for the iterative design process and a more detailed economic optimisation. Furthermore, the method explicitly illustrates the economic efficiency of the individual building elements and services enabling the identification of potentials for further product development....... and transparent economic optimisation method to find an initial design proposal near the economical optimum. The aim is to provide an expedient starting point for the building design process and more detailed economic optimisation. The method uses the energy frame concept to express the constraints...... of the optimisation problem, which is then solved by minimising the costs of conserving energy in all the individual energy-saving measures. A case example illustrates how the method enables designers to establish a qualified estimate of an economically optimal solution. Such an estimate gives a good starting point...

  18. Environmental effects and building damage induced by the vertical component of ground motion during the August 24, 2016 Amatrice (Central Italy) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carydis, Panayotis; Lekkas, Efthymios; Mavroulis, Spyridon

    2017-04-01

    On August 24, 2016 an Mw 6.0 earthquake struck central Italy resulting in 299 fatalities, 388 injuries and about 3000 homeless. The provided focal mechanisms demonstrated a NW-SE striking seismic normal fault which is consistent with the spatial distribution of the coseismic surface ruptures observed along the western slope of Mt Vettore. Based on our field reconnaissance in the affected area immediately after the earthquake, extensive secondary environmental effects including landslides, rockfalls and ground cracks were also observed. Most landslides were generated within the Amatrice intermontane basin, which, instead of a flat surface, comprises isolated flat hills and ridges with relatively high and steep slopes extending several meters above the low-lying part of the basin consisting of Quaternary deposits and with several villages founded at their top. Landslides generated along the steep slopes of Amatrice, Accumoli and Pescara del Tronto flat hills were due to topographical amplification of the earthquake motion derived from accelerometric recordings analysis along with the action of the vertical component of the ground motion and the already established instability conditions resulting from river incision and erosion at the base of the hills. Strong evidences of the effect of the vertical ground motion in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings are the symmetrical buckling of reinforcement, compression damage and crushing at midheight and in other parts of columns, undamaged windows and unbroken glass panels as well as partial collapse of the buildings that usually occur along the vertical axis within the plan of the building. On the contrary, high flexible structures such as castle and bell towers in Arcuata del Tronto and Amatrice respectively were not affected by the vertical ground motion. During the action of the vertical component of the ground motion in Amatrice affected area, stationary waves were formed vertically in the observed structures resulting

  19. Building generalized tree mass/volume component models for improved estimation of forest stocks and utilization potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. MacFarlane

    2015-01-01

    Accurately assessing forest biomass potential is contingent upon having accurate tree biomass models to translate data from forest inventories. Building generality into these models is especially important when they are to be applied over large spatial domains, such as regional, national and international scales. Here, new, generalized whole-tree mass / volume...

  20. Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Thermal Performance Analysis of Building Shell Components Containing Blown Fiber Glass Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Bianchi, Marcus V [ORNL; Smith, John B [ORNL; Fellinger, Thomas [ORNL; Kossecka, Elizabeth [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences; Lee, Edwin S [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Different types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been tested as dynamic components in buildings during the last 4 decades. Most historical studies have found that PCMs enhance building energy performance. Some PCM-enhanced building materials, like PCM-gypsum boards or PCM-impregnated concretes have already found their limited applications in different countries. Today, continued improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that throughout Southern and Central US climates, residences may soon be routinely constructed with PCM in order to maximize insulation effectiveness and maintain low heating and cooling loads. The proposed paper presents experimental and numerical results from thermal performance studies. These studies focus on blown fiber glass insulation modified with a novel spray-applied microencapsulated PCM. Experimental results are reported for both laboratory-scale and full-size building elements tested in the field. In order to confirm theoretical predictions, PCM enhanced fiber glass insulation was evaluated in a guarded hot box facility to demonstrate heat flow reductions when one side of a test wall is subjected to a temperature increase. The laboratory work showed reductions in heat flow of 30% due to the presence of approximately 20 wt % PCM in the insulation. Field testing of residential attics insulated with blown fiber glass and PCM was completed in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Experimental work was followed by detailed whole building EnergyPlus simulations in order to generate energy performance data for different US climates. In addition, a series of numerical simulations and field experiments demonstrated a potential for application of a novel PCM fiber glass insulation as enabling technology to be utilized during the attic thermal renovations.

  2. Motivational interviewing competencies among UK family nurse partnership nurses: a process evaluation component of the building blocks trial

    OpenAIRE

    Channon, Susan; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Sanders, Julia; Cannings-John, Rebecca; Robertson, Laura; Bennert, Kristina; Butler, Christopher; Hood, Kerenza; Robling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a person-centred counselling approach to behaviour change which is increasingly being used in public health settings, either as a stand-alone approach or in combination with other structured programmes of health promotion. One example of this is the Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) a licensed, preventative programme for first time mothers under the age of 20, delivered by specialist family nurses who are additionally trained in MI. The Building Block...

  3. Building components for an outpost on the Lunar soil by means of a novel 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Giovanni; Dini, Enrico; De Kestelier, Xavier; Colla, Valentina; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    3D-printing technologies are receiving an always increasing attention in architecture, due to their potential use for direct construction of buildings and other complex structures, also of considerable dimensions, with virtually any shape. Some of these technologies rely on an agglomeration process of inert materials, e.g. sand, through a special binding liquid and this capability is of interest for the space community for its potential application to space exploration. In fact, it opens the possibility for exploiting in-situ resources for the construction of buildings in harsh spatial environments. The paper presents the results of a study aimed at assessing the concept of 3D printing technology for building habitats on the Moon using lunar soil, also called regolith. A particular patented 3D-printing technology - D-shape - has been applied, which is, among the existing rapid prototyping systems, the closest to achieving full scale construction of buildings and the physical and chemical characteristics of lunar regolith and terrestrial regolith simulants have been assessed with respect to the working principles of such technology. A novel lunar regolith simulant has also been developed, which almost exactly reproduces the characteristics of the JSC-1A simulant produced in the US. Moreover, tests in air and in vacuum have been performed to demonstrate the occurrence of the reticulation reaction with the regolith simulant. The vacuum tests also showed that evaporation or freezing of the binding liquid can be prevented through a proper injection method. The general requirements of a Moon outpost have been specified, and a preliminary design of the habitat has been developed. Based on such design, a section of the outpost wall has been selected and manufactured at full scale using the D-shape printer and regolith simulant. Test pieces have also been manufactured and their mechanical properties have been assessed.

  4. The 2009 Space Science Component of UNH Project SMART and High School Students Building a High-Altitude Balloon Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Chen, L.; Farrugia, C. J.; Frederick-Frost, K.; Goelzer, S.; Kucharek, H.; Messeder, R.; Moebius, E.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 19 years the University of New Hampshire has offered a unique research and education opportunity to motivated high-school students called Project SMART (Science and Mathematics Achievement through Research Training). The Space Science module is strongly research based. Students work in teams of two on real research projects carved from the research programs of the faculty. The projects are carefully chosen to match the abilities of the students. The students receive classes in basic physics as well as lectures in space science to help them with their work. This year the research included the analysis of magnetic reconnection observations and Crater FTE observation, both by the CLUSTER spacecraft, the building of Faraday cups for thermal ion measurements in our thermal vacuum facility, and analysis of the IBEX star sensor. In addition to this, the students work on one combined project and for the past several years this project has been the building of a payload for a high-altitude balloon. The students learn to integrate telemetry and GPS location hardware while they build several small experiments that they then fly to the upper reaches of the Earth's atmosphere. This year the payload included a small video camera and the payload flew to 96,000 feet, capturing images of weather patterns as well as the curvature of the Earth, thickness of the atmosphere, and black space. In addition to still photos, we will be showing 2- and 7-minute versions of the 90-minute flight video that include footage from peak altitude, the bursting of the balloon, and initial descent.

  5. Optimal building-integrated photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J. [Kiss and Co. Architects, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules are clean, safe and efficient devices that have long been considered a logical material for use in buildings. Recent technological advances have made PVs suitable for direct integration into building construction. PV module size, cost, appearance and reliability have advanced to the point where they can function within the architectural parameters of conventional building materials. A building essentially provides free land and structural support for a PV module, and the module in turn displaces standard building components. This report identifies the highest-value applications for PVs in buildings. These systems should be the first markets for BIPV products in the commercial buildings, and should remain an important high-end market for the foreseeable future.

  6. Recommendation Method for Build-to-Order Products Considering Substitutability of Specifications and Stock Consumption Balance of Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Atsushi; Kosugi, Hidenori; Karino, Takafumi; Komoda, Norihisa

    This study focuses on a stock reduction method for build-to-order (BTO) products to flow surplus parts out to the market using sale by recommendation. A sale by recommendation is repeated in an each business negotiation using a recommended configuration selected from the inventory of parts to minimize the stock deficiency or excess at the end of a certain period of the production plan. The method is based on the potential of a customer specification to be replaced by an alternative one if the alternative one is close to the initial customer specification. A recommendation method is proposed that decides the recommended product configuration by balancing the part consumption so that the alternative specification of the configuration is close enough to the initial customer specification for substitutability. The method was evaluated by a simulation using real BTO manufacturing data and the result demonstrates that the unbalance of the consumption of parts inventory is improved.

  7. The challenge of measuring emergency preparedness: integrating component metrics to build system-level measures for strategic national stockpile operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian A; Faith, Kay Sullivan

    2013-02-01

    Although significant progress has been made in measuring public health emergency preparedness, system-level performance measures are lacking. This report examines a potential approach to such measures for Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) operations. We adapted an engineering analytic technique used to assess the reliability of technological systems-failure mode and effects analysis-to assess preparedness. That technique, which includes systematic mapping of the response system and identification of possible breakdowns that affect performance, provides a path to use data from existing SNS assessment tools to estimate likely future performance of the system overall. Systems models of SNS operations were constructed and failure mode analyses were performed for each component. Linking data from existing assessments, including the technical assistance review and functional drills, to reliability assessment was demonstrated using publicly available information. The use of failure mode and effects estimates to assess overall response system reliability was demonstrated with a simple simulation example. Reliability analysis appears an attractive way to integrate information from the substantial investment in detailed assessments for stockpile delivery and dispensing to provide a view of likely future response performance.

  8. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX – multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  11. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  12. A green one-pot three-component synthesis of spirooxindoles under conventional heating conditions or microwave irradiation by using Fe3O4@SiO2-imid-PMAn magnetic porous nanospheres as a recyclable catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Mohsen; Javidi, Jaber; Divar, Masoumeh

    2017-02-01

    An efficient, green and environmentally procedure for the synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives has been developed by a one-pot three-component reaction of isatin derivatives, activated methylene, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the presence of Fe3O4@SiO2-imid-PMAn magnetic nanocatalyst under conventional heating conditions in water or microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. The reactions under conventional heating conditions were compared with the microwave-assisted reactions. The suggested method offers several advantages such as excellent yields, short reaction times, operational simplicity, a cleaner reaction, absence of any tedious workup or purification and ease of recovery and reusability of the catalyst by a magnetic field. In addition, the excellent catalytic performance in a water medium and the easy preparation, thermal stability and separation of the catalyst make it a good heterogeneous system and a useful alternative to other heterogeneous catalysts. The catalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for six consecutive reaction cycles without significant loss of activity. Also, the morphology of Fe3O4@SiO2-imid-PMAn, particle size distribution and leaching of nano H3PMo12O40 (PMAn) after reaction cycles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyzer.

  13. 天津市滨海新区品牌会展培育的对策研究%Strategies of Building up Brand Convention and Exhibition in the Binhai New Area in Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伯艳; 席晓运

    2012-01-01

    天津市滨海新区品牌会展培育面临着战略规划缺乏、会展管理机构不统一、长效营销载体缺失、行业协会功能不足、会展场馆内外配套设施不完善、专业人才缺失等瓶颈。在滨海新区“先行先试”的政策优势以及环渤海经济一体化、京津同城化的契机之下,新区应积极扶持本地会展品牌发展,制定品牌会展培育的战略规划,加强对具有发展潜力的品牌会展的资金支持,建立专门的会展规划、协调和管理的主管机构,建设推广营销的长效载体,提升会展行业协会的作用,完善展览场馆内外配套设施的建设,促进会展专业人才的培育,应对来自于城际竞争以及国外会展进军国内市场的挑战。%There are some disadvantages in building up brand convention and exhibition in the Binhai New Area in Tianjin City such as the lack of strategic planning, various management agencies, the lack of long-term marketing media, the weak function of association, the poor facilities inside and outside the convention and exhibition site, and the lack of professional talents. With the policy of "trying first" in the Binhai New Area, the economic integration of Bohai Sea area and the inter-city circle of Beijing-Tianjin, the Binhai New Area should actively support brand development, establish strategic planning, strengthen financial support for potential brand exhibition, establish the special bureau to plan, coordinate and manage the exhibition, build up long-term marketing media, improve the function of association, perfect the facilities, and foster professional talents to deal with the competition from other cities in China and the challenges from abroad.

  14. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  15. Comparison of mechanical properties obtained from conventional strength specimens and from as-sintered components%用常规强度试样与粉末冶金零件测定的力学性能的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenz S.Sigl; Patrice Delarbre; Ulrike Jehring; 韩风麟

    2013-01-01

    由于零件的强度难以试验测定,因此通常都不使用这些数据.这篇论文介绍了一种可直接测定零件强度的新方法.这种方法是采用水射流切割(Water-jet Cutting),从零件上切割小型矩形试棒(尺寸约为40mm×5mm×5mm),经磨加工制备成试棒,用于测定力学性能.这篇论文将由高合金化Fe(Mo)-Ni-Cu粉末冶金钢制造的同步器齿毂作为典型零件,用由其上切割制成的矩形试棒测定了抗拉强度、冲击强度与三点弯曲的横向断裂强度,并将其和用常规拉伸试样(DIN EN ISO 2740)测定的强度与冲击性能进行了比较.由零件试棒和常规试样测定的性能完全一致,都在试验误差范围之内.为证明比较的有效性,还通过全面的化学与显微组织鉴定,对两种试样的相似性进行了核实.采用新方法评定了生产工艺变量对同步器齿毂的力学性能的影响.建立了小拉伸试棒的横向断裂强度与抗拉强度之间的相互关系.%Experimental access to the in-situ strength properties of components is difficult,which explains why such data are not generally available.The present paper introduces a new methodology which permits direct access to the strength properties of components.Such information is retrieved from small rectangular(40mm × 5mm × 5mm)which are prepared directiy from a component by water-jet cutting and subsequent grinding.Using a synchronizer-hub as a typical P/M component,the tensile strength,the impact resistance and the transverse rupture strength in 3-point bending were evaluated from these bars for a high-alloyed Fe (Mo)-Ni-Cu P/M steel,and compared to the strength and impact properties of conventional tensile specimens (DIN EN ISO 2740).Within the limits of experimental error,the data sets obtained from components and specimens are fully consistent.To confirm the validity of the comparison,the similarity of both specimen types is verified by a comprehensive chemical and microstructural

  16. Research on Cost and Benefit Evaluation Method for Green Building Component Life Cycle%绿色建筑部品全生命周期成本与效益评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 张峰; 高立新; 毕既华

    2011-01-01

    提出全生命周期成本效益评价方法包括费用效益法和费用估算方法,以及这些方法的使用范围和使用现状.根据全生命周期评价理论与建筑部品全生命周期阶段划分,重点研究绿色建筑部品全生命周期评价技术路线,以及绿色建筑部品全生命周期各阶段成本与效益评价方法.得出科学的绿色建筑部品全生命周期成本和效益的评价方法有利于促进绿色建筑事业的长远健康发展.%Life cycle of cost and benefit evaluation method includes expenses benefit method and expenses assessment method,and their application range and status are introduced respectively. According to the life cycle assessment theory and the life cycle of construction component stage partitions, authors put the research focus on the technical route of the green building component life cycle, and the stage cost and benefit assessment method of each phase. The life cycle of cost and benefit evaluation method for green building component improves the development of green building.

  17. An Open-Source Building System with Digitally Fabricated Components: A design- and production process that makes optimal use of the predicted next industrial revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, P.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    With digital fabrication, our hardware is starting to bear greater resemblance to software. This paper explores the potential of processes used in the development of open-source software for the field of Architecture. The developed design process is connected to a building system that provides new i

  18. 法律领域术语部件的描述%Building the Legal Term Component Database for Automatic Term Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那日松; 刘青; 陈永朝; 朱磊

    2011-01-01

    从实现自动抽取法律术语的目的出发,立足于法律术语具有术语部件的特点,建立了由579条部件组成的法律术语部件库,并针对各种属性的术语部件做出统计分析,完成了每个法律术语部件"生成能力"和"贡献度"两个属性的详细描述。%Based on the purpose of automatic extraction and characteristics of term components in the legal field, we constructed a legal term component database which is composed of 579 components. Also, based on statistical analyses of these term components, we described the "generation capacity" and "contribution" of each term component.

  19. Vacuum Insulation Panels - Study on VIP-components and panels for service life prediction of VIP in building applications (Subtask A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Brunner, S. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Garching (Germany); Kumaran, K.; Mukhopadhyaya, P. [National Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC), Ottawa (Canada); Quenard, D.; Sallee, H. [Scientific and Technical Centre for Construction (CSTB), Marne la Vallee (France); Noller, K.; Kuecuekpinar-Niarchos, E.; Stramm, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV), Freising (Germany); Tenpierik, M.; Cauberg, H. [Technical University of Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Erb, M. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive paper takes a look at the properties of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and was presented as a contribution to the IEA's ECBCS (Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems) Annex 39. The various institutions in Switzerland, Germany, Canada, France, Sweden and the Netherlands participating in the task and their activities are listed. The paper describes the concept of vacuum insulation for buildings and examines the physics involved and core materials that can be used. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the core materials are examined and the requirements placed on the envelope of the panels are looked at. Tests made on materials as well as on the complete vacuum insulation panels are described in detail. The results obtained are presented and reviewed. Service-life and quality assurance aspects are also discussed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  20. Measurements of airtightness of building components using the blower door method - DB Hamm; Bestimmung der Luftdichtheit von einzelnen Gebaeudeteilen mit Hilfe der Blower-Door-Methode - DB Hamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, H.; Dahlem, K.H.; Rechenbach, O.

    2001-08-24

    The blower door measuring system consisted of a variable frame with airtight foil and integrated speed-controlled blower, a volume flow meter and differential pressure manometer. It was not possible in all cases to generate sufficient volume flow for achieving the desired pressure gradient, both in the atrium and the building as a whole. In these cases, only the volume flow for a pressure gradient was measured. The curve was approximated using typical curves, and an n{sub 50} value was extrapolated which is not a real n{sub 50} value but an estimated value based on the values measured for low pressure gradients. Extensive measurements were carried out on different parts of the building.

  1. Connecting Structure of Steel Structure Building Component%钢结构建筑构件连接构造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立强

    2015-01-01

    钢材作为一种现代化的建筑材料,近年来得到了极大的发展。在钢结构建筑的应用和发展中,钢结构建筑构件连接构造技术占有十分重要的位置。通过对不同方面构件连接构造技术的研究,探讨了各种技术的优缺点和实际应用,以期更好地推动钢结构建筑的发展和进步。%As a kind of modern building materials, steel has been greatly developed in recent years. In the application and development of steel structure building, the connecting structure of steel structure construction technology is very important. Through the research on the construction technology of different aspects, the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are discussed, and the practical application is discussed in order to promote the development and progress of steel structure building.

  2. INFILTRATION CHARACTERISTICS IN MULTI-FLOOR BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek KUMLUTAŞ

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration or in other words the air leakage in buildings has an important role on heat load calculations. The rate of this loss has been estimated as 20 to 30 % of the total load. The indicated important effect of infiltration on the load calculations needs a reliable method for the determination of air leakeage level in buildings. Meantime, the rate of infiltration has an additional importance at the area of thermal comfort studies which deals with the air quality of enclosed volumes. During this research study, first the mechanism of infiltration and the major components of the phenomena (wind pressure, temperature difference was discussed together with the theoretical considerations. Later, several conventional engineering approachs and emprical methods was reviewed and compared among each others. At the last part of the paper, the modified DIN 4701 method which is presently used in Turkey, and some other algorithms was applied to some pilot buildings and the predictions was compared with experimental results.

  3. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  4. Consecutive Three-Component Synthesis of 3-(HeteroAryl-1H-pyrazoles with Propynal Diethylacetal as a Three-Carbon Building Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. J. Müller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel consecutive three-component synthesis of 3-(heteroaryl-1H-pyrazoles via room temperature Sonogashira arylation of propynal diethylacetal used as a propargyl aldehyde synthetic equivalent has been disclosed. The final acetal cleavage-cyclocondensation with hydrazine hydrochloride at 80 °C rapidly furnishes the title compounds in a one-pot fashion.

  5. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  6. Magnetic stray-field studies of a single Cobalt nanoelement as a component of the building blocks of artificial square spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Merlin; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo; Müller, Jens

    2016-02-01

    We use Focused Electron Beam Deposition (FEBID) to directly write Cobalt magnetic nanoelements onto a micro-Hall magnetometer, which allows for high-sensitivity measurements of the magnetic stray field emanating from the samples. In a previous study [M. Pohlit et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117 (2015) 17C746] [21] we investigated thermal dynamics of an individual building block (nanocluster) of artificial square spin ice. In this work, we compare the results of this structure with interacting elements to the switching of a single nanoisland. By analyzing the survival function of the repeatedly prepared state in a given temperature range, we find thermally activated switching dynamics. A detailed analysis of the hysteresis loop reveals a metastable microstate preceding the overall magnetization reversal of the single nanoelement, also found in micromagnetic simulations. Such internal degrees of freedom may need to be considered, when analyzing the thermal dynamics of larger spin ice configurations on different lattice types.

  7. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. International guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents a guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This generic international guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and complete grid-connected photovoltaic systems describes a set of recommended methods and tests that may be used to verify the integrity of hardware and installations, compliance with applicable standards/codes and can be used to provide a measure of the performance of components or of entire systems. The guideline is to help ensure that photovoltaic installations are both safe for equipment as well as for personnel when used according to the applicable installation standards and codes. The guideline may be used in any country using the rules stipulated by the applicable standards and codes and by applying them to the guideline's recommended tests. This document uses examples for some tests but does not specify exact test set-ups, equipment accuracy, equipment manufacturers or calibration procedures.

  8. Components and Algorithm of Incremental Cost in Green Building Water-saving Project%绿色建筑节水项目增量成本的构成与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴宏祥; 曲凯; 赵芳

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at large difference in understanding the conception and elements of direct incremental cost in green building water-saving projects between the government and developers as well as lack of a unified calculation method in China, the definition, calculation principle, components and algorithm of incremental cost in green building water-saving project are proposed and verified through the water-saving demonstration project in a green building residential area in western China.%针对我国政府和开发商对绿色建筑节水项目直接增量成本的概念、构成要素等理解差异较大,缺乏统一的计算方法的现状,提出了绿色建筑节水项目直接增量成本定义、计算原则、构成内容及其计算方法,并以西部某绿色建筑小区节水示范项目为例进行验证.

  9. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  10. Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, E.; Luco, N.

    2008-01-01

    We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

  11. Evidence for an Early Archean component in the Middle to Late Archean gneisses of the Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming: conventional and ion microprobe U-Pb data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Williams, I.S.; Compston, W.; Stuckless, J.S.; Worl, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Gneissic rocks that are basement to the Late Archean granites comprising much of the Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming, have been dated by the zircon U-Pb method using both conventional and ion microprobe techniques. A foliated hornblende granite gneiss member from the southern border of the Bridger batholith is 2670??13 Ma. Zircons from a granulite just north of the Bridger batholith are equant and faceted, a typical morphology for zircon grown under high grade metamorphic conditions. This granulite, which may be related to a second phase of migmatization in the area, is 2698??8 Ma. South of the Bridger batholith, zircons from a granulite (charnockite), which is related to an earlier phase of migmatization in the Range, yield a discordia with intercept ages of about 2.3 and 3.3 Ga. However, ion microprobe analyses of single zircon grains indicate that this rock contains several populations of zircon, ranging in age from 2.67 to about 3.8 Ga. Based on zircon morphology and regional geologic relationships, we interpret the data as indicating an age of ???3.2 Ga for the first granulite metamorphism and migmatization. Older, possibly xenocrystic zircons give ages of ???3.35, 3.65 and ???3.8 Ga. Younger zircons grew at 2.7 and 2.85 Ga in response to events, including the second granulite metamorphism at 2.7 Ga, that culminated in the intrusion of the Bridger batholith and migmatization at 2.67 Ga. These data support the field and petrographic evidence for two granulite events and provide some temporal constraints for the formation of continental crust in the Early and Middle Archean in the Wyoming Province. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Geoinformation techniques for the 3D visualisation of historic buildings and representation of a building's pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilimantou, Elisavet; Delegou, Ekaterini; Ioannidis, Charalabos; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the documentation of an historic building registered as Cultural Heritage asset is presented. The aim of the survey is to create a 3D geometric representation of a historic building and in accordance with multidisciplinary study extract useful information regarding the extent of degradation, constructions' durability etc. For the implementation of the survey, a combination of different types of acquisition technologies is used. The project focuses on the study of Villa Klonaridi, in Athens, Greece. For the complete documentation of the building, conventional topography, photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques is combined. Close range photogrammetric techniques are used for the acquisition of the façades and architectural details. One of the main objectives is the development of an accurate 3D model, where the photorealistic representation of the building is achieved, along with the decay pathology, historical phases and architectural components. In order to achieve a suitable graphical representation for the study of the material and decay patterns beyond the 2D representation, 3D modelling and additional information modelling is performed for comparative analysis. The study provides various conclusions regarding the scale of deterioration obtained by the 2D and 3D analysis respectively. Considering the variation in material and decay patterns, comparative results are obtained regarding the degradation of the building. Overall, the paper describes a process performed on a Historic Building, where the 3D digital acquisition of the monuments' structure is realized with the combination of close range surveying and laser scanning methods.

  13. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  14. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  15. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients scheduled for clcctive unilateral lower limb surgery. ... the conventional group were turned supine immediately after injection. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen .... Characteristic Type of spinal anaesthcsia P-value.

  16. Componentes de produção e produtividade de arroz híbrido de sequeiro comparado a três cultivares convencionais Production and productivity components of hybrid rice dry compared to conventional three cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar Rodrigues Soares

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar os componentes de produção e a produtividade do cultivar de arroz híbrido de sequeiro Ecco comparado as cultivares convencionais BRS Primavera, BRS Sertaneja e Cambará nos municípios de Vilhena e Cerejeiras-RO. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os experimentos foram instalados no mês de novembro de 2009, sendo um na Fazenda Experimental da Faculdade da Amazônia, no município de Vilhena-RO, localizada a uma latitude S 12°44'26" e a uma longitude 60°08'45" W, e o outro, também em Campo experimental da Faculdade da Amazônia no município de Cerejeiras-RO localizadoS 13°11'19.6" de latitude e W 060°51'43,9" de longitude.As variáveis avaliadas foram: perfilhamento, número de grãos inteiros e chochos por panícula, peso de 1000 grãos, produtividade em sacas de 60 kg por hectare e rendimento de grãos inteiros.O cultivar híbrido Ecco é o mais indicado para o cultivo nas duas regiões, pois apresentou melhor perfilhamento, maior eficiência no enchimento de grãos, maior peso de 1000 grãos e consequentemente maior produtividade nos dois municípios, além de um alto rendimento de grãos inteiros em relação aos outros cultivares.This research aimed to evaluate the yield and productivity of Ecco rainfed compared to conventional cultivars BRS Primavera, BRS Sertanejaand Cambará in Vilhena and Cerejeiras cities, Rondonia state. The experiment was completely conducted in random with four replications. The experiments were conducted in November, 2009, one in the Experimental Farm at Faculdade da Amazônia, in Vilhena city, Rondonia state, located at latitude S 12°44'26" and longitude W 60°08'45", and the other at the Experimental Field of Faculdade da Amazônia in Cerejeiras-RO, located at S 13°11'19,6" latitude and W 060°51'43,9" longitude. The variables were: tillering, number of whole grains and chochos per panicle, 1000 grain weight

  17. Technical Site Information: Planning group of the Directorate and Conventional Construction Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    This document presents the technical site information for the Superconducting Super Collider project. The Ellis County, Texas site was selected by the Department of Energy in 1989. After assembling the initial staff at temporary facilities in Dallas, the SSC Laboratory began site-specific design work. The resulting design for the SSC accelerators, experimental areas, and laboratory facilities were described in the Site-Specific Conceptual Design Report of July 1990. Since then, design specifications for the technical components and conventional facilities have been formulated. In fact, a very significant amount of surface and underground construction has been initiated and many buildings have been completed. Testing of prototypes for most technical components is advanced. The construction phase of the SSC project is approximately 20% complete. At this time, it is appropriate to capture the conventional design work which has taken place since 1990. This documents records regional and physical information used in site studies, summarizes the site studies for conventional facilities, and presents site layouts for buildings and utilities as they would have been at the end of the construction project. As such, this documents summarizes and complements the work of many groups in the SSC laboratory, the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC), and several subcontractors to the SSC project. The document contains extensive references to their work contained in other drafts and final reports. In particular, it borrows heavily from the Site Development Plan (released in draft form in January, 1992) which has, to date, guided aspects of site development.

  18. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  19. Eligibility, the ICF and the UN Convention: Australian perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in Australia, acts as a philosophical and moral statement and framework guiding integrated and strategic policy across the nation. Broad policy agreement has been reached by governments, and both the government and non-government sectors are developing strategies for implementation or evaluation. There is however a need for a more integrated approach to disability policy and information, reflecting all three components of the Italian project: • legislation and a high level philosophical framework and policy guide; • a technical framework that can underpin specific policies and programs aiming to achieve the major goals; and , • a language and set of tools, relating to both the above, that provide infrastructure for assessment methods and information systems. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is the ideal tool to support the latter two components, consistent with the UN Convention. While the ICF has been used as the basis for national data standards, in population surveys and in the national data collection on disability support services, there is considerable scope for greater use of it, including using all domains of the Activities and Participation and the Environmental Factors component for policy, information and service provision, to advance a disability-inclusive society. Information available from the income support system and from generic services could be enhanced by reference to the ICF components. It would be of significant national value in Australia, especially as a ‘continuum of care’ is desired, if consistency of concepts and information were expanded across health and social welfare sectors. It would then be possible to obtain consistent data from health, aged care, disability and community services systems about key aspects of health and functioning, building a consolidated picture of access and experience across these sectors. Without

  20. 个性化构件建模在建筑结构识图教学中的应用%Application of Personalized Component Modeling in the Building Structure Knowledge Map Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞锡钢

    2015-01-01

    Read construction drawings architectural engineering students must possess core competencies. Reinforced con-crete building is covered by a node surface decoration, difficult for students to understand the node configuration. From se-curity considerations, the project is difficult to accept a large number of students to visit to get perceptions. School training in addition to a large operation area, the large amount of material cost is high. Vocational colleges knowledge map structures to carry out school-enterprise cooperation, combining learning with great difficulty. In the concrete structure diagram teach-ing knowledge, build "project component-based, drawing whiteboard, modeling personalized, assessment process"of the four modernizations teaching model will improve the effectiveness of classroom teaching.%识读施工图是建筑工程类专业学生必须具备的核心能力。建筑的钢筋混凝土节点被表面装饰装修所覆盖,学生很难理解节点构造。从安全等因素考虑,项目部很难接纳大量学生参观获得感性认识。校内实训除了需要庞大的操作场地外,材料用量大成本高。高职院校的建筑结构识图开展校企合作,工学结合有很大困难。在混凝土结构识图教学中,构建“项目构件化,绘图白板化,建模个性化,考核过程化”的四化教学模式将有利于提高课堂教学成效。

  1. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this change....... The report builds on a literature review encompassing more than 50 reports and research papers over the last 10 years and more than a two decades knowledge about the interactions between different components of the energy sector. The review has been focused on aspects such as cost-effective solutions from...... an energy system integration perspective, heat savings, electricity savings, and user behavioural aspects as well as energy storage and household level flexibility. Many reports on green or sustainable buildings focus only on savings levels and disregard the cost of renewable energy production. Some reports...

  2. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  3. Building UIs with Wijmo

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Written with an example-based approach, Building UIs with Wijmo leads you step by step through the implementation and customization of each library component and its associated resources. Reference tables of each configuration option, method, and event for each component are provided, alongside detailed explanations of how each widget is used.Building UIs with Wijmo is targeted at readers who are familiar with HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and jQuery, and have a basic understanding of web development. Although knowledge of jQuery UI is not mandatory, it would be a bonus as it is quite similar to Wijm

  4. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  5. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  6. Comparative Study of Diagrid Structures with Conventional Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manthan I. Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern age, the decrease of available free land and increase of land prices along with the wide spread of urban area has made architects and engineers to develop the cities vertically. For vertical growth, the only option is to construct the buildings as high as possible. It is a task of a structural designer to make the desired building stand and stable throughout its life. There are various structural systems for tall buildings, among them diagrid system is selected for this work. Diagrid is an exterior structural system which resists the lateral forces by axial actions of diagonals provided in periphery. Statistical analysis of tall buildings in India is carried out and presented for buildings having height more than 150 m or 40 storeys. Parametric study and detailed comparison of diagrid structural system with respect to conventional frame is carried out for symmetrical buildings. In this study seven steel buildings of identical base area and loadings with different heights are designed for optimum sections for both structural systems diagrid and conventional frame in ETABS. Various parameters like fundamental time period, maximum top storey lateral displacement, maximum base shear, steel weight, percentage differences in change of steel weight, maximum storey displacement and maximum storey drift are considered in this study. A Diagrid structure performs well than conventional frame structures and increase in steel weight with increase in height of building is considerably less in diagrid structures

  7. Healthy Buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  8. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the way building envelopes can contribute to developing green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also proposes a number of approaches that can be used to help design green building envelopes...

  9. Rapid Estimation of Building Damage by Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    situations, time is not a luxury that can be spared for complex and detailed simulations to be performed The objective of this thesis is to...targets. During such situations, time is not a luxury that can be spared for complex and detailed simulations to be performed The objective of this...potency of a certain munition on specific targets. During such situations, time is not a luxury that can be spared for complex and detailed

  10. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    With environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but to reduce his energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against the stress of the climate. Buildings should be designed according to the climate of the site, reducing the need for mechanical heating or cooling. Hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating a pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress in the last decade diffused electronic and informatics' devices in many human activities, and also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addition to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building domotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. Fourty-three percent reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and that consumption is increasing. Most industrialised

  11. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  12. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  13. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  14. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... Building Handbook Volume 1 Sustainable Building versus Ecological Building Llewellyn van Wyk Principal Researcher CSIR Background and Context ?Evidence is mounting that humankind, and the environment that shapes its existence, are in the midst...

  15. Artifacts as Conventional Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah R.; Callanan, Maureen A.

    2007-01-01

    What underlies children's understanding of artifacts? Studies suggest that beginning around age 7, people reason about artifacts in terms of the inventor's purpose--termed "the design stance." Our two studies emphasize another component of artifact understanding--the cultural nature of artifacts--by demonstrating people's sensitivity to an…

  16. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  17. BUILDING ENVELOPE OPTIMIZATION USING EMERGY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy analysis is an integral component of sustainable building practices. Energy analysis coupled with optimization techniques may offer solutions for greater energy efficiency over the lifetime of the building. However, all such computationsemploy the energy used for operation...

  18. On building Information Warehouses

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals of information management (IM) is supporting the knowledge workers in performing their works. In this paper we examine issues of relevance, linkage and provenance of information, as accessed and used by the knowledge workers. These are usually not adequately addressed in most of the IT based solutions for IM. Here we propose a non-conventional approach for building information systems for supporting the knowledge workers which addresses these issues. The approach leads to the ideas of building Information Warehouses (IW) and Knowledge work Support Systems (KwSS). Such systems can open up potential for building innovative applications of significant impact, including those capable of helping organizations in implementing processes for double-loop learning.

  19. Alternative materials for desert buildings: a comparative life cycle energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlmutter, D.; Freidin, C.; Huberman, N. [Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, (Israel)

    2007-03-15

    This study examines the potential life-cycle energy savings that may be achieved by combining an innovative alternative building material and a bioclimatic approach to building design under the distinctive environmental conditions of a desert region. A residential building in the Negev region of Israel is used as a model for the assessment. Designed with a number of climatically-responsive design strategies and conventional concrete-based materials, the building was energy-independent in terms of summer cooling and had only modest requirements for winter heating. As a second step to the assessment, the integration of an alternative building material based on industrial waste and local raw materials in the building's walls was considered through thermal simulation. The alternative materials are produced through a process developed to make productive utilization of fly-ash from oil shale and coal combustion. Material properties were analyzed using laboratory specimens, and it was established that high-quality building components could be produced using the developed technological procedure with standard manufacturing equipment. The consumption of both embodied and operational energy was analyzed over the building's useful life span, and this life-cycle analysis showed the clear advantage of integrating alternative materials in a building under environmental conditions in a desert environment. (Author)

  20. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  1. The NIST Green Building Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    For over 2 decades, NIST has been involved in energy conservation programs. NIST`s current programs broadly span the areas from waste minimization to air, soil, water, indoor air quality, ozone depletion, and global warming. The latest endeavor NIST is undertaking is the {open_quotes}Green Building Program{close_quotes} in which NIST is at the forefront of designing buildings using environmentally safe materials. NIST`s program has two components. The laboratory-based activities involve NIST staff working directly with manufacturers and designers to develop technologies conducive to energy efficiency. The second component, demonstration buildings, includes environmentally safe buildings which are monuments to green technologies. These buildings not only demonstrate cost effectiveness and evaluate green technologies, they also identify new technologies needed to develop an effective green building.

  2. Natural Hazards Evaluation of Existing Buildings. Building Science Series 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Charles G.; And Others

    A methodology is presented for survey and evaluation of existing buildings to determine the risk to life safety under natural hazard conditions and estimate the amount of expected damage. Damage to both structural and nonstructural building components resulting from the extreme natural environments encountered in earthquakes, hurricanes, and…

  3. Residential buildings: Energy conservation (energy savings design code). Il Patrimonio residenziale pubblico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los, S.; Pulizer, N.; Agnoletto, L.; Buggin, A.

    1991-01-01

    The energy savings design code presented in this paper was based on the energy performance of the basic types of residential buildings commonly found in Italy and the numerous combinations of energy savings measures which were hypothesized for them. The calculation algorithm carries out two distinct operations: the quantification of seasonal fuel consumption and the cost of proposed interventions. The code takes into account parameters defining: climatic data; building geometry, surface area, orientation (insolation, etc.); thermal insulation, including the thermal/physical material properties of the other construction materials; thermal comfort conditions; and the type and performance of conventional heating equipment components, including active and passive architectural systems and their relative control systems.

  4. What constitutes a convention? : implications for the coexistence of conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    A model of repeated play of a coordination game, where stage games have a location in social space, and players receive noisy signals of the true location of their games, is reviewed. Sugden (1995) suggests that in such a model, there can be a stationary state of convention coexistence only if interaction is non-uniform across social space. This paper shows that an alternative definition of conventions, which links conventions to actions rather than expectations, permits convention coexistenc...

  5. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  6. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  7. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention on Mercury: Principles and recommendations for next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David C; Keane, Susan Egan; Basu, Niladri; Buck, David

    2016-11-01

    The Minamata Convention on Mercury is a multilateral environmental agreement that obligates Parties to reduce or control sources of mercury pollution in order to protect human health and the environment. The Convention includes provisions on providing technical assistance and capacity building, particularly for developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to promote its effective implementation. Evaluating the effectiveness of the Convention (as required by Article 22) is a crucial component to ensure that it meets this objective. We describe an approach to measure effectiveness, which includes a suite of short-, medium-, and long-term metrics related to five major mercury control Articles in the Convention, as well as metrics derived from monitoring of mercury in the environment using select bioindicators, including people. The use of existing biotic Hg data will define spatial gradients (e.g., biological mercury hotspots), baselines to develop relevant temporal trends, and an ability to assess risk to taxa and human communities of greatest concern. We also recommend the development of a technical document that describes monitoring options for the Conference of Parties, to provide science-based standardized guidelines for collecting relevant monitoring information, as guided by Article 19.

  9. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  10. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  11. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  12. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  13. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, comple...

  14. A comparison of the mechanieal axis and alignment of component between conventional total knee arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty under computer-assisted navigation%计算机导航辅助下与传统全膝关节置换术后下肢力线和假体位置的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许伟华; 杨述华; 陈东; 叶树楠; 冯勇; 张波; 刘先哲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the mechanical axis and alignment of component between conventional total knee arthroplasty(TKA)and TKA under computer-assistde navigation.Methods From May 2007 to December 2009.60 patients with knee osteoarthritis were assigned randomly to receive conventional TKA and computer-assisted navigation TKA with the same type of implant for each knee.In navigation group (group A).there were 11 men and 19 women.with an average age of 69.2±8.3 years.The mean prcoperative alignment deviation was 9.4° ±5.3°.The knee osteoarthritis was rated as grade Ⅲ in 12 cases and grade Ⅳ in 18 cases.In conventional group (group B)、there were 17 men and 13 women,with an average age of 71.9 ± 8.1 years The mean preoperative alignment deviation was 8.9°± 4.8°.The knee osteoarthritis was rated as grade Ⅲ in 17 cases and grade Ⅳ in 13 cases.Alignment of the leg and orientation of components were evaluated on standard pre-and post-operative full-length weight-bearing radiographs and lateral X-rays with reard to the valgus angle and the coronal and sagittal component angles. Results The mean deviation in hip-knee-ankle angle in group A (0.7°±0.2°) was signifieantly smaller than that in group B (1.2°± 0.3°) ( t =3.972.P =0.000).The mean postoperativc deviation in frontal femoral component anglein group A (1.5°±0.4°)was significantly smaller than that in groupB (2.1° ±0.5°) (t=2.433、P =0.017).The mean deviation in frontal tibial component angle in group A (2.1°±0.5°) was insignificantly smaller than that in group B (1.5°±0.6°) (t=0.326.P=0.116).The mean deviations in lateral femoral component and lateral al tibial component angles in group A (7.3°±0.4° and 2.5°±0.2°) were signifi cantly smaller than those in group B (9.5°± 0.4° and 4.5 ± 0.6°) ( P < 0.05 ).The operating time in group A was 15 to 28 minutes longer than in group B(t=2.553,P=0.008).Conclusion Computer-assisted navigation system used in TKA can result in a better

  15. Joints in steel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F. Valencia Clement

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Masonry and steel components used in constructing buildings are in a constant state of motion. Volumetric changes are produced by temperature variation and deformation resulting from static or dynamic loading and in some materials, such as masonry, due to moisture content. This article addresses means of determining when expansion and seismic joints are required and how to proportion and design appropriate joints, specifically in steel buildings. It does not cover the study of expansion joints in concrete structures, in masonry construction or in non-structural (architectural elements.

  16. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  17. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  18. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  19. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  20. Design Buildings Optimally: A Lifecycle Assessment Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hosny, Ossama

    2013-01-01

    This paper structures a generic framework to support optimum design for multi-buildings in desert environment. The framework is targeting an environmental friendly design with minimum lifecycle cost, using Genetic Algorithms (Gas). GAs function through a set of success measures which evaluates the design, formulates a proper objective, and reflects possible tangible/intangible constraints. The framework optimizes the design and categorizes it under a certain environmental category at minimum Life Cycle Cost (LCC). It consists of three main modules: (1) a custom Building InformationModel (BIM) for desert buildings with a compatibility checker as a central interactive database; (2) a system evaluator module to evaluate the proposed success measures for the design; and (3) a GAs optimization module to ensure optimum design. The framework functions through three levels: the building components, integrated building, and multi-building levels. At the component level the design team should be able to select components in a designed sequence to ensure compatibility among various components, while at the building level; the team can relatively locate and orient each individual building. Finally, at the multi-building (compound) level the whole design can be evaluated using success measures of natural light, site capacity, shading impact on natural lighting, thermal change, visual access and energy saving. The framework through genetic algorithms optimizes the design by determining proper types of building components and relative buildings locations and orientations which ensure categorizing the design under a specific category or meet certain preferences at minimum lifecycle cost.

  1. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings....

  2. Building information models for astronomy projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Campo, Ramón; Eletxigerra, Iñigo; Ampuero, Pedro

    2012-09-01

    A Building Information Model is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a building. BIMs represent the geometrical characteristics of the Building, but also properties like bills of quantities, definition of COTS components, status of material in the different stages of the project, project economic data, etc. The BIM methodology, which is well established in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain for conventional buildings, has been brought one step forward in its application for Astronomical/Scientific facilities. In these facilities steel/concrete structures have high dynamic and seismic requirements, M&E installations are complex and there is a large amount of special equipment and mechanisms involved as a fundamental part of the facility. The detail design definition is typically implemented by different design teams in specialized design software packages. In order to allow the coordinated work of different engineering teams, the overall model, and its associated engineering database, is progressively integrated using a coordination and roaming software which can be used before starting construction phase for checking interferences, planning the construction sequence, studying maintenance operation, reporting to the project office, etc. This integrated design & construction approach will allow to efficiently plan construction sequence (4D). This is a powerful tool to study and analyze in detail alternative construction sequences and ideally coordinate the work of different construction teams. In addition engineering, construction and operational database can be linked to the virtual model (6D), what gives to the end users a invaluable tool for the lifecycle management, as all the facility information can be easily accessed, added or replaced. This paper presents the BIM methodology as implemented by IDOM with the E-ELT and ATST Enclosures as application examples.

  3. Statistical extremes and peak factors in wind-induced vibration of tall buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-feng HUANG; Chun-man CHAN; Wen-juan LOU; Kenny Chung-Siu KWOK

    2012-01-01

    In the structural design of tall buildings,peak factors have been widely used to predict mean extreme responses of tall buildings under wind excitations.Vanmarcke's peak factor is directly related to an explicit measure of structural reliability against a Gaussian response process.We review the use of this factor for time-variant reliability design by comparing it to the conventional Davenport's peak factor.Based on the asymptotic theory of statistical extremes,a new closed-form peak factor,the so-called Gamma peak factor,can be obtained for a non-Gaussian resultant response characterized by a Rayleigh distribution process.Using the Gamma peak factor,a combined peak factor method was developed for predicting the expected maximum resultant responses of a building undergoing lateral-torsional vibration.The effects of the standard deviation ratio of two sway components and the inter-component correlation on the evaluation of peak resultant response were also investigated.Utilizing wind tunnel data derived from synchronous multi-pressure measurements,we carried out a wind-induced time history response analysis of the Commonwealth Advisory Aeronautical Research Council (CAARC) standard tall building to validate the applicability of the Gamma peak factor to the prediction of the peak resultant acceleration.Results from the building example indicated that the use of the Gamma peak factor enables accurate predictions to be made of the mean extreme resultant acceleration responses for dynamic serviceability performance design of modern tall buildings.

  4. Our Buildings, Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  5. Selections from the ABC 2012 Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2013-01-01

    The 13 Favorite Assignments featured here were presented at the 2012 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii. A variety of learning objectives are featured, including the following: enhancing resume's visual impact, interpersonal skills, social media, team building, web design, community service…

  6. A post-occupancy evaluation of a green rated and conventional on-campus residence hall

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Bonde; Jill Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Green buildings increasingly attract attention in the real estate sector, and the United States is no exception. Studies indicate that green rated buildings may bring higher rents and sales prices. One reason for this inequity is that the indoor environment of these buildings may outperform conventional buildings. The main objective of this paper is to conduct a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) to compare the indoor environment in a LEED certified, on-campus residence hall with a similar, non-...

  7. Building integration of photovoltaic systems in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Candanedo, José A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents some of the research activities on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems developed by the Solar and Daylighting Laboratory at Concordia University. BIPV systems offer considerable advantages as compared to stand-alone PV installations. For example, BIPV systems can play a role as essential components of the building envelope. BIPV systems operate as distributed power generators using the most widely available renewable source. Since BIPV systems do not require additional space, they are especially appropriate for urban environments. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems may use exterior air to extract useful heat from the PV panels, cooling them and thereby improving their electric performance. The recovered thermal energy can then be used for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) heating, supporting the utilization of BIVP/T as an appropriate technology for cold climates. BIPV and BIPV/T systems are the subject of several ongoing research and demonstration projects (in both residential and commercial buildings) led by Concordia University. The concept of integrated building design and operation is at the centre of these efforts: BIPV and BIPV/T systems must be treated as part of a comprehensive strategy taking into account energy conservation measures, passive solar design, efficient lighting and HVAC systems, and integration of other renewable energy systems (solar thermal, heat pumps, etc.). Concordia Solar Laboratory performs fundamental research on heat transfer and modeling of BIPV/T systems, numerical and experimental investigations on BIPV and BIPV/T in building energy systems and non-conventional applications (building-attached greenhouses), and the design and optimization of buildings and communities.

  8. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  9. A systematic approach for component-based software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling prefabricated, configurable and independently evolving building blocks, called software components. This paper presents an approach for the development of component-based software artefacts. This

  10. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  11. 古茶园与台地茶园鲜叶常量成分及成茶品质比较研究%Comparison of Old Plant Tea and Tableland Tea on Convention Components of Fresh Leaf and Tea Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继伟; 梁名志; 王立渡; 杨毅坚; 罗正飞; 李朝云; 夏丽飞; 王丽

    2011-01-01

    比较古茶树与台地茶树芽叶常量成分及大树茶与台地茶品质,为茶树资源古茶树的评价和利用提供理论依据.以云南省勐海县南糯山古茶园鲜叶和台地茶园鲜叶为原料,制成不同茶样,通过感官审评结合品质成分分析展开比较.结果表明:(1)古茶园鲜叶成荼品质的物质基础优于台地茶园鲜叶,主要生化成分茶多酚、儿茶素、氨基酸、咖啡碱、水浸出物含量均高于台地茶园鲜叶;(2)从各种成茶品质成分含量来看,大树茶有味物质组成配比更适合于消费者的要求,主要表现在大树茶的氨基酸含量显著高于台地茶,儿茶素舍量、酚/氨显著低于台地茶;(3)从各种成茶感官品质来看,大树茶味感优于台地茶,主要表现在滋味协调、味厚、鲜爽回甘,而台地茶味薄、浓带苦涩、欠协调.从冲泡次数来看,大树茶可达5次,多台地茶1次,具有更好的耐泡性.综上,采制于古茶园的大树荼较采制于台地茶园的台地茶消费者接受性高.%Old tea plant and tableland tea plant were compared on convention components of fresh leaf and tea quality to provide theoretical basis for evaluation and utilization of the ancient tea plant resources.Different tea samples were product by fresh leaf of old tea plant and tableland tea plant at Nannuo mountain in Menghai county of Yunnan respectively.The results of sensory evaluation and quality composition analysis showed that: (1) The main biochemical components content of tea polyphenols, catechin, amino acids, caffeine, water extract of old plant tea fresh leaf were higher than that of tableland tea fresh leaf.It was suggesting that the material base of fresh leaf in old tea plant was superior than in tableland tea plant; (2) From the content of quality components, the ratio of taste compounds in old plant tea was more suitable than that in tableland tea for the request of consumers.Concretely, the content of amino acid in old plant

  12. A post-occupancy evaluation of a green rated and conventional on-campus residence hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Bonde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Green buildings increasingly attract attention in the real estate sector, and the United States is no exception. Studies indicate that green rated buildings may bring higher rents and sales prices. One reason for this inequity is that the indoor environment of these buildings may outperform conventional buildings. The main objective of this paper is to conduct a post-occupancy evaluation (POE to compare the indoor environment in a LEED certified, on-campus residence hall with a similar, non-green rated residence hall. Results are evaluated to determine if green buildings really outperform. The results suggest that the green rated building outperformed the conventional building in the majority of the indoor environmental aspects, but not all. These results can inform a cost-benefit analysis of green features for new construction and refurbishments.

  13. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  14. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...

  15. Building Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  16. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  17. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  18. Building Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  19. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  20. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference...

  1. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  2. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  3. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha Juliette Albert; Seshasayanan Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to p...

  4. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced

  5. Integrated sustainable urban infrastructures in building projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Current strategies in urban planning and development merely promote standardized building solutions, while failing to prioritize innovative approaches of integration between building projects and sustainable urban infrastructures. As a result of this, urban infrastructures – the urban veins...... – are outdated from a sustainability perspective. This paper looks into more holistic ways of approaching building projects and discuss whether this provide a basis for an increased integration of urban infrastructures within building projects. In our study, we especially emphasise how conventional ways...... of approaching building projects are influenced by lock-in of existing infrastructural systems and compare this with two examples of more holistic ways of approaching building projects, developed by two architecture firms. The paper points out that such holistic perspective in building projects provide...

  6. User Participation in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2011-01-01

    of it is evaluated by the end-users in the (4) 'Solution space'. Three on-going construction projects were used as cases in the development and in the testing of VICMET. Collaborative Virtual Reality environments were tested in order to present and discuss the suggested solutions with users. The virtual environments......Virtual Innovation in Construction (VIC) is a project aiming to develop an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported methodology VIC-MET, to involve building end-users in a creative innovation process together with building designers, and to capture and formulate end-user needs...... building systems (FBS), which are realized as component building systems (CBS), which will form parts in the total building solution. The formulated needs provide input to specific requirements in order to assure expected performance of the building components. The final virtual building model or part...

  7. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components ar...

  8. JRC Research building, Ispra, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Building 45 of the Joint Research Center in Ispra was retrofitted with both solar air and solar hot water systems. The air panels provide the heat for the ventilation system. The panels were integrated into the south wall with a curved plenum as an architectural feature of the building. The installation was completed in 1995 and monitoring began in 1997. The unglazed solar-air panels are dark grey in colour and look like conventional metal cladding. Engineers from three countries were involved in the selection and design of the innovative system. (author)

  9. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rashkin, Samuel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huelman, Pat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  10. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E.; Rashkin, Samuel; Huelman, Pat

    2015-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  11. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  12. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  13. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  14. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  15. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  16. Comprehending conventional and novel metaphors: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Curran, Tim; Menn, Lise

    2009-08-11

    The neural mechanisms underlying the processing of conventional and novel conceptual metaphorical sentences were examined with event-related potentials (ERPs). Conventional metaphors were created based on the Contemporary Theory of Metaphor and were operationally defined as familiar and readily interpretable. Novel metaphors were unfamiliar and harder to interpret. Using a sensicality judgment task, we compared ERPs elicited by the same target word when it was used to end anomalous, novel metaphorical, conventional metaphorical and literal sentences. Amplitudes of the N400 ERP component (320-440 ms) were more negative for anomalous sentences, novel metaphors, and conventional metaphors compared with literal sentences. Within a later window (440-560 ms), ERPs associated with conventional metaphors converged to the same level as literal sentences while the novel metaphors stayed anomalous throughout. The reported results were compatible with models assuming an initial stage for metaphor mappings from one concept to another and that these mappings are cognitively taxing.

  17. Discrete event simulation versus conventional system reliability analysis approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) environments are rapidly developing and appear to be promising tools for building reliability and risk analysis models of safety-critical systems and human operators. If properly developed, they are an alternative to the conventional human reliability analysis models...... and systems analysis methods such as fault and event trees and Bayesian networks. As one part, the paper describes briefly the author’s experience in applying DES models to the analysis of safety-critical systems in different domains. The other part of the paper is devoted to comparing conventional approaches...

  18. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available graduate before registration as professional Training programmes Mentors Mentor guidelines Experiential training Energys CPD World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Institutional Congresses and conventions Code of ethics Code... that underpin a sustainable society World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 For the sake of the communities we serve and for the sake of our world in crisis Engineering professions will have to go beyond the call of duty and let our sun shine...

  19. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Juliette Albert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  20. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  1. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...... of such to evolutionary game theoretical frameworks inspired by the models of (Maynard Smith & Price 1973), (Taylor & Jonker 1978) and (Maynard Smith 1982). By providing an account of equilibrium selection these are thought to work as well-defined metaphors of learning processes upon which a revised theory of convention...

  2. Laser generating metallic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-04-01

    Recent developments in rapid prototyping have led to the concept of laser generating, the first additive manufacturing technology. This paper presents an innovative process of depositing multi-layer tracks, by fusing successive powder tracks, to generate three dimensional components, thereby offering an alternative to casting for small metal component manufacture. A coaxial nozzle assembly has been designed and manufactured enabling consistent omni-directional multi-layer deposition. In conjunction with this the software route from a CAD drawing to machine code generation has been established. The part is manufactured on a six axes machining center incorporating a 1.8 kW carbon-dioxide laser, providing an integrated opto-mechanical workstation. The part build-up program is controlled by a P150 host computer, linked directly to the DNC machining center. The direct manufacturing route is shown, including initial examples of simple objects (primitives -- cube, cylinder, cone) leading to more complex turbine blade generation, incorporating build-up techniques and the associated mechanical properties.

  3. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge...

  4. MYCELIUM BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jondelius, Olof

    2015-01-01

    This work is looking in to what possibilites and restrictions comes with using mycelium as a building material for a small house. It includes reasoning around solutions for some of the problems and presenting some ideas of how to use some of the materials properties in your favor. A general background of why we need to start look in to alternative materials for all petroleum materials are presented. Det här arbetet har varit inriktat på att se vilka möjligheter samt begränsningar det skul...

  5. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available establishment of its platform. Van Wyk believes that South Africa faces other challenges when it comes to sustainable building. “You can’t separate the process from the product,” he says. “South Africa still has to learn a lot and has to make many... stakeholders and implemented at an early stage. By G uy O lde nk ott e Bu idl ing Af ric aa rc hiv es Bu idl ing Af ric aa rc hiv es Perfect blend November 2007 jFM BUSINESS, RETAIL & LEISURE FACILITIES6 During the FM Expo...

  6. New optical coatings for transparent building components for improved heat protection in summer - Annual report 2004; Neue optische Beschichtungen fuer transparente Gebaeudeteile im Hinblick auf einen verbesserten sommerlichen Waermeschutz - Jahresbericht 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, I.; Oelhafen, P.; Reber, G.; Romanyuk, A.; Steiner, R.

    2004-07-01

    This annual report for the year 2004 prepared for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the Physics Institute at the University of Basle summarises work done on simulating and testing of new coatings for glass used in the transparent parts of buildings. Both the results of simulations as well as actual measurements made at the 'Donnerbaum' school in nearby Muttenz are discussed. The report presents the results of measurements and simulations made concerning heat protection in summer. The various factors that must be taken into consideration are described and the results of the simulations are presented. The spectral properties of various glasses and coatings are described and illustrated. The results obtained and the measurement equipment used are discussed. Finally, further work to be done is mentioned.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment and the Environmental Certification Systems of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Bueno

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle assessment (LCA is an important methodology for the assessment of building components and systems and should be used within the building environmental performance certification systems. The present paper reports on the state of the art of LCA as a tool for the assessment of building components and analyzes its application in the environmental certification systems of building. The analysis of the existing systems for the environmental certification of buildings has revealed that among the four main and most employed systems of environmental certification of buildings currently used, Green Globes is the only one which uses the LCA methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of building components. The other systems use the assessment of building components by the recognition of product attributes, such as cost, durability, renewability and recycled content. The weakness of the attributes approach lies in the fact that these attributes are treated in isolation and lack the whole concept of impact.

  8. Energy Performance Assessment of Radiant Cooling System through Modeling and Calibration at Component Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Yasin [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of an information technology office building with a radiant cooling system and a conventional variable air volume (VAV) system installed side by side so that performancecan be compared. First, a 3D model of the building involving architecture, occupancy, and HVAC operation was developed in EnergyPlus, a simulation tool. Second, a different calibration methodology was applied to develop the base case for assessing the energy saving potential. This paper details the calibration of the whole building energy model to the component level, including lighting, equipment, and HVAC components such as chillers, pumps, cooling towers, fans, etc. Also a new methodology for the systematic selection of influence parameter has been developed for the calibration of a simulated model which requires large time for the execution. The error at the whole building level [measured in mean bias error (MBE)] is 0.2%, and the coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CvRMSE) is 3.2%. The total errors in HVAC at the hourly are MBE = 8.7% and CvRMSE = 23.9%, which meet the criteria of ASHRAE 14 (2002) for hourly calibration. Different suggestions have been pointed out to generalize the energy saving of radiant cooling system through the existing building system. So a base case model was developed by using the calibrated model for quantifying the energy saving potential of the radiant cooling system. It was found that a base case radiant cooling system integrated with DOAS can save 28% energy compared with the conventional VAV system.

  9. Negotiating Conventions and Creating Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Alexander Sasha; Barberá-Tomás, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes of negotiation and institution building through which transnational networks of learning are fashioned. It does so by examining the case of the European animation industry and the activity of an association, Cartoon, which facilitated the development of common...

  10. Hydrogen storage: beyond conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebrook, Andrew F; Gan, Weijia; Grasemann, Martin; Moret, Séverine; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2013-10-09

    The efficient storage of hydrogen is one of three major hurdles towards a potential hydrogen economy. This report begins with conventional storage methods for hydrogen and broadly covers new technology, ranging from physical media involving solid adsorbents, to chemical materials including metal hydrides, ammonia borane and liquid precursors such as alcohols and formic acid.

  11. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  12. Inventory non-conventional gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Ter Heege, J.H.; Van Bergen, F.; Schavemaker, Y.A.; Van Gessel, S.F.; De Jong, M.L.; Nelskamp, S.; Van Thienen-Visser, K.; Guasti, E.; Van den Belt; Marges, V.C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    This report describes the results of the inventory for each non-conventional gas resource expected to be present in the Netherlands, which are: Tight Gas, Shallow gas, Coal bed Methane (CBM), Shale gas, Basin Centered Gas, Aquifer Gas and Stratigraphic traps.

  13. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    2017-07-01

    This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the "energy and buildings" topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control) affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  14. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  15. Buildings Extraction from Polarimetric SAR Image Using Improved Three-component Decomposition and Wishart Classification%利用改进三分量分解与 Wishart 分类的极化 SAR 图像建筑提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘修国; 姜萍; 陈启浩; 陈奇

    2015-01-01

    本文针对基于 Freeman 分解的建筑提取方法存在的问题,提出采用圆极化相关系数实现选择性去取向,同时引入广义体散射模型,构建了面向建筑提取的改进三分量分解模型,以准确分析地物的散射特性。在此基础上,发展了一种综合利用改进三分量分解与 Wishart 迭代分类算法的极化 SAR 图像建筑提取方法。使用 E‐SAR 全极化数据的试验结果表明,本文方法能够有效减少建筑与植被的误分,并提高建筑信息提取的准确性。%To address the misclassification issue on buildings extraction based on Freeman decomposition method ,a novel improved three‐component decomposition model is proposed in this paper .By combining the selective de‐orientation derived from the circular polarization correlation coefficient method with the generalized volume scattering model , it can accurately characterize the scattering characteristics of surface features .On this basis ,the complex Wishart iterative classification is introduced to develop a new method of buildings extraction .An E‐SAR L band polarimetric SAR image was used to verify the effective‐ness of this modified algorithm .The experiment result shows it could perform better in distinguishing between oblique buildings and forest ,and consequently improve the accuracy of buildings extraction .

  16. Potential heat savings during ongoing renovation of buildings until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Aggerholm, Søren

    information about insulation level, building component areas, i.e. roofs, external walls, floors and windows/doors, per unit area (gross heated floor area). The report is made for the Danish Energy Agency and targeted the Danish building industry, the agency itself and political decision makers in preparation......This report presents analyses with the purpose to clarify the energy savings of net heating until 2050 if the building components are being upgraded according to the requirements stipulated in the Danish Building Regulation 2010. Upgrading is assumed to be introduced when the building components...

  17. Cognitive Study of Building Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛惠君

    2015-01-01

    Metaphor is a universal phenomenon,the traditional metaphor studies it as a means of rhetoric,but metaphor of modern sees it as a cognitive phenomenon.In our life most of the everyday language is metaphor,our mind is also the metaphor.Meta-phor has become an indispensable tool for understanding the world.There are a lot of “building”metaphorical expressions in the life, construction is an important component of people’s lives. K?vecses (2002)discussed briefly some conceptual metaphors of the construction in English,Deignan (2001)make a compre-hensive study on building metaphors which underlie some metaphor expression of “building and construction”.Lan Chun (2003)only referred to “theory is building”,but the concept of “life,relationships”can be understood through building concept,these relative ab-stract concepts can be understood by clear concrete building concept.Hence the studies of building metaphors have not been systematic and comprehensive,people seldom study it.We plan to give a contrastive study of building metaphors.This will further deepen peo-ple’s understanding of building metaphors and enrich the cognitive studies of metaphor.

  18. Residential Building Envelope Alternatives with Equivalent Cost

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the optimum envelope alternative in buildings is one of the most important factors in ensuring thermal comfort. This study calculated the heating costs, construction and lifecycle costs for a residential building in Istanbul with different envelope alternatives created by changing the type and thickness of the body and insulation materials used in the walls and roof, which are the structural components forming the building envelope. Envelope alternatives with equivalent costs were d...

  19. Recent developments in building diagnosis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of recent research on building diagnosis techniques related to construction pathology, hygrothermal behavior and durability, and diagnostic techniques. It highlights recent advances and new developments in the field of building physics, building anomalies in materials and components, new techniques for improved energy efficiency analysis, and diagnosis techniques such as infrared thermography. This book will be of interest to a wide readership of professionals, scientists, students, practitioners, and lecturers.

  20. Study on steady state wind and turbulence environments. [structure of wakes near buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of wakes and how this structure is related to the size and shape of buildings and other obstacles, and to ambient winds, was investigated. Mean values of natural atmospheric flow were obtained and used in conjunction with theoretical relationships developed by dimensional analysis to establish a model of the flow in the wake. Results indicate that conventional and V/STOL aircraft passing through the wake during takeoff and landing would experience not only a change in turbulence level, but also a change in mean wind speed of a magnitude roughly equivalent to that of the eddy components.

  1. Modeling and experimental study of heat transfer in innovate building components for industrial production; Modelisation et etude experimentale des echanges de chaleur dans des composants innovants de batiment industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacena-Neildez, A.

    2000-05-15

    The main objective of the thesis is the study of a new roof thermal behaviour with the thermal transfer by radiation and convection in order to propose an alternative to the mechanical air-conditioning in the overseas islands, and to determine the way of improving the energy performance. Two fundamental results were obtained. First, the coating has a great importance in relation with the radiative properties. Secondly, air channel geometries can complete insufficient coatings in their cooling purpose. In this thesis, both experimental and modelling analyses were carried out. A solar simulator was used for the experiment to carry out a comparative study of prototypes. A performance indicator was defined; it is the eliminated flux, because the temperature is not sufficient to describe the heat exchange. At the same time, the radiative properties of coatings were measured and a characterisation of paints allows to start a new research of innovative infrared reflective paints. A mono-dimensional model was developed describing thermal exchanges in an air channel component. A sensibility study was carried out which allows to determine the main parameters. The experimental study validated the model in rear flux, more realistic than stagnation. Finally, the feasibility of this new steel component was concluded by a technical-economical study. (author)

  2. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  3. Building Mental Models by Dissecting Physical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anveshna

    2016-01-01

    When students build physical models from prefabricated components to learn about model systems, there is an implicit trade-off between the physical degrees of freedom in building the model and the intensity of instructor supervision needed. Models that are too flexible, permitting multiple possible constructions require greater supervision to…

  4. Direct Georeferencing of Uav Data Based on Simple Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM). LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS) or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP) data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building's wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an effective tool

  5. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around...... knowledge to assumptions characterising agents as conditioned for playing certain strategies upon the population of which evolutionary processes operate. By providing accounts of equilibrium selection and stability properties of behaviours, the resulting frameworks have been brought to work as well...

  6. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  7. Conventional treatments for ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dougados, M; Dijkmans, B; Khan, M.(Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India); Maksymowych, W; van der Linden, S; Brandt, J

    2002-01-01

    Management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is challenged by the progressive nature of the disease. To date, no intervention is available that alters the underlying mechanism of inflammation in AS. Currently available conventional treatments are palliative at best, and often fail to control symptoms in the long term. Current drug treatment may perhaps induce a spurious state of "disease remission," which is merely a low level of disease activity. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first ...

  8. CONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PREOCCUPATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia ANDRITOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A great number of the conventions referring to nature, even if they do not refer ton particular species, were limited from the point of view of geography and territories: we may give as example here a convention for the protection of flora, fauna and panoramic beauties of America, the African convention for nature and natural resources… By the Stockholm conferences, from the 5th of June 1972, we entered in a “dynamic of globalization”. Article 1 of the Declaration that followed the conference is important for the global awareness: “Human beings have the basic right for freedom, equality and conditions of a satisfying life, in an environment with a quality that allows him to live with dignity and well being. He has the solemn duty to protect and improve the environment for the present and future generations (…”. This article proclaims a right for the environment. A new law seems to have arisen with the apparition of this convention: the right of a healthy human being and of a healthy environment. This law is bipolar because it associates the human beings to nature. Human beings have the right to live in a healthy environment and this is why he has to protect nature. This does not represent a right of the human beings from a strict point of view. This is a right that has a universal value. The right to a healthy environment can not be put in the same category as the right to live or the right to be healthy, because this right contains the latter.

  9. MICROFLUIDIC COMPONENT CAPABLE OF SELF-SEALING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A microfluidic component (100) for building a microfluidic system is provided. The microfluidic component (100) can be mounted on a microf luidic breadboard (202) in a manner that allows it to be connected to other microfluidic components (204, 206) without the requirement of additional devices....... The microfluidic component (100) comprises at least one flexible tube piece (102) for transporting a fluid. The microfluidic component (100) also comprises means for applying and maintaining pressure (104) between the flexible tube piece (102) and a tube piece (208, 210) housed in another microfluidic component...

  10. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMar, P.

    2002-10-29

    to treat the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, water heating, lighting, and power systems loads as parts of an integrated system, serving the majority of these loads either directly or indirectly from the CHP output. The CHP Technology Roadmaps (Buildings and Industry) have focused research and development on a comprehensive integration approach: component integration, equipment integration, packaged and modular system development, system integration with the grid, and system integration with building and process loads. This marked change in technology research and development has led to the creation of a new acronym to better reflect the nature of development in this important area of energy efficiency: Integrated Energy Systems (IES). Throughout this report, the terms ''CHP'' and ''IES'' will sometimes be used interchangeably, with CHP generally reserved for the electricity and heat generating technology subsystem portion of an IES. The focus of this study is to examine the potential for IES in buildings when the system perspective is taken, and the IES is employed as a dynamic system, not just as conventional CHP. This effort is designed to determine market potential by analyzing IES performance on an hour-by-hour basis, examining the full range of building types, their loads and timing, and assessing how these loads can be technically and economically met by IES.

  11. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebel Matthias M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the “energy and buildings” topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  12. Impact of replacement of conventional Recloser with PulseCloser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgert Metko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional recloser stresses the circuit with current fault every time they reclose into a fault. After clearing a fault, a conventional recloser simply recloses the interrupters to continuously test the presence of the fault. If the fault is still there, the interrupters are tripped again. Then, after a time delay, the interrupters are reclosed. During reclosing operation of Automatic Recloser, including the faster recloser one, powerful transient processes occurs and significant amount of energy is feeding the fault, resulting in system-damaging and voltage sags. Replacing conventional recloser with PulseCloser one minimizes these effects and creates the possibility to use multiple reclosing even when traditional autoreclosing can not be allowed.PulseCloser Technology drastically reduces overcurrent stress on the system. Once the PulseCloser interrupts a fault, it sends the impulses to intelligently tests for current fault before reclosing. The relative let-through energy of a pulseclosing operation is typically less than 2% of a conventional reclosing operation. Pulseclosing is superior to conventional reclosing. It greatly reduces stress on system components as well as voltage sags experienced by customers’ upstream fault.This paper analyzes transient processes during simulation of operation of traditional recloser and PulseCloser type. Simulations are performed using ATP software. The simulations show the remarkable difference in current versus time during fault testing in the transmission line equipped with conventional recloser and PulseCloser. The analysis justifies the replacement of Conventional Recloser with PulseCloser one.

  13. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  14. Solar space heating and cooling by selective use of the components of a desiccant cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud, Ihsan Aladdin

    The economic advantages of by-passing various components of a desiccant cooling system under conditions not requiring their use are estimated by evaluating the annual costs of heating and cooling a commercial building in three representative U.S. cities. Life-cycle costs of systems employing solar heat for space heating and desiccant regeneration are compared with those using electric heat. The costs of purchasing and operating heating and desiccant cooling systems, with and without solar heat supply, are compared with those employing conventional heating and vapor compression cooling. The conditions under which commercial buildings can be cooled with desiccant systems at costs competitive with conventional systems are identified. A commercially available vapor compression air conditioner is used as a standard of comparison for energy consumption and room comfort. Heating and cooling requirements of the building are determined by use of the BLAST computer model in a simulation of long term system operation. Performance of the desiccant cooling system and life cycle savings obtained by its use are determined by simulation employing the TRNSYS computer model. TRNSYS compatible subroutines are developed to simulate operation of the desiccant equipment, the building, and the controllers that operate and monitor the system components. The results are presented in tabular and graphical form. This study shows that in the widely different climates represented in Los Angeles, New York, and Miami, by-passing various components in the desiccant cooling system when they are not needed is economically advantageous. Operation cost of the complete system decreased by 47.3% in Los Angeles, by 30.9% in New York City, and by 23.9% in Miami by not operating the desiccant wheel and other elements. The ventilation desiccant cooling system has major economic advantage over conventional systems under conditions of moderate humidity, as in Los Angeles and New York City. In Miami, however

  15. Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Mancini, Sandra; Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada - Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    We conducted a re-analysis of data supplied by the New Buildings Institute and the US Green Buildings Council on measured energy use data from 100 LEED-certified commercial and institutional buildings. These data were compared to the energy use of the general US commercial building stock. We also examined energy use by LEED certification level, and by energy-related credits achieved in the certification process. On average, LEED buildings used 18-39% less energy per floor area than their conventional counterparts. However, 28-35% of LEED buildings used more energy than their conventional counterparts. Further, the measured energy performance of LEED buildings had little correlation with certification level of the building, or the number of energy credits achieved by the building at design time. Therefore, at a societal level, green buildings can contribute substantial energy savings, but further work needs to be done to define green building rating schemes to ensure more consistent success at the individual building level. Note, these findings should be considered as preliminary, and the analyses should be repeated when longer data histories from a larger sample of green buildings are available. (author)

  16. Analytical Study of Response of Multi-Storey Building under Biaxial Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Y. Kalshetty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional practice of dynamic analysis using seismic codes recommends that the dynamic analysis is done by considering earthquake force in one direction at a time i.e. uniaxial excitation. But the simultaneous effect of asymmetricities in both orthogonal directions is neglected because of uniaxial excitation approach. Also the behaviour of building during earthquake depends upon its shape size and overall geometry. The partial and complete collapse of reinforced concrete buildings in recent earthquakes has raised the need to design the building considering biaxial forces. Limited research has been carried out on effect of such biaxial excitation. To get reliable results a regular and C shape model of multi-storey building is analysed using various timehistories in SAP2000 v17. The angle of incidence of earthquake forces will be varying between 0 to 360 degrees. The influence of the orthogonal horizontal component of input ground motion on seismic response of reinforced concrete building is analysed by comparing the response of biaxial excitation with the response of uniaxial excitation. Change in maximum displacement values, considering this as the basic criteria, comparison of the responses due biaxial excitation and uniaxial excitation is done. Time history analysis has been carried out using SAP2000 after validating the model with results available in reference literature. It is observed and recommended that considering biaxial forces is necessary for an accurate determination of response and also to reach an adequate design for serviceability earthquakes.

  17. Flash Builder building user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Develop a working understanding of events and components, and containers and states so you can build and deploy RIAs in Flex. Work through a demo implementation of a login panel that employs feedback from the server side, to hone your understanding. Use the validators and the debugger to inspect your code execution. Building User Interaction is the second of five articles that will be compiled in the book, Data Visualization with Flash Builder: Designing RIA and AIR Applications with Remote Data Sources. Each full-color article illustrates specific aspects of Flash Builder data visualization

  18. A Post Occupancy Evaluation of a green rated and conventional residence hall

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Magnus; Ramirez, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Green buildings increasingly attract attention in the real estate sector, and the US sector is no exception. Studies indicate that green rated buildings may bring higher rents and sales prices.   One reason for this inequity is that the indoor environment of these buildings may outperform conventional buildings. The main objective of this paper is to conduct a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) to compare the indoor environment in a LEED certified, on-campus residence hall with a similar, non-gr...

  19. Indoor air quality in passive and conventional new houses in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Bekö, Gabriel; Bloom, Erica;

    2015-01-01

    flora were measured. Air exchange rates (AER) were estimated from the CO2 concentrations measured in the bedrooms. The median AER was slightly higher in the passive houses than in the conventional ones (0.68h-1 vs. 0.60h-1). The median concentrations in the passive and the conventional buildings were 10...... sources of formaldehyde may have been more pronounced in the conventional houses. In contrast to the passive houses, the indoor microbiological flora indicated possible mould or moisture problems in six (29%) of the conventionally built houses. When compared with the results previously reported...

  20. The building blocks to the architecture of a cloud platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is on the identification of components that are general across cloud platforms. These components are classified under hardware, virtualisation and cloud management. These building blocks encompass nodes and clusters, hypervisors...

  1. HAM-Tools – a whole building simulation tool in Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalagasidis, Angela Sasic; Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2008-01-01

    HAM-Tools is a building simulation software. The main task of this tool is to simulate transfer processes related to building physics, i.e. heat, air and moisture transport in buildings and building components in operating conditions. The scope of the ECBCS Annex 41 “Whole Building Heat, Air and ...

  2. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  3. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  4. Building performance modelling for sustainable building design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oduyemi, Olufolahan; Okoroh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ...) called Ecotect for sustainable building design. Finally, it introduces a design tool analysis of a case study using Ecotect to evaluate various what if scenarios on a proposed multi-use building...

  5. One-component nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Koo, Jin Mo; Cui, Honggang

    2015-12-10

    One-component nanomedicine (OCN) represents an emerging class of therapeutic nanostructures that contain only one type of chemical substance. This one-component feature allows for fine-tuning and optimization of the drug loading and physicochemical properties of nanomedicine in a precise manner through molecular engineering of the underlying building blocks. Using a precipitation procedure or effective molecular assembly strategies, molecularly crafted therapeutic agents (e.g. polymer-drug conjugates, small molecule prodrugs, or drug amphiphiles) could involuntarily aggregate, or self-assemble into nanoscale objects of well-defined sizes and shapes. Unlike traditional carrier-based nanomedicines that are inherently multicomponent systems, an OCN does not require the use of additional carriers and could itself possess desired physicochemical features for preferential accumulation at target sites. We review here recent progress in the molecular design, conjugation methods, and fabrication strategies of OCN, and analyze the opportunities that this emerging platform could open for the new and improved treatment of devastating diseases such as cancer.

  6. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different quantities and qualities of the components. The optimal mix of solutions for the whole building is found by selecting building parts with the same cost...

  7. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  8. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  9. Comparison Of Conventional And Recycled “Green” Office Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Možina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To confront with the market need, we have to find alternative in respond to enormous necessity and application ofoffice paper. Therefore, one way in dealing with the problem is to replace or just decrease the use of paper madeentirely from primary components, mainly wood fibbers (deciduous and conifer. We analysed mechanical, optical,structural and microscopic properties. Experiments were performed on three conventional and three recycled officepapers reachable on the market. Results, obtained from measurements, confirm presumption, that mechanical andsurface properties of recycled office paper can be collated and they discern from conventional office paper.

  10. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAV DATA BASED ON SIMPLE BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM. LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building’s wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an

  11. Conventionalism and integrable Weyl geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheu, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Since the appearance of Einstein's general relativity, gravitation has been associated to the space-time curvature. This theory introduced a geometrodynamic language which became a convenient tool to predict matter behaviour. However, the properties of space-time itself cannot be measurable by experiments. Taking Poincaré idea that the geometry of space-time is merely a convention, we show that the general theory of relativity can be completely reformulated in a more general setting, a generalization of Riemannian geometry, namely, the Weyl integrable geometry. The choice of this new mathematical language implies, among other things, that the path of particles and light rays should now correspond to Weylian geodesies. Such modification in the dynamic of bodies brings a new perception of physical phenomena that we will explore.

  12. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  13. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  14. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  15. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  16. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  17. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  18. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  19. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  20. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  1. Masonry building envelope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Phillip C.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past five years, infrared thermography has proven an effective tool to assist in required inspections on new masonry construction. However, with more thermographers providing this inspection service, establishing a standard for conducting these inspections is imperative. To attempt to standardize these inspections, it is important to understand the nature of the inspection as well as the context in which the inspection is typically conducted. The inspection focuses on evaluating masonry construction for compliance with the design specifications with regard to structural components and thermal performance of the building envelope. The thermal performance of the building includes both the thermal resistance of the material as well as infiltration/exfiltration characteristics. Given that the inspections occur in the 'field' rather than the controlled environment of a laboratory, there are numerous variables to be considered when undertaking this type of inspection. Both weather and site conditions at the time of the inspection can vary greatly. In this paper we will look at the variables encountered during recent inspections. Additionally, the author will present the standard which was employed in collecting this field data. This method is being incorporated into a new standard to be included in the revised version of 'Guidelines for Specifying and Performing Infrared Inspections' developed by the Infraspection Institute.

  2. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karl Grau; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Simulation tools are becoming available which predict the heat and moisture conditions in the indoor environment as well as in the envelope of buildings, and thus it has become possible to consider the important interaction between the different components of buildings and the different physical ...

  3. Potential heat savings during ongoing renovation of buildings until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Aggerholm, Søren

    need renovation anyway due to the building materials used having reached the end of their service life. The analyses are compared with an evaluation of the effect of a 100 % compliance with the requirements as this constitutes the ultimative energy savings in combination with planned building...... information about insulation level, building component areas, i.e. roofs, external walls, floors and windows/doors, per unit area (gross heated floor area). The report is made for the Danish Energy Agency and targeted the Danish building industry, the agency itself and political decision makers in preparation......This report presents analyses with the purpose to clarify the energy savings of net heating until 2050 if the building components are being upgraded according to the requirements stipulated in the Danish Building Regulation 2010. Upgrading is assumed to be introduced when the building components...

  4. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær

    1999-01-01

    of heat- and moistureflow is insufficiently documented for large insulation thicknesses. Thermal bridges, for instance, plays a larger role for the overall heat loss in these constructions, and moisture in insulation materials will decrease the overall performance of the construction.Due to these facts...... on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick constructions......At the energy conference in 1995, Denmark agreed on reducing the total CO2-emission by 20%. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to increase thermal insulation thickness both in new and retrofitted buildings.This will, for both cases, impose a series of building physics problems, as the knowledge...

  5. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  6. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  7. Conventional therapy for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carsten Büning; Herbert Lochs

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder of unknown cause. Outstanding progress regarding the pathophysiology of CD has led to the development of innovative therapeutic concepts. Numerous controlled trials have been performed in CD over the last years. However, many drugs have not been approved by regulatory authorities due to lack of efficacy or severe side effects. Therefore, well-known drugs, including 5-ASA, systemic or topical corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, are still the mainstay of CD therapy. Importantly, biologicals such as infliximab have shown to be efficacious in problematic settings such as fistulizing or steroid-dependent CD. This review is intended to give practical guidelines to clinicians for the conventional treatment of CD. We concentrated on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses, when available, that provide the highest degree of evidence. We provide evidence-based treatment algorithms whenever possible. However, many clinical situations have not been answered by controlled clinical trials and it is important to fill these gaps through expert opinions. We hope that this review offers a useful tool for clinicians in the challenging treatment of CD.

  8. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  9. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  10. Understanding The Writing Conventions of Deaf Urban Latino Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Negrete, Mark Steven

    2015-01-01

    The thesis project analyzes the trajectory and components of English writing conventions of Deaf Urban Latino Youth. It is an analysis of writing features and strategies in punctuation, organization, paragraph writing, neatness and portions of English grammar. The lessons call for real world everyday experiences of communication for Deaf youth in conjunction with English writing. Deaf Latino students in particular undergo a contention of acquiring English writing skills while experiencing oth...

  11. Understanding The Writing Conventions of Deaf Urban Latino Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Negrete, Mark Steven

    2015-01-01

    The thesis project analyzes the trajectory and components of English writing conventions of Deaf Urban Latino Youth. It is an analysis of writing features and strategies in punctuation, organization, paragraph writing, neatness and portions of English grammar. The lessons call for real world everyday experiences of communication for Deaf youth in conjunction with English writing. Deaf Latino students in particular undergo a contention of acquiring English writing skills while experiencing oth...

  12. Development of mechanical ventilation system with low energy consumption for renovation of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren

    the performance of mechanical ventilation systems. The power consumption of mechanical ventilation depends on the flow rate, fan efficiency and pressure loss in the system. This thesis examines the options and develops a concept and components for the design of low-pressure mechanical ventilation. The hypothesis....... Paper I introduces the concept and its performance is evaluated through simulations of a system designed for a test-case building. All the components were designed to minimize pressure losses and therefore the fan power needed to operate the system. The total pressure loss was 30-75 Pa depending......, including ventilation, therefore now represent a larger part of the total energy consumption. Mechanical ventilation has been the most widely used principle of ventilation over the last 50 years, but the conventional system design needs revising to meet future energy requirements. The increase in the use...

  13. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  14. Smart Materials For The Realization Of An Adaptive Building Component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, C.M.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This research focusses on the realization of adaptive architecture with the use of advanced material technology. Current material research has shown significant advances with the development of “smart” materials. Smart materials are “capable of automatically and inherently sensing or detecting chang

  15. Guide for Visual Inspection of Structural Concrete Building Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Formalin Aqueous solution of formaldehyde disintegrates concrete Fruit juices Most fruit juices have little, if any, effect as tartaric acid and citric...causes slow disintegration Sal soda None Saltpeter None Sauerkraut Little, if any, effect Silage Attacks concrete slowly Sugar Dry sugar has no effect on

  16. Smart Materials For The Realization Of An Adaptive Building Component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, C.M.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This research focusses on the realization of adaptive architecture with the use of advanced material technology. Current material research has shown significant advances with the development of “smart” materials. Smart materials are “capable of automatically and inherently sensing or detecting

  17. Models for describing the thermal characteristics of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    on the purpose of the modelling, existence of prior physical knowledge, the data and the available statistical tools. In this paper, a variety of models are outlined and compared, and a strong relationship among a large number of widely used linear and stationary stochastic models is mathematically demonstrated...

  18. Optical communication components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2004-03-01

    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for communication applications. We first review the component requirements from a network perspective. We then look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include silica fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin-film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then describe the most commonly used classes of optical device technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each of them. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering, Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin-film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto-optics, electroabsorption, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies, and mechanical actuation. The active technologies include heterostructures, quantum wells, rare-earth doping, dye doping, Raman amplification, and semiconductor amplification. We also investigate the use of different material systems and device technologies to achieve building-block functions, including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, isolators, circulators, wavelength converters, chromatic dispersion compensators, and polarization mode dispersion compensators. Some of the technologies presented are well established in the industry and in some cases have reached the commodity stage, others have recently become ready for commercial introduction, while some others

  19. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  20. Polarized CMB recovery with sparse component separation

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jerome; Starck, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The polarization modes of the cosmological microwave background are an invaluable source of information for cosmology, and a unique window to probe the energy scale of inflation. Extracting such information from microwave surveys requires disentangling between foreground emissions and the cosmological signal, which boils down to solving a component separation problem. Component separation techniques have been widely studied for the recovery of CMB temperature anisotropies but quite rarely for the polarization modes. In this case, most component separation techniques make use of second-order statistics to discriminate between the various components. More recent methods, which rather emphasize on the sparsity of the components in the wavelet domain, have been shown to provide low-foreground, full-sky estimate of the CMB temperature anisotropies. Building on sparsity, the present paper introduces a new component separation technique dubbed PolGMCA (Polarized Generalized Morphological Component Analysis), which r...

  1. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    , and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark...

  2. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  3. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  4. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  5. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  6. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  7. Sustainable buildings. Bioclimatic architecture for housing in a Mediterranean climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirone, L. [Tirone Nunes Urbanismo Lda, Sintra (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    Although the building sector is the largest energy consumer worldwide, and thus a major contributor to climate change and global warming, the comfort we require in our homes does not have to be harmful to our environment. While in a Mediterranean climate the mean outdoor temperatures coincide with the indoor comfort range, it is possible to apply passive solar technologies in the design of the new buildings and this provides three advantages: The buildings will offer thermal comfort to their inhabitants all year round, relying predominantly on renewable energies. The buildings will not require cooling at any time of year and will require up to 90% less heating than their conventional counterparts. The buildings will be no more costly to construct than their conventional counterparts. (orig.)

  8. Indoor Environment and Energy Use in Historic Buildings - Comparing Survey Results with Measurements and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, P.; Dalewski, M.; Moshfegh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand for energy efficiency places new requirements on energy use in historic buildings. Efficient energy use is essential if a historic building is to be used and preserved, especially buildings with conventional uses such as residential buildings and offices. This paper presents...... results which combine energy auditing with building energy simulation and an indoor environment survey among the occupants of the building. Both when comparing simulations with measurements as well as with survey results good agreement was found. The two efficiency measures that are predicted to increase...... energy and thermal performance the most for this group of buildings were reduced infiltration and increasing heat-exchanger efficiency....

  9. Performance evaluation of conventional and water saving taps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidar, A M; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2016-01-15

    The rapid pace of urbanisation comes with considerable environmental implications including pressures on already stressed limited water resources. In urban areas, most of the water use is associated with water consumption in buildings. The second largest use of water is via taps. It is often assumed that water taps with low flow rates can contribute to reduced per capita water consumption. However, this is based on very little evidence. This paper presents the synthesis of a 13,000 high resolution observations made to investigate the actual water consumption of innovative (water saving) electronic taps and conventional mixer taps. High resolution flow-meters and data loggers were fitted into two washrooms in two different buildings of a higher education institution to record the water use through the basin taps. The recorded data provided information on duration, frequency of use and volume of water consumption per use. The data was helpful in identifying trends in hot and cold water use and therefore can be useful in estimating energy for producing hot water and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Analysis of the observed data suggests that the low flow taps have greater mean water consumption per event than the conventional taps and water consumption is more influenced by user behaviour rather than the technology.

  10. Industrialized Building System/Two-Step Procurement Pilot Projects: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The fascia , soffit, guttering, and other accessories are also part of the building system. All other construction used conventional materials and...implied. It was intended that this plan IM. C. Carroll and T. R. Napier, A Case Study for Industrialized Building Products and Innovative Building

  11. Participation of Empresarios Agrupados in engineering of the Tokamak systems and auxiliary buildings; Participacion de Empresarios Agrupados en la Ingenieria de los sistemas de tokamak y edificios auxiliares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez del Palacio, V.

    2013-07-01

    The Architect Engineering works comprise approximately the design of 32 buildings and structures, some of them very simple and others extremely complex. 32 buildings include nuclear buildings, as the Toyama, tritium, or the building of emergency diesel and buildings conventional and the building of the site services. Systems including those related to systems within a building they reach conventional, while interfaces with process systems are countless. Grouped entrepreneurs led the design of the mechanical (PBS65) systems and Electric (PBS43) actively participating in the design of systems of fire proofing of buildings and site. During the development of engineering accident of Fukushima works directly affect in the design of the systems.

  12. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Simulation tools are becoming available which predict the heat and moisture conditions in the indoor environment as well as in the envelope of buildings, and thus it has become possible to consider the important interaction between the different components of buildings and the different physical...... phenomena which occur. However, there is still room for further development of such tools. This paper will present an attempt to integrate modelling of air flows in building envelopes into a whole building hygrothermal simulation tool. Two kinds of air flows have been considered: 1. Air flow in ventilated...... cavity such as in the exterior cladding of building envelopes, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. 2. Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the construction plane. The new models make it possible to predict the thermal...

  13. Thermal comfort in residential buildings: Comfort values and scales for building energy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Leen; D' haeseleer, William [Division of Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion, University of Leuven (K.U.Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 300 A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dear, Richard de [Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Hensen, Jan [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Building Energy Simulation (BES) programmes often use conventional thermal comfort theories to make decisions, whilst recent research in the field of thermal comfort clearly shows that important effects are not incorporated. The conventional theories of thermal comfort were set up based on steady state laboratory experiments. This, however, is not representing the real situation in buildings, especially not when focusing on residential buildings. Therefore, in present analysis, recent reviews and adaptations are considered to extract acceptable temperature ranges and comfort scales. They will be defined in an algorithm, easily implementable in any BES code. The focus is on comfortable temperature levels in the room, more than on the detailed temperature distribution within that room. (author)

  14. State Capitol Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  15. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  16. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2015-01-01

    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...

  17. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  18. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2015-01-01

    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...

  19. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  20. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  1. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  2. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  3. Modern frame structure buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    В. М. Першаков; Т. О. Петрова; К. М. Лисницька

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the design, construction and implementation of reinforced concrete frame structures with span 18, 21 m for agricultural production buildings, hall-premises of public buildings...

  4. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  5. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  6. Toward a General Research Process for Using Dubin's Theory Building Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Elwood F.; Lowe, Janis S.

    2007-01-01

    Dubin developed a widely used methodology for theory building, which describes the components of the theory building process. Unfortunately, he does not define a research process for implementing his theory building model. This article proposes a seven-step general research process for implementing Dubin's theory building model. An example of a…

  7. Toward a General Research Process for Using Dubin's Theory Building Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Elwood F.; Lowe, Janis S.

    2007-01-01

    Dubin developed a widely used methodology for theory building, which describes the components of the theory building process. Unfortunately, he does not define a research process for implementing his theory building model. This article proposes a seven-step general research process for implementing Dubin's theory building model. An example of a…

  8. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der

    2004-01-01

    In component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the face of compone

  9. Building a case for building performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, David

    2001-01-01

    You have seen the facts before. Americans make up less than 5% of the world’s population, yet consume 25% of the earth’s resources and create 25% of the world’s greenhouse gases. We are also told that the construction and operation of buildings are major contributors to this problem, and that as building industry professionals we have a major responsibility to improve the performance of the buildings and environments that we create. Although a growing number of states and municipalit...

  10. Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Not really...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scofield, John H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Newsham et al. have recently published a re-analysis of energy-consumption data for LEED-certified commercial buildings supplied by the New Buildings Institute (NBI) and US Green Building Council. They find that, on average, LEED buildings use 18-39% less energy per floor area than their conventional counterparts, consistent with and adding clarity to conclusions originally reached by NBI. These conclusions, however, hang on a particular definition of the mean energy intensity of a collection of buildings that is not related to the total energy used by those buildings. Furthermore, site energy considered by Newsham et al. and NBI, unlike source energy used for the EPA's building Energy Star rating, does not account for the energy consumed off-site in generating and delivering electric energy to the building, whose inclusion is crucial for understanding greenhouse gas emission associated with building operation. Here I demonstrate that both the site energy and source energy used by the set of 35 LEED office buildings and Newsham et al.'s matching CBECS office buildings are statistically equivalent. Hence Newsham et al. offer no evidence that LEED-certification has collectively lowered either site or source energy for office buildings. (author)

  11. A review on mathematical methods of conventional and Islamic derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisham, Azie Farhani Badrol; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Despite the impressive growth of risk management tools in financial institutions, Islamic finance remains miles away behind the conventional institutions. Islamic finance products need to comply with the syariah law and prohibitions, therefore they can use fewer of the available risk management tools compared to conventional. Derivatives have proven to be the effective hedging technique and instrument that broadly being used in the conventional institutions to manage their risks. However, derivatives are not generally accepted as the legitimate products in Islamic finance and they remain controversial issues among the Islamic scholars. This paper reviews the evolution of derivatives such as forwards, futures and options and then explores the mathematical models that being used to solve derivatives such as random walk model, asset pricing model that follows Brownian motion and Black-Scholes model. Other than that, this paper also critically discuss the perspective of derivatives from Islamic point of view. In conclusion, this paper delivers the traditional Islamic products such as salam, urbun and istijrar that can be used to create building blocks of Islamic derivatives.

  12. Making Smart Building Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a positive partnership with the architect can help one who is inexperienced in building design and construction make smart building decisions. Tips address how to prevent change orders, what red flags to look for in a building project, what the administrator should expect from the architect to make the project run smoothly, and what…

  13. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  14. Building the ISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继忠; 李秀霞

    2007-01-01

    Have you seen people building houses?To build a house,you need workers.They use their hands,tools and machines to put everything together. Building the ISS is almost the same.The difference is that the workers are astronauts.They

  15. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this chan...

  16. Building with Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the early use of straw in Africa and Europe as a building material. Provides background information and a basic framework for the straw bale project, and recommends supervision for young students. Lists objectives for building a straw bale bench and provides the building instructions which consist of three sessions. Includes four…

  17. Axioms of affine buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Schwer, Petra N.

    2009-01-01

    We prove equivalence of certain axiom sets for affine buildings. Along the lines a purely combinatorial proof of the existence of a spherical building at infinity is given. As a corollary we obtain that ``being an affine building'' is independent of the metric structure of the space.

  18. Monitoring distributed object and component communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakov, N.K.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents our work in the area of monitoring distributed software applications (DSAs). We produce three main results: (1) a design approach for building monitoring systems, (2) a design of a system for MOnitoring Distributed Object and Component Communication (MODOCC) behavior in

  19. Active Contour with A Tangential Component

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junyan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional edge-based active contours often require the normal component of an edge indicator function on the optimal contours to approximate zero, while the tangential component can still be significant. In real images, the full gradients of the edge indicator function along the object boundaries are often small. Hence, the curve evolution of edge-based active contours can terminate early before converging to the object boundaries with a careless contour initialization. We propose a novel Geodesic Snakes (GeoSnakes) active contour that requires the full gradients of the edge indicator to vanish at the optimal solution. Besides, the conventional curve evolution approach for minimizing active contour energy cannot fully solve the Euler-Lagrange (EL) equation of our GeoSnakes active contour, causing a Pseudo Stationary Phenomenon (PSP). To address the PSP problem, we propose an auxiliary curve evolution equation, named the equilibrium flow (EF) equation. Based on the EF and the conventional curve evolution, w...

  20. Component Based Dynamic Reconfigurable Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Hong; HE Lingsong; ZHANG Dengpan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel component based framework of test system is presented for the new requirements of dynamic changes of test functions and reconfiguration of test resources. The complexity of dynamic reconfiguration arises from the scale, redirection, extensibility and interconnection of components in test system. The paper is started by discussing the component assembly based framework which provide the open platform to the deploy of components and then the script interpreter model is introduced to dynamically create the components and build the test system by analyzing XML based information of test system. A pipeline model is presented to provide the data channels and behavior reflection among the components. Finally, a dynamic reconfigurable test system is implemented on the basis of COM and applied in the remote test and control system of CNC machine.

  1. The impacts of green building strategies on the durability and performance of building enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, P. [RDH Building Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    All buildings experience some level of failure during their lifetime. As such, it is to be expected that green buildings are likely to experience the same range of durability and building enclosure problems that affect conventional buildings, unless specific measures are taken. The author emphasized that when durability problems are identified in a green building, it is important to fully understand into which category the problems fall. This study used the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system as a comparison framework for evaluating the environmental impact of green design strategies. LEED was also the focus of the study because of concerns that the processes involved in achieving LEED certification may themselves have negative impacts. Each of the following performance categories was reviewed in this paper: sustainable sites; water efficiency; energy and atmosphere; materials and resources; and, indoor environmental quality. The recommended design strategies to achieve each credit were also identified. It was concluded that the main problem in investigating durability issues in relation to green buildings is that so many of the buildings are new and relatively untested. The performance of these buildings will only become apparent over time. As such, ongoing monitoring and verification of performance is needed. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Vibration Transmission in a Multi-Storey Lightweight Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Bin; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kiel, Nikolaj

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a parametric modelling and analysis approach to investigate the vibration transmission in lightweight buildings. The main focus of the research is to investigate the influence of geometry and configuration of the building on the vibration transmission. A building with a single......, vibro-acoustic analysis is performed by means of a simple version of the model, where the entire building is constructed by translation and combination of uniform basic modular elements, i.e. wall and floor panels. Each room is created by choosing the component modules from a predefined group of panels...... the modelling of different connections between panels in the building [2]. Using this parametric building model, free vibration analysis is first performed to obtain the distribution of Eigen frequencies of the building. Then the forced vibration of the building subjected to a mechanical excitation is analysed...

  3. Design Process for Integrated Concepts with Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aa, Van der A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    is needed. The hard question is however: how to make the right choice of the combination of individual measures from building components and building services elements. Within the framework of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 research has been conducted about the design process for integrated building concepts......An integrated building concept is a prerequisite to come to an energy efficient building with a good and healthy IAQ indoor comfort. A design process that defines the targets and boundary conditions in the very first stage of the design and guarantees them until the building is finished and used...... with responsive building elements. The (Dutch) Toolkit Sustainable Residential Buildings is one of the examples of tools for an integrated design process....

  4. Building with History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Adams, Charlotte; Green, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interdisciplinary research focusing on Durham University estate, we describe how buildings constructed as part of an eighteenth century transition to a high carbon coal-based economy, are used and understood by their current inhabitants. Applied heritage research has tended to focus...... on the thermal and energetic properties of historic buildings, as distinct from their social meaning and use. A similar separation between the physi- cal building and its social use is inherent in methodologies such as energy audits that constitute key devices through which buildings are institution- ally...... was given to the existing possibilities afforded by historic buildings and their users...

  5. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  6. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  7. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  8. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  9. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  10. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  11. Buildings and climate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbury, R.; Bartram, L.; Marques, D. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Cole, R.; Vanier, D. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hyde, R. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); MacLeod, D. [Okanagan Science and Technology Council, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Mueller, T. [Canada Green Buildings Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    Buildings and their stakeholders are critical elements in an effective climate change strategy, since their operation is responsible for more than 30 per cent of the world's greenhouse gases and energy consumption. The building sector comprises government; industry; building owners, occupants and users; utilities; non-governmental organizations; as well as universities, colleges and schools. Innovations in building design, construction and operation can achieve real and lasting reduction of green house gases, energy costs, water use and waste. This paper recommended a wide range of actions for the green building movement, which is aimed at improving coordination, increasing research and knowledge-sharing, and fostering expertise in the BC green building industry. It outlined elements of a strategy that would enable BC to realize the full potential of building innovation. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed....... The paper demonstrates measures for the improvement of the thermal insulation of the building with solid brick walls. Durable customised measures are shown. The customised measures are required not to change the overall exterior architecture as the building is considered to contribute to the uniqueness...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  13. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella, Arthur [County of Fayette, Uniontown, PA (United States)

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  14. A Linguistic Model in Component Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciunean, Daniel Cristian; Crăciunean, Vasile

    2016-12-01

    It is a fact that the component-oriented programming, well organized, can bring a large increase in efficiency in the development of large software systems. This paper proposes a model for building software systems by assembling components that can operate independently of each other. The model is based on a computing environment that runs parallel and distributed applications. This paper introduces concepts as: abstract aggregation scheme and aggregation application. Basically, an aggregation application is an application that is obtained by combining corresponding components. In our model an aggregation application is a word in a language.

  15. Ultra-Lightweight Optical Components for FTS Instruments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is pursuing novel technology for FTS instruments. The use of the conventional actuator technology is limited by the weight of optical components. The innovation...

  16. Optimal Component Types for the Design of Construction Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Felix Enge; Wolfgang Huhnt

    2008-01-01

    Within the project preparation phase, experienced professionals manually map design information onto process information with the aim to develop realistic and practical schedules. Unfortunately, the map- ping itself is neither part of any underlying data model nor is it supported by current scheduling tools. As a consequence the process of setting up the data model for a schedule is still not supported formally. Huhnt and Enge described a modelling technique that addresses the missing linkage between design and process information[1]. The approach makes use of so called component types. These are template sub-processes that describe the fabrication procedure of typical building components. Decomposing the building into com- ponents and assigning a component type to each component allows for formal support while scheduling. Depending on the decomposition of the building into components and the complexity of the involved com- ponent types the specification effort differs. The question about optimal component types arises: Which lay- out of building components and component types results in minimal specification effort? This paper presents a branch and bound algorithm to determine optimal component types. For a given schedule, which has been modelled based on component types, all possible decompositions into sub-processes are determined. Dur- ing the decomposition process the encountered configurations are compared. Those with minimal specifica- tion effort are registered. Theoretical and practical examples are examined and discussed.

  17. VASOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF DIALYSIS SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, El Rasheid; Patel, Anuj A.; Li, Na; Matheson, Paul J.; Garrison, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Background Conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions elicit vasodilation, which is implicated in the variable rate of solute transport during the dwell. The components causing such vasoactivity are still controversial. This study was conducted to define the vasoactive components of conventional and new PD solutions. Methods Three visceral peritoneal microvascular levels were visualized by intravital video microscopy of the terminal ileum of anesthetized rats. Anesthesia-free decerebrate conscious rats served as control. Microvascular diameter and blood flow by Doppler measurements were conducted after topical peritoneal exposure to 4 clinical PD solutions and 6 prepared solutions designed to isolate potential vasoactive components of the PD solution. Results All clinically available PD solutions produced a rapid and generalized vasodilation at all intestinal microvascular levels, regardless of the osmotic solute. The pattern and magnitude of this dilation was not affected by anesthesia but was determined by arteriolar size, the osmotic solute, and the solution’s buffer anion system. The greatest dilation occurred in the small precapillary arterioles and was elicited by conventional PD solution and heat re-sterilized solution containing low glucose degradation products (GDPs). Hypertonic mannitol solutions produced a dilation that was approximately 50% less than the dilation obtained with glucose solutions with identical osmolarity and buffer. Increasing a solution’s osmolarity did not produce a parallel increase in the magnitude of dilation, suggesting a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. Lactate dissolved in an isotonic solution was completely non-vasoactive unless the solution’s H+ concentration was increased. At low pH, isotonic lactate produced a rapid but transient vasodilation. This vascular reactivity was similar in magnitude and pattern to that obtained with the isotonic 7.5% icodextrin solution (Extraneal; Baxter Healthcare

  18. An experience on integrating monitoring and simulation tools in the design of energy-saving buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S. Flores; Lesino, G. [INENCO, Universidad Nacional de Salta, CONICET, Buenos Aires 177 (4400) Salta (Argentina); Filippin, C.; Beascochea, A. [Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, CONICET, Spinetto 785 (6300) Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we describe the design and thermal behaviour of a bioclimatic Auditorium at the National University of La Pampa, used for teaching activities in Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina). The building was monitored in winter and simulated with SIMEDIF for Windows, a code developed at the Non Conventional Energy Research Institute (INENCO, Argentina). Then, a new project of a similar building was proposed for General Pico city, and the obtained physical model was used to simulate the building under the summer temperatures of the new city. The building was redesigned and passive solar strategies were applied to reduce heating and cooling loads. The final layout and the monitored thermal behaviour of the new building in winter and summer are described. Without additional cost, the new building savings were 50% in heating requirements respect to the conventional layout, and 70% in the requirements of conventional energy for cooling. (author)

  19. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  20. Adapting conventional cancer treatment for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jian; Liu, Zhida; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of directly killing tumors by conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has been for several decades well established. But, a suppressed immune response might become a lethal side effect after repeated cycles of intensive treatment. Recently, achievements in immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell-mediated immunotherapies have resulted in changes in frontline management of advanced cancer diseases. However, accumulated evidence indicates that immunotherapeutic and conventional strategies alone are often ineffective to eradicate big tumors or metastasis. To improve the outcomes of treatment for advanced cancer diseases, the combination of conventional cancer treatment with various immunotherapeutic approaches has been attempted and has shown potential synergistic effects. Recent studies have unexpectedly demonstrated that some strategies of conventional cancer treatment can regulate the immune response positively, thus the understanding of how to adapt conventional treatment for immunotherapy is crucial to the design of effective combination therapy of conventional treatment with immunotherapy. Here, we review both experimental and clinical studies on the therapeutic effect and its mechanisms of combining conventional therapy with immunotherapy in treatment of cancer.

  1. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  2. A New Look at Old Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providence Preservation Society, RI.

    This handbook is divided into five parts and is designed to accompany the filmstrip, "A New Look at Old Buildings," a part of the Providence Preservation Society's ongoing commitment to educating students about Providence's rich architectural heritage. (The other materials used in the program are the audio component for the film and a…

  3. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  4. A New Look at Old Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providence Preservation Society, RI.

    This handbook is divided into five parts and is designed to accompany the filmstrip, "A New Look at Old Buildings," a part of the Providence Preservation Society's ongoing commitment to educating students about Providence's rich architectural heritage. (The other materials used in the program are the audio component for the film and a…

  5. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  6. Sustainable Buildings: An Ever Evolving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Quesada

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental considerations have called for new developments in building technologies to bridge the gap between this need for lower impacts on the environment and ever increasing comfort. These developments were generally directed at the reduction of the energy consumption during operations. While this was indeed a mandatory first step, complete environmental life cycle analysis raises new questions. For instance, for a typical low thermal energy consumption building, the embodied energy of construction materials now becomes an important component of the environmental footprint. In addition, the usual practice in life cycle analysis now appears to call for some adaptation—due to variable parameters in time—to be implemented successfully in building analysis. These issues bring new challenges to reach the goal of integrated design, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of sustainable buildings.

  7. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  8. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  9. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...

  10. Architecture Earth-Sheltered Buildings. Design Manual 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    drawbacks. Similarly, windowless precision laboratory and manufacturing environments provoke less "criticism than a windowless office building. d. Job...sophisticated. The components for such a system include a set of heliostats (sun trackers), and a system of lenses and mirrors in an arrangement...buildings. (No detailed cost-benefit analyses have been carried out to determine more precise figures.) Large buildings with high intern-l heat gains

  11. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  12. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  13. Comparison of community managed projects and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ejiro O. Taghwo

    The customs of a community determine the process of ... cash for investment and capacity building. WMP and NGO-MP .... schemes. For proper management, external supporters should .... a water supply system is beyond its carrying capacity.

  14. Model updating of complex structures using the combination of component mode synthesis and Kriging predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Wang, Dejun; Zhang, Shaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Updating the structural model of complex structures is time-consuming due to the large size of the finite element model (FEM). Using conventional methods for these cases is computationally expensive or even impossible. A two-level method, which combined the Kriging predictor and the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique, was proposed to ensure the successful implementing of FEM updating of large-scale structures. In the first level, the CMS was applied to build a reasonable condensed FEM of complex structures. In the second level, the Kriging predictor that was deemed as a surrogate FEM in structural dynamics was generated based on the condensed FEM. Some key issues of the application of the metamodel (surrogate FEM) to FEM updating were also discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by updating the FEM of a real arch bridge with the measured modal parameters.

  15. Model Updating of Complex Structures Using the Combination of Component Mode Synthesis and Kriging Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Updating the structural model of complex structures is time-consuming due to the large size of the finite element model (FEM. Using conventional methods for these cases is computationally expensive or even impossible. A two-level method, which combined the Kriging predictor and the component mode synthesis (CMS technique, was proposed to ensure the successful implementing of FEM updating of large-scale structures. In the first level, the CMS was applied to build a reasonable condensed FEM of complex structures. In the second level, the Kriging predictor that was deemed as a surrogate FEM in structural dynamics was generated based on the condensed FEM. Some key issues of the application of the metamodel (surrogate FEM to FEM updating were also discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by updating the FEM of a real arch bridge with the measured modal parameters.

  16. Culture's building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John J; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    ONE OF THE MOST ESSENTIAL BUT THEORETICALLY VEXING ISSUES REGARDING THE NOTION OF CULTURE IS THAT OF CULTURAL EVOLUTION AND TRANSMISSION: how a group's accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of "culture" into its component "building blocks." In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly.

  17. Culture’s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Joseph Mcgraw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of culture into its component building blocks. In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly.

  18. Culture’s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John J.; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of “culture” into its componentbuilding blocks.” In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly. PMID:25309482

  19. A Modelica-based Model Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-04-07

    This paper describes an open-source library with component models for building energy and control systems that is based on Modelica, an equation-based objectoriented language that is well positioned to become the standard for modeling of dynamic systems in various industrial sectors. The library is currently developed to support computational science and engineering for innovative building energy and control systems. Early applications will include controls design and analysis, rapid prototyping to support innovation of new building systems and the use of models during operation for controls, fault detection and diagnostics. This paper discusses the motivation for selecting an equation-based object-oriented language. It presents the architecture of the library and explains how base models can be used to rapidly implement new models. To demonstrate the capability of analyzing novel energy and control systems, the paper closes with an example where we compare the dynamic performance of a conventional hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves to an innovative heating system. In the new system, instead of a centralized circulation pump, each of the 18 radiators has a pump whose speed is controlled using a room temperature feedback loop, and the temperature of the boiler is controlled based on the speed of the radiator pump. All flows are computed by solving for the pressure distribution in the piping network, and the controls include continuous and discrete time controls.

  20. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  1. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  2. Less tachycardia during transnasal versus conventional gastroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenschwander, Anders U; Christensen, Merete; Schulze, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Transnasal endoscopy is well tolerated, but physiological benefits compared with conventional gastroscopy have not been studied in detail. The aims of this randomised study were to evaluate cardiopulmonary features, patient tolerance, and the endoscopist's evaluation of transnasal versus conventi...

  3. numerical assessment of conventional regulation effectiveness for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benkoussas B, Djedjig R, and Vauquelin O

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... International License. Libraries Resource ... Keywords: underground station; conventional regulation; ventilation strategies; smoke ... Intuitively, ventilation is the first practice which is applied to secure the space and users.

  4. Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning: Innovations ... using various blended learning media including print, ICTs, electronic platforms, ... Admittedly, the blending of offline and online learning enhances significantly ...

  5. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  6. Smart Building Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Knezovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the paradigm of Smart Grid with focus on the smart building as its fundamental part. After a theoretical description of a current grid?s evolution to smart form as well as basic features and functionalities of a smart building, a draft model of the building has been developed in the AnyLogic program. It simulates the behaviour of a smart building and possibilities it can provide to the grid through various scenarios. In the end, a cost and benefit analysis has be...

  7. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  8. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo...

  9. Less outliers in pinless navigation compared with conventional surgery in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Chin, Pak Lin; Tay, Darren Keng Jin; Chia, Shi-Lu; Lo, Ngai Nung; Yeo, Seng Jin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new pinless navigation system (BrainLAB(®) VectorVision(®) Knee 2.5 Navigation System) as an intra-operative alignment check in total knee arthroplasty using conventional cutting jigs. 200 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty using conventional technique or pinless navigation by a senior surgeon were included in the study and prospectively followed up. Intra-operative readings from the pinless navigation system were recorded, and post-operative long limb radiographic films were taken. The accepted values for normal alignment were 180 ± 3° for Hip-Knee-Ankle Angle and 90 ± 3° for Coronal Femoral-Component Angle or Coronal Tibia-Component Angle. There was no difference in the duration of surgery. The mean Coronal Femoral-Component Angle was 89.8 ± 2.0° and 91.3 ± 2.3° in the pinless navigation and conventional group, respectively (p outliers was 10 % in the pinless navigation group compared to 26 % in the conventional group (p = 0.005). For Coronal Femoral-Component Angle and Coronal Tibia-Component Angle, the proportion of outliers was 7 and 4 %, respectively, in the pinless navigation group, compared to 22 and 19 % in the conventional group (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively). The measurements of Coronal Femoral-Component Angle and Coronal Tibia-Component Angle on post-operative radiographic films were similar to intra-operative readings. This study showed that pinless navigation is an effective tool for reducing the proportion of outliers, without significantly increasing the duration of surgery. The authors recommend its use in total knee arthroplasty using conventional cutting jigs.

  10. Multi-Year Program Plan - Building Regulatory Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-10-01

    This document presents DOE’s multi-year plan for the three components of the Buildings Regulatory Program: Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Standards, ENERGY STAR, and the Building Energy Codes Program. This document summarizes the history of these programs, the mission and goals of the programs, pertinent statutory requirements, and DOE’s 5-year plan for moving forward.

  11. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  12. Reflexive convention: civil partnership, marriage and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Brian

    2017-09-14

    Drawing on an analysis of qualitative interview data from a study of formalized same-sex relationships (civil partnerships) this paper examines the enduring significance of marriage and family as social institutions. In doing so, it intervenes in current debates in the sociology of family and personal life about how such institutions are undermined by reflexivity or bolstered by convention. Against the backdrop of dominating sociological frames for understanding the links between the changing nature of marriage and family and same-sex relationship recognition, the paper analyses the diverse and overlapping ways (including the simple, relational, strategic, ambivalent and critical ways) in which same-sex partners reflexively constructed and engaged with marriage and family conventions. My analysis suggests that instead of viewing reflexivity and convention as mutually undermining, as some sociologists of family and personal life do, it is insightful to explore how diverse forms of reflexivity and convention interact in everyday life to reconfigure the social institutions of marriage and family, but do not undermine them as such. I argue the case for recognizing the ways in which 'reflexive convention', or reflexive investment in convention, contributes to the continuing significance of marriage and family as social institutions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  13. NDE of additively manufactured components with embedded defects (reference standards) using conventional and advanced ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, L.; Roberts, R. A.; Barnard, D. J.; Chakrapani, S.; Singh, S.; Hogan, R.; Bond, L. J.

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing provides a unique opportunity to embed defects of known size and shape to produce reference samples for inspection and quality control purposes. This paper reports defect detectability studies with cylindrical additively manufactured cobalt-chromium alloy specimens which contain defects of known sizes and distributions. The specimens were characterized using immersion, synthetic aperture focusing (SAFT), phased array, and nonlinear ultrasonic techniques. Results include detectability, signal to noise ratios, and comparison of results between the methods and what is believed to be the first determination of a non-linearity (beta) parameter for an additively manufactured material. The results indicate that additive manufacturing provides a valuable method to produce reference samples, though additional work is required to validate the shape and morphology of the defects specified.

  14. Capacity building efforts and perceptions for wildlife surveillance to detect zoonotic pathogens: comparing stakeholder perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwind, Jessica S; Goldstein, Tracey; Thomas, Kate; Mazet, Jonna A K; Smith, Woutrina A

    2014-01-01

    .... The PREDICT project, a component of United States Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats program, has introduced capacity building efforts to increase zoonotic pathogen...

  15. Environmental and Energy Aspects of Construction Industry and Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2017-04-01

    Green building is an important component of sustainable real estate market development, and one of the reasons is that the construction industry consumes a high amount of resources. Energy consumption of construction industry results in greenhouse gas emissions, so green buildings, energy systems, building technologies and other aspects play an important role in sustainable development of real estate market, construction and environmental development. The aim of the research is to analyse environmental aspects of sustainable real estate market development, focusing on importance of green buildings at the industry level and related energy aspects. Literature review, historical, statistical data analysis and logical access methods have been used in the research. The conducted research resulted in high environmental rationale and importance of environment-friendly buildings, and there are many green building benefits during the building life cycle. Future research direction is environmental information process and its models.

  16. Building performance modelling for sustainable building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufolahan Oduyemi

    2016-12-01

    The output revealed that BPM delivers information needed for enhanced design and building performance. Recommendations such as the establishment of proper mechanisms to monitor the performance of BPM related construction are suggested to allow for its continuous implementation. This research consolidates collective movements towards wider implementation of BPM and forms a base for developing a sound BIM strategy and guidance.

  17. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  18. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  19. Building information modelling (BIM)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a Building Information Model (BIM) also known as a Building Product Model (BPM) is nothing new. A short article on BIM will never cover the entire filed, because it is a particularly complex filed that is recently beginning to receive...

  20. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  1. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...... project for calculations in the SESAM model....

  2. Building a Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elliott

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to build a data warehouse, using the Schools Interoperability Framework (www.sifinfo.org), that supports data-driven decision making and complies with the Freedom of Information Act. Provides several suggestions for building and maintaining a data warehouse. (PKP)

  3. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  4. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  5. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the

  6. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  7. Building: Food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraïm Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sculpture presented by Efraïm Rodríguez for the conference is titled “pequeño arquitecto” (The Little Architect, a figure which represents a child building a tower with pieces of classical children’s block building toys; the child itself is built out of the same sculpted materials.

  8. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  9. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  10. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  11. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  12. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  13. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  14. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  15. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  16. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  17. OpenBAN: An Open Building ANalytics Middleware for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandarasamy Arjunan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards the realization of smart building applications, buildings are increasingly instrumented with diverse sensors and actuators. These sensors generate large volumes of data which can be analyzed for optimizing building operations. Many building energy management tasks such as energy forecasting, disaggregation, among others require complex analytics leveraging collected sensor data. While several standalone and cloud-based systems for archiving, sharing and visualizing sensor data have emerged, their support for analyzing sensor data streams is primitive and limited to rule-based actions based on thresholds and simple aggregation functions. We develop OpenBAN, an open source sensor data analytics middleware for buildings, to make analytics an integral component of modern smart building applications. OpenBAN provides a framework of extensible sensor data processing elements for identifying various building context, which different applications can leverage. We validate the capabilities of OpenBAN by developing three representative real-world applications which are deployed in our test-bed buildings: (i household energy disaggregation, (ii detection of sprinkler usage from water meter data, and (iii electricity demand forecasting. We also provide a preliminary system performance of OpenBAN when deployed in the cloud and locally.

  18. Technical Management for Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'automation' in the operation of buildings using computerized procedures, earlier reserved for industrial processes. The system is structured with different automation levels with a distributed intelligence, each level characterized by a communication system (Fieldbus for the lowest and Ethernet for the highest level). In order to apply the BAS to CERN buildings it is necessary to evaluate the advantages, the CERN requirements and the integration with the several existing control and automation systems.

  19. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    emissions in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, and the Directive will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO......-effective energy saving potential of between 22% and 40% of the energy consumption in the sector by the year 2020. The paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption and green house gas...

  20. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...

  1. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... that among the relevant actors in the building sector the scientific view is only one perspective among others. This study combines natural-scientific knowledge with social-scientific knowledge, obtained in a close co-operation with actors in the building sector in Denmark and a research period...

  2. The convent of Jericho in Brussels and its literary network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoop, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Augustinian convent of Jericho in Brussels was one of the main centres of textual, literary, and spiritual culture in the late medieval Low Countries. In addition to the large collection of manuscripts which the canonesses wrote for themselves, the sisters produced several books for people and institutions outside the convent walls. Thus the sisters were both important recipients as well as signifi cant producers of texts. This article will focus on the question of the origin of the texts and books that the sisters used to build their library. Additionally, attention will be paid to the external recipients of the books that the Jericho scribes made, in order to shed light on the as yet understudied exchange of texts and books to and from (female convents and the literary networks in which these religious institutions functioned.El convento de las agustinas Jericó en Bruselas fue uno de los centros más importantes de la cultura textual, literaria, y espiritual en los Países Bajos durante la Baja Edad Media. Además de la amplia colección de manuscritos que las canonesas escribieron para sí mismas, produjeron varios libros para personas e instituciones externas al convento. Las religiosas no solo eran receptoras importantes, sino también signifi cativas productoras de textos. El artículo se concentra en la cuestión de la proveniencia de los textos y libros que servían para crear su biblioteca. Se prestará asimismo atención a los destinatarios externos a los que se dirigieron las copistas de Jericó con el fin de arrojar luz sobre la hasta ahora poco estudiada dinámica de intercambio de textos y libros entre conventos (de mujeres y el exterior y las redes literarias en el marco de las cuales esas instituciones religiosas funcionaron.

  3. Principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  4. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  5. Trends and Reliance on Foreign Labourers in Malaysia: Conventional Construction versus Industrialized Building System Construction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    There has been an influx of foreign labourers in Malaysia over the past decade due to sustained economic growth and a limited labour market. As a long term measure to ensure sustainable growth as well as to minimize socio-economic implications, a medium to longer-term policy on foreign workers will be devised with the goal of reducing overdependence on foreign workers while attracting more skilled and trained professionals. In order to reduce the number of foreign workers, the government has ...

  6. Stabilization Operations Through Military Capacity Building-Integration Between Danish Conventional Forces and Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    N.Y: Frank Cass Publishers, 1998), 82–83. 146 Adams, US. Special Operations Forces in Action, 84–85. 147 Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam, 69...liaison teams, which were considered an important factor in the development of the Afghan National Army ( ANA ). Operational mentoring and liaison...Chief of Defence. Adams, Thomas K. U.S. Special Operations Forces in Action: The Challenge of Unconventional Warfare. New York: Frank Cass Publishers

  7. Components of Co-creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    , such an approach misses the advantages of an empirically driven quantitative approach that benefits from larger size samples and is more appropriate for theory building through the development and testing of hypotheses. It is important, therefore, to seek the development of a research methodology that combines...... the benefits of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches for studying the nature of value co-creation. The article provides a first attempt to identify the main research steps of such a methodology. It provides some preliminary results on the key components of value co-creation between firms...... of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. One of the main contributions of this article is to suggest and explore the possibility for using the QCA technique in future research on value co-creation....

  8. Simulated performance of the Thermo Active Building System (TABS) with respect to the provided thermal comfort and primary energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    The central module of an office building conditioned by a Thermo Active Building System (TABS) coupled with constant volume ventilation was evaluated by means of dynamic computer simulations. Additionally, the same building model was simulated with a conventional all air VAV ventilation system...

  9. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  10. Comparative Energy and Cost Analysis Between Conventional HVAC Systems and Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    heat pump (GSHP) relative to conventional heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems: air-source heat pumps (ASHP), air-cooled air conditioning with either natural gas, fuel oil, or liquid petroleum gas furnaces, or with electrical resistance heating. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed for a standard commercial office building within each of the 48 continental states. Regardless of the conventional HVAC system chosen, the simulation shows that for each state the GSHP has the highest probability of using less energy and having a lower operating and life

  11. Modeling QoS Parameters in Component-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    deployed components, begins with the system developer, willing to build a system, by presenting a query to the system generator . The query describes...is built using the system generator . If some of the components are not found then the system integrator can modify the system query by adding more

  12. Building a competitive Pearl River Delta region: cooperation, coordination, and planning

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Papers mainly originated from the Seminar on Building a Competitive Pearl River Delta Region: Cooperation, Coordination and planning held on 8 July 2000 at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre

  13. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components ar...... savings, due to the level of the current requirements. Higher energy savings can, though, be achieved e.g. by setting requirements for balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and use of solar heating for domestic hot water....

  14. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  15. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  16. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  17. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  18. The collapse of the conventional career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, P

    The Collapse of the Conventional Career was commissioned by the ENB as 'the first in a number of discussion papers in which important issues were to be explored so that the professional could debate them fully' (Jean Hooper, chairwoman of the ENB, in her foreword). The author Celia Davis' premise was that, conventionally, a career was seen as comprising full-time work carried out without a break in service. Because many female nurses could not fulfil this expectation they were disadvantaged in a number of ways. In order to address the problems faced in practice by those who would not be able, for various reasons, to undertake a conventional career, Professor Davis looked at what changes in thinking and policy would be required.

  19. Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the life cycle energy use. The life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO{sub 2} emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO{sub 2} emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house. (author)

  20. Buildings Energy Program annual report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Buildings Energy Program at PNL conducts research and development (R&D) for DOE`s Office of Building Technologies (OBT). The OBT`s mission is to lead a national program supporting private and federal sector efforts to improve the energy efficiency of the nation`s buildings and to increase the use of renewable energy sources. Under an arrangement with DOE, Battelle staff also conduct research and development projects for other federal agencies and private clients. This annual report contains an account of the buildings-related research projects conducted at PNL during fiscal year (FY) 1991. A major focus of PNL`s energy projects is to improve the energy efficiency of commercial and residential buildings. Researchers who are developing solutions to energy-use problems view a building as an energy-using system. From this perspective, a desirable solution is not only one that is cost-effective and responsive to the needs of the occupants, but also one that optimizes the interaction among the energy components and systems that compose the whole.

  1. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  2. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  3. Towards a Wireless Sensor Platform for Energy Efficient Building Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karsten Menzel; Dirk Pesch; Brendan O'Flynn; Marcus Keane; Cian O'Mathuna

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the IT-support for energy performance rating of buildings is insufficient. So-called IT-platforms often "built" of an ad-hoc, inconsistent combination of off-the-shelf building management compo-nents, distributed data metering equipment and several monitoring software tools. A promising approach to achieve consistent, holistic performance data management is the implementation of an integrated, modular wireless sensor platform. This paper presents an approach of how wireless sensors can be seamlessly inte-grated into existing and future intelligent building management systems supporting improved building per-formance and diagnostics with an emphasis on energy management.

  4. Raising Children with Roots, Rights & Responsibilities: Celebrating the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Lori; Foley, Joanne; Gagliardi, Annette

    This curriculum resource grew out of a grass roots effort to promote the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child through education and political action. Designed primarily for young children and their parents, the curriculum builds on the power of the parent-child relationship to help build a positive self-image for both parent and…

  5. 2nd International Conference on Construction and Building Research

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Plazaola, Igor; Hidalgo-Delgado, Francisco; Martínez-Valenzuela, María; Medina-Ramón, Francisco; Oliver-Faubel, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Abad, Isabel; Salandin, Andrea; Sánchez-Grandia, Rafael; Tort-Ausina, Isabel; Construction and Building Research

    2014-01-01

    Many areas of knowledge converge in the building industry and therefore research in this field necessarily involves an interdisciplinary approach. Effective research requires strong relations between a broad variety of scientific and technological domains and more conventional construction or craft processes, while also considering advanced management processes, where all the main actors permanently interact. This publication takes an interdisciplinary approach grouping various studies on the building industry chosen from among the works presented for the 2nd International Conference on Construction and Building Research. The papers examine aspects of materials and building systems; construction technology; energy and sustainability; construction management; heritage, refurbishment and conservation. The information contained within these pages may be of interest to researchers and practitioners in construction and building activities from the academic sphere, as well as public and private sectors.

  6. Investigation of Surfaces after Non Conventional Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micietova, Anna; Neslusan, Miroslav; Cillikova, Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with analysis of surface integrity of steel after electro discharge machining (EDM), water jet machining, (WJM) laser beam machining (LBM) and plasma beam machining (PBM). The paper discusses surface integrity expressed in surface roughness, sample precision expressed in perpendicularity deviation as well as stress state. This study also demonstrates influence of the various non-conventional methods on structure transformations and reports about sensitivity of the different non-conventional methods of machining with regard to variable thickness of machined samples.

  7. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  8. 1985 CSEG/CGU National Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, John W.; Millington, Graham

    The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (CSEG) and the Canadian Geophysical Union (CGU) held their first joint national meeting in Calgary, Canada, May 7-10, 1985. As the CSEG represents primarily the oil exploration side of geophysics and the CGU represents mainly the academic side, both groups felt that a joint convention would broaden their perspectives. Some 1750 delegates and over 100 students registered for the meeting. The Convention Committee was chaired by Ian Baker (Atlantis Resources Ltd.), and CGU was represented by Peter Savage (Pan Canadian Petroleum Ltd.). The Technical Committee was chaired by John Peirce (Petro-Canada Inc.) for CGU and Graham Millington (Canadian Superior Oil Ltd.) for CSEG

  9. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    as 1) the reformulation of the theory of action focusing on the uncertainty of social action; 2) pointing to the importance of collective frames of reference for individual rationality; and 3) the elaboration of a theory of institutions, focusing on the importance of conventions as forming...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...

  10. Components Interoperability through Mediating Connector Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Spalazzese, Romina; 10.4204/EPTCS.37.3

    2010-01-01

    A key objective for ubiquitous environments is to enable system interoperability between system's components that are highly heterogeneous. In particular, the challenge is to embed in the system architecture the necessary support to cope with behavioral diversity in order to allow components to coordinate and communicate. The continuously evolving environment further asks for an automated and on-the-fly approach. In this paper we present the design building blocks for the dynamic and on-the-fly interoperability between heterogeneous components. Specifically, we describe an Architectural Pattern called Mediating Connector, that is the key enabler for communication. In addition, we present a set of Basic Mediator Patterns, that describe the basic mismatches which can occur when components try to interact, and their corresponding solutions.

  11. Silicon Micromachining for Terahertz Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Siles, Jose V.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert; Mehdi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Waveguide component technology at terahertz frequencies has come of age in recent years. Essential components such as ortho-mode transducers (OMT), quadrature hybrids, filters, and others for high performance system development were either impossible to build or too difficult to fabricate with traditional machining techniques. With micromachining of silicon wafers coated with sputtered gold it is now possible to fabricate and test these waveguide components. Using a highly optimized Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process, we are now able to fabricate silicon micromachined waveguide structures working beyond 1 THz. In this paper, we describe in detail our approach of design, fabrication, and measurement of silicon micromachined waveguide components and report the results of a 1 THz canonical E-plane filter.

  12. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  13. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  14. Identification of building applications for a variable-conductance insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, T F [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Tuluca, A [Winter (Steven) Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Recent experiments have confirmed the feasibility of controllable, reversible disabling of a vacuum insulation panel, which may result in the development of energy-efficient building envelope components. These components could extend the managed energy exchange through the building envelope from about 30% (typical with fenestration systems in commercial buildings), to as much as 90% of the gross wall and roof areas. Further investigation will be required to optimized the thermal response and the magnitude of the R-value swing (from a difference between insulating and conducting insulating values of 4 to as high as a factor of 100). The potential for energy reduction by using the variable-conductance insulation in the building envelope is discussed, and other potential building applications are mentioned.

  15. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  16. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well...

  17. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well...... as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...

  18. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...... and architectural features built into the design. However, with the advent of new technologies, architects were no longer constrained by the need to ensure that buildings had ample daylighting, remained airy and cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Since HVAC systems and artificial lighting could satisfy...

  19. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  20. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...... Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis...

  1. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...... Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis...

  2. Advanced fiber components for optical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ylä-Jarkko, Kalle

    2004-01-01

    Due to the tremendous growth in data traffic and the rapid development in optical transmission technologies, the limits of the transmission capacity available with the conventional erbium-doped amplifiers (EDFA), optical filters and modulation techniques have nearly been reached. The objective of this thesis is to introduce new fiber-optic components to optical networks to cope with the future growth in traffic and also to bring down the size and cost of the transmission equipment. Improvemen...

  3. Pozzolanic mortars based on waste building materials for the restoration of historical buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pašalić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental aspects of waste building materials have been of great interest in recent years. For the sector of building materials this means increased recycling, reduction of energy consumption and natural resources preservation. This also presents an important contribution in the field of environmental protection. The work deals with the development of pozzolanic mortars made of waste building materials, ground red structure bricks and raw clay materials of inadequate characteristics for the production of ceramic materials. Based on the results of historical mortar characterizations, a group of mortars with specific characteristics (satisfied durability, good compatibility with a historical mortar was prepared. The potential of the waste materials and domestic clay materials application in the production of pozzolanic mortars was confirmed. In addition to the waste management, pozzolanic mortars were designed taking into account the existing conventions in the area of culture heritage.

  4. The Role of the International Code Council in the U.S. Building Regukation System and Green Building Contruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Walls

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the components of the International Code Council (ICC as one of the most important organizations in terms of developing the model building codes for the US: the international codes. This membership-driven organization has the task of providing the building industry and all its stakeholders with the necessary regulatory documents, training, certification, plan check, product evaluation, and accreditation services to achieve safer and more sustainable building construction. This article provides an overview of the building codes in the U.S., the ICC and its subsidiaries, and ICC’s systems designed to support the codes and the regulatory industry.

  5. Recent Developments of the Modelica"Buildings" Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry Stephane

    2011-04-01

    At the Modelica 2009 conference, we introduced the Buildings library, a freely available Modelica library for building energy and control systems. This paper reports the updates of the library and presents example applications for a range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Over the past two years, the library has been further developed. The number of HVAC components models has been doubled and various components have been revised to increase numerical robustness.The paper starts with an overview of the library architecture and a description of the main packages. To demonstrate the features of the Buildings library, applications that include multizone airflow simulation as well as supervisory and local loop control of a variable air volume (VAV) system are briefly described. The paper closes with a discussion of the current development.

  6. Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonney, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on disciplinary discourses, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic discourse. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…

  7. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, T.M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Kessler, T. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Lange, T. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Overbeck, J. [Dept. of Traumatic and Hand Surgery, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Fiebich, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients` follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 {mu}m. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ``inter-observer analysis`` was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  8. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  9. Children's Impressions of Moral and Conventional Transgressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1985-01-01

    Two studies examined children's inferences of personality for actors engaging in different domains of behavior. In both studies, first, fourth, and seventh graders were given two descriptions of actors engaging in either moral or conventional transgressions. Findings indicated that children's concepts of persons were inferred from information…

  10. Architectures: Design patterns for component-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bliudze, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Architectures depict design principles, paradigms that can be understood by all, allow thinking on a higher plane and avoiding low-level mistakes. They provide means for ensuring correctness by construction by enforcing global properties characterizing the coordination between components. An architecture can be considered as an operator A that, applied to a set of components B, builds a composite component A(B) meeting a characteristic property P. A theory of architectures must address sever...

  11. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  12. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  13. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  14. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...

  15. Building our stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Tourism transforms people and places. New stakeholders are emerging, landscapes of power are shifting, and lines of responsibilities are being redrawn. Everyday stories of coping, success, empowerment, nurturing, relationship building and activism are important tools for reflection and learning...

  16. View of Building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Recently opened at CERN is this striking building for physicists, constructed with the help of the Swiss 'Fondation des Immeubles pour les Organisations Internationales', which has over the years added several major edifices to the Geneva landscape

  17. Building Songs 10

    OpenAIRE

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-01-01

    Male villagers sing a building song This collection presents forty-nine audio files including: several folk song genres; folktales and; local history from the Sman shad Valley of Sde dge county World Oral Literature Project

  18. Net-zero building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In its experimental work on research and development of innovative technologies for low income housing on the Innovation Site on the CSIR campus in Pretoria, the Building Science and Technology (BST) competence area identified a number...

  19. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  20. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.