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Sample records for convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

  1. 75 FR 43945 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation AGENCY: Department of... for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation'') (42 U.S.C. 17373). Section 934 implements the... (e.g., nuclear reactors, fuel storage facilities) as a means to evaluate items based on...

  2. Adoption of protocols to amend the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and the Brussels convention supplementary to the Paris convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.; Song, J. M.; Jung, M. M.; Kim, H. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To keep in line with the world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system after the Chernobyl accident, the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention was adopted on 12 February, 2004. The most important feature of the revised Paris Convention is an increase in the nuclear operator's liability amount from 15 million SDRs to a new minimum of 700 million Euros. For the additional compensation to those provided by the domestic liability regime, the revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will maintain its basic three-tier compensation system but with significantly increased amounts(As a result the total amount to be compensated according to the three tiers will be 15 billions Euros). The protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy will come into force when ratified by two thirds of the Signatory States, and the protocol to amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention will come into force when ratified by all the Brussels Supplementary Convention Signatory States.

  3. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Michael G. [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Faculty of Law

    1995-12-31

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-12-31

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee`s work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world`s public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author).

  5. Compensation for nuclear damage: a comparison among the international regime, Japan and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Faure, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Following the Fukushima disaster in Japan in 2011, how the compensation system for nuclear damage should be improved has obtained broad attention. The compensation system, including liability rules, insurance and government involvement, does not only concern to what extent the victims can be suffici

  6. Compensation for nuclear damage: a comparison among the international regime, Japan and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Faure, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Following the Fukushima disaster in Japan in 2011, how the compensation system for nuclear damage should be improved has obtained broad attention. The compensation system, including liability rules, insurance and government involvement, does not only concern to what extent the victims can be suffici

  7. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Possible U.S. Adherence to Two International Conventions on Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-30

    1982 dollars). In other cases, such as the ANTONIO GRAMSCI and the INDEPENDENTA, claims have exceeded the FUND limit as well. The FUND limit is clearly...reached U.S. territory. In the wake of the ANTONIO GRAMSCI case, the FUND estab- lished a policy of paying only for quantifiable economic damage. This...the large payments made in the ANTONIO GRAMSCI case in the Baltic, and their disappointment that the United States did not join FUND. However, the

  9. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  10. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    OpenAIRE

    Matyugina, Eleonora Grigorievna; Glyzina, Tatiana Svyatoslavovna; Kolbysheva, Yuliya Vladimirovna; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; O. V. Vusovich

    2015-01-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  11. Diffusion tensor tractography as a supplementary tool to conventional MRI for evaluating patients with myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Amin A. El Maati

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Diffusion tensor imaging is a reliable method for the evaluation of the diffusion properties of normal and compressed spinal cords. Furthermore, this technique can be used as an important supplementary tool to conventional MRI for the quantification of fiber damage in spinal cord compression, thus has the potential to be of great utility for treatment planning and follow up.

  12. Trends in the International Regime of Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋荣

    2001-01-01

    Since the entry into force of the International Convention on liability and compensation for oil spill damage, there have been many discussions on the improvement of this regime. Based on the existing tworegimes, the writer tried to analysis the advantages of the new regimes and foresee the trends of the international regime of liability and compensation for oil pollution damage.

  13. Supplementary Controller Design for SSR Damping in a Series-Compensated DFIG-Based Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqiang Hu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing presence of wind power in power systems will likely drive the integration of large wind farms with electrical networks that are series-compensated to sustain large power flows. This may potentially lead to subsynchronous resonance (SSR issues. In this paper, a supplementary controller on the grid-side converter (GSC control loop is designed to mitigate SSR for wind power systems based on doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs with back-to-back converters. Different supplementary controller feedback signals and modulated-voltage injecting points are proposed and compared based on modal analysis and verified through root locus analysis to identify the optimal feedback signal and the most effective control location for SSR damping. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed supplemental control are demonstrated on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation analysis using Matlab/Simulink.

  14. Compulsory insurance and compensation for bunker oil pollution damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Ling [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Auslaendisches und Internationales Privatrecht, Hamburg (DE). International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Maritime Affairs at the University of Hamburg

    2007-07-01

    Oil tankers are not the only vessels that have caused oil pollution at sea. Numerous spills in the past have been of heavy fuel oil from non-tankers. However, the international liability and compensation regime covered only oil pollution damage caused by oil tankers. There was thus a need to bring the law on marine oil pollution responsive to oil pollution damage caused by non-tankers. In March 2001, the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage was adopted following a diplomatic conference at the International Maritime Organization. Though this convention has not yet come into force, its various aspects should already be considered as they will surely affect the maritime industry as a whole and the non-tanker sector, in particular. This book provides a timely and comprehensive study on the concept of compulsory insurance, its main purpose of ensuring compensation and its interrelations with other features such as the rule of strict liability and the limitation of liability under the convention. (orig.)

  15. The ecological damage compensation for hydropower development based on trade-offs in river ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing

    2017-05-01

    Hydropower development is a kind of trade-offs in river ecosystem services, while increasing provision services but reduce some regulation or supporting services. However, some ecosystem services we lost are difficult to recover and thus affect the regulated river and riparian ecosystems inevitably. In this context, an ecological compensation framework for damaged river in hydropower development was proposed based on the trade-off in river ecosystem services. And the accounting system for affected rivers was established based on river eco-service alteration, for the hydropower services cannot replace the lost services. Using the ecosystem services valuation methods, the trade-offs of river ecosystem services were quantified and illustrated by some hydropower projects in Lancang River, Yalung River and Min Chiang in China. According to the survey data, the annual compensation standard of per unit installed capacity in above cases may range from 27 to 206 RMB Yuan.

  16. Local governments' roles of the compensation for damage by the Tokai JCO criticality accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Socio-Economic Research Center

    2003-03-01

    The Tokai JCO criticality accident on September 30, 1999 was the first case to which The Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage was applied. Although the Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage formulates the outline of the institutional framework for nuclear third party liability together with operator's insurance scheme, details of actual compensation procedure are not specified. By this reason, the compensation procedure in the Tokai accident had been executed without a concrete legal specification and a precedent. In spite of this situation, the compensation procedure with the accident led to an unexpectedly successful result. We observe the several reasons why the compensation procedure was implemented successfully despite the lack of concrete legal specification and a precedent. One of the reasons is that the local governments, Tokai Village and Ibaraki Prefecture, immediately took the leadership in implementing a temporary regime of compensation procedure without wasting time for waiting national government's directives. Upon practicing this compensation procedure, the local governments implemented the following steps. (1) Initial estimation of the amount and scope of damage. (2) Providing the criteria and heads of damage subject to compensation. (3) Unitary compensation procedure at the local levels. (4) Distribution of emergency payments for the victims. (5) Facilitating compensatory negotiation between the victims and JCO as arbitrator. However, some concerns are also pointed out about the fact that the local government directed the whole procedure without sufficient adjustment with the national government for compensation policy. Among all, in the compensation led by the local governments, it was difficult to guarantee fairness of compensation because victims who are influential on the local government such as industrial associations would have unfairly strong negotiation power in the compensatory negotiation, while the operator being

  17. International law problems for realisation of the IAEA conventions on notification and assistance in the case of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident underscored the need for an early warning system and international assistance plan in case of a nuclear accident. Shortly after Chernobyl, two conventions were adopted under the auspices of the IAEA. The convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, in force since 1986, establishes an early warning system for all nuclear accidents whose effects might cross national boundaries. Under the convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear accident or radiological Emergency,in force since 1987, countries must facilitate prompt assistance in case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, to minimize it`s consequences. Issues with the conventions are described.

  18. Effects of Public Compensation for Disaster Damages on Private Insurance and Forest Management Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Marielle Brunette; Stephane Couture

    2007-01-01

    Politicians have a tendency to compensate victims of natural disasters. This article explores the impact of such public relief programmes on a non-industrial private forest owner’s insurance expenditures or on forest management activities. We develop a theoretical model of insurance demand or forest management activities in a risky context with a finite number of states of nature and a loss proportional to the forest value. The model predicts the optimal private expenditures of insurance and ...

  19. Technical aspects of the piezo, laser-assisted, and conventional methods for nuclear transfer of mouse oocytes and their efficiency and efficacy: Piezo minimizes damage of the ooplasmic membrane at injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shee-Uan; Chao, Kuang-Han; Chang, Chia-Yi; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2004-04-01

    Assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the piezo, laser, and conventional methods for nuclear transfer has remained elusive. Furthermore, although the piezo method had been used by some investigators for research of sperm injection and nuclear transfer for several years, many researchers have failed to operate the technique smoothly and achieve reproducible results. The procedures of nuclear transfer using piezo were ascertained and described in detail. Mouse oocytes were enucleated, and injected with cumulus cells using the piezo, laser, or conventional methods. We investigated the time needed and survival of nuclear transfer. Development was compared among the three methods and parthenogenetic control specimens. The average time of nuclear transfer for each oocyte was significantly shorter using the piezo (118 +/- 9 s) and laser methods (120 +/- 11 s) than using the conventional method (170 +/- 11 s). The damage rate was smaller for the piezo group (10%) than the laser (37%) and conventional (40%) groups. The percentages of blastocyst formation (14%, 12%, and 11%) and the number of nuclei of blastocysts (54 +/- 13, 51 +/- 11, and 52 +/- 12) were similar among the piezo, laser, and conventional groups, but significantly lower than for the control group (83%, 105 +/- 14). The piezo technique is more efficient than the conventional method for nuclear transfer. The laser method is easy to operate, but the equipment is expensive. In addition, piezo induced fewer traumas while breaking the membrane than the aspiration techniques used in the laser and conventional methods.

  20. Compensation of radiation damages for SOI pixel detector via tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Miho; Kurachi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detectors based on SOI technology for high energy physics, X-ray applications and so on.To employ SOI pixel detector on such radiation environments, we have to solve effects of total ionization damages (TID) for transistors which are enclosed in oxide layer.The holes which are generated and trapped in the oxide layers after irradiation affect characteristics of near-by transistors due to its positive electric field.Annealing and radiation of ultraviolet are not realistic to remove trapped holes for a fabricated detector due to thermal resistance of components and difficulty of handling. We studied compensation of TID effects by tunneling using a high-voltage. For decrease of trapped holes, applied high-voltage to buried p-well which is under oxide layer to inject the electrons into the oxide layer.In this report, recent progress of this study is shown.

  1. Compensation for TID Damage in SOI Pixel Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tobita, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiko; Aoyagi, Wataru; Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Kurachi, Ikuo; Hatsui, Takaki; Kudo, Togo; Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We are investigating adaption of SOI pixel devices for future high energy physic(HEP) experiments. The pixel sensors are required to be operational in very severe radiation environment. Most challenging issue in the adoption is the TID (total ionizing dose) damage where holes trapped in oxide layers affect the operation of nearby transistors. We have introduced a second SOI layer - SOI2 beneath the BOX (Buried OXide) layer - in order to compensate for the TID effect by applying a negative voltage to this electrode to cancel the effect caused by accumulated positive holes. In this paper, the TID effects caused by Co gamma-ray irradiation are presented based on the transistor characteristics measurements. The irradiation was carried out in various biasing conditions to investigate hole accumulation dependence on the potential configurations. We also compare the data with samples irradiated with X-ray. Since we observed a fair agreement between the two irradiation datasets, the TID effects have been investigated...

  2. Review of legislation on civil liability for nuclear damage; Revision de la legislacion relativa a la responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez-Moran, E.

    2011-07-01

    The entry into force of Law 12/2011 is postponed until the Protocols modifying the Paris and Brussels conventions take effect, since their content complements that of the Conventions. The most significant modifications are the extension of the suppositions of nuclear damage, the geographical scope of application and the time period for claiming personal damages, which is accompanied by higher coverage limits of up to 1,200 million euros. It also includes liability for damages caused by radioactive materials in the custody of the installation owner. (Author)

  3. Sixth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Brazil has presented periodically its National Report prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities related to nuclear safety. Due to the implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, an Extraordinary National Report was presented in 2012. This Sixth National Report is an update of the Fifth National Report in relation to the Convention on Nuclear Safety articles and also an update of the Extraordinary Report with respect to the action taken related to lesson learned from the Fukushima accident. It includes relevant information for the period of 2010/2012. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations.

  4. 核损害赔偿的基本原则%The Basic Principles of Nuclear Damage Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘风景; 郑建保

    2014-01-01

    核能的和平发展和利用,是20世纪人类最重大的科技成就之一。核电站于上世纪50年代左右开始起步,到本世纪已经达到了商业化发展的水平,成为一种具有吸引力的能源。但是,核能的和平利用在给人类社会带来巨大好处的同时,也伴随着巨大的风险。随着前苏联切尔诺贝利和日本福岛等重大核事故的不断发生,核安全特别是核损害赔偿问题日益引起国际社会的广泛关注。通过对与核损害赔偿有关的国际公约和各国国内法进行系统整理,总结出核损害赔偿的基本原则,可为我国制定《核安全法》提供有益的经验。%Utilizing and developing nuclear energy peacefully is a great scientiifc achievement for human in 20th Century. For instance, nuclear energy station, which launched in the last 50 years of 20th Century. has reached a common application in business this century and utilizing of nuclear energy beneifts human a lot. however, it also brings great risks. With the serious nuclear accidents happened in Chernobyl, the former Soviet Union and Fukushima, Japan, nuclear security, especially nuclear damage compensation continually arouses more attention from international community. In view of this, it is necessary to summarize the basic principles of nuclear damage compensation, which will contribute to the making of the Nuclear security law of China.

  5. Baseline Signal Reconstruction for Temperature Compensation in Lamb Wave-Based Damage Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Xiao, Yingchun; Zhang, Hua; Ren, Gexue

    2016-08-11

    Temperature variations have significant effects on propagation of Lamb wave and therefore can severely limit the damage detection for Lamb wave. In order to mitigate the temperature effect, a temperature compensation method based on baseline signal reconstruction is developed for Lamb wave-based damage detection. The method is a reconstruction of a baseline signal at the temperature of current signal. In other words, it compensates the baseline signal to the temperature of current signal. The Hilbert transform is used to compensate the phase of baseline signal. The Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is used to compensate the amplitude of baseline signal. Experiments were conducted on two composite panels to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method could effectively work for temperature intervals of at least 18 °C with the baseline signal temperature as the center, and can be applied to the actual damage detection.

  6. Baseline Signal Reconstruction for Temperature Compensation in Lamb Wave-Based Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Temperature variations have significant effects on propagation of Lamb wave and therefore can severely limit the damage detection for Lamb wave. In order to mitigate the temperature effect, a temperature compensation method based on baseline signal reconstruction is developed for Lamb wave-based damage detection. The method is a reconstruction of a baseline signal at the temperature of current signal. In other words, it compensates the baseline signal to the temperature of current signal. The Hilbert transform is used to compensate the phase of baseline signal. The Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP is used to compensate the amplitude of baseline signal. Experiments were conducted on two composite panels to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method could effectively work for temperature intervals of at least 18 °C with the baseline signal temperature as the center, and can be applied to the actual damage detection.

  7. Convention on nuclear safety. Questions posted to Switzerland in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) on 31 October 1995. It ratified the Convention on 12 September 1996, which came into force on 11 December 1996. In accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, Switzerland has prepared and submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties organised in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2006. These meetings at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna were attended by a Swiss delegation. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international co-operation and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of

  8. 一俄罗斯环境损害赔偿法律制度探究%On the Russian Legal System of Compensation for Environmental Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秘明杰

    2014-01-01

    In Russian Federation, there’s a perfect system of law, which is about the legal system of compensation for environment damage. All of the clauses about the compensation for environment damage can be divided into two types: entity stipulation and procedure stipulation. They are the clauses about the definition of environment damage, responsibility assumption, infringement liability, constitutive requirements, and so on. All of the clauses are minutely detailed in the Russian law system. China should draw on the achievements of theory and practice from Russian legal system of compensation for environmental damage.%在环境损害赔偿方面,俄罗斯有着十分完整的立法体系,其在环境损害的结果认定、责任承担和归属、构成要件等方面规定得较为详细,这集中体现在一系列法律规定之中,包括程序的和实体的两种类型。对中国立法而言,俄罗斯的环境损害赔偿法律制度理论和实践,具有较大的借鉴价值和参考意义。

  9. A Review on Radiation Damage in Concrete for Nuclear Facilities: From Experiments to Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Pomaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a relatively cheap material and easy to be cast into variously shaped structures. Its good shielding properties against neutrons and gamma-rays, due to its intrinsic water content and relatively high-density, respectively, make it the most widely used material for radiation shielding also. Concrete is so chosen as biological barrier in nuclear reactors and other nuclear facilities where neutron sources are hosted. Theoretical formulas are available in nuclear engineering manuals for the optimum thickness of shielding for radioprotection purposes; however they are restricted to one-dimensional problems; besides the basic empirical constants do not consider radiation damage effects, while its long-term performance is crucial for the safe operation of such facilities. To understand the behaviour of concrete properties, it is necessary to examine concrete strength and stiffness, water behavior, volume change of cement paste, and aggregate under irradiated conditions. Radiation damage process is not well understood yet and there is not a unified approach to the practical and predictive assessment of irradiated concrete, which combines both physics and structural mechanics issues. This paper provides a collection of the most distinguished contributions on this topic in the past 50 years. At present a remarkable renewed interest in the subject is shown.

  10. Compensation for damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Sobehart, L J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the possibility to establish a scheme to compensate damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina for those cases in which it is possible to assume that the exposure to ionizing radiation is the cause of the cancer suffered by the worker. The proposed scheme is based on the recommendations set out in the 'International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection: Protecting Workers against Exposure to Ionization Radiation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, August 26-30, 2002. To this end, the study analyzes the present state of scientific knowledge on cancer causation due to genotoxic factors, and the accepted form of the doses-response curve, for the human beings exposure to ionization radiation at low doses with low doses rates. Finally, the labor laws and regulations related to damage compensation; in particular the present Argentine Labor Law; the National Russian Federal Occupational Radiological Health Impairment and Workmen Compensation, t...

  11. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  12. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2017-06-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  13. Report of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project (no.1510) authorizing the protocol approbation at the convention of the 27 november 1992 concerning the creation of a compensation international Fund for damages resulting from the hydrocarbons pollution; Rapport au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de loi (no. 1510) autorisant l'approbation du protocole a la convention du 27 novembre 1992 portant creation d'un fonds international d'indemnisation pour les dommages dus a la pollution par les hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charette, H. de

    2004-05-01

    This law project (no 1510), deposed at the National Assembly the 2 april 2004, aims to authorize the protocol approbation at the convention of the 27 november 1992, creating the FIPOL. This evaluation constitutes an opportunity to take stock on the maritime transport safety and above the compensation question, on the inadequacy of the concerned international regulation and the difficulty to engage the intervenors liability. The liabilities financial limits are presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. An imaging algorithm for damage detection with dispersion compensation using piezoceramic induced lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangmin; Gao, Weihang; Song, Gangbing; Song, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Piezoceramic induced Lamb waves are often used for imaging based damage detection, especially for plate like structures. The dispersion effect of the Lamb waves deteriorates the performance of most of imaging methods, since the waveform of the dispersion signals will spread out. In this paper, an imaging method which can compensate the dispersion is developed. In the proposed method, the phase induced by the propagation distance is compensated firstly. After that, the phase deviation generated by the dispersion effect is compensated. Via the two compensations, the proposed method can derive an accurate location of the target with a clean imaging map. An experiment using a plate like structure with four piezoceramic transducer was conducted. In the experiment, the four piezoceramic sensors were used to obtain the signals of the scatterer that simulated the damage on an aluminum plate. The experimental results show that since the dispersion effect is compensated, the target’s image based on the proposed method is about 10 cm × 14 cm, which is about a quarter of that of using the back-projection imaging method.

  15. Insight on the inconsistencies of Barkhausen signal measurements for radiation damage on nuclear reactor steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Soraia Pirfo; Fitzpatrick, Michael E. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Gillemot, Ferenc; Horváth, Marta; Horváth, Ákos; Szekely, Richard [Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research (MTA EK), P.O. Box 49 H-1525, Budapest 114 (Hungary)

    2014-02-18

    This paper focuses on the use of magnetic measurements, using Barkhausen signals to determine the irradiation effects, attempting to predict fracture toughness changes on nuclear reactor structural materials and correlating these measurements to mechanical testing and microstructure. For this study, two types of nuclear reactor materials were investigated: one sensitive to irradiation effects, the JRQ IAEA's reference material (A533B- -type); and one resistant material, 15KH2MFA WWER's reactor pressure vessel steel. The samples were carefully identified within the original heat block, i.e. forged or rolled plate. These calibrated samples were irradiated at different neutron fluences up to 10{sup 23} n/m{sup 2}. We show how microstructural anisotropy can mask the irradiation effects in the magnetic measurements. A correlation between irradiation effects and the magnetic measurements is explained based on this study.

  16. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    threat of assured retaliation to convince an enemy not to attack. Some people have the misconception that deterrence did not come into existence until...posture. Foreign Perspective The security environment has changed dramatically in the five years since the NPR’s publication —but not for the better, as...a long tradition in the former Soviet Union and continues in mod- ern Russia. Prior to the US-led “reset” in US-Russia relations in 2009, Russian

  17. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  18. 论海洋生态损害国家索赔主体资格%The State Claimant Right for the Compensation on Marine Ecological Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡先凤; 刘娜

    2014-01-01

    随着海洋经济的发展及海洋环境资源的开发利用,海洋环境污染事故日益增多,对海洋生态环境的保护构成巨大的挑战。在处理海洋污染事故时,人们以往更多关注的是直接经济损失,而对于海洋生态损害,即海洋生态服务功能、海洋生物资源和生物多样性等方面损害的索赔问题,一直未得到很好的法律解决。为了更好地维护海洋生态利益,法律制度明确海洋生态损害国家索赔主体资格,无疑具有重要的理论和现实意义。%With the development of marine economics and the utilization of marine environmental resources, increasing marine pollution accidents turn up and thus pose tremendous challenges for marine environmental protection. People usually focus attention on direct economic losses in case of marine pollution accidents while neglecting the legal resolving of the compensation claims for marine ecological damage, i.e, marine living resources and biodiversity. So it is of important significance in theory and practice for laws and regulations to make explicit provisions that the state should be the claimant for the compensation on marine ecological damage.

  19. 精神损害赔偿量化标准探析%Discussion on Quantitative Standards of the Compensation for Moral Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芃抒

    2012-01-01

    To quantifying the compensation standards of moral damage is the inevitable result of the development of China' s rule of law process and also the results of promoting the practice of our civil law. According to the different objects of violations in the national tort, we can make a classification and determine different compensation standards for the citizens' moral damage caused by all kinds of infringement.%量化精神损害赔偿标准是我国法治进程发展的必然结果,也是我国民法实践的推进结果。根据国家侵权行为中侵犯客体的不同,将其分类,并为各类侵权行为给公民造成精神损害确定了不同的赔偿标准。

  20. Characteristics of the People's Court's Order to Compensate Damages for Copyright Infringement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lumin; Zhang Xuesong

    2005-01-01

    @@ The issue of damages has long been a hard nut to crack in court hearings of cases of dispute over copyright infringement. Recently, the Beijing Higher People's Court has found out, while conducing a study of 206 copyright infringement cases (162 cases of first instance and 44 cases of second instance), the following eight characteristics of the People's Court's ruling on compensation of damages.

  1. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...

  2. Effect of coal resources development and compensation for damage to cultivated land in mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-feng; LIU Yuan-hua; DU Zhuan-ping; CHEN Jie

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of coal resources inevitably affects, to different degrees, arable land resources and impacts the socio-economic development in mining areas. Therefore it is of great practical importance to probe the rules of the effect from coal resource exploration on arable land. Suitable and effective measures to compensate for damaged to and loss of arable land resources should be taken on the basis of carrying out green mining and reducing damage to limited arable land resources. We have used GIS in simulating the effect of coal resource exploration on arable land. In light of our simulation of the space-time spectrum, the effect is analyzed. Given the socio-economic development conditions of a mining area, specified rational amounts and opportunities for compensation to arable land in mining areas are explored. Finally, from a policy perspective, relevant proposals for rational arable land resource compensation are proposed to facilitate the coordinated development between coal resource exploitation and socio-economy development in mining areas.

  3. World Trade Organization, ILO conventions, and workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The World Trade Organization, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund can assist in the implementation of ILO Conventions relating to occupational safety and health in developing countries. Most countries that seek to trade globally receive permission to do so from the WTO. If the WTO required member countries to accept the core ILO Conventions relating to occupational safety and health and workers' compensation, it could accomplish something that has eluded international organizations for decades. International workers' compensation standards are seldom discussed, but may at this time be feasible. Acceptance of a minimum workers' compensation insurance system could be a requirement imposed on applicant nations by WTO member states.

  4. Stress and psychological trauma in workplace and the right to compensation for non-material damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries today are making efforts through legal measures, security enhancements and health protection to improve living and working conditions and to neutralise especially growing risks of mental health impairment in the workplace. In this paper, we are focused on the problem of traumatic stress in the working environment, giving special attention to the legislation and problems of compensation of non-material damage in court. Based on practical experience and analysis of legal provisions in our country, the questions whether the traumatic stress reaction, which occurred at work can be treated as an injury in the workplace and whether the effects of chronic stress and psychological trauma in the workplace, can fit into the concept of “work-related illnesses“ are raised. According to recent findings about traumatic stress, there is a reasonable basis for the belief that extreme stress and psychological trauma in the workplace could be considered as non-material damage, which should be compensated in accordance with the basic regulations of the Law of Compensation.

  5. Empirical compensation function for eddy current effects in pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X X; Macdonald, P M

    1995-05-01

    An empirical compensation function for the correction of eddy current effects in the Stejskal-Tanner pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments has been established. Eddy currents may arise as a result of the application of sharp and strong gradient pulses and may cause severe distortion of the NMR signals. In this method, the length of one gradient pulse is altered to compensate for the eddy current effects. The compensation is considered to be ideal when the position and the phase of the spin-echo maximum obtained from an aqueous solution of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the same in the presence and absence of a gradient pulse in the PGSE pulse sequence. We first characterized the functional dependence of the length of the required compensation on the three principal variables in the PGSE experiment: the gradient strength, the duration of the gradient pulse, and the interval between the two gradient pulses. Subsequently, we derived a model which successfully describes the general relationship between these variables and the size of the induced eddy current. The parameters extracted from fitting the model to the experimental compensation data may be used to predict the correct compensation for any combination of the three principal variables.

  6. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Suykens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks. We have provided a comparative legal analysis of the financial compensation mechanisms following floods, be it through insurance, public funds, or a combination of both, with an empirical focus on Belgium, the Netherlands, England, and France. Similarities and differences between the methods in which these compensation mechanisms for flood damages enhance resilience were analyzed. The comparative analysis especially focused on the link between the recovery strategy on the one hand and prevention and mitigation strategies on the other. There is great potential within the recovery strategy for promoting preventive action, for example in terms of discouraging citizens from living in high-risk areas, or encouraging the uptake of mitigation measures, such as adaptive building. However, this large potential has yet to be realized, in part because of insufficient consideration and promotion of these connections within existing legal frameworks. We have made recommendations about how the linkages between strategies can be further improved. These recommendations relate to, among others, the promotion of resilient reinstatement through recovery mechanisms and the removal of legal barriers preventing the establishment of link-inducing measures.

  7. 药物临床试验受试者损害赔偿方案调研%Study on Damage Compensation for Subjects in Drugs Clinical Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 康长清; 舒鹤; 郭晋敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the current situation of damage compensation for subjects in drugs clinical trials.Methods: Retrospective analyzes was conducted on 70 drug clinical trail from January 2008 to December 2014 in our hospital , including protocols、informed consent and insurance .Results: It was written in most proto-cols that sponsor undertook damage compensation due to experimental drugs , however , lack of detailed rules .Dam-age compensation for subjects was missed in some informed consents .17 drugs clinical trials provided insurance , the rate of jointing insurance 24 .3%.In international trail , the rate of jointing insurance ( 100%) was higher than that in domestic trail (9.1%).As to domestic trail, the rate of jointing insurance increased gradually .There was no difference between insurance of different periods .In 17 insurance , 13 were clinical trial liability insurance , oth-ers were product and general liability insurance;5 provided insurance instruction , only insurance certificate or poli-cy in others;2 insurance applied foreign language .Conclusion:Through project access system , strengthening the ethical approval , strengthening quality management to prevent the damage occurred , participants damage happened after fully protect the health and rights and interests of the subjects , and actively promote clinical trial insurance to perfect our subjects′damage compensation mechanism , the protection of the rights of the subjects , and reduce the risk of clinical trials .%目的:分析与探讨药物临床试验中受试者损害赔偿方案现状,推动临床试验为受试者提供损害赔偿的实施与规范化。方法回顾性调查某院2008年1月~2014年12月药物临床试验对受试者提供赔偿情况,调查资料主要包括试验协议、知情同意书和保险。结果试验协议中均声明由试验药物引起的受试者损害赔偿由申办方承担,但缺乏细则。部分知情同意书中缺失受

  8. Characteristics of the People's Court's Order to Compensate Damages for Copyright Infringement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Lumin; Zhang; Xuesong

    2005-01-01

      The issue of damages has long been a hard nut to crack in court hearings of cases of dispute over copyright infringement. Recently, the Beijing Higher People's Court has found out, while conducing a study of 206 copyright infringement cases (162 cases of first instance and 44 cases of second instance), the following eight characteristics of the People's Court's ruling on compensation of damages.……

  9. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage; Analisis juridico a la Ley de responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, A

    2000-07-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  10. Effectiveness of two conventional methods for seismic retrofit of steel and RC moment resisting frames based on damage control criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti Aval, Seyed Bahram; Kouhestani, Hamed Sadegh; Mottaghi, Lida

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of two types of rehabilitation methods based on economic justification that can lead to logical decision making between the retrofitting schemes. Among various rehabilitation methods, concentric chevron bracing (CCB) and cylindrical friction damper (CFD) were selected. The performance assessment procedure of the frames is divided into two distinct phases. First, the limit state probabilities of the structures before and after rehabilitation are investigated. In the second phase, the seismic risk of structures in terms of life safety and financial losses (decision variables) using the recently published FEMA P58 methodology is evaluated. The results show that the proposed retrofitting methods improve the serviceability and life safety performance levels of steel and RC structures at different rates when subjected to earthquake loads. Moreover, these procedures reveal that financial losses are greatly decreased, and were more tangible by the application of CFD rather than using CCB. Although using both retrofitting methods reduced damage state probabilities, incorporation of a site-specific seismic hazard curve to evaluate mean annual occurrence frequency at the collapse prevention limit state caused unexpected results to be obtained. Contrary to CFD, the collapse probability of the structures retrofitted with CCB increased when compared with the primary structures.

  11. Nuclear damages and oxidative stress: new perspectives for laminopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lattanzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins, particularly LMNA encoding the A-type lamins, cause a broad range of diverse diseases, referred to as laminopathies. The astonishing variety of diseased phenotypes suggests that different mechanisms could be involved in the pathogenesis of laminopathies. In this review we will focus mainly on two of these pathogenic mechanisms: the nuclear damages affecting the chromatin organization, and the oxidative stress causing un-repairable DNA damages. Alteration in the nuclear profile and in chromatin organization, which are particularly impressive in systemic laminopathies whose cells undergo premature senescence, are mainly due to accumulation of unprocessed prelamin A. The toxic effect of these molecular species, which interfere with chromatin-associated proteins, transcription factors, and signaling pathways, could be reduced by drugs which reduce their farnesylation and/or stability. In particular, inhibitors of farnesyl transferase (FTIs, have been proved to be active in rescuing the altered cellular phenotype, and statins, also in association with other drugs, have been included into pilot clinical trials. The identification of a mechanism that accounts for accumulation of un-repairable DNA damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in laminopathic cells, similar to that found in other muscular dystrophies (MDs caused by altered expression of extracellular matrix (ECM components, suggests that anti-oxidant therapeutic strategies might prove beneficial to laminopathic patients.

  12. 核事故的赔偿问题%The Compensation Issue on Nuclear Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    能见善久[日; 姜雪莲(译)

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Damage Compensation Act in Japan provides absolute and unlimited liability of the operator of a nuclear installation. Therefore the main problem in a case of an accident is not whether the operator is liable or not, but the scope of the nuclear damages. In the nuclear accident in Fukushima damages to agricultural products and fishery or other businesses, damages to lands and houses, damages caused by evacuation, costs of decontamination are to be compensated. If injury to human body caused by exposure to radioactive substances is conifrmed in the future, the damages thereof will be also compensated. The aggregate sum of damages will be huge that the ifnancial security of 120 billion yen provided in the Act is not enough. Therefore intervention of the state becomes necessary. The state has established and funded an organization to support the compensation.%日本《原子能赔偿法》规定原子能经营者对核事故承担绝对责任与无限责任。因此,核事故发生最大的问题就是赔偿范围。在这次事故中,虽然因放射能引起的健康损害还没有现实出现,但是,为避难产生的精神损害、财产损害,对土地建筑物损害,对农业、渔业的损害,谣传损害,清除污染的费用等,赔偿数额巨大。因此,如何确保赔偿资金是重中之重的问题。法律规定的保险等措施(1,200亿日元)是远远不够的。日本的《原子能赔偿法》没有规定国家的赔偿责任,国家构建了原子能损害赔偿支援机构,对该机构交付国债支援赔偿。

  13. On the status quo and insufficiency of China's compensation system for moral damage%论我国精神损害赔偿制度的现状和不足

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万彬

    2012-01-01

    近年来,精神损害赔偿在我国得到了实践和发展,但在社会不断前进的今天,我国关于精神损害赔偿的相关规定存在明显缺陷,难以适应时代的发展。在系统研究我国精神损害赔偿体系的基础上,指出我国精神损害赔偿制度的不足,以期引起法律界对相关问题的重视。%The compensation for moral damages in China in recent years has been the practice and development,but there are obvious flaws in the relevant provisions of our mental damages in the continually advanced society,which is difficult to adapt to the development.The article pointed out that the insufficiency of the compensation system for moral damage on the basis of the study of compensation system for moral damage,in order to arouse the attention of the legal profession on the related issues.

  14. HANARO instrumented capsule development for supporting a study on the irradiation damage of stainless steels for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, K. H

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the program for the maximum utilization of HANARO by MOST, Korea, an instrumented capsule (00M-01U) was designed and fabricated for supporting a study on the irradiation damage of stainless steels for nuclear applications. The basic structure of the capsule for the irradiation of Stainless steels was based on that of the 99M-01K capsule irradiated successfully in HANARO. To satisfy the user requirements such as irradiation temperature and neutron fluence, the optimal arrangement of test specimens was done in the axial and circumferential direction. The temperature distribution and thermal stress of a capsule with multi-holes were obtained by a finite element analysis code, ANSYS. From these analyzed data, this capsule was found to be compatible with HANARO design requirement. Various types of specimens such as small tensile, Charpy, TEM and EPMA specimens were inserted in the capsule. The specimens will be irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 288, 300 and 350 deg C up to a fast neutron fluence of 1.0x10{sup 20}(n/cm{sup 2})(E>1.0MeV)

  15. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  16. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  17. Process compensated resonance testing modeling for damage evolution and uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Eric; Heffernan, Julieanne; Mayes, Alexander; Gatewood, Garrett; Jauriqui, Leanne; Goodlet, Brent; Pollock, Tresa; Torbet, Chris; Aldrin, John C.; Mazdiyasni, Siamack

    2017-02-01

    Process Compensated Resonance Testing (PCRT) is a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method based on the fundamentals of Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). PCRT is used for material characterization, defect detection, process control and life monitoring of critical gas turbine engine and aircraft components. Forward modeling and model inversion for PCRT have the potential to greatly increase the method's material characterization capability while reducing its dependence on compiling a large population of physical resonance measurements. This paper presents progress on forward modeling studies for damage mechanisms and defects in common to structural materials for gas turbine engines. Finite element method (FEM) models of single crystal (SX) Ni-based superalloy Mar-M247 dog bones and Ti-6Al-4V cylindrical bars were created, and FEM modal analyses calculated the resonance frequencies for the samples in their baseline condition. Then the frequency effects of superalloy creep (high-temperature plastic deformation) and macroscopic texture (preferred crystallographic orientation of grains detrimental to fatigue properties) were evaluated. A PCRT sorting module for creep damage in Mar-M247 was trained with a virtual database made entirely of modeled design points. The sorting module demonstrated successful discrimination of design points with as little as 1% creep strain in the gauge section from a population of acceptable design points with a range of material and geometric variation. The resonance frequency effects of macro-scale texture in Ti-6Al-4V were quantified with forward models of cylinder samples. FEM-based model inversion was demonstrated for Mar-M247 bulk material properties and variations in crystallographic orientation. PCRT uncertainty quantification (UQ) was performed using Monte Carlo studies for Mar-M247 that quantified the overall uncertainty in resonance frequencies resulting from coupled variation in geometry, material properties, crystallographic

  18. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Sergio Alves; Couto, Roberto Toscano [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs.

  19. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  20. Entrywise Squared Transforms for GAMP Supplementary Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Supplementary material for a study on Entrywise Squared Transforms for Generalized Approximate Message Passing (GAMP). See the README file for the details.......Supplementary material for a study on Entrywise Squared Transforms for Generalized Approximate Message Passing (GAMP). See the README file for the details....

  1. Influence of nuclear interactions in polyethylene range compensators for carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nkanemat@nirs.go.jp; Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Himukai, Takeshi [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA HIMAT Foundation, 415 Harakoga-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0071 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: A recent study revealed that polyethylene (PE) would cause extra carbon-ion attenuation per range shift by 0.45%/cm due to compositional differences in nuclear interactions. The present study aims to assess the influence of PE range compensators on tumor dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Methods: Carbon-ion radiation was modeled to be composed of primary carbon ions and secondary particles, for each of which the dose and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were estimated at a tumor depth in the middle of spread-out Bragg peak. Assuming exponential behavior for attenuation and yield of these components with depth, the PE effect on dose was calculated for clinical carbon-ion beams and was partly tested by experiment. The two-component model was integrated into a treatment-planning system and the PE effect was estimated in two clinical cases. Results: The attenuation per range shift by PE was 0.1%–0.3%/cm in dose and 0.2%–0.4%/cm in RBE-weighted dose, depending on energy and range-modulation width. This translates into reduction of RBE-weighted dose by up to 3% in extreme cases. In the treatment-planning study, however, the effect on RBE-weighted dose to tumor was typically within 1% reduction. Conclusions: The extra attenuation of primary carbon ions in PE was partly compensated by increased secondary particles for tumor dose. In practical situations, the PE range compensators would normally cause only marginal errors as compared to intrinsic uncertainties in treatment planning, patient setup, beam delivery, and clinical response.

  2. International law on nuclear liability - a critical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.Z. [Nicolas Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The author discusses in detail the following topics: Compensation for domestic nuclear damage and for transfrontier nuclear damage - rule of formal equality of parties which belongs to the basic rule of civil law considering the position of domestic and foreign victims of a grave accident-juridical consequences of the preponderant role played by the state in the promotion, development and supervision of the nuclear industry-rationale for applying the concept of global limitation of liability in the law on nuclear liability and compensation - financial consequences of uncompensated nuclear damage, borne by the victims directly affected or spread over the whole community of the affected state? (HP)

  3. Lamb波结构损伤检测温度补偿方法仿真与实验研究%Experiment and simulation of compensation for temperature influence on Lamb wave propagation for damage detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈文忠; D J Inman

    2013-01-01

    基于压电激励Lamb波传播过程分析研究了信号扩展时域温度补偿方法,分别进行了不同温度下Lamb波传播与损伤检测的有限元数值仿真和实验,利用基准信号选择和基准信号扩展的温度补偿方法处理波动响应信号.仿真和实验结果表明了温度补偿方法的有效性,得到了基准信号集中最大温度间隔要求,能够有效识别环境温度变化下的结构损伤.%Among structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques,Lamb waves are frequently used as diagnostic tools to detect damage in plate-like structures.Temperature variation can cause significant changes in guided-wave propagation and transduction for SHM.It is most important to compensate the temperature variation for those methods in which the present signals should be compared with the baseline ones in order to detect the structure damage.In this paper,a transient dynamic finite element simulation of Lamb wave for damage detection in a stiffened plate under different temperature conditions is carried out on the commercial finite element code ANSYS platform.Simulations are conducted over a temperature range of 25~75 ℃ using 275 kHz as excitation frequencies.The changes in temperature-dependent material properties are used to measure the differences in the waveform of the response signal.Then controlled experiments examine changes in Lamb wave propagation and transduction using PZT-5A piezoelectric wafers under quasi-statically varying temperature (from 5 ℃ to 60 ℃).The baseline selection method and baseline signal stretch method are used to compensate the temperature influence on Lamb wave propagation.The results of the numerical simulation and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the temperature compensation approach.The requirement of maximum temperature interval for baseline signal set is obtained,thus the simulated damage on the aluminum plate can be detected effectively under varying temperature environment.

  4. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suykens, C.B.R.; Priest, Sally; van Doorn - Hoekveld, W.J.; Thuillier, Thomas; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks.

  5. Second national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention - September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The chapter 6 describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  6. 浅谈离婚损害赔偿%A Brief Discussion on Divorce Damages Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芃

    2013-01-01

    With the progress of the society, new situation emerges in marriage and family relations, and the divorce rate is rising, but the damages to the innocent party is often unable to get com-pensation in marriage judicial practice. The legislative establish-ment of divorce damages compensation, as an important legal re-lief measure, is one of the shining points of the amended Marriage Law, for it conforms to the needs of the times, and highlights the progress of legislation. In accordance with legal practice, relevant laws and regulations and judicial interpretation, as well as rele-vant theories, the writer probes into this topic.%  随着社会的进步,婚姻家庭关系出现了新的情况,离婚率逐年攀升,婚姻司法实践中遇到的无过错方的损害在司法实践中往往无法得到赔偿,离婚损害赔偿作为一项重要的法律救助措施,在立法上的确立是修正后的婚姻法的闪光点之一,是顺应时代的需要,是立法的进步。本人结合法律实践,依据相关法律法规及司法解释,参考有关理论学说对此进行探讨。

  7. Draft Convention on the Exemption from Taxes of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, The Representatives of Member States on the Council of the Organization, the Director-General and the Members of the Staff of the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    CERN Document Server

    European Organization for Nuclear Research

    1955-01-01

    Draft Convention on the Exemption from Taxes of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, The Representatives of Member States on the Council of the Organization, the Director-General and the Members of the Staff of the European Organization for Nuclear Research

  8. A Study on Compensation for Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰兰

    2012-01-01

    Considering the linguistic and cultural difference between English and Chinese, it is inevitable to lose the original musical beauty, visual beauty and original rhetorical devices in advertisements translation. So compensation measures are always taken to compensate the lost information. This paper focuses on the discussion of the features of advertisement, cultural and linguistic differences between English and Chinese advertisements, which result in the loss of information. And compensation strategies on words, musical beauty and rhetorical devices in advertisement translation are introduced in this paper.

  9. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Second national report on the implementation by france of the obligations of the Convention; Convention sur la surete nucleaire. Deuxieme rapport national sur la mise en oeuvre par la France des obligations de la Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    The first national report on the implementation by france of the obligation under the Convention is structured along its Articles. the french Nuclear safety Authority ensured the co ordination of the report, with contributions from other regulators and nuclear operators. this report was distributed at the middle of April 2003 to the other Contracting party (on 3 november to 14, 2003 at the IAEA headquarters. (author)

  10. Third national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    This document presents an activity report during the year of 2004, covering the following activities: corporate governance, sustainable development, internal control, controls and procedures for official financial information, evaluation of the controls and procedures by the internal audit, and financial statements.

  11. Fourth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention. Sep. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This Fourth National Report of Brazil is a new update to include relevant information of the period of 2004-2007. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  12. On Compensation for Spiritual Damage in Violation Complaints:Taking Travel Contract as an Example%论违约之诉的精神损害赔偿问题--以旅游合同为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志辉

    2013-01-01

    In "Tort Law", victims are allowed to claim compensation for moral damage under the conditions of compliance with the statutory. Neither the Civil law nor the Anglo-American law has objections theoretically. Chinese scholars also proposed that compensation for moral damage was a responsibility measure in "Tort Law". It is still a controversial issue whether the compensation for moral damage should be allowed. This paper analyzes the issue in comparative analysis method.%在侵权法中允许受害人在符合法定条件下要求精神损害赔偿,无论是大陆法系和英美法系各国法律及学理上均不持异议,我国也有学者指出,精神损害赔偿是侵权责任法中的一种责任方式1。违约之诉中是否允许精神损害赔偿仍是一个争议的问题,本文运用比较的分析方法对此予以分析。

  13. Development of the national report of the Mexican United States for the Convention on Nuclear Safety of the IAEA; Desarrollo del informe nacional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos para la Convencion sobre seguridad nuclear del OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz L, P. [Jefe del Area de Ingenieria, Departamento de Evaluacion, Gerencia de Seguridad Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work the content of the National Report of the Mexican United States in it revision 2 is presented, which was presented for it exam by the member countries of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in April, 2005. The conclusion of this Report, with base in the existent objective evidence, is that the Laguna Verde Central continues maintaining a level of similar safety to that of other nuclear power plants of its type, not existing conditions at the moment that they can be identified as adverse for a sure operation and that, therefore, plans don't exist to advance the closing of this installation, before the end of its useful life. The questions that the member countries formulated to the Report of Mexico, the answers that were provided to these questions, as well as the conclusions of the 3 Exam Meeting of April, 2005 are also included. The next National Report, in it revision 3, it will cover the period from the January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006, it was developed from January to August, 2007, it delivered to the IAEA on September of the same year and it was presented in the IAEA Headquarters (IAEA) in the 4 Exam Meeting on April, 2008. (Author)

  14. Shrinkage and growth compensation in common sunflowers: refining estimates of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Oldemeye, John L.; Swenson, Elizabeth L.

    1986-01-01

    Shrinkage and growth compensation of artificially damaged common sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) were studied in central North Dakota during 1981-1982 in an effort to increase accuracy of estimates of blackbird damage to sunflowers. In both years, as plants matured damaged areas on seedheads shrank at a greater rate than the sunflower heads themselves. This differential shrinkage resulted in an underestimation of the area damaged. Sunflower head and damaged-area shrinkage varied widely by time and degree of damage and by size of the seedhead damaged. Because variation in shrinkage by time of damage was so large, predicting when blackbird damage occurs may be the most important factor in estimating seed loss. Yield'occupied seed area was greater (P < 0.05) for damaged than undamaged heads and tended to increase as degree of damage inflicted increased, indicating growth compensation was occurring in response to lost seeds. Yields of undamaged seeds in seedheads damaged during early seed development were higher than those of heads damaged later. This suggested that there was a period of maximal response to damage when plants were best able to redirect growth to seeds remaining in the head. Sunflowers appear to be able to compensate for damage of ≤ 15% of the total hear area. Estimates of damage can be improved by applying empirical results of differential shrinkage and growth compensations.

  15. Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The first Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This report is issued according to Article 5 of the International Convention on Nuclear Safety. It has been produced by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. Before submission to the Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication, the report has been commented by the Federal Office of Energy (BFE/OFEN), the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (KSA/CSA), and the Swiss nuclear power plants of Beznau, Leibstadt and Muehleberg. The Goesgen nuclear power plant has chosen not to comment on the report. The introduction to the report provides general information about Switzerland, a brief political history of nuclear power and an overview of the nuclear facilities in Switzerland. In the subsequent sections, numbered after the Articles 6 to 19 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, key aspects are commented on in such a way as to give a clear indication on how the various duties imposed by the Convention are fulfilled in Switzerland.

  16. The Deficiency and Improvement of the Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage from the Perspective of Erica Case%从埃里卡号案看油污责任公约的不足及其完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 邓一鸣

    2016-01-01

    The Erica Case revealed the current deficiency of the Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC), namely the imputation of civil liability and the provisions of the CLC concerning the compensation for damage. To solve these problems, the CLC can be improved by channeling liability to oil company and reforming its compensation clauses. The American Oil Pollution Act (OPA) provides certain references for the CLC's reform.%埃里卡号案揭示了油污民事责任公约存在的问题,即民事责任归责主体不合理,有关损害赔偿的规定不完善。针对这些问题,民事责任公约可从建立新的CLC划分责任机制(归责于石油公司),在环境损害赔偿规定以及其他损害赔偿规定这两方面加以完善。在完善的过程中,可参考美国油污法的相关规定。

  17. A Study on the Establishing of the State Compensation for Spiritual Damage%从漠视到尊重——人权语境中解读精神损害国家赔偿制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何世俊

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual damage in state compensation means citizens' spiritual rights have been violated by the state power therefore leading to citizens' spiritual pains and sufferings or loss of spiritual interests. Only citizens' personal human rights that have been violated can re- sult in spiritual compensation, including rights of human liberty, life, health, reputation, hon- ors, as well as rights related to names, portraits, and those of legal persons. Rights protection organism has provided people tools to pursue spiritual remedy, but the abstraction of spiritual damage may lead to disordered compensation. In order to solve this issue, we need to establish reasonable compensation systems by using dual principles on spiritual damages, introducing spiritual damage evaluation system, utilizing previous research and precedents, consulting other civil compensations and reasonably exerting the judge' s discretion.%国家赔偿法意义上的精神损害是因精神权利遭到公权力的侵犯而引起的精神痛苦或精神利益的丧失、减损。可能引起精神损害的只能是公民人身权被侵犯,主要包括公民的生命健康权、人身自由权、荣誉权、名誉权、肖像权、姓名权、法人人身权。权利保护机制给予了公民精神损害的请求权,但精神损害的无形性可能会导致赔偿的无序性,为解决这一问题,实践中必须掌握精神损害赔偿的二分法原则,通过引入精神损害评估机制,利用引证判例、参照民事赔偿、合理使用法官的自由心证等方法构建合理有序的赔偿制度。

  18. Oxidative stress induces persistent telomeric DNA damage responsible for nuclear morphology change in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Coluzzi

    Full Text Available One main function of telomeres is to maintain chromosome and genome stability. The rate of telomere shortening can be accelerated significantly by chemical and physical environmental agents. Reactive oxygen species are a source of oxidative stress and can produce modified bases (mainly 8-oxoG and single strand breaks anywhere in the genome. The high incidence of guanine residues in telomeric DNA sequences makes the telomere a preferred target for oxidative damage. Our aim in this work is to evaluate whether chromosome instability induced by oxidative stress is related specifically to telomeric damage. We treated human primary fibroblasts (MRC-5 in vitro with hydrogen peroxide (100 and 200 µM for 1 hr and collected data at several time points. To evaluate the persistence of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage up to 24 hrs after treatment, we analysed telomeric and genomic oxidative damage by qPCR and a modified comet assay, respectively. The results demonstrate that the genomic damage is completely repaired, while the telomeric oxidative damage persists. The analysis of telomere length reveals a significant telomere shortening 48 hrs after treatment, leading us to hypothesise that residual telomere damage could be responsible for the telomere shortening observed. Considering the influence of telomere length modulation on genomic stability, we quantified abnormal nuclear morphologies (Nucleoplasmic Bridges, Nuclear Buds and Micronuclei and observed an increase of chromosome instability in the same time frame as telomere shortening. At subsequent times (72 and 96 hrs, we observed a restoration of telomere length and a reduction of chromosome instability, leaving us to conjecture a correlation between telomere shortening/dysfunction and chromosome instability. We can conclude that oxidative base damage leads to abnormal nuclear morphologies and that telomere dysfunction is an important contributor to this effect.

  19. Nondestructive Evaluation of Functionally Graded Subsurface Damage on Cylinders in Nuclear Installations Based on Circumferential SH Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface damage could affect the service life of structures. In nuclear engineering, nondestructive evaluation and detection of the evaluation of the subsurface damage region are of great importance to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. In this paper, we propose the use of circumferential horizontal shear (SH waves to detect mechanical properties of subsurface regions of damage on cylindrical structures. The regions of surface damage are considered to be functionally graded material (FGM and the cylinder is considered to be a layered structure. The Bessel functions and the power series technique are employed to solve the governing equations. By analyzing the SH waves in the 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel cylinder, which is frequently applied in the nuclear installations, we discuss the relationship between the phase velocities of SH waves in the cylinder with subsurface layers of damage and the mechanical properties of the subsurface damaged regions. The results show that the subsurface damage could lead to decrease of the SH waves’ phase velocity. The gradient parameters, which represent the degree of subsurface damage, can be evaluated by the variation of the SH waves’ phase velocity. Research results of this study can provide theoretical guidance in nondestructive evaluation for use in the analysis of the reliability and durability of nuclear installations.

  20. Supplementary Materials for Academically Gifted English Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jean E.

    1982-01-01

    A list of 26 periodicals for use as supplementary instruction for gifted English students presents information on title, frequency of publication, and on publisher (along with a brief annotation) for publications in six categories: literary anthology; cultural and historical heritage; humor; literary criticism; literary, political, and social…

  1. Cognitive Targeting: A Coercive Air Power Theory for Conventional Escalation Control Against Nuclear Armed Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    COGNITIVE TARGETING: A COERCIVE AIR POWER THEORY FOR CONVENTIONAL ESCALATION CONTROL AGAINST NUCLEAR- ARMED ADVERSARIES BY PAUL A. GOOSSEN, MAJ...process with both critical analysis and with encouragement. Most importantly, I want to express my most sincere appreciation to my family. Their love...regional powers such as North Korea, the post-Cold War geo-political environment characterized by U.S. hegemony is fading away. In the emerging

  2. Substitution of supplementary subtests for core subtests on composite reliability of WAIS--IV Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A

    2010-02-01

    The effects of replacing core subtests with supplementary subtests on composite-score reliabilities were evaluated for the WAIS-IV Indexes. Composite score reliabilities and SEMs (i.e., confidence intervals around obtained scores) are provided for the 13 unique Index scores calculated following the subtest substitution guidelines of Wechsler in 2008. In all instances, unique Index composite-score reliabilities were comparable to their respective core Index score composite reliabilities, and measurement error never increased by more than 1 point. Using the standard Verbal Comprehension Index and Perceptual Reasoning Index and the unique subtest combinations for the Working Memory and Processing Speed indexes, which have the lowest composite-score reliabilities, decreased Full Scale composite reliability by .01, while the associated confidence interval of +/- 6 represents an increase in measurement error of 1 IQ point.

  3. QPCR: a tool for analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joel N

    2010-04-01

    The quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay for DNA damage and repair has been used extensively in laboratory species. More recently, it has been adapted to ecological settings. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed methodological guide that will facilitate its adaptation to additional species, highlight its potential for ecotoxicological and biomonitoring work, and critically review the strengths and limitations of this assay. Major strengths of the assay include very low (nanogram to picogram) amounts of input DNA; direct comparison of damage and repair in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and different parts of the nuclear genome; detection of a wide range of types of DNA damage; very good reproducibility and quantification; applicability to properly preserved frozen samples; simultaneous monitoring of relative mitochondrial genome copy number; and easy adaptation to most species. Potential limitations include the limit of detection (approximately 1 lesion per 10(5) bases); the inability to distinguish different types of DNA damage; and the need to base quantification of damage on a control or reference sample. I suggest that the QPCR assay is particularly powerful for some ecotoxicological studies.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics for prediction of gastric damage induced by indomethacin in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, So Young [Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 643 Yeonje-ri, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewahyeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Hyun [Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewahyeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myeon Woo [Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 643 Yeonje-ri, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyu-Bong [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Dandae-ro, Cheonan, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hwa [Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 643 Yeonje-ri, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewahyeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Dandae-ro, Cheonan, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki Hwan, E-mail: hyokwa11@korea.kr [Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 643 Yeonje-ri, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa Jeong, E-mail: hwalee@ewha.ac.kr [Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewahyeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR based metabolomics - gastric damage by indomethacin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pattern recognition analysis was performed to biomarkers of gastric damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-Oxoglutarate, acetate, taurine and hippurate were selected as putative biomarkers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gastric damage induced by NSAIDs can be screened in the preclinical step of drug. - Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have side effects including gastric erosions, ulceration and bleeding. In this study, pattern recognition analysis of the {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of urine was performed to develop surrogate biomarkers related to the gastrointestinal (GI) damage induced by indomethacin in rats. Urine was collected for 5 h after oral administration of indomethacin (25 mg kg{sup -1}) or co-administration with cimetidine (100 mg kg{sup -1}), which protects against GI damage. The {sup 1}H-NMR urine spectra were divided into spectral bins (0.04 ppm) for global profiling, and 36 endogenous metabolites were assigned for targeted profiling. The level of gastric damage in each animal was also determined. Indomethacin caused severe gastric damage; however, indomethacin administered with cimetidine did not. Simultaneously, the patterns of changes in their endogenous metabolites were different. Multivariate data analyses were carried out to recognize the spectral pattern of endogenous metabolites related to indomethacin using partial least square-discrimination analysis. In targeted profiling, a few endogenous metabolites, 2-oxoglutarate, acetate, taurine and hippurate, were selected as putative biomarkers for the gastric damage induced by indomethacin. These metabolites changed depending on the degree of GI damage, although the same dose of indomethacin (10 mg kg{sup -1}) was administered to rats. The results of global and targeted profiling suggest that the gastric damage induced by

  5. supplementary foods for weaning purposes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    relationship of those foods to themselves is both complementary and ... Mother's exposure or level of awareness (i.e. .... supplementary effects of multi-mix diets that can be used as guide to .... post – harvest handling technology, marketing and.

  6. Research on Positioning Error Compensation for Micro Milling Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jun Chen; Wen-Lan Tian; Yong Xiao; Yan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Micro milling has many advantages in fabricating three⁃dimensional ( 3D) structure in micrometer scale. The micro milling machine tool with high positioning accuracy is of great importance for getting micro structure with high profile precision and good surface quality. Meanwhile, the method of position error compensation is a good way to improve the accuracy of the micro milling machine tools. In this paper, a software method is adopted to compensate the positioning error and improve the positioning accuracy. According to error cancellation theory, the compensation values are generated and compensation tables are built to adjust the positioning error in the NC system based on Industrial Motion and Automation Control ( IMAC) . The positioning accuracy of linear motor is ±0�3μm without backlash after compensation. In order to verify the effectiveness of compensation on the machining performance, concave spherical surfaces are processed on the micro milling machine tool. The experimental results show that the profile radius error of the spherical surface machined with compensation decreases more than 60%.

  7. Reflect on Constructing Socialization Relief System of Damage Compensation for Environmental Tort%构建环境侵权损害社会化救济制度的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕宇

    2016-01-01

    Applying to the principle of liability without fault disposal of large-scale environmental violations, there are much diffi⁃cult to effectively protect the legal rights and interests of the victim. The socialization relief system on the basis of the theory of shared responsibility is able to make up for the defect and realize the dynamic balance between the protection of the rights and interests of the victim and economic and social development. To build socialization relief system of damage compensation for environment tort, China should be based on the reality of economic development and environmental protection, integrated use the relief patterns including the li⁃ability insurance system of environmental pollution, the social relief fund system of environmental pollution, the mutual relief funds sys⁃tem of environmental pollution, and so on, to dissolve the environment infringement disputes and promote economic development.%适用无过错责任原则处置大规模环境侵权事件存在难以使众多受害人的合法权益得到有效保护的弊端,以责任分担理论为基础的社会化救济制度能够弥补这一缺陷,实现受害人权益保护与经济社会发展的动态平衡。我国应当基于经济发展和环境保护的现实需要,构建环境侵权损害社会化救济制度,综合采用环境责任保险、环境污染事故社会救助基金、环境共同基金等救济模式,化解环境侵权纠纷,促进经济发展。

  8. Analysis on Large Deformation Compensation Method for Grinding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-jie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The positioning accuracy of computer numerical control machines tools and manufacturing systems is affected by structural deformations, especially for large sized systems. Structural deformations of the machine body are difficult to model and to predict. Researchs for the direct measurement of the amount of deformation and its compensation are farly limited in domestic and overseas,not involved to calculate the amount of deformation compensation. A new method to compensate large deformation caused by self-weight was presented in the paper. First of all, the compensation method is summarized; Then,static force analysis was taken on the large grinding machine through APDL(ANSYS Parameter Design Language. It could automatic extract results and form data files, getting the N points displacement in the working stroke of mechanical arm. Then, the mathematical model and corresponding flat rectangular function were established. The conclusion that the new compensation method is feasible was obtained through the analysis of displacement of N points. Finally, the MATLAB as a tool is used to calculate compensate amount and the accuracy of the proposed method is proved. Practice shows that the error caused by large deformatiion compensation method can meet the requirements of grinding.  

  9. Passive temperature compensation in hydraulic dashpot used for the shut-off rod drive mechanism of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Narendra K., E-mail: nksingh_chikki@yahoo.com [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Badodkar, Deepak N. [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai, 400094 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Passive temperature compensation in hydraulic dashpot has been studied numerically as well as experimentally. • Temperature compensation is achieved by reducing the clearances in the hydraulic dashpot at elevated temperature to compensate for the viscosity reduction. • Temperature compensation effects due to difference in thermal expansion of common engineering materials and use of bimetallic strips have been analyzed. • Design of a novel passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot is presented, which can be used for wide range of temperature variations. - Abstract: Passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot has been studied numerically as well as experimentally in this paper. Study is focused on reducing the clearances of the hydraulic dashpot at elevated temperature which intern compensates for the reduction in viscosity of damping oil and the dashpot gives uniform performance for wide range of temperature variation. Temperature compensation effects are mainly due to difference in the thermal expansion of materials. Different combinations of materials are used to reduce the dashpot clearances at elevated temperature. Finite element commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics 5.1 has been used for numerical analysis. Fluid-structure analysis has been carried-out to study the thermal expansion and pressure generated in the hydraulic dashpot. Multiphysics study with solid mechanics, laminar flow and moving mesh interfaces has been carried-out. Thermal expansion results of study-1 (solid mechanics) are further extended in to study-2 (laminar flow and moving mesh) and dashpot pressure is estimated. These results show that bimetallic strip improves the dashpot performance at 55 °C but do not fully compensate beyond that and less severe impacts occurs. Specific combinations of design and materials have been presented in this paper for obtaining maximum temperature compensation. A novel passive temperature compensating hydraulic dashpot

  10. Substituing supplementary subtests for core subtests on reliability of WISC-IV Indexes and Full Scale IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A

    2006-02-01

    The effects of replacing core subtests with supplementary subtests on composite score reliabilities were evaluated for the WISC-IV Indexes and Full Scale IQ. When Wechsler's guidelines are followed, i.e., only one substitution for each Index; no more than two substitutions from different Indexes when assessing the Full Scale IQ, summary score reliabilities remain high, and measurement error, as defined by confidence intervals around obtained scores, never increases by more than 1 index score point. In three instances, substitution of a supplementary subtest for a core subtest actually increased the reliabilities and decreased the amount of associated measurement error.

  11. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  12. Air Carrier's Liability for Damages According to the New Montreal Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kaštela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The liability of air carriers in international air traffic is stillregulated by the Warsaw Convention from 1929and its amendments.In 1999the Montreal Convention was accepted, whichcompletely substitutes the rules contained in the Warsaw Conventionincluding all its later amendments, and the most importantmodifications have been made regarding the air can·iers'liabilities in case of passenger injury or death on intemationaI flights.

  13. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fifth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS). In accordance with Article 5 of CNS, Switzerland has submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties. This 5{sup th} report by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. The report attempts to give appropriate consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 4{sup th} Review Meeting. It starts with general political information on Switzerland, a brief history of nuclear power and an overview of Swiss nuclear facilities. This is followed by a comprehensive overview of the status of nuclear safety in Switzerland (as of July 2010) which indicates how Switzerland complies with the key obligations of the Convention. ENSI updated a substantial proportion of its guidelines which are harmonised with the safety requirements of the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) based on IAEA Safety Standards. On 1{sup st} January 2009, ENSI became formally independent of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. It is now a stand-alone organisation controlled by its own management board. Switzerland recently started a process to select a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The first generation of NPPs in Switzerland has been the subject of progressive back-fitting. The second generation of NPPs incorporated various safety and operating improvements in their initial design. All Swiss NPPs have undergone the safety review process required under the Convention and have incorporated the improvements identified in the respective safety review reports. The Swiss policy of continuous improvements to NPPs ensures a high level of safety. The legislation and regulatory framework for nuclear installations is well established. It provides the formal basis for the supervision and the continuous improvement of nuclear installations. The Nuclear Energy Act and its ordinance came into force

  14. Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

    2002-12-27

    The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

  15. Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

    2002-12-27

    The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

  16. Japan steps up overseas pace to compensate for nuclear doldrums at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The recent re-election of Japan's prime minister Shinzo Abe is seen by many commentators as a largely positive move, in terms of political support for a slow revival of Japan's commercial nuclear fortunes. But Japan's nuclear companies cannot expect a return to 'business as usual' anytime soon and so have set their sights on overseas markets. The government has supported Japan's industrial giants as they renew efforts to enter foreign markets, such as Vietnam and Turkey. It is hardly surprising to note that this move is not popular with some environmentalists and opposition politicians. Critics argue that Japan is not best-placed to be selling its nuclear know-how and technologies elsewhere in the light of the Fukushima-Daiichi disaster. But those critics fail to acknowledge advances made since plants such as Fukushima-Daiichi were built in the 1960ies. A report released by Japan's Institute of Energy Economics (IEE) towards the end of last December showed why nuclear firms desperately need to tap business opportunities overseas.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF CONVENTIONAL PCRs BASED ON PRIMERS DIRECTED TO NUCLEAR AND MITOCHONDRIAL GENES FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOPES, Estela Gallucci; GERALDO, Carlos Alberto; MARCILI, Arlei; SILVA, Ricardo Duarte; KEID, Lara Borges; OLIVEIRA, Trícia Maria Ferreira da Silva; SOARES, Rodrigo Martins

    2016-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the detection of the agent is of paramount importance to identify reservoirs of infection. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic attributes of PCRs based on primers directed to cytochrome-B (cytB), cytochrome-oxidase-subunit II (coxII), cytochrome-C (cytC), and the minicircle-kDNA. Although PCRs directed to cytB, coxII, cytC were able to detect different species of Leishmania, and the nucleotide sequence of their amplicons allowed the unequivocal differentiation of species, the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity of these PCRs were much lower than the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity of the kDNA-PCR. Among the 73 seropositive animals, the asymptomatic dogs had spleen and bone marrow samples collected and tested; only two animals were positive by PCRs based on cytB, coxII, and cytC, whereas 18 were positive by the kDNA-PCR. Considering the kDNA-PCR results, six dogs had positive spleen and bone marrow samples, eight dogs had positive bone marrow results but negative results in spleen samples and, in four dogs, the reverse situation occurred. We concluded that PCRs based on cytB, coxII, and cytC can be useful tools to identify Leishmania species when used in combination with automated sequencing. The discordance between the results of the kDNA-PCR in bone marrow and spleen samples may indicate that conventional PCR lacks sensitivity for the detection of infected dogs. Thus, primers based on the kDNA should be preferred for the screening of infected dogs. PMID:27253743

  18. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fourth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Switzerland has signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international projects and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of nuclear safety for each NPP based on the analysis of events, inspection results and operator licensing reviews. The assurance of low radiation doses to both NPP workers and the general public is an additional goal that is directly associated with the safe operation of NPPs. In case of an accident in a nuclear installation, contingency plans are in place and are continually updated

  19. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Recreation Planner, BLM Montana State Office, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, MT 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, (406) 896-5038. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background II... at 72 FR 19958 (April 20, 2007). The rules in the Notice of Camping Limits on Public Lands in...

  20. [Unpredictable risk and damage compensation in civil process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayre, P

    1998-04-01

    UNPREDICTABLE RISK DEFINITION: Any medical or surgical action with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose involves a potential risk of complication, unrelated to the initial pathology or a technical error, but could lead to death or disability. Proof of unpredictable risk without initial fault requires a careful examination of each case by a judicial expert in order to eliminate the complications related to an unskilled surgeon or to poor postoperative care. UNPREDICTABLE RISK COMPENSATION: Conclusions of the Academy: In current French common law, damage compensation can only be obtained in cases where all possible medical means are not implemented and professional fault can be proven. It is illogical to extend the civil responsibility of the practitioner to an obligation of procedural result. In the absence of fault, damage compensation does not come under the civil responsibility of the surgeon. A special insurance system for unpredictable risk has to be created using the principles of mutual insurance.

  1. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: mrgual@instec.c [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, InSTEC, Avenida Salvador Allende y Luaces, Quinta de Los Molinos, Plaza de la Revolucion, Havana, AP 6163 (Cuba); Milian, Felix M. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, UESC (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Sao Paulo, IF-USP, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, no. 187, Ciudade Universitaria, Butanta, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Coelho, Paulo R.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation.

  2. Research on the Willingness to Accept Compensation and Compensation Sharing of Returning Land for Farming to Forestry in Zhangjiakou and Chengde Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the willingness to accept compensation and compensation sharing of returning land for farming to forestry in Zhangjiakou and Chengde region.[Method] Based on the investigation of farmers' willingness to accept ecological compensation in Zhangjiakou and Chengde region,farmers' willingness to accept compensation was quantized,and the calculation model of sharing rate of ecological compensation was established,finally the sharing rate of ecological compensation was calculated c...

  3. Study on radiation damage to high energy accelerator components by irradiation in a nuclear reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, Helmut; Casta, J; Van de Voorde, M H

    1975-01-01

    The structural and other components used in high energy accelerators are continuously exposed to a wide spectrum of high energy particles and electromagnetic radiation. The resulting radiation damage may severely influence the functional capability of accelerator facilities. In order to arrive at an estimate of the service life of various materials in the radiation field, simulating experiments have to be carried out in a nuclear reactor. A large number of organic and inorganic materials, electronic components, metals, etc., intended specifically for use in 400 GeV proton synchrotron of CERN near Geneva, were irradiated in the ASTRA reactor in Seibersdorf near Vienna. The paper reports on the irradiation facilities available in this reactor for this purpose, on the dosimetry methods used, on the most important materials irradiated and on the results obtained in these experiments. (14 refs).

  4. System overview on electromagnetic compensation for reflector antenna surface distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R. J.; Zaman, A. J.; Terry, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    The system requirements and hardware implementation for electromagnetic compensation of antenna performance degradations due to thermal effects was investigated. Future commercial space communication antenna systems will utilize the 20/30 GHz frequency spectrum and support very narrow multiple beams (0.3 deg) over wide angle field of view (15-20 beamwidth). On the ground, portable and inexpensive very small aperture terminals (VSAT) for transmitting and receiving video, facsimile and data will be employed. These types of communication system puts a very stringent requirement on spacecraft antenna beam pointing stability (less than .01 deg), high gain (greater than 50 dB) and very lowside lobes (less than -25 dB). Thermal analysis performed on the advanced communication technology satellite (ACTS) has shown that the reflector surfaces, the mechanical supporting structures and metallic surfaces on the spacecraft body will distort due thermal effects from a varying solar flux. The antenna performance characteristics (e.g., pointing stability, gain, side lobe, etc.) will degrade due to thermal distortion in the reflector surface and supporting structures. Specifically, antenna RF radiation analysis has shown that pointing error is the most sensitive antenna performance parameter to thermal distortions. Other antenna parameters like peak gain, cross polarization level (beam isolation), and side lobe level will also degrade with thermal distortions. In order to restore pointing stability and in general antenna performance several compensation methods were proposed. In general these compensation methods can be classified as being either of mechanical or electromagnetic type. This paper will address only the later one. In this approach an adaptive phased array antenna feed is used to compensate for the antenna performance degradation. Extensive work has been devoted to demonstrate the feasibility of adaptive feed compensation on space communication antenna systems. This

  5. Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillpot, Simon; Tulenko, James

    2011-09-08

    The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

  6. Final report on EURAMET.QM-S10/1274: supplementary comparison of preparative capabilities for automotive gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val'ková, M.; Ďurišová, Z.; Szilágyi, Z. N.; Büki, T.; Fükű, J.

    2016-01-01

    This bilateral supplementary preparative comparison involves standard gas mixtures of automotive gas containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and propane in nitrogen. Two laboratories (SMU, Slovakia and MKEH, Hungary) participated in this supplementary comparison. SMU was the coordinating laboratory, responsible for collecting and reporting measurement results. The participants have established facilities for automotive gas gravimetric preparation and analysis. The agreement of the results in this supplementary comparison is good. All the results with their reported uncertainties are in agreement with the reference values for the participants. SMU participated and obtained good results in the previous preparative comparison organised within EURAMET in this field. Both laboratories have existing claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for automotive gas mixtures. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims eligible for compensation. 296.4... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it...

  8. Enhanced interhemispheric functional connectivity compensates for anatomical connection damages in subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingchun; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xuejun; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-04-01

    Motor recovery after stroke has been shown to be correlated with both the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the affected corticospinal tract (CST) and the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the primary motor cortex (M1). However, the role of the restoration or enhancement of the M1-M1 rsFC in motor recovery remains largely unknown. We aimed to clarify this issue by investigating the correlations between the M1-M1 rsFC and the integrity of the M1-M1 anatomic connection and the affected CST in chronic subcortical stroke patients with good motor outcomes. Twenty patients and 16 healthy controls underwent multimodal magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to reconstruct the M1-M1 anatomic connection and bilateral CSTs. White matter integrity of these tracts was assessed using FA. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate M1-M1 rsFC. Group differences in these measures were compared. Correlations between M1-M1 rsFC and FA of the M1-M1 anatomic connection and the affected CST were analyzed in patients with stroke. Compared with healthy controls, patients with stroke exhibited significantly reduced FA in the affected CST and the M1-M1 anatomic connection and a significantly increased M1-M1 rsFC. The FA values of the affected CST were positively correlated with the M1-M1 anatomic connection, and these FA values were negatively correlated with the M1-M1 rsFC in these patients. Our findings suggest that the M1-M1 anatomic connection impairment is secondary to CST damage, and the M1-M1 rsFC enhancement may reflect compensatory or reactive neural plasticity in stroke patients with CST impairment. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fourth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Switzerland has signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international projects and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of nuclear safety for each NPP based on the analysis of events, inspection results and operator licensing reviews. The assurance of low radiation doses to both NPP workers and the general public is an additional goal that is directly associated with the safe operation of NPPs. In case of an accident in a nuclear installation, contingency plans are in place and are continually updated

  10. Implementation of the obligations of the convention on nuclear safety. Fifth Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS). In accordance with Article 5 of CNS, Switzerland has submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties. This 5{sup th} report by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) provides an update on compliance with CNS obligations. The report attempts to give appropriate consideration to issues that aroused particular interest at the 4{sup th} Review Meeting. It starts with general political information on Switzerland, a brief history of nuclear power and an overview of Swiss nuclear facilities. This is followed by a comprehensive overview of the status of nuclear safety in Switzerland (as of July 2010) which indicates how Switzerland complies with the key obligations of the Convention. ENSI updated a substantial proportion of its guidelines which are harmonised with the safety requirements of the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) based on IAEA Safety Standards. On 1{sup st} January 2009, ENSI became formally independent of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. It is now a stand-alone organisation controlled by its own management board. Switzerland recently started a process to select a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. The first generation of NPPs in Switzerland has been the subject of progressive back-fitting. The second generation of NPPs incorporated various safety and operating improvements in their initial design. All Swiss NPPs have undergone the safety review process required under the Convention and have incorporated the improvements identified in the respective safety review reports. The Swiss policy of continuous improvements to NPPs ensures a high level of safety. The legislation and regulatory framework for nuclear installations is well established. It provides the formal basis for the supervision and the continuous improvement of nuclear installations. The Nuclear Energy Act and its ordinance came into force

  11. Development of a seismic damage assessment program for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hyun Moo; Cho, Ho Hyun; Cho, Yang Hui [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-12-15

    Some of nuclear power plants operating currently in Korea have been passed about 20 years after construction. Moreover, in the case of KORI I the service year is over 20 years, so their abilities are different from initial abilities. Also, earthquake outbreak increase, our country is not safe area for earthquake. Therefore, need is to guarantee the safety of these power plant structures against seismic accident, to decide to maintain them operational and to obtain data relative to maintenance/repair. Such objectives can be reached by damage assessment using inelastic seismic analysis considering aging degradation. It appears to be more important particularly for the structure enclosing the nuclear reactor that must absolutely protect against any radioactive leakage. Actually, the tendency of the technical world, led by the OECD/NEA, BNL in the United States, CEA in France and IAEA, is to develop researches or programs to assess the seismic safety considering aging degradation of operating nuclear power plants. Regard to the above-mentioned international technical trend, a technology to establish inelastic seismic analysis considering aging degradation so as to assess damage level and seismic safety margin appears to be necessary. Damage assessment and prediction system to grasp in real-time the actual seismic resistance capacity and damage level by 3-dimensional graphic representations are also required.

  12. Report from the national defense and armed forces commission on the law project related to the acknowledgment and compensation for the victims of the French nuclear tests; Rapport fait au nom de la commission de la defense nationale et des forces armees sur le projet de loi (n. 1696) relatif a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des victimes des essais nucleaires francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The report is a presentation and analysis of a French law project, that would give acknowledgment and compensation for those - military and civilian personnel as well as nearby populations - who suffered by being exposed to radiations during the French nuclear tests in Sahara and French Polynesia between 1960 and 1998. The law project gives details on the relevant periods of time, and about the inquiry and compensation procedures for each case. The future law is intended to ease the procedure for victims to prove the existence of a link between their pathology and their activity during the experimentations; it should also allow compensations for civilian populations that may have suffered from radioactive fallout.

  13. Development of a seismic damage assessment program for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hyun Moo; Cho, Yang Heui; Shin, Hyun Mok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-12-15

    The most part of the nuclear power plants operating currently in Korea are more than 20 years old and obviously we cannot pretend that their original performance is actually maintained. In addition, earthquake occurrences show an increasing trend all over the world, and Korea can no more be considered as a zone safe from earthquake. Therefore, need is to guarantee the safety of these power plant structures against seismic accident, to decide to maintain them operational and to obtain data relative to maintenance/repair. Such objectives can be reached by damage assessment using inelastic seismic analysis considering aging degradation. It appears to be more important particularly for the structure enclosing the nuclear reactor that must absolutely protect against any radioactive leakage. Actually, the tendency of the technical world, led by the OECD/NEA, BNL in the United States, CEA in France and IAEA, is to develop researches or programs to assess the seismic safety considering aging degradation of operating nuclear power plants. Regard to the above-mentioned international technical trend, a technology to establish inelastic seismic analysis considering aging degradation so as to assess damage level and seismic safety margin appears to be necessary. Damage assessment and prediction system to grasp in real-time the actual seismic resistance capacity and damage level by 3-dimensional graphic representations are also required.

  14. Integration of conventional and nuclear: What does it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo, Vincent A. [Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C. (United States); Miles, Aaron R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-04

    In October 2015, Secretary of Defense Carter called for NATO to better integrate conventional and nuclear deterrence. Four months later, Assistant Secretary of Defense Robert Scher stated in Senate testimony that the DoD is "working to ensure an appropriate level of integration between nuclear and conventional planning and operations."

  15. GCR Transport in the Brain: Assessment of Self-Shielding, Columnar Damage, and Nuclear Reactions on Cell Inactivation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Radiation shield design is driven by the need to limit radiation risks while optimizing risk reduction with launch mass/expense penalties. Both limitation and optimization objectives require the development of accurate and complete means for evaluating the effectiveness of various shield materials and body-self shielding. For galactic cosmic rays (GCR), biophysical response models indicate that track structure effects lead to substantially different assessments of shielding effectiveness relative to assessments based on LET-dependent quality factors. Methods for assessing risk to the central nervous system (CNS) from heavy ions are poorly understood at this time. High-energy and charge (HZE) ion can produce tissue events resulting in damage to clusters of cells in a columnar fashion, especially for stopping heavy ions. Grahn (1973) and Todd (1986) have discussed a microlesion concept or model of stochastic tissue events in analyzing damage from HZE's. Some tissues, including the CNS, maybe sensitive to microlesion's or stochastic tissue events in a manner not illuminated by either conventional dosimetry or fluence-based risk factors. HZE ions may also produce important lateral damage to adjacent cells. Fluences of high-energy proton and alpha particles in the GCR are many times higher than HZE ions. Behind spacecraft and body self-shielding the ratio of protons, alpha particles, and neutrons to HZE ions increases several-fold from free-space values. Models of GCR damage behind shielding have placed large concern on the role of target fragments produced from tissue atoms. The self-shielding of the brain reduces the number of heavy ions reaching the interior regions by a large amount and the remaining light particle environment (protons, neutrons, deuterons. and alpha particles) may be the greatest concern. Tracks of high-energy proton produce nuclear reactions in tissue, which can deposit doses of more than 1 Gv within 5 - 10 cell layers. Information on rates of

  16. Damages in ceramics for nuclear waste transmutation by irradiation with swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvy, Michel; Dalmasso, Chrystelle; Thiriet-Dodane, Catherine; Simeone, David; Gosset, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Inert matrices are proposed for advanced nuclear fuels or for the transmutation of the actinides that is an effective solution for the nuclear waste management. The behaviour of inert matrix ceramics like MgO, MgAl2O4 and cubic ZrO2 oxides under irradiation is presented in this study. The alumina Al2O3 has been also studied as a reference for the ceramic materials. These oxides have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at CIRIL/GANIL to simulate the fragment fission effects. The irradiations with the different heavy ions (from S to Pb) with energy between 91 and 820 MeV, have been realised at room temperature or 500 °C. The fluencies were between 5 × 1010 and 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The polished faces of sintered polycrystalline disks or single crystal slices have been characterized before and after irradiation by X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The apparent swelling evaluated from surface profile measurements after irradiation is very important for spinel and zirconia, comparatively with those of magnesia or alumina. The amorphisation seems to be at the origin of this swelling, and the electronic stopping power of the ions is the most influent parameter for the irradiation damages. The point defects characterized by optical spectroscopy show a significant amount of damage on the oxygen sub-lattice in the irradiated oxides. F+ centres are present in all irradiated oxides. However, new absorption bands are observed and cation clusters cannot be excluded in magnesia and spinel after irradiation.

  17. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Maritza R; Milian, Felix M; Deppman, Airton; Coelho, Paulo R P

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH#3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS. Report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review conference in March/April 2014; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Sechste Ueberpruefungstagung im Maerz/April 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review conference (Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS) in March/April 2014 covers the following issues: reappraisal of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany; measures as consequence of the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima; safety regulations; execution of the IRRS follow-up mission in Germany; safety management and technical qualification of the occupational personnel; safety surveillance; radiation protection, overview on important safety topics; events and incidents larger INES 0. Assessment of the existing nuclear facilities; progress and changes since 2011; future activities.

  19. Mathematics for Junior High School. Supplementary Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is a supplementary SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include sets, projective geometry, open and closed paths, finite…

  20. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  1. Financial impact of radiological reports on medical-legal evaluation of compensation for meniscal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelario, M; Ciuffreda, P; Lupo, P; Bristogiannis, C; Vinci, R; Stoppino, L P; De Filippo, M; Macarini, L

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate any discrepancy between radiological reports for clinical purposes and for medicolegal purposes and to quantify its economic impact on repayments made by private insurance companies for meniscal injuries of the knee. The medical records obtained pertaining to 108 knee injury patients (mean age 43.3 years) assessed over a period of 12 months were analysed. Clinical medical reports, aimed at assessing the lesion, and medicolegal reports, drawn up with a view to quantifying compensation, were compared. Unlike reports for clinical purposes in reports for medicolegal purposes, in the evaluation of meniscal lesions, in addition to morphological features of lesions, chronological, topographical, severity and exclusion criteria were applied. To estimate the economic impact resulting from the biological damage, we consulted an actuarial table based on the 9-point minor incapacity classification system. Meniscal lesions not compatible with a traumatic event and therefore not eligible for an insurance payout were found in 56 patients. Of these, 37 failed exclusion criteria, while 19 failed to meet chronological criteria. This difference resulted in a reduction in compensation made by private insurance companies with savings estimated with a saving between euro 203,715.41 and euro 622,315.39. The use of a clinical report for medicolegal purposes can be a source of valuation error, as chronological and/or dynamic information regarding the trauma mechanism may be lacking. Therefore, the use of a full radiological appraisal allows a better damage's assessment and an adequate compensation for injuries.

  2. Nuclear Containment Inspection Using AN Array of Guided Wave Sensors for Damage Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, A. C.; Fisher, J. L.

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear power plant containments are typically both the last line of defense against the release of radioactivity to the environment and the first line of defense to protect against intrusion from external objects. As such, it is important to be able to locate any damage that would limit the integrity of the containment itself. Typically, a portion of the containment consists of a metallic pressure boundary that encloses the reactor primary circuit. It is made of thick steel plates welded together, lined with concrete and partially buried, limiting areas that can be visually inspected for corrosion damage. This study presents a strategy using low frequency (corrosion-like damage several meters from the probe in a mock-up of the containment vessel. A magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) is scanned across the width of the vessel, acquiring waveforms at a fixed interval. A beam forming strategy is used to localize the defects. Experimental results are presented for a variety of damage configurations, demonstrating the efficacy of this technique for detecting damage smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength.

  3. Location selection criteria for supplementary motorway facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malobabić Radomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplementary contents along motorways are rather important facilities for a safe and secure functioning of a substantial part of the road transport system. In the paper, it has been stressed that our practice has not dealt with this problem satisfactorily throughout the motorways design process and especially in the realization phase. Therefore, the solving of this major issue ought to be approached systematically and planning oriented so as to achieve an optimal effect of supplementary contents in the motorways’ exploitation. The role of these facilities is multifold. Some relate to a safer road functioning and some enable a more comfortable and secure traveling. To make them work as a system it is indispensable to set up location selection criteria and rules for the complementary facilities Respecting the adequate rhythm and function dominance is exceptionally important as well as establishing the traffic safety and applying high ecological standards.

  4. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  5. 法人精神损害赔偿之法理分析%A Legal Analysis of Mental Damage Compensation for Legal Persons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利民; 陈平凡

    2012-01-01

    Mental damage compensation for legal persons has been a hot issue in Tort Law in recent years. The mainstream schol ars are inclined to believe that legal persons have no mental damage compensation, as China~ judicial interpretation specifies that legal persons do not enjoy the claim right for mental damage compensation. Besides, the mental damage compensation right of legal persons is not recognized by Tort Law. Therefore, the existing legal system provides no legal and adequate protection for legal persons, which threatens legal persons" survival and deteriorates the legal environment. Legal persons, like natural persons, are independent civil sub jects and enjoy the capacity for rights and conduct. Accordingly, it should have the claim right for mental damage compensation.%法人精神损害赔偿是近年来侵权行为法中的热点问题。但主流学者的观点似乎倾向于认定法人没有精神损害赔偿,特别是我国的司法解释明确规定法人不能享有精神损害赔偿的请求权,我国《侵权责任法》虽没明确规定,但对法人是否享有精神损害赔偿的权利,从实质意义上讲,也是持否定态度的。因而造成法人的合法权益得不到合法的、充分的保护,致使其生存出现危机,环境面临恶化。法人与自然人一样,同样为独立的民事主体,同样具有权利能力和行为能力,应同样依法独立享有精神损害赔偿之请求权。

  6. Study on the Scientific and Legal Basis of Ecological Damage Compensation%生态损害补偿与赔偿的科学及法律基础探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶欢欢; 彭本荣; 刘岩; 郑苗壮

    2014-01-01

    in academic and management communities about the connotation and economic and legal character of ecological compensation due to the different context in different disciplines. There is an urgent need to clarify the scientific implication of ecological damage and the associated jurisprudential distinctions between remediation (Buchang) and compensation (Peichang) to promote the implementation of ecological compensation. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the scientific implication, jurisprudential differences and legal regime of ecological damage and compensation based on the review of relative terms of ecological compensation, which then to provide references for further theoretical study and practice of ecological compensation in China. Firstly, the paper analyzed the connotation of ecological compensation from perspectives of environmental management, environmental economics and law, reviewed the evolution of ecological compensation practices in China, the paper and concluded that the ecological compensation should at least includes payments for ecosystem services (PES), ecological damage compensation and ecological damage claim. Secondly, this paper analyzed the scientific and legal connotation of ecological damage: (1) the ecological damage is the harmful effect to a free natural resource resulted from human activities, namely primary ecological damage;(2) the ecological damage can be categorized three groups, damage resulted from wrongful acts, non-wrongful acts and accumulative pollution from the perspective of legal theory;(3) the occurrence basis, legal nature, time and pattern of undertaking responsibility and the applicable law are different between the remediation and compensation; 4) the responsible parties should take the different liability according to the different acts. Thirdly, the paper discussed the legal basis and regime of establishing and implementing ecological compensation from the principle of liability fixation, the subject

  7. Extracting Information from Conventional AE Features for Fatigue Onset Damage Detection in Carbon Fiber Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unnthorsson, Runar; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik Bohl; Jonsson, Magnus Thor

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed simple data fusion and preprocessing methods on Acoustic Emission measurements of prosthetic feet made of carbon fiber reinforced composites. This paper presents the initial research steps; aiming at reducing the time spent on the fatigue test. With a simple single feature probab...... approaches can readily be investigated using the improved features, possibly improving the performance using multiple feature classifiers, e.g., Voting systems; Support Vector Machines and Gaussian Mixtures....

  8. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We consider the consequences of working part-time and receiving supplementary benefits for part-time unemployment in the Danish labor market. Following the timing-of-events approach we estimate causal effects of part-time work with supplementary benefits on the hazard rate out of unemployment...... insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative...

  9. Convention on Nuclear Safety - CNS. Report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the seventh review conference in March/April 2017; Uebereinkommen ueber nukleare Sicherheit. Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Siebte Ueberpruefungstagung im Maerz/April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-22

    The CNS (Convention on Nuclear Safety) report by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany for the seventh review conference in March/April 2017 covers the following topics: Summary of the most important results since the sixth review conference: existing nuclear facilities, frame for legislation and execution, licensing system, regulatory authority, governmental organizations, responsibility of the licensee, priority of safety, financing and personnel, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment, radiation protection, emergency preparedness, site selection for nuclear facilities, design and construction, operation.

  10. Displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zujun Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiments of displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor are presented. The CMOS APS image sensors are manufactured in the standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The flux of neutron beams was about 1.33 × 108 n/cm2s. The three samples were exposed by 1 MeV neutron equivalent-fluence of 1 × 1011, 5 × 1011, and 1 × 1012 n/cm2, respectively. The mean dark signal (KD, dark signal spike, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU, noise (VN, saturation output signal voltage (VS, and dynamic range (DR versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from CMOS APS image sensors irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike.

  11. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  12. Supplementary Material for: BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal Matoq Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Genome annotation is one way of summarizing the existing knowledge about genomic characteristics of an organism. There has been an increased interest during the last several decades in computer-based structural and functional genome annotation. Many methods for this purpose have been developed for eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our study focuses on comparison of functional annotations of prokaryotic genomes. To the best of our knowledge there is no fully automated system for detailed comparison of functional genome annotations generated by different annotation methods (AMs). Results The presence of many AMs and development of new ones introduce needs to: a/ compare different annotations for a single genome, and b/ generate annotation by combining individual ones. To address these issues we developed an Automated Tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON (BEACON) that benefits both AM developers and annotation analysers. BEACON provides detailed comparison of gene function annotations of prokaryotic genomes obtained by different AMs and generates extended annotations through combination of individual ones. For the illustration of BEACONâ s utility, we provide a comparison analysis of multiple different annotations generated for four genomes and show on these examples that the extended annotation can increase the number of genes annotated by putative functions up to 27 %, while the number of genes without any function assignment is reduced. Conclusions We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/ .

  13. "Securing our survival (SOS": non-state actors and the campaign for a nuclear weapons convention through the prism of securitisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata H. Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the security practices of the anti-nuclear movement in the post-Cold War period through the prism of securitisation theory. By exploring Buzan and Wæver's conceptual developments on macrosecuritisations, the practices involved in the struggle against the Bomb are interpreted as securitising moves, in which the anti-nuclear movement is the leading securitiser. In the capacity of securitising actors, nuclear abolition activists argue that nuclear disarmament, under a Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC, would be the only way to protect humankind from the threat posed by the existence of nuclear weapons. The empirical analysis of these non-state actors and their campaign for a NWC shows that, despite uttering security, the anti-nuclear movement has so far failed to achieve the proposed security measure, that is, nuclear disarmament. Nonetheless, securitisation has been instrumental for these non-state actors as a way of raising an issue on the agenda of decision-makers and urging them to take action.

  14. An optimal baseline selection methodology for data-driven damage detection and temperature compensation in acousto-ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2016-05-01

    The process of measuring and analysing the data from a distributed sensor network all over a structural system in order to quantify its condition is known as structural health monitoring (SHM). For the design of a trustworthy health monitoring system, a vast amount of information regarding the inherent physical characteristics of the sources and their propagation and interaction across the structure is crucial. Moreover, any SHM system which is expected to transition to field operation must take into account the influence of environmental and operational changes which cause modifications in the stiffness and damping of the structure and consequently modify its dynamic behaviour. On that account, special attention is paid in this paper to the development of an efficient SHM methodology where robust signal processing and pattern recognition techniques are integrated for the correct interpretation of complex ultrasonic waves within the context of damage detection and identification. The methodology is based on an acousto-ultrasonics technique where the discrete wavelet transform is evaluated for feature extraction and selection, linear principal component analysis for data-driven modelling and self-organising maps for a two-level clustering under the principle of local density. At the end, the methodology is experimentally demonstrated and results show that all the damages were detectable and identifiable.

  15. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  16. Compensation for Occupational Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    The legal scope and criteria for occupational cancer in Korea was out of date. The aim of this study was to review the current criteria for occupational cancer and amend the existent criteria on the basis of recent scientific evidence. The scientific evidence and the legal list of occupational cancer were analyzed to identify the causes of occupational cancer on a global scale. The relationship between compensated occupational cancer cases and carcinogen exposure in Korea was examined. The fa...

  17. A Method for Dispersion Compensation Based on GLM Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A method used to design the waveguide gratings for dispersion compensation employing GLM theory is briefly described. By using this method a reflective grating is designed, which has both a flat amplitude and a quadratic phase response over the transfer bandwidth.

  18. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6; • Interpretation of the Convention and of CISG contracts; • Sales contract formation, validity, defenses to enforcement; • Obligations of the parties, including conforming delivery & notice of non-conformity; • Liability and remedies for breach......Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... acceptance on a worldwide scale. The current list of some 77 Contracting States includes 11 of the G-12 Group, as well as China and Russia. These CISG States account for more than two-thirds of all world trade. The importance of the CISG in the international arena is underlined by thousands of reported...

  19. Spin supplementary conditions for spinning compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mikóczi, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the different spin supplementary conditions (SSC) for a spinning compact binary with the leading-order spin-orbit (SO) interaction. The Lagrangian of the binary system can be constructed but it is acceleration-dependent in two cases of SSC. We rewrite the generalized Hamiltonian formalism proposed by Ostrogradsky and compute the conservative quantities and the dissipative part of relative motion during the gravitational radiation of each SSCs. We give the orbital elements and observed quantities of the SO dynamics, for instance the energy and the orbital angular momentum losses and waveforms and discuss their SSC dependence.

  20. 船舶油污损害赔偿民事责任主体探析%The Civil Liability Subject for the Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage from Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小军; 戴超

    2014-01-01

    In order to deal with the major oil pollution accident which causes great ecologic and finan-cial losses ,the international community has developed international conventions and domestic law s to es-tablish an effective system for compensation for oil pollution damage after the Second World War .As Chi-na is becoming one of the largest maritime countries ,major oil pollution accidents increase ,w hich made China suffer great losses .Compared with some of the developed countries ,China lacks the law which reg-ulates the subject of liability for oil pollution damage ,and the existing law is ambiguous and devoid of sys-tematicness and operability .Through elaborating the basic provisions of the relevant international conven-tions and some typical national law s on the parties liable for oil pollution damages from ships ,the paper points out the factors that legislators and justices should pay attention to when dealing with such cases .%为应对重大油污事故带来的巨大生态和经济损失,二战以后,国际社会建立了油污损害赔偿机制。随着我国航运大国地位的确立,在我国发生的油污事故日益增多,损害结果触目惊心。相比发达国家,我国船舶油污损害赔偿责任主体的立法很不完善,相关规定较为模糊,缺乏系统性和可操作性。通过对国际公约和我国立法中有关油污责任主体法律法规的梳理与分析,指出我国在涉及油污责任主体方面的立法和司法审判中应考虑的因素。

  1. Supplementary nitrogen in leeks based on crop nitrogen status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, R.; Meurs, E.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    From a number of basic relationships between several crop ecological components (Booij et al., 1996a) a system was developed for giving supplementary nitrogen application in leeks, that was based on the measurement of light interception. A description of the approach is given and a comparison is

  2. Supplementary nitrogen in leeks based on crop nitrogen status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, R.; Meurs, E.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    From a number of basic relationships between several crop ecological components (Booij et al., 1996a) a system was developed for giving supplementary nitrogen application in leeks, that was based on the measurement of light interception. A description of the approach is given and a comparison is mad

  3. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6......Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... acceptance on a worldwide scale. The current list of some 85 Contracting States accounts for more than three-fourths of all world trade. The importance of the CISG in the international arena is underlined by thousands of reported decisions where the CISG has been held to apply, thus evidencing the conduct...

  4. The framework convention on climate change a convention for sustainable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassing, P.; Mendis, M.S.; Menezes, L.M.; Gowen, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, over 165 countries signed the United Nation`s Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). These countries have implicitly agreed to alter their `anthropogenic activities` that increase the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere and deplete the natural sinks for these same greenhouse gases. The energy sector is the major source of the primary anthropogenic GHGs, notably carbon dioxide and methane. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries presently account for the major share of GHG emissions from the energy sector. However, the developing countries are also rapidly increasing their contribution to global GHG emissions as a result of their growing consumption of fossil-based energy. Implementation of this global climate change convention, if seriously undertaken by the signatory countries, will necessitate changes in the energy mix and production processes in both the OECD and developing countries. International actions also will be needed to put the world on a sustainable energy path. By adoption of the FCCC, representatives of the world`s populations have indicated their desire to move toward such a path. The Conference of Parties to the Convention has just concluded its second meeting, at which the Parties endorsed a U.S. proposal that legally binding and enforceable emissions targets be adopted. It is clearly evident that the FCCC, as presently operating, cannot achieve the objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere unless it adopts a major protocol to significantly reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. As demonstrated here, a good starting point in determining the steps the Parties to the FCCC should take in designing a protocol is to remember that the primary source of anthropogenic GHG emissions is the consumption of fossil fuels and the future growth of GHG emissions will derive primarily from the ever-increasing demand for and consumption of these fuels.

  5. Compensation for biodiversity loss – Advice to the Netherlands' Taskforce on Biodiversity and Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, de S.; Dessel, van B.

    2011-01-01

    Compensation of damage to biodiversity is one of the mechanisms to settle environmental costs. It concerns creating new opportunities for biodiversity, which as a minimum equals the residual impact after a company or organization has attempted to avoid, prevent and mitigate that impact. In the Nethe

  6. Compensation for biodiversity loss – Advice to the Netherlands' Taskforce on Biodiversity and Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, de S.; Dessel, van B.

    2011-01-01

    Compensation of damage to biodiversity is one of the mechanisms to settle environmental costs. It concerns creating new opportunities for biodiversity, which as a minimum equals the residual impact after a company or organization has attempted to avoid, prevent and mitigate that impact. In the

  7. 生产安全事故中企业主要负责人的民事损害赔偿补充责任研究%A Research on the Major Persons-in-charge’ s Supplementary Liability of Civil Damages in Production Safety Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勤华; 王鸿

    2015-01-01

    The safety care liability of an enterprise’ s major persons-in-charge is the legal basis to undertake the supplementa-ry liability of civil damages.The supplementary liability of the major persons-in-charge helps victims to be compensated effec-tively, timely and adequately.The supplementary liability of the major persons-in-charge should breach barriers exerted by relevant regulations and the independence of the enterprise’ s juridical personality.%企业主要负责人的安全注意义务是其在生产安全事故中承担民事损害赔偿补充责任的法理基础。企业主要负责人承担补充责任有助于对生产安全事故中的受害职工实现及时、充分和有效的补偿。企业主要负责人承担补充责任应当破除相关立法和企业法律人格独立性形成的法律障碍。

  8. Compensation of Environmental Damage and the Idea of Public Trust:Focusing on Fukushima Disaster%环境损害赔偿与公益信托--以福岛核事故为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪莲

    2014-01-01

    Environmental damages caused by Fukushima Nuclear Accident include damages to forests, ocean, lakes, ground waters etc.,whether privately owned or public. How these damages should be compensated is a dififcult problem, especially the compensation of natural environment is an unsolved problem. As for the natural environment, such as forests, compensation for the exchange value will be given to the owner of the property, but the non-use value of natural environment belongs not to the owner of the property but to the public. Therefore the compensation of non-use value should be given to the public. But how? Applying the doctrine of public trust, the state or the local government should be allowed to act as public trustee for the interest of the whole society and claim for compensation of non-use value of the natural environment. The method of compensation is also an issue. Basically there are two methods, compensation of the costs for restitution of the environment and compensation of the diminished value of the environment. Usually the lost value is calculated to be lower than the restitution costs. But if all the non-value of the natural environment is properly calculated, the lost value of the environment will be almost the same as the restitution costs. The public trustee should be able to choose whichever method he thinks ift to the situation.%福岛核辐射事故造成包括森林、海洋、湖泊、地下水等的环境损害,其中,有些是私人受到了损害,有些是社会受到了损害。这些损害应该如何赔偿?特别是自然资源价值的赔偿是问题的难点所在,比如自然资源之森林,交换价值的赔偿应归属于所有人,其非使用价值则应归属于公众。因此,非使用价值则应赔偿给公众。但是,如何归属呢?对此,宜采用公益信托理念,由国家或地方政府作为受托人,为了社会整体享有利益,请求赔偿。而赔偿方式也是一个重要问题,一般

  9. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability; Tchernobyl: 20 ans apres, le systeme international de responsabilite civile nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahorgue, M.B. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France)

    2006-06-15

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  10. Dynamic Simulation of EAF on RTDS for Compensation Sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, K. S.

    2017-02-01

    Large sized electric arc furnaces (EAF) causes power quality problems such as flicker, harmonics etc. due to their unbalanced and non-linear behavior characteristics. The rapid swings in real and reactive power of such non-linear loads causes fast repetitive voltage variations with appreciable voltage distortion caused by harmonics and unbalance. Some form of reactive compensation is usually adopted to limit the disturbances caused by EAF in electric power system, in particular the flicker. This paper highlights the results of a case study, where the arc furnace is modelled using statistical dynamic model of the furnace using real time digital simulator which allows more real time simulations tests to be conducted in a shorter time and also provides a more detailed power system representation for the tests. The investigation of the simulation study results showed that static VAR compensators can be successfully used for reduction of flicker levels, compensation of reactive power and for the regulation of voltage levels in the EAF plant under study.

  11. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning' Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  12. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning' Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  13. The effect of the supplementary grant on parental contribution: an empirical analysis for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ebens; R. van Elk; D. Webbink; A. Booij

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable debate about a reform of the Dutch system of student support, in which grants will be (partly) replaced by loans. The discussion focuses on the effects on student enrollment decisions. Surprisingly, no study has yet analysed the effect of receiving a grant on pa

  14. 对我国离婚损害赔偿制度的多视角透视%The Perspective On Divorce Damage Compensation System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娟; 杨刚; 黄军

    2011-01-01

    新婚姻法中关于离婚损害赔偿制度的规定使法律对婚姻当事人的合法权益的保护更加有力,使司法机关对相关案件的审理和判决有了更为清晰的法律依据。但是,该制度在理论上还存在诸多缺陷,对此进行了简要的分析和阐述,并提出了一些建议。%The divorce damage compensation system in the newly amended "marital law" protects the marriage parties' legitimate rights strongly, and provide legal basis for the relevant cases trial and judgment. However, there are many defects. The author attempts to analyze its existed problems and give some suggestions.

  15. 78 FR 26804 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Travel Management on Public Lands in Gunnison...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ..., motor home, or trailer for the purpose or apparent purpose of overnight occupancy. Designated travel... mechanical device, such as a bicycle; not powered by a motor. Motorized vehicle means a vehicle that...

  16. Large Capacity SMES for Voltage Dip Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatani, Yu; Saito, Fusao; Ito, Toshinobu; Shimada, Mamoru; Ishida, Satoshi; Shimanuki, Yoshio

    Voltage dips of power grids due to thunderbolts, snow damage, and so on, cause serious damage to production lines of precision instruments, for example, semiconductors. In recent years, in order to solve this problem, uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS) are used. UPS, however, has small capacity, so a great number of UPS are needed in large factories. Therefore, we have manufactured the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for voltage dip compensation able to protect loads with large capacity collectively. SMES has advantages such as space conservation, long lifetime and others. In field tests, cooperating with CHUBU Electric Power Co., Inc. we proved that SMES is valuable for compensating voltage dips. Since 2007, 10MVA SMES improved from field test machines has been running in a domestic liquid crystal display plant, and in 2008, it protected plant loads from a number of voltage dips. In this paper, we report the action principle and components of the improved SMES for voltage dip compensation, and examples of waveforms when 10MVA SMES compensated voltage dips.

  17. Robust Position Tracking for Electro-Hydraulic Drives Based on Generalized Feedforward Compensation Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a robust tracking control concept based on accurate feedforward compensation for hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed feedforward compensator is obtained utilizing a generalized description of the valve flow that takes into account any asymmetry of valves and/or cylin...

  18. Effect of supplementary cementing materials on the concrete corrosion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia de Gutierrez, R.

    2003-07-01

    Failure of concrete after a period of years, less than the life expected for which it was designed, may be caused by the environment to which it has been exposed or by a variety of internal causes. The incorporation of supplementary materials has at the Portland cement the purpose of improving the concrete microstructure and also of influence the resistance of concrete to environmental attacks. Different mineral by-products as ground granulated blast furnaces slag (GGBS), silica fume (SF), meta kaolin (MK), fly ash (FA) and other products have been used as supplementary cementing materials. This paper is about the behavior of concrete in the presence of mineral additions. Compared to Portland cements, blended cements show lower heat of hydration, lower permeability, greater resistance to sulphates and sea water. These blended cements find the best application when requirements of durability are regarded as a priority specially on high performance concrete: (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Catching up on conventions grammar lessons for middle school writers

    CERN Document Server

    Francois, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    Are Chantal Francois and Elisa Zonana's students like yours? Economically, linguistically, and culturally diverse; excited to write; yet underprepared for the kinds of writing demanded in middle school and beyond? For success in school, Standard English grammar isn't optional-it's an option every student must have. Don't be daunted. Francois and Zonana found a solution, and in Catching Up on Conventions they share lessons that help kids quickly master Standard English grammar.

  20. Final report on supplementary comparison COOMET.L-S10: Comparison of length standards for measuring gear parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevich, V.

    2012-01-01

    The COOMET Project No 507/BY/10, 'Supplementary comparison of length standards for measuring gear parameters', KCDB Reference COOMET.L-S10, was organized by the COOMET Technical Committee TC 1.5 'Length and Angle'. This comparison started in September 2010 and finished in September 2011. It was piloted by the Belarusian State Institute of Metrology, BelGIM, Minsk, the Republic of Belarus, with VNIIMS (Moscow, Russia) as the other participant. The transfer standard was a gear involute master provided by BelGIM. This standard has two base circle radii of 150 mm and 60 mm, and corresponding profiles on the left and on the right. The involute profile was measured from root towards tip of the tooth. The scanning was performed in automatic mode along the mid-section of the base cylinder over the complete estimation range, with a scanning speed of 2 mm s-1. The software program GEAR PRO involute was used to determine three parameters: the total profile deviation, the profile form deviation and the profile slope deviation. Each participant performed ten measurements for each of two involute profiles with basic circle radius of 150 mm and 60 mm, respectively. The measurement result for each parameter was calculated as a mean value from the ten measurements. The comparison results demonstrate that the measured values are consistent with the stated uncertainties and that the measurement standards under comparison are equivalent. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. Model Compensation Approach Based on Nonuniform Spectral Compression Features for Noisy Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Geng-Xin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel model compensation (MC method for the features of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs with signal-to-noise-ratio- (SNR- dependent nonuniform spectral compression (SNSC. Though these new MFCCs derived from a SNSC scheme have been shown to be robust features under matched case, they suffer from serious mismatch when the reference models are trained at different SNRs and in different environments. To solve this drawback, a compressed mismatch function is defined for the static observations with nonuniform spectral compression. The means and variances of the static features with spectral compression are derived according to this mismatch function. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to provide recognition accuracy better than conventional MC methods when using uncompressed features especially at very low SNR under different noises. Moreover, the new compensation method has a computational complexity slightly above that of conventional MC methods.

  2. Luminance uniformity compensation for OLED panels based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Peng; YANG Gang; JIANG Quan; YU Jun-sheng; WU Qi-peng; SHANG Fu-hai; YIN Wei; WANG Jun; ZHONG Jian; LUO Kai-jun

    2009-01-01

    en in program. The irradiance brightness is controlled by changing its irradiance time, and finally, luminance compensation of the panel is realized. The simulation result indicates that the design ismasonable

  3. Enthalpy-entropy compensation for n-hexane adsorption on Y zeolite containing transition metal cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercigonja R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the values of entropy changes related to n-hexane adsorption onto cation exchanged Y zeolite were calculated from differential heats. Various transition metal cations (Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ were introduced into the lattice of the parent NaY, and the existence of enthalpy-entropy compensation effect related to n-hexane adsorption, id. est, the linearity of -ΔH vs. -ΔS plots was examined. The compensation effect was confirmed for all investigated zeolites. The compensation effect can be comprehended as governed by ion-induced dipole interaction between highly polarizing cationic centers in zeolite and nonopolar n-hexane molecules. Finally, the compensation effect and so the compensation temperature were found to depend on the type of charge-balancing cation (charge, size and electronic configuration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172018

  4. Bridging the Implementation of Nagoya-Kualalumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Yun Santoso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aside the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing, which is already ratified by Indonesian government with Law No. 11 Year 2013, the Nagoya–Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress (NKL Supplementary Protocol offers great benefits for “megabiodiversity” country like Indonesia. Despite the lack of awareness of this supplementary protocol, the need for ratifying is urge. This legal-normative research aims to seek the existing regulation in Indonesia to support the implementation of the Nagoya–Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress, and to explore the readiness of the national legal system on liability and redress for biodiversity. Based on the several existing regulation, Indonesia, to some extent has the readiness to implement the Nagoya–Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress. This finding should be supported with more intens discussion on the protocol.

  5. On Divorce Damage Compensation--Taking X County in Hebei Province as an Example%谈离婚损害赔偿--以河北省X县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅楠

    2014-01-01

    通过对 X 县人民法院进行集中调研,对离婚损害赔偿案件进行了重点研究。随着物质和经济的不断发展,农村青壮年外出打工增多,夫妻分居,配偶与他人同居,家庭暴力,不良嗜好等现象不断出现。随着离婚率的升高,在案件具体执行中,离婚损害赔偿对于当事人来说难度较大。离婚损害赔偿案件在实务中出现的问题有:1.离婚损害赔偿标准不一,获赔成功率低;2.人口流动过大使得离婚索赔举证困难;3.法院重调解使得离婚损害赔偿的成功率降低。在立法上出现的问题有:1.离婚损害赔偿的举证困难导致合法权益得不到维护;2.离婚损害赔偿的范围过于狭窄;3.我国有关离婚损害赔偿中的精神损害赔偿立法较少。对此笔者提出一些改进建议:首先在实务的角度:1.对无过错一方当事人的取证保护要倾斜;2.赔偿数额的确定要阐明标准;3.合理配置司法资源,最好不要用调解代替审判。其次在立法的角度:1.举证规则要完善;2.加大离婚损害的赔偿范围;3.完善精神损害赔偿。%Through the investigation on People’s Court in X County of Hebei Province, the cases of compensation for divorce damage are studied. With the continuous development of material and economy, more and more rural middle-aged people go out to work, so the couples are separated. It resulted in the bad phenomena of illegal cohabitation, family violence and bad habits. Thus the rate of divorce is increased. It is found that in theimplementation of some specific cases, the divorce damage compensation for the parties is difficult to conduct. There are some problems existing in the cases of divorce damages in practice. First, due to the standards of divorce damage compensation are different, the success rate is low. Second, the high population flow makes it difficult to claim the evidence of divorce damage. Third, that the

  6. A Novel Gravity Compensation Method for High Precision Free-INS Based on "Extreme Learning Machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Cai, Qingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2016-11-29

    In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity disturbance data is verified by numerical tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the ELM estimation method can be improved by 23% and 44% compared with the bilinear interpolation method in plain and mountain areas, respectively. To further validate the proposed gravity compensation method, field experiments with an experimental vehicle were carried out in two regions. Test 1 was carried out in a plain area and Test 2 in a mountain area. The field experiment results also prove that the proposed gravity compensation method can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. During the 2-h field experiments, the positioning accuracy can be improved by 13% and 29% respectively, in Tests 1 and 2, when the navigation scheme is compensated by the proposed gravity compensation method.

  7. Hedging Strategies and the Financing of the 1992 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund.

    OpenAIRE

    André SCHMITT; Sandrine SPAETER

    2005-01-01

    The maritime oil transport is regulated by the 1992 Civil Liability Convention for Oil Damage and the 1992 Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. In this compensation regime, contributions of oil firms are based on the aggregate risk of the Fund and are assessed each time an oil spill is registered. In this paper, we present the main characteristics of such a compensation regime and we explain why oil firms would benefit from a reorga- nization of the financing of the Fund by introducing appropriat...

  8. Translational Motion Compensation for Ballistic Targets Based on Delayed Conjugated Multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Si-san

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The micro-motion is combined with the high velocity of translation motion for ballistic targets. The translation motion should be compensated for micro-Doppler information extraction. A new method based on delay conjugate multiplication is proposed to compensate the translation motion of ballistic target. By delay conjugate multiplication of the received signal, the micro-Doppler information are canceled out and the translation motion parameters estimation problem is transformed as an multi-polynomial phase signal parameters estimation problem. Thus, the translation parameters can be estimated. Simulation results suggest that the proposed algorithm can achieve high-precision compensation for ballistic targets under low SNR.

  9. Black tea extract: a supplementary antioxidant in radiation-induced damage to DNA and normal lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debjani; Pal, Sandip; Saha, Chabita; Chakrabarti, Amit Kumar; Datta, Salil C; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Myriad research has contributed significantly toward the understanding and identification of health benefits stemming from tea polyphenols and many other naturally occurring flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. These flavonoids are known to mitigate reactive oxygen species-induced damage by scavenging them. In this study, hot-water black tea extract rich in flavonoids is evaluated as a supplementary antioxidant. The antioxidant efficacy of black tea extract was investigated by evaluating radioprotection conferred to pBR322 DNA, calf thymus DNA, and normal lymphocytes during gamma irradiation. The protection was measured by gel electrophoresis, fluorimetric study, cell viability assay, cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei assay, and comet assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability of the tea extract used increased in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 182.45 µg/mL). Positive correlation of radioprotection with antioxidant activity of black tea extract was observed in all systems. Maximum protection against radiation-induced damage was observed in pBR322 DNA and calf thymus DNA at ≥200 µg/mL of black tea extract. At a dose of black tea extract as low as 5 µg/mL, efficient radioprotection was observed in normal lymphocytes, which is encouraging and can be tested in the future as a natural antioxidant supplement during radiotherapy.

  10. Assistive Technology and Supplementary Treatment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS is a neurological disorder, affecting mainly females, caused by MECP2 mutations usually resulting in severe physical disability. Due to the physical challenges faced by the individual with RS and her family, her rehabilitation program should support her throughout different daily activities, contexts, and surroundings. Rehabilitation interventions to reverse physical impairments include exercise of various types and different physical modalities. Nevertheless, in the vast majority of cases, hands-on therapeutic intervention opportunities are available for the client through a minute part of her waking hours. Hence, a supplementary system is required in order to engulf the child with a comprehensive network of support. Supplementary intervention can support physical impairment by introducing adaptive techniques, environmental modifications, and assistive technologies. The therapy program of an individual with RS should include the use of assistive technology when such devices improve the user's performance. The term “supplementary management” relates to the fact that this intervention may be performed by nonprofessionals with the supervision of a qualified therapist. Such an intervention can further support the therapeutic goals of the child, at a time when direct intervention is not supplied. The present article will review the available literature on the topic of assistive technology, incorporating the clinical knowledge of the author in the field of RS.

  11. FO hydrophone with hydrostatic pressure compensation: comparative experiment with a conventional piezo hydrophone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruijn, D. de

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of a TPD FO hydrophone with hydrostatic pressure compensation. In particularly a comparison with a conventional piezo hydrophone system is discussed. ©2003 Copyright SPIE

  12. Adaptive filter design based on the LMS algorithm for delay elimination in TCR/FC compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Rahmat Allah; Torabian Esfahani, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Thyristor controlled reactor with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC) compensators have the capability of compensating reactive power and improving power quality phenomena. Delay in the response of such compensators degrades their performance. In this paper, a new method based on adaptive filters (AF) is proposed in order to eliminate delay and increase the response of the TCR compensator. The algorithm designed for the adaptive filters is performed based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. In this design, instead of fixed capacitors, band-pass LC filters are used. To evaluate the filter, a TCR/FC compensator was used for nonlinear and time varying loads of electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These loads caused occurrence of power quality phenomena in the supplying system, such as voltage fluctuation and flicker, odd and even harmonics and unbalancing in voltage and current. The above design was implemented in a realistic system model of a steel complex. The simulation results show that applying the proposed control in the TCR/FC compensator efficiently eliminated delay in the response and improved the performance of the compensator in the power system.

  13. An ecological compensation standard based on emergy theory for the Xiao Honghe River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xinjian; Chen, Moyu; Hu, Caihong

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of an ecological compensation standard is an important, but also difficult aspect of current ecological compensation research. In this paper, the factors affecting the ecological-economic system in the Xiao Honghe River Basin, China, including the flow of energy, materials, and money, were calculated using the emergy analysis method. A consideration of the relationships between the ecological-economic value of water resources and ecological compensation allowed the ecological-economic value to be calculated. On this basis, the amount of water needed for dilution was used to develop a calculation model for the ecological compensation standard of the basin. Using the Xiao Honghe River Basin as an example, the value of water resources and the ecological compensation standard were calculated using this model according to the emission levels of the main pollutant in the basin, chemical oxygen demand. The compensation standards calculated for the research areas in Xipin, Shangcai, Pingyu, and Xincai were 34.91 yuan/m3, 32.97 yuan/m3, 35.99 yuan/m3, and 34.70 yuan/m3, respectively, and such research output would help to generate and support new approaches to the long-term ecological protection of the basin and improvement of the ecological compensation system.

  14. A proposed structure for an international convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitze, W.A. (Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-08-10

    Formal negotiations toward an international convention on climate change will begin shortly after completion of the interim report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); presentation of the report to the Second World Climate Conference will be this fall. In a 25 May speech responding to greenhouse warming predictions made by the IPCC science working group, Margaret Thatcher said that Britain would reduce the proposed growth of its CO{sub 2} emissions enough to stabilize them at 1990 levels by 2005 if other countries did their part. Yet the United States, Japan, and other countries that emit substantial quantities of greenhouse gases continue to resist potentially expensive emission-reduction targets or control measures, citing continuing uncertainties about the extent, timing, and distribution of future climate change and its economic consequences. Similarly, developing countries are unlikely to agree to emissions targets or control measures that they perceive as impeding their economic development and will almost certainly condition their participation on a commitment by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries to provide additional development assistance. A central task for a climate convention will be to provide the international community with a permanent mechanism for coordinating its efforts to deal with climate change.

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  16. A reshaped excitation regenerating and mapping method for waveform correction in Lamb waves dispersion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Hua, Jiadong

    2017-02-01

    Dispersion effect of Lamb wave will cause wave-packets to spread out in space and time, making received signals hard to be interpreted. Though the conventional dispersion compensation method can restrain dispersion effect, waveform deformation still remains in the compensated results. To eliminate dispersion effect completely, a reshaped excitation dispersion compensation method is proposed in this paper. The method compensates the dispersed signal to the same shape as the original excitation by generating a reshaped excitation and then mapping the received signal from time domain to distance domain. Simulations and experiments are conducted for the validation of the waveform correction of the reshaped excitation dispersion compensation method. Applied in the traditional delay-and-sum algorithm, the new dispersion compensation method can effectively enhance the resolution of the damage imaging.

  17. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented.......In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  18. Dispersion compensation based on prism compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongying; Lan, Tian; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2017-04-01

    A prism compressor can compensate dispersion of femtosecond light pulses travelling in air for laser ranging. An accurate expression of the group delay dispersion (GDD) of a prism compressor at arbitrary incident angle and at arbitrary incident point is obtained, which is of benefit to finely compensating dispersion of femtosecond pulses. Influences of several parameters on group delay dispersion are analyzed for the active compensation of dispersion of femtosecond pulses. These expressions are convenient to applications of intra- and extra-cavity dispersion compensation of ultra-short laser pulses, as well as fine compensation of satellite laser ranging and laser altimetry.

  19. Damage-Tolerant, Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator for Nuclear Powered Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced propulsion technologies such as Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) have been partially limited by the mass of thermal rejection systems. NEP was proposed for...

  20. Time Delay Compensation for Tracking Differentiator and Its Application on Phase Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengshan Dou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the time delay compensation for tracking differentiator and its application on phase sensor. Filtering time delay compensation algorithm for phase sensor of high speed maglev train with Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS system is studied. Firstly, the structure and functions of the sensor are introduced. Secondly, the reasons for the phase signal distortion are analyzed. Then, a kind of nonlinear Tracking Differentiator (TD is introduced. The time delay characteristics of the nonlinear TD are studied and the time delay constant is figured out approximately. Then, a compensation algorithm is proposed based on phase forecasting. At last the TD and its compensation algorithms are applied to the phase signal to improve the waveform. The experimental results show that the designed algorithm is effective.

  1. effect of land policy on compensation for environmental damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-21

    Feb 21, 2013 ... monetary terms) to the environment, caused by these oil industry ... government has continued to initiate policies over the years but unfortunately, these ..... and tools was put at N5, 600 annually. A similar oil palm estate at ...

  2. Lattice design for head-on beam-beam compensation at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, C.

    2011-03-28

    Electron lenses for head-on beam-beam compensation will be installed in IP 10 at RHIC. Compensation of the beam-beam effect experienced at IP 8 requires betatron phase advances of {Delta}{psi} = k {center_dot} {pi} between the proton-proton interaction point at IP 8, and the electron lens at IP 10. This paper describes the lattice solutions for both the BLUE and the YELLOW ring to achieve this goal.

  3. A supplementary system for a brain-machine interface based on jaw artifacts for the bidimensional control of a robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Álvaro; Hortal, Enrique; Iáñez, Eduardo; Azorín, José M

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) are being used more and more these days to design systems focused on helping people with motor disabilities. Spontaneous BMIs translate user's brain signals into commands to control devices. On these systems, by and large, 2 different mental tasks can be detected with enough accuracy. However, a large training time is required and the system needs to be adjusted on each session. This paper presents a supplementary system that employs BMI sensors, allowing the use of 2 systems (the BMI system and the supplementary system) with the same data acquisition device. This supplementary system is designed to control a robotic arm in two dimensions using electromyographical (EMG) signals extracted from the electroencephalographical (EEG) recordings. These signals are voluntarily produced by users clenching their jaws. EEG signals (with EMG contributions) were registered and analyzed to obtain the electrodes and the range of frequencies which provide the best classification results for 5 different clenching tasks. A training stage, based on the 2-dimensional control of a cursor, was designed and used by the volunteers to get used to this control. Afterwards, the control was extrapolated to a robotic arm in a 2-dimensional workspace. Although the training performed by volunteers requires 70 minutes, the final results suggest that in a shorter period of time (45 min), users should be able to control the robotic arm in 2 dimensions with their jaws. The designed system is compared with a similar 2-dimensional system based on spontaneous BMIs, and our system shows faster and more accurate performance. This is due to the nature of the control signals. Brain potentials are much more difficult to control than the electromyographical signals produced by jaw clenches. Additionally, the presented system also shows an improvement in the results compared with an electrooculographic system in a similar environment.

  4. Mathematical Aids for Calculating Nuclear Damage to Extended Targets Composed of Discrete Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    find that Pd is given by Pd = + - n ( TjE ,.j/E.oi)I , , (19) 2 2\\/2 1 Equation (19) can be compared to equation (5). the probability of damage to a...developed here that reduce the number of calculations needed to find the target damage and that have excellent modeling potential for low-level...Description of troop incapacitation categories................................ 14 2. Coordinates of troops measured from battery centroid

  5. 78 FR 110 - Supplemental Record of Decision; Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Assessment for the Boston University National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories Responsible Official... (NIH), has decided, after completion of a Final Supplementary Risk Assessment and a thorough consideration of public comments on the Draft and Final Supplementary Risk Assessment, to implement the...

  6. A Study on Compensation for Management and Protection Expenses of Non-commercial Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the compensation nature of non-commercial forests under different ownership from two aspects, namely, whether the property right is limited and whether the management and protection expense has been incurred: there are no economic loss compensation problems caused by changes and limitation of property rights for the state-owned non-commercial forests with only the compensation on management and protection expense; but for the non-commercial forests owned by collectives or individuals, double compensation for both the economic loss and management expense exists because of limitation on the property right. In addition, an inframarginal economic analysis framework has been built for the management and protection compensation problems faced by non-commercial forests under different ownership in the perspective of the division of labor. Research results show that: the compensation standard for the management and protection expenses of non-commercial forests shall fall in between the "completely self-sufficient forestry economic structure U(Ayz)" and the "completely specialized productive structure of non-commercial forests U(B1)".

  7. Vision correction for computer users based on image pre-compensation with changing pupil size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Barreto, Armando; Alonso, Miguel; Adjouadi, Malek

    2011-01-01

    Many computer users suffer varying degrees of visual impairment, which hinder their interaction with computers. In contrast with available methods of vision correction (spectacles, contact lenses, LASIK, etc.), this paper proposes a vision correction method for computer users based on image pre-compensation. The blurring caused by visual aberration is counteracted through the pre-compensation performed on images displayed on the computer screen. The pre-compensation model used is based on the visual aberration of the user's eye, which can be measured by a wavefront analyzer. However, the aberration measured is associated with one specific pupil size. If the pupil has a different size during viewing of the pre-compensated images, the pre-compensation model should also be modified to sustain appropriate performance. In order to solve this problem, an adjustment of the wavefront function used for pre-compensation is implemented to match the viewing pupil size. The efficiency of these adjustments is evaluated with an "artificial eye" (high resolution camera). Results indicate that the adjustment used is successful and significantly improves the images perceived and recorded by the artificial eye.

  8. Proposition of law relative to the admission and compensation of nuclear weapons tests victims; Proposition de Loi relative a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des victimes des essais nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The present proposition of law has for object to come up to the expectations of persons having participated to nuclear weapons test made by France between the 13. february 1960 and the 27 january 1996, in Sahara or French polynesia. The consequences on health can not be ignored even after several decades of years. Decades of veterans have for several years, have got involve in justice procedures to be entitled to obtain compensation in damage repair they assign to the nuclear tests. Some courts of justice have, for years, recognized the legitimacy of these claims and the judgements cite irradiation consequences able to be revealed late even several decades after the radiation exposure. Other states have adopted laws of compensation for the victims of their populations, civil or military ones. That is why this proposition of law comes today to be adopted. (N.C.)

  9. Can Education Compensate for Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

  10. Accuracy of Whole-Body DWI for Metastases Screening in a Diverse Group of Malignancies: Comparison With Conventional Cross-Sectional Imaging and Nuclear Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruthikunnan, Samir Mustaffa; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Karegowda, Lakshmikanth Halegubbi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the role of whole-body (WB) DWI as a screening modality for the detection of metastases and to compare it to conventional cross-sectional imaging modalities or nuclear scintigraphy in a population with various histopathologic malignancies. WB DWI and conventional imaging (CT, MRI, or scintigraphy) were performed for patients with known malignancies for metastatic workup, and these patients were followed up for a period of 1 year. Two radiologists assessed WB DW images separately, and conventional images were assessed by the senior radiologist. The metastatic lesions were classified into four regions: liver, lung, skeletal system, and lymph nodes. The reference standard was considered on the basis of histopathologic confirmation or clinical follow-up of the metastatic lesions. WB DWI was slightly inferior to conventional imaging modalities for the detection of hepatic metastases (sensitivity, 86.6% vs 93.3%; specificity, 91.6% vs 95.8%; and accuracy, 89.7% vs 94.8%) and skeletal metastases (sensitivity, 81.8% vs 89.4%; specificity, 86.4% vs 94.3%; and accuracy, 85.2% vs 93.0%); however, the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.625 for hepatic metastases and p = 0.0953 for skeletal metastases, McNemar test). WB DWI was statistically significantly inferior to conventional imaging for the detection of lymph node metastases (sensitivity, 74.0% vs 81.5%; specificity, 87.9% vs 90.1%; accuracy, 81.4% vs 86.0%; p = 0.0389). WB DWI was statistically significantly inferior to conventional imaging for the detection of pulmonary metastases (sensitivity, 33.3% vs 100.0%; specificity, 90.9% vs 100.0%; accuracy, 60.8% vs 100.0%; p = 0.045). WB DWI can be used for screening hepatic and skeletal metastases, but its reliability as the sole imaging sequence for the detection of lymph nodal and pulmonary metastases is poor and, at present, it cannot replace conventional imaging modalities.

  11. An update on conventional and molecular breeding approaches for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... Key words: Cotton, fibre quality traits, simple sequence repeat (SSR), restricted fragment length polymorphism ... review summarizes the updated results of conventional ... In path coefficient analysis, indirect effect of seed cotton .... Genotypic and phenotypic correlation studies for fibre quality traits cotton.

  12. PMD compensation based on a new type dynamic first-order PMD compensator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Shilong Pan; Jia Jia; Yanfu Yang; Caiyun Lou

    2006-01-01

    @@ A dynamic first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator based on garnet and yttrium vanadate crystal has been proposed and implemented. Consisting of a differential group delay (DGD) generator and a Faraday rotator (FR), this PMD compensator has only two degrees of freedom. Feedback control and compensation algorithm are both very simple. Experimental results reveal the compensator behaviors to be excellent for PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM)system.

  13. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragne Oja

    Full Text Available Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk.

  14. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk.

  15. Earthquake Damage Assessment for RC Structures Based on Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A global damage index based on multiple linear force-deformation curves in pushover analysis is presented to evaluate the integrated damage of reinforced concrete structure. The modified coefficient is provided considering the cyclic load and hysteresis energy. The number of inelastic cycles and the coefficient of hysteresis energy concentration are also introduced as damage indices. Hence, multiple damage indices about displacement and energy for performance-based design are considered. The relation of multiple damage indices or factors and the fuzzy damage set is presented by comprehensive fuzzy evaluation; hence, a performance-based multiple fuzzy seismic damage-assessment method for reinforced concrete frame structures is established. The method can be accomplished based on pushover analysis, code spectrum, and capacity spectrum method. The fuzzy seismic damage-assessment method is verified through nonlinear analysis four different structures and the corresponding results and assessment conclusions are accurate.

  16. 法释义学视角下合同法定解除的损害赔偿%Damage compensation for contract rescission from the perspective of law interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许中缘; 耿真; 雷艳平

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between contract rescission and damages for a breach of the contract has experienced a historical progression from alternative to socialism. The rescission of the contract and the termination of the contract are different concepts. Essentially speaking, contract rescission is a breach of contract, whose essence should be a right of claim rather then that of formation. The basis for claim compensation for damage on termination of the contract is the claim compensation for damage of the benefit based on the non-performance of the debt rather than based on the rescission of the contract. On the retroactivity of termination of the contract, we should adopt the general view of the German, that is, the relationship theory of liquidation.%合同解除与违约损害赔偿的关系经历了从择一主义到并用主义转变的历史进程。合同解除与合同终止是两个不同的概念。而合同法定解除实质上是违约责任,其性质是请求权而非形成权。我国合同法定解除后的损害赔偿请求权基础为因债务不履行所生的对履行利益的损害赔偿请求权,而非合同因法定解除而生的对信赖利益的损害赔偿请求权。关于合同法定解除后的溯及力,应采德国通说即清算关系说。

  17. Active Wireline Heave Compensation for Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.; Liu, T.; Swain, K.; Furman, C.; Iturrino, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    The up-and-down heave motion of a ship causes a similar motion on any instruments tethered on wireline cable below it. If the amplitude of this motion is greater than a few tens of cm, significant discrepancy in the depth below the ship is introduced, causing uncertainty in the acquired data. Large and irregular cabled motions also increase the risk of damaging tethered instruments, particularly those with relatively delicate sensors. In 2005, Schlumberger and Deep Down, Inc built an active wireline heave compensator (AHC) system for use onboard the JOIDES Resolution to compensate for heave motion on wireline logging tools deployed in scientific drill holes. The goals for the new AHC system were to (1) design a reliable heave compensation system; and (2) devise a robust and quantitative methodology for routine assessment of compensation efficiency (CE) during wireline operations. Software programs were developed to monitor CE and the dynamics of logging tools in real-time, including system performance under variable parameters such as water depth, sea state, cable length, logging speed and direction. We present the CE results from the AHC system on the JOIDES Resolution during a 5-year period of recent IODP operations and compare the results to those from previous compensation systems deployed during ODP and IODP. Based on new data under heave conditions of ±0.2-2.0 m and water depths of 300-4,800 m in open holes, the system reduces 65-80% of downhole tool displacement under stationary conditions and 50-60% during normal logging operations. Moreover, down/up tool motion at low speeds (300-600 m/h) reduces the system's CE values by 15-20%, and logging down at higher speeds (1,000-1,200 m/h) reduces CE values by 55-65%. Furthermore, the system yields slightly lower CE values of 40-50% without tension feedback of the downhole cable while logging. These results indicate that the new system's compensation efficiency is comparable to or better than previous systems

  18. Cumulative damage fatigue tests on nuclear reactor Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes at room temperature and 300°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarinathan, P. R.; Vasudevan, P.

    1980-06-01

    Cumulative damage fatigue tests were conducted on the Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes at room temperature and 300°C on the modified Moore type, four-point-loaded, deflection-controlled, rotating bending fatigue testing machine. The cumulative cycle ratio at fracture for the Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes was found to depend on the sequence of loading, stress history, number of cycles of application of the pre-stress and the test temperature. A Hi-Lo type fatigue loading was found to be very much damaging at room temperature and this feature was not observed in the tests at 300°C. Results indicate significant differences in damage interaction and damage propagation under cumulative damage tests at room temperature and at 300°C. Block-loading fatigue tests are suggested as the best method to determine the life-time of Zircaloy-2 fuel tubes under random fatigue loading during their service in the reactor.

  19. A new anisotropic damage model for brittle solids based on the effective damage concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, S. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The presence of microdefects within the structure of a brittle solid plays a dominant role on the manner in which the material responds to externally applied stresses. When a loading state involves a confining pressure of a sufficient magnitude such that nucleation of new microdefects and the propagation of existing ones are inhibited, brittle solids display a ductile response. However, when the same materials are stressed in a low pressure regime, responses become very brittle with little or no ductility. During the process of damage, material bonds are severed, leading to the alteration of elastic properties. It is, therefore, plausible to employ the changes in compliance or stiffness as measures of damage as they relate directly to the physics of the problem. The paper starts with a review of the fundamental concepts based on the laws of thermodynamics, considers anisotropic damage formulation, including both elastic and inelastic damage processes, and proposes new damage response tensors to allow for the rotation of principal stress axis. Damage is recorded in the material compliance tensor involving an effective damage parameter whose increment is obtained from the consistency condition of a damage potential known as {open_quotes}damage surface.{close_quotes} Finally, the paper illustrates the model for a cementitious material in different loading paths.

  20. Application of a value-based equivalency method to assess environmental damage compensation under the European Environmental Liability Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ortega, Julia; Brouwer, Roy; Aiking, Harry

    2011-06-01

    The Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) establishes a framework of liability based on the 'polluter-pays' principle to prevent and remedy environmental damage. The ELD requires the testing of appropriate equivalency methods to assess the scale of compensatory measures needed to offset damage. The aim of this paper is to contribute to fill the existing knowledge gap on the application of the value equivalency approach for damage compensation in this context. We analyze the toxic spill damaging the Doñana National Park (Spain) in 1998. The welfare losses associated with the resource damage are estimated using non-market valuation and compared to the value of the compensatory measures taken after the accident. Our results show that the in-kind compensation may have been insufficient to offset the welfare losses. We conclude that a more comprehensive knowledge of the human welfare effects caused by environmental damage is of substantial importance to determine compensatory remediation, as insufficient information in this respect can lead to erroneous decisions causing loss to society. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on Supplementary Comparison APMP.M.H-S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkavitool, Rugkanawan; Hattori, Koichiro; Sanh, Vo; Yen, Lim Gin

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of supplementary comparison APMP.M.H-S1 among four national metrology institutes (NIMT, NMIJ/AIST, VMI and SPRING). The comparison was carried out during October 2004 to January 2005 in order to determine the capability of the primary Rockwell hardness standard, including standard conditions, of each participant, to confirm the accuracy of Rockwell hardness scale C measurement declared by the participant, which includes the effect of each participant's primary indenter and determine the degrees of equivalence of hardness scale measurement in the range 20 HRC to 60 HRC. Furthermore, the comparison was carried out a by common indenter, which was provided by the pilot institute, in order to determine the measurement capability of the participant's primary machine without the influence of the indenter, as a study of scientific purpose. The pilot institute was the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), NIMT. There were two sets of artifacts for the comparison. Each set was composed of nine hardness blocks: 20 HRC, 25 HRC, 30 HRC, 35 HRC, 40 HRC, 45 HRC, 50 HRC, 55 HRC, 60 HRC. The verification of the participant's primary Rockwell hardness machine was carried out according to ISO6508-3 before making the measurement. The pilot institute made measurements at the beginning and the end of the comparison in order to monitor the stability of the artifacts. The degree of equivalence of each national primary hardness standard was expressed quantitatively by two terms, the deviation from KCRV and the uncertainty of this deviation at a 95% level of confidence. The En parameter was calculated to express the equivalence between the measurements of participants as well. The degree of equivalence between pairs of participating institutes was expressed by the difference of their deviations from the key comparison reference value and the uncertainty of this difference at the 95% level of confidence. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper

  2. CISG损害赔偿制度之因果关系案例分析%An Analysis on the Causal Relationship of Damage Compensation System of CISG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛

    2011-01-01

    Causal relationship is the precondition and restriction of damage compensation. "But for" standard is the main means for judging causal relationship. However, when there are multiple sufficient causes or hypotherical alternative causes, "Ness" test is often taken instead of "But for" test. And when there are intervening cause before breach behavior and damages, predictable stand- ard is then used as a supplement for "But for" test. Furthermore, When the injured party improves the breach of the breach party or expands the breach losses, it will cause the problem of allocation loss among all the present parties. The factors influencing the responsibility share mainly include causal relationship, the weight, fairness and justice of behavior of all the parties, it needs the free decision of judges or arbitrators.%因果关系是损害赔偿的前提和限制条件。“除非”标准是判断因果关系的主要方法,但在多重充分原因和假设的替代原因情况下,则需要以“必要标准”为补充,而如果在违约行为之后、损害发生之前发生的其他一些事件或行为成为干扰项,则需要辅以可预见标准。在受损害方本身行为促进了违约方违约或扩大了违约损失时,会产生在合同各当事人间分配损失的问题。影响责任分担的因素主要包括因果关系、各方行为的权重、正义和公平,需要法官或仲裁员的自由裁量。

  3. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks; Haftung fuer Terrorismusschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2004-10-01

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  4. Adjustable broaching tool for tolerance compensation in precision manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Emil Krabbe; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin

    2015-01-01

    , and their tolerances are not compliant. This approach presents a precision broaching tool for adjusting the inner diameter of an external broach. The tool compensates for the manufacturing tolerance chain of tool and workpieces by up to 37 m. The approach is based on conventional shrink fitting of cold forging tools...

  5. Effect of hierarchical deformable motion compensation on image enhancement for DSA acquired via C-ARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liyang; Shen, Dinggang; Kumar, Dinesh; Turlapati, Ram; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2008-02-01

    DSA images suffer from challenges like system X-ray noise and artifacts due to patient movement. In this paper, we present a two-step strategy to improve DSA image quality. First, a hierarchical deformable registration algorithm is used to register the mask frame and the bolus frame before subtraction. Second, the resulted DSA image is further enhanced by background diffusion and nonlinear normalization for better visualization. Two major changes are made in the hierarchical deformable registration algorithm for DSA images: 1) B-Spline is used to represent the deformation field in order to produce the smooth deformation field; 2) two features are defined as the attribute vector for each point in the image, i.e., original image intensity and gradient. Also, for speeding up the 2D image registration, the hierarchical motion compensation algorithm is implemented by a multi-resolution framework. The proposed method has been evaluated on a database of 73 subjects by quantitatively measuring signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. DSA embedded with proposed strategies demonstrates an improvement of 74.1% over conventional DSA in terms of SNR. Our system runs on Eigen's DSA workstation using C++ in Windows environment.

  6. A High-precision Motion Compensation Method for SAR Based on Image Intensity Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Ke-bin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the platform instability and precision limitations of motion sensors, motion errors negatively affect the quality of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. The autofocus Back Projection (BP algorithm based on the optimization of image sharpness compensates for motion errors through phase error estimation. This method can attain relatively good performance, while assuming the same phase error for all pixels, i.e., it ignores the spatial variance of motion errors. To overcome this drawback, a high-precision motion error compensation method is presented in this study. In the proposed method, the Antenna Phase Centers (APC are estimated via optimization using the criterion of maximum image intensity. Then, the estimated APCs are applied for BP imaging. Because the APC estimation equals the range history estimation for each pixel, high-precision phase compensation for every pixel can be achieved. Point-target simulations and processing of experimental data validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Supplementary Auditory and Vestibular Stimulation: Effects on Institutionalized Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casler, Lawrence

    1975-01-01

    Supplementary stimulation was supplied for 30 minutes per day for approximately six weeks to 156 normal, full-term institutionalized infants prior to adoption. The Gesell Developmental Schedules were administered regularly (until age 27 months), to determine whether development had been enhanced by the treatment. (JMB)

  8. Lightweight Damage Tolerant Radiators for In-Space Nuclear Electric Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Paul; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Tomboulian, Briana; Rogers, Jan; Hyers, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Advanced power conversion technologies for converting thermal energy from the reactor to electrical energy at high operating temperatures would benefit from lightweight, high temperature radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature and mass. An effort at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to show that woven high thermal conductivity carbon fiber mats can be used to replace standard metal and composite radiator fins to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems is ongoing. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate a proof of concept, to show that a significant improvement of specific power (power/mass) can be achieved, and to develop a thermal model with predictive capabilities. A description of this effort is presented.

  9. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  10. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-07-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants.

  11. Experimental Seminar on Nuclear Energy for Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    `Experimental Seminar on Nuclear Energy for Teachers` was conducted and sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency. And in order to understand nuclear energy properly through lectures and experiments with good results inclass, the seminar carried out for teachers of high schools and junior high schools by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1990 FY to 1997 FY. In this report, details of the seminars in the above period are described and No.1 to 17 of Communication Letters of Experimental Seminar on Nuclear Energy` started at 1992 FY are described also. These letters were prepared for attendant follow-up program. And programs of recent seminars, future`s seminars, impressions and comments from attendants, reports from actual classes and others are described in these letters and they are very useful for educational classes on nuclear energy by other teachers. Therefore contents of the letters are listed and easy to refer. A part of this educational task was transferred to the Radiation Application Development Association in 1997 FY and other parts were transferred in 1998 FY. (author)

  12. Environmental Compensation for Port Extension: The Case of Rotterdam Harbor and Nature Compensation, Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Meulen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The port of Rotterdam (the Netherlands recently built a large extension, Maasvlakte 2. It was built in an area with valuable coastal ecosystems belonging to the EU Natura 2000 network of European conservation areas. The construction and use of Maasvlakte 2 causes considerable damage to existing Natura 2000 sites. According to EU regulations this damage should be compensated by creating new nature. In the case of Rotterdam, the compensation was twofold: a marine and a terrestrial part. The paper describes the design and the actual lay-out of the compensation works. It also reports on the monitoring that is ongoing to assess the damage to existing nature and the quality of the new (compensated nature.

  13. A Fuzzy PI Speed Controller based on Feedback Compensation Strategy for PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available in order to solve the problem of robustness or anti-disturbance of the traditional PI speed controller in the permanent magnet synchronous motor. A fuzzy PI speed controller based on load torque feedback compensation is proposed for the permanent magnet synchronous motor. The combination of fuzzy PI control strategy and load feedback compensation method can enhance the robustness and disturbance rejection of the speed loop. According to the validated results of simulation and experiments, by using this PMSM speed controller, the robustness of the system speed control was enhanced markedly, and the capacity of anti-disturbance was also improved significantly.

  14. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  15. Design of jitter compensation algorithm for robot vision based on optical flow and Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B R; Jin, Y L; Shao, D L; Xu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Image jitters occur in the video of the autonomous robot moving on bricks road, which will reduce robot operation precision based on vision. In order to compensate the image jitters, the affine transformation kinematics were established for obtaining the six image motion parameters. The feature point pair detecting method was designed based on Eigen-value of the feature windows gradient matrix, and the motion parameters equation was solved using the least square method and the matching point pairs got based on the optical flow. The condition number of coefficient matrix was proposed to quantificationally analyse the effect of matching errors on parameters solving errors. Kalman filter was adopted to smooth image motion parameters. Computing cases show that more point pairs are beneficial for getting more precise motion parameters. The integrated jitters compensation software was developed with feature points detecting in subwindow. And practical experiments were conducted on two mobile robots. Results show that the compensation costing time is less than frame sample time and Kalman filter is valid for robot vision jitters compensation.

  16. Design of Jitter Compensation Algorithm for Robot Vision Based on Optical Flow and Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image jitters occur in the video of the autonomous robot moving on bricks road, which will reduce robot operation precision based on vision. In order to compensate the image jitters, the affine transformation kinematics were established for obtaining the six image motion parameters. The feature point pair detecting method was designed based on Eigen-value of the feature windows gradient matrix, and the motion parameters equation was solved using the least square method and the matching point pairs got based on the optical flow. The condition number of coefficient matrix was proposed to quantificationally analyse the effect of matching errors on parameters solving errors. Kalman filter was adopted to smooth image motion parameters. Computing cases show that more point pairs are beneficial for getting more precise motion parameters. The integrated jitters compensation software was developed with feature points detecting in subwindow. And practical experiments were conducted on two mobile robots. Results show that the compensation costing time is less than frame sample time and Kalman filter is valid for robot vision jitters compensation.

  17. [Social Law Entitlements and Compensations for Visually Impaired Patients in Germany, Focussed on Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, C C

    2016-02-01

    Although prevention of progression is the most important issue in the treatment of glaucoma patients, information on visual aids and social law entitlements is also helpful. In this article, the main aspects of compensation for visual impairment are outlined so that you can competently support your patients, without much effort, with helpful tips and appropriate instructions.

  18. Tithonia diversifolia as a Supplementary Feed for Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Sandin; Terry, Stephanie Amelia; Sacramento, João Paulo; Silveira, Sylvia Rocha e; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; da Silva, Elsa Fernandes; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Tomich, Thierry Ribeiro; Maurício, Rogério Martins

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T. diversifolia (6.5 and 15.4%, DM basis) which partially replaced both sugarcane and concentrates. Methane production was measured using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) technique from d 16 to d 21 of each experimental period. Analysis of the gas samples was performed by gas chromatography. The inclusion of T. diversifolia at 15.4% DM had no effects on DM intake, milk production, nitrogen balance or methane production. There was no effect on the concentrations of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk fat (P ≥ 0.28), though individual milk fatty acids were affected. Serum concentrations of glucose, urea nitrogen (BUN), triglycerides, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and cholesterol were unaffected by the dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.13). There was a time (2 and 6 h post-feeding) and dietary treatment effect (P < 0.01) on the acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the archaeal community showed distinct clustering of the archaea populations for control and treatment diets. Taken together, our results indicate the potential of T. diversifolia as a supplementary forage for dairy cattle in the tropics. PMID:27906983

  19. Seigniorage Compensation for Swaziland and Policy Implication.

    OpenAIRE

    Mkhonta, Simiso F.

    1992-01-01

    Seigniorage compensation for Swaziland is found to depend on Emalangeni in circulation in Swaziland besides the obvious effect of an increase in ZAR/Rands in circulation in South Africa. Where a percent increase in Emalangeni in circulation in Swaziland at time t decreases seigniorage compensation by 0.186 percent and a percent increase in Emalangeni in circulation at time t-1 decreases seigniorage compensation by 0.134 percent through both substitution and base effects respectively. Thus a...

  20. Research on new software compensation method of static and quasi-static errors for precision motion controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mechanical vibrations induced by big errors compensation, a new software compensation method based on an improved digital differential analyzer (DDA) interpolator for static and quasi-static errors of machine tools is proposed. Based on principle of traditional DDA interpolator, a DDA interpolator is divided into command generator and command analyzer. There are three types of errors, considering the difference of positions between compensation points and interpolation segments. According to the classification, errors are distributed evenly in data processing and compensated to certain interpolation segments in machining. On-line implementation results show that the proposed approach greatly improves positioning accuracy of computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools.

  1. The Justifiable Analysis of Punitive Damage Compensation in Tourism Law---Alternative Solutions to Mental Damage Compensation%旅游法上惩罚性赔偿的正当性分析--兼论旅游精神损害赔偿的可替代性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振宏

    2014-01-01

    The punitive damage compensation is a great breakthrough in compensation for breach of tour contracts.Considering the particular character of mental damage in tour contracts , the punitive damage com-pensation has made remedies for breach of contract more comprehensible .Based on features of tour activities , further studies on the justifiability of and alternative measures for punitive damage compensation and mental damage compensation for breach of tour contract are of important theoretical and practical significance .%惩罚性赔偿是旅游合同违约损害赔偿的一个重大突破。鉴于精神损害在旅游合同中具有特殊地位,旅游惩罚性赔偿弥补了以往精神损害赔偿在违约责任中得不到支持的遗憾。结合旅游活动的自身特点,进一步探讨惩罚性赔偿与精神损害赔偿在旅游违约中的正当性、可替代性具有十分重要的理论和现实意义。

  2. A three-dimensional methodology for the assessment of neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition in graphite components of advanced gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.O.; Robinson, A.T.; Allen, D.A.; Picton, D.J.; Thornton, D.A. [TCS, Serco, Rutherford House, Olympus Park, Quedgeley, Gloucester, Gloucestershire GL2 4NF (United Kingdom); Shaw, S.E. [EDF Energy, Barnet Way, Barnwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional methodology for the assessment of neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition (or nuclear heating) throughout the graphite cores of the UK's Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors. Advances in the development of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCBEND have enabled the efficient production of detailed fully three-dimensional models that utilise three-dimensional source distributions obtained from Core Follow data supplied by the reactor physics code PANTHER. The calculational approach can be simplified to reduce both the requisite number of intensive radiation transport calculations, as well as the quantity of data output. These simplifications have been qualified by comparison with explicit calculations and they have been shown not to introduce significant systematic uncertainties. Simple calculational approaches are described that allow users of the data to address the effects on neutron damage and nuclear energy deposition predictions of the feedback resulting from the mutual dependencies of graphite weight loss and nuclear energy deposition. (authors)

  3. Study on a Mechanical Semi-Active Heave Compensation System of Drill String for Use on Floating Drilling Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Liu

    Full Text Available There are some disadvantages for existing heave compensation systems of drill string used for the Floating Drilling Platform (FDP, including high energy consumption, large and complex structure, and expensive manufacturing and maintenance costs. In view of the above, we present a streamlined mechanical semi-active heave compensation system (MSAHC in this study. This system consists of active compensation part with the pinion and rack and passive compensation part. In order to evaluate system performance of the MSAHC, we establish its simulation model with AMEsim software. In the process of simulation, displacement of rotary hook and energy consumption is regarded as performance parameters of the system. And the change rule of two performance parameters are analyzed by changing these design parameters including gear radius of the pinion and rack, scale coefficient of PID, rotary hook load, heave height and heave period of the FDP, and accumulator volume. Then, based on the simulation results of the MSAHC system performance, we have selected out a best set of design parameters from them. Moreover, the feasibility of the design scheme of the MSAHC is effectively verified by comparison with the existing three heave compensation system. The result shows that the energy consumption of the MSAHC is lower than the active heave compensation system (AHC and the semi-active heave compensation system (SAHC when achieving a same compensation effect as well as the accumulator volume of MSAHC is half of the passive heave compensation system (PHC. Therefore, the new designed MSAHC not only ensure compensation effect but also lower energy consumption, and its structure is simplified by adopting the simple mechanical structure to decrease manufacturing cost, maintenance cost and floor space.

  4. Study on a Mechanical Semi-Active Heave Compensation System of Drill String for Use on Floating Drilling Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyou; Tang, Yang; Huang, Chongjun; Xie, Chong

    2015-01-01

    There are some disadvantages for existing heave compensation systems of drill string used for the Floating Drilling Platform (FDP), including high energy consumption, large and complex structure, and expensive manufacturing and maintenance costs. In view of the above, we present a streamlined mechanical semi-active heave compensation system (MSAHC) in this study. This system consists of active compensation part with the pinion and rack and passive compensation part. In order to evaluate system performance of the MSAHC, we establish its simulation model with AMEsim software. In the process of simulation, displacement of rotary hook and energy consumption is regarded as performance parameters of the system. And the change rule of two performance parameters are analyzed by changing these design parameters including gear radius of the pinion and rack, scale coefficient of PID, rotary hook load, heave height and heave period of the FDP, and accumulator volume. Then, based on the simulation results of the MSAHC system performance, we have selected out a best set of design parameters from them. Moreover, the feasibility of the design scheme of the MSAHC is effectively verified by comparison with the existing three heave compensation system. The result shows that the energy consumption of the MSAHC is lower than the active heave compensation system (AHC) and the semi-active heave compensation system (SAHC) when achieving a same compensation effect as well as the accumulator volume of MSAHC is half of the passive heave compensation system (PHC). Therefore, the new designed MSAHC not only ensure compensation effect but also lower energy consumption, and its structure is simplified by adopting the simple mechanical structure to decrease manufacturing cost, maintenance cost and floor space. PMID:26186620

  5. Source term and radiation dose estimates for postulated damage to the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; McPherson, R.B.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Watson, E.C.; Ayer, J.E.

    1979-02-01

    Three scenarios representing significant levels of containment loss due to moderate, substantial, and major damage to the 102 Building at the Vallecitos Nuclear Center are postulated, and the potential radiation doses to the general population as a result of the airborne releases of radionuclides are estimated. The damage scenarios are not correlated to any specific level of seismic activity. The three scenarios are: (1) Moderate damage scenario--perforation of the enclosures in and the structure comprising the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. (2) Substantial damage scenario--complete loss of containment of the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory and loss of the filters sealing the inlet to the Radioactive Materials Laboratory hot cells. (3) Major damage scenario--the damage outlined in (2) plus the perforation of enclosures holding significant inventories of dispersible plutonium in and the structure comprising the Advanced Fuels Laboratory.

  6. RESEARCH ON MOTION COMPENSATION FOR HIGH RESOLUTION PROFILE OF EXTENDED TARGET FOR STEPPED CHIRP RADAR AND DSP IMPLEMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Bin; He Xiang; Wang Hongqiang; Guo Guirong

    2007-01-01

    A discrete model is set up for High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) of an extended target and the model of echo from an extended target for a Stepped Chirp Radar (SCR) is proposed. The effect of target motion on a range profile is thoroughly analyzed, and based on which precision requirement is developed for motion compensation. By studying the time domain correlation and the rule based on the least burst error, a motion compensation algorithm which satisfies the project requirement is presented, and the cyber-emulation confirms the conclusion. At last the processor is designed by using DSP devices to realize motion compensation and target recognition.

  7. Vitamin D as Supplementary Treatment for Tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Gomes, Victor F; Rabna, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in host immune response towards M. tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To test whether vitamin D supplementation of TB patients improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality. METHODS: We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in TB...... rates did not differ among vitamin D and placebo treated patients. Overall mortality was 15% (54/365) at one year follow up and similar in both arms (30/187 for vitamin D treated and 24/178 for placebo, RR=1.19 [0.72-1.95]). HIV infection was seen in 36% (131/359), 21% (76/359) HIV-1, 10% (36/359) HIV-2...... and 5% (19/357) HIV-1+2. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D does not improve clinical outcome among TB patients and the trial showed no overall effect on mortality in TB patients but the dose used may be insufficient. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials Register number ISRCTN35212132 at www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn....

  8. [From medical complication to compensation for the prejudice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouiller, P; Lopard, E; Mantz, J; Farman, T

    2012-01-01

    Claims in anesthesia and intensive care remains high, despite the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with this activity. The absence of a national register makes it difficult to quantify. The Medical Committee of MACSF-Sou Medical Group, professional liability insurer of more than half of French physicians, provided us support. The amount of compensation paid is growing and the scope of compensated damage is expanded by the Dintilhac mission. The Act of March 4, 2002 has fully confirmed the principle of medical liability for misconduct. Generally, compensation for bodily injury is based on the demonstration of a causal link between a wrongful event and injury. The proof of fault lies with the applicant. Information accountable to patients and nosocomial infection are a particular setting. The Act of March 4, 2002 has also defined the concept of therapeutic risk. With the establishment of the Regional Commissions of Conciliation and Compensation (RCCI) and the National Office for Compensation of Medical Accident (Oniam), it is now possible for a patient to be compensated for an injury resulting from an accident Medical non-offending, while acknowledging the lack of accountability of the practitioner. The expertise conducted by an RCCI is adversarial. For the practitioner called to the cause, it is important to prepare for both substance and form, with the assistance of the medical board's insurance company.

  9. Impact of supplementary feeding on reproductive success of white storks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Hilgartner

    Full Text Available European white stork (Ciconia ciconia populations have been object to several conservation measures such as reintroduction programs, habitat improvement or supplementary feeding in the last decades. Although recent white stork censuses revealed an upward trend of most of the western populations, evaluations of the relative importance of certain conservation measures are still scarce or even lacking. In our study we analyzed the effect of supplementary feeding on the reproductive success of white storks in conjunction with other factors such as weather or nest site characteristics. We present data of 569 breeding events at 80 different nest sites located in variable distances to an artificial feeding site at Affenberg Salem (south-western Germany collected from 1990-2012. A multilevel Poisson regression revealed that in our study population (1 reproductive success was negatively affected by monthly precipitation in April, May and June, (2 pairs breeding on power poles had a lower reproductive success than pairs breeding on platforms or trees and (3 reproductive success was significantly higher in pairs breeding in close distance to the feeding site. The number of fledglings per nest decreased by 8% per kilometer distance to the feeding site. Our data suggest that supplementary feeding increases fledgling populations which may be a tool to attenuate population losses caused by factors such as habitat deterioration or unfavorable conditions in wintering habitats.

  10. Flood damage modeling based on expert knowledge: Insights from French damage model for agricultural sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelot, Frédéric; Agenais, Anne-Laurence; Brémond, Pauline

    2015-04-01

    In France, since 2011, it is mandatory for local communities to conduct cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of their flood management projects, to make them eligible for financial support from the State. Meanwhile, as a support, the French Ministry in charge of Environment proposed a methodology to fulfill CBA. Like for many other countries, this methodology is based on the estimation of flood damage. However, existing models to estimate flood damage were judged not convenient for a national-wide use. As a consequence, the French Ministry in charge of Environment launched studies to develop damage models for different sectors, such as: residential sector, public infrastructures, agricultural sector, and commercial and industrial sector. In this presentation, we aim at presenting and discussing methodological choices of those damage models. They all share the same principle: no sufficient data from past events were available to build damage models on a statistical analysis, so modeling was based on expert knowledge. We will focus on the model built for agricultural activities and more precisely for agricultural lands. This model was based on feedback from 30 agricultural experts who experienced floods in their geographical areas. They were selected to have a representative experience of crops and flood conditions in France. The model is composed of: (i) damaging functions, which reveal physiological vulnerability of crops, (ii) action functions, which correspond to farmers' decision rules for carrying on crops after a flood, and (iii) economic agricultural data, which correspond to featured characteristics of crops in the geographical area where the flood management project studied takes place. The two first components are generic and the third one is specific to the area studied. It is, thus, possible to produce flood damage functions adapted to different agronomic and geographical contexts. In the end, the model was applied to obtain a pool of damage functions giving

  11. A State-of-the-Art Report on Cutting Technologies for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-10-15

    This report provides the status of the cryogenic cutting technology as a new dismantling technology for dismantling radioactive nuclear facilities and also presents the direction of study to apply it to a radioactive nuclear facility research aim of its nuclear. This report consists of four chapter : - 1. Background and objectives of dismantling technology for dismantling a radioactive nuclear facility. - 2. Analysis of the status of conventional cutting technologies - 3. Analysis of the status of cryogenic cutting technology - 4. Discussion, conclusion, and future work on state-of-the-art technology of dismantling for nuclear facilities.

  12. Interrelationships between seminal parameters and sperm nuclear DNA damage before and after density gradient centrifugation: implications for assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, M J; Moffatt, O; Manicardi, G C; Bizzaro, D; Afnan, M; Sakkas, D

    2001-10-01

    With an increase in the use of assisted reproduction technologies the requirements of the diagnostic semen analysis are constantly changing. Spermatozoa from patients undergoing IVF were analysed by examining the conventional semen parameters and DNA/chromatin integrity, using in-situ nick translation (NT) and the Chromomycin A(3) fluorochrome, which indirectly demonstrates a decreased presence of protamine. Samples were examined before and after preparation using discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. Density gradient centrifugation enriched samples by improving the percentage of morphologically normal forms by 138% and sperm nuclear integrity by 450%. Sperm nuclear integrity as assessed by in-situ nick translation (NT) demonstrated a very clear relationship with sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Morphology correlated with fertilization rates of patients undergoing IVF, while NT values of the spermatozoa post-preparation were significantly lower in pregnant patients. We have demonstrated that along with the classical semen parameters, the assessment of nuclear integrity improves the characterization of the semen sample and may be used as a tool for allocating patients to specific assisted reproduction treatments.

  13. On the order of stable compensators for a class of time-delay system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanlin HE; Zhongsheng WANG; Xiaoxin LIAO

    2004-01-01

    The stabilization using a stable compensator does not introduce additional unstable zeros into the closed-loop transfer function beyond those of the original plant, so it is a desirable compensator, the price is that the compensator's order will go up. This note considered the order of stable compensators for a class of time-delay systems. First, it is shown that for single-loop plants with at most one real right-half plane zero, a special upper bound for the minimal order of a strongly stabilizing compensator can be obtained in terms of the plant order; Second, it is shown that approximate unstable pole-zero cancellation does not occur,and the distances between distinct unstable zeroes are bounded below by a positive constant, then it is possible to find an upper bound for the minimal order of a strongly stabilizing compensator.

  14. A Pre-compensation Fuzzy Logic Algorithm Designed for the Dynamic Compensation Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of non-model-based position regulation for the dynamic compensation robotic system (DCRS, which has been proposed for cooperating with the existing main robotic systems, such as the common serial robotic arms, to accomplish high-speed and accurate manipulations. The dynamic compensation concept is realized by fusing a high-speed & light-weight compensation actuator as well as endpoint closed loop (ECL configured high-speed cameras. Within the context of the DCRS, the coarse motion, which is realized by the main robotic system, usually gives rise to negative dynamic impact on the compensation actuator that is configured to accomplish the fine motion. Through the analysis of a simplified model for the coupled two-plant system, relative velocity information between the two plants is found to play a role in the first order derivative of the displacement error. With the use of the relative position information from high-speed visual feedback, this paper proposes a new pre- compensation fuzzy logic control (PFLC approach for control of the compensation actuator. The PFLC method is model-independent and is realized with a cascade fuzzy inference structure that conveniently integrates the relative velocity term between the two plants into the error regulation, and therefore realizes the partial counteraction of the disturbance from the main robot easily without knowing the explicit mathematical models of the system. Comparison works between the proposed PFLC and approaches that take no consideration of the relative velocity information, such as proportional-derivative (PD control and conventional fuzzy logic control, are conducted. Simulations and experiments show the consistent effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Amendment of APPRE for Ratification of the International Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Both the international community and the IAEA have been making efforts to strengthen the global regime on nuclear security. As a result of these efforts, two conventions regarding nuclear security were issued by the UN and IAEA. The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (NTC) and the Amendment to Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNMNF). The NTC entered into force in 2007, but the CPPNMNF still has not yet been enacted. In the work plan released after the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (which was held in Washington D.C) these conventions were mentioned as important tools against nuclear terrorism. The purpose of these conventions was to prevent malicious acts against radioactive materials and nuclear facilities. The article also specifies strong penal provisions. Many countries which had ratified these conventions had to revise or change their domestic acts or laws in order conform to these new international regimes. The ROK signed these two conventions in 2005: however, it has not ratified them yet. The government has a plan to ratify them before the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, which will be held in the ROK. Each article in the conventions should be reviewed thoroughly in terms of their effects on the domestic legal and institutional systems. The penal provisions regulating the conventions should especially be carefully scrutinized since their effects are considerable. In this paper, we compared the penal provisions in the conventions with the ROK's laws and selected the provisions that are not specified in the ROK's legal system. The proposed articles for amendment to the APPRE are also suggested

  16. The Path to Deep Nuclear Reductions. Dealing with American Conventional Superiority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, D.M.

    2009-07-01

    essential for abolition to happen - might ever wish to proceed toward such a post-nuclear world that would be dominated militarily by American conventional military capabilities and what might be needed to allay legitimate concerns in this regard. At the very least, it will become increasingly important to separate fact from fiction in regard to the state of various conventional offensive and defensive counter-proliferation capabilities and begin the challenge of addressing what kind of concrete steps are needed to alleviate Russian or Chinese concerns. It is precisely that objective to which this paper is addressed. The paper is organized along the following lines. It first addresses the origins of U.S. interests and improvements in conventional strike capabilities, and then explores the emergence of counter-proliferation as a chief mission for conventional offensive and defensive forces. It next examines the extent to which new conventional capabilities can perform three key missions previously the exclusive domain of nuclear weapons. Armed with this background, the paper then examines Russian perceptions of U.S. advances in conventional war-fighting and evaluates the extent to which these perceptions are real or exaggerated. Finally, in light of Russia's concerns, the paper closes with a set of policy options designed to help allay these concerns on the path toward deep reductions in nuclear arsenals. (author)

  17. New Predictive Filters for Compensating the Transport Delay on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Houck, Jacob A.; Kelly, Lon C.; Wolters, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The problems of transport delay in a flight simulator, such as its sources and effects, are reviewed. Then their effects on a pilot-in-the-loop control system are investigated with simulations. Three current prominent delay compensators the lead/lag filter, McFarland filter, and the Sobiski/Cardullo filter were analyzed and compared. This paper introduces two novel delay compensation techniques an adaptive predictor using the Kalman estimator and a state space predictive filter using a reference aerodynamic model. Applications of these two new compensators on recorded data from the NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator show that they achieve better compensation over the current ones.

  18. Nuclear DNA damage signalling to mitochondria in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Chua, Katrin F; Mattson, Mark P; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of ageing, and mitochondrial maintenance may lead to increased healthspan. Emerging evidence suggests a crucial role for signalling from the nucleus to mitochondria (NM signalling) in regulating mitochondrial function and ageing. An important initiator of NM signalling is nuclear DNA damage, which accumulates with age and may contribute to the development of age-associated diseases. DNA damage-dependent NM signalling constitutes a network that includes nuclear sirtuins and controls genomic stability and mitochondrial integrity. Pharmacological modulation of NM signalling is a promising novel approach for the prevention and treatment of age-associated diseases.

  19. Calculation of financial compensation due of municipalities hosting nuclear waste deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata A. da, E-mail: renata.amaral@ufrj.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B., E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LIMA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Impactos Ambientais

    2011-07-01

    The present work evaluates the math from monthly financial transfers to municipalities with technical viability for building of initial or intermediate repository for storing of radioactivity nuclear waste: gloves, sneakers, mask, resins and filters came from thermonuclear facilities. Several aspects have been considered as the geological factors of the site as presence of capable faults, groundwater vulnerability, infiltration of seawater. Also, it was take into account socioeconomic factors: population density, costs for construction, maintenance and operation of repository; size and activity of waste; among others. Hereafter, we have presented the key features of low and average activity repository and high activity repository even as initial, intermediate and final repository and the possible environment impact. The methodology for calculation of financial compensation of municipalities was established by CNEN will be applied for a specific assumed municipality. The analysis of financial compensation due to the specific nuclear waste deposit and the possible guidelines for the use of that compensation by the municipality will be analyzed. In addiction, it will be compared the model for compensation used for nuclear wastes with other plants receiving permanent wastes from cemeteries and sanitary landfills, where the land should not be allowed for the human activities the same as: crops, livestock and buildings. Also, comparison with royalties and indemnities were paid by facilities of energy production as hydroelectric dams as well as petroleum and gas exploration plants. The destination of financial compensation transfer to the municipality is in charge of the city administration. The compensation could be applied of investments in education and culture, health, sanitation works, improvement of public transport, environment, among others. It will be discussed the cost-benefit relation for the assumed municipality. (author)

  20. A Compensation Algorithm Based on RSPWVD-Hough Transform for Doppler Expansion in Passive Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Xin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For passive radar, long integration time is used to achieve high processing gain to detect weak target. But range migration and Doppler expansion may occur for high-speed targets. Keystone transform can be used to rectify range migration introduced by radial-speed. But tangential-speed may still lead to Doppler expansion, which entails a loss of integration gain. In this paper, signal model is presented to analyze the reason for Doppler expansion. Then, a Doppler expansion compensation method is introduced based on RSPWVD-Hough transform for multi-target scenario. Simulation results show that the proposed method can compensate the energy loss caused by Doppler expansion for multi-target scene, and it achieves good performance. The proposed method is also effective for weak targets, which means it can improve the detection ability of weak target in passive radar systems.

  1. Effect of supplementary cementing materials on the concrete corrosion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Failure of concrete after a period of years, less than the life expected for which it was designed, may be caused by the environment to which it has been exposed or by a variety of internal causes. The incorporation of supplementary materials has at the Portland cement the purpose of improving the concrete microstructure and also of influence the resistance of concrete to environmental attacks. Different mineral by-products as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS, silica fume (SF, metakaolin (MK, fly ash (FA and other products have been used as supplementary cementing materials. This paper is about the behavior of concrete in the presence of mineral additions. Compared to Portland cements, blended cements show lower heat of hydration, lower permeability, greater resistance to sulphates and sea water. These blended cements find the best application when requirements of durability are regarded as a priority specially on high performance concrete.

    La falla del concreto en un tiempo inferior a la vida útil para la cual se diseñó puede ser consecuencia del medio ambiente al cual ha estado expuesto o de algunas otras causas de tipo interno. La incorporación de materiales suplementarios al cemento Portland tiene el propósito de mejorar la microestructura del concreto y también de contribuir a la resistencia del concreto a los ataques del medio ambiente. Diferentes minerales y subproductos tales como escorias granuladas de alto horno, humo de sílice, metacaolín, ceniza volante y otros productos han sido usados como materiales suplementarios cementantes. Este documento presenta el comportamiento del hormigón en presencia de diferentes adiciones. Los cementos adicionados, comparados con los cementos Portland muestran bajos calores de hidratación, baja permeabilidad, mayor resistencia a sulfatos y a agua de mar. Estos cementos adicionados encuentran un campo de aplicación importante cuando los requerimientos de durabilidad son

  2. The impact of conventional and nuclear industries on the population A comparative study of the radioactive and chemical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Coulon, R; Anguenot, F

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to make it possible to assess and localize in an objective manner the extent of the hazards and associated detrimental effects which are inherent in nuclear and non-nuclear industrial activities, among all the hazards to which the population of a given region is exposed. Rather than carry out a purely theoretical and speculative study a region was chosen as a basis to carry out a full- scale exercise, taking into account the existing real situation. The region chosen is situated in the south-east of France (Greater Rhone Delta) where almost all industrial activities can be found: electricity generating industries (thermal and nuclear power stations), the activities associated with them (extraction, processing, storage of waste, etc.) and industrial activities which are sources of pollution (refineries, chemical industries, etc.). To put the risks of all these activities (to workers, the public and the environment) in perspective, the case of other sources of risk, such as certain ag...

  3. Ubiquitin Accumulation on Disease Associated Protein Aggregates Is Correlated with Nuclear Ubiquitin Depletion, Histone De-Ubiquitination and Impaired DNA Damage Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yehuda, Adi; Risheq, Marwa; Novoplansky, Ofra; Bersuker, Kirill; Kopito, Ron R.; Goldberg, Michal; Brandeis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of ubiquitin conjugates on inclusion bodies composed of protein aggregates is a definitive cytopathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. We show that accumulation of ubiquitin on polyQ IB, associated with Huntington’s disease, is correlated with extensive depletion of nuclear ubiquitin and histone de-ubiquitination. Histone ubiquitination plays major roles in chromatin regulation and DNA repair. Accordingly, we observe that cells expressing IB fail to respond to radiomimetic DNA damage, to induce gamma-H2AX phosphorylation and to recruit 53BP1 to damaged foci. Interestingly ubiquitin depletion, histone de-ubiquitination and impaired DNA damage response are not restricted to PolyQ aggregates and are associated with artificial aggregating luciferase mutants. The longevity of brain neurons depends on their capacity to respond to and repair extensive ongoing DNA damage. Impaired DNA damage response, even modest one, could thus lead to premature neuron aging and mortality. PMID:28052107

  4. Concrete Materials with Ultra-High Damage Resistance and Self- Sensing Capacity for Extended Nuclear Fuel Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mo [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nakshatrala, Kalyana [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); William, Kasper [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Xi, Yungping [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of multifunctional concrete materials (MSCs) for extended spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage systems, which combine ultra-high damage resistance through strain-hardening behavior with distributed multi-dimensional damage self-sensing capacity. The beauty of multifunctional concrete materials is two-fold: First, it serves as a major material component for the SNF pool, dry cask shielding and foundation pad with greatly improved resistance to cracking, reinforcement corrosion, and other common deterioration mechanisms under service conditions, and prevention from fracture failure under extreme events (e.g. impact, earthquake). This will be achieved by designing multiple levels of protection mechanisms into the material (i.e., ultrahigh ductility that provides thousands of times greater fracture energy than concrete and normal fiber reinforced concrete; intrinsic cracking control, electrochemical properties modification, reduced chemical and radionuclide transport properties, and crack-healing properties). Second, it offers capacity for distributed and direct sensing of cracking, strain, and corrosion wherever the material is located. This will be achieved by establishing the changes in electrical properties due to mechanical and electrochemical stimulus. The project will combine nano-, micro- and composite technologies, computational mechanics, durability characterization, and structural health monitoring methods, to realize new MSCs for very long-term (greater than 120 years) SNF storage systems.

  5. The Improved Kriging Interpolation Algorithm for Local Underwater Terrain Based on Fractal Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpolation-reconstruction of local underwater terrain using the underwater digital terrain map (UDTM is an important step for building an underwater terrain matching unit and directly affects the accuracy of underwater terrain matching navigation. The Kriging method is often used in terrain interpolation, but, with this method, the local terrain features are often lost. Therefore, the accuracy cannot meet the requirements of practical application. Analysis of the geographical features is performed on the basis of the randomness and self-similarity of underwater terrain. We extract the fractal features of local underwater terrain with the fractal Brownian motion model, compensating for the possible errors of the Kriging method with fractal theory. We then put forward an improved Kriging interpolation method based on this fractal compensation. Interpolation-reconstruction tests show that the method can simulate the real underwater terrain features well and that it has good usability.

  6. Compensation strategy for machining optical freeform surfaces by the combined on- and off-machine measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-09-21

    Freeform surface is promising to be the next generation optics, however it needs high form accuracy for excellent performance. The closed-loop of fabrication-measurement-compensation is necessary for the improvement of the form accuracy. It is difficult to do an off-machine measurement during the freeform machining because the remounting inaccuracy can result in significant form deviations. On the other side, on-machine measurement may hides the systematic errors of the machine because the measuring device is placed in situ on the machine. This study proposes a new compensation strategy based on the combination of on-machine and off-machine measurement. The freeform surface is measured in off-machine mode with nanometric accuracy, and the on-machine probe achieves accurate relative position between the workpiece and machine after remounting. The compensation cutting path is generated according to the calculated relative position and shape errors to avoid employing extra manual adjustment or highly accurate reference-feature fixture. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Economic analysis of the principles of liability in tort in the backdrop of liability for compensation for damage occurring as a result of the activities of one entity to the goods of another entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses basic issues associated with the economic analysis of liability in tort principles. The deliberations focus on an attempt to define the economic and social consequences of introducing various combinations of principles of tortious liability for damage suffered as a result of the activities of one entity borne in the goods of another. Lack of liability situations are treated in some detail as well as liability based on the principle of risk and the principle of fault. The analyses were conducted based on unilateral and bilateral models. Factors coming into play in determining the economically effective level of carefulness in actions are discussed. A series of other factors of significant relevance for the choice of an optimal principle of liability from the economic point of view are also highlighted. In this context the role of the level of activity of entities, availability of insurance policies and costs associated with pursuing compensation claims are discussed. The deliberations are concluded with a summary, which also entails a critical look at the method of economic analysis of law.

  8. XAFS studies of radiation damage in nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Daniel Thomas

    The growing demand for nuclear energy places a high importance on the development of new materials capable of withstanding higher temperatures and harsher irradiation conditions than those used in existing reactors. By supporting the development of next generation reactors it also becomes possible to close the nuclear fuel cycle, greatly reducing the amount of waste sent for disposal in deep geologic repositories, where its interaction with the environment is also a matter of interest. In this thesis, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is used to investigate the local atomic structure of systems of interest to nuclear energy. First, two XAFS studies on environmental materials are presented. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was treated with iron to improve its water remediation properties, specifically with respect to arsenic. XAFS was used to determine the nature of iron coating on the GAC surface, and the method of arsenic bonding to the treated surface. Next, a neodymium precipitate from solubility studies carried out for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was analyzed. Neodymium was used as an analog for plutonium in brine solutions. XAFS fitting indicated that the neodymium substituted for calcium in a gypsum lattice, providing information useful for future geochemical modeling. XAFS was also used to study radiation damage in materials. A candidate material for advanced reactor structural materials, modified 9Cr--1Mo, was irradiated to 1, 4, and 10 displacements per atom (dpa). XAFS analyses were performed on the Fe, Mo, and Nb K-edges. Irradiation caused a reduction in coordination for all three elements, but the exact behavior was element specific. Damage around Fe atoms was linear with dose, while damage around Mo atoms saturated at or before 1 dpa. XAFS was shown to provide a useful atomic level description of radiation damage for a complex alloy system. Finally, zirconium carbide and zirconium nitride, candidate materials for advanced

  9. A customizable multi-channel loudness compensation method based on WDRC for digital hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiebin; Wang, Mingjiang; Ma, Min

    2017-08-01

    Loudness compensation is the most significant signal processing algorithm in digital hearing aids at present. An algorithm of multi-channel loudness compensation for embedded system has been put forward in this paper. The number of channels is customizable in this algorithm. The algorithm can set different number and different width of channels for each patient based on frequency domain wide dynamic range compression. First, according to the requirement of patient to divide the frequency domain into multiple unequal frequency bands. And then calculate the gain of each channel according to the input-output curve of sound pressure level. Finally, the time-domain impulse response of gain is computed from Mel filter banks. It is used in conjunction with speech enhancement processing in hearing aids. Simulation results show that the algorithm can effectively enhance the loudness for different frequencies.

  10. Control Method for Electromagnetic Unmanned Robot Applied to Automotive Test Based on Improved Smith Predictor Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new control method for an electromagnetic unmanned robot applied to automotive testing (URAT and based on improved Smith predictor compensator, and considering a time delay, is proposed. The mechanical system structure and the control system structure are presented. The electromagnetic URAT adopts pulse width modulation (PWM control, while the displacement and the current doubles as a closed-loop control strategy. The coordinated control method of multiple manipulators for the electromagnetic URAT, e.g., a skilled human driver with intelligent decision-making ability is provided, and the improved Smith predictor compensator controller for the electromagnetic URAT considering a time delay is designed. Experiments are conducted using a Ford FOCUS automobile. Comparisons between the PID control method and the proposed method are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve the accurate tracking of the target vehicle’s speed and reduce the mileage derivation of autonomous driving, which meets the requirements of national test standards.

  11. Compensation for Adolescents’ School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kudláček

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed—self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire, objective measurements—pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers. They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants’ mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. Results: The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Conclusions: Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program.

  12. Attitude motion compensation for imager on Fengyun-4 geostationary meteorological satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Wang; Dai, Shoulun; Dong, Yaohai; Shen, Yili; Song, Xiaozheng; Wang, Tianshu

    2017-09-01

    A compensation method is used in Chinese Fengyun-4 satellite to counteracting the line-of-sight influence by attitude motion during imaging. The method is acted on-board by adding the compensation amount to the instrument scanning control circuit. The mathematics simulation and the three-axis air-bearing test results show that the method works effectively.

  13. Fault Diagnosis for Compensating Capacitors of Jointless Track Circuit Based on Dynamic Time Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of online fault diagnosis for compensating capacitors of jointless track circuit, a dynamic time warping (DTW based diagnosis method is proposed in this paper. Different from the existing related works, this method only uses the ground indoor monitoring signals of track circuit to locate the faulty compensating capacitor, not depending on the shunt current of inspection train, which is an indispensable condition for existing methods. So, it can be used for online diagnosis of compensating capacitor, which has not yet been realized by existing methods. To overcome the key problem that track circuit cannot obtain the precise position of the train, the DTW method is used for the first time in this situation to recover the function relationship between receiver’s peak voltage and shunt position. The necessity, thinking, and procedure of the method are described in detail. Besides the classical DTW based method, two improved methods for improving classification quality and reducing computation complexity are proposed. Finally, the diagnosis experiments based on the simulation model of track circuit show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  14. On the Compensation for Injury of Divorce%略论离婚损害赔偿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭星光; 唐先锋

    2001-01-01

    As a law conception,the compensation for injury of divorce is related to the matrimonial tort.and has its own law signification and foundation in economy society and law.The article focused on the necessity of establishing the system of compensation for injury of divorce.It also discusses the main point of the system.%离婚损害赔偿是婚内侵权相对应的一个法律概念。作为一项法律制度,它有其自身的法律含义及经济、社会和法律基础。文章对当今建立该项法律制度的社会必要性和该制度设计要点进行了探讨。

  15. A comparison of the indirect estimate of mean arterial pressure calculated by the conventional equation and calculated to compensate for a change in heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G; Oosthuyse, T

    2000-02-01

    The standard equation used to calculate mean arterial pressure (MAP) assumes that diastole persists for 2/3 and systole for 1/3 of each cardiac cycle. This ratio is altered when heart rate increases, and therefore we investigated the efficacy of predicting MAP during exercise using non-invasive indirect methods. Eight subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 3 minute intervals to elicit heart rates between 100-110, 120-130, 140-150, 160-170, and 180-190 beats/min. In the last minute of each 3 min interval an ECG recording was taken and systolic (SP) and diastolic (DP) blood pressure was measured by manual auscultation. MAP was calculated for each heart rate interval by: MAP=DP+1/3(SP-DP) (method A), and MAP= DP + Fs(SP- DP) (method B), where Fs is the fraction of the cardiac cycle comprising systole, measured from the ECG. Fs increased from 0.35+/-0.049 at rest to 0.47+/-0.039 at a heart rate of 180-190 beats/min. MAP measured by method B was consistently greater than MAP calculated by method A at all heart rates greater than resting heart rate (pequation (method A) to derive MAP during exercise (measured as the percentage difference between method A and B) increased linearly with heart rate (r=0.98). The standard MAP equation should not be applied during exercise, as it does not account for the change in the systolic: diastolic period ratio as heart rate increases.

  16. Heat treatments in a conventional steel to reproduce the microstructure of a nuclear grade steel; Tratamientos termicos en un acero convencional para reproducir la microestructura de un acero grado nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosalio G, M.

    2014-07-01

    The ferritic steels used in the manufacture of pressurized vessels of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) suffer degradation in their mechanical properties due to damage caused by the neutron fluxes of high energy bigger to a Mega electron volt (E> 1 MeV) generated in the reactor core. The materials with which the pressurized vessels of nuclear reactors cooled by light water are built correspond to low alloy ferritic steels. The effect of neutron irradiation on these steels is manifested as an increase in hardness, mechanical strength, with the consequent decrease in ductility, fracture toughness and an increase in temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The life of a BWR is 40 years, its design must be considered sufficient margin of safety because pressure forces experienced during operation, maintenance and testing of postulated accident conditions. It is necessary that under these conditions the vessel to behave ductile and likely to propagate a fracture is minimized. The vessels of light water nuclear reactors have a bainite microstructure. Specifically, the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Veracruz, Mexico) are made of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1. At present they are carrying out some welding tests for the construction of a model of a BWR, however, to use nuclear grade steel such as Astm A-533 to carry out some of the welding tests, is very expensive; perform these in a conventional material provides basic information. Although the microstructure present in the conventional material does not correspond exactly to the degree of nuclear material, it can take of reference. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a pilot study to establish the thermal treatment that reproduces the microstructure of nuclear grade steel, in conventional steel. The resulting properties of the conventional steel samples will be compared to a JRQ steel, that is a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1, provided by IAEA. (Author)

  17. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

  18. A Study on the Innovation Cost and Effectiveness Evaluation of Compensation Devices for Voltage Sags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xuhui; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yonaga, Shigeru

    Due to the advancement of information technology and widespread use of power electronic devices in recent years, many customers in various fields have suffered from the voltage sag problem. In order to compensate voltage sags, sensitive loads have been primarily equipped with uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) by each consumer individually. Because consumers have many individual needs, this topic becomes an important problem to be considered by quality consultants in the electric utility industry. Based on this situation, we present the applications of UPS and dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) as compensation devices of voltage sags. By considering the need for power quality, we examine the cost-efficiency of both devices quantitatively. Simulations are carried out and the results are shown in this paper.

  19. QFT control based on zero phase error compensation for flight simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinkun; He Yuzhu

    2007-01-01

    To improve the robustness of high-precision servo systems, quantitative feedback theory (QFT) which aims to achieve a desired robust design over a specified region of plant uncertainty is proposed. The robust design problem can be solved using QFT but it fails to guarantee a high precision tracking. This problem is solved by a robust digital QFT control scheme based on zero phase error (ZPE) feed forward compensation. This scheme consists of two parts: a QFr controller in the closed-loop system and a ZPE feed-forward compensator. Digital QFT controller is designed to overcome the uncertainties in the system. Digital ZPE feed forward controller is used to improve the tracking precision. Simulation and real-time examples for flight simulator servo system indicate that this control scheme can guarantee both high robust performance and high position tracking precision.

  20. On site inspection for nuclear test ban verirication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Marschall

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of verifying compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty is mainly a technical one. However the problem of detecting, locating and identifying nuclear explosions has, since the late 1950s, been intimately involved with the political problems associated with negotiating a treaty. In fact there are few other areas in which policy, diplomacy and science have been so interwoven. This paper attempts to illustrate how technology can. be applied to solve some of the political problems which arise when considering the role of an On Site Inspection (OSI to determine whether or not a nuclear explosion, in violation of a treaty, has occurred or not. It is hoped that the reader, with a scientific background, but with little or no experience of treaty negotiations, will gain an. insight as to how technical matters can interact with political requirements. The demands made on scientists to provide technical support for negotiating and rnonitoring compliance of a treaty have increased significanfly over the last 40 years. This is a period in which a number of major treaties have contained a significant technical component e.g. the Limited Test Ban Treaty (Threshold Treaty and the Chemical Weapon Convention. This paper gives an indication of some of the political decisions which will have to be made and suggests some of the technical methods which are of value in the identification of a clandestine nuclear explosion.

  1. The Great Boundary Crossing: Perceptions on Training Pharmacists as Supplementary Prescribers in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tann, Jennifer; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Grime, Janet; Evans, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the perceptions of General Medical Practitioners and pharmacist supplementary prescribers of the training provided for qualification as a pharmacist supplementary prescriber, and the experience of pharmacist supplementary prescribers of subsequent continuing professional development in practice. Design: A qualitative study of…

  2. New Perspectives on Compensation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anne; Morgan, Gwen

    Low compensation, in both earnings and benefits, and the resulting high turnover of staff and low quality of programs in early childhood care and education are a national problem. Noting that how we define and view the problem, and the strategies we adopt to solve it, may differ depending on perspectives and disciplines, this paper expands the…

  3. The impact of workers' compensation on outcomes of surgical and nonoperative therapy for patients with a lumbar disc herniation: SPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Steven J; Tosteson, Tor D; Blood, Emily A; Skinner, Jonathan S; Pransky, Glenn S; Weinstein, James N

    2010-01-01

    Prospective randomized and observational cohorts. To compare outcomes of patients with and without workers' compensation who had surgical and nonoperative treatment for a lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IDH). Few studies have examined the association between worker's compensation and outcomes of surgical and nonoperative treatment. Patients with at least 6 weeks of sciatica and a lumbar IDH were enrolled in either a randomized trial or observational cohort at 13 US spine centers. Patients were categorized as workers' compensation or nonworkers' compensation based on baseline disability compensation and work status. Treatment was usual nonoperative care or surgical discectomy. Outcomes included pain, functional impairment, satisfaction and work/disability status at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Combining randomized and observational cohorts, 113 patients with workers' compensation and 811 patients without were followed for 2 years. There were significant improvements in pain, function, and satisfaction with both surgical and nonoperative treatment in both groups. In the nonworkers' compensation group, there was a clinically and statistically significant advantage for surgery at 3 months that remained significant at 2 years. However, in the workers' compensation group, the benefit of surgery diminished with time; at 2 years no significant advantage was seen for surgery in any outcome (treatment difference for SF-36 bodily pain [-5.9; 95% CI: -16.7-4.9] and physical function [5.0; 95% CI: -4.9-15]). Surgical treatment was not associated with better work or disability outcomes in either group. Patients with a lumbar IDH improved substantially with both surgical and nonoperative treatment. However, there was no added benefit associated with surgical treatment for patients with workers' compensation at 2 years while those in the nonworkers' compensation group had significantly greater improvement with surgical treatment.

  4. Loss-of-Use Damages From U.S. Nuclear Testing in the Marshall Islands: Technical Analysis of the Nuclear Claims Tribunal’s Methodology and Alternative Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-12

    Islands (RMI) Changed Circumstances Petition, which requests $522 million in additional compensation for loss-of-use of Enewetak and Bikini atolls due to...the U.S. Government conducted an intensive program of nuclear testing on Bikini and Enewetak , two remote Northwesterly atolls in the RMI. Sixty-six...6 Gary Lee, “Postwar Pacific Fallout Wider than Thought,” Washington Post, February 24, 1994. On the Enewetak atoll , 43 above-ground nuclear devices

  5. Estimation of probability density functions of damage parameter for valve leakage detection in reciprocating pump used in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Kyeom; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Hyun Su; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo [Div. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents an advanced estimation method for obtaining the probability density functions of a damage parameter for valve leakage detection in a reciprocating pump. The estimation method is based on a comparison of model data which are simulated by using a mathematical model, and experimental data which are measured on the inside and outside of the reciprocating pump in operation. The mathematical model, which is simplified and extended on the basis of previous models, describes not only the normal state of the pump, but also its abnormal state caused by valve leakage. The pressure in the cylinder is expressed as a function of the crankshaft angle, and an additional volume flow rate due to the valve leakage is quantified by a damage parameter in the mathematical model. The change in the cylinder pressure profiles due to the suction valve leakage is noticeable in the compression and expansion modes of the pump. The damage parameter value over 300 cycles is calculated in two ways, considering advance or delay in the opening and closing angles of the discharge valves. The probability density functions of the damage parameter are compared for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic features of valve leakage.

  6. A Novel Temperature Compensation Method for a MEMS Gyroscope Oriented on a Periphery Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliang Cao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates temperature compensation methods used for the scale factor and bias of the MEMS gyroscope within the temperature range from - 40°C to 60°C. The structure and periphery monitor circuit are introduced. Then the determinant elements of the MEMS gyroscope’s scale factor are analysed and the results indicate that scale factor is directly proportional to drive amplitude and sense loop gain and is inversely proportional to the frequency gap between two modes. After that, the compensation methods are proposed, the thermal resistor’s positive temperature coefficient (tempco is utilized to calibrate the scale factor’s tempco through regulating the drive mode amplitude and the sense loop gain, and each method is applied respectively and the results are contrasted. The test results of the two specimens express that the most effective compensation method could decrease the scale factor’s tempco from 693ppm/°C (640ppm/°C to 250ppm/°C (257ppm/°C, improving it by 63.9% (59.8%. Finally, a method of declining bias’s tempco is investigated and implemented after scale factor compensation. A summator with a thermal resistor is utilized at the output level and decreases the bias’s tempco from 103.89o/h/°C (100.78o/h/°C to 9.70o/h/°C (12o/h/°C improving it by 90.7% (88%. Repeat tests are performed based on two specimens to prove the repeatability and reproducibility of the methods.

  7. A Novel Temperature Compensation Method for a MEMS Gyroscope Oriented on a Periphery Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliang Cao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates temperature compensation methods used for the scale factor and bias of the MEMS gyroscope within the temperature range from − 40°C to 60°C. The structure and periphery monitor circuit are introduced. Then the determinant elements of the MEMS gyroscope's scale factor are analysed and the results indicate that scale factor is directly proportional to drive amplitude and sense loop gain and is inversely proportional to the frequency gap between two modes. After that, the compensation methods are proposed, the thermal resistor's positive temperature coefficient (tempco is utilized to calibrate the scale factor's tempco through regulating the drive mode amplitude and the sense loop gain, and each method is applied respectively and the results are contrasted. The test results of the two specimens express that the most effective compensation method could decrease the scale factor's tempco from 693ppm/°C (640ppm/°C to 250ppm/°C (257ppm/°C, improving it by 63.9% (59.8%. Finally, a method of declining bias's tempco is investigated and implemented after scale factor compensation. A summator with a thermal resistor is utilized at the output level and decreases the bias's tempco from 103.89°/h/°C (100.78°/h/°C to 9.70°/h/°C (12°/h/°C improving it by 90.7% (88%. Repeat tests are performed based on two specimens to prove the repeatability and reproducibility of the methods.

  8. Possible genetic damage in the Czech nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz; Roessner, Pavel [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Rubes, Jiri [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Beskid, Olena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Zdik [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Schmuczerova, Jana [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, Ivo [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bavorova, Hana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Ocadlikova, Dana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Kopecna, Olga [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilova, Petra [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-01-29

    The aim of our study was to identify occupational risk of irradiation exposure in the Czech nuclear power plant workers. We analyzed levels of chromosomal aberrations, a well-known biomarker of early biological effects and a predictor of cancer risk. We applied the conventional method of cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1 and 4, combined with a pancentromeric probe) to three groups: 123 subjects in the Temelin nuclear power plant (2 years in use), 114 subjects in the Dukovany nuclear power plant (20 years in use), and 53 matched controls from Ceske Budejovice. Nuclear power plant workers were divided into two groups: subjects with admittance into the monitored zone, and others. Following factors were also analyzed: GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, XPD, XRCC1, hOGG1, p53, MTHFR, and MS gene polymorphisms, levels of vitamins A, C, E, and folate in plasma, and level of cotinine in urine. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in the monitored zone was 0.47 {+-} 1.50 mSv (miliSievert) in the Temelin nuclear power plant and 5.74 {+-} 9.57 mSv in the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Using the conventional cytogenetic analysis, we observed 1.90 {+-} 0.95 and 1.82 {+-} 1.19% AB.C. (percent of aberrant cells) in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.39 {+-} 1.01 and 2.33 {+-} 1.04% AB.C. in the Dukovany nuclear power plant, for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, we found 2.25 {+-} 0.82% AB.C. Genomic frequency of translocations F {sub G}/100 measured by FISH was 1.89 {+-} 1.40 and 2.01 {+-} 1.68 in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.48 {+-} 1.93 and 2.14 {+-} 1.62 in the Dukovany nuclear power plant for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, F {sub G}/100 was 1.83 {+-} 1.19. Following factors were identified as potential confounders by the conventional cytogenetic analysis: XPD-6, by the FISH: age, GSTP1 and p53Bst genotypes, long-term use

  9. Supplementary Material for: Tukey g-and-h Random Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new class of transGaussian random fields named Tukey g-and-h (TGH) random fields to model non-Gaussian spatial data. The proposed TGH random fields have extremely flexible marginal distributions, possibly skewed and/or heavy-tailed, and, therefore, have a wide range of applications. The special formulation of the TGH random field enables an automatic search for the most suitable transformation for the dataset of interest while estimating model parameters. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimator and the probabilistic properties of the TGH random fields are investigated. An efficient estimation procedure, based on maximum approximated likelihood, is proposed and an extreme spatial outlier detection algorithm is formulated. Kriging and probabilistic prediction with TGH random fields are developed along with prediction confidence intervals. The predictive performance of TGH random fields is demonstrated through extensive simulation studies and an application to a dataset of total precipitation in the south east of the United States. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  10. Investigating α-particle radiation damage in phyllosilicates using synchrotron microfocus-XRD/XAS: implications for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W. R.; Pearce, C. I.; Pimblott, S. M.; Haigh, S. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pattrick, R. A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mineral phases to the radiation fields that will be experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for nuclear waste is poorly understood. Phyllosilicates are critical phases in a GDF with bentonite clay as the backfill of choice surrounding high level wastes in the engineered barrier, and clays and micas forming the most important reactive component of potential host rocks. It is essential that we understand changes in mineral properties and behaviour as a result of damage from both α and γ radiation over long timescales. Radiation damage has been demonstrated to affect the physical integrity and oxidation state1 of minerals which will also influence their ability to react with radionuclides. Using the University of Manchester's newly commissioned particle accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, UK, model phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. biotite, chlorite) were irradiated with high energy (5MeV) alpha particles at controlled dose rates. This has been compared alongside radiation damage found in naturally formed 'radiohalos' - spherical areas of discolouration in minerals surrounding radioactive inclusions, resulting from alpha particle penetration, providing a natural analogue to study lattice damage under long term bombardment1,2. Both natural and artificially irradiated samples have been analysed using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction mapping on Beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source; samples were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder. This was combined with lattice scale imaging of damage using HR-TEM (TitanTM Transmission Electron Microscope). The results show aberrations in lattice parameters as a result of irradiation, with multiple damage-induced 'domains' surrounded by amorphous regions. In the naturally damaged samples, neo-formed phyllosilicate phases are shown to be breakdown products of highly damaged regions. A clear reduction of the Fe(III) component has been

  11. Advanced median method for timing jitter compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Zhu Jiangmiao; Jan Verspecht; Liu Mingliang; Li Yang

    2008-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the main factors that influence on the accuracy of time domain precision measurement. Timing jitter compensation is one of the problems people concern. Because of the flaws of median method, PDF deconvolution method and synthetic method, we put forward a new method for timing jitter compensation, which is called advanced median method. The theory of the advanced median method based on probability and statistics is analyzed, and the process of the advanced median method is summarized in this paper. Simulation and experiment show that compared with other methods, the new method could compensate timing jitter effectively.

  12. On the damage and fracture of nuclear graphite at multiple length-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Mingard, Ken; Lord, Oliver T.; Flewitt, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Gilsocarbon graphite, as a neutron moderator and load-bearing component in the core of the UK fleet of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors, possesses complex microstructural features including defects/pores over a range of length-scales from nanometres to millimetres in size. As a consequence, this material exhibits different characteristics when specimens of different length-scale are deformed. In this work, the deformation and fracture of this material have been characterised using in situ methods for specimens of micrometre size (meso-scale) and the results are then compared with those measured one length-scale smaller, and those at the macro-scale. At the micro-scale, sampling a volume of material (2 × 2 × 10 μm) excludes micro- and macro-size pores, the strength was measured to be as high as 1000 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 67 GPa). When the specimen size is increased by one order of magnitude to the meso-scale, the strength is reduced to about 100 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 20 GPa) due to the inclusion of micro-size pores. For larger engineering-size specimens that include millimetre-size pores, the strength of the material averages about 20 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 11 GPa). This trend in the data is discussed and considered in the context of selecting the appropriate data for relevant multi-scale modelling.

  13. Zero phase error control based on neural compensation for flight simulator servo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinkun; He Peng; Er Lianjie

    2006-01-01

    Using the future desired input value, zero phase error controller enables the overall system's frequency response exhibit zero phase shift for all frequencies and a small gain error at low frequency range, and based on this, a new algorithm is presented to design the feedforward controller. However, zero phase error controller is only suitable for certain linear system. To reduce the tracking error and improve robustness, the design of the proposed feedforward controller uses a neural compensation based on diagonal recurrent neural network. Simulation and real-time control results for flight simulator servo system show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Some effects of applied stress on early stages of cavitation damage. [test facilities for analyzing cavitation flow damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, D. J.; Hammitt, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of cavitation flow damage is discussed. The initial phases of damage and the effect of external stresses on the extent to which damage is incurred are analyzed. Three experimental facilities were used to procure the data required: (1) a water loop with venturi, (2) a mercury loop with venturi, and (3) a vibratory facility (stationary specimen, nonflow system). A description of each system is provided for the clarification of test conditions. Photographs of typical cavitation damage instances are included.

  15. 75 FR 23306 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, et al.: Supplementary Notice of Hearing and Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC, the Applicant), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia Power... 2, 2009, SNC submitted to the NRC a supplement to its COL application requesting an LWA to engage in selected construction activities as defined by 10 CFR 50.10. As described by SNC, these activities...

  16. The Study on Progression for Consolidating the Nuclear Security Legislative System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San; Jung, Myung Tak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    One is the International Convention for Suppressing Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT) and the other is amendment to the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). ICSANT and CPPNM were proposed by the UN and IAEA, respectively to strengthen the international framework of nuclear security. The ICSANT was entered into force in 2007, but CPPNM amendment is pending in force because the shortage of countries who ratify it. For going into effect this convention, it needs the two-thirds of the States Parties to the CPPNM. It is not completed, yet. So, various initiatives such as nuclear security summit, GICNT, UN ministerial conference, etc. treated that those two conventions were the primary basis to strengthen the global nuclear security architecture. The Republic of Korea (ROK) continuously has made an effort to consolidate the nuclear security legislative framework since the 2010. The purpose of this paper is to provide what we did to strengthen the nuclear security legal framework and what should we do next.

  17. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  18. Friction compensation design based on state observer and adaptive law for high-accuracy positioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Friction is one of the main factors that affect the positioning accuracy of motion system. Friction compensation based on friction model is usually adopted to eliminate the nonlinear effect of friction. This paper presents a proportional-plus-derivative (PD) feedback controller with a friction compensator based on LuGre friction model. We also design a state observer to observe the unknown state of LuGre friction model, and adopt a parameter adaptive law and off-line approximation to estimate the parameters of LuGre friction model. Comparative experiments are carried out among our proposed controller, PD controller with friction compensation based on classical friction model, and PD controller without friction compensation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed controller can achieve better performance, especially higher positioning accuracy.

  19. On Compensations for Passengers on MH370%马航MH370事件损害赔偿论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董念清

    2014-01-01

    Compensation for air crash passengers is quite complicated. So is Malaysia airlines flight MH370. Montre-al convention of 1999 is the basic law for Malaysia Airlines missing flight MH370 passengers. The convention does not specify a highest amount or limits of liability for passengers' compensation. The calculation of limitations of actions depends largely on the law of the place where a court accepts the case. Although 113100 Special Drawing Rights ( SDRS) is fixed, how much RMB it amounts to depends on the date it is converted. So it is in dynamic change. Not all passengers can get high compensation in plane crash cases. From the aviation accident compensation practices, compensation is much higher than the statutory amount. The compensation passengers get from insurance company for purchasing commercial insurance for themselves is totally different from the liability of airlines.%航空运输事故的赔偿是一件相当复杂的事情,马来西亚航空公司MH370航班的损害赔偿更是如此。解决赔偿的基本法律依据是1999年《蒙特利尔公约》,该公约对于乘客伤亡并没有规定一个最高的数额。诉讼时效的计算在很大程度上取决于受理案件的法院所在地的法律规定。113100特别提款权虽然是固定不变的,但具体换算成人民币的数额,却因换算时间的不同而处于动态变化之中。并不是所有的空难事故的案件原告得到的赔偿额都很高,实际的情况是有高有低,取决于每个案件的具体情况,从航空事故理赔实践看,实际赔偿额远远高于法定数额。乘客因自己购买商业保险所得到的赔偿与承运人对乘客应承担的赔偿责任是完全不同的事,承运人的责任不因此而免除。

  20. New York State's landmark policies on oversight and compensation for egg donation to stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxland, Beth E

    2012-05-01

    In 2009, New York became the first US state to implement a policy permitting researchers to use public funds to reimburse women who donate oocytes directly and solely to stem cell research, not only for the woman's out-of-pocket expenses, but also for the time, burden and discomfort associated with the donation process. The debate about the propriety of such compensation was recently renewed with the publication of a stem cell study in which women were provided with compensation for donating their eggs. This article explores the scientific and ethical rationales that led to New York's decision to allow donor compensation. The multifaceted deliberation process and comprehensive policies may serve as a model for other states and countries considering the issue of oocyte donor compensation.

  1. Range compensation for backscattering measurements in the difference-frequency nearfield of a parametric sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of acoustic backscattering properties of targets requires removal of the range dependence of echoes. This process is called range compensation. For conventional sonars making measurements in the transducer farfield, the compensation removes effects of geometrical spreading and absorption. For parametric sonars consisting of a parametric acoustic transmitter and a conventional-sonar receiver, two additional range dependences require compensation when making measurements in the nonlinearly generated difference-frequency nearfield: an apparently increasing source level and a changing beamwidth. General expressions are derived for range compensation functions in the difference-frequency nearfield of parametric sonars. These are evaluated numerically for a parametric sonar whose difference-frequency band, effectively 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in situ. Range compensation functions for this sonar are compared with corresponding functions for conventional sonars for the cases of single and multiple scatterers. Dependences of these range compensation functions on the parametric sonar transducer shape, size, acoustic power density, and hydrography are investigated. Parametric range compensation functions, when applied with calibration data, will enable difference-frequency echoes to be expressed in physical units of volume backscattering, and backscattering spectra, including fish-swimbladder-resonances, to be analyzed.

  2. Nonuniformity compensation for IR focal plane array sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Er, Meng H.; Gan, Yu H.; Fong, Yew C.

    1997-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that cooled and uncooled IR focal plane array sensors are progressing to a field-worthy level for commercial and defense applications. They offer higher sensitivity, amenability to signal processing and mechanical simplicity. However these sensors contain large detector-to- detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations. These variations result in a severe problem called fixed pattern noise that can mask/distort the image obtained from the sensor. The correction process is generally termed as nonuniformity compensation. Conventional two-point compensation techniques are accurate enough, but require built-in controllable temperature references along with mechanical and electro-optical shutters. Therefore this compensation technique detracts the mechanical simplicity of using IR focal plane arrays. Scene-based nonuniformity techniques dispenses with the requirement of temperature references and shutters, but are not accurate enough for certain applications. This paper discusses two-point and scene-based nonuniformity compensation algorithms and proposes an empirical formula to automatically calculate the scene constants, which is an essential step towards practical applications. This paper reports the analyzed results of testing the algorithms on a number of IR images. A practical problem of 'artifacts' which arise when using scene-based nonuniformity compensation is also discussed. A common hardware scheme to implement both the algorithms is also presented in this paper.

  3. Polarised Small Angle Neutron Scattering study of microstructural radiation damage in steels for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, R. [ENEA-Casaccia, FIS, CP 2400, 00100 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: coppolar@casaccia.enea.it; Lindau, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IMF, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Magnani, M. [ENEA-Clementel, FIS, V. Don Fiammelli 2, 40129 Bologna (Italy); May, R.P. [Institut Max Von Laue-Paul Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moeslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IMF, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Valli, M. [ENEA-Clementel, FIS, V. Don Fiammelli 2, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    Polarised SANS has been used to investigate two martensitic steels for fusion reactor technology (MANET and OPTIFER, differing in their initial Cr content), before and after neutron irradiation. The measurements were carried out at the instrument D22 of the ILL, Grenoble, using an ad hoc polarised beam set-up. The results show both the occurrence of Cr redistribution phenomena with correlated changes in the composition of the precipitate phases, and the growth of non-magnetic defects (possibly microvoids), depending on the irradiation conditions and on the original steel composition.

  4. Polarised Small Angle Neutron Scattering study of microstructural radiation damage in steels for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, R.; Lindau, R.; Magnani, M.; May, R. P.; Möslang, A.; Valli, M.

    2006-11-01

    Polarised SANS has been used to investigate two martensitic steels for fusion reactor technology (MANET and OPTIFER, differing in their initial Cr content), before and after neutron irradiation. The measurements were carried out at the instrument D22 of the ILL, Grenoble, using an ad hoc polarised beam set-up. The results show both the occurrence of Cr redistribution phenomena with correlated changes in the composition of the precipitate phases, and the growth of non-magnetic defects (possibly microvoids), depending on the irradiation conditions and on the original steel composition.

  5. The methodological convention 2,0 for the estimation of environmental costs. An economic evaluation of environmental damages; Methodenkonvention 2.0 zur Schaetzung von Umweltkosten. Oekonomische Bewertung von Umweltschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The reliable estimation of environmental damage costs requires a high degree of transparency of the objectives, assumptions and methods of assessment in order to ensure a correct classification and comparability of the cost factors. The methods convention under consideration aims to develop uniform standards for the technical evaluation of environmental costs and to improve the transparency of the estimates.

  6. Compensation for electrical converter nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2013-11-19

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy from an input interface to an output interface. An electrical system includes an input interface, an output interface, an energy conversion module between the input interface and the output interface, an inductive element between the input interface and the energy conversion module, and a control module. The control module determines a compensated duty cycle control value for operating the energy conversion module to produce a desired voltage at the output interface and operates the energy conversion module to deliver energy to the output interface with a duty cycle that is influenced by the compensated duty cycle control value. The compensated duty cycle control value is influenced by the current through the inductive element and accounts for voltage across the switching elements of the energy conversion module.

  7. Evaluation of a Nonrigid Motion Compensation Technique Based on Spatiotemporal Features for Small Lesion Detection in Breast MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbruecker

    2012-01-01

    the performance of a new nonrigid motion correction algorithm based on the optical flow method. For each of the small lesions, we extracted morphological and dynamical features describing both global and local shape, and kinetics behavior. In this paper, we compare the performance of each extracted feature set under consideration of several 2D or 3D motion compensation parameters for the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions in breast MRI. Based on several simulation results, we determined the optimal motion compensation parameters. Our results have shown that motion compensation can improve the classification results. The results suggest that the computerized analysis system based on the non-rigid motion compensation technique and spatiotemporal features has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of MRI mammography for small lesions and can be used as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer with MR mammography.

  8. Temperature variable optimization for precision machine tool thermal error compensation on optimal threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Ye, Wenhua; Liang, Ruijun; Lou, Peihuang; Yang, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    Machine tool thermal error is an important reason for poor machining accuracy. Thermal error compensation is a primary technology in accuracy control. To build thermal error model, temperature variables are needed to be divided into several groups on an appropriate threshold. Currently, group threshold value is mainly determined by researchers experience. Few studies focus on group threshold in temperature variable grouping. Since the threshold is important in error compensation, this paper arms to find out an optimal threshold to realize temperature variable optimization in thermal error modeling. Firstly, correlation coefficient is used to express membership grade of temperature variables, and the theory of fuzzy transitive closure is applied to obtain relational matrix of temperature variables. Concepts as compact degree and separable degree are introduced. Then evaluation model of temperature variable clustering is built. The optimal threshold and the best temperature variable clustering can be obtained by setting the maximum value of evaluation model as the objective. Finally, correlation coefficients between temperature variables and thermal error are calculated in order to find out optimum temperature variables for thermal error modeling. An experiment is conducted on a precise horizontal machining center. In experiment, three displacement sensors are used to measure spindle thermal error and twenty-nine temperature sensors are utilized to detect the machining center temperature. Experimental result shows that the new method of temperature variable optimization on optimal threshold successfully worked out a best threshold value interval and chose seven temperature variables from twenty-nine temperature measuring points. The model residual of z direction is within 3 μm. Obviously, the proposed new variable optimization method has simple computing process and good modeling accuracy, which is quite fit for thermal error compensation.

  9. Call for proposals - addressing the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    This treaty has set out a wide-ranging strategy to reduce environmental mercury which includes closing coal-fired power plants, alternatives to the use of fluorescent lights, and even regulating and targeted information for those who carry out artisanal gold mining.

  10. ANFIS based UPFC supplementary controller for damping low frequency oscillations in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sobha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neuro- fuzzy inference system (ANFIS based supplementary Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC to superimpose the damping function on the control signal of UPFC is proposed. By using a hybrid learning procedure, the proposed ANFIS construct an input –output mapping based on stipulated input-output data pairs. The linguistic rules, considering the dependence of the plant output on the controlling signal are used to build the initial fuzzy inference structure. On the basis of linearized Philips-Hefron model of power system installed with UPFC, the damping function of the UPFC with various alternative UPFC control signals are investigated. In the simulations under widely varying operating conditions and system parameters, ANFIS based controller yields improved performance when compared with constant gain controller, based on phase compensation technique. To validate the robustness of the proposed technique, the approach is integrated to a multi-machine power system and the nonlinear simulation results are presented

  11. NMR Study of Damage on Isolated Perfused Rat Heart Exposed to Ischemia and Hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雪春; 闫永彬; 张日清; 王小寅; 范礼理

    2001-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia is the most common and primary cause of myocardium damage. Numerous conventional techniques and methods have been developed for ischemia and reperfusion studies. However, because of damage to the heart sample, most of these techniques can not be used to continuously monitor the full dynamic course of the myocardial metabolic pathway. The nuclear magnetic resonnance (NMR) surface coil technique, which overcomes the limitations of conventional instrumentation, can be used to quantitatively study every stage of the perfused heart (especially after perfusion stoppage) continuously, dynamically, and without damage under normal or designed physiological conditions at the molecular level. In this paper, 31p-NMR was used to study the effects of ischemia and hypoxia on isolated perfused hearts. The results show that complete hypoxia caused more severe functional damage to the myocardial cells than complete ischemia.

  12. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  13. Study on the System of Death for Compensation%死亡赔偿金制度问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文丽

    2015-01-01

    As an important means of relief in Tort Liability Act,the system of death for compensation plays an active role in the remedy for the right to life and protection of human rights.At present,China's system of death compensation faces several problems:calculation method of death compensation is miss-ing,unified standard is difficult to apply,and body of death compensation claims and the rule of mental damages are rough.Therefore,it should be clear that the nature of the death penalty,establishing a reasona-ble calculation standard of death compensation,and perfecting the body of claims of death compensation.%作为《侵权责任法》中一种重要的救济途径,死亡赔偿金制度在生命权救济和人权保障方面发挥着积极作用。目前,我国的死亡赔偿金制度面临死亡赔偿金计算方法缺失、统一死亡赔偿金标准难以适用、死亡赔偿金请求权主体和精神损害赔偿规则粗糙等问题。因此,应明确死亡赔偿金的性质,合理制定死亡赔偿金的计算标准,完善死亡赔偿金的请求权主体。

  14. Compensating for the influence of the angular detuning of signal and reference beams on photocurrent in optical heterodyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramian, A.S.; Kazarian, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental possibility of compensating for the influence on photocurrent of the angular detuning between the plane fronts of signal and reference beams during optical mixing on the surface of a planar photodetector is demonstrated. Compensation is provided by rotating the plane of the detector relative to the incident emission; this rotation occurs in the plane of incidence of both beams, while the beams themselves remain stationary (detuned).

  15. Pressure-dependent fragilities for piping components: Pilot study on Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, D.A.; Nakaki, D.K.; Hadidi-Tamjed, H. (ABB Impell Corp., Mission Viejo, CA (USA)); Kipp, T.R. (EQE, Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The capacities of four, low-pressure fluid systems to withstand pressures and temperatures above the design levels were established for the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. The results will be used in evaluating the probability of plant damage from Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accidents (ISLOCA) as part of the probabilistic risk assessment of the Davis-Besse nuclear power station undertaken by EG G Idaho, Inc. Included in this evaluation are the tanks, heat exchangers, filters, pumps, valves, and flanged connections for each system. The probabilities of failure, as a function of internal pressure, are evaluated as well as the variabilities associated with them. Leak rates or leak areas are estimated for the controlling modes of failure. The pressure capacities for the pipes and vessels are evaluated using limit-state analyses for the various failure modes considered. The capacities are dependent on several factors, including the material properties, modeling assumptions, and the postulated failure criteria. The failure modes for gasketed-flange connections, valves, and pumps do not lend themselves to evaluation by conventional structural mechanics techniques and evaluation must rely primarily on the results from ongoing gasket research test programs and available vendor information and test data. 21 refs., 7 figs., 52 tabs.

  16. The effects of a web-based supplementary program for facilitating nursing students' basic nursing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Cheng, Hsiu-Rong; Yang, Ya-Shu; Fang, Miao-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an asynchronous Web-based supplementary learning program on the performance of nursing students' basic nursing skills. A posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Students in the intervention group (n = 62) were given login information to access the online program, while the control group (n = 99) was not. Data from both groups were collected before and 4 weeks after the intervention. An objective assessment of basic nursing skills was used to evaluate the level of skill demonstrated by the participants. Results indicate that the Web-based supplementary learning program is effective at strengthening students' basic nursing skills (P = .002). The findings also reveal that students in the intervention group showed higher-than-average satisfaction with the supplementary program (mean, 3.80 [SD, 0.81]). Thus, this Web-based program offers a learning opportunity for nursing students to enhance their skills beyond their formal lectures.

  17. Promising Strategies for Increasing Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Despite rising demand for high-quality child care, the norm for early childhood staff is low salaries, few benefits, and difficult working conditions. This article provides an overview of compensation of early childhood professionals, and describes some state and local initiatives that address the need for funding and policies that support a…

  18. A compensation index for multiattribute decision strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koele, P; Westenberg, M R

    1995-09-01

    In multiattribute decision problems, the subject has to evaluate a number of alternatives with given values on a number of attributes, in order to arrive at some conclusion about the attractiveness or utility of these alternatives. The information processing procedure leading to a conclusion is called adecision strategy, and one of the main research topics in multiattribute decision research has been the extent to which these strategies follow compensatory principles. Judges are said to follow compensatory strategies when low values on some attributes are compensated for by high values on other attributes. In process tracing studies using the information board technique, descriptions of decision strategies are usually based on three indices of the information search process:variability of search,search pattern (Payne, 1976), anddepth of search. Variability of search, defined as the standard deviation of the proportion of information searched per alternative, is considered to give an indication of the degree of compensation of a decision strategy, compensation being smaller as variability increases. In this article, we propose an alternative way for establishing the degree of compensation of decision strategies in information board studies. We argue that the degree of compensation depends on both variability of searchand depth of search (the proportion of information searched), and that a valid compensation index has to be a multiplicative function of these two indices.

  19. Supplementary contribution payable to the Health Insurance Scheme for spouses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in their spouse or registered partner’s income or health insurance cover, must be reported to CERN in writing within 30 calendar days, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Such changes may affect the conditions of the spouse or registered partner’s membership of the CHIS or the payment of the supplementary contribution to it for the spouse or registered partner’s insurance cover. For more information see: http://cern.ch/chis/contribsupp.asp From 1.1.2008, the indexed amounts of the supplementary monthly contribution for the different monthly income brackets are as follows, expressed in Swiss francs: more than 2500 CHF and up to 4250 CHF: 134.- more than 4250 CHF and up to 7500 CHF: 234.- more than 7500 CHF and up to 10,000 CHF: 369.- more than 10,000 CHF: 470.- It is in the member of the ...

  20. An on-chip temperature compensation circuit for an InGaP/GaAs HBT RF power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengzhan, Li; Zhijian, Chen; Jiwei, Huang; Yongping, Wang; Chuanhui, Ma; Hanbing, Yang; Yinghao, Liao; Yong, Zhou; Bin, Liu

    2011-03-01

    A new on-chip temperature compensation circuit for a GaAs-based HBT RF amplifier applied to wireless communication is presented. The simple compensation circuit is composed of one GaAs HBT and five resistors with various values, which allow the power amplifier to achieve better thermal characteristics with a little degradation in performance. It effectively compensates for the temperature variation of the gain and the output power of the power amplifier by regulating the base quiescent bias current. The temperature compensation circuit is applied to a 3-stage integrated power amplifier for wireless communication applications, which results in an improvement in the gain variation from 4.0 to 1.1 dB in the temperature range between -20 and +80 °C.

  1. An on-chip temperature compensation circuit for an InGaP/GaAs HBT RF power amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chengzhan; Chen Zhijian; Huang Jiwei; Wang Yongping; Ma Chuanhui; Yang Hanbing; Liao Yinghao; Zhou Yong; Liu Bin, E-mail: lichzh@runxinic.com [Guangzhou Runxin Information Technology Co., Ltd, Guangzhou 510663 (China)

    2011-03-15

    A new on-chip temperature compensation circuit for a GaAs-based HBT RF amplifier applied to wireless communication is presented. The simple compensation circuit is composed of one GaAs HBT and five resistors with various values, which allow the power amplifier to achieve better thermal characteristics with a little degradation in performance. It effectively compensates for the temperature variation of the gain and the output power of the power amplifier by regulating the base quiescent bias current. The temperature compensation circuit is applied to a 3-stage integrated power amplifier for wireless communication applications, which results in an improvement in the gain variation from 4.0 to 1.1 dB in the temperature range between -20 and +80 {sup 0}C. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. An on-chip temperature compensation circuit for an InGaP/GaAs HBT RF power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chengzhan; Chen Zhijian; Huang Jiwei; Wang Yongping; Ma Chuanhui; Yang Hanbing; Liao Yinghao; Zhou Yong; Liu Bin

    2011-01-01

    A new on-chip temperature compensation circuit for a GaAs-based HBT RF amplifier applied to wireless communication is presented.The simple compensation circuit is composed of one GaAs HBT and five resistors with various values,which allow the power amplifier to achieve better thermal characteristics with a little degradation in performance.It effectively compensates for the temperature variation of the gain and the output power of the power amplifier by regulating the base quiescent bias current.The temperature compensation circuit is applied to a 3-stage integrated power amplifier for wireless communication applications,which results in an improvement in the gain variation from 4.0 to 1.1 dB in the temperature range between -20 and +80 ℃.

  3. Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. Digging supplementary buried channels: investigating the notch architecture within the CCD pixels on ESA's Gaia satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Murray, N J; Crowley, C; Hopkinson, G; Brown, A G A; Kohley, R; Holland, A

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Gaia satellite has 106 CCD image sensors which will suffer from increased charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) as a result of radiation damage. To aid the mitigation at low signal levels, the CCD design includes Supplementary Buried Channels (SBCs, otherwise known as `notches') within each CCD column. We present the largest published sample of Gaia CCD SBC Full Well Capacity (FWC) laboratory measurements and simulations based on 13 devices. We find that Gaia CCDs manufactured post-2004 have SBCs with FWCs in the upper half of each CCD that are systematically smaller by two orders of magnitude (<50 electrons) compared to those manufactured pre-2004 (thousands of electrons). Gaia's faint star (13 < G < 20 mag) astrometric performance predictions by Prod'homme et al. and Holl et al. use pre-2004 SBC FWCs as inputs to their simulations. However, all the CCDs already integrated onto the satellite for the 2013 launch are post-2004. SBC FWC measurements are not available for on...

  5. Damping effects of Supplementary Control Signals for Enhancement of Transient Stability in AC-DC Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Vani M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the impact of HVDC on Power System Stability and proposes a novel controlmechanism to augment the system angle stability. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by asingle machine-infinite bus system example. The performance of this controller, in comparison to the conventionalP and P-I controllers, is found to be very effective as a supplementary PID controller in damping generator rotoroscillations. The supplementary controls using signals derived from the AC systems to modulate the DC quantitiesis presented in this paper.

  6. Convention on the rights of people with disabilities: highlights for a debate on brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Moreno Caiado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to discuss the inclusive education in Brazil through the Convention for the protection of the rights of people with disabilities. In June of 2008, the Brazilian Congress ratified the Convention for the protection of the rights of people with disabilities, which had been adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN, 2006. When ratifying an international convention, the Congress confirms the State’s compromise before the international community to respect, obey and implement the obligations contained in such document. In this sense, after the ratification and the enactment of the Decree 186 of 2008, the convention’s text was incorporated to the Brazilian legislation with the same status of a constitutional amendment, which means that all infra legislation should be in conformity with the convention under risk of annulment on the basis of unconstitutionality. The present study analyzes some of the topics of the convention through the perspective of the Brazilian reality. These topics are: the definition of disability and of people with disability; accessibility, the relation between disability and poverty and the roll of the State to guarantee the right to education of people with disabilities.

  7. Supplementary Appendix for: Constrained Perturbation Regularization Approach for Signal Estimation Using Random Matrix Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this supplementary appendix we provide proofs and additional simulation results that complement the paper (constrained perturbation regularization approach for signal estimation using random matrix theory).

  8. Improving Early Reading Skills for Beginning Readers Using an Online Programme as Supplementary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Emily Jehanne; Hughes, John Carl; Beverley, Michael; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Many children fail to acquire basic reading skills. The current evidence base for supplementary reading instruction indicates that explicit, systematic and intensive instruction in the early years for children considered to be "at-risk" of reading difficulties can have significant and preventative effects on reading skills. However,…

  9. Improving Early Reading Skills for Beginning Readers Using an Online Programme as Supplementary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Emily Jehanne; Hughes, John Carl; Beverley, Michael; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Many children fail to acquire basic reading skills. The current evidence base for supplementary reading instruction indicates that explicit, systematic and intensive instruction in the early years for children considered to be "at-risk" of reading difficulties can have significant and preventative effects on reading skills. However,…

  10. Aberration influence and active compensation on laser mode properties for asymmetric folded resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Wentao; Su, Likun

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the influence on mode features with introducing typical intracavity perturbation and results of aberrated wavefront compensation in a folded-type unstable resonator used in high energy lasers. The mode properties and aberration coefficient with intracavity misalignment are achieved by iterative calculation and Zernike polynomial fitting. Experimental results for the relation of intracavity maladjustment and mode characteristics are further obtained in terms of S-H detection and model wavefront reconstruction. It indicates that intracavity phase perturbation has significant influence on out coupling beam properties, and the uniform and symmetry of the mode is rapidly disrupted even by a slight misalignment of the resonator mirrors. Meanwhile, the far-field beam patterns will obviously degrade with increasing the distance between the convex mirror and the phase perturbation position even if the equivalent disturbation is inputted into such the resonator. The closed-loop device for compensating intracavity low order aberration is successfully fabricated. Moreover, Zernike defocus aberration is also effectively controlled by precisely adjusting resonator length, and the beam quality is noticeably improved.

  11. Damage assessment of nuclear containment against aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Mohd Ashraf, E-mail: iqbal_ashraf@rediffmail.com; Sadique, Md. Rehan, E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Bhargava, Pradeep, E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ac.in; Bhandari, N.M., E-mail: nmbcefce@iitr.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation.

  12. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on EUROMET comparison EUROMET.PR-S2 (Project No. 156): Responsivity of detectors for radiant power of lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kück, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The EUROMET.PR-S2 intercomparison of Radiant Power of High Power Lasers for five measurands was carried as a combined round-robin/star type comparison. In total nine participants took part, five from Europe (national metrology institutes of France, Germany (pilot), Great Britain, Romania, Sweden) and four outside Europe (national metrology institutes of Australia, Japan, South Africa and The United States of America). Therefore, this comparison can be considered as a worldwide one. The measurements took place from January 2005 to September 2007. All participants supplied detailed reports of their measurements including full uncertainty statements. All measurement results reported by the participants were used for the intercomparison and no measurement was subject to rejection. The analysis method introduced in section 6 follows the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation and has been accepted by all participants. For the calculation of the supplementary key comparison reference value no participant had to be excluded and the weighted mean with cut-off used here has been supported by all participants. The unilateral degrees of equivalence (DoE) calculated for each participant are approximately 63% consistent with their uncertainties at the k = 2 level and approximately 81% consistent within k = 3. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  13. An improved gravity compensation method for high-precision free-INS based on MEC-BP-AdaBoost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, with the rapid improvement of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes), gravity compensation has become more important for improving navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper proposes a mind evolutionary computation (MEC) back propagation (BP) AdaBoost algorithm neural-network-based gravity compensation method that estimates the gravity disturbance on the track based on measured gravity data. A MEC-BP-AdaBoost network-based gravity compensation algorithm used in the training process to establish the prediction model takes the carrier position (longitude and latitude) provided by INS as the input data and the gravity disturbance as the output data, and then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the INS’s error equations to restrain the position error propagation. The MEC-BP-AdaBoost algorithm can not only effectively avoid BP neural networks being trapped in local extrema, but also perfectly solve the nonlinearity between the input and output data that cannot be solved by traditional interpolation methods, such as least-square collocation (LSC) interpolation. The accuracy and feasibility of the proposed interpolation method are verified through numerical tests. A comparison of several other compensation methods applied in field experiments, including LSC interpolation and traditional BP interpolation, highlights the superior performance of the proposed method. The field experiment results show that the maximum value of the position error can reduce by 28% with the proposed gravity compensation method.

  14. SUPPLEMENTARY VALUE OF TEPHROSIA BRACTEOLATA, TEPHROSIA CANDIDA, LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA AND GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM HAY FOR WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOATS KEPT ON RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob BABAYEMI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplementary values of unconventional browse Tephrosia bracteolata (TB and Tephrosia candida (TC and commonly utilized browse plants Gliricidia sepium (GS and Leucaena leucocephala (LL were studied in goats grazed on a rangeland in the dry season. Crude protein (g/Kg DM content of TC (19.25 compared favourably to those of GS (19.78 and that of LL (19.91 while that of TB was low (14.25. Total cell wall content, neutral detergent fi bre (NDF, g/Kg DM was lower in both TB (56.03 and TC (59.11 than in GS (61.20 and LL (37.50. Dry matter intake (g/d of TB (87.39 was signifi cantly higher than that of TC (76.49 while similar values were recorded in GS (63.81 and LL (63.31. Improved daily weight gain (g/d of 14.88, 17.86, 14.88 and 17.86 were obtained when goats were fed TB, TC, GS and LL browse supplements responsively compared to the daily gain of 11.90 from the unsuplemented goats. The digestibility of CP, NDF and ADF in both TB and TC compared favourably to those of GS and LL. The fi ndings from this study have shown that Tephrosia bracteolata and Tephrosia candida can be used as alternative browse supplement for goats grazing on natural grassland in the dry season to achieve improved weight gain. This will translate to a reduction in the pressure on the commonly use browse like Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala.

  15. Final report on APMP supplementary comparison of industrial platinum resistance thermometer for range -50 °C to 400 °C. (APMP.T-S6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurulaini Md; Othman, Hafidzah; Ho, Mong-Kim; Yang, Inseok; Gabi, Victor; Zhang, Zhe; Sheng, Ying; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Jintao; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Liao, Su-Chuion; Shafiqul Alam, Md; Norranim, Uthai; Yaokulbodee, Charuayrat; Liedberg, Hans; Gamal Ahmed, Mohamed; Harba, Naser; Fuad Flaifel, Mustafa; Suherlan; Achmadi, Aditya; Haoyuan, Kho; Yan, Fan; Boon Kwee, Neoh; Thanh Binh, Pham; Ragay, Monalisa

    2017-01-01

    The National Metrology Laboratory, Malaysia (NML-SIRIM) had coordinated the Supplementary Comparison of Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometer (IPRT) started from July 2009 until April 2011 together with the National Measurement Institute of Australia (NMIA) and Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). This comparison was opened to all APMP members and 16 participants had taken part in order to consolidate or improve their calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs). Three units of artefacts 100-ohm IPRT belonging to NML-SIRIM, NMIA and KRISS were used and three loops of measurement were run in parallel to shorten the circulation time. The stability of artefacts was monitored with initial and final ice point measurement by each laboratory. The participants need to perform measurement at temperature points (0,-50,-30, 0, 100, 200, 300, 400,0) °C. All submitted data were compiled and adjusted at nominal temperature and by using the linkage from NMIA and KRISS as reference value for all three loops , the temperature deviation from participants from different loops can be compared. The approach of Birge Ratio for final exclusion comprised all the excluded results from the analysis of each loop and the measurement performance for each participant were summarized by the En number value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Statutory Compensation for the Wrongly Imprisoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the unique challenges faced by men and women who have been wrongly convicted, imprisoned, and subsequently exonerated, and discusses the relevance of social work to exoneration. The ways in which exonerees can seek compensation are described, and state compensation statutes are examined, delineating monetary and reentry support provisions. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have compensation statutes. Monetary and reentry support provisions vary greatly by state, with few providing both. The wrongly imprisoned experience the same effects of incarceration as other prisoners; their psychological trauma, however, is exacerbated by the fact that they are innocent. Furthermore, upon release, exonerees have fewer reentry supports available to them compared with prisoners released on parole. This article supports the position that the state has a responsibility to provide adequate compensation, monetarily and servicewise, to the wrongly imprisoned, and that compensation by statutory means should be standard in every state. This article also highlights how social workers are uniquely qualified to provide immediate and long-term social and mental health services to exonerees, as well as to advocate for comprehensive exoneree compensation through state statutes.

  17. Practical compensation for nonlinear dynamic thrust measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The real dynamic thrust measurement system usually tends to be nonlinear due to the complex characteristics of the rig, pipes connection, etc. For a real dynamic measuring system, the nonlinearity must be eliminated by some adequate methods. In this paper, a nonlinear model of dynamic thrust measurement system is established by using radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN, where a novel multi-step force generator is designed to stimulate the nonlinearity of the system, and a practical compensation method for the measurement system using left inverse model is proposed. Left inverse model can be considered as a perfect dynamic compensation of the dynamic thrust measurement system, and in practice, it can be approximated by RBF-NN based on least mean square (LMS algorithms. Different weights are set for producing the multi-step force, which is the ideal input signal of the nonlinear dynamic thrust measurement system. The validity of the compensation method depends on the engine’s performance and the tolerance error 0.5%, which is commonly demanded in engineering. Results from simulations and experiments show that the practical compensation using left inverse model based on RBF-NN in dynamic thrust measuring system can yield high tracking accuracy than the conventional methods.

  18. A method for aircraft magnetic interference compensation based on small signal model and LMS algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jianjun; Lin Chunsheng; Chen Hao

    2014-01-01

    Aeromagnetic interference could not be compensated effectively if the precision of parameters which are solved by the aircraft magnetic field model is low. In order to improve the compensation effect under this condition, a method based on small signal model and least mean square (LMS) algorithm is proposed. According to the method, the initial values of adaptive filter’s weight vector are calculated with the solved model parameters through small signal model at first, then the small amount of direction cosine and its derivative are set as the input of the filter, and the small amount of the interference is set as the filter’s expected vector. After that, the aircraft mag-netic interference is compensated by LMS algorithm. Finally, the method is verified by simulation and experiment. The result shows that the compensation effect can be improved obviously by the LMS algorithm when original solved parameters have low precision. The method can further improve the compensation effect even if the solved parameters have high precision.

  19. Comparison between 3D conventional techniques, field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation for mantle fields planning; Comparacao entre tecnica 3D convencional, field-in-field e compensacao eletronica para planejamento de manto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Lais P.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Trindade, Cassia; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: pm.lais@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    External radiotherapy treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma over diaphragm region requires large radiation fields with protections applied to larynx, humerus head and lungs. The size and shape of the field, which covers different depths, make it difficult to distribute a homogeneous dose. Techniques such as field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation may be used to make dose homogeneous and compensate the obliquity from the tissue. Three types of planning were performed for diagnose of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma: one plan with two fields, AP-PA (AP plan), another with four fields field-in- field (FF plan), and a third one with two fields and electronic tissue compensation (ETC plan). Results showed better gradient, cover of PTV and dose distribution for the ETC plan, besides the advantage from this technique of does not require protection blocks. In the meanwhile, AP and FF plans require simpler dosimetry and fewer MU. Related to the uniformity of dose distribution, AP plan showed hot areas in the neck region, FF plan showed hot areas in the shoulder region and ETC plan showed most uniform distribution without hot areas. The electronic tissue compensation is a useful tool for large and shaped fields as the mantle field, however higher MU and complex dosimetry should be taken in account. (author)

  20. Fatigue damage of nuclear facilities; Endommagement par fatigue des installations nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The conference on the fatigue damage of nuclear facilities, organized by the SFEN (french society of nuclear energy), took place at Paris the 23. of november 2000. Eleven papers were presented, showing the state of the art and the research programs in the domain of the sizing rules, safety, installations damage, examination and maintenance. (A.L.B.)

  1. RESEARCH ON THE DYNAMIC PROPERTY OF PIEZOELECTRIC MICRO DISPLACEMENT ACTUATOR FOR BORING ERROR COMPENSATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic property of piezoelectric micro displacement actuator (PMDA) is analyzed, especially the mechanical characteristic, lag phase property and hysteresis phenomenon. The influence factors of static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and the lag phase property are analyzed systematically. Three main influence factors of lag phase property are discovered. With comparison to mechanical Coulomb friction, a generalized model of nonlinear hysteresis of PMDA is advanced, based on the essential analysis of nonlinear phenomenon. Finally the application of PMDA in error compensation control system of boring is introduced. A good compensation result is achieved.

  2. On the feedback error compensation for adaptive modulation and coding scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong

    2011-11-25

    In this paper, we consider the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of perfect feedback channels. We quantify the performance of two joint AMDC schemes in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of combined paths, and the average bit error rate. The benefit of feedback error compensation with adaptive combining is also quantified. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Clinical research on abdominal acupuncture plus conventional acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Chang-rong; Fan, Li; Fu, Wen-bin

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To probe the therapeutic effect of abdominal acupuncture plus conventional acupuncture on knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: PEMS3.1 software was used. The 105 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly divided into an abdominal acupuncture group, a conventional acupuncture group...... and a combined group (abdominal acupuncture plus conventional acupuncture). For the abdominal acupuncture group, the abdominal acupuncture was performed at Zhongwan (CV 12), Guanyuan (CV 4), Wailing (ST 26), Daheng (SP 15), Lower Rheumatism point and Qipang with needles retained for 30 minutes....... For the conventional acupuncture group, the acupuncture was practiced at Neixiyan (EX-LE4) and Dubi (ST 35) of the affected limb, Yanglingquan (GB 34), Liangqiu (ST 34), Xuehai (SP 10) and Xiyangguan (GB 33). For the combined group, both methods were applied. Treatment was given once a day, 6 times a week, for 4 weeks...

  4. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  5. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modul...

  6. Design and Implementation of the Motion Compensation Module for HDTV Video Decoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a new solution for motion compensation module in the high definition television (HDTV) video decoder. The overall architecture and the design of the major functional units, such as the motion vector decoder, the predictor , and the mixer, were discussed. Based on the exploitation of the special characteristics inherent in the motion compensation algorithm, the motion compensation module and its functional units adopt various novel architectures in order to allow the module to meet real-time constraints. This solution resolves the problem of high hardware costs, low bus efficiency and complex control schemes in conventional designs.

  7. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  8. Method for Analysis of an Offshore Heave Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwi-Nam Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A heave compensation system consists of a drill string compensator (DSC and an active heave compensator (AHC cylinder, which together produce control force over an oil pressure system suitable for transmission of considerable power and compensating for heaving motion of the hull during drilling work. In this study, a heave compensator of an oil pressure system was simulated to draw a conclusion, which was verified by comparison with the result of a test conducted using an actual miniature model. The compensation rate was 95%, based on which the dynamic behaviors of an actual-size heave compensator were presumed. Furthermore, the speed of each cylinder and the acceleration of heave can be determined and used to fabricate an actual-size heave compensator.

  9. Supplementary Education as a Resource for Economic Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, M. K.; Kliucharev, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary professional education in Russia has grown rapidly, offering training not provided by the state. Further development will require more coordination with both private and state educational institutions, as well as with national and regional educational policies.

  10. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the pyrolysis kinetics of moso bamboo has been conducted in a conventional thermogravimetric analyzer and a microwave thermogravimetric analyzer respectively. The effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The results showed that both the maximum and average reaction rates increased with the heating rate increasing. The values of activation energy increased from 58.30 to 84.22 kJ/mol with the heating rate decreasing from 135 to 60 °C/min during conventional pyrolysis. The value of activation energy was 24.5 kJ/mol for microwave pyrolysis, much lower than that for conventional pyrolysis at a similar heating rate of 160 °C/min. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo exhibited a kinetic compensation effect. The low activation energy obtained under microwave irradiation suggests that microwaves heating would be a promising method for biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bringing the UN Convention on Rights for Persons with Disabilities to Life in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an account of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It describes why the Convention is important in asserting and safeguarding the rights of persons with disabilities and outlines its core values. It explores the nature of rights in the Convention with an account of the Convention as a blueprint for…

  12. Bringing the UN Convention on Rights for Persons with Disabilities to Life in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an account of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It describes why the Convention is important in asserting and safeguarding the rights of persons with disabilities and outlines its core values. It explores the nature of rights in the Convention with an account of the Convention as a blueprint for…

  13. Fixed Pattern Noise Compensation Techniques For Staring Infrared Focal Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrison, C. L.; Foss, N. A.

    1980-10-01

    To utilize the full performance advantages of staring infrared imaging systems currently under development, it is necessary to compensate for the characteristic fixed pattern "noise" which is present at the output from these infrared focal planes. Since many of the applications for staring sensor systems require low power dissipation configurations, it is necessary to develop automatic nonuniformity compensation electronics which have much lower power dissipation requirements than conventional digital compensation techniques. This paper discusses the sources of the nonuniformities and describes the typical characteristics of elevated temperature staring arrays. An analysis is given which shows how detector/charge-coupled device electrical coupling techniques strongly influence the compensation implementation, and finally a review of circuit configurations for the compensation function will be given which shows that very low power dissipation circuitry can be developed which meets the performance power dissipation requirements.

  14. Bill project authorizing the approval of the amendment to the Convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials; Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'amendement a la convention sur la protection physique des matieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juppe, Alain [Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres et Europeennes, 37 Quai d' Orsay, 75007 Paris (France); Fillon, Francois [Premier ministre, Hotel de Matignon, 57, rue de Varenne, 75700 Paris (France)

    2011-12-01

    This document deals with the amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials which has been adopted in July 2005. This amendment notably extended the Convention's scope, objectives, relation with other international instruments and content (regarding cooperation, sanctions, and so on). After the text of this amendment, this document contains the bill project which reports an impact study (estimated economic, financial, environmental, and legal consequences of the amendment implementation), comments the penal and criminal cooperation defined in the Convention. A table indicates the impact of the amendment's articles on the French law

  15. 38 CFR 4.16 - Total disability ratings for compensation based on unemployability of the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to meet the percentage standards set forth in paragraph (a) of this section. The rating board will... disabilities, there shall be at least one disability ratable at 40 percent or more, and sufficient additional... boards should submit to the Director, Compensation and Pension Service, for extra-schedular...

  16. Adjustable broaching tool for tolerance compensation in precision manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Emil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current manufacturing of precision tools for machining typically requires processes such as grinding, EDM or laser processing in order to comply with high requirements on tolerances. However even tools manufactured by these processes come short, when a new batch of workpieces are supplied, and their tolerances are not compliant. This approach presents a precision broaching tool for adjusting the inner diameter of an external broach. The tool compensates for the manufacturing tolerance chain of tool and workpieces by up to 37 μm. The approach is based on conventional shrink fitting of cold forging tools. A numerical and analytical model of the compression is compared with experimental results.

  17. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  18. Spillover effects of supplementary on basic health insurance: Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-F. Roos (Anne-Fleur); F.T. Schut (Erik)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLike many other countries, the Netherlands has a health insurance system that combines mandatory basic insurance with voluntary supplementary insurance. Both types of insurance are founded on different principles. Since basic and supplementary insurance are sold by the same health

  19. Conventional and Unconventional Pairing and Condensates in Dilute Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, John W; Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Khodel, Victor A; Shaginyan, Vasily R; Zverev, Mikhail V

    2016-01-01

    This contribution will survey recent progress toward an understanding of diverse pairing phenomena in dilute nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry, with results of potential relevance to supernova envelopes and proto-neutron stars. Application of {\\it ab initio} many-body techniques has revealed a rich array of temperature-density phase diagrams, indexed by isospin asymmetry, which feature both conventional and unconventional superfluid phases. At low density there exist a homogeneous translationally invariant BCS phase, a homogeneous LOFF phase violating translational invariance, and an inhomogeneous translationally invariant phase-separated BCS phase. The transition from the BCS to the BEC phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from weak to strong coupling, of the pairing gap, condensate wave function, and quasiparticle occupation numbers and spectra. Additionally, a schematic formal analysis of pairing in neutron matter at low to moderate densities is presented that establishes...

  20. New legislation on civil liability for nuclear facilities; Nueva legislacion sobre responsabilidad civil en instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The criteria followed by the new regulation is to both qualitatively and quantitatively broaden the liability of a nuclear power plant operator. This increase, in both senses, goes above and beyond what the traditional insurance market is technically in a position to handle. This has resulted in the need for public funds to cover what the insurance companies cannot. Enforcement of the requirements of the new regulation has been postponed because most of the signatory countries have not ratified the 2004 Protocol to the Paris convention. At this time it is difficult to say when this will take place. (Author)

  1. Adaptive actuator failure compensation control based on MMST grouping for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with guaranteed transient performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Jie; Qiu, Xiang-Wei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Chun-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive compensation control approach for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with actuator failures. In order to enlarge the set of compensable actuator failures, an actuators grouping scheme based on multiple model switching and tuning (MMST) is proposed for the nonlinear MIMO minimum-phase systems with multiple actuator failures. Then, an adaptive compensation scheme based on prescribed performance bound (PPB) which characterises the convergence rate and maximum overshoot of the tracking error is designed for the systems to ensure closed-loop signal boundedness and asymptotic output tracking despite unknown actuator failures. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the control design.

  2. Automatic Transaction Compensation for Reliable Grid Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Long Tang; Ming-Lu Li; Joshua Zhexue Huang

    2006-01-01

    As grid technology is expanding from scientific computing to business applications, service oriented grid computing is aimed at providing reliable services for users and hiding complexity of service processes from them. The grid services for coordinating long-lived transactions that occur in business applications play an important role in reliable grid applications. In this paper, the grid transaction service (GridTS) is proposed for dealing with long-lived business transactions. We present a compensation-based long-lived transaction coordination algorithm that enables users to select results from committed sub-transactions. Unlike other long-lived transaction models that require application programmers to develop corresponding compensating transactions, GridTS can automatically generate compensating transactions on execution of a long-lived grid transaction. The simulation result has demonstrated the feasibility of GridTS and effectiveness of the corresponding algorithm.

  3. LNL irradiation facilities for radiation damage studies on electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Giubilato, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Pantano, D.; Silvestrin, L.; Tessaro, M.; Wyss, J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we will review the wide range of irradiation facilities installed at the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and routinely used for radiation damage studies on silicon detectors, electronic components and systems. The SIRAD irradiation facility, dedicated to Single Event Effect (SEE) and bulk damage studies, is installed at the 14MV Tandem XTU accelerator and can deliver ion beams from H up to Au in the energy range from 28MeV to 300MeV. An Ion Electron Emission Microscope, also installed at SIRAD, allows SEE testing with micrometric sensitivity. For total dose tests, two facilities are presently available: an X-rays source and a 60Co γ -ray source. The 7MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator provides 1H beams in the energy range 2-7MeV and currents up to few μA for both total dose and bulk damage studies. At this facility, very high dose rates (up to ˜ 100 krad/s (SiO2)) can be achieved. Finally, also neutron beams are available, produced at the CN accelerator, by the reaction d + Be ⇒ n + B.

  4. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ON EVOLUTION PROCESS FOR DAMAGE MICROCRACK HEALING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Peizhen; Li Zhonghua; Sun Jun

    2000-01-01

    Based on the thermal kinetic and mass conservation, a series of controlling equations for the finite element are derived and related programs are developed to simulate the damage microcrack healing process controlled by surface diffusion. Two kinds of typical models for microcrack splitting are proposed, i.e., the grain boundary energy existing on the crack surface and residual stresses applying on the crack surface. And the conditions of microcrack splitting in the two models are given as a function of the microcrack aspect ratio. The microcrack with traction-free surfaces will directly evolve into a spheroid.

  5. Incomplete and imperfect information for sales compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Valeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales force compensation represents the fix and / or variable payment by the company. To compensate agents based on the results, the company set a goal which is brought to their attention through the compensation plan. Applying the model of moral hazard, where the agent behavior cannot be verified, it cannot be specified in the contract what is the expected behavior of the agent. In order to make an offer to contract principal should know the effort that the agent will submit it to define the payment and the contract is determined optimally in trade between the two conflicting objectives of the two participants in the contract. Although agent behavior cannot be verified, the result of this behavior should be measurable at the end of the contract so that the employer may make the contract contingent on effort commission agent for sale of which is measured by the amount of earnings to the company.

  6. Proposition of law relative to the admission and compensation of victims of nuclear tests or accidents; Proposition de Loi relative a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des victimes des essais ou accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The present proposition of law has for object to come up to the expectations of persons having participated to nuclear weapons test made by France between the 13. february 1960 and the 27 january 1996, in Sahara or French polynesia. The consequences on health can not be ignored even after several decades of years. Decades of veterans have for several years, have got involve in justice procedures to be entitled to obtain compensation in damage repair they assign to the nuclear tests. Some courts of justice have, for years, recognized the legitimacy of these claims and the judgements cite irradiation consequences able to be revealed late even several decades after the radiation exposure. Other states have adopted laws of compensation for the victims of their populations, civil or military ones. In addition, the Chernobylsk accident released in atmospheres important quantities of radioactive products. populations have been contaminated and must be also in account. That is why this proposition of law comes today to be adopted. (N.C.)

  7. New Perspectives on Compensation Strategies for the Out-of-School Time Workforce. Working Paper Series. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gwen; Harvey, Brooke

    Noting that the quality, continuity, and stability of out-of-school time programs depend, in part, on the presence of a well-trained and fairly compensated staff, this paper examines the unique characteristics of the out-of-school time workforce that contribute to inadequate compensation and explores workforce compensation from an economic…

  8. Nanosecond pulsed electric field induced cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and telomere damage adversely impact cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, M; Fox, P; Buescher, S; Kolb, J

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) on three human cell lines and demonstrated cell shrinkage, breakdown of the cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and chromosomal telomere damage. There was a differential response between cell types coinciding with cell survival. Jurkat cells showed cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and telomere damage that severely impacted cell survival compared to two adherent cell lines. Interestingly, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in adherent cells prior to nsPEF exposure significantly reduced cell survival. We conclude that nsPEF applications are able to induce damage to the cytoskeleton and nuclear membrane. Telomere sequences, regions that tether and stabilize DNA to the nuclear membrane, are severely compromised as measured by a pan-telomere probe. Internal pore formation following nsPEF applications has been described as a factor in induced cell death. Here we suggest that nsPEF induced physical changes to the cell in addition to pore formation need to be considered as an alternative method of cell death. We suggest nsPEF electrochemical induced depolymerization of actin filaments may account for cytoskeleton and nuclear membrane anomalies leading to sensitization.

  9. Design of CMOS compatible and compact, thermally-compensated electro-optic modulator based on off-axis microring resonator for dense wavelength division multiplexing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Raktim; Banik, Abhik D; Varshney, Shailendra K

    2014-09-22

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate the performance of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) off-axis microring resonator (MRR) as electro-optic modulator (EOM). Adding an extra off-axis inner-ring in conventional microring structure provides control to compensate thermal effects on EOM. It is shown that dynamically controlled bias-voltage applied to the outer ring has the potency to quell the thermal effects over a wide range of temperature. Thus, besides the appositely biased conventional microring, off-axis inner microring with pre-emphasized electrical input message signal enables our proposed structure suitable for high data-rate dense wavelength division multiplexing scheme of optical communication within a very compact device size.

  10. Sensorless Control Technology for PMSG base on the Dead-time Compensation voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li-yong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the speed sensorless-control system of PMSG in low speed performance, this paper introduces a novel Dead-time compensation control method .Mathematical model is established according to the Dead-zone of the influence of the voltage source type inverter output voltage. At the same time, the given value of current regulator output voltage has been fixed based on the established model. Then the stator voltage after compensationed is applied to the flux estimation, which improves the performance of flux estimation. Finally, the position and speed of the rotor is estimated based on Back-Electromotive Force, which has Simple algorithm and good robustness. In order to verify the correctness of theoretical analysis, the experiment was done according to the new control method. The results proved the correctness and feasibility of this control method.

  11. Optimizing the electron beam parameters for head-on beam-beam compensation in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Pikin, A.; Gu, X.

    2011-03-28

    Head-on beam-beam compensation is adopted to compensate the large beam-beam tune spread from the protonproton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Two e-lenses are being built and to be in stalled near IP10 in the end of 2011. In this article we perform numeric simulation to investigate the effect of the electron beam parameters on the proton dynamics. The electron beam parameters include its transverse profile, size, current, offset and random errors in them. In this article we studied the effect of the electron beam parameters on the proton dynamics. The electron beam parameters include its transverse shape, size, current, offset and their random errors. From the study, we require that the electron beam size can not be smaller than the proton beam's. And the random noise in the electron current should be better than 0.1%. The offset of electron beam w.r.t. the proton beam center is crucial to head-on beam-beam compensation. Its random errors should be below {+-}8{micro}m.

  12. Multichannel loudness compensation method based on segmented sound pressure level for digital hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruiyu; Xi, Ji; Bao, Yongqiang

    2017-07-01

    To improve the performance of gain compensation based on three-segment sound pressure level (SPL) in hearing aids, an improved multichannel loudness compensation method based on eight-segment SPL was proposed. Firstly, the uniform cosine modulated filter bank was designed. Then, the adjacent channels which have low or gradual slopes were adaptively merged to obtain the corresponding non-uniform cosine modulated filter according to the audiogram of hearing impaired persons. Secondly, the input speech was decomposed into sub-band signals and the SPL of every sub-band signal was computed. Meanwhile, the audible SPL range from 0 dB SPL to 120 dB SPL was equally divided into eight segments. Based on these segments, a different prescription formula was designed to compute more detailed gain to compensate according to the audiogram and the computed SPL. Finally, the enhanced signal was synthesized. Objective experiments showed the decomposed signals after cosine modulated filter bank have little distortion. Objective experiments showed that the hearing aids speech perception index (HASPI) and hearing aids speech quality index (HASQI) increased 0.083 and 0.082 on average, respectively. Subjective experiments showed the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the speech recognition of six hearing impaired persons.

  13. Supplementary Information for ``Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs''

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas; Youdin, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This document contains refereed supplementary information for the paper ``Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs''. It contains 15 sections (\\S1.1 -- \\S1.15) that address a number of subjects related to the main paper. We describe in detail the Poisson solver used to find the self-potential of the solid particles, including a linear and a non-linear test problem (\\S1.3). Dissipative collisions remove energy from the motion of the particles by collisional cooling (\\S1.4), an effect that allows gravitational collapse to occur in somewhat less massive discs (\\S1.7). A resolution study of the gravitational collapse of the boulders is presented in \\S1.6. We find that gravitational collapse can occur in progressively less massive discs as the grid resolution is increased, likely due to the decreased smoothing of the particle-mesh self-gravity solver with increasing resolution. In \\S1.10 we show that it is in good agreement with the Goldreich & Ward (1973) stability analysis to form severa...

  14. Paternity fraud and compensation for misattributed paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Heather

    2007-08-01

    Claims for reimbursement of child support, the reversal of property settlements and compensation can arise when misattributed paternity is discovered. The ethical justifications for such claims seem to be related to the financial cost of bringing up children, the absence of choice about taking on these expenses, the hard work involved in child rearing, the emotional attachments that are formed with children, the obligation of women to make truthful claims about paternity, and the deception involved in infidelity. In this paper it is argued that there should not be compensation for infidelity and that reimbursement is appropriate where the claimant has made child support payments but has not taken on the social role of father. Where the claimant's behaviour suggests a social view of fatherhood, on the other hand, claims for compensation are less coherent. Where the genetic model of fatherhood dominates, the "other" man (the woman's lover and progenitor of the children) might also have a claim for the loss of the benefits of fatherhood. It is concluded that claims for reimbursement and compensation in cases of misattributed paternity produce the same distorted and thin view of what it means to be a father that paternity testing assumes, and underscores a trend that is not in the interests of children.

  15. Numerical Analysis on Key Structure of Super High Pressure Hydraulic Bolt Stretcher for Conventional Island of Nuclear Power%核电常规岛用超高液压螺栓拉伸器关键结构的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张澄东; 浦琪琦; 张江涛; 李萍

    2014-01-01

    针对核电常规岛用螺栓拉伸器具有超高压、超小空间作业工况的特性,提出一种基于数值分析与实验相接合的设计方法,运用ANSYS软件对螺栓拉伸器关键结构---缸体与螺帽进行有限元校核,并与测定的应变实验数据进行对比;同时分析参数Rm、D对螺帽结构的优化特性。研究结果表明:初设的缸体强度和刚度满足材料的要求,但螺帽在“L型”截面拐点处出现“负”安全系数;优化螺帽结构尺寸,当Rm =8 mm,D=60 mm时与初设参数相比应力减小了121.2%,应变减小了58%,安全系数得到极大提高,这为该设备的可靠性和安全性提供了设计依据。%Aiming at the characteristics that the bolt stretcher for conventional island of nuclear power has the ultra high pres-sure,ultra small space operation conditions,a design method based on numerical analysis and experiment was presented,the ANSYS software was used to check the cylinder block and blind nut,and the analysis results were compared with the experimental strain data. The optimization characteristices of the parameters Rm ,D on the blind nut were analyzed. The results show that:the strength and stiff-ness of first set of cylinder block can meet the material requirements,but the blind nut has“negative”safety factor in the inflection point of“L”section;optimizing the blind nut structure size,when Rm and D are equal to 8 mm and 60 mm respectively,the stress de-creases by 121.2% and the strain decreases by 58% comparing with initial parameters,the safety coefficient is heightened,which pro-vides design basis for the reliability and safety of the equipment.

  16. Analysis of marine ecological compensation for environmental risk caused by chemical spill based on game theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiwei; Yang Zhifeng; Huang Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    The problem of marine environmental risk is ultimately the result of game theory between the marine environmental managers and the enterprise of potential environmental risk.This paper analyzes the internal economic relationship that whether the "protection" policy is applied between the protection action of marine environmental managers and the chemical enterprise, The result shows that the key factor whether the enterprise adopt the "protection" policy or not is the amount of penalty and the government's cost of execution, and the compulsive ecological compensation is obligatory from the angle of stimulating the enterprise of canontcal action and adopting the "protection" policy.To build the ecological compensation mechanism based on the environmental risk will effectively improve the level of management in sea area and decrease the probability of chemical spill.

  17. Nonuniformity compensation methods for the thermal imager based on uncooled focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng; Su, Junhong

    2000-05-01

    Because of the detector material, manufacturing technology and optical system, there is a obvious signal responsivity variation in sensor elements of uncooled focal plane array (UFPA), that is same as the cooled FPA. This variations results in a severe fixed pattern noise. There have been a lot of varied ways to compensate the nonuniformity of FPA detectors now. This paper briefly describes several main nonuniformity compensation (NUC) methods discussed below, and considering the properties of UFPA detectors, the precision and rate of NUC, a practical NUC methods applying to UFPA is given. The aim is to simplify the hardware and software of NUC for UFPA, and to satisfy the requests of use in the real world simultaneously.

  18. Evolve the Controller for Static Synchronous Series Compensator Based on Control Strategy of Sen Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Jayaraman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Real and Reactive power flow in an alternating current transmission line can be independently controlled by connecting, to the transmission line, a series-compensating voltage, which is variable in magnitude and phase angle. The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC, a solid-state voltage source inverter (VSC coupled with a transformer, is connected in series with a transmission line. An SSSC injects an almost sinusoidal voltage, of variable magnitude, in series with a transmission line. This injected voltage is almost in quadrature with the line current, thereby emulating an inductive or a capacitive reactance in series with the transmission line. This emulated variable reactance, inserted by the injected voltage source, influences the electric power flow in the transmission line. In this report, an attempt is made to evolve the model of SSSC and VSC with preliminary studies for the controller design.

  19. Effect of Lanthanum on Plants under Supplementary Ultraviolet-B Radiation: Effect of Lanthanum on Flavonoid Contents in Soybean Seedlings Exposed to Supplementary Ultraviolet-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effect of La on flavonoids, chlorophyll contents, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in soybean seedlings under supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280 ~ 320 nm) was studied. The results show that PAL activity, contents of flavonoids and chlorophyll in the plants pretreated with La (20 mg· L-1) are higher than those in CK. UV-B radiation could result in an increase in flavonoid content and PAL activity, associated with a decrease in chlorophyll content. However, the increase in the range of PAL activity and flavonoid content in UV-B treatment are lesser than those in the La treatment. The changes of flavonoid contents and PAL activity in La + UV-B treatment are similar to those in UV-B treatment, and the increase in their range is higher than those in UV-B treatment. This shows that La can enhance the resistance of soybean seedling to UV-B radiation and alleviate the damage of UV-B radiation by increasing flavonoid content, chlorophyll content, and PAL activity.

  20. Specifications for Supplementary Classroom Units "Standard Construction" and "Preframed Construction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Robert B.; And Others

    The standards that should be applied to the construction of supplementary classroom units are discussed in this report. Areas dealt with are--(1) general mechanical and electrical work, (2) concrete, (3) masonry, (4) miscellaneous steel and iron, (5) metal windows, (6) carpentry at site, (7) millwork, (8) acoustic treatment, (9) thermal…

  1. Using Radio Commercials as Supplementary Materials for Teaching Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafernik, Johnnie Johnson; Surguine, Harold

    Radio commercials, used as supplementary materials in the English as a second language class, have the following advantages: (1) they correspond closely to everyday spoken English; (2) they are clear; (3) they are short enough to sustain student interest; (4) the many redundancies in the message enable even the slower student to understand; (5)…

  2. Damage constitutive model for strain-softening rock based on normal distribution and its parameter determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Firstly, using the damage model for rock based on Lemaitre hypothesis about strain equivalence, a new technique for measuring strength of rock micro-cells by adopting the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was developed, and a statistical damage evolution equation was established based on the property that strength of micro-cells is consistent with normal distribution function, through discussing the characteristics of random distributions for strength of micro-cells, then a statistical damage constitutive model that can simulate the full process of rock strain softening under specific confining pressure was set up. Secondly, a new method to determine the model parameters which can be applied to the situations under different confining pressures was proposed, by deeply studying the relations between the model parameters and characteristic parameters of the full stress-strain curve under different confining pressures. Therefore, a unified statistical damage constitutive model for rock softening which can reflect the effect of different confining pressures was set up. This model makes the physical property of model parameters explicit, contains only conventional mechanical parameters, and leads its application more convenient. Finally, the rationality of this model and its parameters-determining method were identified via comparative analyses between theoretical and experimental curves.

  3. 79 FR 36094 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee... Conservation Area (NCA) in Owyhee County, Idaho. These supplementary rules are compatible and consistent...

  4. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014, 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  5. On the Numerical Modelling and Error Compensation for General Gough-Stewart Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Hernandez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Parallel robots are specially designed to perform high-precision tasks. Nevertheless, manufacturing, assembling and control issues can reduce their capacity to perform adequately. Observing the acquired measurement data with high-precision devices - such as laser-based instruments - it is not surprising that the error data follows patterns or have a structure because, in many cases, the greatest error comes from a mechanical bias introduced by manufacturing issues. Even though we cannot determine with certainty where the error comes from, a pattern in the measured data suggests that it is feasible that it can be modelled and corrected - in a significant proportion - by purely software applications, without the need of disassembling or re-manufacturing any component. This work deals with the problem of finding a mathematical model which adequately fits the error data from the legs of a general Gough-Stewart platform. Hence, we obtain an expression which can be subtracted from the control parameters in order to compensate the inherent mechanical error in the legs. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1 to present numerical results of the beneficial effects of the error compensation in the legs as well as in the end-effector, and 2 to introduce a numerical methodology to find a model for error compensation and to numerically simulate its effects. Numerical, graphical and statistical evidence of the error improvements, according this methodology, is provided.

  6. Damage Analysis for Hypervelocity Impact Experiments on Spaceship Windows Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewei P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypervelocity impact characteristics in fused silica glass, which is used for the outermost pane of the windshield as the critical part of the thermal protection system of spacecraft, were studied by 37 impact experiments with different millimeter diameter projectiles up to the velocity of 7 km/s launched by two stage light-gas-gun facility. The empirical damage equations were obtained from experiment data by the least square method and they were compared with NASA damage equations.

  7. Solidarity in competitive markets for supplementary health insurance: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Paolucci; Femmeke Prinsze; Pieter JA Stam; Wynand PMM van de Ven

    2006-01-01

    Many countries are considering the option of reducing the share of mandatory health insurance (MHI) and to increasingly rely on voluntary (supplementary) health insurance (VHI) schemes to cover health care expenditures. It is well-known that competitive markets for VHI tend to risk-rated premiums. After discussing the determinants of riskrating in competitive VHI markets, we provide empirical evidence of the potential reduction of (risk-) solidarity caused by the transfer of benefits from MHI...

  8. The Debate around the Need for an International Convention on the Rights of Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Apter, Itai

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest and debate around the question, whether there is a need for an international convention on the rights of older persons. The debate around this question is far from simple or consensual. Although there are strong voices in favor, there are also strong arguments against. Moreover, the mere fact that…

  9. A SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT CONTROL OF SUPPLEMENTARY LIGHTING IN GREENHOUSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    preserving production quality. This paper presents a novel approach addressing this issue. We use weather forecasts and electricity prices to compute cost- and energy-efficient supplementary light plans that achieve the required plant growth defined by the grower. Experiments performed during the winter...... of 2009 – 2010 showed 25 percent savings with no negative effect on plant quality. To accelerate the impact of our approach, we chose to use Software Product Line Engineering, as it enables a greater variety of related software tools to be created faster. We have created a web-based analysis tool, Dyna......In 2009, the industrial-size greenhouses in Denmark consumed 0.8 percent of the national electricity consumption. The increasing energy costs for heating and supplementary lighting have bankrupt many growers in 2010 causing an urgent need for remaining growers to reduce the consumption while...

  10. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs.

  11. Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David; Nuclear Threats and Security Challenges

    2015-01-01

    With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the nuclear threats facing the world are constantly evolving and have grown more complex since the end of the Cold War. The diversion of complete weapon systems or nuclear material to rogue nations and terrorist organizations has increased. The events of the past years have proved the necessity to reevaluate these threats on a level never before considered.  In recognition that no single country possesses all of the answers to the critical scientific, institutional and legal questions associated with combating nuclear and radiological terrorism, the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” and this proceeding was structured to promote wide-ranging, multi-national exploration of critical technology needs and underlying scientific challenges to reducing the threat of nuclear/radiological terrorism; to illustrate through country-specific presentations how resulting technologies were used in national programs; and to outli...

  12. Normal contour error measurement on-machine and compensation method for polishing complex surface by MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Jihong; Wang, Baorui; Zheng, Yongcheng

    2016-10-01

    The Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) process, based on the dwell time method with the constant normal spacing for flexible polishing, would bring out the normal contour error in the fine polishing complex surface such as aspheric surface. The normal contour error would change the ribbon's shape and removal characteristics of consistency for MRF. Based on continuously scanning the normal spacing between the workpiece and the finder by the laser range finder, the novel method was put forward to measure the normal contour errors while polishing complex surface on the machining track. The normal contour errors was measured dynamically, by which the workpiece's clamping precision, multi-axis machining NC program and the dynamic performance of the MRF machine were achieved for the verification and security check of the MRF process. The unit for measuring the normal contour errors of complex surface on-machine was designed. Based on the measurement unit's results as feedback to adjust the parameters of the feed forward control and the multi-axis machining, the optimized servo control method was presented to compensate the normal contour errors. The experiment for polishing 180mm × 180mm aspherical workpiece of fused silica by MRF was set up to validate the method. The results show that the normal contour error was controlled in less than 10um. And the PV value of the polished surface accuracy was improved from 0.95λ to 0.09λ under the conditions of the same process parameters. The technology in the paper has been being applied in the PKC600-Q1 MRF machine developed by the China Academe of Engineering Physics for engineering application since 2014. It is being used in the national huge optical engineering for processing the ultra-precision optical parts.

  13. Paying Teachers for Their Worth: Policies on Teacher Compensation at the School District and Regional Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James E.; Brown, Kathleen Sullivan

    This study reviewed the historical development of the teacher-compensation paradigm, discussed the current trends in alternative compensation policy strategies, and examined the teacher-compensation policies and practices in one state. The study was a mixed-methods policy analysis that used multiple linear regression, cluster analysis, and…

  14. Friction Effects on Inertia Compensators used for Heliostat Base Motion Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The base motion isolation of an optical beam deflector with a two-axis gimbal support ( heliostat ) is discussed. The use of an auxiliary inertia...coupled between the elevation gimbal and the heliostat mirror to produce a compensating torque referred to as a gear compensator and a belt compensator

  15. Towards a Convention on Geological Heritage (CGH) for the protection of Geological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    2 V & C Semeniuk Research Group; 21 Glenmere Rd., Warwick, WA, 6024 The history of the biological conservation essentially began with the IUCN and the global awakening following publication of "The Silent Spring". Since then the IUCN has been active in species conservation and later, when recognising the importance of biodiversity, in the development of a Convention on Biological Diversity. However, even in a framework of Convention on Biological Diversity, there are organisations, political systems/parties, and personnel that strive to subjugate and control nature and biology and use nature for profit or to benefit humankind (e.g., genetically modified foods, use of terrain for food production, use of forests as a resource, managed ecosystems, construction of luxury resorts and tourist resorts in wildernesses). This has been the same for geology, in that geological materials are fundamental to industrialisation in the use of metals, building materials, other commodities, and fossil fuels, and have been exploited often regardless of their geoheritage values. The history of geology and its conservation actually predates the focus on conservation of biology - Siccar Point, numerous palaeontologic sites, and other iconic geological sites serve as examples. But in spite of their recognition as iconic geological sites, areas such as Siccar Point, Cliefden Caves, Hallett Cove, and the Kimberley are still under threat. Given that firstly there is an importance to geological features of the Earth per se and, secondly, geological features as geodiversity underpin and sustain biological systems, there is a critical need to develop a convention, similar to the Convention on Biological Diversity, that recognises the importance of geology as a part of Nature. The scope of Geoheritage and the diversity of Geology is such that it involves all sub-disciplines of Geology (e.g., palaeontology, mineralogy, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic geology, structural geology, hydrology

  16. A supplementary circuit rule-set for the neuronal wiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjumon I Vadakkan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of known anatomical circuit rules necessitate the identification of supplementary rules. This is essential for explaining how associative sensory stimuli induce nervous system changes that generate internal sensations of memory, concurrent with triggering specific motor activities in response to specific cue stimuli. A candidate mechanism is rapidly reversible, yet stabilizable membrane hemi-fusion formed between the closely apposed postsynaptic membranes of different neurons at locations of convergence of sensory inputs during associative learning. The lateral entry of activity from the cue stimulus-activated postsynapse re-activates the opposite postsynapse through the hemi-fused area and induces the basic units of internal sensation (namely, semblions as a systems property. Working, short-term and long-term memories can be viewed as functions of the number of re-activatible hemi-fusions present at the time of memory retrieval. Blocking membrane hemi-fusion either by the insertion of the herpes simplex virus glycoproteins or by the deposition of insoluble intermediates of amyloid and tau proteins in the inter-postsynaptic extracellular matrix space leads to cognitive impairments, supporting this mechanism. The introduction of membrane fusion blockers into the postsynaptic cell cytoplasm that attenuates long-term potentiation, a correlate of behavioral motor activities in response to memory retrieval, provides further support. The lateral spread of activity through the inter-postsynaptic membrane is capable of contributing to oscillating neuronal activity at certain neuronal orders. At the resting state these oscillations provide sub-threshold activation to many neurons at higher orders, including motor neurons maintaining them at a low initiation threshold for motor activity.

  17. Supplementary Material for: Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage, and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 μm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  18. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  19. Rapid Estimation of Building Damage by Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    situations, time is not a luxury that can be spared for complex and detailed simulations to be performed The objective of this thesis is to...targets. During such situations, time is not a luxury that can be spared for complex and detailed simulations to be performed The objective of this...potency of a certain munition on specific targets. During such situations, time is not a luxury that can be spared for complex and detailed

  20. Google Translate as a Supplementary Tool for Learning Malay: A Case Study at Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bahri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the use of Google Translate as a supplementary tool for helping international students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to learn and develop their knowledge and skills in learning Bahasa Malaysia (Malay Language. The participants of the study were 16 international students at the School of Languages, Literacies, and Translation, USM who had registered for the LKM 100 Bahasa Malaysia (I course. Based on the literature review, analysis of the collected data, and an assessment of the course content and activities inside and outside the language classroom, the findings suggest that most international students at USM recognize Google Translate as an effective supplementary tool for learning vocabulary, writing, and reading in Bahasa Malaysia. In fact, some students reported that they could optimally benefit from their self-learning if they were assisted to use Google Translate effectively. Moreover, using Google Translate for doing classroom tasks and activities can encourage students to study independently, and to shape their own strategies for solving language learning problems. Keywords: Google Translate, supplementary tool, translation, language learning, Bahasa Malaysia

  1. New Scope for Research in Traditional and Non-conventional Medicine; Comment on “Substitutes or Complements? Diagnosis and Treatment with Non-conventional and Conventional Medicine”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Tognetti Bordogna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article takes its cue from models of quantitative research applied to complementary/alternative medicine (CAM and pinpoints some innovative features in the case at issue (Portugal. It goes on to outline new research scenarios moving beyond the either biomedical or CAM framework.

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention on Mercury: Principles and recommendations for next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David C; Keane, Susan Egan; Basu, Niladri; Buck, David

    2016-11-01

    The Minamata Convention on Mercury is a multilateral environmental agreement that obligates Parties to reduce or control sources of mercury pollution in order to protect human health and the environment. The Convention includes provisions on providing technical assistance and capacity building, particularly for developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to promote its effective implementation. Evaluating the effectiveness of the Convention (as required by Article 22) is a crucial component to ensure that it meets this objective. We describe an approach to measure effectiveness, which includes a suite of short-, medium-, and long-term metrics related to five major mercury control Articles in the Convention, as well as metrics derived from monitoring of mercury in the environment using select bioindicators, including people. The use of existing biotic Hg data will define spatial gradients (e.g., biological mercury hotspots), baselines to develop relevant temporal trends, and an ability to assess risk to taxa and human communities of greatest concern. We also recommend the development of a technical document that describes monitoring options for the Conference of Parties, to provide science-based standardized guidelines for collecting relevant monitoring information, as guided by Article 19.

  3. A Novel Frequency Compensation Technique for Three-Stage Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; YI Jun; LI Zhao-ji; ZHANG Bo; FANG Jian; LUO Ping

    2005-01-01

    A novel frequency compensation technique for three-stage amplifier with dual complex pole-zero (DCP) cancellation is proposed. It uses one pair of complex zeros to cancel one pair of complex poles, resulting in feature that frequency response of the three-stage amplifier exhibits that of a single-pole system. Thus the gain-bandwidth (GBW) is expected to be increased several times compared to the conventional nested miller compensation (NMC) approach. Moreover, this technique requires only one very small compensation capacitor even when driving a big load capacitor. A GBW 4.63 MHz, DC gain 100 dB, PM 90o and power dissipation 0.87 mW can be achieved for a load capacitor 100 pF with a single Miller compensation capacitor 2 pF at a ±1V supply in a standard 0.6-μm CMOS technology.

  4. A FUZZY UNCERTAINTY COMPENSATOR FOR MANIPULATOR TRAJECTORY TRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel fuzzy logic compensating (FLC) scheme is proposed to enhance the conventional computed-torque control (CTC) structure of manipulators. The control scheme is based on the combination of a classical CTC and FLC, and the resulting control scheme has a simple structure with improved robustness. Further improvement of the performance of the FLC scheme is achieved through automatic tuning of a weight parameter ( leading to a self-tuning fuzzy logic compensator, so the system uncertainty can be compensated very well. By taking into account the full nonlinear nature of the robotic dynamics, the overall closed-loop system is shown to be asymptotically stable. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the computed torque and fuzzy compensation scheme to control a manipulator during a trajectory tracking task.

  5. 3D Progressive Damage Modeling for Laminated Composite Based on Crack Band Theory and Continuum Damage Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Pineda, Evan J.; Ranatunga, Vipul; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based 3D progressive damage analysis (PDA) tool for laminated composites was developed and implemented as a user defined material subroutine to link with a commercially available explicit finite element code. This PDA tool uses linear lamina properties from standard tests, predicts damage initiation with an easy-to-implement Hashin-Rotem failure criteria, and in the damage evolution phase, evaluates the degradation of material properties based on the crack band theory and traction-separation cohesive laws. It follows Matzenmiller et al.'s formulation to incorporate the degrading material properties into the damaged stiffness matrix. Since nonlinear shear and matrix stress-strain relations are not implemented, correction factors are used for slowing the reduction of the damaged shear stiffness terms to reflect the effect of these nonlinearities on the laminate strength predictions. This CDM based PDA tool is implemented as a user defined material (VUMAT) to link with the Abaqus/Explicit code. Strength predictions obtained, using this VUMAT, are correlated with test data for a set of notched specimens under tension and compression loads.

  6. A nonlinearity compensation method for a matrix converter drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    converter model using the direction of current. The proposed method does not need any additional hardware or complicated software and it is easy to realize by applying the algorithm to the conventional vector control. The proposed compensation method is applied for high-performance induction motor drives...

  7. Robust Sliding Mode Control Based on GA Optimization and CMAC Compensation for Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yi; Du, Zhi-Jiang; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A lower limb assistive exoskeleton is designed to help operators walk or carry payloads. The exoskeleton is required to shadow human motion intent accurately and compliantly to prevent incoordination. If the user's intention is estimated accurately, a precise position control strategy will improve collaboration between the user and the exoskeleton. In this paper, a hybrid position control scheme, combining sliding mode control (SMC) with a cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) neural network, is proposed to control the exoskeleton to react appropriately to human motion intent. A genetic algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the optimal sliding surface and the sliding control law to improve performance of SMC. The proposed control strategy (SMC_GA_CMAC) is compared with three other types of approaches, that is, conventional SMC without optimization, optimal SMC with GA (SMC_GA), and SMC with CMAC compensation (SMC_CMAC), all of which are employed to track the desired joint angular position which is deduced from Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA) data. Position tracking performance is investigated with cosimulation using ADAMS and MATLAB/SIMULINK in two cases, of which the first case is without disturbances while the second case is with a bounded disturbance. The cosimulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy which can be employed in similar exoskeleton systems.

  8. Supplementary tutoring in Trinidad and Tobago: Some implications for policy making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Dorian A.; Lochan, Samuel N.

    2012-06-01

    Globally, private supplementary tutoring is a huge business and the practice is expanding rapidly in many regions of the world where it never existed before. In some of these regions it is posing a novel set of challenges for education planners and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which supplementary tutoring is impacting on the goals of the formal education system in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). The participation rate in supplementary tutoring at primary school level in T&T was found to be high (88.2 per cent at Standard Five level), with the majority of the students being privately tutored by their regular school teachers. Their main motivation for taking private tutoring lessons was to try to secure a place in one of the few elite secondary schools in the country. The authors of this paper admit that there is no quick solution to the problem, especially if it is understood as a part of the process of cultural change. They contend that the key to breaking the elitist tradition lies in modifying public understanding about education and convincing parents and citizens at large that a wide range of options and opportunities exists outside the narrow confines of the old colonial economy and the old colonial schools.

  9. Radiation damage evaluation on concrete within a facility for Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES Project), Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaro, B; Salomoni, V A; Gramegna, F; Prete, G; Majorana, C E

    2011-10-30

    Concrete is commonly used as a biological shield against nuclear radiation. As long as, in the design of nuclear facilities, its load carrying capacity is required together with its shielding properties, changes in the mechanical properties due to nuclear radiation are of particular significance and may have to be taken into account in such circumstances. The study presented here allows for reaching first evidences on the behavior of concrete when exposed to nuclear radiation in order to evaluate the consequent effect on the mechanical field, by means of a proper definition of the radiation damage, strictly connected with the strength properties of the building material. Experimental evidences on the decay of the mechanical modulus of concrete have allowed for implementing the required damage law within a 3D F.E. research code which accounts for the coupling among moisture, heat transfer and the mechanical field in concrete treated as a fully coupled porous medium. The development of the damage front in a concrete shielding wall is analyzed under neutron radiation and results within the wall thickness are reported for long-term radiation spans and several concrete mixtures in order to discuss the resulting shielding properties.

  10. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PRA provisions on PAE compensation... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.304 PRA provisions on PAE compensation. (a) Base fee. (1) The PRA will provide for...

  11. Effect of Chemical Corrosion on the Mechanical Characteristics of Parent Rocks for Nuclear Waste Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tielin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term immersion was adopted to explore the damage deterioration and mechanical properties of granite under different chemical solutions. Here, granite was selected as the candidate of parent rocks for nuclear waste storage. The physical and mechanical properties of variation regularity immersed in various chemical solutions were analyzed. Meanwhile, the damage variable based on the variation in porosity was used in the quantitative analysis of chemical damage deterioration degree. Experimental results show that granite has a significant weakening tendency after chemical corrosion. The fracture toughness KIC, splitting tensile strength, and compressive strength all demonstrate the same deteriorating trend with chemical corrosion time. However, a difference exists in the deterioration degree of the mechanical parameters; that is, the deterioration degree of fracture toughness KIC is the greatest followed by those of splitting tensile strength and compressive strength, which are relatively smaller. Strong acid solutions may aggravate chemical damage deterioration in granite. By contrast, strong alkaline solutions have a certain inhibiting effect on chemical damage deterioration. The chemical solutions that feature various compositions may have different effects on chemical damage degree; that is, SO42- ions have a greater effect on the chemical damage in granite than HCO3- ions.

  12. Long-Range And Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation Studies in RHIC With Lessons for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; /Brookhaven; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Kabel, A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-28

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  13. Long-Range And Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation Studies in RHIC With Lessons for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; /Brookhaven; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; /LBL, Berkeley; Kabel, A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-28

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  14. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  15. Dynamic time warping for temperature compensation in structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Alexander; Harley, Joel B.

    2017-02-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses ultrasonic waves to identify changes in structures. To identify these changes, most guided wave methods require a pristine baseline measurement with which other measurements are compared. Damage signatures arise when there is a deviation between the baseline and the recorded measurement. However, temperature significantly complicates this analysis by creating misalignment between the baseline and measurements. This leads to false alarms of damage and significantly reduces the reliability of these systems. Several methods have been created to account for these temperature perturbations. Yet, most of these compensation methods fail in harsh, highly variable temperature conditions or require a prohibitive amount of prior data. In this paper, we use an algorithm known as dynamic time warping to compensate for temperature in these harsh conditions. We demonstrate that dynamic time warping is able to account for temperature variations whereas the more traditional baseline signal stretch method is unable to resolve damage under high temperature fluctuations.

  16. The digital compensation technology system for automotive pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Li, Quanling; Lu, Yi; Luo, Zai

    2011-05-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensor be made of semiconductor silicon based on Piezoresistive phenomenon, has many characteristics. But since the temperature effect of semiconductor, the performance of silicon sensor is also changed by temperature, and the pressure sensor without temperature drift can not be produced at present. This paper briefly describe the principles of sensors, the function of pressure sensor and the various types of compensation method, design the detailed digital compensation program for automotive pressure sensor. Simulation-Digital mixed signal conditioning is used in this dissertation, adopt signal conditioning chip MAX1452. AVR singlechip ATMEGA128 and other apparatus; fulfill the design of digital pressure sensor hardware circuit and singlechip hardware circuit; simultaneously design the singlechip software; Digital pressure sensor hardware circuit is used to implementing the correction and compensation of sensor; singlechip hardware circuit is used to implementing to controll the correction and compensation of pressure sensor; singlechip software is used to implementing to fulfill compensation arithmetic. In the end, it implement to measure the output of sensor, and contrast to the data of non-compensation, the outcome indicates that the compensation precision of compensated sensor output is obviously better than non-compensation sensor, not only improving the compensation precision but also increasing the stabilization of pressure sensor.

  17. Re-planning for compensator-based IMRT with original compensators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Li, Weiqi; Leuthold, Susan; Springett, Gregory; Hoffe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. We have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.

  18. Rapidly removing grinding damage layer on fused silica by inductively coupled plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Shi, Baolu; Xiong, Haobin

    2016-10-01

    During the conventional optical shaping process of fused silica, lapping is generally used to remove grinding damage layer. But this process is of low efficiency, it cannot meet the demand of large aperture optical components. Therefore, Inductively Coupled Plasma Processing (ICPP) was proposed to remove grinding damage layer instead of lapping. ICPP is a non-contact, deterministic figuring technology performed at atmospheric pressure. The process benefits from its ability to simultaneously remove sub-surface damage (SSD) while imparting the desired figure to the surface with high material remove rate. The removing damage capability of ICPP has preliminarily been confirmed on medium size optical surfaces made of fused silica, meanwhile serious edge warping was found. This paper focused on edge effect and a technique has been designed to compensate for these difficulties. Then it was demonstrated on a large aperture fused silica mirror (Long320mm×Wide370mm×High50mm), the removal depth was 30.2μm and removal rate got 6.6mm3/min. The results indicate that ICPP can rapidly remove damage layer on the fused silica induced by the previous grinding process and edge effect is effective controlled.

  19. Progress report on nuclear propulsion for space exploration and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is continuing its work in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) on nuclear propulsion - both nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The focus of the NTP studies remains on piloted and cargo missions to Mars (with precursor missions to the moon) although studies are under way to examine the potential uses of NTP for science missions. The focus of the NEP studies has shifted to space science missions with consideration of combining a science mission with an earlier demonstration of NEP using the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system. Both NTP and NEP efforts are continuing in 1993 to provide a good foundation for science and exploration planners. Both NTP and NEP provide a very important transportation resource and in a number of cases enable missions that could not otherwise be accomplished.

  20. 3D constitutive model of anisotropic damage for unidirectional ply based on physical failure mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A 3D anisotropic continuum damage model is developed for the computational analysis of the elastic–brittle behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite. The damage model is based on a set of phenomenological failure criteria for fibre-reinforced composite, which can distinguish the matrix and fibre...... failure under tensile and compressive loading. The homogenized continuum theory is adopted for the anisotropic elastic damage constitutive model. The damage modes occurring in the longitudinal and transverse directions of a ply are represented by a damage vector. The elastic damage model is implemented...

  1. On Synergistic Integration of Adaptive Dithering Based Internal Model Control for Hysteresis Compensation in Piezoactuated Nanopositioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Kumar Shome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric-stack actuated platforms are very popular in the parlance of nanopositioning with myriad applications like micro/nanofactory, atomic force microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, wafer design, biological cell manipulation, and so forth. Motivated by the necessity to improve trajectory tracking in such applications, this paper addresses the problem of rate dependent hysteretic nonlinearity in piezoelectric actuators (PEA. The classical second order Dahl model for hysteresis encapsulation is introduced first, followed by the identification of parameters through particle swarm optimization. A novel inversion based feedforward mechanism in combination with a feedback compensator is proposed to achieve high-precision tracking wherein the paradoxical concept of noise as a performance enhancer is introduced in the realm of PZAs. Having observed that dither induced stochastic resonance in the presence of periodic forcing reduces tracking error, dither capability is further explored in conjunction with a novel output harmonics based adaptive control scheme. The proposed adaptive controller is then augmented with an internal model control based approach to impart robustness against parametric variations and external disturbances. The proposed control law has been employed to track multifrequency signals with consistent compensation of rate dependent hysteresis of the PEA. The results indicate a greatly improved positioning accuracy along with considerable robustness achieved with the proposed integrated approach even for dual axis tracking applications.

  2. Study on effective modifiers for damaging salts in mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Rodgriguez-Navarro

    2014-01-01

    The use of crystallization modifiers for the prevention or mitigation of salt crystallization damage has recently received a lot of research interest in the field of building conservation. However, the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in a lime-based mortar, is still a very new field of

  3. Study on effective modifiers for damaging salts in mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.; Van Hees, R.P.J.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of crystallization modifiers for the prevention or mitigation of salt crystallization damage has recently received a lot of research interest in the field of building conservation. However, the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in a lime-based mortar, is still a very new field of resear

  4. Develop an piezoelectric sensing based on SHM system for nuclear dry storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Linlin; Lin, Bin; Sun, Xiaoyi; Howden, Stephen; Yu, Lingyu

    2016-04-01

    In US, there are over 1482 dry cask storage system (DCSS) in use storing 57,807 fuel assemblies. Monitoring is necessary to determine and predict the degradation state of the systems and structures. Therefore, nondestructive monitoring is in urgent need and must be integrated into the fuel cycle to quantify the "state of health" for the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) and radioactive waste storage systems (RWSS). Innovative approaches are desired to evaluate the degradation and damage of used fuel containers under extended storage. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an emerging technology that uses in-situ sensory system to perform rapid nondestructive detection of structural damage as well as long-term integrity monitoring. It has been extensively studied in aerospace engineering over the past two decades. This paper presents the development of a SHM and damage detection methodology based on piezoelectric sensors technologies for steel canisters in nuclear dry cask storage system. Durability and survivability of piezoelectric sensors under temperature influence are first investigated in this work by evaluating sensor capacitance and electromechanical admittance. Toward damage detection, the PES are configured in pitch catch setup to transmit and receive guided waves in plate-like structures. When the inspected structure has damage such as a surface defect, the incident guided waves will be reflected or scattered resulting in changes in the wave measurements. Sparse array algorithm is developed and implemented using multiple sensors to image the structure. The sparse array algorithm is also evaluated at elevated temperature.

  5. Compensation for State and Local Government Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maury Gittleman; Brooks Pierce

    2012-01-01

    ... with the two primary data sources for looking at compensation of state and local government workers: the Current Population Survey compensation of state and local government workers: the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics, (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census for t...

  6. Solution of Phase Compensation Problems for ISAR Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIUXiaohui; ZHAOYang; HENGWangChengAlice

    2005-01-01

    Solution of phase compensation for Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging has been analyzed in classification, including maximum likelihoodbased phase compensation and minimum entropy-based phase compensation. Further, it is proved in paper that minimum entropy method actually is not an optimal solution since its extreme small value is only a local extremum. Also comparison between two type methods has been done for real ISAR data processing together with discussion on characteristics of phase compensation for those methods in this paper. Results show that minimum entropy method has better focusing than maximum likelihood method, however, it is with huge computation work.

  7. State Responsibility for Damage Compensation in International Air Disasters%论国际空难损害赔偿的国家责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝秀辉

    2015-01-01

    State responsibility for international air disasters has legitimacy of existence .Banning the use of force a-gainst civil aircraft is the basic principle in international law .Sovereign responsibility theory also provides a theoreti-cal basis for it.For MH17 crash, internationally wrongful acts and injury consequence are undisputable .In an air crash, attribution of conduct to a state includes armed forces ’misconduct, collision of a state aircraft with foreign civil aircraft on account of improper operation , criminals’ illegal interfering behavior to foreign civil aircraft , state’s organ or individual errors or mistake , behavior of armed rebellion and so on .The state providing weapons for the attackers of the civil craft have certain imputations .Fault elements have important influence on the way and degree of state re-sponsibility for international disaster .Ukraine as a sovereignty state at least has fault liability for MH 17 crash.There are barriers to the implementation of state responsibility for the international air disasters , but there is still a path , such as political solution , international litigation and negotiations .%国际空难损害赔偿国家责任的存在具有正当性,禁止对民用航空器使用武力的国际法原则是基本要求,主权责任理论是国家责任承担的理论基础。马航MH17航班空难中,国际不法行为和损害后果在国家责任要件中是不容争议和辨驳的。国际空难可归因于国家的国际不法行为可包括一国武装力量的不当行为、一国国家航空器不当操作与他国民用航空器的相撞行为、一国不法分子对他国民用航空器的非法干扰行为、一国机关或个人的错误或失误行为、武装叛乱行为等,其中为武力袭击民航客机者提供武器装备的国家也具有一定条件下的可归责性。过错要件对于国际空难损害赔偿国家责任的方式和程度有重要影响。在不承认武装叛乱

  8. Nuclear oxidative damage correlates with poor survival in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, J

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative DNA damage results from DNA adducts such as 8-oxo-7, 8 dihydro-2\\'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), which is a pro-mutagenic lesion. No known association between 8-oxo-dG, disease progression and survival exists in colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined levels of 8-oxo-dG in sporadic CRC to determine its relationship with pathological stage and outcome. A total of 143 CRC patients and 105 non-cancer patients were studied. Nuclear and cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorescence using 8-oxo-dG and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) antibodies localised cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG. Apoptosis was detected using TUNEL. Nuclear staining levels were similar in tumour tissue and matched normal mucosa in both epithelial (P=0.22) and stromal (P=0.85) cells. Epithelial cytoplasmic staining was greater in tumour tissue (P<0.001). Double immunofluorescence localised cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG to mitochondria. Epithelial and stromal nuclear 8-oxo-dG decreased with local disease spread, but highest levels were found in distant disease (P<0.01). Survival was related to epithelial nuclear and stromal staining in normal mucosa (P<0.001) and tumour (P<0.01) but was unrelated to cytoplasmic staining. Normal control cells in tissue from cancer patients with high levels of 8-oxo-dG failed to undergo cell death. 8-oxo-dG may be an important biomarker of disease risk, progression and survival for CRC patients.

  9. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  10. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, S.; Froehlich, Th.

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known "electromagnetic force" compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 106 S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  11. Supplementary Material to: Realization of Three-port Spring Networks with Inerter for Effective Mechanical Control

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Z. Q. Chen; Wang, Kai; Zou, Yun; Chen, Guanrong

    2015-01-01

    This is a supplementary material to "Realization of three-port spring networks with inerter for effective mechanical control" [1], which provides the detailed proofs of some results. For more background information, refer to [2]-[32] and references therein.

  12. Nonsalary Compensation for Employees of Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ned A.

    A guide, intended to help independent schools attract and retain competent people through appropriate compensation packages, provides the basis for a review of a school's current general benefits program. It also contains suggestions for improving compensation packages by offering a wider range of tax-favored nonsalary benefits without necessarily…

  13. ERROR COMPENSATOR FOR A POSITION TRANSDUCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A.H.

    1962-06-12

    A device is designed for eliminating the effect of leadscrew errors in positioning machines in which linear motion of a slide is effected from rotary motion of a leadscrew. This is accomplished by providing a corrector cam mounted on the slide, a cam follower, and a transducer housing rotatable by the follower to compensate for all the reproducible errors in the transducer signal which can be related to the slide position. The transducer has an inner part which is movable with respect to the transducer housing. The transducer inner part is coupled to the means for rotating the leadscrew such that relative movement between this part and its housing will provide an output signal proportional to the position of the slide. The corrector cam and its follower perform the compensation by changing the angular position of the transducer housing by an amount that is a function of the slide position and the error at that position. (AEC)

  14. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  15. Vibration Compensation for Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-chao; FU Xing; WEI Xiao-lei; HU Xiao-tang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of vibration is already one of main obstacles for improving the nano measuring accuracy.The techniques of anti-vibration,vibration isolation and vibration compensation become an important branch in nano measuring field.Starting with the research of sensitivity to vibration of scanning tunneling microscope(STM),the theory,techniques and realization methods of nano vibration sensor based on tunnel effect are initially investigated,followed by developing the experimental devices.The experiments of the vibration detection and vibration compensation are carried out.The experimental results show that vibration sensor based on tunnel effect is characterized by high sensitivity,good frequency characteristic and the same vibratory response characteristic consistent with STM.

  16. Shunt PWM advanced var compensators based on voltage source inverters for Facts applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Pedro G.; Misaka, Isamu; Watanabe, Edson H. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    Increased attention has been given to improving power system operation. This paper presents modeling, analysis and design of reactive shunt power compensators based on PWM-Voltage Source Inverters (Pulse Width Modulation -Voltage Source Inverters). (Pulse Width Modulation - Voltage Source Inverters). The control algorithm is based on new concepts of instantaneous active and reactive power theory. The objective is to show that with a small capacitor in the side of a 3-phase PWM-VSI it is possible to synthesize a variable reactive (capacitive or inductive) device. Design procedures and experimental results are presented. The feasibility of this method was verified by digital simulations and measurements on a small scale model. (author) 9 refs., 12 figs.

  17. On the compensation effect in heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bligaard; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2003-01-01

    For a class of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, we explain the compensation effect in terms of a switching of kinetic regimes leading to a concomitant change in the apparent activation energy and in the prefactor for the overall rate of the reaction. We first use the ammonia synthesis...... to illustrate the effect. Both experiments and a detailed kinetic model show a compensation effect. Second, we use density functional theory calculations to show that the compensation effect is not only due to changes in the activation barrier and prefactor of the rate-determining step, N-2 dissociation. We...... why this should be a general effect for a broad class of reactions. We will show that the compensation effect in the rate is intimately linked to the underlying linear relationships between activation energy and stability of intermediates, which have been found to hold for a number of surface...

  18. Current developments and future perspective on technologies for system impairments and compensations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiershausen, Werner; Leppla, Ralph; Vorbeck, S.

    2002-07-01

    Due to increasing traffic demands telecommunication operators have to upgrade the transmission capacity of their networks. Since the success story of WDM in optical fiber based networks, component and system manufacturers as well as operators are dealing with the question if it is better to increase the number of WDM channels remaining at low channel bitrate or to enhance the channel line rate itself. The momentary situation is that already 10 Gbit/s based systems are installed for client traffic and are running properly. By a comparison of the technical advantages and business cases for a lot of transmission scenarios, the 10 Gbit/s solution turns out to be the preferable solution if compared to 2.5-Gbit/s-based systems. In the meantime 40GHz electronics has made severe progress so that now it seems to be possible to take the step towards the next hierarchy, the 40 Gbit/s channel rate. Nevertheless, many system manufacturers still wait with the market introduction of 40 Gbit/s, on the one hand because we observe a stagnant capacity demand this year, and on the other hand because the business case seems yet not to be competitive. One of the reasons for this is the impact of different physical limitations of fast optical fiber transmission. While the step from 2.5 to 10 Gbit/s still did not raise severe technological problems for medium distances, this is completely different for ultra long haul systems and especially for all 40-Gbit/s-based systems. While nonlinear effects still can be sufficiently managed, phenomena like, e.g., polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), chromatic dispersion mismatch, and gain tilt of optical amplifiers play an important role. Chromatic dispersion and polarization effects may vary with time so that either passive or adaptive compensation schemes may be needed in order to realize sufficiently long transmission distances. This paper will deal with different current solutions to overcome limitations from fibers and components, namely the use

  19. Research on Mining Development in Yunnan under Ecological Environment Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqun Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan province is rich of mineral resources, and the mining industry is the pillar industry in Yunnan. But with the development of mining economy, the problems of the ecological environmental damage have come out. Under the mechanism of ecological environment compensation, the mining economic development in Yunnan needs to deal well with the problems of environmental protection. According to the natural ecological conditions of mining area in Yunnan Province, and combining with the phenomena on economic, social, and environmental development, the paper will analyze the impact on ecological environment in Yunnan in the process of mineral exploitation and utilization. It will also provide the mining development and environmental protection in Yunnan with reasonable proposal and give decision-making references about development plans for government.

  20. Contouring error compensation on a micro coordinate measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wang, Hung-Yu; Ye, Jyun-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional measurements of nano-technology researches have received a great attention in the world. Based on the high accuracy demand, the error compensation of measurement machine is very important. In this study, a high precision Micro-CMM (coordinate measuring machine) has been developed which is composed of a coplanar stage for reducing the Abbé error in the vertical direction, the linear diffraction grating interferometer (LDGI) as the position feedback sensor in nanometer resolution, and ultrasonic motors for position control. This paper presents the error compensation strategy including "Home accuracy" and "Position accuracy" in both axes. For the home error compensation, we utilize a commercial DVD pick-up head and its S-curve principle to accurately search the origin of each axis. For the positioning error compensation, the absolute positions relative to the home are calibrated by laser interferometer and the error budget table is stored for feed forward error compensation. Contouring error can thus be compensated if both the compensation of both X and Y positioning errors are applied. Experiments show the contouring accuracy can be controlled to within 50nm after compensation.

  1. Impact of supplementary private health insurance on stomach cancer care in Korea: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noh Jae-Hyung

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Korea achieved universal health insurance coverage in only 12 years; however, insufficient government funding has resulted in high out-of-pocket payments and, in turn, a demand for supplementary private health insurance (PHI. Supplementary PHI provides a fixed amount of benefits in the event of critical illness (e.g., cancer or stroke, surgery, or hospitalization. In this study, we tried to identify factors that influence the decision to purchase supplementary PHI and investigate the impacts of PHI on various aspects of cancer care. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 391 patients with gastric cancer, we collected data on demographic and clinical variables, coverage by PHI at the time of diagnosis, and patients' cancer care experiences from surgery databases and patient questionnaires. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were used 1 to determine whether various sociodemographic and clinical variables influence the purchase of supplementary PHI, and 2 to determine if there is a difference in various outcome measures between individuals with and without PHI. Results We studied 187 subjects (49.6% who were covered under PHI at the time of diagnosis. Subjects who purchased PHI tended to be younger (aOR = 5.01, 95% C.I. = 2.05 – 12.24, and more educated (aOR = 2.67, 95% C.I. = 1.04 – 6.86. Supplementary PHI coverage was significantly associated with financial independence (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.19 – 3.61, but not with other aspects of cancer care, such as access to healthcare, quality of care, communication and patient autonomy. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that supplementary PHI neither serves as a safety net for vulnerable patients nor improves cancer care experience, except for maintaining the financial independence of beneficiaries.

  2. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A comparative and economic study of the international, US and the Chinese compensation regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hui)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOil resources are unevenly distributed on the earth and most oil needs to be transported by sea. Therefore, ocean transport of oil is largely a one-way trade from the principal supply areas to the oil consuming states. The main routes of crude oil shipping are from the Middle East and So

  3. Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage: A comparative and economic study of the international, US and the Chinese compensation regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hui)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOil resources are unevenly distributed on the earth and most oil needs to be transported by sea. Therefore, ocean transport of oil is largely a one-way trade from the principal supply areas to the oil consuming states. The main routes of crude oil shipping are from the Middle East

  4. 征地补偿问题研究%Research on the Issues of Land Acquisition Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付英; 赵海平

    2014-01-01

    “Equality special sacriifce and equal division of public charge”both can be used as a theoretical explanation of land expropriation compensation in China. Land expropriation compensation principle can be classiifed in full compensation, appropriate compensation, and just compensation. In China, partial compensation is adopted. The current range of compensation has taken no account of residual land division or damage compensation, lease loss compensation, the collateral loss caused by land expropriation compensation, resettlement compensation. All of these need to be improved gradually in the future design of land expropriation compensation policy. The international land expropriation compensation standard is based on the land market value and relies mainly on compensation for the land price and the ground material compensation. While in China, the ultimate goal of land expropriation compensation is compensation denominated according to the normal market prices of the expropriated land.%征收补偿理论最重要的有“特别牺牲说”和“公共负担平等说”,这两种都可以作为我国征地补偿的理论解释。征地补偿原则可归纳为完全补偿、适当补偿和公正补偿三种,我国采用的是部分补偿原则。从征地补偿的构成看,我国现行的补偿范围明显偏窄,如残余地的分割或损害补偿、租赁权损失补偿、因征地而造成的附带性损失的补偿、重新安置的困难补偿等均不予考虑,需要在今后征地补偿政策设计中逐步完善。国际征地补偿标准基本上是以土地市场价值为基础、地价补偿和地上物补偿为主,我国征地补偿的终极目标是“按照被征收土地的正常的市场价格计价赔偿”。

  5. Remedies for Breach Under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    For every breach of a binding contract, there must be some remedy. The gap-filling remedial structure of the 1980 Vienna Sales Convention (CISG) reflects the fact that all significant forms of remedial relief may be said to fall within three basic courses of action which modern legal systems make...

  6. Compensation method for temperature error of fiber optical gyroscope based on relevance vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guochen; Wang, Qiuying; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhenpeng

    2016-02-10

    Aiming to improve the bias stability of the fiber optical gyroscope (FOG) in an ambient temperature-change environment, a temperature-compensation method based on the relevance vector machine (RVM) under Bayesian framework is proposed and applied. Compared with other temperature models such as quadratic polynomial regression, neural network, and the support vector machine, the proposed RVM method possesses higher accuracy to explain the temperature dependence of the FOG gyro bias. Experimental results indicate that, with the proposed RVM method, the bias stability of an FOG can be apparently reduced in the whole temperature ranging from -40°C to 60°C. Therefore, the proposed method can effectively improve the adaptability of the FOG in a changing temperature environment.

  7. Static Var Compensator based on Fuzzy Logic Control for Damping Power System Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The disturbance in power system is unavoidable situation. It causes in power system oscillation. Approach: This study applied the Static Var Compensator (SVC to damp power system oscillation. The fuzzy logic control is applied to determine the control strategy of SVC. The simulation results are tested on a Single Machine Infinite bus. The proposed method is equipped in sample system with disturbance. The generator rotor angle curve of the system without and with a SVC is plotted and compared. Results: It was found that the system without a SVC has high variation whereas that of the system with a SVC has much smaller variation. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the SVC can damp power system oscillation.

  8. Electronic-excitation versus nuclear collision damage by ion-beams in dielectric materials (LiNbO{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Olivares, J. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [CELLS, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Agullo-Lopez, F. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: fal@uam.es

    2008-06-15

    The lattice disorder generated in LiNbO{sub 3} by electronic excitation is quantitatively assessed and compared to that produced by elastic nuclear collisions. In particular, the main differential features between the two mechanisms are clearly established. The analysis is based on a recent non-radiative exciton decay model. For ions with atomic mass {>=}15, the local damage caused by electronic excitation is strongly enhanced (up to three orders of magnitude) in comparison to that predicted by nuclear collisions.

  9. An Efficient Compensation Method for Limited-View Photoacoustic Imaging Reconstruction Based on Gerchberg–Papoulis Extrapolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction for limited-view scanning, though often the case in practice, has remained a difficult issue for photoacoustic imaging (PAI. The incompleteness of sampling data will cause serious artifacts and fuzziness in those missing views and it will heavily affect the quality of the image. To solve the problem of limited-view PAI, a compensation method based on the Gerchberg–Papoulis (GP extrapolation is applied into PAI. Based on the known data, missing detectors elements are estimated and the image in the missing views is then compensated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. To accelerate the convergence speed of the algorithm, the total variation (TV-based iterative algorithm is incorporated into the GP extrapolation-based FFT-utilized compensation method (TV-GPEF. The effective variable splitting and Barzilai–Borwein based method is adopted to solve the optimization problem. Simulations and in vitro experiments for both limited-angle circular scanning and straight-line scanning are conducted to validate the proposed algorithm. Results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly suppress the artifacts caused by the missing views and enhance the edges and the details of the image. It can be indicated that the proposed TV-GPEF algorithm is efficient for limited-view PAI.

  10. Transmission path phase compensation for gear monitoring under fluctuating load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, C. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2006-10-01

    Vibration can be monitored under fluctuating load conditions if provision is made for taking into account the fluctuation in machine speed, the response amplitude modulation caused by the change in input force, and the amplitude and phase effects on the measured response from the transmission path. Methodologies have been developed to compensate for the effects of fluctuating speed and amplitude modulation. However, this article investigates the effect of the transmission path phase. This is discussed in terms of the effect this phase has on synchronous averaging. A new approach is presented to resolve the influence that the transmission path phase has on synchronous averaging. The approach is used for the experimental data measured on a helical gear test rig. A significant improvement in the rate of convergence was obtained by adopting the new approach which compensates for the phase shifting in the measured structural response. This contrasts with conventional synchronous averaging with order tracking which does not compensate for structural response phase shifting.

  11. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zheng; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the Accelerator Driven Sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with CW operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple PID feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of PI feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7%...

  12. Compensation Claims on Marine Ecological Damages of Oil Spill of Bohai Bay%渤海溢油事故海洋生态损害赔偿研究——以墨西哥湾溢油自然资源损害赔偿为鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2012-01-01

    2011年我国渤海溢油事故引起社会强烈关注,尤其对我国海洋环境保护相关法律形成挑战。本文着眼于2010年墨西哥湾溢油事故中的相关赔偿问题,比较美国溢油自然资源损害赔偿制度,分析了渤海溢油事故中涉及的"海洋生态损害"的概念界定、责任主体与索赔主体、赔偿范围、索赔额度及评估标准等法律问题,总结并分析渤海溢油事故对完善我国海洋生态损害赔偿制度的启示。%The 2011 oil spill in Bohai Bay caused widespread attention in China,the recent marine environmental laws was therefore challenged by the Chinese society.The first part introduces the oil spill accident and the recent progress of the claims on marine e- cological damages,the legal system of marine ecological damages will also be coved in this part.The second part analyzes the natu- ral resources damage claim of 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and the law of natural resources in the US.The third part pro- vides detailed analysis about the legal problems of Bohai oil spill,i.e.,definition of "marine ecological damage" , the responsible parties and the qualified parties to claim for the damages,the regime of compensation,the compensation limits and the evaluation crite- ria.The last part of this article will summarize the inspirations of Bohai oil spill accident on the legal system of China's miarine ecological damage.

  13. Gaze as a Supplementary Modality for Interacting with Ambient Intelligence Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Gepner, Daniel; Carbonell, Noëlle

    2007-01-01

    We present our current research on the implementation of gaze as an efficient and usable pointing modality supplementary to speech, for interacting with augmented objects in our daily environment or large displays, especially immersive virtual reality environments, such as reality centres and caves. We are also addressing issues relating to the use of gaze as the main interaction input modality. We have designed and developed two operational user interfaces: one for providing motor-disabled users with easy gaze-based access to map applications and graphical software; the other for iteratively testing and improving the usability of gaze-contingent displays.

  14. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumano, S

    2016-01-01

    We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrino-oscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function $b_1$ is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact ...

  15. Analysis and compensation for the effect of the catheter position on image intensities in intravascular optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengnan; Eggermont, Jeroen; Wolterbeek, Ron; Broersen, Alexander; Busk, Carol A. G. R.; Precht, Helle; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2016-12-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is an imaging technique that is used to analyze the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. Because a catheter is used during imaging, the intensities can be affected by the catheter position. This work aims to analyze the effect of the catheter position on IVOCT image intensities and to propose a compensation method to minimize this effect in order to improve the visualization and the automatic analysis of IVOCT images. The effect of catheter position is modeled with respect to the distance between the catheter and the arterial wall (distance-dependent factor) and the incident angle onto the arterial wall (angle-dependent factor). A light transmission model incorporating both factors is introduced. On the basis of this model, the interaction effect of both factors is estimated with a hierarchical multivariant linear regression model. Statistical analysis shows that IVOCT intensities are significantly affected by both factors with p<0.001, as either aspect increases the intensity decreases. This effect differs for different pullbacks. The regression results were used to compensate for this effect. Experiments show that the proposed compensation method can improve the performance of the automatic bioresorbable vascular scaffold strut detection.

  16. Pupil rotation compensation for LINC-NIRVANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangier, Matthieu; Conrad, Albert R.; Bertram, Thomas; Zhang, Xianyu; Berwein, Juergen; Briegel, Florian; Herbst, Thomas M.; Ragazzoni, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    The interferometric imager LINC-NIRVANA will use pyramid wavefront-sensors for multi-conjugated adaptive optics (MCAO). A derotator will produce a static field on the pyramids, but a rotating pupil image on the CCD. For long exposure times, we have to take into account this effect to command the deformable mirror properly by changing the command matrix on the fly. We reproduce in a laboratory set-up this configuration to test different methods for compensating for this effect. We present the results obtained and the optimal solution we have selected.

  17. Finite Element Simulation for Springback Prediction Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Dwi Anggono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate modelling of the sheet metal deformations including the springback prediction is one of the key factors in the efficient utilisation of  Finite Element Method (FEM process simulation in industrial application. Assuming that springback can be predicted accurately, there still remains the problem of how to use such results to appear at a suitable die design to produce a target part shape. It  is  this  second  step  of  springback compensation that is addressed in the current work. This paper presents an  evaluation of a standard benchmark model defined as Benchmark II of Numisheet 2008, S-channel model with various drawbeads and blank holder force (BHF. The tool geometry modified based on springback calculation for a  part to compensate springback. The result shows that the combination of the smooth bead with BHF of 650 kN resulted in the minimum springback and the tool compensation was successfully to accommodate the springback errors.

  18. 42 CFR 411.45 - Basis for conditional Medicare payment in workers' compensation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...' compensation benefits, but the intermediary or carrier determines that the workers' compensation carrier will...' compensation cases. 411.45 Section 411.45 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations on Medicare Payment for Services Covered Under Workers' Compensation § 411.45 Basis for...

  19. Novel temperature modeling and compensation method for bias of ring laser gyroscope based on least-squares support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xudong Yu; Yu Wang; Guo Wei; Pengfei Zhang; Xingwu Long

    2011-01-01

    Bias of ring-laser-gyroscope (RLG) changes with temperature in a nonlinear way. This is an important restraining factor for improving the accuracy of RLG. Considering the limitations of least-squares regression and neural network, we propose a new method of temperature compensation of RLG bias-building function regression model using least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM). Static and dynamic temperature experiments of RLG bias are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover,the traditional least-squares regression method is compared with the LS-SVM-based method. The results show the maximum error of RLG bias drops by almost two orders of magnitude after static temperature compensation, while bias stability of RLG improves by one order of magnitude after dynamic temperature compensation. Thus, the proposed method reduces the influence of temperature variation on the bias of the RLG effectively and improves the accuracy of the gyro scope considerably.%@@ Bias of ring-laser-gyroscope (RLG) changes with temperature in a nonlinear way.This is an important restraining factor for improving the accuracy of RLG.Considering the limitations of least-squares regression and neural network, we propose a new method of temperature compensation of RLG bias-building function regression model using least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM).Static and dynamic temperature experiments of RLG bias are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.Moreover,the traditional least-squares regression method is compared with the LS-SVM-based method.

  20. New compensation standard for land expropriation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, X.; Oskam, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a new compensation standard for use in agricultural land conversion in China during the land-expropriation process, based on the market value definition. Assuming identical bargaining power between the buyer and the seller, efficient and equitable compensation is obtained through

  1. A Switched Capacitor Harmonic Compensation Part for Switching Supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    A new approach based on switched capacitor network to harmonic compensation for switching supplies is presented in the paper,The basic principle is discussed.SPICE simulation is applied to analyze the behaviour of the switched capacitor harmonic compensation part.

  2. A salaried compensation model for postanesthesia nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushala, M E; Henderson, M A

    1995-08-01

    Health care organizations involved in innovative and creative work redesign projects may find traditional pay structures inadequate to meet the needs of the changing environment. The idea of salaried compensation for registered nurses is not unprecedented. However, few salaried compensation models for nurses are described in the literature. This article presents a model that we believe will be of particular interest to nurses in PACUs, because its design allows for adequate call coverage plus flexibility in scheduling. In addition, this compensation model eliminates incidental overtime, thus allowing for a more predictable salary budget.

  3. Dosimetric study for cervix carcinoma treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compensation based on 3D intracavitary brachytherapy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Wang, Pei; Lang, Jinyi; Tian, Yin; Luo, Yangkun; Fan, Zixuan; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-06-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compensation based on 3D high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) boost technique (ICBT + IMRT) has been used in our hospital for advanced cervix carcinoma patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric results of the four different boost techniques (the conventional 2D HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [CICBT], 3D optimized HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [OICBT], and IMRT-alone with the applicator in situ). For 30 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma, after the completion of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for whole pelvic irradiation 45 Gy/25 fractions, five fractions of ICBT + IMRT boost with 6 Gy/fractions for high risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and 5 Gy/fractions for intermediate risk clinical target volume (IRCTV) were applied. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired using an in situ CT/MRI-compatible applicator. The gross tumor volume (GTV), the high/intermediate-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV/IRCTV), bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were contoured by CT scans. For ICBT + IMRT plan, values of D90, D100 of HRCTV, D90, D100, and V100 of IRCTV significantly increased (p < 0.05) in comparison to OICBT and CICBT. The D2cc values for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were significantly lower than that of CICBT and IMRT alone. In all patients, the mean rectum V60 Gy values generated from ICBT + IMRT and OICBT techniques were very similar but for bladder and sigmoid, the V60 Gy values generated from ICBT + IMRT were higher than that of OICBT. For the ICBT + IMRT plan, the standard deviations (SD) of D90 and D2cc were found to be lower than other three treatment plans. The ICBT + IMRT technique not only provides good target coverage but also maintains low doses (D2cc) to the OAR. ICBT + IMRT is an optional technique to boost parametrial region or tumor of large size and irregular shape when intracavitary/interstitial brachytherapy

  4. An Environment for Flexible Advanced Compensations of Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, Michael; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. We use a contract-based approach, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We introduce abstract service......Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this article, we introduce an environment to deal with advanced compensations based on forward...

  5. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    depression to a long groove along expanded sternites 7 and 8, and ultimately their complete, extended junction typifying the most derived coxo-sternal condition. The coxo-sternal condition is indicative of a long evolutionary history, as evidenced by the presence of multistate characters (e.g., Dorippidae, Goneplacoidea) or by a single, well-established condition (e.g., Chasmocarcinidae, Ethusidae, Panopeidae Eucratopsinae, Rhizopidae, Scalopidiidae). The penial area proves to be an essential diagnostic feature in Brachyura, with a value comparable to that of the gonopods. Penis protection is ubiquitous in Brachyura irrespective of length, and several modalities of protection prevail, which necessitate different modifications of associated structures. A long penis in a gutter developed from a partial invagination of sternite 8 induces the formation of a new "suture" at the same level as the preceding suture 6/7. Such a "supplementary suture 7/8" exists among unrelated heterotreme families (e.g., Ethusidae, Panopeidae Eucratopsinae, Pseudorhombilidae, Rhizopidae). A fully protected penis, concealed in a groove within a complete invagination of sternite 8 in the form of two contiguous plates, evolved independently (homoplasy) in Palicoidea and Chasmocarcinidae (Goneplacoidea), with sternite 8 present as a single plate in females. In condylar protection, described for the first time and occurring in several heterotreme families, the penis emerges from the extremity of the P5 coxo-sternal condyle or from its anterior border instead of from the coxa itself. A penis precisely lodged in a small excavation on sternite 8, which is lined by a row of stiff setae, is unique to Brachyura, and represents a new synapomorphy of the Homoloidea. Five modalities of penis protection are recognised in Podotremata, eight in Eubrachyura (six in Heterotremata and two in Thoracotremata). Special attention has been paid to Dorippoidea (Dorippidae and Ethusidae), which shows transformation series from

  6. 农地整理项目中农民受益支付与受损补偿--以湖北省5个县区为实证%Benefit of Payment and Damage Compensation of Farmers ’ Interests in Implementing of Agricultural Land Consolidation Projects---Based on 5 Counties in Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴九兴; 杨钢桥

    2014-01-01

    农地整理项目实施中农民的受益与受损研究对完善农地整理项目投资政策和补偿政策具有重要参考作用。以湖北省5个县区为例,利用农户问卷调查数据分析农地整理实施中农民受益类型及其支付意愿、农民受损类型及其受偿意愿。研究表明:农民的受益类型包括灌排水更方便、通行更便利、投劳收入、耕地质量提升、增加耕地面积等类型,前三者较显著,后两者不明显;农民受益后的支付意愿是,绝大多数受访农民愿意为受益而义务投工或出钱,但也有少数受访农民拒绝支付;即便农民意愿采取同种支付方式,但农民之间的支付额度仍存在差别。农民利益的受损类型主要包括耕地被占用、青苗损失、耕地质量降低、田块分割、塘堰被填、祖坟迁移、房屋拆迁等损失类型,前四者的发生比例很大,后三者的发生比例较小;农民利益受损后的受偿意愿是,100%的利益受损农民认为利益受损应获得补偿;不同的利益受损类型,农民期望的受偿方式存在较大差别;不同的利益受损方面,农民意愿接受的受偿额度存在较大差距。在调整和改进农地整理项目投资政策和补偿政策时,应以农民需求和农民意愿为导向,提高农地整理项目的农户满意度。%Study on the benefits and damage of farmers ’interests in agricultural land consolidation project has important reference value for improving investment policies and compensation policies of agricultural land consolida -tion project .This paper takes 5 counties of Hubei Province as examples ,utilizes the farmers questionnaire data , analyses the types of benefit of farmers ’ interests and their willingness to pay in agricultural land consolidation pro-ject ,and types of damage of the farmers interests and their willingness to accept compensation .The results show that ,the benefit types of farmers

  7. Coordinated setting of stabilizers for synchronous generators and static var compensators in multimachine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes Costa, A.J.A.; Silva, A.S.; Freitas, F.D. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1994-12-31

    Two distinct approaches for the coordinated setting of multimachine power system controllers are presented. The first strategy is based on the re-allocation of the poles related to the electromechanical modes of the system through decentralized control. The second method is a coordinated global procedure based on structurally constrained optimal control. Both approaches considered power system stabilizers and supplementary signals for static var compensators as the controllers to be adjusted. Other types of controllers, such as FACTS devices, can also be tuned by using the proposed techniques. A 13-machine, 77-bus power system which is based on the Brazilian South-Southeast interconnected network is employed to assess the performance of the proposed methods. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. Final report on the regional supplementary comparison APMP.AUV.A-S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsangmas, Virat; Leeudomwong, Surat; Scott, Andrew; Zhong, Bo; Huang, Yuchung

    2014-01-01

    A regional supplementary comparison APMP.AUV.A-S1 has been carried out for the measurement of sound pressure level, frequency and total distortion of a multi-frequency sound calibrator. The role of the Pilot laboratory was undertaken by the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand) (NIMT). The multi-frequency sound calibrator was circulated through thirteen National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). Two NMIs were added to the original time schedule after starting the circulation. The measurements took place between September 2008 and July 2010. This report includes the measurement results from all the participants. Supplementary Comparison Reference Values (SCRVs) have been determined from the results. Deviations from the SCRVs are mostly within declared expanded uncertainties. It has been found that a term for the inherent instability in this type of device needs to be included in any uncertainty budget, and a recommended minimum value of this has been given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Thermal-Induced Errors Prediction and Compensation for a Coordinate Boring Machine Based on Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the CNC machine tools precision, a thermal error modeling for the motorized spindle was proposed based on time series analysis, considering the length of cutting tools and thermal declined angles, and the real-time error compensation was implemented. A five-point method was applied to measure radial thermal declinations and axial expansion of the spindle with eddy current sensors, solving the problem that the three-point measurement cannot obtain the radial thermal angle errors. Then the stationarity of the thermal error sequences was determined by the Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test Algorithm, and the autocorrelation/partial autocorrelation function was applied to identify the model pattern. By combining both Yule-Walker equations and information criteria, the order and parameters of the models were solved effectively, which improved the prediction accuracy and generalization ability. The results indicated that the prediction accuracy of the time series model could reach up to 90%. In addition, the axial maximum error decreased from 39.6 μm to 7 μm after error compensation, and the machining accuracy was improved by 89.7%. Moreover, the X/Y-direction accuracy can reach up to 77.4% and 86%, respectively, which demonstrated that the proposed methods of measurement, modeling, and compensation were effective.

  10. Evaluation of Coordinate Compensator Structure Based on Power Injection Model for Loading Margin Enhancement in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sedaghati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the structure of Hybrid Power Flow Controller (HPFC is proposed in order to improve static voltage stability characteristics. HPFC forms a hybrid controller using IPFC series converters as a hybrid with existing parallel and passive compensator (SVC in power system. Utilization of hybrid structures makes it possible to use converters for improving performance of both old and existing compensators in power networks. In this study, the power injection model (PIM is used to model the hybrid power flow controller in Newton load flow. The aforementioned model is simulated in MATLAB software. The P-V curves of PQ buses of a typical system are evaluated by a continuous power flow (CPF method to analyses the effect of this controller on static voltage stability characteristics. Meanwhile, SVC as existing devices in the system and UPFC and IPFC as state-of-the-art compensator devices are compared with the proposed hybrid structure. The amount of active and reactive power loss and improvement of loading limit of the system are used as main parameters in our comparison.

  11. Studies on Dynamic Damage Evolution for Pp/pa Polymer Blends Under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zi-Jian; Wang, Li-Li

    The dynamic damage evolution for PP/PA blends with different compatibilizers is studied in high strain rates from two different approaches, namely by determining the unloading elastic modulus of specimen experienced impact deformation and by combining the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experimental technique with the back-propagation (BP) neural network. The results obtained by both approaches consistently show that a threshold strain ɛth exists for dynamic damage evolution, and both the damage evolution and ɛth are dependent on strain and strain rate. For non-linear visco-elastic materials, the damage evolution determined by the unloading elastic modulus provides an underestimation of real damage evolution.

  12. Comparison of two methods for measuring γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence as a marker of DNA damage in cultured human cells: applications for microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.; Andrais, B.; Mirzayans, R.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Fallone, B. G.; Warkentin, B.

    2013-06-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) delivers single fractions of very high doses of synchrotron x-rays using arrays of microbeams. In animal experiments, MRT has achieved higher tumour control and less normal tissue toxicity compared to single-fraction broad beam irradiations of much lower dose. The mechanism behind the normal tissue sparing of MRT has yet to be fully explained. An accurate method for evaluating DNA damage, such as the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence assay, will be important for understanding the role of cellular communication in the radiobiological response of normal and cancerous cell types to MRT. We compare two methods of quantifying γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence for uniformly irradiated cell cultures: manual counting of γ-H2AX foci by eye, and an automated, MATLAB-based fluorescence intensity measurement. We also demonstrate the automated analysis of cell cultures irradiated with an array of microbeams. In addition to offering a relatively high dynamic range of γ-H2AX signal versus irradiation dose ( > 10 Gy), our automated method provides speed, robustness, and objectivity when examining a series of images. Our in-house analysis facilitates the automated extraction of the spatial distribution of the γ-H2AX intensity with respect to the microbeam array — for example, the intensities in the peak (high dose area) and valley (area between two microbeams) regions. The automated analysis is particularly beneficial when processing a large number of samples, as is needed to systematically study the relationship between the numerous dosimetric and geometric parameters involved with MRT (e.g., microbeam width, microbeam spacing, microbeam array dimensions, peak dose, valley dose, and geometric arrangement of multiple arrays) and the resulting DNA damage.

  13. Study on evaluation system for Chinese nuclear power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-bai; CHENG Jian-xiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the meaning, structure, function and assessment methods of a nuclear power plant evaluation system, and the similarities and differences among various assessment methods. Based on this research an integrated and detailed suggestion is proposed on how to establish and improve internal and external evaluation systems for Chinese NPPs. It includes: to prepare and implement the nuclear power plant operational management program, to build an integrated performance indicator system, to improve the present audit system and conduct the comprehensive evaluation system, to set up and implement the integrated corrective action system, to position precisely the status of operation assessment of nuclear power plants, to conduct the assessment activities on constructing NPP, to initiate the specific assessment in some important areas, to establish industry performance indicator system, to improve the assessment methods, to share the assessment results, to select,cultivate and certify the reviewers, and to enhance international communication and cooperation.

  14. Periodic Error Compensation for Quartz MEMS Gyroscope Drift of INS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jianmao; Zhang Haipeng; Sun Junzhong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the navigation accuracy of an inertial navigation system (INS), composed of quartz gyroscopes, the existing real-time compensation methods for periodic errors in quartz gyroscope drift and the periodic error term relationship between sampled original data and smoothed data are reviewed. On the base of the results, a new compensation method called using former period characteristics to compensate latter smoothness data (UFCL for short) method is proposed considering the INS working characteristics. This new method uses the original data without smoothing to work out an error conversion formula at the INS initial alignment time and then compensate the smoothed data errors by way of the formula at the navigation time. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that this method is able to cut down on computational time and raise the accuracy which makes it a better real-time compensation approach for periodic error terms of quartz micro electronic mechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope's zero drift.

  15. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  16. Legal assumptions for private company claim for additional (supplementary payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šogorov Stevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.

  17. DNA damage targets PKC{eta} to the nuclear membrane via its C1b domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamarkin, Ana; Zurgil, Udi; Braiman, Alex; Hai, Naama; Krasnitsky, Ella; Maissel, Adva; Ben-Ari, Assaf; Yankelovich, Liat; Livneh, Etta, E-mail: etta@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

    2011-06-10

    Translocation to cellular membranes is one of the hallmarks of PKC activation, occurring as a result of the generation of lipid secondary messengers in target membrane compartments. The activation-induced translocation of PKCs and binding to membranes is largely directed by their regulatory domains. We have previously reported that PKC{eta}, a member of the novel subfamily and an epithelial specific isoform, is localized at the cytoplasm and ER/Golgi and is translocated to the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope upon short-term activation by PMA. Here we show that PKC{eta} is shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and that upon etoposide induced DNA damage is tethered at the nuclear envelope. Although PKC{eta} expression and its phosphorylation on the hydrophobic motif (Ser675) are increased by etoposide, this phosphorylation is not required for its accumulation at the nuclear envelope. Moreover, we demonstrate that the C1b domain is sufficient for translocation to the nuclear envelope. We further show that, similar to full-length PKC{eta}, the C1b domain could also confer protection against etoposide-induced cell death. Our studies demonstrate translocation of PKC{eta} to the nuclear envelope, and suggest that its spatial regulation could be important for its cellular functions including effects on cell death.

  18. Supplementary Golay pair for range side lobe suppression in dual-frequency tissue harmonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Che-Chou; Wu, Chi; Peng, Jun-Kai

    2015-02-01

    In dual-frequency (DF) harmonic imaging, the second harmonic signal at second harmonic (2f0) frequency and the inter-modulation harmonic signal at fundamental (f0) frequency are simultaneously imaged for spectral compounding. When the phase-encoded Golay pair is utilized to improve the harmonic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), however, the DF imaging suffers from range side lobe artifacts due to spectral cross-talk with other harmonic components at DC and third harmonic (3f0) frequency. In this study, a supplementary Golay pair is developed to suppress the range side lobes in combination with the original Golay pair. Since the phase code of the DC interference cannot be manipulated, the supplementary Golay is designed to reverse the polarity of the 3f0 interference and the f0 signal while keeping the 2f0 signal unchanged. For 2f0 imaging, the echo summation of the supplementary and the original Golay can cancel the 3f0 interference. On the contrary, the echo difference between the two Golay pairs can eliminate the DC interference for f0 imaging. Hydrophone measurements indicate that the range side lobe level (RSLL) increases with the signal bandwidth of DF harmonic imaging. By using the combination of the two Golay pairs, the achievable suppression of RSLL can be 3 and 14 dB, respectively for the f0 and 2f0 harmonic signal. B-mode phantom imaging also verifies the presence of range side lobe artifacts when only the original Golay pair is utilized. In combination with the supplementary Golay pair, the artifacts are effectively suppressed. The corresponding range side lobe magnitude reduces by about 8 dB in 2f0 imaging but remains unchanged in f0 imaging. Meanwhile, the harmonic SNR improves by 8-10 dB and the contrast-to-noise ratio of harmonic image increases from about 1 to 1.2 by spectral compounding. For DF tissue harmonic imaging, the spectral cross-talk in Golay excitation results in severe range side lobe artifacts. To restore the image quality, two particular

  19. Compensation for occupational diseases in the RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J E; Garisch, D; Cornell, J E

    1987-03-01

    Compensation legislation for occupational disease in the RSA is at present complex and non-uniform, and the administrative bodies that process compensation claims are understaffed. In this setting occupational disease, particularly in migrant workers who are often ignorant of their rights under the law, frequently goes uncompensated. General practitioners and medical officers need to be aware of the basic provisions in the law, and how to submit claims in the best interests of their patients. Some case studies are included to illustrate problematic areas. The responsibilities of doctors in the diagnosis and compensation of occupational diseases are addressed.

  20. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS, with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  1. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inbok; Zhang, Aoqi; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee

    2016-12-16

    This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS), with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  2. Radiation damage studies related to nuclear waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W.J.; Wald, J.W.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    Much of the previously reported work on alpha radiation effects on crystalline phases of importance to nuclear waste forms has been derived from radiation effects studies of composite waste forms. In the present work, two single-phase crystalline materials, Gd/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (pyrochlore) and CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (zirconolite), of relative importance to current waste forms were studied independently by doping with /sup 244/Cm at the 3 wt % level. Changes in the crystalline structure measured by x-ray diffraction as a function of dose show that damage ingrowth follows an expected exponential relationship of the form ..delta..V/V/sub 0/ = A(1-exp(-BD)). In both cases, the materials became x-ray amorphous before the estimated saturation value was reached. The predicted magnitudes of the unit cell volume changes at saturation are 5.4% and 3.5%, respectively, for Gd/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/. The later material exhibited anisotropic behavior in which the expansion of the monoclinic cell in the c/sub 0/ direction was over five times that of the a/sub 0/ direction. The effects of transmutations on the properties of high-level waste solids have not been studied until now because of the long half-lives of the important fission products. This problem was circumvented in the present study by preparing materials containing natural cesium and then irradiating them with neutrons to produce /sup 134/Cs, which has only a 2y half-life. The properties monitored at about one year intervals following irradiation have been density, leach rate and microstructure. A small amount of x-ray diffraction work has also been done. Small changes in density and leach rate have been observed for some of the materials, but they were not large enough to be of any consequence for the final disposal of high level wastes.

  3. Progress on Radiochemical Analysis for Nuclear Waste Management in Decommissioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Qiao, Jixin; Shi, Keliang

    With the increaed numbers of nuclear facilities have been closed and are being or are going to be decommissioned, it is required to characterise the produced nuclear waste for its treatment by identification of the radionuclides and qualitatively determine them. Of the radionuclides related...... separation of radionuclides. In order to improve and maintain the Nodic competence in analysis of radionculides in waste samples, a NKS B project on this topic was launched in 2009. During the first phase of the NKS-B RadWaste project (2009-2010), a good achivement has been reached on establishment...... of collaboration, identifing the requirements from the Nordic nuclear industries and optimizing and development of some analytical methods (Hou et al. NKS-222, 2010). In the year 2011, this project (NKS-B RadWaste2011) continued. The major achievements of this project in 2011 include: (1) development of a method...

  4. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  5. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Generation: Nuclear vs. Conventional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, John J., Ed.

    This minicourse, partially supported by the Division of Nuclear Education and Training of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is an effort to describe the benefit-to-risk ratio of various methods of generating electrical power. It attempts to present an unbiased, straightforward, and objective view of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear…

  6. Amino acid chloramine damage to proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Samir A; Snapka, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid chloramines (AACLs) are reactive secondary products of activated neutrophils. To understand AACL damage in cell nuclei, we exploited proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a nuclear protein damage reporter, using western blotting and mass spectrometry. Chloramines of proline, arginine, and glycine caused significant damage to PCNA in cells. Chloramines of taurine and histidine caused slight damage to PCNA in cells. Other AACLs caused no PCNA damage in intact cells. Evidence supports a sulfonamide, sulfinamide, or sulfenamide crosslinking mechanism involving cysteine 148 at the PCNA subunit interface, methionine sulfoxide formation as the basis of electrophoretic mobility shifting, and tyrosine and/or methionine residues as the likely targets of AACL damage to the PCNA antibody epitope. An interstitial fluid model experiment showed that physiological amino acids can mediate HOCl damage to PCNA in the presence of proteins that would otherwise completely quench the HOCl. PCNA is a sensitive biomarker of AACL damage in cell nuclei. Arginine chloramine and proline chloramine, or reactive species derived from them, were shown to enter cells and damage PCNA. Amino acids were shown to have at least two different mechanisms for suppressing PCNA damage in cells by their corresponding AACLs. Cysteine 148 was shown to be essential for PCNA subunit crosslinking by AACLs, and a crosslinking mechanism was proposed.

  7. The Effect of Delamination on Damage Path and Failure Load Prediction for Notched Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Chunchu, Prasad B.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of delamination on the progressing damage path and initial failure load in composite laminates is investigated. Results are presented from a numerical and an experimental study of center-notched tensile-loaded coupons. The numerical study includes two approaches. The first approach considers only intralaminar (fiber breakage and matrix cracking) damage modes in calculating the progression of the damage path. In the second approach, the model is extended to consider the effect of interlaminar (delamination) damage modes in addition to the intralaminar damage modes. The intralaminar damage is modeled using progressive damage analysis (PDA) methodology implemented with the VUMAT subroutine in the ABAQUS finite element code. The interlaminar damage mode has been simulated using cohesive elements in ABAQUS. In the experimental study, 2-3 specimens each of two different stacking sequences of center-notched laminates are tensile loaded. The numerical results from the two different modeling approaches are compared with each other and the experimentally observed results for both laminate types. The comparisons reveal that the second modeling approach, where the delamination damage mode is included together with the intralaminar damage modes, better simulates the experimentally observed damage modes and damage paths, which were characterized by splitting failures perpendicular to the notch tips in one or more layers. Additionally, the inclusion of the delamination mode resulted in a better prediction of the loads at which the failure took place, which were higher than those predicted by the first modeling approach which did not include delaminations.

  8. Study on creep-fatigue damage evaluation for advanced 9%-12% chromium steels under stress controlled cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHAO; Fuzhen XUAN

    2011-01-01

    Creep-fatigue interaction is one of the main damage mechanisms in high temperature plants and their components. Assessment of creep-fatigue properties is of practical importance for design and operation of high temperature components. However, the standard evaluation techniques, i.e. time fraction rule and ductility exhaustion one have limitations in accounting for the effects of control mode on the cyclic deformations. It was found that conventional linear cumulative damage rule failed in accurately evaluating the creep-fatigue life under stress controlled condition. The calculated creep damages by time fraction rule were excessively high, which led to overly conservative prediction of failure lives. In the present study, it was suggested that such over estimation of creep damage was mainly caused by anelastic strain upon stress loading. For precise assessment under conditions of stress control, a modified creep damage model accounting for the effect of anelastic creep was proposed. The assessments of creep fatigue data under stress controlled condition were performed with the new approach developed in this paper for a rotor material and a boiler material used in ultra supercritical power plants. It was shown that a more moderate amount of creep damage was obtained by the new model, which gave better predictions of failure life.

  9. Nonlinear Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    In an alternative version of a proposed bimaterial thermal compensator for a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator, a mechanical element having nonlinear stiffness would be added to enable stabilization of a desired resonance frequency at a suitable fixed working temperature. The previous version was described in "Bimaterial Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators." Both versions are intended to serve as inexpensive means of preventing (to first order) or reducing temperature-related changes in resonance frequencies.

  10. Nuclear Safety for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiong, Etim

    2010-09-01

    It is trite, albeit a truism, to say that nuclear power can provide propulsion thrust needed to launch space vehicles and also, to provide electricity for powering on-board systems, especially for missions to the Moon, Mars and other deep space missions. Nuclear Power Sources(NPSs) are known to provide more capabilities than solar power, fuel cells and conventional chemical means. The worry has always been that of safety. The earliest superpowers(US and former Soviet Union) have designed and launched several nuclear-powered systems, with some failures. Nuclear failures and accidents, however little the number, could be far-reaching geographically, and are catastrophic to humans and the environment. Building on the numerous research works on nuclear power on Earth and in space, this paper seeks to bring to bear, issues relating to safety of space systems - spacecrafts, astronauts, Earth environment and extra terrestrial habitats - in the use and application of nuclear power sources. It also introduces a new formal training course in Space Systems Safety.

  11. Reference-free nonuniformity compensation for IR imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Multi-detector IR imaging focal plane arrays possess large detector-to-detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations which can completely mask the useful thermal signatures in IR scenes. Conventional detector compensation techniques require uniform temperature references of constant radiance over the entire field of view and a mechanical/electro-optical shutter. This detracts from the mechanical simplicity of multi-detector staring focal planes (which require no scanning). This paper describes a real-time offset and responsivity (gain) compensation technique which dispenses with temperature references and shutters in staring focal planes. The technique makes use of the IR scene itself for calibration and continuously updates the compensation coefficients without interrupting the field of view with a shutter or a temperature reference. The results of real-time simulations of this technique with a number of sensors are presented. Real-time hardware implementation considerations suggest that the technique can be implemented with the addition of very little hardware to a conventional compensation technique requiring temperature references. The technique is also suitable for multi-detector scanning focal planes and for the removal of shading in TV sensors as well.

  12. Supplementary Material for: High-Order Composite Likelihood Inference for Max-Stable Distributions and Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In multivariate or spatial extremes, inference for max-stable processes observed at a large collection of points is a very challenging problem and current approaches typically rely on less expensive composite likelihoods constructed from small subsets of data. In this work, we explore the limits of modern state-of-the-art computational facilities to perform full likelihood inference and to efficiently evaluate high-order composite likelihoods. With extensive simulations, we assess the loss of information of composite likelihood estimators with respect to a full likelihood approach for some widely used multivariate or spatial extreme models, we discuss how to choose composite likelihood truncation to improve the efficiency, and we also provide recommendations for practitioners. This article has supplementary material online.

  13. Supplementary Modern Mathematics for Grades 1 through 9 - In-Service Course for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Donald; And Others

    This supplementary modern mathematics textbook is to help in-service teachers to broaden their background in mathematical concepts and ideas for grades 1 through 9. This in-service course was written with two basic objectives: (1) to help teachers to become familiar with some of the newer mathematical ideas and concepts for grades 1 through 9, and…

  14. Study on A Control Method of PAPF for Resonance Damping and Harmonics Compensation in Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fang; Wu, Longhui; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound with traditi......In power system, capacitors are widely used to compensate reactive power, which generally cause resonance problems in harmonic distorted network. In this paper, A method of using a parallel active power filter (PAPF) to damp the resonances is proposed. The proposed method is compound...

  15. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  16. REMINDER CONCERNING THE SUPPLEMENTARY CONTRIBUTION PAYABLE TO THE HEALT INSURANCE SCHEME FOR SPOUSE COVERAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the affiliation of the spouse to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In 2002, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the supplementary contribution are:   more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- more than 130'000 CHF: 461.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare a change in the annual income of his/her spouse as soon as possible in order to adjust contributions with the m...

  17. Supplementary contribution payable to the health insurance scheme for the spouse's coverage

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in the spouse or registered partner's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse or registered partner's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse or registered partner. From 1.1.2007, for the following monthly income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the monthly supplementary contribution are: more than 2'500 CHF and up to 4'250 CHF: 134.- more than 4'250 CHF and up to 7'500 CHF: 234.- more than 7'500 CHF and up to 10'000 CHF: 369.- more than 10'000 CHF: 461.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare a change in the annual ...

  18. Supplementary contribution payable to the health insurance scheme for the spouse's coverage

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. Changes to the rules and simplification to the system are currently being prepared and should be operational by mid-2005. Meanwhile from 1.1.2005, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the monthly supplementary contribution are: more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- more than 130'000 CHF: 459.- It is in the member o...

  19. REMINDER: SUPPLEMENTARY CONTRIBUTION PAYABLE TO THE HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME FOR THE SPOUSE'S COVERAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In 2003, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the supplementary contribution are : - more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- - more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- - more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- - more than 130'000 CHF: 468.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare as soon as possible a change in the annual income of his spouse in order that the contribution is adjusted w...

  20. Shadow Detection and Compensation for Color Aerial Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shugen; GUO Zejin; LI Deren

    2003-01-01

    A method for shadow detection and compensation for color aerial images is presented. It is considered that the intensity value of each image pixel is the product of illumination function and ground object reflection, and the shadowed regions on the image are mainly caused by the short of illumination, so the information compensation for the shadowed regions should concentrate on the illumination adjustment of concerned area on the basis of the analysis of whole image. The shadow detection and compensation procedure proposed by this paper consists of four steps.

  1. Supplementary Material for: Factor Copula Models for Replicated Spatial Data

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new copula model that can be used with replicated spatial data. Unlike the multivariate normal copula, the proposed copula is based on the assumption that a common factor exists and affects the joint dependence of all measurements of the process. Moreover, the proposed copula can model tail dependence and tail asymmetry. The model is parameterized in terms of a covariance function that may be chosen from the many models proposed in the literature, such as the Matérn model. For some choice of common factors, the joint copula density is given in closed form and therefore likelihood estimation is very fast. In the general case, one-dimensional numerical integration is needed to calculate the likelihood, but estimation is still reasonably fast even with large data sets. We use simulation studies to show the wide range of dependence structures that can be generated by the proposed model with different choices of common factors. We apply the proposed model to spatial temperature data and compare its performance with some popular geostatistics models.

  2. A High Efficiency Charging Strategy for a Supercapacitor Using a Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Inductor/Capacitor/Capacitor (LCC Compensation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the application of rail transit vehicles, when using typical wireless power transfer (WPT systems with series–series (SS compensation supply power for supercapacitors, the output current is in an approximately inverse relationship with the duty cycle in a wide range. This renders the typical buck circuit control inappropriate. In order to help resolve the above issues, this paper designs inductor/capacitor/capacitor (LCC compensation with new compensation parameters, which can achieve an adjustable quasi-constant voltage from the input of the inverter to the output of the rectifier. In addition, the two-port network method is used to analyze the resonant compensation circuit. The analysis shows that LCC compensation is more suitable for the WPT system using the supercapacitor as the energy storage device. In the case of LCC compensation topology combined with the charging characteristics of the supercapacitor, an efficient charging strategy is designed, namely first constant current charging, followed by constant power charging. Based on the analysis of LCC compensation, the system has an optimal load, by which the system works at the maximum efficiency point. Combined with the characteristics of the constant voltage output, the system can maintain high efficiency in the constant power stage by making constant output power the same as the optimal power point. Finally, the above design is verified through experiments.

  3. 26 CFR 509.112 - Compensation for labor or personal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.112 Compensation for labor... include, but shall not be limited to, the compensation, profits, emoluments, or other remuneration of... Revenue Code of 1954, and the regulations thereunder. (c) Exception. The provisions of this section have...

  4. Preliminary Study on the Legal Conflict of our Country Marriage Alternative Provisions and Supplementary Provisions in the National Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yingpeng

    2015-01-01

    The national autonomous areas exercise an important way of autonomy power to make adaptive or supplementary provisions to the existing laws, and the diversity between different ethnic groups determines the adaptive or supplementary provisions that are bound to the existence of conflict in the legislative content and legal application. On the basis of adaptive or supplementary provisions, this paper carries out the analysis on the law conflict problems of marriage adaptive or supplementary provisions, hoping to start a discussion, and make scholars foeusing on the conflict of national regional autonomy law.

  5. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Allen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclear systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the United States to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.

  6. Modelling the effect of supplementary lighting on production and light utilisation efficiency of greenhouse crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementary lighting (SL) on dry matter production of greenhouse crops is predictable with ALSIM, a new crop growth model based on SUCROS87. The light utilization efficiency (LUE), defined as daily dry matter production divided by the daily photosynthetic photon flux is a parameter f

  7. Effects of thinning on wind damage in Pinus thunbergii plantation ——Based on theoretlcal derlvation of risk—ratios for assessing wind damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJiao-jun; LIFeng-qin; CondaYutaka; TakeshiMatsuzaki; MasashiYamamoto

    2003-01-01

    Based on paper of "Theoretical derivation of risk-ratios for assessing wind damage in coastal forest",wind damage in the pine coasteal forest,which was thinned at four levels in December of 1997,was investigated for four successive growing seasons.Besides wind damage,the wind profiles outside and inside the coastal forest stand and the distributions of optical stratification porosity (OSP) were also observed.Based on these data,risk-ratios of wind damage for both individual trees and stands were estimated according to the methods developed in "Theoretical derivation of risk-ratios for assessing wind damage in a coastal forest".The results showed that risk-ratios of wind damage,which were calculated from the meen height and diameter only and from the combination of wind and stand sructure profiles,accurately predicted wind damage in the plantation.Relationships between different thinning ratios and incidence of wind damage showed that stand stability decreased soon after the thinning.This was due to the immediate effects of thinning on increasing the canopy roughness and wind load,and on decreasing the sheltering effects from surrounding trees.However,thinning strategies could improve the stability by long-term effects on growthand development of trees against extreme wind.Only canopy damage was recorded during the experimental period,no stem damage was found,even though the maximum 10-min wind speed outside the coastal forest attained 30.2m s-1.The results obtained in this study indicate that thinning is the most effective silvicultural strategy available for managing coastal forest despite the increased probability of wind damage soon after thinning.

  8. Study on Compensation Control of STATCOM Based on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced modular multi-level converter (MMC, which could enhance the voltage and power level by sub-converter modules in series and was easy to extend to any level of output. Its structure and working mechanism were described. By analyzing the energy transfer performance of STATCOM based on MMC working conditions in the compensation, a comprehensive compensation control strategy was proposed based on direct current control mode. By analyzing the higher harmonic components circulation generated by the inconsistencies in the three-phase upper and lower arm voltage, a loop control strategy is proposed for the suppression of the circulation in the arms of the M-STATCOM. The simulation results show the strategy has a better tracking precision and response speed for the compensation control.

  9. Prioritization methodology for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: a study case on the Iraq former nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjies, Adnan; Abbas, Mohammed; Monken Fernandes, Horst; Wong, Melanie; Coates, Roger

    2013-05-01

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive waste. The principal nuclear site being Al-Tuwaitha. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars and have been subjected to subsequent looting. All require decommissioning in order to ensure both radiological and non-radiological safety. However, it is not possible to undertake the decommissioning of all sites and facilities at the same time. Therefore, a prioritization methodology has been developed in order to aid the decision-making process. The methodology comprises three principal stages of assessment: i) a quantitative surrogate risk assessment ii) a range of sensitivity analyses and iii) the inclusion of qualitative modifying factors. A group of Tuwaitha facilities presented the highest risk among the evaluated ones, followed by a middle ranking grouping of Tuwaitha facilities and some other sites, and a relatively large group of lower risk facilities and sites. The initial order of priority is changed when modifying factors are taken into account. It has to be considered the Iraq's isolation from the international nuclear community over the last two decades and the lack of experienced personnel. Therefore it is appropriate to initiate decommissioning operations on selected low risk facilities at Tuwaitha in order to build capacity and prepare for work to be carried out in more complex and potentially high hazard facilities. In addition it is appropriate to initiate some prudent precautionary actions relating to some of the higher risk facilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compensation in Flood Risk Management with a Focus on Shifts in Compensation Regimes Regarding Prevention, Mitigation and Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn van Doorn-Hoekveld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, the history of water management and water safety especially, goes back centuries. Compensation of damage caused by lawful acts of an administrative body (no-fault liability is developed mostly in the field of water management and has quite a long history as well. The compensation of no-fault liability in the Netherlands since its introduction has been part of public law and not of civil law. This does not mean that the administration cannot be held liable for wrongful actions, in which case private law is applied. There is a strict distinction between wrongful and lawful acts of the administration: both can cause damage, but the way they are compensated differs: for lawful acts, public law is applied and for wrongful acts civil law (tort law is applied. This article only considers public law, because it is the most important branch of law for the compensation of damage caused in the field of water safety. The field of water safety and flood risk management has seen many new developments, of which integration is the latest one. However, the course of flood risk management tends towards more segmentation of responsibilities. No-fault liability and other questions of compensation are also areas that are developing towards more integration. Assessment of  no-fault liability in the field of water safety management cannot be made without taking into consideration the historical development of the responsibility of the state for water management tasks in general. In this contribution, the author addresses the historical development of responsibilities of the state for water management tasks, recent developments in this area and the system of no-fault liability regarding measures to prevent flooding.

  11. INVESTIGATION ON ELASTO-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL COUPLED WITH DAMAGE FOR LOCALIZATION PHENOMENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新普; 沈国晓; 陈立新

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of existing plasticity-based damage model for plasticity coupled with damage for localization analysis, constitutive parameter identification was carried out through a series of numerical tests at local level. And then improvements were made on the expressions of the evolution laws of damage. Strain localization phenomena were simulated with a typical double-notched specimen under tensions. Numerical results indicate the validity of the proposed theory.

  12. NIRS as an alternative to conventional soil analysis for Greenland soils (focus on SOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Ogric, Mateja; Adhikari, Kabindra;

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important soil property. It is the main constituents of soil organic matter and a good indicator of soil quality. The estimation and mapping of SOC content could be used to select potential agricultural areas in the Arctic areas. However, conventional analysis of SOC...... are time consuming and expensive. They involve a lot of sample preparation, and chemicals and are destructive. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the range between 400 and 2500 nm is an alternative method for SOC analysis. It is fast and non-destructive. The aims of this study where to test...... the feasibility of using NIRS to estimate SOC content on a landscape and field scale in Greenland. Partial Least squares regression models were built to correlated soil spectra and their reference SOC data to develop calibration models. Very good predictive ability for both landscape and field scale were obtained...

  13. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Text] Furnas Chairman Camilo Pena has said the operation of the Angra I nuclear plant has been delayed once again. Furnas is suing the American...Westinghouse company and is demanding compensation for damages caused by a malfunction in the Angra I power generator. According to Camilo Pena, Angra I

  14. Energy consumption in trade and service sector. Supplementary report 1: Data on energy consumption for heating; Energiforbruget i handels- og servicesektoren. Bilagsrapport 1: Noegletal for energiforbruget til opvarmning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Data on heating use in the commercial and service sector are divided according to fuel type. Tables of space and water heating are given for gas oil, natural gas and district heating. Emission from district heating and individual heating plants is given with regard to the combusted fuel. (EG) 12 refs.

  15. On the compensation effect in heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bligaard; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2003-01-01

    why this should be a general effect for a broad class of reactions. We will show that the compensation effect in the rate is intimately linked to the underlying linear relationships between activation energy and stability of intermediates, which have been found to hold for a number of surface...

  16. Compensating temperature-induced ultrasonic phase and amplitude changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peng; Hay, Thomas R.; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    In ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), environmental and operational conditions, especially temperature, can significantly affect the propagation of ultrasonic waves and thus degrade damage detection. Typically, temperature effects are compensated using optimal baseline selection (OBS) or optimal signal stretch (OSS). The OSS method achieves compensation by adjusting phase shifts caused by temperature, but it does not fully compensate phase shifts and it does not compensate for accompanying signal amplitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new temperature compensation strategy to address both phase shifts and amplitude changes. In this strategy, OSS is first used to compensate some of the phase shifts and to quantify the temperature effects by stretching factors. Based on stretching factors, empirical adjusting factors for a damage indicator are then applied to compensate for the temperature induced remaining phase shifts and amplitude changes. The empirical adjusting factors can be trained from baseline data with temperature variations in the absence of incremental damage. We applied this temperature compensation approach to detect volume loss in a thick wall aluminum tube with multiple damage levels and temperature variations. Our specimen is a thick-walled short tube, with dimensions closely comparable to the outlet region of a frac iron elbow where flow-induced erosion produces the volume loss that governs the service life of that component, and our experimental sequence simulates the erosion process by removing material in small damage steps. Our results show that damage detection is greatly improved when this new temperature compensation strategy, termed modified-OSS, is implemented.

  17. Nuclear characteristics of the endometrial cytology: liquid-based versus conventional preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Yanoh, Kenji; Kawanishi, Namiki; Kobayashi, Tadao K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of liquid-based cytologic preparation (LP) compared with conventional preparation (CP) for the assessment of nuclear findings in endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) which may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma in EGBD cases. The material consists of cytologic smears including 20 cases of proliferative endometrium (PE), 20 cases of EGBD, and 20 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade1 (G1) for which histopathological diagnosis was obtained by endometrial curettage at the JA Suzuka General Hospital. Nuclear findings were examined in PE cells, EGBD-stromal cells, EGBD-metaplastic cells, and G1 cells, respectively. It was examined about the following items; (1) nuclear shape; (2) A long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; (3) an area of cell nuclei; (4) overlapping nuclei. Results are as follows: (1) nuclear shape; as for the reniform shape of EGBD-stromal cells and spindle shape of EGBD-metaplastic cells, the ratio of the LP method was a higher value than the CP method. (2) The long axis and area of cell nuclei; LP in all groups was a recognizable tendency for nuclear shrinkage. (3) The long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; only EGBD-metaplastic cells recognize a significant difference between CP and LP. (4) Overlapping nuclei; LP was a higher value in comparison with CP in the other groups except PE cells, and the degree of overlapping nuclei was enhanced about three times. Therefore, although a cell of LP has a shrinking tendency, (1) it is excellent that LP preserves a characteristic of nuclear shape than CP; (2) a cellular characteristic becomes clearer, because three-dimensional architecture of LP is preserved of than CP. As for the standard preparation method for endometrial cytology samples, we considered that a concrete introduction of the LP method poses no problems.

  18. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: nvaidehi@coh.org [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  19. Quantification of LOCA core damage frequency based on thermal-hydraulics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaehyun, E-mail: chojh@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong-San; Lim, Ho-Gon

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • We quantified the LOCA core damage frequency based on the best-estimated success criteria analysis. • The thermal-hydraulic analysis using MARS code has been applied to Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants. • Five new event trees with new break size boundaries and new success criteria were developed. • The core damage frequency is 5.80E−07 (/y), which is 12% less than the conventional PSA event trees. - Abstract: A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has always been significantly considered one of the most important initiating events. However, most probabilistic safety assessment models, up to now, have undoubtedly adopted the three groups of LOCA, and even an exact break size boundary that used in WASH-1400 reports was published in 1975. With an awareness of the importance of a realistic PSA for a risk-informed application, several studies have tried to find the realistic thermal-hydraulic behavior of a LOCA, and improve the PSA model. The purpose of this research is to obtain realistic results of the LOCA core damage frequency based on a success criteria analysis using the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code. To do so, the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) was selected for this study. The MARS code was used for a thermal hydraulics analysis and the AIMS code was used for the core damage quantification. One of the major findings in the thermal hydraulics analysis was that the decay power is well removed by only a normal secondary cooling in LOCAs of below 1.4 in and by only a high pressure safety injection in LOCAs of 0.8–9.4 in. Based on the thermal hydraulics results regarding new break size boundaries and new success criteria, five new event trees (ETs) were developed. The core damage frequency of new LOCA ETs is 5.80E−07 (/y), which is 12% less than the conventional PSA ETs. In this research, we obtained not only thermal-hydraulics characteristics for the entire break size of a LOCA in view of the deterministic safety

  20. Effect of supplementary food on age ratios of European turtle doves (Streptopelia turtur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha, G.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many farmland birds have difficulties finding sufficient food in intensely managed agricultural ecosystems, and in more extensively worked landscapes they are often attracted to human–induced dietary sources. European turtle doves Streptopelia turtur feed on seeds collected on the ground, and are readily attracted to supplementary provided grain at feeding stations. Supplementary feeding is a common management practice on hunting estates around the world. This study was conducted in 40 hunting estates located in central west Spain: 20 sites where supplementary food was provided to attract turtle doves and 20 control sites without feeding stations. At sites with supplemental feeding, the field age ratio was 20% higher and the hunted age ratio was 33% higher than at control sites, indicating a positive effect of the food supplementation of the breeding success around supplemented sites. Both the amount of food provided per day and the amount of time where supplemental food was given (20–120 days were positively correlated with the field age ratio and, less strongly, with the hunted age ratio. These data suggest that providing extra food can increase the breeding success of this species when the amount provided is sufficiently large and when supplementary food is provided early in the breeding season. However, hunting pressure was also higher at supplemented sites. Future studies should therefore closely monitor the positive and negative effects in order to ascertain which management practices will ensure the viability of these important European turtle dove populations.