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Sample records for convention cities sydney

  1. Melbourne versus Sydney: semiotic reflections on first and second cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Leone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban marketing has recently been adopting the concept, and the label, of “second city”. However, this concept requires sharper theoretical definition in order to turn heuristic. Thus far, it has been conceived in relation to an “ideology of ranking”, strictly related to the worldview of post-modern globalization. A more fruitful definition of “second cities” results from Charles S. Peirce’s idea of secondness: a city is second to another not in quantitative, but in qualitative and relational terms. The semiotic model of Jurij M. Lotman offers a suitable methodology to analyse this relational definition, as it is exemplified by the case-study of the rivalry between Melbourne and Sydney. A historical survey of their relation shows that the latter progressively embraced an identity of “secondness” so as to successfully market an alternative vision of urban life. Melbourne therefore provides a model for non-quantitative construction of urban distinctiveness.

  2. Competitiveness, Migration, and Mobility in the Global City: Insights from Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hu

    2015-01-01

    The global city thesis and the migration thesis concern two important dimensions of the impacts of contemporary globalization on cities. The two theses are intrinsically linked. The central question is how we should approach migration in the new context of the global city, and how we should articulate their interrelationships. To address this question, we construct an integrative analytical framework linking global city and migration, and empirically apply it to Sydney. We build a set of inde...

  3. Tracing Discourses of Social Action: Inner-City Sydney Neighbourhood Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, John

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on my doctoral research around community organizations in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. The neighbourhood centres (NCs) provide a case study of sites where discourses of feminism, multiculturalism and urban environmentalism have been activated within a social justice framework. The research participants were activists…

  4. Competitiveness, Migration, and Mobility in the Global City: Insights from Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The global city thesis and the migration thesis concern two important dimensions of the impacts of contemporary globalization on cities. The two theses are intrinsically linked. The central question is how we should approach migration in the new context of the global city, and how we should articulate their interrelationships. To address this question, we construct an integrative analytical framework linking global city and migration, and empirically apply it to Sydney. We build a set of indexes to measure global competitiveness, global migration, and global mobility of communities across global Sydney. The findings reveal that global competitiveness—the defining capacity of Sydney as a global city—has very weak association with global migration that measures the stock of foreign born population, but has very strong association with global mobility that measures the people movement in recent years. These findings call for a redefinition of migration to incorporate people movement to better capture the interplay between global city and migration.

  5. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney, Australia, 8 14 July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-07-01

    At GR17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GR18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GR conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GR18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb overviews

  6. Ethnicity and Public Space in the City: Ethnic Precincts in Sydney

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    Jock Collins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4 is constructed on representations of ethnicity and ‘immigrantness’. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (“Little Turkey” and Cabramatta (“Vietnamatta”. This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are ‘co-ethnic’, ‘co-cultural’ or ‘Others”. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.

  7. Sydney's Past, History's Future: The Dictionary of Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Murray

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dictionary of Sydney www.dictionaryofsydney.org is a ground breaking, multimedia city biography that can present the history of metropolitan Sydney on the web, in your hand and on the street. Through its historical model the digital repository allows historical elements to be classified, connected, geo-referenced and mapped through space and time. By combining the fine-grained with the global, the histories in the Dictionary mirror the experience of the metropolis – the intimate and the personal interact with the impersonal and indeed often random nature of city life. A purely digital history redefines the possibilities for urban history and public history. This paper will introduce the Dictionary of Sydney, share some of the challenges and joys of building a digital history, and reflect upon the ways digital history as a publication form is shaping and changing the practice of public history.

  8. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief…

  9. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  10. Community attitudes towards harm reduction services and a newly established needle and syringe automatic dispensing machine in an inner-city area of Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bethany; Haber, Paul S; Day, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Automatic dispensing machines (ADMs) are an inexpensive method of increasing needle and syringe distribution to people who inject drugs but widespread implementation has been limited. The operation of ADMs in Australia has been met with apparent community opposition despite national data indicating support for harm reduction. Key community concerns include perceived increases in crime and drug use. This study aimed to examine community-level support for a newly implemented ADM in an inner-city Sydney area known for high levels of drug use. Attitudes to harm reduction and ADMs were assessed via a brief face-to-face survey of local residents (n=118) and businesses (n=35) located within the vicinity of needle and syringe program (NSP) services including the ADM. Participation was voluntary and no reimbursement was provided. Univariate analysis assessed statistically significant differences between residents' and businesses' knowledge of, and support for, a range of harm reduction initiatives, both generally and in the local area. Univariate logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with indicating support for an ADM locally. The response rate was higher among businesses (60%) compared to residents living in street-accessible dwellings (42%). Participants indicated support for fixed-site NSPs in general (83%) and locally (77%). Support for ADMs was slightly lower - 67% indicated support for ADMs generally and 60% locally. Negative opinions regarding ADMs (believing that they encourage drug use, attract drug users to the area and increase drug-related crime) were found to be significantly associated with a lower likelihood of indicating support for ADMs locally. Despite media reports suggesting widespread community concern, there was general community support for harm reduction, including ADMs. While it is important that harm reduction services are aware of community concerns and respond appropriately, such responses should be considered and

  11. Western Sydney is hot! Community arts and changing perceptions of the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Can the arts change how we view cities? How can we evaluate the broad social impacts of arts programs, particularly in elusive areas such as the local image of urban communities? This article examines the cultural renaissance of Western Sydney, long considered a crass, working-class cultural wasteland. In the last two decades, the region has experienced a proliferation of new artistic initiatives, and advocates now hail Sydney’s West as the true face of multicultural Australia’s cultural vitality. This article also documents how community arts and development programs have contributed to these shifting perceptions, analysing these contributions in terms of social impact evaluation. It argues that evaluating social impact expands the parameters of conventional evaluation techniques, which typically focus on program-level outputs and outcomes. It presents a case study of a Western Sydney community organisation, Information and Cultural Exchange (ICE, which, for 20 years, has delivered community cultural development and professional development programs for Western Sydney artists. Engaging with historically disadvantaged communities, the organisation has specialised in art forms that have resonated with the region, including hip hop, digital storytelling, and filmmaking, and in the process has played a key role in re-imagining Western Sydney as a cutting edge, multicultural hub of creative vibrancy. Keywords: Western Sydney, community arts, evaluation, social impact

  12. Should cities hosting mass gatherings invest in public health surveillance and planning? Reflections from a decade of mass gatherings in Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Muscatello David; Fizzell Jan; Churches Timothy; Thackway Sarah; Armstrong Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mass gatherings have been defined by the World Health Organisation as "events attended by a sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of a community, state or nation". This paper explores the public health response to mass gatherings in Sydney, the factors that influenced the extent of deployment of resources and the utility of planning for mass gatherings as a preparedness exercise for other health emergencies. Discussion Not all mass gathe...

  13. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  14. Chapman, Prof. Sydney

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1947 Honorary. Chapman, Prof. Sydney. Date of birth: 29 January 1888. Date of death: 16 June 1970. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach. Math and Finance ...

  15. Should cities hosting mass gatherings invest in public health surveillance and planning? Reflections from a decade of mass gatherings in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscatello David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass gatherings have been defined by the World Health Organisation as "events attended by a sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of a community, state or nation". This paper explores the public health response to mass gatherings in Sydney, the factors that influenced the extent of deployment of resources and the utility of planning for mass gatherings as a preparedness exercise for other health emergencies. Discussion Not all mass gatherings of people require enhanced surveillance and additional response. The main drivers of extensive public health planning for mass gatherings reflect geographical spread, number of international visitors, event duration and political and religious considerations. In these instances, the implementation of a formal risk assessment prior to the event with ongoing daily review is important in identifying public health hazards. Developing and utilising event-specific surveillance to provide early-warning systems that address the specific risks identified through the risk assessment process are essential. The extent to which additional resources are required will vary and depend on the current level of surveillance infrastructure. Planning the public health response is the third step in preparing for mass gatherings. If the existing public health workforce has been regularly trained in emergency response procedures then far less effort and resources will be needed to prepare for each mass gathering event. The use of formal emergency management structures and co-location of surveillance and planning operational teams during events facilitates timely communication and action. Summary One-off mass gathering events can provide a catalyst for innovation and engagement and result in opportunities for ongoing public health planning, training and surveillance enhancements that outlasted each event.

  16. Should cities hosting mass gatherings invest in public health surveillance and planning? Reflections from a decade of mass gatherings in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackway, Sarah; Churches, Timothy; Fizzell, Jan; Muscatello, David; Armstrong, Paul

    2009-09-08

    Mass gatherings have been defined by the World Health Organisation as "events attended by a sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of a community, state or nation". This paper explores the public health response to mass gatherings in Sydney, the factors that influenced the extent of deployment of resources and the utility of planning for mass gatherings as a preparedness exercise for other health emergencies. Not all mass gatherings of people require enhanced surveillance and additional response. The main drivers of extensive public health planning for mass gatherings reflect geographical spread, number of international visitors, event duration and political and religious considerations. In these instances, the implementation of a formal risk assessment prior to the event with ongoing daily review is important in identifying public health hazards.Developing and utilising event-specific surveillance to provide early-warning systems that address the specific risks identified through the risk assessment process are essential. The extent to which additional resources are required will vary and depend on the current level of surveillance infrastructure.Planning the public health response is the third step in preparing for mass gatherings. If the existing public health workforce has been regularly trained in emergency response procedures then far less effort and resources will be needed to prepare for each mass gathering event. The use of formal emergency management structures and co-location of surveillance and planning operational teams during events facilitates timely communication and action. One-off mass gathering events can provide a catalyst for innovation and engagement and result in opportunities for ongoing public health planning, training and surveillance enhancements that outlasted each event.

  17. In the Shadows of the Mission: Education Policy, Urban Space, and the "Colonial Present" in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Parkes, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with enduring histories and micro-geographies of the (post)colonial Australian nation, played out through contemporary connections between Aboriginality, inner Sydney and educational policy change. This paper traces the "racialization" of space and place in the Sydney inner city suburb of Redfern, including the…

  18. Singapore and Sydney: Regulation and Market-Making

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    Ching Leong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The different institutional forms of water utilities of Singapore and Sydney provide an interesting natural experiment on the role of a regulator in government-owned utilities (GOUs. In both cities, water is provided by GOUs. In Sydney, however, there is an independent regulator whereas in Singapore the Public Utilities Board is a statutory board without a regulator. This paper compared the regulation and market-making efforts by water utilities of Singapore and Sydney. We find that both are similar in quality of service, operational and economic efficiencies, and private sector investments. The difference lies in their choice of the instrument for involving the private sector. Sydney does this by appointing a specific regulator whereas Singapore uses contracts. Indeed, it argues that the government-owned water utilities of both Sydney and Singapore seek to capture as many benefits as possible from market-making efforts, that is, from mimicking private sector behaviors and by operating from the basic tenets of the regulatory state. Both countries seek to make rules addressing the “market failure” of a monopoly. In Sydney, such efforts are seen in the explicit contestability of the market and the high engagement with customers whereas in Singapore the efforts are more muted on both counts and are instead motivated toward developing water businesses as a whole

  19. Permanence, Adaptation or Reuse: Transformations in the convents of the city of Seville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero Hernández, Antonio; Pérez Cano, María Teresa

    2016-10-01

    The rich history of the city of Seville has provided it a wide architectural heritage, which is necessary to preserve. In the early twentieth century, Spain began to express concern about the preservation of its historical legacy, trying to protect historical and artistic monuments. However, it was not until the arrival of the democratic political system that this awareness of preservation took true precedence over other matters. In this temporal context, the young Andalusian Government was looking for definitive venues for the new institutions, with the target of the upcoming Universal Exhibition of Seville in 1992. The recognized architect Guillermo Vázquez Consuegra was commissioned to study a range of buildings in the city susceptible of hosting new uses, published in the book "Cien Edificios de Sevilla, susceptibles de reutilización para usos institucionales". This work has become a reference catalogue of Sevillian-built heritage. Looking at the one hundred (100) buildings studied there, all of a certain scale in the city, 18 are convents or exconvents. This paper will try to find out the destiny of these buildings themselves as monastic heritage, but also in relationship to other types of heritages.

  20. Warragamba. Sydney, Australia

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    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El pantano de Warragamba, cuyo objeto es el de producir energía hidroeléctrica en su primera fase de explotación y solamente agua potable cuando las necesidades de ésta así lo requieran, se haya situado en las proximidades de Sydney (Australia. Su extensa cuenca está constituida por una serie de ríos en cuyas cabeceras se han construido diques de retención, que no solamente almacenan grandes cantidades de agua, sino que sirven parcialmente para la regularización de caudales, función de gran interés en esta zona donde las avenidas, seguidas de extensas inundaciones, se hacen sentir con relativa frecuencia.

  1. Rewriting "The Road to Nowhere": Place Pedagogies in Western Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Negative representations of parts of our cities are endemic in the Australian media, where certain suburbs function as motifs for failure--past, present, and future. Indeed, as one journalist put it after invoking the "interchangeable" triumvirate of Sydney's Mount Druitt, Melbourne's West Heidelberg, and Brisbane's Inala, "geography is destiny"…

  2. Modernizing the symbol of Sydney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerchlango, Jørg

    2004-01-01

    Sydney's 25-year old trademark and art house is being modernized. Jørn Utzon is back in the arena with his beloved opera house. The same opera house that he was originally denied further access......Sydney's 25-year old trademark and art house is being modernized. Jørn Utzon is back in the arena with his beloved opera house. The same opera house that he was originally denied further access...

  3. The Sydney Opera House: Politics in the Creation of an Icon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian; Tyrrell, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The Sydney Opera House is one of the most innovative and iconic buildings of the twentieth century, which owes its existence to brilliant, but flawed realisation of various personal and political ambitions. Despite not being fully realised as its architect Jørn Utzon had envisioned it, the Opera...... House has become the reference for politicians and the wider public alike of how a single work of architecture can transform the identity of a city and even, as in this case, a nation. This Paper examine the background to the original political vision and international architectural competition...... for the Sydney Opera House, illuminating how politics undermined the project, with consequences that last to this day. The ambition to build an Opera House on a promontory within the magnificent Sydney Harbour, was driven during the mid-1950’s by the conductor of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, and championed...

  4. The Role of Conventional Ultrasound in the Assessment of Thyroid Nodule in Erbil City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Sarbast Ismail; Hanary, Salah Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nodular thyroid disease is relatively common although thyroid cancer is rare. The aim of this study is to evaluate the advantage and reliability of conventional ultrasound in correlating sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodule with US-FNAC guided result as a diagnostic aid in thyroid nodule. Method: 111 patients were examined by…

  5. Challenging Racism through Schools: Teacher Attitudes to Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, James; Lean, Garth; Dunn, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    How school teachers act to challenge racism in schools is a vital concern in an immigrant society like Australia. A 10% response from a self-administered online survey of government (public) primary and secondary school teachers across Sydney, Australia's largest EthniCity, examines attitudes of classroom teachers towards cultural diversity, goals…

  6. Sydney ja selle maaliline naabrus / Anneli Ira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ira, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Sydney ümbrusesse jäävatest looduslikest vaatamisväärsustest: Royal National Park, Grand Pacific Drive, Sinimäed, Jenola koopad; austraalia köögist, majutuse ning transpordi alaseid nõuandeid jne

  7. Sydney harbourings, rehabilitations and the politics of procurement

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    Catherine de Lorenzo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years Sydney has been transformed to an unprecedented extent by public art projects, most of which have been developed by government instrumentalities, agencies or partnerships. The central city council has initiated a Sculpture Walk through the streets and around the rocky foreshores of the inner city; the Sydney Olympic site at Homebush Bay is home to a number of public art works; the government’s water utility company has sponsored an annual, temporary art installation walk along a spectacularly rugged ocean escarpment linking several medium-density suburbs; another instrumentality recently established to oversee the reuse of abandoned heavy industrial sites in the harbour, has established the ‘Promenart’ program along fifteen kilometres of harbour foreshores; and a government-appointed statutory authority responsible for the redevelopment of an extensive and highly polluted former industrial site between the CDB and the airport, has worked closely with designers and artists to develop comprehensive briefs addressing environmental rehabilitation and social interaction. This impressive list is by no means exhaustive. The surge in bureaucratic and artistic creative energy demands critical evaluation. In this paper I will contrast two sets of projects. This first concerns actual projects, in or near the spectacular Sydney Harbour setting, which are premised on placemaking principles and on the whole elicit actual or imagined histories for the delight and reverie of the promenader. Despite the popular and aesthetic success of these projects, one of them, the ambitious Sculpture Walk, is currently being re-evaluated. The second set, in more mundane suburban environments and centred on toxic waterways, concerns projects that at this stage are either being implemented or nearing commencement by interdisciplinary groups of artists, designers, engineers, environmentalists, community representatives, and other specialists. Their

  8. The virtual promenade, didactic experiments on the potentials of combining conventional and digital modelling of the city experienced in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette; Bohn, Claus

    2014-01-01

    modelling seen through latest Virtual Reality technologies. Thus the research question is two-folded: What kind of architecture can we imagine and conjure through movement combining classical tools and methods with newest technology and how do we respond to these new tools and integrate them...... in the education of future architects? This paper is therefore likewise divided. The first part is about the city and the architectural tools involved in the workshop. This section is titled Representing the City. The second part is elaborating on the technical aspects of the Virtual Reality technology used....... This part is titled Applied Desktop Virtual Reality....

  9. Diversity in Health: Sharing Global Perspectives. 28–30 May 2001, Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bandawe, C

    2001-01-01

    This landmark conference on multicultural health and well being was held in the Sydney Convention ind Exhibition Centre overlooking Darling Harbour. The conference was organised by the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network as well as the Australian Multicultural Health Conference. It brought together over 300 delegates mainly from Australia. A unique feature of this conference was the presentation of five speakers from Southern Africa who gave an African perspective to health and wel...

  10. A White Veneer: Education Policy, Space and "Race" in the Inner City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how neo-liberal education policy change and urban renewal in inner Sydney and London has interacted with "raced" and classed educational identities. I draw on two examples of policy change, the "Building the Future" policy development in the inner city area of Sydney and the "Excellence in Cities"…

  11. Conventional energy supply and impacts in African cities; L'approvisionnement en energie traditionnelle et impacts dans les villes africaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2002-03-01

    Before discussing supplies of conventional energy in sub-Sahara, one must consider certain information and important facts. In each country, the supplies in conventional energy are moving within a holistic frame with inter sectoral links between energy and the other problems encountered by national economies: forestry, agriculture, livestock production, demography, urbanization, poverty. In this light, the author indicated it might be wise to take into account a few major facts that underlay the Urban Demand in Domestic Combustibles before devising sustainable solutions. It was explained that in most of the African countries located South of the Sahara, there was a trend toward greater urbanization and the movement of refugees. In large part, these trends are the result of poverty, conflicts, or the degradation of the environment. Therefore, it follows that energy consumption is concentrated in cities. In countries such as Burkina Faso or Zambia, a large proportion of urban dwellers still rely on biomass to meet their culinary needs, as well as heating and other tasks. Urbanization occurred in an anarchic manner, and the forests that used to encircle cities are fast disappearing, leaving in their wake pollution. In addition, the supply sources of biomass are farther than ever. Nowadays, the supply of wood energy for Dakar, the capital of Senegal, extends over an area covering 500 kilometres, rather than the 100 kilometres it required thirty years ago. Wood energy in cities is considered to be the major cause of deforestation. Health problems such as asthma are caused by the smoke emanating from the fires used to cook meals. A few solutions are beginning to emerge, linked to the presence of youth and women in the cities, as well as sufficient manpower to implement the solutions. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Combination of Conventional and Advanced DInSAR to Monitor Very Fast Mining Subsidence with TerraSAR-X Data: Bytom City (Poland

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    Maria Przyłucka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the analysis of TerraSAR-X satellite images combining both conventional and advanced Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR approaches has proven to be effective to detect and monitor fast evolving mining subsidence on urban areas in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland. This region accounts for almost three million inhabitants where mining subsidence has produced severe damage to urban structures and infrastructures in recent years. Conventional DInSAR approach was used to generate 28 differential interferograms between 5 July 2011 and 21 June 2012 identifying 31 subsidence troughs that account up to 245 mm of displacement in 54 days (equivalent to 1660 mm/year. SqueeSARTM processing yielded a very dense measurement point distribution, failing to detect faster displacements than 330 mm/year, which occur within the subsidence troughs detected with conventional DInSAR. Despite this limitation, this approach was useful to delimit stable areas where mining activities are not conducted and areas affected by residual subsidence surrounding the detected subsidence troughs. These residual subsidence mining areas are located approximately 1 km away from the 31 detected subsidence troughs and account for a subsidence rate greater than 17 mm/year on average. The validation of this methodology has been performed over Bytom City were underground mining activity produced severe damages in August 2011. Conventional DInSAR permitted to successfully map subsidence troughs between July and August 2011 that coincide spatially and temporally with the evolution of underground mining excavations, as well as with the demolition of 28 buildings of Karb district. Additionally, SqueeSARTM displacement estimates were useful to delimit an area of 8.3 km2 of Bytom city that is affected by a residual mining subsidence greater than 5 mm/year and could potentially suffer damages in the midterm. The comparison between geodetic data and

  13. The National Trust and the Heritage of Sydney Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Logan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campaigns to preserve the legacy of the past in Australian cities have been particularly focused on the protection of natural landscapes and public open space. From campaigns to protect Perth’s Kings Park and the Green Bans of the Builders Labourers Federation in New South Wales to contemporary controversies such as the Perth waterfront redevelopment, Melbourne’s East West Link, and new development at Middle Harbour in Sydney’s Mosman, heritage activists have viewed the protection and restoration of ‘natural’ vistas, open spaces and ‘scenic landscapes’ as a vital part of the effort to preserve the historic identity of urban places. The protection of such landscapes has been a vital aspect of establishing a positive conception of the environment as a source of both urban and national identity. Drawing predominantly on the records of the National Trust of Australia (NSW, this paper examines the formation and early history of the Australian National Trust, in particular its efforts to preserve and restore the landscapes of Sydney Harbour. It then uses that history as a basis for examining the debate surrounding the landscape reconstruction project that forms part of Sydney’s highly contested Barangaroo development.

  14. Urban Heat Island and Overheating Characteristics in Sydney, Australia. An Analysis of Multiyear Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Santamouris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly important to study the urban heat island phenomenon due to the adverse effects on summertime cooling energy demand, air and water quality and most importantly, heat-related illness and mortality. The present article analyses the magnitude and the characteristics of the urban heat island in Sydney, Australia. Climatic data from six meteorological stations distributed around the greater Sydney region and covering a period of 10 years are used. It is found that both strong urban heat island (UHI and oasis phenomena are developed. The average maximum magnitude of the phenomena may exceed 6 K. The intensity and the characteristics of the phenomena are strongly influenced by the synoptic weather conditions and in particular the development of the sea breeze and the westerly winds from the desert area. The magnitude of the urban heat island varies between 0 and 11°C, as a function of the prevailing weather conditions. The urban heat island mainly develops during the warm summer season while the oasis phenomenon is stronger during the winter and intermediate seasons. Using data from an extended network of stations the distribution of Cooling Degree Days in the greater Sydney area is calculated. It is found that because of the intense development of the UHI, Cooling Degree Days in Western Sydney are about three times higher than in the Eastern coastal zone. The present study will help us to better design and implement urban mitigation strategies to counterbalance the impact of the urban heat island in the city.

  15. Lead intoxication in Sydney Harbour Bridge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C A; Ibels, L S

    1988-02-01

    Thirty-eight Sydney Harbour Bridge workers were assessed for possible lead intoxication. Forty-seven per cent were found to have significant lead intoxication as assessed by calcium disodium edetate chelation (Ca EDTA) testing and were subsequently effectively and safely treated with Ca EDTA. The prevalence of neurological, constitutional, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal symptoms was significantly greater in those with, than those without, lead toxicity. Although blood lead levels and, to a lesser extent, hematological parameters were of some use in diagnosis, they were not sufficiently sensitive and thus should not be used in screening workers at risk of lead intoxication. Ca EDTA testing remains the diagnostic method of choice. Patients exposed to lead dust and fumes, in whom symptoms of lead intoxication are present, should undergo such testing and if a positive result is obtained, then EDTA chelation therapy should be instituted.

  16. For the Bicultural Happy Few Only: Didier Coste’s Days in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Jaccomard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Written by Didier Coste, a French essayist, translator and academic who worked for some years in Australia, Days in Sydney is a unique bilingual novel. Instead of the accepted custom of the original text printed on the opposite page of its translation Days in Sydney contains no translation. It alternates French and English in a seamless fashion that is the antithesis of the conventions of bilingual texts, resulting in a truly heteroglossic text, elliptical in its construction as it meanders between two languages and two main characters. In the publication announcement Didier Coste stated that this unusual book was the result of an ‘nécessité esthétique et une certaine idée de la bi-culture’ aimed at ‘le petit cercle des bilingues d'Australie’. Alongside his creative output Coste has published scholarly works since the late 1980s up to 2004. In English. By examining the principles and practice of heteroglossia and by drawing on one of Coste’s recent academic article, this paper explores the twin notions of ‘nécessité esthétique”, and ‘bi-cultural’ readership to account for the (not so global space between two languages and cultures Days in Sydney occupies.

  17. Proficiency in English, Linguistic Shift and Ethnic Capital: An Intergenerational Analysis of Non-English Speaking Background Immigrant Groups in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, James; Dandy, Justine

    2018-01-01

    Much is known about immigrants' majority language proficiency in the first (immigrant) generation. Less is understood of differences in linguistic shift compared with heritage language retention in subsequent generations. Focusing on Sydney, Australia's largest "EthniCity," we build on Clyne and Kipp's (1999. "Pluricentric Languages…

  18. Determination of Consumers'Preferences for Conventional, Healthy and Organic Cucumbers in Isfahan City Using Choice Experiment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sandoghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuing growth in human population and consumptionmeans that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years and that the world needs 70-100% more food by 2050. Environmental issues such as climate change, depletion of naturalresources and biodiversity loss increasingly threaten the welfare ofhuman civilization. Confronting these threats requires, among otherthings, behavioral changes in citizens, governments and companies.Farmers and other producers are responding to consumer concerns about pesticides by creating new marketing opportunities for products grown with environmentally sound practices. Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding of how people cognitively organize their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action.The purpose of the presentinvestigation is to evaluate the consumers’ preferences and factors affecting their choice for conventional, healthy and organic cucumbers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on a sample of 230consumers in 2013 by using the proportionate stratification samplingmethod through face-to-face interviews based on a comprehensive structured questionnaire. Before the survey, the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were initially evaluated in a pre-test study, respectively, by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO criteria. Individual preferences were uncovered in choice experiment method (CEM by a contingent ranking experiment. In a contingent ranking experiment, respondents are required to rank a set of alternative options, characterized by a number of attributes, which are offered at different levels across the options.Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. The approach consists of modeling utility, that isto say the net benefit a consumer obtains from selecting a

  19. Regional osteoporosis in western Sydney women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcos, G.; Lawson-Smith, R. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Recently, 15% of elderly Japanese-American women have been shown to have marked heterogeneity of bone mineral density (BMD) between measured sites. The purposes of this study were to determine (1 ) the prevalence of this finding in an Australian population; and (2) potential association with clinical factors such as age, years since menopause (YSM), alcohol, smoking, family history, exercise, and body mass index. One hundred and fourteen peri-or post- menopausal Caucasian women (mean age 55 + 8.8 years) were referred for osteoporotic (OP) fracture risk assessment. Patients (pts) had no disorders or drugs known to affect BMD and no evidence of scoliosis or arthritic change. Bone densitometry of the lumbar spine (PA), hip and distal radius were measured using a Norland XR-26. According to WHO criteria, 30 pts (26%) were normal (T score > -1) at all sites; no pts (0%) had generalised OP (T score < -2.5); 29 (25%) had OP in one or two sites only (hip = 25, spine = 13, wrist = 1); the remaining 55 pts (48%) were osteogenic (-2.5 < T score < -1) in at least one site. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, only YSM predicted regional OP (odds ratio = 1.14; pSydney women; of clinical factors only YSM is independently associated with regional OP. Fracture risk classification may be improved by BMD measurement of multiple sites.

  20. Evaluating the transport, health and economic impacts of new urban cycling infrastructure in Sydney, Australia - protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Greaves, Stephen; Wen, Li Ming; Capon, Anthony; Crane, Melanie; Standen, Chris

    2013-10-17

    There are repeated calls to build better cycling paths in Australian cities if the proportion of people cycling is to increase. Yet the full range of transport, health, environmental and economic impacts of new cycling infrastructure and the extent to which observed changes are sustained is not well understood. The City of Sydney is currently building a new bicycle network, which includes a new bicycle path separated from road traffic in the south Sydney area. This protocol paper describes a comprehensive method to evaluate this new cycling infrastructure. A cohort of residents within two kilometres of the new bicycle path will be surveyed at baseline before a new section of bicycle path is built, and again 12 and 24 months later to assess changes in travel behaviour, sense of community, quality of life and health behaviours. Residents in a comparable area of Sydney that will not get a new separated bike path will act as a comparison group. At baseline a sub-set of residents who volunteer will also take a small GPS device with them for one week to assess travel behaviour. This research should contribute to the advancement in evaluation and appraisal methods for cycling projects.

  1. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced

  2. Retrofitting Housing with Lightweight Green Roof Technology in Sydney, Australia, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The built environment contributes around half of total greenhouse gas emissions and with 87% of residential buildings that we will have by 2050 already built, it is vital to adopt sustainable retrofitting practices. The question is: what are the viable solutions? One answer may be green roof retrofitting. The environmental benefits include reduced operational carbon emissions, reduced urban heat island effect, increased bio-diversity, housing temperature attenuation and reduced stormwater run-off. The economic benefits are the reduced maintenance costs and lower running costs. The social gain is the creation of spaces where people have access to green areas. However, the barriers to retrofitting include the perceptions of structural adequacy, the risk of water damage, high installation and maintenance costs, as well as access and security issues. Many Australian and Brazilian residential buildings have metal sheet roofs, a lightweight material with poor thermal performance. During the summer, temperatures in Sydney and Rio de Janeiro reach 45 degrees Celsius, and in both cities, rainfall patterns are changing, with more intense downpours. Furthermore, many residential buildings are leased, and currently, tenants are restricted by the modifications that they can perform to reduce running costs and carbon emissions. This research reports on an experiment on two small-scale metal roofs in Sydney and Rio de Janeiro to assess the thermal performance of portable small-scale modules. The findings are that considerable variation in temperature was found in both countries, indicating that green roof retrofitting could lower the cooling energy demand considerably.

  3. Comparative labor market performance of visaed and non-visaed migrants: Pacific islanders in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R P

    1998-01-01

    About 90% of Samoans who have migrated to Australia have done so without visas, compared to only 20% of Tongans who have arrived without visas. 22% of the Samoan community in Sydney is unemployed, compared to only 5% of Tongans in the city. Findings are reported from a study conducted to determine whether the effective absence of visa screening for Samoan non-visaed immigrants can explain their poorer labor market performance relative to their Tongan peers. Findings are based upon the analysis of 1994 survey data for 523 Tongan and 329 Samoan migrant household heads in Sydney. Univariate analysis suggests a positive association between unemployment and the unrestricted entry of Samoan non-visaed migrants from New Zealand. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment was also estimated with controls for human capital and demographic variables. While human capital endowments are important, existing visa restrictions have no significant effect upon either group's employability. Policy implications are discussed, highlighting the complementarities between host country immigration policies and foreign aid programs.

  4. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of enteric protozoan infections in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fletcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods. Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007-December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results. Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%, Giardia intestinalis (27% and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%. The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1% are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions. These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural area is needed.

  5. Neighbourhood walkability, road density and socio-economic status in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Christine T; Ding, Ding; Rolfe, Margaret I; Mayne, Darren J; Jalaludin, Bin; Bauman, Adrian; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-04-27

    Planning and transport agencies play a vital role in influencing the design of townscapes, travel modes and travel behaviors, which in turn impact on the walkability of neighbourhoods and residents' physical activity opportunities. Optimising neighbourhood walkability is desirable in built environments, however, the population health benefits of walkability may be offset by increased exposure to traffic related air pollution. This paper describes the spatial distribution of neighbourhood walkability and weighted road density, a marker for traffic related air pollution, in Sydney, Australia. As exposure to air pollution is related to socio-economic status in some cities, this paper also examines the spatial distribution of weighted road density and walkability by socio-economic status (SES). We calculated walkability, weighted road density (as a measure of traffic related air pollution) and SES, using predefined and validated measures, for 5858 Sydney neighbourhoods, representing 3.6 million population. We overlaid tertiles of walkability and weighted road density to define "sweet-spots" (high walkability-low weighted road density), and "sour- spots" (low walkability-high weighted road density) neighbourhoods. We also examined the distribution of walkability and weighted road density by SES quintiles. Walkability and weighted road density showed a clear east-west gradient across the region. Our study found that only 4 % of Sydney's population lived in sweet-spot" neighbourhoods with high walkability and low weighted road density (desirable), and these tended to be located closer to the city centre. A greater proportion of neighbourhoods had health limiting attributes of high weighted road density or low walkability (about 20 % each), and over 5 % of the population lived in "sour-spot" neighbourhoods with low walkability and high weighted road density (least desirable). These neighbourhoods were more distant from the city centre and scattered more widely. There were

  6. Reliability and Cost Analysis of a Rainwater Harvesting System in Peri-Urban Regions of Greater Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hajani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, rainwater tanks are used to save mains water, but in peri-urban and rural areas, rainwater tanks are used as a sole water supply for many households, as these regions often do not have any other means of water supply. This paper investigates the performance of a rainwater harvesting system (RWHS in peri-urban regions of Greater Sydney, Australia. Considering the daily rainfall data over the entire period of record at ten different locations, it has been found that a 5 kL tank can meet 96% to 99% of the demand for toilet and laundry use depending on the location in Greater Sydney regions. However, in the driest year, a 5 kL tank can meet 69% to 99% of toilet and laundry demand depending on the location. Based on the results of life cycle cost analysis, it has been found that a 5 kL tank has the highest benefit–cost ratio (ranging from 0.86 to 0.97 among the eight possible tank sizes examined in this study. Interestingly, for a 5 kL tank, with a combined use (i.e., toilet, laundry and irrigation, the current water price in Sydney needs to be increased by 3% to 16% to achieve a benefit–cost ratio exceeding one. A set of regression equations are developed which can be used to estimate reliability using the average annual rainfall data at any arbitrary location in the peri-urban regions of Greater Sydney. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to other Australian states and other countries to estimate water savings and reliability of a RWHS using daily rainfall data.

  7. Lung cancer patterns of care in south western Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod, S; Delaney, G; Bauman, A; Barton, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in New South Wales (NSW). There is a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer in the South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS) than the NSW average. The aim of this study was to document patterns of lung cancer care for SWSAHS residents.

  8. Large Eddy Simulation of Sydney Swirl Non-Reaction Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yang; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Yin, Chungen

    The Sydney swirl burner non-reaction case was studied using large eddy simulation. The two-point correlation method was introduced and used to estimate grid resolution. Energy spectra and instantaneous pressure and velocity plots were used to identify features in flow field. By using these methods...

  9. The University of Sydney Library Catalogue Data Entry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M. E. L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This report is a description of the history, development, and present state of the University of Sydney Library Catalog Data Entry System. The system has been designed for use on an IBM System 360/20 using assembler programing language. While its primary objective is the generation of machine-readable catalogs, a byproduct of the system has been…

  10. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF ROOFTOPS, STREETSCAPES AND URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT: CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL SYDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities are frequently experiencing artificial heat stress, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI effect. The UHI effect is commonly present in cities due to increased urbanization, where anthropogenic heat and human modifications have altered the characteristics of surfaces and atmosphere. Urban structure, land cover and metabolism are underlined as UHI key contributors and can result in higher urban densities being up to 10°C hotter compared to their peri-urban surroundings. The UHI effect increases the health-risk of spending time outdoors and boosts the need for energy consumption, particularly for air-conditioning during summer. Under investigation is what urban features are more resilient to the surface layer Urban Heat Island (sUHI effect in precinct scale. In the context of Sydney, this ongoing research aims to explore the most heat resilient urban features at precinct scale. This UHI investigation covers five highdensity precincts in central Sydney and is based on a nocturnal remote-sensing thermal image of central Sydney taken on 6 February 2009. Comparing the surface temperature of streetscapes and buildings’ rooftops (dominant urban horizontal surfaces, indicates that open spaces and particularly streetscapes are the most sensitive urban elements to the sUHI effect. The correlations between street network intensity, open space ratio, urban greenery ratio and the sUHI effect is being analysed in Sydney’s high-density precincts. Results indicate that higher open space ratio and street network intensity correlate significantly to higher sUHI effect at precinct scale. Meanwhile, 10% increase in the urban greenery can effectively decrease the precinct temperature by 0.6°C.

  12. Australia's first underseas road tunnel. ; Sydney Harbour Tunnel. Australia hatsu no kaitei doro tonneru no kensetsu. ; Sydney/harbour/tonneru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, N. (Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    The Sydney Harbour Tunnel has been constructed by a joint venture of Kumagai Gumi and local construction company, and has opened on August 31st, 1992. As the project has been undertaken in a beautiful and residential location, in comparison with the conventional undersea tunnel, measures for labor problems and measures for environmental protection (tunnel ventilation measure, normal days working hours are limited to 6 to 18 hours, management of the waste water in the construction site, etc.) have been taken. In addition, the tunnel has been constructed on the basis of solving Harbour Bridge traffic problem, without troubling the people around the site and without creating environmental problems. New techniques have been employed for the immersed tube tunnel construction such as a long ocean towing of tunnel units, a flexible final joint, etc. As compared to the conventional construction method, in case of the flexible joint the benefits have been clarified that the work inside the tunnel has not been complicated. This construction has been completed with the consideration of surrounding environment and is highly evaluated. 2 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Lifetime prevalence of trauma among homeless people in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrich, N; Hodder, T; Teesson, M

    2000-12-01

    The experience of lifetime trauma among homeless women in the USA is well documented. Less information is available concerning homeless men. There are no prevalence studies concerning lifetime trauma among homeless people in Australia. Our aim was to assess the lifetime prevalence of trauma as reported by homeless men and women in Sydney. We interviewed 119 men and 38 women who were visiting or residing at the seven largest refuges for homeless people in inner Sydney, using the lifetime trauma section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. All women and over 90% of men reported at least one event of trauma in their life. Fifty-eight per cent suffered serious physical assault and 55% witnessed someone being badly injured or killed. Half the women and 10% of men reported that they had been raped. The experience of at least one lifetime event of trauma is almost universal among homeless people in Sydney and is considerably higher than for the USA general population. Reasons for such high prevalence rates are discussed. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder are associated with a history of trauma. Health professionals need to be aware of past events of trauma among individuals who are homeless.

  14. Explaining ecological clusters of maternal depression in South Western Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood ED, John; Kemp, Lynn; Jalaludin, Bin

    2014-01-24

    The aim of the qualitative study reported here was to: 1) explain the observed clustering of postnatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney; and 2) identify group-level mechanisms that would add to our understanding of the social determinants of maternal depression. Critical realism provided the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was four local government areas in South Western Sydney, Australia. Child and Family practitioners and mothers in naturally occurring mothers groups were interviewed. Using an open coding approach to maximise emergence of patterns and relationships we have identified seven theoretical concepts that might explain the observed spatial clustering of maternal depression. The theoretical concepts identified were: Community-level social networks; Social Capital and Social Cohesion; "Depressed community"; Access to services at the group level; Ethnic segregation and diversity; Supportive social policy; and Big business. We postulate that these regional structural, economic, social and cultural mechanisms partially explain the pattern of maternal depression observed in families and communities within South Western Sydney. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situation. The challenge for policy and practice is to support mothers and their families within this adverse regional and global-economic context.

  15. Magnitude of undernutrition in children aged 2 to 4 years using CIAF and conventional indices in the slums of Mumbai city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2015-07-10

    Conventional indicators - weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) reflect different facets of the nutritional status. Weight-for-age is the most commonly used indicator. When used individually or in combination, conventional indices fail to depict the overall magnitude of undernutrition in the population. Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) is an alternative classification system which attempts to fill this lacuna. Thus, we undertook this study with the objective to compare the prevalence of undernutrition using CIAF and the conventional indices. We included 634 children aged between 2 to 4 years from anganwadis located in three areas of Mumbai. Weight, height and MUAC measurements were taken. Z scores were computed for weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) using WHO Anthro software. Children were classified as per the conventional indices and CIAF. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 35.7%, 33.8% and 18.5% respectively. None of the children had MUAC < 11.5 cm. About 1% of the children were moderately wasted according to MUAC. As per CIAF, 47.8% children were undernourished. According to CIAF, one-third of the undernourished children had single anthropometric failure while half of them had dual failure and 17.1% had multiple failures. When compared with the conventional indices, CIAF could recognize 12.1%, 14.0%, 29.3% and 46.7% more undernourished children than WAZ, HAZ, WHZ and MUAC respectively. In conclusion, CIAF is seen to have many advantages over the conventional indices. CIAF is useful in assessing the overall magnitude of undernutrition and identifying children with multiple anthropometric failures. It also recognizes more undernourished children than all the conventional indices. Therefore, CIAF should be used more widely as a tool for nutritional assessment particularly in developing countries where the burden of undernutrition is high.

  16. Social and environmental factors drive variation in plant and bird communities across urban greenspace in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Ashlea J; Luck, Gary W

    2016-03-15

    We examined whether environmental or social factors alone, or a combination of social-ecological factors were more effective at explaining patterns in plant and bird assemblages across urban greenspaces. Thirty publicly accessible, passive recreation greenspaces provided by municipal councils (i.e. city parks) were surveyed in a highly urbanised city - Sydney, Australia. Plant communities were influenced most by topography and park management approach, and to a lesser extent by land-use history. Greenspaces with greater topographic variation and that were co-managed with local citizen groups hosted higher plant species richness and abundance. Bird species richness within greenspaces increased with increasing distance from the central business district and decreasing distance from freshwater. Bird abundance was best explained by a combination of social-ecological factors, with abundance increasing with increasing site (greenspace) age, increasing percent concrete groundcover of a site and increasing proximity to the central business district. We identified a group of 'rare city parks', dissimilar in ecological composition that hosted more complex and species rich plant communities compared to 'common city parks'. We suggest this difference is likely because rare city parks received management and maintenance input from local citizen groups, whereas common city parks were managed and maintained exclusively by local councils. How different social factors, such as management approach and ongoing maintenance, are linked to the ecology of urban greenspaces are key areas for future investigation to help create sustainable urban landscapes that provide maximum benefits to urban residents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pricing the urban cooling benefits of solar panel deployment in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Goldstein, M.; Pitman, A. J.; Haghdadi, N.; MacGill, I.

    2017-01-01

    Cities import energy, which in combination with their typically high solar absorption and low moisture availability generates the urban heat island effect (UHI). The UHI, combined with human-induced warming, makes our densely populated cities particularly vulnerable to climate change. We examine the utility of solar photovoltaic (PV) system deployment on urban rooftops to reduce the UHI, and we price one potential value of this impact. The installation of PV systems over Sydney, Australia reduces summer maximum temperatures by up to 1 °C because the need to import energy is offset by local generation. This offset has a direct environmental benefit, cooling local maximum temperatures, but also a direct economic value in the energy generated. The indirect benefit associated with the temperature changes is between net AUD$230,000 and $3,380,000 depending on the intensity of PV systems deployment. Therefore, even very large PV installations will not offset global warming, but could generate enough energy to negate the need to import energy, and thereby reduce air temperatures. The energy produced, and the benefits of cooling beyond local PV installation sites, would reduce the vulnerability of urban populations and infrastructure to temperature extremes. PMID:28262843

  18. At the Stage of Their Fate: Salvaging the Urban Obsolete in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fraser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronicling the interiors and exteriors of selected abandoned buildings in Sydney, this article examines the problem of memory in spaces that are not only isolated and devalued, but often have played no role in the life of the casual visitor or observer. How can the ruins of someone else’s past be made to speak, and how might contemporary ruinscapes reveal a different way of engaging with the past in urban space, particularly in one of the “youngest” cities in the world: a city not defined by decline; constantly undergoing redevelopment; and known more for contemporary architecture than contemporary ruin? Through describing personal encounters with each site, this paper adopts the attitude of Benjamin’s collector who encounters old books in a way that does not consider their use-value but instead sees them as fated objects, encountered as ephemeral remnants of the past. Like the salvaged but outmoded book, the modern ruin is just as much a site in which history is played out as any house of parliament or mainstream newsroom. Further, history need not be the dominion of those things and people that speak loudly and clearly—it is equally constituted by boundless, amorphous, liminal, discarded, rejected, silent things—in this case, ruined buildings of a recent, remembered and accessible past.

  19. Pricing the urban cooling benefits of solar panel deployment in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Goldstein, M; Pitman, A J; Haghdadi, N; MacGill, I

    2017-03-06

    Cities import energy, which in combination with their typically high solar absorption and low moisture availability generates the urban heat island effect (UHI). The UHI, combined with human-induced warming, makes our densely populated cities particularly vulnerable to climate change. We examine the utility of solar photovoltaic (PV) system deployment on urban rooftops to reduce the UHI, and we price one potential value of this impact. The installation of PV systems over Sydney, Australia reduces summer maximum temperatures by up to 1 °C because the need to import energy is offset by local generation. This offset has a direct environmental benefit, cooling local maximum temperatures, but also a direct economic value in the energy generated. The indirect benefit associated with the temperature changes is between net AUD$230,000 and $3,380,000 depending on the intensity of PV systems deployment. Therefore, even very large PV installations will not offset global warming, but could generate enough energy to negate the need to import energy, and thereby reduce air temperatures. The energy produced, and the benefits of cooling beyond local PV installation sites, would reduce the vulnerability of urban populations and infrastructure to temperature extremes.

  20. Pricing the urban cooling benefits of solar panel deployment in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Goldstein, M.; Pitman, A. J.; Haghdadi, N.; MacGill, I.

    2017-03-01

    Cities import energy, which in combination with their typically high solar absorption and low moisture availability generates the urban heat island effect (UHI). The UHI, combined with human-induced warming, makes our densely populated cities particularly vulnerable to climate change. We examine the utility of solar photovoltaic (PV) system deployment on urban rooftops to reduce the UHI, and we price one potential value of this impact. The installation of PV systems over Sydney, Australia reduces summer maximum temperatures by up to 1 °C because the need to import energy is offset by local generation. This offset has a direct environmental benefit, cooling local maximum temperatures, but also a direct economic value in the energy generated. The indirect benefit associated with the temperature changes is between net AUD$230,000 and $3,380,000 depending on the intensity of PV systems deployment. Therefore, even very large PV installations will not offset global warming, but could generate enough energy to negate the need to import energy, and thereby reduce air temperatures. The energy produced, and the benefits of cooling beyond local PV installation sites, would reduce the vulnerability of urban populations and infrastructure to temperature extremes.

  1. Epidemiology and Geographical Distribution of Enteric Protozoan Infections in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Caprarelli, Graziella; Merif, Juan; Andresen, David; Hal, Sebastian Van; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007 - December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%), Giardia intestinalis (27%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%). The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1%) are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural areas is needed. Significance for public health This research is significant since it provides the most recent epidemiological update on the common enteric protozoa affecting Australians. It reveals that enteric protozoa cause considerable disease burden in high risk city dwellers, and provides the evidence base for development of targeted

  2. The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinburn, B.; Sacks, G.; Lobstein, T.; Rigby, N.; Baur, L.A.; Brownell, K.D.; Gill, T.; Seidell, J.C.; Kumanyika, S.

    2008-01-01

    A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on

  3. Point-of-sale alcohol promotions in the Perth and Sydney metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Barrie, Lance; Robinson, Laura; Allsop, Steve; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2012-09-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) is increasingly being used as a marketing tool for alcohol products, and there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that these materials are positively associated with drinking and contribute to creating a pro-alcohol environment. The purpose of the present study was to document the nature and extent of POS alcohol promotions in bottle shops in two Australian capital cities. A purposive sample of 24 hotel bottle shops and liquor stores was selected across Sydney (New South Wales) and Perth (Western Australia) and audited for the presence and nature of POS marketing. Point-of-sale promotions were found to be ubiquitous, with an average of 33 promotions per outlet. Just over half were classified as 'non-price' promotions (e.g. giveaways and competitions). Spirits were the most commonly promoted type of alcohol. The average number of standard drinks required to participate in the promotions ranged from 12 for ready to drinks to 22 for beer. Alcohol outlets that were part of supermarket chains had a higher number of promotions, more price-based promotions, and required a greater quantity of alcohol to be purchased to participate in the promotion. The data collected in this study provides a starting point for our understanding of POS promotions in Australia, and poses important questions for future research in this area. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. The evolving market structures of gambling: case studies modelling the socioeconomic assignment of gaming machines in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Baker, Robert G V

    2002-01-01

    The expansion of gambling industries worldwide is intertwined with the growing government dependence on gambling revenue for fiscal assignments. In Australia, electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have dominated recent gambling industry growth. As EGMs have proliferated, growing recognition has emerged that EGM distribution closely reflects levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. More machines are located in less advantaged regions. This paper analyses time-series socioeconomic distributions of EGMs in Melbourne, Australia, an immature EGM market, and then compares the findings with the mature market in Sydney. Similar findings in both cities suggest that market assignment of EGMs transcends differences in historical and legislative environments. This indicates that similar underlying structures are evident in both markets. Modelling the spatial structures of gambling markets provides an opportunity to identify regions most at risk of gambling related problems. Subsequently, policies can be formulated which ensure fiscal revenue from gambling can be better targeted towards regions likely to be most afflicted by excessive gambling-related problems.

  5. Extreme inflow events and synoptic forcing in Sydney catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepler, Acacia S; Rakich, Clinton S, E-mail: a.pepler@bom.gov.a [NSW Climate Services Section, Bureau of Meteorology PO Box 413, Darlinghurst, NSW 1300 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    The Sydney catchment region encompasses over 16,000km{sup 2}, supplying water to over 4 million inhabitants. However, few studies have investigated the synoptic and climatic influences on inflow in this region, which are crucial for understanding the vulnerability of water supply in a changing climate. This study identifies extremely high and low inflow events between 1960 and 2008 based on catchment averages. The focus of the study is an analysis of the synoptic cause/s of each extreme inflow event. The events are evaluated to identify any trends and also to determine the concurrent significant climatic influences on rainfall over the catchments. Relationships between catchment inflow, rainfall, tropical SST indices, and other influencing factors such as observed wind and temperatures are investigated. Our results show that East Coast Lows and anomalously easterly flow are the drivers of high inflow events, with low inflow events dominated by westerly wind patterns and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.

  6. Spiritual dimensions of self-transformation in Sydney's gay bathhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jason; Cusack, Carole M

    2010-01-01

    Interview-based research among patrons and proprietors of Sydney's gay bathhouses, asking about experiences of homosexual being from the 1960s to the early 1980s generated intriguing findings. Despite the apparent disconnect between traditional religious affiliation and the outlaw gay lifestyle of the bathhouses, a majority of interviewees asserted that spirituality and self-transformation was as important to them as sexual exploration and liberation from societal restraints (both as motivations for and outcomes of the bathhouse experience). Some of those interviewed adhered to mainstream religion (including Christianity and Judaism), but a significant number expressed a commitment to eclectic, personalized spiritual paths. Interestingly, both groups described the bathhouses as "churches" and "temples," the activities that took place there as both collective and individual "rituals," and attributed their spiritual growth and development to their experiences in the bathhouses.

  7. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  8. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  9. Notes from an Unknown Presenter at the Third International Conference of English Teachers in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Flossie

    1981-01-01

    Offers an English teacher's observations about an international conference held in Sydney, Australia, with particular emphasis on George Orwell's "1984" and his views on language, multiculturalism, and humanism and on George Steiner's "Language and Silence." (RL)

  10. The Sydney Opera House: politics in the creation of an icon

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Adrian; Tyrrell, Roger

    2013-01-01

    For an architect to have the opportunity to realise their dreams, particularly with regards a public project of the stature of the Sydney Opera House, there always needs to be a political vision, initiative and willingness to do drive the project forward. Today it would be difficult to imagine Sydney, without the iconic building that so defines its identity, projecting out into the harbour so dramatically on the promontory of Bennelong Point. Prior though to the building of the Opera House, t...

  11. Travel mode and physical activity at Sydney University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Mulley, Corinne; Ding, Ding

    2013-08-09

    How staff and students travel to university can impact their physical activity level. An online survey of physical activity and travel behaviour was conducted in early November 2012 to inform planning of physical activity and active travel promotion programs at the University of Sydney, Australia as part of the "Sit Less, Move More" sub-committee of the Healthy University Initiative, and as baseline data for evaluation. There were 3,737 useable responses, 60% of which were from students. Four out of five respondents travelled to the University on the day of interest (Tuesday, November 30, 2012). The most frequently used travel modes were train (32%), car as driver (22%), bus (17%), walking (17%) and cycling (6%). Staff were twice as likely to drive as students, and also slightly more likely to use active transport, defined as walking and cycling (26% versus 22%). Overall, 41% of respondents were sufficiently active (defined by meeting physical activity recommendations of 150 min per week). Participants were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations if they travelled actively to the University. With a high proportion of respondents using active travel modes or public transport already, increasing the physical activity levels and increasing the use of sustainable travel modes would mean a mode shift from public transport to walking and cycling for students is needed and a mode shift from driving to public transport or active travel for University staff. Strategies to achieve this are discussed.

  12. Intensive sex partying amongst gay men in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Michael; Prestage, Garrett

    2009-08-01

    Intensive sex partying is a framework developed to analyse specific frequent behaviours amongst a small minority of gay men in Sydney, Australia. The behaviours included a higher frequency of dance party attendance, more frequent sex, more anal sex, multiple sex partners, more unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners and more frequent drug taking. These occur at a contextual intersection between a sub-group of sexually adventurous gay men and 'party boys'. The men appear to be involved in both high-risk, adventurous sex practices and a specific form of partying distinguishable from dance partying and 'clubbing'. Sex partying occurs on multiple sites (domestic spaces; within dance parties; sex parties; sex-on-premises venues) and appears to be geared to the maximisation of sexual pleasure. Intensive sex partying describes this coincidence of factors and locates them in relation to the multiple pleasures offered by sex partying. It emphasises the importance of 'intensity' in order to understand better the relations between sex, drug use, pleasure, care and risk in some gay men's lives.

  13. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009 to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk – something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly – an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  14. Multidisciplinary studies of the dust storm that affected Sydney in September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deckker, P.

    2012-04-01

    A major dust storm transgressed over southeastern Australia in September 2009 and continued as far as northern Queensland [to the north], New Zealand and New Caledonia [to the east] . We analysed samples of the dust for organic compounds, its microbiological composition, pollen, trace and rare earth elements as well as Sr and Nd isotopes. Grain size analysis was also performed on some of the samples. We also obtained information on the meteorological conditions that led to the large dust plume and its pathway. Our geochemical fingerprinting allowed us to determine the origin of the dust, and this was confirmed by meteorological observations and satellite imagery. As the pathway of the dust plume went over the city of Canberra, located to the southwest of Sydney, we were able to collect samples of dust that fell with rain, and the surprise was that the geochemical composition of the dust varied with time [and dust fall], identifying that as the dust plume transgressed over the landscape, it picked up additional material that was compositionally different from its point of origin. We also compared our data with those obtained from another major dust event that affected Canberra in October 2002, and a number of important differences are noted, particularly with respect of the microbiological composition of the dust, and its chemical composition. Collaborators on this project are: Chris Munday and Gwen Allison [microbiology]: Research School of Biology, ANU; Jochen Brocks and Janet Hope [organic chemistry] and Marc Norman [inorganic geochemistry]: Research School of Earth Sciences, ANU; Tadhg O'Loingsigh and Nigel Tapper [meteorology, satellite imagery] and Sander van der Kaars [palynology]: Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University; and J.-B. Stuut [grain size analysis], NIOZ.

  15. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  16. Endophthalmitis in the western Sydney region: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsumitkul, S; Myers, P C; O'Rourke, M T; Chandra, J

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for endophthalmitis following routine intraocular surgery. A review was performed of consecutive cases of endophthalmitis from three teaching hospitals in the western Sydney region and matched controls from the same institutions between 1996 and 1998. There were 31 cases and 66 controls. Eighty procedures were phacoemulsification, 15 conventional extracapsular cataract extraction, and two were penetrating keratoplasties. Of the 80 patients who had phacoemulsification surgery, 50 had a clear corneal incision, and 26 had a scleral incision (four were unknown). Logistic regression showed an increased risk of endophthalmitis with surgical complications (P = 0.002) and clear cornea temporal incisions (P = 0.007). Risk of endophthalmitis was reduced with use of subconjunctival injections (P = 0.008). The yield for the Gram stain was 47% and for culture was 67%. Anterior chamber tap in addition to vitreous biopsy alone did not increase the yield for microorganism (P = 0.78). Mean visual acuity on presentation was hand movement with 13 patients (50%) showing visual improvement following intravitreal injections of antibiotics (P = 0.003). Visual prognosis did not correlate with presenting visual acuity but appeared to be better in those who grew Staphylococcus epidermidis or were culture negative. Although this study is unable to draw definite conclusions regarding risk of endophthalmitis in clear corneal temporal cataract surgery, sufficient data suggest the importance of incision type and location. Surgical complication is an important risk factor for endophthalmitis. Use of subconjunctival antibiotic injections at the conclusion of the procedure is recommended.

  17. Potential for rainwater use in high-rise buildings in Australian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Donghui; Chen, Liang; Ashbolt, Stephanie

    2009-10-01

    Rainwater is a traditional but underutilized water resource that has today had a resurgence due to the worldwide water crisis. This paper demonstrates the outcomes of research on the feasibility of rainwater use in high-rise residential envelopes for four Australian cities of Melbourne, Sydney, Perth and Darwin. Different climate patterns and various levels of water demand management were established for determination of storage dimensions; annual tank water use; reduction in both imported water flow and stormwater disposal; and water spillage from tanks. High level water demand management was a profoundly effective tool for reducing potable water supply, especially in combination with rainwater use. The economic feasibility of rainwater use systems were estimated; with Sydney having the shortest payback period compared to other cities either both with 3A rated appliances (8.6 years) or 5A ones installed (10.4 years). That was due to the higher and more consistent rainfall in Sydney. An outcome of this study was that Sydney was likely most suited to rainwater use, followed by Perth, Darwin, and then Melbourne. The objective of this study was to fill in the gap in estimating feasibility of rainwater use in various Australian cities. This investigation endeavors to provide assistance to water authorities and urban planners of Australian cities with the consideration of the potential of rainwater harvesting.

  18. Emergence of the GII-4 Norovirus Sydney2012 strain in England, winter 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allen

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the commonest cause of acute gastrointestinal disease and is the main aetiological agent of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, particularly in semi-closed environments. Norovirus infections in England typically peak between December and March each year. The most commonly detected norovirus strains belong to the genetically diverse genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4 genocluster and in the previous two norovirus winter seasons the majority of GII-4 strains in circulation worldwide have been genetically similar to the GII-4 strain New Orleans 1805/2009/USA. At the beginning of the 2012/13 season a genetically distinct GII-4 strain (Sydney 2012/NSW0514/2012/AU was described which emerged worldwide during the winter of 2012/13. Here we describe the emergence of norovirus strains genetically related to Sydney2012 in England during the 2012/13 season to replace NewOrleans2009 strains as the most commonly detected variant of GII-4 norovirus in England. Furthermore, we demonstrate that whilst the emergence of Sydney2012 coincided with an early peak in the number of norovirus outbreaks, there was not an overall increase in norovirus activity compared to the previous season. Finally, we show that the Sydney2012 strain is associated with distinct genetic changes compared to the NewOrleans2009 strain, and these changes may have contributed to the emergence of the Sydney2012 strain.

  19. Emergence of the GII-4 Norovirus Sydney2012 Strain in England, Winter 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David J.; Adams, Natalie L.; Aladin, Farah; Harris, John P.; Brown, David W. G.

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus is the commonest cause of acute gastrointestinal disease and is the main aetiological agent of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, particularly in semi-closed environments. Norovirus infections in England typically peak between December and March each year. The most commonly detected norovirus strains belong to the genetically diverse genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4) genocluster and in the previous two norovirus winter seasons the majority of GII-4 strains in circulation worldwide have been genetically similar to the GII-4 strain New Orleans 1805/2009/USA. At the beginning of the 2012/13 season a genetically distinct GII-4 strain (Sydney 2012/NSW0514/2012/AU) was described which emerged worldwide during the winter of 2012/13. Here we describe the emergence of norovirus strains genetically related to Sydney2012 in England during the 2012/13 season to replace NewOrleans2009 strains as the most commonly detected variant of GII-4 norovirus in England. Furthermore, we demonstrate that whilst the emergence of Sydney2012 coincided with an early peak in the number of norovirus outbreaks, there was not an overall increase in norovirus activity compared to the previous season. Finally, we show that the Sydney2012 strain is associated with distinct genetic changes compared to the NewOrleans2009 strain, and these changes may have contributed to the emergence of the Sydney2012 strain. PMID:24551201

  20. The effects of the market withdrawal of temazepam gel capsules on benzodiazepine injecting in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Roxburgh, Amanda; van Beek, Ingrid; Hall, Wayne D; Robinson, Maxine K F; Ross, Joanne; Mant, Andrea

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed the impact on benzodiazepine injection among IDU in Sydney of removing temazepam gel capsule preparations from the Australian market. Several data sources were used: (1) data from the NSW Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) (an annual, cross-sectional survey of regular IDU in Sydney) for the period 1996 - 2005; (2) data from inner Sydney outreach services and the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) on last drug injected; and (3) national benzodiazepine prescription data, by formulation, from the Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee for the period 2001 - 06. Removal of temazepam gel capsule formulations from the Australian market in 2004 resulted in increased prescribing of tablet formulations but overall benzodiazepine prescription numbers remained stable. Injection of benzodiazepines ceased as a mode of administration of benzodiazepines among IDU in inner Sydney, but very frequent oral use of benzodiazepines remained highly prevalent. Removal of an easily injectable form of benzodiazepines appeared to halt injection of benzodiazepines among disadvantaged IDU. However, IDU continue to use the drug heavily and interventions to assist IDU with reducing dependent benzodiazepine use are warranted. There is a need for continued vigilance to emergent injecting drug use risks to implement timely harm reduction strategies.

  1. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species in Animals Inhabiting Sydney Water Catchments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zahedi

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is one of the most common zoonotic waterborne parasitic diseases worldwide and represents a major public health concern of water utilities in developed nations. As animals in catchments can shed human-infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, determining the potential role of animals in dissemination of zoonotic Cryptosporidium to drinking water sources is crucial. In the present study, a total of 952 animal faecal samples from four dominant species (kangaroos, rabbits, cattle and sheep inhabiting Sydney's drinking water catchments were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using a quantitative PCR (qPCR and positives sequenced at multiple loci. Cryptosporidium species were detected in 3.6% (21/576 of kangaroos, 7.0% (10/142 of cattle, 2.3% (3/128 of sheep and 13.2% (14/106 of rabbit samples screened. Sequence analysis of a region of the 18S rRNA locus identified C. macropodum and C. hominis in 4 and 17 isolates from kangaroos respectively, C. hominis and C. parvum in 6 and 4 isolates respectively each from cattle, C. ubiquitum in 3 isolates from sheep and C. cuniculus in 14 isolates from rabbits. All the Cryptosporidium species identified were zoonotic species with the exception of C. macropodum. Subtyping using the 5' half of gp60 identified C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 12 and IdA15G1 (n = 2 in kangaroo faecal samples; C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 4 and C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 (n = 4 in cattle faecal samples, C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa (n = 1 in sheep and C. cuniculus VbA23 (n = 9 in rabbits. Additional analysis of a subset of samples using primers targeting conserved regions of the MIC1 gene and the 3' end of gp60 suggests that the C. hominis detected in these animals represent substantial variants that failed to amplify as expected. The significance of this finding requires further investigation but might be reflective of the ability of this C. hominis variant to infect animals. The finding of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in these

  2. Sustainability and office to residential conversions in Sydney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, S.J.; Remøy, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The built environment contributes 40% to total global greenhouse gas emissions and 87% of the buildings we will have in 2050 are already built. It follows, if predicted climate changes are correct, we need to adapt existing stock sustainably. In city centres outside Australia there is a history of

  3. The biology of environmental stress: molecular biomarkers in Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftos, D A; Melwani, A R; Haynes, P A; Muralidharan, S; Birch, G F; Amaral, V; Thompson, E L; Taylor, D A

    2016-09-14

    This review describes our recent work on environmental stress in Sydney rock oysters, focusing on the identification of molecular biomarkers for ecotoxicological analysis. We begin by describing the environmental pressures facing coastal estuaries in Australia, with particular reference to Sydney Harbour. After providing that context, we summarise our transcriptional and proteomic analyses of Sydney rock oysters responding to chemical contamination and other forms of environmental stress. This work has shown that the intracellular processes of oysters are highly responsive to environmental threats. Our data agree with the broader literature, which suggests that there is a highly conserved intracellular stress response in oysters involving a limited number of biological processes. We conclude that many effective molecular markers for environmental biomonitoring are likely to lie within these biological pathways.

  4. The use of dietary supplements and medications by Canadian athletes at the Atlanta and Sydney Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Han Susan; Johnson, Karin; Pipe, Andrew L

    2006-01-01

    To learn more about the prevalence of dietary supplement and medication use by Canadian athletes in the Olympic Games in Atlanta 1996 and Sydney 2000. Data were collected from personal interviews with Canadian athletes who participated at the 1996 Atlanta and 2000 Sydney Olympic Games. The athletes were interviewed by Canadian physicians regarding the use of vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements, and prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Of the 271 Canadian athletes who participated at the Atlanta Olympics, 257 athletes were interviewed; at the Sydney Olympics, 300 of 304 Canadian athletes were interviewed. A quantitative and qualitative description of the use of dietary supplements by Canadian athletes at the Atlanta and Sydney Olympics. At the Atlanta Games, 69% of the athletes used some form of dietary supplements, whereas 74% of the athletes used dietary supplements at the Sydney Games. Vitamins were taken by 59% of men and 66% of women in Atlanta, and 65% of men and 58% women in Sydney. Mineral supplements were used by 16% of men and 45% of women in Atlanta, and 30% of men and 21% of women in Sydney. Nutritional supplements were used by 35% of men and 43% of women in Atlanta, and 43% of men and 51% of women in Sydney. The most popular vitamins were multivitamins in both Olympics. The most popular mineral supplements were iron supplements. The most commonly used nutritional supplement in Atlanta was creatine (14%), but amino acids (15%) were the most commonly used nutritional supplement in Sydney. In Atlanta, 61% of the athletes were using some form of medication, 54% of the athletes were using medications in Sydney. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) were the most commonly used medications at both Olympic Games. Among all sports, the highest prevalence of vitamin use occurred in boxing (91%) in Atlanta and swimming (76%) in Sydney. Rowers (56%) and cyclists (73%) demonstrated the highest use of mineral supplements. Nutritional supplement

  5. Muusikamaailm : James Levine 25 aastat Metis. Taveneri ja MacMillani millenniumiteosed. Avafestival Sydneys / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    J. Harbisoni ooperi "The Great Gatsby" esmalavastusega tähistab New Yorgi Metropolitan Opera oma 25-aastast koostööd J. Levine'iga. J. Taveneri uudisteosest "The Fall and Resurrection", J. MacMillani millenniumiteose "Magnificat" maailmaesiettekandest. 5.-26. jaan. toimuvast Sydney muusikafestivalist

  6. University of Western Sydney Students at Risk: Profile and Opportunities for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebennikov, Leonid; Skaines, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have acknowledged a shift from elite to mass participation in Australian higher education over the last decade. As the diversity of the student intake rises there is a growing interest in the factors predicting their success or failure. This article identifies a set of variables predicting University of Western Sydney (UWS) student…

  7. Epidemiology and molecular characteristics of norovirus GII.4 Sydney outbreaks in Taiwan, January 2012-December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang-Tzy; Chen, Hsieh-Cheng; Yen, Catherine; Wu, Ching-Yi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Park, YoungBin; Hall, Aron J; Vinjé, Jan; Huang, Jason C; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, a new norovirus GII.4 variant (GII.4 Sydney) emerged and caused the majority of the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America. We examined the epidemiologic and molecular virologic characteristics of reported acute gastroenteritis outbreaks determined to be caused by norovirus in Taiwan from January 2012 to December 2013. A total of 253 (45.7%) of 552 reported acute gastroenteritis outbreaks tested positive for norovirus, of which 165 (65.5%) were typed as GII.4 Sydney. GII.4 Sydney outbreaks were reported from all geographic areas of Taiwan and occurred most frequently in schools (35.8%) and long-term care facilities (24.2%). Person-to-person transmission was identified in 116 (70.3%) of the outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length ORF2 of eight specimens indicated that GII.4 Sydney strains detected in Taiwan were closely related to strains detected globally. Continued outbreak surveillance and strain typing are needed to provide information on epidemiologic and virologic trends of novel norovirus strains. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Australian Children's Thinking about Death: A Sydney-Based Study. Selected Papers Number 49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Adrienne

    Content analysis in the manner of M. H. Nagy's 1948 study was used to explore facets of children's thoughts and feelings about death. Participants were 316 children aged 3-12 who resided in the Sydney Metropolitan Area. Subjects expressed their views on death in talking, writing, and drawing. It was found that all children progressed through three…

  9. Creating Effective Holocaust Education Programmes for Government Schools with Large Muslim Populations in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and…

  10. Integrated mental health atlas of the Western Sydney Local Health District: gaps and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Gillespie, James A; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maas, Cailin; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Objective Australian mental health care remains hospital centric and fragmented; it is riddled with gaps and does little to promote recovery. Reform must be built on better knowledge of the shape of existing services. Mental health atlases are an essential part of this knowledge base, enabling comparison with other regions and jurisdictions, but must be based on a rigorous classification of services. The main aim of this study is to create an integrated mental health atlas of the Western Sydney LHD in order to help decision makers to better plan informed by local evidence. Methods The standard classification system, namely the Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for Long-term Care model, was used to describe and classify adult mental health services in the Western Sydney Local Health District (LHD). This information provided the foundation for accessibility maps and the analysis of the provision of care for people with a lived experience of mental illness in Western Sydney LHD. All this data was used to create the Integrated Mental Health Atlas of Western Sydney LHD. Results The atlas identified four major gaps in mental health care in Western Sydney LHD: (1) a lack of acute and sub-acute community residential care; (2) an absence of services providing acute day care and non-acute day care; (3) low availability of specific employment services for people with a lived experience of mental ill-health; and (4) a lack of comprehensive data on the availability of supported housing. Conclusions The integrated mental health atlas of the Western Sydney LHD provides a tool for evidence-informed planning and critical analysis of the pattern of adult mental health care. What is known about the topic? Several reports have highlighted that the Australian mental health system is hospital based and fragmented. However, this knowledge has had little effect on actually changing the system. What does this paper add? This paper provides a critical analysis

  11. Using the VegeSafe community science program to measure, evaluate risk and advise on soil-metal contamination in Sydney backyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. P.; Rouillon, M.; Harvey, P.; Kristensen, L. J.; Steven, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of metal contamination in Sydney residential garden soils was evaluated using data collated from a 3-year university community science program called VegeSafe. Despite knowledge of industrial and urban contamination amongst scientists, the general public remains under informed about the potential risks of exposure from legacy contaminants in their home environments. The Australian community was offered free soil metal screening allowing access to soil samples for research purposes. Participants followed specific soil sampling instructions and posted samples to the University for analysis with a field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer. Over the 3-year period >5000 soil samples were collected and analysed from >1000 households across Australia, primarly from vegetable gardens. As anticipated, the primary soil metal of concern was lead: mean concentrations were 413 mg/kg (front garden), 707 mg/kg (drip line), 226 mg/kg (back yard) and 301 mg/kg (vegetable garden). The Australian soil lead guideline of 300 mg/kg for residential yards was exceeded at 40% of domestic properties. Soil lead concentrations >1000 mg/kg were identified in 15% of Sydney backyards. The incidence of highest soil lead contamination was greatest in the inner city area with concentrations declining towards background values of 20-30 mg/kg at 30-40 km distance from the city. Community engagement with VegeSafe participants has resulted in useful outcomes: dissemination of knowledge related to contamination legacies and health risks, owners building raised beds containing clean soil, and, in numerous cases owners replacing their contaminated soil. This study demonstrates the potential for similar community science programs for expediting mass sample collection of soils and dusts for analysis of traditional and emerging contaminants within the home environment.

  12. Monitoring effects of remediation on natural sediment recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; Macaskill, Devin; Rushton, Theresa; Thalheimer, Andrew; Weaver, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Chemical contaminants were assessed in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia during pre-remediation (baseline) and 3 years of remediation of a former coking and steel facility after nearly a century of operation and historical pollution into the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and inorganic parameters measured in sediments and total suspended solids in seawater indicate that the overall spatial distribution pattern of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported due to natural sediment recovery, despite remediation activities. Measured sediment deposition rates in bottom-moored traps during baseline were low (0.4-0.8 cm year(-1)), but during dredging operations required for construction of new port facilities in the inner Sydney Harbour, sedimentation rates were equivalent to 26-128 cm year(-1). Measurements of sediment chemical contaminants confirmed that natural recovery rates of Sydney Harbour sediments were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations, or in some cases, lower than originally predicted despite remediation activities at the STP site. Overall, most measured contaminants in sediments showed little temporal variability (4 years), except for the detection of significant increases in total PAH concentrations during the onset of remediation monitoring compared to baseline. This slight increase represents only a short-term interruption in the overall natural recovery of sediments in Sydney Harbour, which were enhanced due to the positive impacts of large-scale dredging of less contaminated outer harbor sediments which were discharged into a confined disposal area located in the inner harbor.

  13. Quantifying the Reduction in Water Demand due to Rainwater Tank Installations at Residential Properties in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danious P. Sountharajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines data on actual reductions in consumption of water supply due to the widespread installation of rainwater tanks at residential properties in the Sydney metropolitan area and surrounding areas connected to Sydney Water Corporation water supply mains. The water consumption was based on metered potable water usage between 2002 and 2009. The number of properties in the study database totalled 962,697 single residential dwellings. Of this a total of 52,576 or 5.5% of Sydney’s households had a rainwater tank registered with Sydney Water Corporation.  The water usage consumption before and after the installation of the rainwater tank was analysed to quantify the extent to which rainwater tanks reduced mains water consumption. The average percentage of water savings by installing rainwater tanks across all 44 local government authorities was 9%. In some Sydney localities this reduction was up to 15%. On average, a household was able to save around 24 kilolitre of water annually by installing a rainwater tank even without considering other factors that affect water usage. The results were compared against socio-demographic factors using variables such as household size, educational qualifications, taxable income, rented properties, and non-English-speaking background, etc. to gain an appreciation of how these factors may have influenced the outcomes evident in the data. Among the co-relations found were that most properties within inner Sydney with a rainwater tank achieved at least a 9 to 11% additional reduction in water usage, with more than half of those local government authorities achieving more than 11%; properties with larger land area were more likely to have a rainwater tank installed; local government authorities with more people born in non-English speaking countries had lower reduction in water consumption reductions. 

  14. The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary; Lobstein, Tim; Rigby, Neville; Baur, Louise A; Brownell, Kelly D; Gill, Tim; Seidell, Jaap; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2008-09-01

    A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on feedback received from a global consultation (November 2006 to April 2007) on the Principles. The Principles state that actions to reduce marketing to children should: (i) support the rights of children; (ii) afford substantial protection to children; (iii) be statutory in nature; (iv) take a wide definition of commercial promotions; (v) guarantee commercial-free childhood settings; (vi) include cross-border media; and (vii) be evaluated, monitored and enforced. The draft principles were widely disseminated and 220 responses were received from professional and scientific associations, consumer bodies, industry bodies, health professionals and others. There was virtually universal agreement on the need to have a set of principles to guide action in this contentious area of marketing to children. Apart from industry opposition to the third principle calling for a statutory approach and several comments about the implementation challenges, there was strong support for each of the Sydney Principles. Feedback on two specific issues of contention related to the age range to which restrictions should apply (most nominating age 16 or 18 years) and the types of products to be included (31% nominating all products, 24% all food and beverages, and 45% energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages). The Sydney Principles, which took a children's rights-based approach, should be used to benchmark action to reduce marketing to children. The age definition for a child and the types of products which should have marketing restrictions may better suit a risk-based approach at this stage. The Sydney Principles should guide the formation of an International Code on Food and Beverage

  15. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  16. Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Perko, Matevž

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this graduation thesis, is to present the term »the idea of smart city« and to define, why a city is labeled as smart city. I explained the different areas in which new ideas for the advancement of cities are developed and explained, how new technologies and ideas are implemented in different areas of the city. Described are two approaches to the modernization of the city. I also showed different inovations and technologies, that have helped the cities become smarter and so tha...

  17. Correction: Re: Acknowledgment: A Profile of Coding Staff in Sydney Metropolitan Public Hospitals Health Information Management, Vol 32(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Jean; Dimitropoulos, Vera; Bramley, Michelle

    2004-05-01

    The authors would like to thank Adam Bennett, who collected the raw data used in this study for his thesis submitted for the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science (Health Information Management) (Honours) at The University of Sydney.

  18. Orbital parameters, masses and distance to beta Centauri determined with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer and high-resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.; Mendez, A.; Seneta, E.B.; Tango, W.J.; Booth, A.J.; O'Byrne, J.W.; Thorvaldson, E.D.; Ausseloos, M.; Aerts, C.C.; Uytterhoeven, K.

    2005-01-01

    The bright southern binary star beta Centauri (HR5267) has been observed with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) and spectroscopically with the European Southern Observatory Coude Auxiliary Telescope and Swiss Euler telescope at La Silla. The interferometric observations have

  19. Summarising climate and air quality (ozone) data on self-organising maps: a Sydney case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ningbo; Betts, Alan; Riley, Matt

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the classification and visualisation utility of the self-organising map (SOM) method in the context of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using gridded NCEP/NCAR geopotential height reanalysis for east Australia, together with multi-site meteorological and air quality data for Sydney from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Air Quality Monitoring Network. A twice-daily synoptic classification has been derived for east Australia for the period of 1958-2012. The classification has not only reproduced the typical synoptic patterns previously identified in the literature but also provided an opportunity to visualise the subtle, non-linear change in the eastward-migrating synoptic systems influencing NSW (including Sydney). The summarisation of long-term, multi-site air quality/meteorological data from the Sydney basin on the SOM plane has identified a set of typical air pollution/meteorological spatial patterns in the region. Importantly, the examination of these patterns in relation to synoptic weather types has provided important visual insights into how local and synoptic meteorological conditions interact with each other and affect the variability of air quality in tandem. The study illustrates that while synoptic circulation types are influential, the within-type variability in mesoscale flows plays a critical role in determining local ozone levels in Sydney. These results indicate that the SOM can be a useful tool for assessing the impact of weather and climatic conditions on air quality in the regional airshed. This study further promotes the use of the SOM method in environmental research.

  20. Patient satisfaction with inpatient care provided by the Sydney Gynecological Oncology Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Arora

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vivek Arora, Shannon Philp, Kathryn Nattress, Selvan Pather, Christopher Dalrymple, Kenneth Atkinson, Sofia Smirnova, Stephen Cotterell, Jonathan CarterSydney Gynecological Oncology Group, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: Patient satisfaction with the provision of hospital oncology services can have a significant impact on their overall treatment experience.Aims: To assess patient satisfaction with the inpatient hospital services in the gynecological oncology setting using the IN-PATSAT32 questionnaire developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC.Methods: A modified version of the IN-PATSAT32 questionnaire with additional 16 items was administered to 52 adult surgical inpatients admitted with the Sydney Gynecological Oncology Group. All participants were provided with an information leaflet regarding the survey and written consent obtained.Results: A high response rate (100% from patients with varied social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds confirmed the acceptability of the survey. Standard of medical care provided, frequency of doctors’ visits, exchange of information with doctors, friendliness of the staff, and state of the room ranked highly (>95% on the patient satisfaction scales. Problems were identified with ease of access to and within the hospital, quality of food, and exchange of information with other hospital staff.Conclusions: Overall the satisfaction with inpatient care was rated very highly in most areas. Deficiencies in certain elements of provision of medical care to the patients were identified and steps have been taken to improve upon these shortcomings.Keywords: patient satisfaction, EORTC, IN-PATSAT32, gynecological oncology, survey

  1. Effect of storage on the quality of purified live Pacific and Sydney rock oysters

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, P.; Arnold, G.; Holliday, J; Boronovshy, A

    1992-01-01

    In December, 1990, the N.S.W. Minister for Agriculture and Rural Affairs removed the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) from the noxious fish list for the Port Stephens area, permitting it's cultivation. As Port Stephens Pacific oysters are grown intertidally, similar to Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) there was a belief that they may have different storage requirements to overseas Pacific oysters which are cultivated in deep water exclusively. Consequently, the keeping quality ...

  2. Another Look at Price Levelling and Price Averaging in the Sydney Meat Market

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Garry R.; Green, W; Duff, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous equation techniques are used to re-examine the behaviour of monthly wholesale and retail price spreads for beef, lamb and pork in Sydney over the period 1971-1988, so as to understand the factors determining the relationships between the prices at the different market levels. Hypotheses tested relate to price levelling and price averaging, and to marketing cost and turnover effects. Using the preferred three-stage least squares estimates, price levelling is confirmed at both whol...

  3. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Chandra; Heidi Lord; Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey; Kate Alexander; Nilva Egana; Stephen Conaty

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. Methods: The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Ad...

  4. Trauma studies. II. A review of trauma in a Sydney metropolitan hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cregan, P C; McLean, A S

    1991-03-04

    Trauma is the leading cause of death for people aged under 40 years in Australia. However, data on trauma in this country have been scant and derived from teaching hospitals or "non-medical" sources such as Roads and Traffic Authority reports. To address this, a review was undertaken of trauma separations from a large suburban hospital. The Nepean Hospital is a 350-bed metropolitan hospital on the western fringe of Sydney and, since the development of "Areas" as the basic health planning units in metropolitan Sydney, it is the main hospital of the Wentworth Area Health Service. A retrospective study of trauma presentations to the hospital was undertaken to provide a "snapshot" of the hospital's trauma load. Epidemiological factors leading to this load were reviewed, together with deaths, ambulance transfers and transfers by other means. During the study period there were 2042 separations for trauma based on the International Classification of Diseases codes E800-E999. Thirty-four other patients were transferred or died without being admitted to the hospital and 72 patients were transferred after hospital admission. During this period 1236 potentially severely injured patients were seen. This study demonstrates the large trauma load presenting to a Sydney suburban hospital and shows that planning for trauma services must take account of the size and logistics of such a load. As epidemiological indices suggest that the load will increase, further accurate data on suburban trauma are needed to allow proper planning.

  5. Effects and Clinical Significance of GII.4 Sydney Norovirus, United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikswo, Mary; Barclay, Leslie; Brandt, Eric; Storm, William; Salehi, Ellen; DeSalvo, Traci; Davis, Tim; Saupe, Amy; Dobbins, Ginette; Booth, Hillary A.; Biggs, Christianne; Garman, Katie; Woron, Amy M.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Vinjé, Jan; Hall, Aron J.

    2013-01-01

    During 2012, global detection of a new norovirus (NoV) strain, GII.4 Sydney, raised concerns about its potential effect in the United States. We analyzed data from NoV outbreaks in 5 states and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in 1 state during the 2012–13 season and compared the data with those of previous seasons. During August 2012–April 2013, a total of 637 NoV outbreaks were reported compared with 536 and 432 in 2011–2012 and 2010–2011 during the same period. The proportion of outbreaks attributed to GII.4 Sydney increased from 8% in September 2012 to 82% in March 2013. The increase in emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness during the 2012–13 season was similar to that of previous seasons. GII.4 Sydney has become the predominant US NoV outbreak strain during the 2012–13 season, but its emergence did not cause outbreak activity to substantially increase from that of previous seasons. PMID:23886013

  6. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  7. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  8. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  9. Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Sharpe, Louise

    2008-03-01

    International studies indicate high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder within homeless populations. In Australia, studies indicate high rates of trauma among homeless adults, yet post-traumatic stress disorder has not been investigated in homeless Australian adults. The primary aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney. Further, another aim of the study was to determine whether the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the first episode of homelessness or was a consequence of homelessness. The sample consisted of 70 homeless men and women aged 18-73 years, who were randomly sampled through eight homeless services. A computer-assisted face-to-face structured clinical interview was conducted with each participant. Lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was determined via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (98%). Indeed, the mean number of traumas per person was six. The 12 month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was higher among homeless adults in Sydney in comparison to the Australian general population (41% vs 1.5%). But 79% of the sample had a lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress. In 59% of cases, the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the age of the first reported homeless episode. Homeless adults in Sydney frequently experience trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The study found that trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder more often precede homelessness, but re-victimization is common. These findings highlight the high mental health needs among homeless people and have implications for services for homeless people.

  10. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F Smoothey

    Full Text Available Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas. Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  11. Descriptive epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia, 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fletcher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is a lack of information about the prevalence of gastrointestinal illnesses in Australia. Current disease surveillance systems capture only a few pathogens. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses in Sydney, Australia. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who visited tertiary public hospitals in Sydney was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Patients with diarrhoea or loose stools with an enteric pathogen detected were identified. Demographic, clinical and potential risk factor data were collected from their medical records. Measures of association, descriptive and inferential statistics were analysed. Results: In total, 1722 patients were included in this study. Campylobacter (22.0% and Clostridium difficile (19.2% were the most frequently detected pathogens. Stratified analysis showed that rotavirus (22.4%, norovirus (20.7% and adenovirus (18.1% mainly affected children under 5 years; older children (5–12 years were frequently infected with Campylobacter spp. (29.8% and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. (24.4%; infections with C. difficile increased with age. Campylobacter and non-typhoid Salmonella spp. showed increased incidence in summer months (December to February, while rotavirus infections peaked in the cooler months (June to November. Discussion: This study revealed that gastrointestinal illness remains a major public health issue in Sydney. Improvement of current disease surveillance and prevention and control measures are required. This study emphasizes the importance of laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections and the need for better clinical data collection to improve management of disease risk factors in the community.

  12. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Lord

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. This prompted an outbreak investigation. Methods: The investigation incorporated active case finding, microbiological analysis, field investigation and a risk factor survey. Included cases were laboratory definitive or suspected cases occurring from October 2014 to October 2015, residing or working in south-western Sydney. A suspected case had clinically compatible illness, high-risk exposure and was epidemiologically linked to another confirmed case. A confirmed case included laboratory detection of C. burnetii. Results: Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75% of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. Conclusion: This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. Implementation of Q fever vaccination programmes should eliminate Q fever in high-risk occupational settings.

  13. Sydney epilepsy incidence study to measure illness consequences: the SESIMIC observational epilepsy study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy affects an estimated 50 million people and accounts for approximately 1% of days lost to ill health globally, making it one of the most common, serious neurological disorders. While there are abundant global data on epilepsy incidence, prevalence and treatment, there is a paucity of Australian incidence data. There is also a general lack of information on the psychosocial impact and socioeconomic consequences of a new diagnosis of epilepsy on an individual, their family, household, and community which are often specific to the health and social system of each country. Methods/Design The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC is an Australian population-based epilepsy incidence and outcome study that will recruit every newly diagnosed case of epilepsy in the Sydney South West Area Health Service to an epilepsy register. Multiple and overlapping sources of notification will be used to identify all new cases of epilepsy over a 24 month period in the Eastern Zone of the Sydney South West Area Health Service (SSWAHS and follow up will occur over 12 months. SEISMIC will use the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE definitions and classifications for epidemiologic studies of epilepsy. The study will examine outcomes including mood, quality of life, employment, education performance, driving status, marital and social problems, medication use, health care usage, costs and stigma. Discussion This study is designed to examine how clinical, psychological factors, socioeconomic circumstances, and healthcare delivery influence the experience of epilepsy for individuals and families allowing better targeting of specific services and informing policy makers and practitioners. In addition, the study will provide the basis for a longitudinal population-based cohort study and potentially inform qualitative sub-studies and randomised controlled trials of intervention strategies. The study has

  14. Unprotected fellatio between female sex workers and their clients in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Phillip J; Wand, Handan; Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna M

    2012-12-01

    To assess the frequency and predictors of inconsistent condom use for fellatio at work by female sex workers (FSW) in Sydney and the prevalence of pharyngeal gonorrhoea and other sexually transmitted infections in these women. Cross-sectional study including all FSW attending the Sydney Sexual Health Centre for sexually transmitted infection screening between May 2009 and January 2011 and reporting fellatio at work. Univariate and multivariate regression was used to identify predictors of inconsistent condom use for fellatio. Of 1540 FSW who offered fellatio at work, 372 (25%) reported inconsistent condom use for this fellatio. In multivariate analysis, speaking Mandarin or Cantonese rather than English (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.03, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.86), reporting inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex at work (AOR 10.82, 95% CI 6.13 to 19.09), reporting no vaginal sex at work (AOR 7.48, 95% CI 2.42 to 23.12) and being a new client to the clinic (AOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.83) were associated with inconsistent condom use for fellatio. Thai-speaking women were less likely to report unprotected fellatio (AOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.57). 17 women were diagnosed with pharyngeal gonorrhoea (AOR 1.1%, 95% CI 0.6% to 1.7%). Condom use for fellatio by Sydney FSW varies by work location and language spoken. Health promotion targeting these at-risk women is warranted. Women working in brothels masquerading as massage parlours were particularly likely to report inconsistent condom use for fellatio. Local government reluctance to approve brothels may be contributing to this problem.

  15. Back-analysing rock mass modulus from monitoring data of two tunnels in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bertuzzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two case studies where the rock mass modulus and in situ stress are estimated from the monitoring data obtained during the construction of underground excavations in Sydney, Australia. The case studies comprise the widening of existing twin road tunnels within Hawkesbury sandstone and the excavation of a large cavern within Ashfield shale. While back-analysis from detailed systematic monitoring has been previously published, this paper presents a relatively simple methodology to derive rock mass modulus and in situ stress from the relatively simple displacement data routinely recorded during tunnelling.

  16. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st...

  17. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  18. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  19. Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 42 x 32 km (25.1 x 19.2 miles) Location: 33.7 deg. South lat., 151.4 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 12, 2001

  20. Diversity and antimicrobial activities of surface-attached marine bacteria from Sydney Harbour, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George S; Raftos, David A; Corrigan, Shannon L; Nair, Sham V

    2010-05-30

    Marine bacteria are a rich source of potentially useful antimicrobial molecules. However, much of the microbial diversity in marine ecosystems with its potential for uncovering new antimicrobial compounds remains to be discovered. This is particularly true for surface-attached marine bacteria, which comprise microbial communities that are generally unique to a host surface and geographic location. The current study characterises culturable microbial communities on marine surfaces from Sydney Harbour, Australia, and tests their antimicrobial activities. A high proportion (47%) of the 104 marine isolates from Sydney Harbour could not be classified to a known genus based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Assays of antimicrobial activity from the 104 isolates showed that antimicrobial production is not widespread throughout the phylogeny of isolates with 8 of the 10 antimicrobial producers clustering into a distinct phylogenetic clade. These 8 closely related antibacterial isolates had potent activity in antibacterial cross-dilution assays, with no growth of target bacteria at supernatant concentrations of less than 6.6% v/v. To gain an insight into the types of molecules responsible for this potent activity, differential polarity extractions were carried out on antibacterial culture supernatants from these 8 isolates. All of the activity fractionated into the most polar phase, suggesting that the antibacterial molecules are highly polar. Proteolytic digestion inhibited activity, indicating that the antibacterial molecules were proteins. This study is the first to link the phylogeny of numerous surface-attached marine bacteria with antimicrobial production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in Sydney hospitals: before and after thiamine enrichment of flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J J; Truswell, A S

    1995-11-20

    To estimate the incidence of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) before and after the introduction of thiamine enrichment of bread flour in 1991. Retrospective survey of hospital records. Patient records with the diagnostic codes for Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) or Korsakoff's psychosis (KP) were reviewed and details of acceptable cases were entered onto a data form. All 17 major public general hospitals in the Sydney area (New South Wales), between 1978 and 1993. Numbers of confirmed or probable diagnoses of WE, KP or WKS and associated deaths, patient demographic and social characteristics and alcohol intake. 1,267 patients with WKS were found, with 1,012 acute cases. Although numbers of acute cases may have started to fall before 1991, numbers for the last two years were the lowest of all the 16 years (P = 0.004). Cases of KP outnumbered those of WE by about 3:1 and men outnumbered women 4:1. The peak age was 60-64 years (17%) and beer was the most commonly cited alcoholic drink (71%). The red-cell transketolase test was seldom used for diagnosis (3% of acute cases). The lower number of "acute" cases in 1992 and 1993 is consistent with a preventive effect of mandatory enrichment of bread with thiamine, but is not conclusive evidence. Longer follow-up of Sydney hospitals, results of postmortem examinations and follow-up in other areas of Australia are required.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of the norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sung-Geun; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4) was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF) composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp), ORF2 (1,623 bp), and ORF3 (807 bp). Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  3. Modelling the tsunami threat to Sydney Harbour, Australia, with comparisons to historical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, O.; Power, H.

    2016-12-01

    Sydney Harbour is an iconic location with a dense population and low-lying development. On the east coast of Australia, facing the Pacific Ocean it is exposed to several tsunamigenic trenches. To date, this is the most detailed assessment of the potential for earthquake-generated tsunami impact on Sydney Harbour. The tsunami wave trains modelled include tsunami modelled from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5, 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0 MW from the Puysegur and New Hebrides trenches. Historical events from Chile in 1960 and Japan in 2011 are also modelled for comparison. Using the hydrodynamic model ANUGA, results show that the events modelled have the potential to cause high current speeds, hazardous waves and rapid changes in water level. These effects are most dramatic at pinch points such as Spit Bridge and Anzac Bridge, particularly with regard to current speeds. Large waves are shown to be a particular threat at the mouth of the harbour, where the bathymetry causes the tsunami wave train to shoal. Inundation is less of a hazard for the tsunami events modlled, although some inundation is evident at several low-lying embayments in the south of the harbour. These results will provide an evidence base for tsunami threat emergency management.

  4. The Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START): A prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebker-White, Anja A; Bein, Kendall J; Dinh, Michael M

    2018-02-08

    The present study aims to prospectively validate the Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START) to predict ED disposition. This was a prospective validation study at two metropolitan EDs in Sydney, Australia. Consecutive triage encounters were observed by a trained researcher and START scores calculated. The primary outcome was patient disposition (discharge or inpatient admission) from the ED. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate area under curve of receiver operator characteristic (AUC ROC) for START scores as well as START score in combination with other variables such as frailty, general practitioner referral, overcrowding and major medical comorbidities. There were 894 patients analysed during the study period. The START score when applied to the data had AUC ROC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.77-0.83). The inclusion of other clinical variables identified at triage did not improve the overall performance of the model with an AUC ROC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84) in the present study. The overall performance of the START tool with respect to model discrimination and accuracy has been prospectively validated. Further clinical trials are required to test the clinical effectiveness of the tool in improving patient flow and overall ED performance. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  5. Genetic Susceptibility to Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Strain Infections in Taiwanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-Tzu; Liu, Fu-Ping; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Huang, Chung-Guei; Yang, Shuan; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Lai, Ming-Wei; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of associations between the susceptibility to norovirus infections and histo-blood group antigens is not available in the Taiwanese population, in which the nonsecretor phenotype is absent. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted in northern Taiwan from February 2013 to December 2014 when an epidemic of norovirus infection occurred. Cases were children norovirus infections. Controls were healthy children matched to the cases by age and gender. The norovirus genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction sequencing of the VP1 gene. The secretor status, Lewis antigen and ABO type were determined by characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the FUT2, FUT3 and ABO genes, respectively. A total of 147 case-control pairs were included. GII.4 Sydney strain was the major genotype and identified in 78.3% of the cases. The weak-secretor and Lewis-positive genotypes were less commonly identified in cases than in controls (5.4% vs. 23.1% and 79.6% vs. 89.8%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the secretor and Lewis-negative genotypes were both independent factors associated with increased risk of norovirus infections [matched odds ratio: 6.766, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.649-17.285, P norovirus infections (P > 0.05). The weak-secretor genotype and the Lewis antigen-positive genotype were both protective factors against severe norovirus gastroenteritis during the GII.4 Sydney strain epidemic in Taiwan.

  6. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4 was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp, ORF2 (1,623 bp, and ORF3 (807 bp. Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  7. Primary analysis of the Mandarin-speaking sub-study within the Sydney diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Cecilia Y; Gibson, Alice A; Colagiuri, Stephen; Vita, Philip; Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Bauman, Adrian; Moore, Michael; Williams, Mandy; Milat, Andrew; Hony, Jacky; Lin, Sophia; Gwizd, Melissa; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2017-10-01

    There is strong and consistent evidence from large scale randomised controlled trials that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification which improves diet quality, increases physical activity and achieves weight loss in people at risk. Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in individuals of Chinese descent. Culturally tailored programs are required to address the risk in the Chinese population. This paper analyses effectiveness of a culturally tailored community-based lifestyle modification program (Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP)) targeting Mandarin speakers. The SDPP was a 12 month translational study aiming to promote increased physical activity and dietary changes. Effectiveness was assessed through the improvement of anthropometric, metabolic, physical activity and dietary outcomes and number of goals met. Seventy-eight Mandarin-speaking participants at a high risk (Australian Diabetes Risk, AUSDRISK≥15) of developing diabetes were recruited for this study. In this cohort, waist circumference, total cholesterol and fat intake significantly improved at the 12-month review. In comparison to the English-speaking stream, the Mandarin-speaking stream achieved fewer improvements in outcomes and goals. The SDPP was not effective in reducing the risk factors associated with developing type 2 diabetes in this cohort of high risk Mandarin-speaking individuals living in Sydney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metal accumulation in the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, in Sydney and Port Hacking estuaries, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewtas, K L M; Birch, G F; Foster-Thorpe, C

    2014-01-01

    Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations.

  9. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  11. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  12. Error analysis of large-eddy simulation of the turbulent non-premixed sydney bluff-body flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, A.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Oefelein, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    A computational error analysis is applied to the large-eddy simulation of the turbulent non-premixed Sydney bluff-body flame, where the error is defined with respect to experimental data. The errorlandscape approach is extended to heterogeneous compressible turbulence, which is coupled to combustion

  13. Supporting African Refugees in Greater Western Sydney: A Critical Ethnography of After-School Homework Tutoring Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Refugee Action Support Partnership Project between the University of Western Sydney, The Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the NSW-Department of Education and Training (DET). The critical ethnographic method is used to evaluate the after-school homework tutoring centres as a vehicle of literacy development…

  14. The Vanishing Idea of a Scholarly Life: Workload Calculations and the Loss of Academic Integrity in Western Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ann Lazarsfeld; Morgan, Kylie

    2009-01-01

    The loss of collegiality and the loss of academic integrity were key themes raised during forums, personal interviews, a survey and focus groups conducted with University of Western Sydney academic staff as part of a research project into academic work load agreements. In this paper the experiences related by participants are placed in the light…

  15. The Impact of a Pathway College on Reputation and Brand Awareness for Its Affiliated University in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ann; Zhao, Jingsong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect that a prospective pathway college affiliated to a large comprehensive university in Sydney may have on the university's reputation. In particular, the association of reputation with preference for a pathway college, brand awareness and the opinion of college brand are examined.…

  16. PREVALENCE OF VEROCYTOTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA-COLI SEROTYPE O157H7 IN CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA ATTENDING A SYDNEY HOSPITAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ONG, J; ROBINSBROWNE, R; GAPES, M; OLOUGHLIN, EV

    Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, in particular serotype O157:H7, have been implicated as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. This study was undertaken to determine if E.coli O157:H7 is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children in metropolitan Sydney. During

  17. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  18. Overcoming the pitfalls of abandoned mine workings in the Sydney coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, D.; Noble, B. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Previous coal mining activities in Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS) have included the creation of shallow, unrecorded underground coal extraction sites known as bootleg pits. The sites are a public safety hazard and can also impact groundwater flow. This paper presented an outline of the remediation strategies used to mitigate the hazards associated with the bootleg pits as part of a mine site closure and reclamation program currently being completed by the Cape Breton Corporation (ECBC). The strategies included the use of sinkhole subsidence hazard maps. Long-term visual monitoring is also being used in areas associated with sinkhole development. Larger abandoned areas have been cleared, backfilled and re-graded while including provisions for the ongoing drainage of mine waters. Gas monitoring and safety procedures were also reviewed. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Mortality among homeless people with schizophrenia in Sydney, Australia: a 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babidge, N C; Buhrich, N; Butler, T

    2001-02-01

    The aims were first, to describe deaths in a cohort of homeless people compared to the general population and secondly, to compare deaths among the individuals with schizophrenia to those without schizophrenia. Mortality was assessed in a cohort of 708 homeless subjects, 506 with schizophrenia who were referred 10 years previously to psychiatric outreach clinics. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Eighty-three people (12%) had died, 19 from suicide. The SMR was 3.76 for homeless men and 3.14 for homeless women. There was a non-significant trend for higher excess mortality among men without schizophrenia compared to men with schizophrenia. SMRs for suicide were significantly elevated among homeless men. Homeless people in inner Sydney have death rates three to four times higher than people in the general population of New South Wales. Excess mortality was greatest for younger age groups.

  20. Large Eddy Simulation of Flow Structures in the Sydney Swirl Burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yang

    This thesis represents the research on swirling flow using large eddy simulation(LES). Three cases from the Sydney swirl burner database have been chosen as test cases; one medium swirl isothermal case N29S054, one high swirl isothermal case N16S159 and one medium swirl reacting case SM1...... zone which starts at the burner surface. As for the medium swirling isothermal case, there are two reverse flow zones in the reacting case. Due to the low stoichiometric mixture fraction in the methane flame, only the outer layer of the bluff‐body induced reverse zone is reactive. The main reactive...... zone is held at the bubblerecirculation. By using two‐dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) on the cross‐plane, the periodic oscillating movement of the jet has been interpretation. Through this research, a practical guideline is provided for the industry LES user. Nevertheless, the LES...

  1. Lead intoxication in paint removal workers on the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C A; Ibels, L S

    Lead intoxication is far more prevalent than is recognized by those persons who are exposed to lead fumes and dust in industry, as the early symptoms of intoxication are subtle and non-specific. The levels of lead in blood are a poor reflection of lead stores in the body and their potential toxicity, but are used frequently as the only test for screening of lead intoxication. Chelation of lead with calcium-EDTA is a more sensitive test to detect those persons who are at risk of toxicity. Industrial workers who are exposed regularly to lead must be screened on a periodic basis and a diagnosis of lead poisoning must be considered if substantial morbidity is to be avoided. We report six cases of men with significant lead intoxication who were employed on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, all of whom have benefited symptomatically from calcium-EDTA chelation therapy.

  2. Track and Connect: Enhancing student retention and success at the University of Sydney. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Barnes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, staff in Student Support Services at The University of Sydney piloted an early intervention program to increase first year student engagement and retention. Founded in best-practice, evidence-based research, the Track and Connect program was developed in response to a study into first year undergraduate student attrition by the University’s Planning and Information Office, in consultation with Counselling and Psychological Services. Track and Connect provides tailored advice and support to students identified as at risk of withdrawal from a key first-year subject by demographic markers and on-time data. Trained senior peers contact these students and provide information, encouragement and service referrals at key decision points throughout the semester. This report outlines the program’s development, implementation and early outcomes, and identifies areas for refinement and expansion.

  3. The Updated Sydney System: Classification and Grading of Gastritis as the Basis of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Stolte

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of the histological diagnosis of gastritis on the basis of routinely obtained antral and corpus biopsies has increased enormously, which is owed not least of all to the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. The introduction of the Sydney system made it possible, for the first time, to grade histological parameters, identify topographical distribution and, finally, make a statement about the etiopathogenesis of the gastritis. Of pathogenetic importance is, in the first instance, the differentiation between gastritis with and gastritis without H pylori infection. The group of H pylori-associated gastritis can be further subdivided into forms of gastritis whose morphological distribution patterns usually identify them as sequelae of H pylori infection, while the group of gastritis unassociated with H pylori, can be differentiated into autoimmune, chemically induced reactive gastritis, ex-H pylori gastritis, Helicobacter heilmannii gastritis, Crohn's gastritis and a number of special forms of gastritis.

  4. Cognition and mortality in older people: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H; Sachdev, Perminder S; Kochan, Nicole A; Xu, Jing; Draper, Brian; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Both cognitive ability and cognitive decline have been shown to predict mortality in older people. As dementia, a major form of cognitive decline, has an established association with shorter survival, it is unclear the extent to which cognitive ability and cognitive decline predict mortality in the absence of dementia. To determine whether cognitive ability and decline in cognitive ability predict mortality in older individuals without dementia. The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study is an observational population-based cohort study. Participants completed detailed neuropsychological assessments and medical examinations to assess for risk factors such as depression, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking and physical activity. Participants were regularly assessed at 2-year intervals over 8 years. A community sample in Sydney, Australia. One thousand and thirty-seven elderly people without dementia. Overall, 236 (22.8%) participants died within 8 years. Both cognitive ability at baseline and decline in cognitive ability over 2 years predicted mortality. Decline in cognitive ability, but not baseline cognitive ability, was a significant predictor of mortality when depression and other medical risk factors were controlled for. These relationships also held when excluding incident cases of dementia. The findings indicate that decline in cognition is a robust predictor of mortality in older people without dementia at a population level. This relationship is not accounted for by co-morbid depression or other established biomedical risk factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Shooting Gallery Operation in the Context of Establishing a Medically Supervised Injecting Center: Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Shooting galleries (SGs) are illicit off-street spaces close to drug markets used for drug injection. Supervised injecting facilities (SIFs) are low threshold health services where injecting drug users (IDUs) can inject pre-obtained drugs under supervision. This study describes SG use in Kings Cross, Sydney before and after the opening of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC), Australia’s first SIF. Operational and environmental characteristics of SGs, reasons for SG use, and willingness to use MSIC were also examined. An exploratory survey of SG users (n = 31), interviews with SG users (n = 17), and drug workers (n = 8), and counts of used needles routinely collected from SGs (6 months before and after MSIC) and visits to the MSIC (6 months after MSIC) were triangulated. We found five SGs operated during the study period. Key operational characteristics were 24-h operation, AUS$10 entry fee, 30-min time limit, and dual use for sex work. Key reasons for SG use were to avoid police, a preference not to inject in public, and assistance from SG operators in case of overdose. SG users reported high levels of willingness to use the MSIC. The number of used needles collected from SGs decreased by 69% (41,819 vs. 12,935) in the 6 months after MSIC opened, while MSIC visits increased incrementally. We conclude that injections were transferred from SGs to the MSIC, but SGs continued to accommodate injections and harm reduction outreach should be maintained. PMID:17273925

  6. Characteristics of non-diabetic foot ulcers in Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Zaine, Norafizah; Hitos, Kerry; Vicaretti, Mauro; Fletcher, John P; Begg, Lindy; Burns, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies investigating the characteristics, risk factors and socioeconomic status of patients with non-diabetic foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of non-diabetic foot ulcers in a large tertiary referral outpatient hospital setting in Western Sydney, Australia. From 2011 to 2013, data from 202 patients with non-diabetic foot ulcers during their initial visit were retrospectively extracted for analysis from Westmead Hospital's Foot Wound Clinic Registry. Data including demographics, socioeconomic status and foot ulcer characteristics were recorded on a standardised data collection form. Demographics and physical characteristics were: 54 % male, median age 78 years [interquartile range (IQR): 64-87], median body mass index (BMI) of 23.8 kg/m(2) (IQR: 20-26.9), 35 % had loss of protective sensation and the median postcode score for socioeconomic status was 996 (IQR: 935-1034). Foot ulcer characteristics were: median cross-sectional area of 1.2 cm(2) (IQR: 0.3-5.0), 30.5 % plantar and 27 % dorsal, 22.1 % University of Texas (UT) Wound Classification for Diabetic Foot Ulcers Grade of 1C-3C (with ischaemia). Unlike diabetic foot ulcers, non-diabetic foot ulcers largely affected older males and females. In accordance with diabetic foot ulcer characteristics, socioeconomic status was not related to non-diabetic foot ulcers in Western Sydney. Based on the findings of this study the epidemiological pattern of non-diabetic foot ulceration and its pathogenesis requires further investigation.

  7. Differential proteomic response of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to prolonged environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melwani, A R; Thompson, E L; Raftos, D A

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to prolonged environmental stress can have impacts on the cellular homeostasis of aquatic organisms. The current study employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to test whether exposure to impaired water quality conditions in the Sydney Harbour estuary has significantly altered the proteomes of the resident Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). Adult S. glomerata were sampled from four bays in the estuary. Each bay consisted of a "high-impact" site adjacent to point sources of chemical contamination (e.g., storm drains/canals or legacy hotspots) and a "low-impact" site located ∼5km away from point sources. A mixture of environmental stressors differed significantly between high- and low-impact sites. Specifically, PAHs, PCBs, tributyltin, Pb, and Zn were significantly elevated in oyster tissues from high-impact sites, together with depleted dissolved oxygen and low pH in the water column. A 2-DE proteomics analysis subsequently identified 238 protein spots across 24 2-DE gels, of which 27-50 spots differed significantly in relative intensity between high- and low-impact sites per bay. Twenty-five percent of the differential spots were identified in more than one bay. The identities of 80 protein spots were determined by mass spectrometry. HSP 70, PPIB, and radixin were the three most highly expressed differential proteins. Despite the largely unique proteomes evident in each bay, functional annotations revealed that half of the differentially expressed proteins fell into just two subcellular functional categories-energy metabolism and the cytoskeleton. These findings provide a framework to further investigate adaptation of cellular mechanisms to prolonged stress in S. glomerata. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contamination and screening level toxicity of sediments from remediated and unremediated wetlands near Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Rawson, Christopher A; Kookana, Rai S; Peng, Ping-An; Warne, Michael S J; Tremblay, Louis A; Laginestra, Edwina; Chapman, John C; Lim, Richard P

    2009-10-01

    The present study assessed contamination and toxicity of sediments from seven remediated and remnant wetland sites within Sydney Olympic Park, Australia, and four unremediated sites adjacent to its boundary using chemical analysis and a luminescent bacterial biosensor assay (Escherichia coli). Concentrations of metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and As) and persistent organic chemicals (DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyls; and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) in sediments and their pore-water samples were determined. Zinc concentrations were the highest of the metals in the sediments (84-618 mg/kg), and at eight sites, metal concentrations in sediments exceeded the Australian ecological trigger values for Pb, Zn, and Ni. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the sediments exceeded the trigger values at all 11 sites for DDTs, at 6 sites for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 5 sites for polychlorinated biphenyls. Sediment samples from the four unremediated sites outside the Sydney Olympic Park had dioxin concentrations greater than 200 pg (toxic equivalency per gram). The same four sites were identified as contaminated in pore-water toxicity tests with the luminescent biosensor, generally consistent with the bioavailable fractions of the contaminants (pore-water and Tenax extraction data), as well as dioxin levels, in the sediments. Preliminary toxicity identification and evaluation tests of the pore water from the four sites outside the park demonstrated that organic contaminants were the main cause of toxicity to E. coli, with no evidence that metals contributed to the toxicity of the pore water.

  9. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors......Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance...

  11. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning".......Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...

  12. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  13. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  14. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that highlights the problems and the new opportunities with which "the experience city" is faced. Special...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation....

  15. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  16. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  17. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  18. Knowledge repositories in knowledge cities: institutions, conventions and knowledge subnetworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger

  19. Maurizio Isabella & Konstantina Zanou (eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long 19th Century (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páll Björnsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of: Maurizio Isabella and Konstantina Zanou (eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long 19th Century (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

  20. Cities of race hatred? The spheres of racism and anti-racism in contemporary Australian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Dunn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cities are indeed places of everyday racism, experienced as ethnocentrism, prejudice and ethnic-based hatred. Drawing on an Australia-wide telephone survey of respondents' experiences of 'everyday' racism in various contexts, conducted in 2006, we examine forms of racist experience, as well as the contexts and responses to those experiences for Sydney, Melbourne and Perth, Australia’s main immigrant-receiving cities. Results show that between 1 in 10, and 1 in 3 respondents, depending on their background and situation, experience some form of 'everyday' racism. However, this particular aspect of urban incivility is shadowed by everyday good relations. There is what might be called a ‘geography of cultural repair’ and cultural maintenance within the cosmopolitan city. There is strong support for anti-racism policy. Where action is taken in response racism it is determined by everyday confrontations and attempts at direct reconciliation. Formal complaints and reports are much rarer forms of anti-racism. In this paper we advocate a pragmatic on-going, agonistic politics of cultural exchange and tolerance.

  1. Minamata Convention on Mercury. Reporting obligations of the Parties to the Convention and the sources of data existing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecka-Jastrząb, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    After that, when more than 60 years ago in the Japanese city of Minamata there was caused a mass poisoning of residents by seafood contaminated with mercury, Minamata Convention on Mercury came into force on August 16, 2017. To date, the Convention has been signed by 128 States, the signatories of the Convention and ratified by 83 States - Parties to the Convention. The Convention imposes a number of obligations on the Parties to the Convention, including the reporting obligation. The paper analyses the reporting obligations of the Parties to the Convention, which are in force after the entry into force of the Convention, pursuant to the provisions contained therein. In addition, the existing sources of quantitative data on mercury in Poland are characterized.

  2. The natural history of vitamin D deficiency in African refugees living in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z; Wood, Nicholas J; Biesheuvel, Cornelis; Moreira, Conrad; Munns, Craig F

    2009-04-20

    To describe the natural history of vitamin D deficiency in an at-risk population of African migrants living in Sydney. Opportunistic study of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations over time in a community-based cohort of North African refugee families living in south-western Sydney. As part of a health-screening program, serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate (PO(4)) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in September 2006 (end of winter, T1). Results for 25(OH)D were made available, and treatment was recommended as appropriate. In February-March 2007 (end of summer, T2), in the setting of a separate study of high-dose vitamin D (stoss) therapy, the same cohort was contacted, and measurements were repeated. Changes in 25(OH)D, PTH, ALP and PO(4) concentrations between T1 and T2 in those who had not received vitamin D supplementation in the intervening period. We collected data from 149 participants at T1; by T2, 58 participants (39%) had been excluded or lost to follow-up. Data from 91 participants (46% female), all of whom had Type VI (very dark) skin pigmentation, were included in the analysis. All 91 were 25(OH)D deficient at T1. Between T1 and T2, mean 25(OH)D serum concentration increased from 19 nmol/L (SD, 5.6 nmol/L) to 36 nmol/L (SD, 12.4 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). Of the 91 participants, 79 (87%) remained vitamin D deficient at T2. Serum PTH and ALP activity decreased between T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). Despite a significant increase in 25(OH)D serum concentration over the study period, most participants (87%) remained 25(OH)D deficient at the end of summer. Our results support the current consensus that recommends annual screening for vitamin D deficiency and routine vitamin D supplementation in at-risk populations, such as dark-skinned or veiled groups.

  3. Mega-event strategy as a tool of urban transformation : Sydney's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Spaans, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth and put the host city on the world agenda. Thus far, the research addressing what

  4. An objective index of walkability for research and planning in the Sydney Metropolitan Region of New South Wales, Australia: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, Darren J; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Willmore, Alan; Rose, Nectarios; Jalaludin, Bin; Bambrick, Hilary; Bauman, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background Walkability describes the capacity of the built environment to support walking for various purposes. This paper describes the construction and validation of two objective walkability indexes for Sydney, Australia. Methods Walkability indexes using residential density, intersection density, land use mix, with and without retail floor area ratio were calculated for 5,858 Sydney Census Collection Districts in a geographical information system. Associations between variables were evalu...

  5. The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) in the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert

    2016-09-02

    The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) has been located to the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia. Collected in 1775, this specimen represents the second species of Goliathus to be illustrated in European literature, however eluding a proper species description until 1837. This important specimen, overlooked by previous curators, represents another portion of the Dru Drury collections purchased by Alexander McLeay now held in the Macleay Museum.

  6. Treponema pallidum Strain Types and Association with Macrolide Resistance in Sydney, Australia: New TP0548 Gene Types Identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Phillip; Tagg, Kaitlin A; Jeoffreys, Neisha; Guy, Rebecca J; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Donovan, Basil

    2016-08-01

    Strain typing of Treponema pallidum, using the three-target enhanced classification scheme, was performed with 191 samples obtained between 2004 and 2011 in Sydney, Australia. The most common strain type was 14d/g (92/191 samples [48%]). Two new TP0548 gene types were detected (m and n). Strain type was associated with macrolide resistance and possible acquisition outside Australia. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Use of a syndromic surveillance system to describe the trend in cycling-related presentations to emergency departments in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Michael M; Kastelein, Christopher; Bein, Kendall J; Green, Timothy C; Bautovich, Tanya; Ivers, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    To describe population-based trends in cycling-related presentations to EDs over the past decade. A retrospective cohort of road trauma patients (motor vehicle, motor cyclist, cyclist and pedestrian) presenting to EDs in the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Area between 2004 and 2013 was obtained using the Public Health Real-time Emergency Department Surveillance System. The outcomes of interest were the cycling-related ED presentation rate per 1000 population, as well as the proportion of cycling-related presentations that died in ED or were admitted to a critical care ward. Trends in ED presentation rates based on presentation counts and Sydney population data were plotted and described. There were 68,438 cycling-related presentations identified, representing 30% of all road trauma patients presenting to EDs in Sydney. There was a 91% increase in cycling-related presentations for the 35 to 64-year-old age group and a 123% increase in cycling-related presentations in the 65-year-old and over age group. All other age groups were associated with a stable or decrease in cycling-related ED presentation rates. The proportion of presentations requiring critical care ward admission or death in ED has decreased by 20%. Using an ED syndromic surveillance system, cycling-related ED presentation rates in Sydney Australia have increased in those aged 35 years and over the past 10 years, with a relative decrease in the proportion of deaths in ED or those requiring critical care admission. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Damascena da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012.

  9. Estimates of potential childhood lead exposure from contaminated soil using the US EPA IEUBK Model in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Mohmmad, Shaike M; Gulson, Brian L; Taylor, Mark P; Kristensen, Louise J; Birch, Gavin

    2017-07-01

    Surface soils in portions of the Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) urban area are contaminated with lead (Pb) primarily from past use of Pb in gasoline, the deterioration of exterior lead-based paints, and industrial activities. Surface soil samples (n=341) were collected from a depth of 0-2.5cm at a density of approximately one sample per square kilometre within the Sydney estuary catchment and analysed for lead. The bioaccessibility of soil Pb was analysed in 18 samples. The blood lead level (BLL) of a hypothetical 24 month old child was predicted at soil sampling sites in residential and open land use using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Integrated Exposure Uptake and Biokinetic (IEUBK) model. Other environmental exposures used the Australian National Environmental Protection Measure (NEPM) default values. The IEUBK model predicted a geometric mean BLL of 2.0±2.1µg/dL using measured soil lead bioavailability measurements (bioavailability =34%) and 2.4±2.8µg/dL using the Australian NEPM default assumption (bioavailability =50%). Assuming children were present and residing at the sampling locations, the IEUBK model incorporating soil Pb bioavailability predicted that 5.6% of the children at the sampling locations could potentially have BLLs exceeding 5µg/dL and 2.1% potentially could have BLLs exceeding 10µg/dL. These estimations are consistent with BLLs previously measured in children in Sydney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  11. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships....

  12. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  13. Factors associated with violent victimisation among homeless adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larney, Sarah; Conroy, Elizabeth; Mills, Katherine L; Burns, Lucy; Teesson, Maree

    2009-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of violent victimisation among homeless people in inner-Sydney. Cross-sectional design. Clients of a shelter for homeless, substance-using adults were interviewed about their drug use, mental health and violent victimisation in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with victimisation. Participants reported complex drug use histories and high levels of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders. Forty-eight per cent of participants reported past year victimisation. In univariate analyses, being female, schizophrenia/psychotic disorder, PTSD, depression and regular use of psychostimulants were associated with increased risk of victimisation. In multivariate analyses, regular use of psychostimulants (odds ratio [95% CI] 5.07 [1.53-16.84]), schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder (3.13 [1.24-7.9], and depression (2.65 [1.07-6.59]) were associated with increased risk of victimisation. This sample of homeless, substance-using adults experienced high levels of violence. People with poor mental health and regular psychostimulant users were at greater risk of victimisation. A longitudinal study to determine whether victimisation prolongs homelessness is warranted. Clinical staff working with homeless populations need to be aware of the likelihood of past and future victimisation and its effects on mental health. Homeless persons may benefit from learning to identify risk situations for victimisation and how to de-escalate potentially violent situations.

  14. Catering for the athletes village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: the role of sports dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona; O'Connor, Helen; Denyer, Gareth; Caterson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the development, analysis, and implementation of the menu available to athletes and patrons in the main dining hall of the Athletes Village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the significant role of sports dietitians in this process. Menu design and development was informed by focus groups, literature reviews, and food-preference surveys of athletes. The final menu was also assessed by an expert panel of Australian sports dietitians. A custom-designed database (Foodweb) was developed to enable dietary analysis of food-production data and creation of point-of-choice nutrition labels. Dietitians assisted with quality assurance testing and training of catering staff. Athletes surveyed in the main dining hall (N=414) agreed that the menu contained sufficient variety and adequate meat, pasta/rice, vegetable/salad, fruit, and snack items. Sports dietitians played a significant role in ensuring that the menu met the needs of athletes from a range of differing cultural and sporting backgrounds. Dining-hall patrons provided positive feedback and few complaints about the overall dining experience. The information presented in this report can help future caterers and dietitians with the planning and provision of suitable food for athletic performance at an Olympic Games.

  15. A spectral-based clustering for structural health monitoring of the Sydney Harbour Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdari, Mehrisadat Makki; Rakotoarivelo, Thierry; Khoa, Nguyen Lu Dang

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a large scale Structural Health Monitoring application on the Sydney Harbour Bridge in Australia. This bridge has many structural components, and our work focuses on a subset of 800 jack arches under the traffic lane 7. Our goal is to identify which of these jack arches (if any) respond differently to the traffic input, due to potential structural damages or instrumentation issues. We propose a novel non-model-based method to achieve this objective, using a spectrum-driven feature based on the Spectral Moments (SMs) from measured responses from the jack arches. SMs contain information from the entire frequency range, thus subtle differences between the normal signals and distorted ones could be identified. Our method then applies a modified k-means- clustering algorithm to these features, followed by a selection mechanism on the clustering results to identify jack arches with abnormal responses. We performed an extensive evaluation of the proposed method using real data from the bridge. This evaluation included a control component, where the approach successfully detected jack arches with already known damage or issues. It also included a test component, which applied the method to a large set of nodes over a month of data to detect any potential anomaly. The detected anomalies turned out to have indeed system issues after further investigations.

  16. Investigation of attributes which guide choice in cataract surgery services in urban Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Celeste; Keay, Lisa; Palagyi, Anna; Do, Vu Quang; McCluskey, Peter; White, Andrew; Carnt, Nicole; Stapleton, Fiona; Laba, Tracey-Lea

    2018-01-17

    It is critical to consult patients to develop patient-centred cataract surgery care. We aimed to identify attributes patients consider when making decisions about cataract surgery in an Australian context, where both publicly and privately funded surgery are available. This is the first step in investigating how decisions are made about cataract surgery services. This observational qualitative study was undertaken in two public hospitals and one private practice in Sydney, Australia. The study involved 19 women and men with age-related cataracts and no previous cataract surgery, aged > 18 years, able to speak conversational English or Mandarin. A multi-stage attribute development process was followed, including: literature review, semi-structured interviews with surgery candidates in three eye clinics, and review by an expert panel. The main outcome measures were primary attributes for making choices about cataract surgery. Wait time, cost, institutional reputation, surgeon experience and travel time were identified as principal attributes; lower value was placed on consultation length and accessibility. Non-English speaking participants indicated greater interest in pre-operative information than English speakers, but expressed trust in the Australian healthcare system. Findings suggest individuals prioritise attributes which consume time or incur costs when accessing care (wait time, cost and travel time). They also consider factors associated with the outcome of their cataract surgery (surgeon experience and institutional reputation). Similar to other decision-making processes, patients are likely to trade between these different attributes depending on their personal preferences and circumstances. © 2018 Optometry Australia.

  17. Back to the future--the history and philosophy of medicine experiment at Sydney University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossart, Y E; Pegler, M A; Givney, R C

    1996-09-01

    History and Philosophy of Medicine has been a compulsory unit in the first year of the medical curriculum at Sydney University for the past decade. Volunteer tutors are drawn from most clinical and basic science departments, and each year the programme is organized on a theme of current importance in medical practice. This course began as an experiment because no resources were available for specialist staff, but has proved outstandingly successful in generating both student and teaching staff interest and support for the programme. Students present short tutorial papers to their peer group followed by submission of an essay which takes into account the tutorial discussion. The open book examination includes analysis of an unseen piece of primary source material as well as questions derived from the classwork. The Faculties of Arts and Science encouraged this educational experiment and several medical students have now opted to undertake a year of historical research during the intercalated B Sci(Med) programme, and a number of the tutors have enrolled in postgraduate historial or ethical programmes. We suggest that this model may permit introduction of novel courses in times of financial cutback within the Universities, and even allow a foundation to be laid for future development.

  18. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Heidi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Alexander, Kate; Egana, Nilva; Conaty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. Methods The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. Results A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3–16–9-11–523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14) consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. Discussion An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak. PMID:28736650

  19. Ethnography From the Inside: Industry-based Research in the Commercial Sydney EDM Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Montano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a decade of ethnographic research and participant observation in the Sydney commercial electronic dance music (EDM scene, this article explores some of the issues and tensions in conducting industry-based fieldwork in EDM culture. Through interviews with some of the scene’s key DJs, promoters, media workers and other industry personnel, consideration is given to designing a set of guiding principles for researchers undertaking “behind-the-scenes”, localised EDM research. The starting point for my discussion is my work in dance music retail, specifically at Central Station Records between 2002 and 2005. The level of access this work granted me to particular industry workers and the subsequent networks I was able to establish proved invaluable to my research not only when seeking out interviewees but also when seeking entry to clubs and events. However, while insider knowledge has numerous benefits, convincing contacts of the relevance of research can be problematic, as can maintaining a critical distance.

  20. Spatial Interpolation of Daily Rainfall Data for Local Climate Impact Assessment over Greater Sydney Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial interpolation techniques to produce finer-scale daily rainfall data from regional climate modeling. Four common interpolation techniques (ANUDEM, Spline, IDW, and Kriging were compared and assessed against station rainfall data and modeled rainfall. The performance was assessed by the mean absolute error (MAE, mean relative error (MRE, root mean squared error (RMSE, and the spatial and temporal distributions. The results indicate that Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW method is slightly better than the other three methods and it is also easy to implement in a geographic information system (GIS. The IDW method was then used to produce forty-year (1990–2009 and 2040–2059 time series rainfall data at daily, monthly, and annual time scales at a ground resolution of 100 m for the Greater Sydney Region (GSR. The downscaled daily rainfall data have been further utilized to predict rainfall erosivity and soil erosion risk and their future changes in GSR to support assessments and planning of climate change impact and adaptation in local scale.

  1. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Meena; Lord, Heidi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Alexander, Kate; Egana, Nilva; Conaty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3-16-9-11-523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14) consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak.

  2. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. Methods: The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. Results: A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3-16-9-11-523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14 consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. Discussion: An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak.

  3. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...

  4. A place to call home: study protocol for a longitudinal, mixed methods evaluation of two housing first adaptations in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Elizabeth; Swift, Wendy; Flatau, Paul; Dobbins, Timothy; Schollar-Root, Olivia; Burns, Lucinda

    2015-04-09

    This protocol describes a study evaluating two 'Housing First' programs, Platform 70 and Common Ground, presently being implemented in the inner-city region of Sydney, Australia. The Housing First approach prioritises housing individuals who are homeless in standard lease agreement tenancies as rapidly as possible to lock in the benefits from long-term accommodation, even where the person may not be seen as 'housing ready'. The longitudinal, mixed methods evaluation utilises both quantitative and qualitative data collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up time points. For the quantitative component, clients of each program were invited to complete client surveys that reported on several factors associated with chronic homelessness and were hypothesised to improve under stable housing, including physical and mental health status and treatment rates, quality of life, substance use patterns, and contact with the health and criminal justice systems. Semi-structured interviews with clients and stakeholders comprised the qualitative component and focused on individual experiences with, and perceptions of, the two programs. In addition, program data on housing stability, rental subsidies and support levels provided to clients by agencies was collected and will be used in conjunction with the client survey data to undertake an economic evaluation of the two programs. This study will systematically evaluate the efficacy of a scatter site model (Platform 70) and a congregated model (Common Ground) of the Housing First approach; an examination that has not yet been made either in Australia or internationally. A clear strength of the study is its timing. It was designed and implemented as the programs in question themselves were introduced. Moreover, the programs were introduced when the Australian Government, with State and Territory support, began a more focused, coordinated response to homelessness and funded rapid expansion of innovative homelessness programs across the

  5. CO2 emissions from a temperate drowned river valley estuary adjacent to an emerging megacity (Sydney Harbour)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, E. L.; Mulhearn, P. J.; Eyre, B. D.

    2017-06-01

    The Sydney Harbour Estuary is a large drowned river valley adjacent to Sydney, a large urban metropolis on track to become a megacity; estimated to reach a population of 10 million by 2100. Monthly underway surveys of surface water pCO2 were undertaken along the main channel and tributaries, from January to December 2013. pCO2 showed substantial spatio-temporal variability in the narrow high residence time upper and mid sections of the estuary, with values reaching a maximum of 5650 μatm in the upper reaches and as low as 173 μatm in the mid estuary section, dominated by respiration and photosynthesis respectively. The large lower estuary displayed less variability in pCO2 with values ranging from 343 to 544 μatm controlled mainly by tidal pumping and temperature. Air-water CO2 emissions reached a maximum of 181 mmol C m-2 d-1 during spring in the eutrophic upper estuary. After a summer high rainfall event nutrient-stimulated biological pumping promoted a large uptake of CO2 transitioning the Sydney Harbour Estuary into a CO2 sink with a maximum uptake of rate of -10.6 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the mid-section of the estuary. Annually the Sydney Harbour Estuary was heterotrophic and a weak source of CO2 with an air-water emission rate of 1.2-5 mmol C m-2 d-1 (0.4-1.8 mol C m-2 y-1) resulting in a total carbon emission of around 930 tonnes per annum. CO2 emissions (weighted m3 s-1 of discharge per km2 of estuary surface area) from Sydney Harbour were an order of magnitude lower than other temperate large tectonic deltas, lagoons and engineered systems of China, India, Taiwan and Europe but were similar to other natural drowned river valley systems in the USA. Discharge per unit area appears to be a good predictor of CO2 emissions from estuaries of a similar climate and geomorphic class.

  6. Enacting governance through strategy:A comparative study on governance configurations in Sydney and Vienna

    OpenAIRE

    Brandtner, Christof; Hollerer, Markus A; Meyer, Renate E.; Kornberger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, research has emphasised a shift from city government to urban governance. Such a shift brings about its very own challenges, namely governance gaps, uncertain configurations in governance and a limited capacity to act. In this paper, we argue that the concurrent rise of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through whichlocal governments ena...

  7. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  8. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    upon qualitative interviews with residents as well as road network data and travel speed data collected with GPS to offer a combination of local testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. It is argued that the use of digital network analysis enables planners to obtain a better......A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... knowledge of the spatial patterns of urban accessibility, while the analysis of mobility practices of residents enables a better understanding of the constraints people experience related to their livelihood strategies. Finally, the paper addresses how local residents engage in providing and improving...

  9. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  10. Low prevalence of Kingella kingae carriage in children aged 6-48 months in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; Rivers, Braden Rl; Outhred, Alexander C; Kesson, Alison M

    2017-02-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae in healthy Australian pre-school children. Screening for carriage of K. kingae as well as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and K. kingae was undertaken using a single bacterial throat swab taken from well children aged 6 months to 4 years. Standard laboratory procedures were used for culture and identification of organisms. One hundred children were enrolled between October and December 2014 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Median age was 24.0 months (range 6.1-48.8 months); 52 children were male and 36 attended day-care facilities. Forty-one children had siblings aged less than 5 years and 67 children had siblings of any age. K. kingae oropharyngeal carriage was not detected in any of the children. Rates of carriage of other organisms were: 30% S. aureus, 21% H. influenzae, 2% S. pneumoniae and 2% S. pyogenes. Thirty-eight children were colonised with Kingella denitrificans. Our results suggest that prevalence of K. kingae carriage in pre-school children in Sydney is very low and support local and national guidelines that recommend flucloxacillin as empiric first-line therapy for children with osteoarticular infections. Studies conducted over the winter months and in other Australian centres could help answer outstanding questions regarding differences in carriage rates of K. kingae in children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Enteric Fever in Children in Western Sydney, Australia, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; Khan, Fouzia; Macartney, Kristine K

    2017-12-01

    Enteric fever is a vaccine-preventable disease with cases in Australia predominantly acquired overseas. The aim of this study was to define the burden of enteric fever in children presenting to a pediatric hospital in Western Sydney between 2003 and 2015. Cases between January 2003 and December 2013 were ascertained through medical records using International Classification of Disease-coded discharge diagnoses, cross-referenced with microbiology laboratory data for all isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and S. enterica serovar paratyphi. Prospective cases from January 2014 to April 2015 were additionally captured through records maintained by the infectious diseases team. Seventy-one cases of enteric fever were identified in 12.3 years with an average of 4 cases per year between 2003 and 2008 and 7 cases per year between 2009 and 2014. Two were visitors to Australia, 8 were recent migrants, and 59 were Australian residents returning from overseas travel. Two children had no history of overseas travel. Countries of travel predominantly included the Indian subcontinent (60/69) and Southeast Asia (7/69). Of 30 children with information available on pretravel medical consultation, 1 was offered and received typhoid vaccine. Ninety-four percent of children (67) required admission for 1-28 days (median: 5 days). Three children required readmission, with 1 case of presumed relapse. Ninety percent (64) were diagnosed by blood or stool culture with S. enterica serovar typhi the predominant organism (54/64). In Australia, hospitalizations for pediatric enteric fever appear to be increasing; predominantly occurring in Australian-resident children. Greater awareness and education are required for parents and clinicians regarding travel health risks and prevention strategies.

  12. Sediment-bound Metallic Contaminants in Sydney's Estuaries and Adjacent Offshore, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of Australia's population of 17 million and a large proportion of its industry are concentrated in the restricted area of Greater Metropolitan Sydney. Heavy metal loadings of the surficial sediment which mantles the four deeply incised estuaries dissecting this region and the adjacent continental shelf are being investigated to determine potential sources, and to understand the processes of dispersion and accumulation. The Parramatta River/Port Jackson and Georges River/Botany Bay estuaries have been major repositories for urban/industrial waste and are heavily impacted by anthropogenic metalliferous (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb) loadings. The majority of estuarine areas are greatly in excess of background values. The most elevated regions are the upper reaches of estuaries and bay ends. Generally, the central sections of these estuaries are less elevated, but still above background values, whereas for some metals, the lower reaches and mouth areas approach background values. In limited parts of the inner shelf, most of these metals are above background values, but for the majority of the continental shelf, values are close to background. The strong down-estuary decline in metals and lower metal levels in the marine environment is probably source-related, rather than due to a dilution by less enriched coarse sediment. The source of offshore metal enrichment is coastal sewage outfalls and/or dissolved and suspended material escaping the estuaries. Marginally elevated metal concentrations on the inner shelf in excess of that observed in the lower estuary, are probably indicative of some sourcing from sewage outfalls. In terms of public health, the majority of the Parramatta River/Port Jackson estuary is in excess of guidelines, and tributaries and bay ends of both estuaries are markedly in excess of these levels for all elements. Offshore surficial sediments are mostly within guideline levels.

  13. The association between pulse wave velocity and cognitive function: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Singer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pulse wave velocity (PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and its increase with ageing has been associated with damage to cerebral microvessels and cognitive impairment. This study examined the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and specific domains of cognitive function in a non-demented elderly sample. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, a cohort study of non-demented community-dwelling individuals aged 70-90 years, assessed in successive waves two years apart. In Wave 2, PWV and cognitive function were measured in 319 participants. Linear regression was used to analyse the cross-sectional relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive function in the whole sample, and separately for men and women. Analysis of covariance was used to assess potential differences in cognition between subjects with PWV measurements in the top and bottom tertiles of the cohort. Covariates were age, education, body mass index, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, depression, alcohol, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, use of anti-hypertensive medications, history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes, and also sex for the whole sample analyses. RESULTS: There was no association between PWV and cognition after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. When examining this association for males and females separately, an association was found in males, with higher PWV being associated with lower global cognition and memory, however, a significant difference between PWV and cognition between males and females was not found. CONCLUSION: A higher level of PWV was not associated with lower cognitive function in the whole sample.

  14. The spatial domain of wildfire risk and response in the wildland urban interface in Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, O. F.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In order to quantify the risks from fire at the wildland urban interface (WUI), it is important to understand where fires occur and their likelihood of spreading to the WUI. For each of the 999 fires in the Sydney region we calculated the distance between the ignition and the WUI, the fire's weather and wind direction and whether it spread to the WUI. The likelihood of burning the WUI was analysed using binomial regression. Weather and distance interacted such that under mild weather conditions, the model predicted only a 5% chance that a fire starting >2.5 km from the interface would reach it, whereas when the conditions are extreme the predicted chance remained above 30% even at distances >10 km. Fires were more likely to spread to the WUI if the wind was from the west and in the western side of the region. We examined whether the management responses to wildfires are commensurate with risk by comparing the distribution of distance to the WUI of wildfires with roads and prescribed fires. Prescribed fires and roads were concentrated nearer to the WUI than wildfires as a whole, but further away than wildfires that burnt the WUI under extreme weather conditions (high risk fires). Overall, 79% of these high risk fires started within 2 km of the WUI, so there is some argument for concentrating more management effort near the WUI. By substituting climate change scenario weather into the statistical model, we predicted a small increase in the risk of fires spreading to the WUI, but the increase will be greater under extreme weather. This approach has a variety of uses, including mapping fire risk and improving the ability to match fire management responses to the threat from each fire. They also provide a baseline from which a cost-benefit analysis of complementary fire management strategies can be conducted.

  15. The use of complementary and alternative medicine among people living with diabetes in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manya Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is common in patients with chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of the study was to determine the overall prevalence and type of CAM use in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM in Western Sydney and to compare the prevalence and factors associated with CAM use with the literature. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-completed questionnaire distributed to patients with DM attending a public hospital and specialist endocrinology clinics in the region. The type of DM and pattern of CAM utilisation were analyzed. Results Sixty nine people responded to the questionnaire: age range of 18-75 years during a twelve week collection period. Overall, 32 respondents with diabetes were using some form of CAM, resulting in a utilisation rate of 46.3%. Twenty of the 32 CAM users used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes accounting for 28.9% of the respondent sample population. Multivitamins (40%, cinnamon, Co-enzyme q10 and prayer were the most frequently used CAM modalities. There was no significant difference between males and females, age range, income or diabetes complications between CAM and non-CAM users. (p values each > 0.05 The factor most significantly associated with CAM usage was being born overseas (p = 0.044. Conclusions Almost half the respondents (46.3% used CAM: 28% used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes. Individuals born overseas were significantly more likely to use CAM than those born in Australia. Other factors such as age, gender, wealth and duration of living with diabetes were not associated with higher rate of CAM usage.

  16. Did the 2000 Sydney Olympics increase physical activity among adult Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Bellew, Bill; Craig, Cora L

    2015-02-01

    The Olympic Games' (OG) organisers typically hope that a diverse range of health legacies, including increases in physical activity and sport participation will result from their hosting of the OG. Despite these aspirations, the effects of the Olympics on physical activity levels remain to be demonstrated in large-scale population studies. This study examined the short-term impact of the Sydney 2000 OG, using serial cross-sectional population physical activity surveys of Australian adults in November 1999 and November 2000. Random sample surveys of adults asked about physical activity participation, intention to be more active, and in 2000, response to the OG. There were no significant effects of the Olympics on physical activity participation among adult Australians, measured 6 weeks after the end of the Games. Total minutes of leisure-time physical activity did not change significantly between 1999 and 2000 (295-303 min/week), and the proportion reaching the recommended levels of 150 min/week did not change (56.6% and 56.8%, respectively, in 1999 and 2000). The intention to be active in the next month increased after the Games (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24), but was not associated with physical activity behaviour change. The legacy of the OG may be apparent through new infrastructure and other urban improvements, but evidence of their influence on physical activity levels remains elusive. Without multiyear integrated and well-funded programmes to promote physical activity, the Olympic legacy of a more active community may remain more rhetoric than reality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Methamphetamine treatment outcomes among gay men attending a LGBTI-specific treatment service in Sydney, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lea

    Full Text Available Gay and bisexual men (GBM report higher rates of methamphetamine use compared to heterosexual men, and thus have a heightened risk of developing problems from their use. We examined treatment outcomes among GBM clients receiving outpatient counseling at a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI-specific, harm reduction treatment service in Sydney, Australia. GBM receiving treatment for methamphetamine use from ACON's Substance Support Service between 2012-15 (n = 101 were interviewed at treatment commencement, and after 4 sessions (n = 60; follow-up 1 and 8 sessions (n = 32; follow-up 2. At each interview, clients completed measures of methamphetamine use and dependence, other substance use, injecting risk practices, psychological distress and quality of life. The median age of participants was 41 years and 56.4% identified as HIV-positive. Participants attended a median of 5 sessions and attended treatment for a median of 112 days. There was a significant reduction in the median days of methamphetamine use in the previous 4 weeks between baseline (4 days, follow-up 1 (2 days and follow-up 2 (2 days; p = .001. There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants reporting methamphetamine dependence between baseline (92.1%, follow-up 1 (78.3% and follow-up 2 (71.9%, p < .001. There were also significant reductions in psychological distress (p < .001, and significant improvements in quality of life (p < .001. Clients showed reductions in methamphetamine use and improved psychosocial functioning over time, demonstrating the potential effectiveness of a LGBTI-specific treatment service.

  18. Sleep position, fetal growth restriction, and late-pregnancy stillbirth: the Sydney stillbirth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adrienne; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Bond, Diana; Morris, Jonathan; Rawlinson, William; Jeffery, Heather

    2015-02-01

    To identify potentially modifiable risk factors for late-pregnancy stillbirth. This was a population-based matched case-control study of pregnant women at 32 weeks of gestation or greater booked into tertiary maternity hospitals in metropolitan Sydney between January 2006 and December 2011. The case group consisted of women with singleton pregnancies with antepartum fetal death in utero. Women in the control group were matched for booking hospital and expected delivery date with women in the case group. Data collection was performed using a semistructured interview and included validated questionnaires for specific risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for a priori-specified risk factors using conditional logistic regression. There were 103 women in the case group and 192 women in the control group. Mean gestation was 36 weeks. Supine sleeping was reported by 10 of 103 (9.7%) of women who experienced late-pregnancy stillbirth and by 4 of 192 (2.1%) of women in the control group (adjusted OR 6.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-34). Women who experienced stillbirth were more likely to: have been followed during pregnancy for suspected fetal growth restriction, 11.7% compared with 1.6% (adjusted OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.36-22.5); not be in paid work, 25.2% compared with 9.4% (adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.6); and to have not received further education beyond high school, 41.7% compared with 25.5% (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5). None of the deaths to women who reported supine sleeping were classified as unexplained. This study suggests that supine sleep position may be an additional risk for late-pregnancy stillbirth in an already compromised fetus. The clinical management of suspected fetal growth restriction should be investigated further as a means of reducing late stillbirth.

  19. Quantifying reduction in ecological risk in Penrhyn Estuary, Sydney, Australia, following groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The environmental risk associated with discharge of contaminated groundwater containing a complex mixture of at least 14 volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) to Penrhyn Estuary, Sydney, Australia has previously been assessed. That probabilistic ecological risk assessment (ERA) was undertaken using surface water monitoring data from 2004 to 2005. Subsequently, in 2006, a groundwater remediation system was installed and commissioned to prevent further discharge of VCHs into the estuary. The present study assessed the ecological risk posed to the estuary after 2006 to evaluate the success of the remediation system. The ERA was undertaken using toxicity data derived from direct toxicity assessment (DTA) of preremediation contaminated groundwater using indigenous species, exposure data from surface water monitoring between 2007 and 2008 and the joint probability curve (JPC) methodology. The risk posed was measured in 4 zones of the entire site: source area (2), tributary (2), the inner estuary and outer estuary at high, low, and a combination of high and low tides. In the 2 source areas, risk decreased by over 2 and over 1 orders of magnitude to maximum values of less than 0.5%. In 1 estuary, risk decreased by over 1 order of magnitude, from a maximum of 36% to a maximum of 2.3%. At the other tributary and both the inner and outer estuaries, the risk decreased to less than 1%, regardless of the tide. This analysis revealed that the remediation system was very effective and that the standard level of protection required for slightly to moderately affected ecosystems (95% of species) by the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality was met postremediation. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. EEI convention report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-07-01

    Highlights of papers given at Edison Electric Institute's annual convention, June 1961, are presented. James F. Young reported on research and future power transmission trends, and he predicted 700 kV will be used in the U.S. by 1975.

  1. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were monitored over 1hour. RESULTS: Three ... Patients in the conventional group had statistically significant greater fall in the systolic blood pressures at 15, 30 and 45 ..... cardiovascular homeostasis during spinal anaesthesia, unilateral spinal anaesthesia ...

  2. The water sensitive city: principles for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T H F; Brown, R R

    2009-01-01

    With the widespread realisation of the significance of climate change, urban communities are increasingly seeking to ensure resilience to future uncertainties in urban water supplies, yet change seems slow with many cities facing ongoing investment in the conventional approach. This is because transforming cities to more sustainable urban water cities, or to Water Sensitive Cities, requires a major overhaul of the hydro-social contract that underpins conventional approaches. This paper provides an overview of the emerging research and practice focused on system resilience and principles of sustainable urban water management Three key pillars that need to underpin the development and practice of a Water Sensitive City are proposed: (i) access to a diversity of water sources underpinned by a diversity of centralised and decentralised infrastructure; (ii) provision of ecosystem services for the built and natural environment; and (iii) socio-political capital for sustainability and water sensitive behaviours. While there is not one example in the world of a Water Sensitive City, there are cities that lead on distinct and varying attributes of the water sensitive approach and examples from Australia and Singapore are presented.

  3. Developing age-friendly cities and communities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Elias, Anne-Marie; Matwijiw, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study is to present case studies and assess the impact of political, policy, consultative, and research processes used to implement Age Friendly Cities (AFC) initiatives in Australia. A review and interpretation was conducted based on public documents, community consultations, survey analyses, and participant observation. Governments in Australia have drawn on World Health Organization (WHO) concepts to establish AFC initiatives. In Melbourne, state political leadership established Positive Ageing plans that have reinforced local government actions. In Canberra, a baseline survey and an Older Persons Assembly were followed by modest positive ageing plans. In Sydney, a State Ageing Strategy developed a whole-of-government plan that has yet to be incorporated into budget processes. AFC initiatives in Australia have had promising and varied starts with some aims to benefit disadvantaged older people. Notwithstanding the potential benefits, AFC influence on mainstream actions of government has been limited by uncertain political commitment and growing fiscal austerity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The Impacts of Household Financial Stress, Resilience, Social Support, and Other Adversities on the Psychological Distress of Western Sydney Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress among parents in Western Sydney households and examined its relationship with household financial, family and life stressors, and potential resilience factors. As part of a longer-term study, parents from Western Sydney, New South Wales (NSW, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI in May 2011 (N=439. Respondents were primary caregivers of at least one child (aged 4–16. Responses were weighted to reflect the Western Sydney population. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between parent experiences of stressor and resilience factors and reported psychological distress. Overall, 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8, 14.5 reported experiencing high/very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis indicated that financial hardship factors formed the strongest associations with psychological distress particularly housing and job security factors and, specifically, inability to meet mortgage/rent payments (OR=5.15, 95% CI: 1.74–15.25, p=0.003, poor self-rated health (OR=4.48, 95% CI: 1.88–10.64, p=0.001, adult job loss (OR=3.77, 95% CI: 1.33–10.66, p=0.013, and other family/life events (OR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.03, p=0.037. High personal resilience was common within this parent population and was a significant protective factor for high psychological distress (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34, p<0.001. The findings support the development of targeted interventions to promote parent coping strategies in the context of household financial hardship.

  5. Contribution of Sport Policy to Sport Legacy Development : Case of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of hosting the Olympic Games on a host city/nation are significant, and therefore how to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positive effect has been an issue for the event owner, the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC aims to leave so-called ‘legacy,’ which are to be long-term positive effects, in host cities and nations. The legacy issues captured Olympic stakeholders and researchers, after the IOC Olympic Study Centre and Autonomous University of Barcelon...

  6. Survival after free falls of 59 metres into water from the Sydney Harbour Bridge, 1930-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P M; Solomons, B J

    1983-05-28

    Between 1930 and 1982, 92 persons fell from the Sydney Harbour Bridge into the water, 59 metres below. The major problem among survivors was pulmonary trauma, often with severe respiratory failure. The position of impact influenced survival, the feet-first vertical position being the most favourable. Mortality rate from the fall was 85%. Rapid clinical assessment of victims, especially with reference to pulmonary injury, and prompt institution of ventilatory support, where required, may reverse respiratory failure. Intra-abdominal injuries, spinal column or central nervous system involvement and peripheral fractures should all be suspected.

  7. Cultural planning and Chaos Theory in Cyberspace: some notes on a Digital Cultural Atlas Project for Western Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Lally

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the intersection between digital technologies and cultural planning. New information technologies ought to enable more powerful planning strategies. Yet a common seductive vision of planning is mirrored by utopian claims for cyberculture, which often fall short of the hoped-for reality. We suggest that one problem is the linear thinking common to mainstream planning and digital thinking, which leads to a cumulative lack of fit with the non-linear (chaotic world of social action. We draw on chaos and complexity theory to reframe planning problems and develop more creative digital strategies in a specific location, Western Sydney, using and adapting Geographic Information Systems.

  8. La perspectiva de los nuevos movimientos sociales en las obras de Sydney Tarrow, Alain Touraine y Alberto Melucci

    OpenAIRE

    Ayder Berrío Puerta

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo presenta la discusión en torno a los movimientos sociales a partir de autores como Sydney Tarrow, Alain Touraine y Alberto Melucci. Muestra que en la década del setenta emergieron movimientos sociales que no se correspondían ni con las características ni con los marcos interpretativos disponibles en la teoría de los movimientos sociales hasta ese momento (los modelos marxista y estructural-funcionalista). El artículoofrece una descripción de las características principales de tr...

  9. Undiagnosed hepatitis B and C infection is rare in Sydney gay and bisexual men attending a community HIV testing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, John; Gray, James; Selvey, Christine

    2017-02-06

    This letter reports on an enhanced surveillance snapshot of hepatitis B and C at a men who have sex with men community testing site in inner Sydney. The finding show undiagnosed hepatitis B and C infection is rare in this population of gay and bisexual men. Evidence of immunity to hepatitis B through vaccination is high, however client knowledge of vaccination status is poor. Current targeted hepatitis screening practices were sufficient to detect all undiagnosed cases of hepatitis B and C in this population.

  10. From Project to Strategic Vision: Taking the Lead in Research Data Management Support at the University of Sydney Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Norman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores three stories, each occurring a year apart, illustrating an evolution toward a strategic vision for Library leadership in supporting research data management at the University of Sydney. The three stories describe activities undertaken throughout the Seeding the Commons project and beyond, as the establishment of ongoing roles and responsibilities transition the Library from project partner to strategic leader in the delivery of research data management support. Each story exposes key ingredients that characterise research data management support: researcher engagement; partnerships; and the complementary roles of policy and practice.

  11. Too hot to handle? Hot water bottle injuries in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Bruce, Eleanor; Darton, Anne; Thornbury, Kelly; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Hot water bottles are frequently used in the community as a source of warmth, and to alleviate a number of medical symptoms. In Australia it is believed that over 500,000 water bottles are sold annually (Whittam et al., 2010). This simple treatment is known to result in significant burns and has led to mandatory labeling requirements on hot water bottles in Australia. Despite this, few published studies have documented the incidence and nature of burns sustained through their use. This study aimed to assess the incidence, causation and outcome of hot water bottle burns presenting to a major burn trauma unit in Sydney (Australia). The New South Wales Agency for Clinical Innovation Statewide Burn Injury database and admission data to the Concord Hospital Burns Injury Unit (major treatment unit) provided information on hot water bottle burns occurring between 2005 and 2013. Demographic details, cause of burn, burn depth, total burn surface area (%TBSA), and outcome of burn were ascertained. In order to assess the burn potential of hot water bottles, a separate study examined the thermic properties of hot water bottles in 'real life' scenarios. There were 155 hot water bottle burn presentations resulting in 41 admissions and 24 grafts. The majority of patients were female, and most burns resulted from appliance rupture when used for local pain relief. Patients had an average TBSA of 2.4%. Burns patients were slightly more likely to reside in areas with greater socio-economic disadvantage. In real life scenarios, hot water bottles were shown to retain heat over 50°C for at least 3 hours (h). Hot water bottles are a source of common and preventable burns in the community, with women being more at risk than men. Hot water bottles may retain harmful levels of heat over an extended period of time. Additional labeling requirements pertaining to the longevity of hot water bottles and their use among people especially at risk of burns (i.e. children, the elderly, patients who

  12. The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program: A community-based translational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Louise

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in Australia with prevalence increasing in parallel with increasing obesity. Prevention is an essential component of strategies to reduce the diabetes burden. There is strong and consistent evidence from randomised controlled trials that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification which improves diet, increases physical activity and achieves weight loss in at risk people. The current challenge is to translate this evidence into routine community settings, determine feasible and effective ways of delivering the intervention and providing on-going support to sustain successful behavioural changes. Methods/Design The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP is a translational study which will be conducted in 1,550 participants aged 50-65 years (including 100 indigenous people aged 18 years and older at high risk of future development of diabetes. Participants will be identified through a screening and recruitment program delivered through primary care and will be offered a community-based lifestyle modification intervention. The intervention comprises an initial individual session and three group sessions based on behaviour change principles and focuses on five goals: 5% weight loss, 210 min/week physical activity (aerobic and strength training exercise, limit dietary fat and saturated fat to less than 30% and 10% of energy intake respectively, and at least 15 g/1000 kcal dietary fibre. This is followed by 3-monthly contact with participants to review progress and offer ongoing lifestyle advice for 12 months. The effectiveness and costs of the program on diabetes-related risk factors will be evaluated. Main outcomes include changes in weight, physical activity, and dietary changes (fat, saturated fat and fibre intake. Secondary outcomes include changes in waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, lipids, quality of life

  13. The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program: a community-based translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagiuri, Stephen; Vita, Philip; Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Singh, Maria Fiatarone; Farrell, Louise; Milat, Andrew; Haas, Marion; Bauman, Adrian

    2010-06-10

    Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in Australia with prevalence increasing in parallel with increasing obesity. Prevention is an essential component of strategies to reduce the diabetes burden. There is strong and consistent evidence from randomised controlled trials that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification which improves diet, increases physical activity and achieves weight loss in at risk people. The current challenge is to translate this evidence into routine community settings, determine feasible and effective ways of delivering the intervention and providing on-going support to sustain successful behavioural changes. The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP) is a translational study which will be conducted in 1,550 participants aged 50-65 years (including 100 indigenous people aged 18 years and older) at high risk of future development of diabetes. Participants will be identified through a screening and recruitment program delivered through primary care and will be offered a community-based lifestyle modification intervention. The intervention comprises an initial individual session and three group sessions based on behaviour change principles and focuses on five goals: 5% weight loss, 210 min/week physical activity (aerobic and strength training exercise), limit dietary fat and saturated fat to less than 30% and 10% of energy intake respectively, and at least 15 g/1000 kcal dietary fibre. This is followed by 3-monthly contact with participants to review progress and offer ongoing lifestyle advice for 12 months. The effectiveness and costs of the program on diabetes-related risk factors will be evaluated. Main outcomes include changes in weight, physical activity, and dietary changes (fat, saturated fat and fibre intake). Secondary outcomes include changes in waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, lipids, quality of life, psychological well being, medication use and health service

  14. Ambient particulate matter, landscape fire smoke, and emergency ambulance dispatches in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Farhad; Henderson, Sarah B; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Jalaludin, Bin; Johnston, Fay H

    2017-02-01

    Emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) are a novel outcome for evaluating the public health impacts of air pollution. We assessed the relationships between ambient particulate matter (PM) from all sources, PM from landscape fire smoke (LFS), and EADs likely to be associated with cardiorespiratory problems in the Sydney greater metropolitan region for an 11-year period from 2004 to 2015. EAD codes are assigned at the time of the call to emergency services using standard computer assisted algorithms. We assessed EADs coded as: breathing problems, chest pain, stroke or cerebrovascular accident (stroke), cardiac or respiratory arrest and death (arrest), and heart or defibrillator problems (other heart problems). Using a daily times series study design with a generalized linear Poisson regression model we quantified the association between EAD and daily PM2.5 from all sources (PM2.5,all) and PM2.5 primarily due to LFS (PM2.5,LFS). Increases of 10μg·m-3 in PM2.5,all were positively associated with same day EAD for breathing problems (RR=1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.04), arrest (RR=1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06), and chest pain (RR=1.01 CI 1.00 to 1.02) but not with other outcomes. Increases of 10μg·m-3 PM2.5,LFS were also positively associated with breathing problems on the same day (RR=1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.05) and other heart problems at lag of two days (RR=1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.09). Emergency dispatches for breathing problems are associated with PM2.5,all and PM2.5,LFS and provide a sensitive end point for continued research and surveillance activities investigating the impacts of daily fluctuations in ambient PM2.5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Fossilized cuticles, though rare in the roof rocks of coal seam in the younger part of the Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, represent nearly all of the major plant groups. Selected for investigation, by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis, are fossilized cuticles (FCs) and cuticles extracted from compressions by Schulze's process (CCs) of Alethopteris ambigua. These investigations are supplemented by FTIR analysis of FCs and CCs of Cordaites principalis, and a cuticle-fossilized medullosalean(?) axis. The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to try to determine biochemical discriminators between FCs and CCs of the same species using semi-quantitative FTIR techniques; (2) to assess the effects chemical treatments have, particularly Schulze's process, on functional groups; and most importantly (3) to study the primary origin of FCs. Results are equivocal in respect to (1); (2) after Schulze's treatment aliphatic moieties tend to be reduced relative to oxygenated groups, and some aliphatic chains may be shortened; and (3) a primary chemical model is proposed. The model is based on a variety of geological observations, including stratal distribution, clay and pyrite mineralogies associated with FCs and compressions, and regional geological structure. The model presupposes compression-cuticle fossilization under anoxic conditions for late authigenic deposition of sub-micron-sized pyrite on the compressions. Rock joints subsequently provided conduits for oxygen-enriched ground-water circulation to initiate in situ pyritic oxidation that produced sulfuric acid for macerating compressions, with resultant loss of vitrinite, but with preservation of cuticles as FCs. The timing of the process remains undetermined, though it is assumed to be late to post-diagenetic. Although FCs represent a pathway of organic matter transformation (pomd) distinct from other plant-fossilization processes, global applicability of the

  16. Non-stationarity in daily and sub-daily intense rainfall – Part 1: Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jakob

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was driven by a need to clarify how variations in climate might affect intense rainfall and the potential for flooding. Sub-daily durations are of particular interest for urban applications. Worldwide, few such observation-based studies exist, which is mainly due to limitations in data. While there are still large discrepancies between precipitation data sets from observations and models, both show that there is a tendency for moist regions to become wetter and for dry regions to become drier. However, changes in extreme conditions may show the opposite sign to those in average conditions. Where changes in observed intense precipitation have been studied, this has typically been for daily durations or longer.

    The purpose of this two-part study is to examine daily and sub-daily rainfall extremes for evidence of non-stationarity. Here the problem was addressed by supplementing one long record (Part 1 by a set of shorter records for a 30-yr concurrent period (Part 2. Variations in frequency and magnitude of rainfall extremes across durations from 6 min to 72 h were assessed using data from sites in the south-east of Australia. For the analyses presented in this paper, a peaks-over-threshold approach was chosen since it allows investigating changes in frequency as well as magnitude. Non-parametric approaches were used to assess changes in frequency, magnitude, and quantile estimates as well as the statistical significance of changes for one station (Sydney Observatory Hill for the period 1921 to 2005. Deviations from the long-term average vary with season, duration, and threshold. The effects of climate variations are most readily detected for the highest thresholds. Deviations from the long-term average tend to be larger for frequencies than for magnitudes, and changes in frequency and magnitude may have opposite signs.

    Investigations presented in this paper show that variations in frequency and magnitude of events at

  17. Dietary behaviours during pregnancy: findings from first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Judy M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited prevalence data are available for nutrition related health behaviours during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess dietary behaviours during pregnancy among first-time mothers, and to investigate the relationships between these behaviours and demographic characteristics, so that appropriate dietary intervention strategies for pregnant women can be developed. Method An analysis of cross-sectional survey was conducted using data from 409 first-time mothers at 26-36 weeks of pregnancy, who participated in the Healthy Beginnings Trial conducted in southwestern Sydney, Australia. Dietary behaviours, including consumption of vegetables, fruit, water, milk, soft drinks, processed meat products, fast foods/take away and chips, were assessed using the New South Wales Health Survey questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with dietary behaviours were determined by logistic regression modeling. Log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR. Results Only 7% of mothers reported meeting the recommended vegetable consumption and 13% reported meeting the recommended fruit consumption. Mean and median intakes per day were 2.3 (SD 1.3 and 2 serves of vegetables, and 2.1 (SD 1.4 and 2 serves of fruit respectively. About one fifth of mothers (21% reported drinking 2 cups (500 ml or more of soft drink per day and 12% reported consuming more than 2 meals or snacks from fast-food or takeaway outlets per week. A small percentage of mothers (5% had experienced food insecurity over the past 12 months. There were significant inverse associations between water and soft drink consumption (Spearman's ρ -0.20, P Conclusions There were low reported levels of vegetable and fruit consumption and high reported levels of soft drink and takeaway/fast food consumption among pregnant women. Dietary interventions to prevent adverse health consequences need to be tailored to meet the needs of pregnant women

  18. the poetics and politics of exhibiting italo-australian cultures in sydney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    procession, I had enough cultural capital and language instruments to enable me to read and interact and fall .... opening up to non-Anglo Australians. I soon realized that the HHT was a complex and opaque institution, a .... contribution to the city is actually much more opaque and it deserves to be clarified. Curled up into its ...

  19. The emergence of potent forms of methamphetamine in Sydney, Australia: a case study of the IDRS as a strategic early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kaye, Sharlene; Darke, Shane

    2002-12-01

    A striking finding of the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) in recent years has concerned the emergence in Sydney of a number of different forms of potent methamphetamine. This paper demonstrates the operation of the IDRS in detecting and documenting an increase in both the availability and use of these forms of methamphetamine in Sydney, and Australia more widely, since 1998. Data from different components of the IDRS are utilized to propose that there are currently at least three forms of methamphetamine available in Sydney that are considered by the market to be distinct commodities: methamphetamine powder ('speed'), base methamphetamine ('base') and crystalline methamphetamine ('ice'/'shabu'/'crystal meth'). Base and ice are more potent forms of methamphetamine than speed, and international experience, along with preliminary data obtained from the IDRS, suggest that their use is associated with harms in a number of domains.

  20. Metal and PAH concentrations in fruit of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (Lowbush Blueberry) : a comparison among Whitney Pier, North Sydney and supermarket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2004-07-01

    The concentration of various metals in the fruit harvested from Lowbush blueberry plants in Whitney Pier, Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS), North Sydney (NS) and supermarket were quantified in this report. The concentrations were compared among the 3 sources to determine whether the metal and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the blueberries from Whitney Pier were higher or lower compared to the reference blueberries from North Sydney and the supermarket. Mean values for each of the analytes were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study determined whether washed berries have lower concentrations of contaminants than unwashed berries. The risk to human health of exposure to metals and PAHs through consumption of blueberry samples was also calculated. It was concluded that concentrations of selenium and zinc are elevated in blueberries from Whitney Pier compared to berries from North Sydney and the supermarket, but are well within safe levels. Other elements such as arsenic, titanium, vanadium, lead, copper and molybdenum were similar, and only thallium was elevated in supermarket berries relative to those from Whitney Pier and North Sydney. Chromium was not detected in any samples. It was determined that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the metals analyzed, regardless of whether they were Whitney Pier samples or reference samples. Only 2 PAHs were detected in one of the unwashed samples from Whitney Pier. No PAHs were found in washed berries or unwashed berries from the supermarket or North Sydney. It was concluded that there was no risk to human health from exposure to any of the PAHs. Washed and unwashed samples had similar metal concentrations, indicating that surface contamination did not occur. A full methodology of the testing program was provided. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. A Regular City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Sharavina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  2. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  3. Perceived stigma and social risk of HIV testing and disclosure among Iranian-Australians living in the Sydney metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2012-05-01

    Fear of being stigmatised is a major social risk for seeking help in the HIV/AIDS arena. However, little is known about the social perceptions that people hold about the disease. This study explores the level of perceived stigma and its effect on the social risk of HIV testing and disclosure among Iranian-Australians immigrants living in the Sydney metropolitan area. A total of 236 Iranian-Australians immigrants aged 20-65 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The majority of respondents (73.3%) perceived that HIV-infected people face a great deal of or some stigma. Participants were concerned about being stigmatised if they tested positive or were known to be HIV-positive in the future. A significant majority expressed that such concerns would affect their decision-making related to HIV testing and disclosure. Females were more likely to perceive HIV/AIDS stigma. Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived HIV/AIDS stigma could explain 28.6% of the variance in social risk of HIV testing and disclosure (B=0.89, β=0.53, Pstigma is left unaddressed, individuals would be reluctant to undertake HIV testing or disclose their HIV status if tested positive. Further attempts are needed to change the current social construction of HIV/AIDS among Iranians-Australians living in Sydney.

  4. Histologic Evaluation of Gastric Biopsies According to Sydney Classification and Comparison of Chronic Gastritis Mucosal Histological Findings by Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Ugras

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the materials of gastric biopsies in cases diagnosed as chronic gastritis according to the Sydney system and to compare the parameters according to age groups. The Sydney system of gastritis has five main histological features of changes in gastric mucosa graded (chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori density In our study, we evaluated 63 patients under 31 years, 177 patients between the ages of 31-60 and 187 patients over 61 years, who were diagnosed as having chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy. In 31-60 age group, the localization of Helicobacter pylori was often the antrum. In contrast, in the under 31 years of age group, Helicobacter pylori infection were found to be in the form of the distribution pangastrit. Acute inflammation in the under31 years group was found to be significantly higher than other age groups. In over 61years group, high incidence of atrophy was found. In our study, we detected the rate in atrophy and intestinal metaplasia with Helicobacter pylori is independently increased with age. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 173-178

  5. Sampling of Total Mercury in Sand on Sydney Beaches and Assessment of Risk of Exposure to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, D.; Tang, C.; Edwards, G. C.; Gan, T.; Tran, S.; Geremia, S.; Campbell, J.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial waste, sewage outfall and storm water run-off are potential anthropogenic sources of mercury to Sydney beaches. Children playing on these beaches are possibly at risk of exposure to mercury in beach sand through the ingestion pathway. As part of an investigation into this risk samples were collected from various locations along 7 of Sydney's beaches where children typically would be exposed. Samples were dried and the sand fraction (i.e. >63 µm and mercury using a Direct Mercury Analyser (DMA-80) methodology. Risk of Exposure to mercury was assessed based on published estimates of daily ingestion of soil by children and Health Canada's guideline of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1 exposure threshold. For the beaches sampled concentrations of total mercury in beach sand ranged from 0.6 to 58 ppb. The maximum concentrations of total mercury in beach sand were observed on Beach 6, in the vicinity of five storm water runoff sources. Daily mercury intake values were determined for two commonly used published values for daily ingestion of soil by children of 0.2 g soil d-1 and 1.75 g soil d-1. Results to date show the maximum daily intake calculated using an average child weight of 13 kg to be 7.8 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1, well below the currently accepted daily intake threshold of 105 ng Hg kg-1 BW d-1.

  6. Modeling of a lot scale rainwater tank system in XP-SWMM: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sterren, Marlène; Rahman, Ataur; Ryan, Garry

    2014-08-01

    Lot scale rainwater tank system modeling is often used in sustainable urban storm water management, particularly to estimate the reduction in the storm water run-off and pollutant wash-off at the lot scale. These rainwater tank models often cannot be adequately calibrated and validated due to limited availability of observed rainwater tank quantity and quality data. This paper presents calibration and validation of a lot scale rainwater tank system model using XP-SWMM utilizing data collected from two rainwater tank systems located in Western Sydney, Australia. The modeling considers run-off peak and volume in and out of the rainwater tank system and also a number of water quality parameters (Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Solids (TS)). It has been found that XP-SWMM can be used successfully to develop a lot scale rainwater system model within an acceptable error margin. It has been shown that TP and TS can be predicted more accurately than TN using the developed model. In addition, it was found that a significant reduction in storm water run-off discharge can be achieved as a result of the rainwater tank up to about one year average recurrence interval rainfall event. The model parameter set assembled in this study can be used for developing lot scale rainwater tank system models at other locations in the Western Sydney region and in other parts of Australia with necessary adjustments for the local site characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accuracy of burn size estimation in patients transferred to adult Burn Units in Sydney, Australia: an audit of 698 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Issler, Andrea C; Lajevardi, Sepehr S; Chang, Ling-Yun; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare burn size estimation between referring centres and Burn Units in adult patients transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia. A review of all adults transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia between January 2009 and August 2013 was performed. The TBSA estimated by the referring institution was compared with the TBSA measured at the Burns Unit. There were 698 adults transferred to a Burns Unit. Equivalent TBSA estimation between the referring hospital and Burns Unit occurred in 30% of patients. Overestimation occurred at a ratio exceeding 3:1 with respect to underestimation, with the difference between the referring institutions and Burns Unit estimation being statistically significant (Pburn-injured patients as well as in patients transferred more than 48h after the burn (Pburn (Ppatients, severe burns (≥20% TBSA) were found to have more satisfactory burn size estimations compared with less severe injuries (burn size assessment by referring centres. The systemic tendency for overestimation occurs throughout the entire TBSA spectrum, and persists with increasing time after the burn. Underestimation occurs less frequently but rises with increasing time after the burn and with increasing TBSA. Severe burns (≥20% TBSA) are more accurately estimated by the referring hospital. The inaccuracies in burn size assessment have the potential to result in suboptimal treatment and inappropriate referral to specialised Burn Units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the

  9. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  10. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... by overcoming traditional micro-macro and actor-structure dimensions. However, they have also achieved this in different ways and I ask if there is a benefit to ‘importing’ some of these differences into the other approach....

  11. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  12. The Sydney Heart Bank: improving translational research while eliminating or reducing the use of animal models of human heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Remedios, C G; Lal, S P; Li, A; McNamara, J; Keogh, A; Macdonald, P S; Cooke, R; Ehler, E; Knöll, R; Marston, S B; Stelzer, J; Granzier, H; Bezzina, C; van Dijk, S; De Man, F; Stienen, G J M; Odeberg, J; Pontén, F; Linke, W; van der Velden, J

    2017-08-01

    The Sydney Heart Bank (SHB) is one of the largest human heart tissue banks in existence. Its mission is to provide high-quality human heart tissue for research into the molecular basis of human heart failure by working collaboratively with experts in this field. We argue that, by comparing tissues from failing human hearts with age-matched non-failing healthy donor hearts, the results will be more relevant than research using animal models, particularly if their physiology is very different from humans. Tissue from heart surgery must generally be used soon after collection or it significantly deteriorates. Freezing is an option but it raises concerns that freezing causes substantial damage at the cellular and molecular level. The SHB contains failing samples from heart transplant patients and others who provided informed consent for the use of their tissue for research. All samples are cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen within 40 min of their removal from the patient, and in less than 5-10 min in the case of coronary arteries and left ventricle samples. To date, the SHB has collected tissue from about 450 failing hearts (>15,000 samples) from patients with a wide range of etiologies as well as increasing numbers of cardiomyectomy samples from patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The Bank also has hearts from over 120 healthy organ donors whose hearts, for a variety of reasons (mainly tissue-type incompatibility with waiting heart transplant recipients), could not be used for transplantation. Donor hearts were collected by the St Vincent's Hospital Heart and Lung transplantation team from local hospitals or within a 4-h jet flight from Sydney. They were flushed with chilled cardioplegic solution and transported to Sydney where they were quickly cryopreserved in small samples. Failing and/or donor samples have been used by more than 60 research teams around the world, and have resulted in more than 100 research papers. The tissues most commonly requested are

  13. An audit of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network: regulation and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sainsbury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has been identified as a driver of the global obesity epidemic and a priority area for preventative efforts. Local and international research has focused on the unhealthiness of television advertising, with limited research into the growing outdoor advertising industry. This study aimed to examine the extent of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network, and to assess the nutritional quality of advertised products against the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Methods All 178 train stations on the Sydney metropolitan train network were surveyed in summer and winter. A survey tool was developed to collect information for all advertisements on and immediately surrounding the train station. Information included product, brand, location and advertisement format. Advertisements were coded by nutrition category, product subcategory and size. Chi-square, ANOVA and ANCOVA tests were conducted to test for differences in the amount of food and beverage advertising by season and area socioeconomic status (SES. Results Of 6931 advertisements identified, 1915 (27.6% were promoting a food or beverage. The majority of food and beverage advertisements were for unhealthy products; 84.3% were classified as discretionary, 8.0% core and 7.6% miscellaneous. Snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently advertised products, regardless of season. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo were the largest advertisers on the network, contributing 10.9% and 6.5% of total advertisements respectively. There was no difference in the mean number of food and beverage advertisements by area SES, but the proportion of advertising that was for discretionary foods was highest in low SES areas (41.9%, p < 0.001. Conclusions The results indicate that, irrespective of season, food and beverage advertisements across the Sydney metropolitan train network are overwhelmingly for

  14. An audit of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network: regulation and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Emma; Colagiuri, Stephen; Magnusson, Roger

    2017-05-22

    Increased marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has been identified as a driver of the global obesity epidemic and a priority area for preventative efforts. Local and international research has focused on the unhealthiness of television advertising, with limited research into the growing outdoor advertising industry. This study aimed to examine the extent of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network, and to assess the nutritional quality of advertised products against the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. All 178 train stations on the Sydney metropolitan train network were surveyed in summer and winter. A survey tool was developed to collect information for all advertisements on and immediately surrounding the train station. Information included product, brand, location and advertisement format. Advertisements were coded by nutrition category, product subcategory and size. Chi-square, ANOVA and ANCOVA tests were conducted to test for differences in the amount of food and beverage advertising by season and area socioeconomic status (SES). Of 6931 advertisements identified, 1915 (27.6%) were promoting a food or beverage. The majority of food and beverage advertisements were for unhealthy products; 84.3% were classified as discretionary, 8.0% core and 7.6% miscellaneous. Snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently advertised products, regardless of season. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo were the largest advertisers on the network, contributing 10.9% and 6.5% of total advertisements respectively. There was no difference in the mean number of food and beverage advertisements by area SES, but the proportion of advertising that was for discretionary foods was highest in low SES areas (41.9%, p food and beverage advertisements across the Sydney metropolitan train network are overwhelmingly for unhealthy (discretionary) products. The results of this study highlight the inadequacy of Australia's voluntary self

  15. Demographics and husbandry of pet cats living in Sydney, Australia: results of cross-sectional survey of pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M; Norris, Jacqueline M; White, Joanna D; Dhand, Nanveet K; Hamilton, Samuel A; Malik, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Our aim was to collect baseline data on the age, gender, breed, reproductive status and husbandry (housing, diet, vaccination, veterinary attention) of pet cats living in Sydney. Accordingly, a cross-sectional survey of 2768 households was conducted using a postal questionnaire. The 2006 Sydney residential phone book was used as the sampling frame. Non-responders were re-mailed the questionnaire on two further occasions, 2 and 4 weeks after the first posting. Completed questionnaires were received from 884 households. No pets were kept by 387 (43.8%) respondents. Dogs and cats were owned by 295 (33.4%) and 198 (22.5%) of households, respectively, with 7.8% of households having both cat(s) and dog(s). Fish and birds were the next most popular pets. Of the 198 cat-owning households, 54.0% kept only cat(s), while 46.5% kept cats with other pets. The distribution of cat ownership across Sydney was non-uniform. Each cat-owning household kept 1.3 cats on average, with the majority keeping one (75.8% households) or two (18.7%). For the 260 cats, the mean age was 7.1 years, the median 6 years, with a range of 3 months to 22 years. There were significantly more female (143; 55%) than male cats (117; 45%). Only seven cats (2.7%) were sexually entire, and these were all pet park enclosures'. Pedigree cats were significantly more likely than crossbreds to be housed indoors. Most owners fed their cats a combination of commercial dry and canned food (38.1%), although fresh meat was popular also and either fed alone (1.6%) or in combination with dry food (14.4%), tinned food (1.6%) or canned and dry food (25.8%). A diet consisting of dry food alone was fed to cats in 13.4% of households. Ninety percent of cats had been vaccinated at least once, while 72.2% received a vaccination in the last 3 years. Older cats were less likely to have been vaccinated recently than younger cats. Only 5.8% of cats had never visited a veterinarian. For the 243 cats that had received veterinary

  16. The City at Stake:

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Esmann Andersen; Anne Ellerup Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing...

  17. Muusikamaailm : Bremeni festival alanud. Neeme Järvi Festivalil New Yorgis. Sydney ooperimaja juba korrastamisele. Promenaadikontertidel Londonis. Kaks preemiat. Luzernis alustati müütidega / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    14.08-24.10 toimuvast Bremeni festivalist Saksamaal. N.Järvi juhatas New Yorgi Lincoln Center"i festivalil festivaliorkestrit. Sydney ooperimaja kavandatatavst renoveerimisest. Londonis toimuvatest promenaadikontsertidest. UNESCO ja Rahvusvahelise Muusikanõukogu (IMC) tänavuse preemia laureaatideks valiti E. Nunes ja A. Kuazimov. 14.07-11.09 toimuvast Luzerni muusikafestivalist

  18. A riposte for a fencer. The residency appointment of Alfred Edmund Finckh to Sydney Hospital in 1905. Was it just a matter of male chauvinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckh, E S; Finckh, A S

    Alfred Finckh gained a residency at Sydney Hospital in 1905 in preference to a more academically successful female medical graduate, amid some controversy over the place of female doctors in hospitals. Here, two of his descendants argue his cause: that he was an experienced scientist with qualities that merited his selection for the post.

  19. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  20. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  1. An objective index of walkability for research and planning in the Sydney metropolitan region of New South Wales, Australia: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Darren J; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Willmore, Alan; Rose, Nectarios; Jalaludin, Bin; Bambrick, Hilary; Bauman, Adrian

    2013-12-24

    Walkability describes the capacity of the built environment to support walking for various purposes. This paper describes the construction and validation of two objective walkability indexes for Sydney, Australia. Walkability indexes using residential density, intersection density, land use mix, with and without retail floor area ratio were calculated for 5,858 Sydney Census Collection Districts in a geographical information system. Associations between variables were evaluated using Spearman's rho (ρ). Internal consistency and factor structure of indexes were estimated with Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis; convergent and predictive validity were measured using weighted kappa (κw) and by comparison with reported walking to work at the 2006 Australian Census using logistic regression. Spatial variation in walkability was assessed using choropleth maps and Moran's I. A three-attribute abridged Sydney Walkability Index comprising residential density, intersection density and land use mix was constructed for all Sydney as retail floor area was only available for 5.3% of Census Collection Districts. A four-attribute full index including retail floor area ratio was calculated for 263 Census Collection Districts in the Sydney Central Business District. Abridged and full walkability index scores for these 263 areas were strongly correlated (ρ=0.93) and there was good agreement between walkability quartiles (κw=0.73). Internal consistency ranged from 0.60 to 0.71, and all index variables loaded highly on a single factor. The percentage of employed persons who walked to work increased with increasing walkability: 3.0% in low income-low walkability areas versus 7.9% in low income-high walkability areas; and 2.1% in high income-low walkability areas versus 11% in high income-high walkability areas. The adjusted odds of walking to work were 1.05 (0.96-1.15), 1.58 (1.45-1.71) and 3.02 (2.76-3.30) times higher in medium, high and very high compared to low

  2. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  3. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  4. A textile fibre survey as an aid to the interpretation of fibre evidence in the Sydney region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, S; Roux, C; Maynard, P; Robertson, J

    2001-11-15

    Frequency figures of the fibre population on textile cinema seats were measured in Sydney, Australia, in winter. Sixteen seats were analysed from a very popular cinema complex, with 3025 fibres classified according to colour, generic class and fluorescence properties (100 grey-black cotton fibres only). The recovered fibres were mostly natural fibres (84%) with cotton the most common generic type (70%). On the contrary, man made fibres were relatively rare (15%) with rayon constituting the majority of these (51%). The most common colour/generic class combinations were grey-black cotton (33%) and blue cotton (30%) accounting for 63% of the total population. All other frequencies were below 5%, most below 1% using only the two properties of colour and generic class. Fluorescence properties were found to be very discriminating as far as grey-black cotton fibres were concerned. These features are considered and discussed and in particular, to emphasise the significance of fibres as evidence of contact.

  5. La perspectiva de los nuevos movimientos sociales en las obras de Sydney Tarrow, Alain Touraine y Alberto Melucci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayder Berrío Puerta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la discusión en torno a los movimientos sociales a partir de autores como Sydney Tarrow, Alain Touraine y Alberto Melucci. Muestra que en la década del setenta emergieron movimientos sociales que no se correspondían ni con las características ni con los marcos interpretativos disponibles en la teoría de los movimientos sociales hasta ese momento (los modelos marxista y estructural-funcionalista. El artículoofrece una descripción de las características principales de tres enfoques teóricos desde los cuales se abordan estos nuevos movimientos sociales: la teoría del comportamiento colectivo, la teoría de la movilización de recursos y de la oportunidad política y la teoría de los nuevos movimientos sociales.

  6. Deadly occupations: Assessing tuberculosis and accidental mortality among male workers in Sydney and Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, 1909–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ludlow

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines associations between occupation and cause of death among 802 working-age males (15 to 64 years of age who diedin two single-industry communities (Glace Bay and Sydney in Nova Scotia between 1909 and 1917. Employment in mining and steelmanufacturing is assessed for cause-specific mortality among men who died in Canada’s early industrial era, with a particular focus ondeaths due to tuberculosis (n=140, or 18% of deaths and accidents (n=225, or 28% of deaths. Factoring in the effects of occupation,age at death, birthplace, community, and marital status, logistic regression results indicate that, among the men who died, occupation is a significant predictor for accidental deaths (relative to all other causes of death but not for tuberculosis-related deaths. Interpretation of these results is grounded in a broader perspective on the nature of living and working conditions in these two single-industry communities.

  7. Evaluation of a comprehensive tobacco control project targeting Arabic-speakers residing in south west Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusco, Andrew; Poder, Natasha; Mohsin, Mohammed; Rikard-Bell, Glenys; Rissel, Chris; Williams, Mandy; Hua, Myna; Millen, Elizabeth; Sabry, Marial; Guirguis, Sanaa

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco control is a health promotion priority, but there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of campaigns targeting culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations. Being the largest population of non-English-speaking smokers residing in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, Arabic-speakers are a priority population for tobacco control. We report findings from baseline and post-intervention cross-sectional telephone surveys evaluating a comprehensive social marketing campaign (SMC) specifically targeting Arabic-speakers residing in south west Sydney, NSW. The project was associated with a decline in self-reported smoking prevalence from 26% at baseline to 20.7% at post (p < 0.05) and an increase in self-reported smoke-free households from 67.1% at baseline to 74.9% at post (p < 0.05). This paper contributes evidence that comprehensive SMCs targeting CALD populations can reduce smoking prevalence and influence smoking norms in CALD populations.

  8. Cities spearhead climate action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  9. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  10. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  11. Multi-criteria analysis towards the new end use of recycled water for household laundry: a case study in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; O'Halloran, K; Thompson, M; Muthukaruppan, M

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to put forward several management alternatives regarding the application of recycled water for household laundry in Sydney. Based on different recycled water treatment techniques such as microfiltration (MF), granular activated carbon (GAC) or reverse osmosis (RO), and types of washing machines (WMs), five alternatives were proposed as follows: (1) do nothing scenario; (2) MF+existing WMs; (3) MF+new WMs; (4) MF-GAC+existing WMs; and (5) MF-RO+existing WMs. Accordingly, a comprehensive quantitative assessment on the trade-off among a variety of issues (e.g., engineering feasibility, initial cost, energy consumption, supply flexibility and water savings) was performed over the alternatives. This was achieved by a computer-based multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using the rank order weight generation together with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) outranking techniques. Particularly, the generated 10,000 combinations of weights via Monte Carlo simulation were able to significantly reduce the man-made errors of single fixed set of weights because of its objectivity and high efficiency. To illustrate the methodology, a case study on Rouse Hill Development Area (RHDA), Sydney, Australia was carried out afterwards. The study was concluded by highlighting the feasibility of using highly treated recycled water for existing and new washing machines. This could provide a powerful guidance for sustainable water reuse management in the long term. However, more detailed field trials and investigations are still needed to effectively understand, predict and manage the impact of selected recycled water for new end use alternatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting 7-day, 30-day and 60-day all-cause unplanned readmission: a case study of a Sydney hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maali, Yashar; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Coiera, Enrico; Roffe, David; Day, Richard O; Gallego, Blanca

    2018-01-04

    The identification of patients at high risk of unplanned readmission is an important component of discharge planning strategies aimed at preventing unwanted returns to hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with unplanned readmission in a Sydney hospital. We developed and compared validated readmission risk scores using routinely collected hospital data to predict 7-day, 30-day and 60-day all-cause unplanned readmission. A combination of gradient boosted tree algorithms for variable selection and logistic regression models was used to build and validate readmission risk scores using medical records from 62,235 live discharges from a metropolitan hospital in Sydney, Australia. The scores had good calibration and fair discriminative performance with c-statistic of 0.71 for 7-day and for 30-day readmission, and 0.74 for 60-day. Previous history of healthcare utilization, urgency of the index admission, old age, comorbidities related to cancer, psychosis, and drug-abuse, abnormal pathology results at discharge, and being unmarried and a public patient were found to be important predictors in all models. Unplanned readmissions beyond 7 days were more strongly associated with longer hospital stays and older patients with higher number of comorbidities and higher use of acute care in the past year. This study demonstrates similar predictors and performance to previous risk scores of 30-day unplanned readmission. Shorter-term readmissions may have different causal pathways than 30-day readmission, and may, therefore, require different screening tools and interventions. This study also re-iterates the need to include more informative data elements to ensure the appropriateness of these risk scores in clinical practice.

  13. Medullosalean fusain trunk from the roof rocks of a coal seam: Insight from FTIR and NMR (Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Area de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario - M5502JMA - Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-01

    Reported for the first time from the Sydney Coalfield, Canada, is a fragmentary fusain (R{sub o} = 2.51%) specimen, 41 cm long, of a medullosalean trunk or massive petiole that originated from the roof rocks of the banded bituminous Hub Seam (R{sub o} {proportional_to} 0.65%). Megascopic characteristics of the flat-preserved specimen include an irregular-cracked fusain surface with secretinite-rodlet structures and sclerenchymatous strands some of which still embedded in the shaly matrix, and locally preserved vitrain (R{sub o} 0.69%). Co-occurrence with a compression flora composed virtually of only the seed-fern taxon Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri (Hoffmann) is noted. The goal of this study is to provide a framework for the phytophysicochemical taphonomic history which includes the perspective on vitrinite/fusinite relationship, formation of fusinite, and on the significance the only fusinized identifiable plant-fossil specimen in the Sydney Coalfield. We use state-of-the-art solid-state FTIR, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}H NMR CP/MAS techniques, and standard reflected-light microscopy and SEM methods as investigative tools. Results indicate that the fusinite is characterized by long and narrow xylem fibers, without fungal signals, and cell structures infilled with pyrite and carbonate. FTIR spectra of the fusinite and secretinite are similar particularly in respect to high absorbance of aromatic and low absorbance of aliphatic compounds, and absorbance of Si-O functionalities relating to kaolinite. {sup 13}C NMR experiments with direct carbon excitation quantify the aromatic to aliphatic ratio as being 20 {+-} 3:1. As part of the taphonomic history, the evidence favors a hot, > 400 C, directional surface-fueled flame palaeofire of local extent that charred trunks of growing arborescent seed ferns on only one side, and that these trunks were transported to comprise part of the roof rocks of the Hub Seam. (author)

  14. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN)

  15. Evaluation on Conventional Antihypertension Use a nd Natural-Conventional Combination on Patient with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefni Gusmira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of hypertensive disease in Depok city was 57.4% in 2002. Primary health centers had given antihypertensive medication. In addition to the drugs commonly given by a doctor (conventional, many patients took medicinal plants (natural medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of combination therapy of convensional-herbal on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in five primary health centers in Depok. This retrospective cohort study used samples of hypertension patients who came to primary health centers. Patients who were willing to join the study were 123 patients and grouped in to conventional therapy group (74 people and combination of conventional-herbal therapy group (49 people. The majority of hypertensive patients who came to the health centers area of Depok were women, aged 50-59 years old, married, came from ethnic Betawi, less educated, unemployed/housewives, low income and suffering from hypertension stage II. Combination therapy of convensional-herbal hadbetter effect on diastolic and convensional therapy had better effect on systolic. However, no significant difference between them (p>0.05. The continuity of treatment affected systolic blood pressure (p<0.05. This study showed that had not seen clearly influence of herbal that is used combination with conventional drugs in lowering blood pressure.

  16. Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthanaya P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.

  17. Application of the Aarhus Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention has been adopted in 1998 and entered into force three years later. It envisages three elements for strengthening democratic procedures in decision-making: access to information, public participation and access to justice. At the first meeting of the Member States the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee was founded. The European Union is a party of the Convention and it has implemented the provisions in its legal order. After entering into force of the Convention, several Directives that regulate these issues in the EU have been enacted. Republic of Serbia has ratified the Convention in 2009 and it is currently in the process of its implementation by involving private subjects in decision-making on environmental issues.

  18. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  19. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  20. NAA For Human Serum Analysis: Comparison With Conventional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, José A. G.; Azevedo, Maria R.

    2010-08-01

    Instrumental and Comparator methods of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) were applied to determine elements of clinical relevancy in serum samples of adult population (São Paulo city, Brazil). A comparison with the conventional analyses, Colorimetric for calcium, Titrymetric for chlorine and Ion Specific Electrode for sodium and potassium determination were also performed permitting a discussion about the performance of NAA methods for clinical chemistry research.

  1. Electric vehicle and conventional vehicle. Urban air pollution assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Andreia; Silva, Lígia Torres; Rodrigues, Daniel Souto; Ramos, Rui A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic is the main source of air pollutant emissions in urban areas. Pollutant emissions can be evaluated and calculated using mathematical models based on the characteristics of traffic flowing in roads. This article aims to assess the air pollution produced by a fleet of vehicles with conventional (diesel and petrol) and electrical (hybrid and electric) motorization, in the city centre of Braga. The scientific toolbox adopted to develop the studies includes emission models to es...

  2. Sustainability and Competitiveness in Australian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study injects sustainability into competitiveness to inform policy making and planning for contemporary urban development. This is built upon the recent advancement in the scholarship on urban competitiveness that demonstrates a clear deviation from an economic-centric approach to incorporate multiple dimensions of a city’s progress. This study has an explicit concern for environmental sustainability and its relationship with urban competitiveness and their conceptual and methodological articulations. Empirically, this study measures the sustainability and competitiveness in Australian cities and reveals that Australia’s urban progress is clearly associated with an environmental cost. The findings are useful to inform policy making and planning for building sustainable and competitive cities. Apart from the conventional solutions that focus on urban form change and transport infrastructure improvement, this study suggests a need to explore the opportunities deriving from the emerging smart city planning and practice.

  3. Local Residential Segregation Matters: Stronger Association of Census Tract Compared to Conventional City-Level Measures with Fatal and Non-Fatal Assaults (Total and Firearm Related), Using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) for Racial, Economic, and Racialized Economic Segregation, Massachusetts (US), 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Feldman, Justin M; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Coull, Brent A; Hemenway, David

    2017-04-01

    Research on residential segregation and health, primarily conducted in the USA, has chiefly employed city or regional measures of racial segregation. To test our hypothesis that stronger associations would be observed using local measures, especially for racialized economic segregation, we analyzed risk of fatal and non-fatal assault in Massachusetts (1995-2010), since this outcome is strongly associated with residential segregation. The segregation metrics comprised the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), the Index of Dissimilarity, and poverty rate, with measures computed at both the census tract and city/town level. Key results were that larger associations between fatal and non-fatal assaults and residential segregation occurred for models using the census tract vs. city/town measures, with the greatest associations observed for racialized economic segregation. For fatal assaults, comparing the bottom vs. top quintiles, the incidence rate ratio (and 95% confidence interval (CI)) in models using the census tract measures equaled 3.96 (95% CI 3.10, 5.06) for the ICE for racialized economic segregation, 3.26 (95% CI 2.58, 4.14) for the ICE for income, 3.14 (95% CI 2.47, 3.99) for poverty, 2.90 (95% CI 2.21, 3.81) for the ICE for race/ethnicity, and only 0.93 (95% CI 0.79, 1.11) for the Index of Dissimilarity; in models that included both census tract and city/town ICE measures, this risk ratio for the ICE for racialized economic segregation was higher at the census tract (3.29; 95% CI 2.43, 4.46) vs. city/town level (1.61; 95% CI 1.12, 2.32). These results suggest that, at least in the case of fatal and non-fatal assaults, research on residential segregation should employ local measures, including of racialized economic segregation, to avoid underestimating the adverse impact of segregation on health.

  4. Integrating palliative care content into a new undergraduate nursing curriculum: the University of Notre Dame, Australia--Sydney experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, John M; Costa, Catherine M; Hickman, Louise D; Kearns, Margot; Phillips, Jane L

    2010-01-01

    The majority of society's deaths occur in a health care environment. Regardless of whether a death occurs in acute care, hospice, residential aged care or community settings, nurses are the health professionals that will spend the largest proportion of time with the patient who has a terminal condition and their families. As few nurses have specialist palliative care qualifications it is essential that nursing education prepares graduates to achieve the core capabilities required for the delivery of best evidenced based palliative care. This reality makes the integration of palliative care content into the undergraduate nursing curricula an important priority. This paper aims to describe how palliative care content has been embedded throughout the three-year University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney (UNDA) undergraduate nursing degree. The School of Nursing at the University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney campus is committed to ensuring that students graduate with the capabilities to deliver appropriate care to people with requiring end-of-life care. The establishment of this new School of Nursing coincided with the release of the 'The Palliative Care Curricula for Undergraduates Program' (PCC4U) learning resources. These resources have been integrated into relevant units across the three-year nursing curricula. The nursing curriculum has been design to supports the integration of palliative care knowledge into clinical practice. The Palliative Care Curricula for Undergraduates Program Learning resources offer engaging palliative care case studies and scenarios for academics to utilise. Adopting an iterative approach where palliative care content is spiralled across multiple units provides opportunities for undergraduate nursing students to sequentially build and consolidate their palliative care capabilities. Developing a new curricular provided an ideal opportunity to integrate and embed palliative care content into the undergraduate nursing degree. The next

  5. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are becoming a reality. Various aspects of modern cities are being automated and integrated with information and communication technologies to achieve higher functionality, optimized resources utilization, and management, and improved quality of life for the residents. Smart cities...... rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...

  6. Do smoke-free environment policies reduce smoking on hospital grounds? Evaluation of a smoke-free health service policy at two Sydney hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Natasha; Carroll, Therese; Wallace, Cate; Hua, Myna

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the compliance of hospital staff, inpatients and visitors with Sydney South West Area Health Service's Smoke-free Environment Policy. Six sites were observed at two Sydney hospitals 2 weeks before implementation of the policy and at 2 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 2 years after implementation. There was an overall significant 36% (P≤0.05) reduction in observed smoking incidents on hospital grounds 2 years after implementation. Two years after implementation, observed smoking incidents reduced by 44% (P≤0.05) in staff, 37% (P≤0.05) in visitors and remained unchanged among inpatients. The Smoke-free Environment Policy was effective in reducing visitors and staff observed smoking on hospital grounds, but had little effect on inpatients' smoking. Identifying strategies to effectively manage nicotine addiction and promote cessation amongst hospital inpatients remains a key priority.

  7. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  8. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  9. Reliability of the "Sydney," "Sunnybrook," and "House Brackmann" facial grading systems to assess voluntary movement and synkinesis after facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Susan E; Croxson, Glen R; Adams, Roger D; O'Dwyer, Nicholas J

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the extent of within-system reliability and between-system correlation for the "Sydney" and "Sunnybrook" systems of grading facial nerve paralysis, and to examine the interobserver reliability and agreement of the "House Brackmann" grading system. A fixed-effects reliability study in which 6 otolaryngologists viewed videotapes of patients with facial nerve paralysis. University and medical Centers. Patients with unilateral lower motor neurone facial nerve dysfunction greater than 1 year after onset, none of whom had undergone surgical reanimation procedures. Intervention Twenty-one patients with facial nerve paralysis were videotaped while they performed a protocol of facial movements. Six otolaryngologists viewed the videotapes and scored them with the Sydney and Sunnybrook systems, and then gave a House Brackmann grade. The 3 systems of grading facial nerve paralysis were evaluated and compared with the use of intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson's weighted kappa, and percentage exact agreement values. The Sydney and the Sunnybrook systems had good intrasystem reliability and high intersystem association for the assessment of voluntary movement. Grading of synkinesis was found to have low reliability both within and between systems. The House Brackmann system had substantial reliability as shown by weighted kappa but had a percentage exact agreement of 44%. For clinical grading of voluntary movement, there is good correlation between ratings given on the Sydney and Sunnybrook systems, and within each system there is good reliability. The assessment of synkinesis was far less reliable within, and less related between, systems. Although the reliability of the House Brackmann system was found to be high, examination of individual grades revealed some wide variation between trained observers.

  10. A large point-source outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium linked to chicken, pork and salad rolls from a Vietnamese bakery in Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Beth Cullen; Marianne Tegel; Rowena Boyd; Brett Campbell; Kirsty Hope; Stephen Conaty; Essi Huhtinen; Sophie Norton

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In January 2011, Sydney South West Public Health Unit was notified of a large number of people presenting with gastroenteritis over two days at a local hospital emergency department (ED).Methods: Case-finding was conducted through hospital EDs and general practitioners, which resulted in the notification of 154 possible cases, from which 83 outbreak cases were identified. Fifty-eight cases were interviewed about demographics, symptom profile and food histories. Stool samples wer...

  11. Water resilient green cities in Africa Newsletter issue 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Fryd, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Many cities around the world are exploring green infrastructures with landscape-based systems as solutions to complement the limited capacity or extend the conventional water systems. In addition to improving flood protection, these landscape-based systems can support water supply, groundwater re...... systems. Therefore, an option to explore if these cities can leapfrog to landscape-based stormwater management and simultaneously provide selected additional benefits is wanting. Three pathways are identified for this leapfrogging, and are under testing in the WGA-project...... recharge and provide additional ecosystem services to the benefit of the citizens’ everyday life. Cities in Africa, like Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salam, Tanzania, do not have adequate city-wide conventional urban water systems like centralized, pipe-based water supply, drainage and sanitation...

  12. The origin and development of extragalactic radio astronomy: the role of CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics Dover Heights Field Station in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Robertson, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Initial post-war developments in non-solar radio astronomy were inspired by Hey, Phillips and Parson’s report in 1946 of an intense source of radio emission in Cygnus. This so-called ‘radio star’ was unique, and questions immediately were raised about its true nature. But it did not remain unique for long. Observing from Sydney, John Bolton, Gordon Stanley and Bruce Slee followed up the Cygnus discovery with more radio star detections, beginning what would evolve into a long-term multi-faceted research program and one of the mainstays of the CSIRO’s Division of Radiophysics. But more than this, these early discoveries in England and in Sydney opened up a whole new field of investigation, extragalactic radio astronomy, which has remained a major area of investigation through to the present day. This paper focusses on the early years of this program when the observations were carried out at Dover Heights Field Station in Sydney, and the ways in which new developments in instrumentation that allowed a major expansion of the program eventually led to the closure of Dover Heights and the founding of the Fleurs Field Station.

  13. Women's Health at Work Program: musculoskeletal pain experienced by women of Chinese background working on market gardens in the Sydney Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Ev; Crowther, Amber; Fonti, Fiona; Quayle, Leonie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE/PARTICIPANTS: This report describes a project undertaken by three final (4th) year occupational therapy undergraduate students from the University of Sydney, Australia, in their final fieldwork placement. The project involved women from a Chinese background who worked on market gardens across the Sydney Basin. Its purpose was to identify musculoskeletal risks in the work environment and work practices of a selected group of seven Cantonese-speaking women working on market gardens in the Western Sydney region. The approaches used in the project reflected a risk management approach, and involved background research, initial interviews, task analysis, hazard identification, risk assessment, data analysis, identification of key issues, and developing recommendations, in collaboration with participants and consultation with professionals. The key issues identified as contributing factors to musculoskeletal pain and injuries were: (1) work practices (long work hours, repetitive work); (2) biomechanical factors (repetitive and sustained work postures, poor manual handling practices) and limited training; (3) ergonomics of the equipment used; (4) fatigue. Two priority areas for intervention were identified: (1) pain management, and (2) preventative strategies (improving both the work environment and work practices). Recommendations were made in collaboration with the women, and in consultation with health professionals.

  14. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  15. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B in persons subject to homelessness in inner Sydney: vaccine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Roslyn G; Ferson, Mark J; Orr, Karen J; McCarthy, Michele A; Botham, Susan J; Stern, Jerome M; Lucey, Adrienne

    2010-04-01

    To determine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity of the standard vaccination schedule for hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) in persons subject to homelessness. A convenience sample of clients (n=201) attending a medical clinic for homeless and disadvantaged persons in Sydney was enrolled. Serological screening for HAV and HBV was undertaken. An appropriate vaccination program was instituted. Post-vaccination serology determined serological response. Although many clients had serological evidence of past infection, at least 138 (69%) clients had the potential to benefit from vaccination. For hepatitis A and B vaccinations, completion rates were 73% (73 of 100 clients) and 75% (69 of 92 clients), respectively; after vaccination, protective antibody was found in 98.2% (56 of 57) and 72% (36 of 50) of clients, respectively. A successful vaccination program can be mounted with a vulnerable population. We consider a clinic with a well-established history of acceptance and utilisation by the target group; a low staff turnover and regular clientele; inclusion of vaccination as part of routine client care; and counselling (part of pre- and post-serological testing) essential components in achieving good vaccination completion rates. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, a food additive and pesticides) in waters of Sydney estuary, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F; Drage, D S; Thompson, K; Eaglesham, G; Mueller, J F

    2015-08-15

    The current investigation of marine water from 30 sites adjacent to stormwater outlets across the entire Sydney estuary is the first such research in Australia. The number of analytes detected were: 8/59 pharmaceutical compounds (codeine, paracetamol, tramadol, venlafaxine, propranolol, fluoxetine, iopromide and carbamazepine), 7/38 of the pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,4-dichloroaniline, carbaryl, diuron, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop and simazine) and 0/3 of the personal care products (PCPs) analysed. An artificial sweetener (acesulfame) was detected, however none of the nine antibiotics analysed were identified. Sewage water is not discharged to this estuary, except infrequently as overflow during high-precipitation events. The presence of acesulfame (a recognised marker of domestic wastewater) and pharmaceuticals in water from all parts of the estuary after a dry period, suggests sewage water is leaking into the stormwater system in this catchment. The pesticides are applied to the environment and were discharged via stormwater to the estuary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canty Angelo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects.

  19. Gay Asian men in Sydney resist international trend: no change in rates of unprotected anal intercourse, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Ven, Paul; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett

    2004-02-01

    Against a background of increasing unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the Sydney gay community (and internationally), complementary cross-sectional surveys of sexual practice were conducted among gay men of Asian background in 1999 (N = 319) and 2002 (N = 457). Self-complete questionnaires were used with recruitment at gay bars, gay social functions, and gay sex-on-premises venues. In 2002, self-report HIV status was 73.7% HIV-negative, 3.6% HIV-positive, and 22.8% unknown status (no significant change from 1999). Over time, the proportion of gay Asian men who reported any UAI with regular partners (in the previous 6 months) did not change significantly: 27.9% in 1999; 24.3% in 2002. Similarly, rates of any UAI with casual partners remained steady: 16.3% in 1999; 14.4% in 2002. Only one factor, more extensive engagement in esoteric practices (fisting, sadomasochism, group sex, rimming), was independently associated with sexual risk practice. This suggests that risk in this population of gay men, as in others, has more to do with the sexual cultures in which men are embedded rather than individual-level differences.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Norovirus and E. coli in Sydney Rock Oysters Following a Sewage Overflow into an Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Felicity; Kiermeier, Andreas; Ross, Tom; Holds, Geoffrey; Landinez, Lina; McLeod, Catherine

    2017-07-06

    This paper reports a study of norovirus (NoV) GII distribution and persistence in Sydney rock oysters (SRO) (Saccostrea glomerata) located in an estuary after a pump station sewage overflow. SRO were strategically placed at six sites spanning the length of the estuary from the pump station to the sea. The spatial and temporal distribution of NoV, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in oysters was mapped after the contamination event. NoV GI and GII, HAV and E. coli were quantified for up to 48 days in oysters placed at six sites ranging from 0.05 to 8.20 km from the sewage overflow. NoV GII was detected up to 5.29 km downstream and persisted in oysters for 42 days at the site closest to the overflow. NoV GII concentrations decreased significantly over time; a reduction rate of 8.5% per day was observed in oysters (p oysters over time, as observed in this study and other published research, collectively suggest that GII reduction rates from oysters may be broadly similar, regardless of environmental conditions, oyster species and genotype.

  1. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance is positively correlated to sediment organic carbon in Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Doblin, Martina A; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2018-02-01

    There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality. Species composition and abundance of dinocysts in relation to sediment characteristics were studied at 18 stations in two densely populated temperate Australian estuaries, Sydney Harbour (Parramatta River/Port Jackson; PS) and Botany Bay (including Georges River; GB). Eighteen dinocyst taxa were identified, dominated by Protoceratium reticulatum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the PS estuary, together with Archaeperidinium minutum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the GB estuary. Cysts of Alexandrium catenella, which is one of the causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), were also detected in both estuaries. Out of the measured sediment characteristics (TOC, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), TOC was the parameter explaining most of the variation in dinocyst assemblages and was positively correlated to most of the heavy metals. Given the significant relationship between sediment TOC and dinocyst abundance and heavy metal concentrations, this study suggests that sediment TOC could be broadly used in risk management for potential development of algal blooms and sediment contamination in these estuaries.

  2. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart of a cohort of residents (n = 909 in the intervention area (n = 520 (Fairfield and Liverpool and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389 (Bankstown. Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels.

  3. Psychological distress among Vietnamese adults attending Vietnamese-speaking general practices in South Western Sydney: prevalence and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Dennis, Sarah; An, Huy; Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Liaw, Siaw Teng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress among Vietnamese adults attending Vietnamese-speaking general practices and explore possible risk factors in this population.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adult patients was conducted at 25 general practices with Vietnamese-speaking general practitioners (GPs) in south-western Sydney between October 2012 and February 2013. Patients completed the Kessler (K10) scale and a demographic questionnaire, available in Vietnamese or English. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21.Results: Of the 350 patients invited to participate, 247 completed surveys (response rate 71%). One-quarter (25%) of participants had a very high K10 score for psychological distress, nearly twice that reported in the NSW Health Survey. Participants with high exposure to trauma were at increased risk of psychological distress (odds ratio 5.9, 95% confidence interval 2.4-14.4; P speaking general practices is associated with exposure to trauma. This highlights the importance of personal, social and professional support in effective management. Vietnamese-speaking GPs who see Vietnamese or similar refugee groups should actively seek out a history of exposure to trauma, a past history of mental illness and the existence of support systems.

  4. Preface (to Playable Cities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    In this book, we address the issue of playfulness and playability in intelligent and smart cities. Playful technology can be introduced and authorized by city authorities. This can be compared and is similar to the introduction of smart technology in theme and recreational parks. However, smart

  5. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    in informing understandings and imaginings of the modern city. The author critically examines influential traditions in western Europe associated with such figures as Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier, uncovering the political interests, desires and anxieties that lay behind their ideal cities, and drawing out...

  6. Sustainability for Shrinking Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...

  7. Feeding the Sustainable City

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , many Southern cities are now re-examining their attitude to urban agriculture. The challenge they face is how to control agricultural activity so that it can be integrated into the city environment for the benefit of the urban farmers and the rest of ...

  8. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  9. The accessible city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenburg, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    An accessible urban environment is crucial for a healthy, dynamic and economically vibrant city. It will not come as a surprise to anyone to learn that accessibility is a growing problem for many cities. In recent decades, the number of inhabitants has risen considerably, while economic activity has

  10. The City in Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden; Erica de Bruijne

    2001-01-01

    Original title: De Stad in de omtrek. The healthy economic growth in recent years has not passed the major Dutch cities by. There has been a veritable wave of construction of new commercial and office premises in and around the four largest cities Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht,

  11. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...

  12. Less Smart More City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocco Papa; Carmela Gargiulo; Mario Cristiano; Immacolata Di Francesco; Andrea Tulisi

    2015-01-01

    ...: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape...

  13. Cities, knowledge and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Lambooy, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current theories and empirical research on cities and the knowledge economy. Two recent and interrelated streams of literature are discussed: the first focusing on agglomeration economies related to increasing returns and knowledge spillovers of firms in cities

  14. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It th...... as to theories of globalisation and inter-urban competition....

  15. in benin city, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CURRENT PRACTICES IN INFANT NUTRITION. IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA. U.H. Oparaocha, O.M.Ibadin, C.D. Muogbo. The Roding Medical Centre, Victoria Island, Lagos and Departments of Child Health,. University of Benin/Teaching Hospital, Benin City,. ABSTRACT. A community based prospective study was carried out ...

  16. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around......-defined metaphors of individual learning and social imitation processes, from which a revised theory of convention may be erected (see Sugden 2004, Binmore 1993 and Young 1998). This paper makes a general argument in support of the evolutionary turn in the theory of convention by a progressive exposition of its...

  17. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    theory. Like for the study of common knowledge much has happened in this latter field since then. The theory of convention has been developed and extended so as to include multiple types as well as a basis for the study of social norms. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis...... as a tool for understanding and explaining social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around which any theory of convention must revolve. The so-called evolutionary turn in game theory marks a transition from the classical assumptions of rationality and common knowledge......Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A philosophical Study (Lewis 1969). Besides exciting the logical community by providing the seminal analysis work on common knowledge, it also laid the foundations for the formal approach to the study of social conventions by means of game...

  18. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services......, are related to the innovations introduced by these cities. The volume maps and analyses the social networks of the three cities and examines boundary spanning within and outside of the cities. It also examines what leadership qualities are important for innovation. Innovation in City Governments: Structures...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...

  19. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  20. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  1. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden...... political will and leadership, supportive regulatory frameworks, realistic timetables/roadmaps, and a diverse set of stakeholders that can provide the right creative and innovative mix to make it possible....

  2. The role of landscape planning in European landscape convention implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important recent policy initiative concerning quality and diversity, as well as natural and cultural landscape's values within all Europe is European Landscape Convention. The Convention was adopted by Council of Europe's Community of Ministers on 20th October 2000., in Firenze, Italy. The main goal of the Convention is protection, planning and management of the landscape as important part of the quality of life for people living everywhere: in urban areas and in countryside, in degraded areas as well as in the areas with high quality and those recognized as being of outstanding beauty. Serbia has singed Convention on 21 of September 2007. Diversity and quality, the cultural and natural values linked to European landscapes are part of Europe's common heritage, and it is important to co-operate towards its protection, management and planning According to explored international experiences, landscape plan, with its known methodology, is recognized as the most suitable tool in the most Countries which have already implemented European Landscape Convention. As to situation in Serbia, landscape planning is not treated in adequate or appropriate way within system of spatial planning. On the basis of the recent European experiences regarding The European Landscape Convention, the paper will underline the inevitability of landscape planning integration into the spatial planning system at the national, regional and city level, in Serbia.

  3. How to make mega-cities energy efficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoshitaka

    2010-09-15

    Tokyo is a Megalopolis with 40 million+ population. It has an energy efficient profile due to its uniqueness as extensive mass rail transit networks, high density and compact urban formation, compact space oriented life style. The other feature is extensive use of electric heat pumps (EHP), which entails low carbon city profile. Further possibility is prepared with water thermal energy utilization, which is widely available also through EHP particularly in Tokyo central districts, which could make Tokyo one of the lowest carbon cities in the world. Emerging mega-cities are expected to learn from Tokyo's success and not from western conventional models.

  4. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  5. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  6. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  7. Conventional And Non-Conventional Elements For Urban Drainage Catchment Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Diaz, Hector Alfonso; Calderon, Leidy Johanna Franco

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of urban drainage system is to allow the safe passage of pedestrians and vehicles quickly evacuating the runoff to prevent flooding. However, development of cities has altered the natural water cycle and providing wide range of contaminants to surface water streams receiving rain from the urban system. For these reasons we have developed unconvention-urban al rainwater systems unconventional rainwater, in accordance with sustainable development, called Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). Considering that the urban drainage system begins with the collection on the site of origin of runoff, in this article the study of conventional and unconventional elements for capturing rainwater arises, establishing the general criteria for selection and design and the classification of SUDS.

  8. Pride and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Morrison

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pride in one’s city is an individual, and collective as well as institutional response to urban conditions which may be harnessed in support of expanding urban facilities and services. Pride is likely to be felt most keenly by those who have a stake in the city and for this reason anecdotal reporting of urban pride in the media is subject to likely bias in favour of vested interests.  In practice however we know very little about urban pride.  The vast literature on urbanism does not appear to have identified any role for urban pride let alone indicating which cities gather pride or who among its inhabitants exhibit such pride This paper applies a multi-level statistical model to large random sample of residents in twelve New Zealand cities.  From the results we learn that, although financial stake holding is relevant,   urban pride is concentrated more broadly among those whose social and cultural identity is closely tied to the city. Where financial stake holding is most influential is when it is absent, for those experiencing financial difficulties are the most likely to disavow urban pride. Urban pride is a therefore a distributional property of cities in which the currencies are emotional and cultural as well as financial. Urban pride is relatively absent among those who fail to have a stake in the city as well as being weaker among those who live in relatively unattractive cities, and less attractive neighbourhoods.  As a barometer of rewards to living and investing in the city,  urban pride certainly warrants closer attention than it has received to date.

  9. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  10. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...

  11. Sustainable compact city concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Šulin Košar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact city concept has emerged at the end of the 20th century as one of the solutions for sustainable urban development. The concept brings development, which emphasizes urban density, while avoiding urban sprawl. The key features of the concept are mixed land use, construction of higher density (city intensification as well as better access for the entire population and most importantantly, development of the public transport system. The concept has advantages, but also disadvantages, because too much density affects the quality of life in the city.

  12. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  13. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  14. The First World War years of Sydney Domville Rowland: an early case of possible laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Peter C; Hodges, A J

    2016-08-01

    Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Developments in undergraduate teaching of small-animal soft-tissue surgical skills at the University of Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Deepa; McGreevy, Paul D; Zuber, Richard M; Klupiec, Corinna; Baguley, John; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses recent developments in soft-tissue surgery teaching at the University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science. An integrated teaching program was developed for Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) students with the aim of providing them with optimal learning opportunities to meet "Day One" small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies. Didactic lectures and tutorials were introduced earlier into the curriculum to prepare students for live-animal surgery practical. In addition to existing clinics, additional spay/neuter clinics were established in collaboration with animal welfare organizations to increase student exposure to live-animal surgery. A silicon-based, life-like canine ovariohysterectomy model was developed with the assistance of a model-making and special effects company. The model features elastic ovarian pedicles and suspensory ligaments, which can be stretched and broken like those of an actual dog. To monitor the volume and type of student surgical experience, an E-portfolio resource was established. This resource allows for the tracking of numbers of live, student-performed desexing surgeries and incorporates competency-based assessments and reflective tasks to be completed by students. Student feedback on the integrated surgical soft-tissue teaching program was assessed. Respondents were assessed in the fourth year of the degree and will have further opportunities to develop Day One small-animal soft-tissue surgical competencies in the fifth year. Ninety-four percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they were motivated to participate in all aspects of the program, while 78% agreed or strongly agreed that they received an adequate opportunity to develop their skills and confidence in ovariohysterectomy or castration procedures through the fourth-year curriculum.

  16. Ethnicity or cultural group identity of pregnant women in Sydney, Australia: Is country of birth a reliable proxy measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M; Todd, A L; Zhang, L Y

    2016-04-01

    Australia has one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse maternal populations in the world. Routinely few variables are recorded in clinical data or health research to capture this diversity. This paper explores how pregnant women, Australian-born and overseas-born, respond to survey questions on ethnicity or cultural group identity, and whether country of birth is a reliable proxy measure. As part of a larger study, pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in Sydney, Australia, completed a survey about their knowledge and expectations of pregnancy duration. The survey included two questions on country of birth, and identification with an ethnicity or cultural group. Country of birth data were analysed using frequency tabulations. Responses to ethnicity or cultural group were analysed using inductive coding to identify thematic categories. Among the 762 with 75 individual cultural groups or ethnicities and 68 countries of birth reported. For Australian-born women (n=293), 23% identified with a cultural group or ethnicity, and 77% did not. For overseas-born women (n=469), 44% identified with a cultural group or ethnicity and 56% did not. Responses were coded under five thematic categories. Ethnicity and cultural group identity are complex concepts; women across and within countries of birth identified differently, indicating country of birth is not a reliable measure. To better understand the identities of the women receiving maternity care, midwives, clinicians and researchers have an ethical responsibility to challenge practices that quantify cultural group or ethnicity, or use country of birth as a convenient proxy measure. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Patients With Diabetes Who Benefit Most From a Health Coaching Program in Chronic Disease Management, Sydney, Australia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Grace; Newlyn, Neroli; Pamplona, Elline; Hocking, Samantha L; Glastras, Sarah J; McGrath, Rachel T; Fulcher, Gregory R

    2017-03-02

    Chronic disease management programs (CDMPs) that include health coaching can facilitate and coordinate diabetes management. The aim of this study was to assess changes in patients' general knowledge of diabetes, self-reported health status, diabetes distress, body mass index (BMI), and glycemic control after enrollment in a face-to-face CDMP group health coaching session (with telephone follow-up) compared with participation in telephone-only health coaching, during a 12-month period. Patients with diabetes were enrolled in a health coaching program at Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia, in 2013. Questionnaires were administered at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months, and the results were compared with baseline. Glycemic control, measured with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and BMI, were measured at baseline and 12 months. Overall, 238 patients attended a face-to-face CDMP session with telephone follow-up (n = 178) or participated in telephone-only health coaching (n = 60). We found no change in BMI in either group; however, HbA1c levels in patients with baseline above the current recommended target (>7%) decreased significantly from 8.5% (standard deviation [SD], 1.0%) to 7.9% (SD, 1.0%) (P = .03). Patients with the lowest self-reported health status at baseline improved from 4.4 (SD, 0.5) to 3.7 (SD, 0.9) (P = .001). Diabetes knowledge improved in all patients (24.4 [SD, 2.4] to 25.2 [SD, 2.4]; P < .001), and diabetes distress decreased among those with the highest levels of distress at baseline (3.0 [SD, 0.4] vs 3.8 [SD, 0.6]; P = .003). Diabetes health coaching programs can improve glycemic control and reduce diabetes distress in patients with high levels of these at baseline.

  18. The impact of a vaccine scare on parental views, trust and information needs: a qualitative study in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Catherine; Leask, Julie

    2017-01-23

    Vaccine safety scares can undermine public confidence in vaccines and decrease immunisation rates. Understanding and addressing parental concerns arising during such scares can assist in lessening their impact. In Australia in April 2010 there was a temporary suspension of influenza vaccine for children under 5 years of age after reports of an increase in the rate of adverse events following vaccination. This qualitative study aimed to explore the impact of the vaccine suspension on parental knowledge, attitudes, trust, information needs, and intent related to influenza vaccination and broader immunisation programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 parents of children attending childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, between June 2010 and May 2011. Centres were selected to include parents from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed using an approach informed by grounded theory. Findings indicated that, for those who recalled the vaccine suspension, there was a lasting sense of uncertainty and confusion and a perceived lack of information. Parents had distinct information needs following the vaccine suspension, especially in regards to vaccine safety, testing and recommendations. For many, influenza vaccination intent was conditional on receipt of information from a trusted, authoritative source allaying safety concerns. Importantly, the impact of the scare was contained to influenza vaccines only, and not other vaccine programs. Parental concerns and information gaps following a vaccine safety scare need to be actively addressed. We provide policy and practice suggestions for proactively managing such incidents, particularly in relation to communication of timely, targeted information to parents and immunisation providers.

  19. The impact of a vaccine scare on parental views, trust and information needs: a qualitative study in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine King

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccine safety scares can undermine public confidence in vaccines and decrease immunisation rates. Understanding and addressing parental concerns arising during such scares can assist in lessening their impact. In Australia in April 2010 there was a temporary suspension of influenza vaccine for children under 5 years of age after reports of an increase in the rate of adverse events following vaccination. This qualitative study aimed to explore the impact of the vaccine suspension on parental knowledge, attitudes, trust, information needs, and intent related to influenza vaccination and broader immunisation programs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 parents of children attending childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, between June 2010 and May 2011. Centres were selected to include parents from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed using an approach informed by grounded theory. Results Findings indicated that, for those who recalled the vaccine suspension, there was a lasting sense of uncertainty and confusion and a perceived lack of information. Parents had distinct information needs following the vaccine suspension, especially in regards to vaccine safety, testing and recommendations. For many, influenza vaccination intent was conditional on receipt of information from a trusted, authoritative source allaying safety concerns. Importantly, the impact of the scare was contained to influenza vaccines only, and not other vaccine programs. Conclusions Parental concerns and information gaps following a vaccine safety scare need to be actively addressed. We provide policy and practice suggestions for proactively managing such incidents, particularly in relation to communication of timely, targeted information to parents and immunisation providers.

  20. HIV and sexual health knowledge and sexual experience among Australian-born and overseas-born students in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Angela; Richters, Juliet; Crawford, June; Kippax, Sue

    2005-09-01

    To examine differences between Australian-born and Asian-born first-year university students in Sydney in their sexual behavior and knowledge about the prevention and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs). Students were recruited from a stall during the student Orientation Week in both 2002 and 2003 at the University of New South Wales. A short questionnaire was completed and returned anonymously. Data on age, gender, country of birth, sexual behavior, and sexual health knowledge were collected. A score was calculated based on the sum of the correct answers given to 12 HIV/STI transmission and prevention questions. The students were then divided into three groups according to their country of birth (Australia, Asia, and elsewhere) and their knowledge scores were compared. Students born in certain Asian countries were also asked their perception of the HIV epidemic in their home country compared with Australia. A total of 1185 first-year students completed the questionnaire. Although older on average, Asian-born students were less likely to have had sexual intercourse and had had fewer sexual partners. They also had consistently poorer HIV/STI knowledge scores than Australian-born students. Students born in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore but not Thailand underestimated the prevalence of HIV in their country of birth in comparison with Australia. The combination of poorer knowledge, apparent misconception of the extent of HIV epidemic in their home country (or Australia), and potential later frequent travel indicates a potential risk for later transmission of HIV/STIs. The university is an underused setting for prevention health education.

  1. What's in a virus? Folk understandings of hepatitis C infection and infectiousness among injecting drug users in Kings Cross, Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Carolyn

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore folk understandings of blood borne virus infection and infectiousness among injecting drug users in Kings Cross, Sydney. Methods Observational fieldwork was conducted in Kings Cross over a four month period. In-depth interviews with 24 current injectors and 4 key informants recruited from King Cross were undertaken. Results Hepatitis C (HCV generated different meanings from HIV. HIV was considered "the dreaded" and generated fear of infection and dire disease progression. Whereas HCV was considered non-desirable but less threatening than HIV. The risks of transmitting HCV through sharing injecting paraphernalia was poorly understood. Some believed HCV infection was linked to poor hygiene and dirty water. Jaundice was mistakenly thought to indicate HCV infection and was used to gauge infectiousness. Many were confused about their current hepatitis C serostatus. Some participants thought they had a "dormant antibody" or that they had a "mild case" of infection. Participants were unsure what this meant for their own health or for their potential to infect others. Conclusion Participants displayed confusion about transmission risks for hepatitis C, conflating blood awareness and hygiene health promotion messages. Participants' reliance on the symptom of jaundice to gauge serostatus places them at risk of transmitting and contracting HCV. Participants were confused about what a positive HCV diagnosis meant for their own health and their ability to infect others. Education is needed to debunk misconceptions about jaundice and clarify medical terms such as 'antibody' at the time of diagnosis. Further clarification of messages about injecting hygiene and blood awareness are also required.

  2. Different usage of the same oncology information system in two hospitals in Sydney--lessons go beyond the initial introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Gandhidasan, Senthilkumar; Miller, Alexis A

    2010-06-01

    The experience of clinicians at two public hospitals in Sydney, Australia, with the introduction and use of an oncology information system (OIS) was examined to extract lessons to guide the introduction of clinical information systems in public hospitals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 of 15 radiation oncologists employed at the two hospitals. The personnel involved in the decision making process for the introduction of the system were contacted and their decision making process revisited. The transcribed data were analyzed using NVIVO software. Themes emerged included implementation strategies and practices, the radiation oncologists' current use and satisfaction with the OIS, project management and the impact of the OIS on clinical practice. The hospitals had contrasting experiences in their introduction and use of the OIS. Hospital A used the OIS in all aspects of clinical documentation. Its implementation was associated with strong advocacy by the Head of Department, input by a designated project manager, and use and development of the system by all staff, with timely training and support. With no vision of developing a paperless information system, Hospital B used the OIS only for booking and patient tracking. A departmental policy that data entry for the OIS was centrally undertaken by administrative staff distanced clinicians from the system. All the clinicians considered that the OIS should continuously evolve to meet changing clinical needs and departmental quality improvement initiatives. This case study indicates that critical factors for the successful introduction of clinical information systems into hospital environment were an initial clear vision to be paperless, strong clinical leadership and management at the departmental level, committed project management, and involvement of all staff, with appropriate training. Clinician engagement is essential for post-adoption evolution of clinical information systems. Copyright 2010

  3. A high resolution magnetostratigraphic profile across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Southern Sydney Basin, eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, M. E.; Tohver, E.; Nicoll, R.; Denyszyn, S. W.; Pisarevsky, S.; George, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) is associated with the largest mass extinction in Phanerozoic geologic history. Despite several decades of intense study, there is ongoing debate regarding the exact timing of extinction and the global correlation of marine and terrestrial P-T sections. The terrestrial record is hampered by a lack of index fossils; however, magnetostratigraphy offers an opportunity for correlation because it relies on the global synchronicity of magnetic reversals. A magnetostratigraphic profile across the Permian-Triassic boundary has been obtained from a stratigraphically continuous terrestrial section in the Southern Sydney Basin of eastern Australia. The 60 m section is located within the Narrabeen Group, which consists of fluvial to lacustrine sandstones and mudstones. Paleomagnetic samples were collected at one meter intervals to determine a detailed reversal record. Samples were stepwise thermally demagnetized to isolate a primary remanence, and magnetic susceptibility was measured in the field at 30 cm intervals with values ranging from -0.047-2.50 (10-3 SI units). Three normal and three reverse magnetozones were detected after removal of a low temperature overprint, and the results show good agreement with the Global Magnetic Polarity Timescale as well as marine Permian-Triassic sections where the PTB is well constrained. Furthermore, a reverse polarity subchron has been identified within the normal magnetozone spanning the PTB similar to results published from the Netherlands and China. The magnetic stratigraphy suggests that the Narrabeen Group was deposited during the late Changhsingian to early Induan, and provides a revised placement of the PTB in the lower Wombarra Claystone. Integration of the magnetostratigraphy with existing isotopic datasets suggests that the terrestrial extinction in eastern Australia occurred 7.5 m below the PTB in the Changhsingian Coalcliff Sandstone. A tuff within a coal seam underlying the Coalcliff

  4. Per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men in Sydney in the era of HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fengyi; Jansson, James; Law, Matthew; Prestage, Garrett P; Zablotska, Iryna; Imrie, John C G; Kippax, Susan C; Kaldor, John M; Grulich, Andrew E; Wilson, David P

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men due to unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design Data were collected from a longitudinal cohort study of community-based HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Methods A total 1427 participants were recruited from June 2001 to December 2004. They were followed up with 6-monthly detailed behavioral interviews and annual testing for HIV till June 2007. Data were used in a bootstrapping method, coupled with a statistical analysis that optimized a likelihood function for estimating the per-exposure risks of HIV transmission due to various forms of UAI. Results During the study, 53 HIV seroconversion cases were identified. The estimated per-contact probability of HIV transmission for receptive UAI was 1.43% (95% CI 0.48%-2.85%) if ejaculation occurred inside the rectum occurred, and it was 0.65% (95% CI 0.15%-1.53%) if withdrawal prior to ejaculation was involved. The estimated transmission rate for insertive UAI in participants who were circumcised was 0.11% (95% CI 0.02%-0.24%), and it was 0.62% (95% CI 0.07%-1.68%) in uncircumcised men. Thus, receptive UAI with ejaculation was found to be approximately twice as risky as receptive UAI with withdrawal or insertive UAI for uncircumcised men and over 10-times as risky as insertive UAI for circumcised men. Conclusion Despite the fact that a high proportion of HIV-infected men are on antiretroviral treatment and have undetectable viral load, the per-contact probability of HIV transmission due to UAI is similar to estimates reported from developed country settings in the pre-HAART era. PMID:20139750

  5. Body mass, cardiovascular risk and metabolic characteristics of young persons presenting for mental healthcare in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; GeHue, Jeanne; Whitwell, Bradley G; Glozier, Nick; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-03-27

    To determine the body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young people presenting for mental healthcare. Cross-sectional assessments of body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Two primary-care based sites in Sydney, Australia for young people in the early stages of mental disorders. A clinical sample of young people (12-30 years) with mental health problems. Daily smoking rates, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate. Of 1005 young people who had their BMI determined (62% female; 19.0±3.5 years), three quarters (739/1005) also had BP recordings and one-third (298/1005) had blood sampling. Clinically, 775 were assigned to one of three diagnostic categories (anxious-depression: n=541; mania-fatigue, n=104; developmental-psychotic n=130). The profile of BMI categories approximated that of the comparable segments of the Australian population. Older age, lower levels of social functioning and higher systolic BP were all associated with high BMI. In a subset (n=129), current use of any psychotropic medication was associated (psmoking rates are increased among young people presenting for mental healthcare. However, these young people do not demonstrate adverse cardiometabolic profiles. The high levels of smoking, and association of BMI with adverse social circumstances, suggest that risk factors for chronic disease are already present and likely to be compounded by medication and social disadvantage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A City for All Citizens: Integrating Children and Youth from Marginalized Populations into City Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Van Vliet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Socially just, intergenerational urban spaces should not only accommodate children and adolescents, but engage them as participants in the planning and design of welcoming spaces. With this goal, city agencies in Boulder, Colorado, the Boulder Valley School District, the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado, and a number of community organizations have been working in partnership to integrate young people’s ideas and concerns into the redesign of parks and civic areas and the identification of issues for city planning. Underlying their work is a commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and children’s rights to active citizenship from a young age. This paper describes approaches used to engage with young people and methods of participation, and reflects on lessons learned about how to most effectively involve youth from underrepresented populations and embed diverse youth voices into the culture of city planning.

  7. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  8. The Sustainable City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  9. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  10. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  11. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  12. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  13. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...

  14. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

      The article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. In the discussion of the transformation into the ‘experience economy' relevant to cities and urban areas we rarely find an analysis of the physical and spatial implications of this transformation. However, the physical, cultural and democratic consequences...... of this development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...

  15. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth...... and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  16. Conventional and unconventional political participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opp, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    A non-recursive model is proposed and empirically tested with data of opponents of nuclear power. In explaining conventional and unconventional participation the theory of collective action is applied and modified in two respects: the perceived influence on the elimination of collective evils are taken into account; the selective incentives considered are non-material ones. These modifications proved to be valid: the collective good variables and non-material incentives were important determinants for the two forms of participation. Another result was that there is a reciprocal causal relationship between conventional and unconventional participation.

  17. The accessible city

    OpenAIRE

    Woestenburg, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    An accessible urban environment is crucial for a healthy, dynamic and economically vibrant city. It will not come as a surprise to anyone to learn that accessibility is a growing problem for many cities. In recent decades, the number of inhabitants has risen considerably, while economic activity has also increased. It is only logical that the number of travel journeys has therefore also grown strongly. In many places, this has been to the detriment of the living environment, with congestion f...

  18. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  19. The First Page of the Official Journal of the Constitutional Convention--Just the Tip of a Records Iceberg!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    On Monday, September 17, 1787, 39 delegates to the Federal Convention in Philadelphia signed the Constitution of the United States, along with Major William Jackson, who had served as the secretary of the Convention. That same day, Jackson received instructions to leave for New York City on Tuesday and carry the document to Congress. All of these…

  20. Responding to a measles outbreak in a Pacific island community in western Sydney: community interviews led to church-based immunization clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Scott

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are large Pacific island communities in western and south-western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. In 2011 and 2012, measles outbreaks disproportionally affected children and youth within these communities. The objectives of this study were to explore barriers to immunization in a Pacific island community from the perspectives of community members and health professionals and to conduct a pilot programme whereby immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. Methods: Interviews were conducted with Pacific island community members (N = 12 and health professionals connected with the Pacific island community (N = 7 in 2013. A partnership with a local Samoan church was established to provide an accessible venue for immunization catch-up clinics. Results: Among the community members there were high levels of belief in the importance of immunization and a positive view regarding the protection offered by immunization. A key barrier reported by community members was being busy and therefore having limited time to get children immunized. The important role of the church within the community was emphasized in the interviews, and as a result, two immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. The age range of attendees was 7–33 years. A total of 31 measles, mumps and rubella doses and 19 meningococcal C doses were given during the two clinics. Discussion: The outcomes of the interviews and the subsequent clinics highlighted the potential of churches as a venue for providing public health interventions such as catch-up immunization.

  1. Chemometric study of functional groups in Pennsylvanian gymnosperm plant organs (Sydney Coalfield, Canada): Implications for chemotaxonomy and assessment of kerogen formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Angelo, J.A.; Zodrow, E.L.; Camargo, A. [CCT CONICET Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    The samples comprise the foliage of four pteridosperm-medullosalean plant fossil species of differing preservation states and one of a cordaitean species from two Canadian Maritime sub-basins of Carboniferous age (300 Ma; Sydney and Stellarton coalfields, Nova Scotia, respectively). Included in the sample set were some coal samples from Sydney Coalfield, along with published data for coal macerals for comparison. By applying Schulze's maceration process to the fossil foliage to obtain the cuticles, five sample forms evolved, viz. compressions, cuticles and fossilized cuticles, and acidic and alkaline solutions from Schulze's process, to which was added the Sydney coal samples as the sixth form. Area integration of the absorbance spectra from solid and liquid state Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, produced functional chemical parameters which were organized into a data matrix of eight variables and 62 samples (8 x 62 matrix). Principal components were extracted from the matrix, and a subset of 4 x 33 samples used in order to refine the grouping results from the initial component analysis. In each case, a two component model resulted, accounting for least 80% of the cumulative variance. Overall, the results are encouraging in offering increasing support for fossil-leaf chemotaxonomy, but bearing in mind the limited sampling number (56) and restricted sampling of genera (5). We noted functional-group similarities in our FTIR data with types of kerogen and coal macerals. On this basis, we hypothesize that, in combination with the different preservation states of our fossil specimens, these factors have a bearing on kerogen genesis from plant material, i.e. the oil and gas prone Types I and II.

  2. Vitamin D status among older community dwelling men living in a sunny country and associations with lifestyle factors: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, V; Cumming, R G; Blyth, F M; Naganathan, V; Le Couteur, D G; Handelsman, D J; Waite, L M; Seibel, M J

    2013-07-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations community dwelling men aged ≥70 years in Sydney, Australia, and to determine associations between serum 25(OH)D levels and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. A population-based, cross-sectional analysis of the baseline phase of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney between January 2005 and May 2007. 1659 non-institutionalised men aged ≥70 years. The cross-sectional analysis of the baseline phase of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney between January 2005 and May 2007. Participants included 1659 community dwelling men who were interviewed and had clinical assessments. Main outcome measurements included serum 25(OH)D levels measured in blood samples using a radioimmunoassay kit (DiaSorin Inc., Stillwater, MN). Covariates included age, socioeconomic measures, season of blood sample, physical activity, sun exposure, vitamin D supplement use, cigarette smoking status, alcohol consumption, obesity and measures of health. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 43.0%; highest in winter (55.5%) and spring (53.9%), and was associated with season (winter and spring), low physical activity, avoidance of sun exposure, current smoking and obesity, even after adjustment for confounding factors. Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent among Australian older men and is associated with specific lifestyle factors. These findings emphasize the need to screen and monitor 25(OH)D levels in this population group, despite living in a sunny country such as Australia.

  3. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  4. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  5. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  6. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  7. Rosario, a grey city

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Adolfo; Rainero, Carolina

    2002-06-01

    Our work deals with the color of the city. We propose the study of the urban built landscape chromaticity, here in Rosario, Argentina. We're trying to find out the reasons that make our city looks in gray. The project we're developing is based in the fact that urban environment has a color, that is to say that, a dominant color that makes the inhabitants feel the urban space that way. We think that it may be introduced into the traditional tools used to study the urban development dimensions like color at the time to interpret the urban environment. The research and survey let us show the great importance that color has as design instrument, even in the urban dn the building scale. It has been proposed a research model in order to consider the particularities of the city. The model is apply to different paradigmatic fragments so as to know the real color incidence in the perception of the city. The work it's been developed through the following topics: (1) Perceptive survey. (2) Downtown building survey. (3) Historic survey. Based in the interdiscipline work we try to contribute to the design and optimization of the tools that let professionals and researchers understand the complex urban environment so as to make supporting cities.

  8. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  9. Intention to breastfeed and awareness of health recommendations: findings from first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Louise A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001, the World Health Organisation (WHO recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life. The objectives of this study are to assess awareness of the WHO recommendation among first-time mothers (women at 24 to 34 weeks of pregnancy and to explore the relationship between this awareness and mothers' intention to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Methods This study was part of the Healthy Beginnings Trial (HBT conducted in southwest Sydney, Australia. We analysed cross-sectional baseline data of the trial conducted in 2008, including 409 first-time mothers at 24 to 34 weeks of pregnancy. The mothers' awareness of the recommended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their intention to meet the recommendation were assessed through face-to-face interviews. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Factors associated with awareness of the recommendation, or the intention to meet the recommendation, were determined by logistic regression modeling. Log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR. Results Sixty-one per cent of mothers knew the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Only 42% of all mothers intended to meet the recommendation (breastfeed exclusively for six months. Among the mothers who knew the recommendation, 61% intended to meet the recommendation, compared to only 11% among those mothers who were not aware of the recommendation. The only factor associated with awareness of the recommendation was mother's level of education. Mothers who had a tertiary education were 1.5 times more likely to be aware of the recommendation than those who had school certificate or less (ARR adjusted for age 1.45, 95% CI 1.08, 1.94, p = 0.02. Mothers who were aware of the recommendation were 5.6 times more likely to intend to breastfeed exclusively to six months (ARR adjusted for employment status 5.61, 95% CI 3.53, 8.90, p Conclusion Awareness of the

  10. Intention to breastfeed and awareness of health recommendations: findings from first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li Ming; Baur, Louise A; Rissel, Chris; Alperstein, Garth; Simpson, Judy M

    2009-10-16

    In 2001, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life. The objectives of this study are to assess awareness of the WHO recommendation among first-time mothers (women at 24 to 34 weeks of pregnancy) and to explore the relationship between this awareness and mothers' intention to exclusively breastfeed for six months. This study was part of the Healthy Beginnings Trial (HBT) conducted in southwest Sydney, Australia. We analysed cross-sectional baseline data of the trial conducted in 2008, including 409 first-time mothers at 24 to 34 weeks of pregnancy. The mothers' awareness of the recommended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their intention to meet the recommendation were assessed through face-to-face interviews. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Factors associated with awareness of the recommendation, or the intention to meet the recommendation, were determined by logistic regression modeling. Log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR). Sixty-one per cent of mothers knew the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Only 42% of all mothers intended to meet the recommendation (breastfeed exclusively for six months). Among the mothers who knew the recommendation, 61% intended to meet the recommendation, compared to only 11% among those mothers who were not aware of the recommendation.The only factor associated with awareness of the recommendation was mother's level of education. Mothers who had a tertiary education were 1.5 times more likely to be aware of the recommendation than those who had school certificate or less (ARR adjusted for age 1.45, 95% CI 1.08, 1.94, p = 0.02). Mothers who were aware of the recommendation were 5.6 times more likely to intend to breastfeed exclusively to six months (ARR adjusted for employment status 5.61, 95% CI 3.53, 8.90, p < 0.001). Awareness of the recommendation to breastfeed exclusively for six months is

  11. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  12. Factors influencing participant enrolment in a diabetes prevention program in general practice: lessons from the Sydney diabetes prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laws Rachel A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in reducing diabetes incidence has been well established. Little is known, however, about factors influencing the reach of diabetes prevention programs. This study examines the predictors of enrolment in the Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP, a community-based diabetes prevention program conducted in general practice, New South Wales, Australia from 2008–2011. Methods SDPP was an effectiveness trial. Participating general practitioners (GPs from three Divisions of General Practice invited individuals aged 50–65 years without known diabetes to complete the Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment tool. Individuals at high risk of diabetes were invited to participate in a lifestyle modification program. A multivariate model using generalized estimating equations to control for clustering of enrolment outcomes by GPs was used to examine independent predictors of enrolment in the program. Predictors included age, gender, indigenous status, region of birth, socio-economic status, family history of diabetes, history of high glucose, use of anti-hypertensive medication, smoking status, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity level and waist measurement. Results Of the 1821 eligible people identified as high risk, one third chose not to enrol in the lifestyle program. In multivariant analysis, physically inactive individuals (OR: 1.48, P = 0.004 and those with a family history of diabetes (OR: 1.67, P = 0.000 and history of high blood glucose levels (OR: 1.48, P = 0.001 were significantly more likely to enrol in the program. However, high risk individuals who smoked (OR: 0.52, P = 0.000, were born in a country with high diabetes risk (OR: 0.52, P = 0.000, were taking blood pressure lowering medications (OR: 0.80, P = 0.040 and consumed little fruit and vegetables (OR: 0.76, P = 0.047 were significantly less likely to take up the program

  13. Negotiating Conventions and Creating Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Alexander Sasha; Barberá-Tomás, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes of negotiation and institution building through which transnational networks of learning are fashioned. It does so by examining the case of the European animation industry and the activity of an association, Cartoon, which facilitated the development of common...... conventions supporting cooperation and learning in this industry. The case draws attention to how issues of institutional context can frustrate collaboration and limit the scope of learning; simultaneously, it illustrates interventions that permitted the negotiation between situated and context...

  14. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.

  15. Highlights of the ATS 6th Annual Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Walter

    The convention began with a keynote by Michael Tubridy, the engineer in charge of the restoration of the Birr Castle Leviathan of Parsonstown. The convention then moved up to Mount Wilson, where talks were heard by Christ Plicht, Peter Abrahams, John Briggs, Don Osterbrock, Robert Ariail, Gayle Riggsbee, and Walt Breyer. Tours were made of the 100-inch and 60-inch telescopes, and observing through the 60-inch finished the day. Sunday, talks were heard by Paul O'Leary, Kevin Johnson, Eugene Rudd, E.J. Hysom, Edward Young, and Rolf Willach. Tours were made of the Hale Solar Laboratory, George Ellery Hale's home, the Huntington Library, Pasadena City College Observatory's 20-inch reflector, and Griffith Observatory's 12-inch Zeiss. On Monday, a tour was made to Mount Palomar and the 200-inch Hale Telescope.

  16. Reproducing in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-08

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower.

  17. Access to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    by the urban transport system. The paper draws upon qualitative interviews with residents in the periphery as well as recently collected travel speed data and offers a unique combination of testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. A central finding is the overall importance of regular......This paper is concerned with access to the city for urban residents living in the periphery of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The paper presents an analysis of the mobility practices of residents and investigates the mobility constraints they experience in relation to the limited accessibility provided...... mobility and access to the city for residents in the periphery. Regular mobility is an ingrained part of residents' livelihood strategies. The majority of households rely on one or more members regularly travelling to central parts of the city in relation to their livelihood activities. The analysis...

  18. Musical Performance and the Changing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A contribution to the field of urban music studies, this book presents new interdisciplinary approaches to the study of music in urban social life. It takes musical performance as its key focus, exploring how and why different kinds of performance are evolving in contemporary cities...... in the interaction among social groups, commercial entrepreneurs, and institutions. From conventional concerts in rock clubs to new genres such as the flash mob, the forms and meanings of musical performance are deeply affected by urban social change and at the same time respond to the changing conditions. Music has...

  19. Eastern Australian coalbed methane supply rivals western offshore conventional resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, R.

    2011-05-02

    The estimated potential in situ of coal seam gas contained in eastern Australia is around 410,000 PJ. This resource lie primarily in the Surat, Bowen and Galilee basins of Queensland and the Sydney, Gunnedah and Clarence-Moreton basins of northern New South Wales.

  20. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  1. Climate change and cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterthwaite, David

    2006-10-15

    What is done, or not done, in cities in relation to climate change over the next 5-10 years will affect hundreds of millions of people, because their lives and livelihoods are at risk from global warming. What is done in cities will also have a major influence on whether the escalating risks for the whole planet will be reduced or eliminated. Climate change needs to be considered in all development plans and investments - local, regional, national and international. Urban growth must be made more climate-resilient and help reduce, rather than increase, greenhouse gas emissions. This will not be done by the market; it can only be done by governments.

  2. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  3. Pride and the city

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Pride in one’s city is an individual, and collective as well as institutional response to urban conditions which may be harnessed in support of expanding urban facilities and services. Pride is likely to be felt most keenly by those who have a stake in the city and for this reason anecdotal reporting of urban pride in the media is subject to likely bias in favour of vested interests.  In practice however we know very little about urban pride.  The vast literature on urbanism does not appear t...

  4. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  5. Wal-e-Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Schelings, Clémentine; Reiter, Sigrid; Teller, Jacques; Elsen, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    L’objectif du portefeuille FEDER Wal-e-Cities est le développement de villes intelligentes («Smart Cities») au sein d’un territoire wallon interconnecté. La technologie, vue ici comme un outil au service de la Smart Région Wallonne et de ses citoyens, permettra de répondre à cinq défis principaux identifiés: connectivité, mobilité, énergie et environnement, gouvernance et enfin bien-être en environnement urbain. Les partenaires de ce portefeuille (Universités et Centres de Recherche), et par...

  6. Brenner, Prof. Sydney

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more. ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach. Math and Finance ...

  7. Sydney 2000 experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sport Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town. CORRESPONDENCE: W Derman ... Grade I injuries required on-field intervention but the athlete was able to continue competition .... The first important finding of this study was there were about 13 formal medical ...

  8. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  9. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osso, F; Dominey-Howes, D; Moore, C; Summerhayes, S; Withycombe, G

    2014-12-10

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney.

  10. Iodine Intake and Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women in a Private Clinical Practice in Northwestern Sydney before Mandatory Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Blumenthal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The primary objective of the study was to assess the iodine nutritional status, and its effect on thyroid function, of pregnant women in a private obstetrical practice in Sydney. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study undertaken between November 2007 and March 2009. Blood samples were taken from 367 women at their first antenatal visit between 7 and 11 weeks gestation for measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (FT4 levels and spot urine samples for urinary iodine excretion were taken at the same time as blood collection. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC for all women was 81 μg/l (interquartile range 41–169 μg/l. 71.9% of the women exhibited a UIC of <150 μg/l. 26% of the women had a UIC <50 μg/l, and 12% had a UIC <20 μg/l. The only detectable influences on UIC were daily milk intake and pregnancy supplements. There was no statistically significant association between UIC and thyroid function and no evidence for an effect of iodine intake on thyroid function. Conclusions. There is a high prevalence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency in women in Western Sydney but no evidence for a significant adverse effect on thyroid function. The 6.5% prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is unlikely to be due to iodine deficiency.

  11. The emerging GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney 2012 norovirus lineage is circulating worldwide, arose by late-2014 and contains polymerase changes that may increase virus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ruis

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The norovirus genotype GII.4 is the most prevalent genotype in the human population and has caused six pandemics since 1995. A novel norovirus lineage containing the GII.P16 polymerase and pandemic GII.4 Sydney 2012 capsid was recently detected in Asia and Germany. We demonstrate that this lineage is also circulating within the UK and USA and has been circulating since October 2014 or earlier. While the lineage does not contain unique substitutions in the capsid, it does contain polymerase substitutions close to positions known to influence polymerase function and virus transmission. These polymerase substitutions are shared with a GII.P16-GII.2 virus that dominated outbreaks in Germany in Winter 2016. We suggest that the substitutions in the polymerase may have resulted in a more transmissible virus and the combination of this polymerase and the pandemic GII.4 capsid may result in a highly transmissible virus. Further surveillance efforts will be required to determine whether the GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney 2012 lineage increases in frequency over the coming months.

  12. Update on the Fifth Session. UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Fifth Session of the Ad Hoc Committee on a Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities met from January 24-February 4, 2005, in New York City. This briefing paper relates developments during that session.

  13. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  14. City of Crystal City, Missouri - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Crystal City, Missouri, a municipality located in Jefferson County, Missouri, 63019, for alleged violations associated with the City’s wastewater treatment progra

  15. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  16. India's Cities in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  17. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  18. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  19. Smart Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    documents, e.g. policy areas, represented countries, etc.;. 3. Qualitative Analysis to analyze the policy documents based upon 13 Smart City attributes derived from the project's terms of reference and further study, the same as for the research literature review: 1). Innovations, 2) Technologies, 3) Drivers, 4) Challenges, ...

  20. That City is Mine!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijendijk, Cordula

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about urban ideal images. It is about dreams - not fictitious beliefs, but dreams that humankind can realize tomorrow. It is about images from intellectuals, pastry cooks, urban planners and firemen. About people who deeply care about their cities, about their hopes, frustrations,

  1. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  2. Outlook City Logistics 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, E. den; Kok, R.; Ploos van Amstel, W.; Quak, H.J.; Wagter, H.

    2017-01-01

    When it comes to City Logistics, the need to innovate comes from multiple directions. Greenhouse gas emissions must be drastically reduced while at the same time maintaining a vibrant and healthy economy, demanding robust action from each and every sector, including transport. At the same time,

  3. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  4. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo - Upcoming City of Cyclists Japan is often hit by natural disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis and heavy rain- and snowfall. Earthquakes often causes break downs in electricity and communication lines and makes public transportation come to a halt. Stations are shut down and pa...

  5. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  6. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    , the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  7. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  8. Evaluation of conventional x-ray diagnostic equipment and radiological protection systems of hospitals and clinics installed in Recife city, Brazil; Avaliacao dos equipamentos de raios-X diagnostico convencionais e dos sistemas de protecao radiologica de clinicas e hospitais da cidade de Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Robson Silva

    1999-05-15

    presented on iluminancy level out of the gap between 50 and 100 lux. The results of this survey showed that a high percentage of the equipment surveyed demonstrated inadequate operating conditions, reinforcing the need to implement quality control protocols in conventional x-ray units located in Recife. (author)

  9. The Impacts of Heatwaves on Mortality Differ with Different Study Periods: A Multi-City Time Series Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Different locations and study periods were used in the assessment of the relationships between heatwaves and mortality. However, little is known about the comparability and consistency of the previous effect estimates in the literature. This study assessed the heatwave-mortality relationship using different study periods in the three largest Australian cities (Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney.Daily data on climatic variables and mortality for the three cities were obtained from relevant government agencies between 1988 and 2011. A consistent definition of heatwaves was used for these cities. Poisson generalised additive model was fitted to assess the impact of heatwaves on mortality.Non-accidental and circulatory mortality significantly increased during heatwaves across the three cities even with different heatwave definitions and study periods. Using the summer data resulted in the largest increase in effect estimates compared to those using the warm season or the whole year data.The findings may have implications for developing standard approaches to evaluating the heatwave-mortality relationship and advancing heat health warning systems. It also provides an impetus to methodological advance for assessing climate change-related health consequences.

  10. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  11. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city

  12. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  13. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further...... failures. Design/methodology/approach: Theory on organizational change is applied to capture the processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is process analysis on a single longitudinal case. Findings: The emergence of the Copenhagen city logistics project can be understood....... The study aims at understanding the social processes towards reduced congestion and greenhouse gas emissions from goods transport in inner cities. Originality/value: By better understanding the organization processes leading to implementation of city logistics, other projects in other cities may learn from...

  14. Volatile organic compounds determination in the atmosphere of Mexico City by the use of optical systems and non conventional methods; Determinacion de compuestos organicos volatiles en la atmosfera de la Ciudad de Mexico mediante el uso de sistemas opticos y metodos convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Maria Esther; Arriaga, Jose Luis; Garcia, Isidoro [Gerencia de Ciencias de Ambiente, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1996-04-01

    Since 1991, volatile organic compounds (VOC) have been determined in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using different analyzing methods. Samples collected in cartridges and canisters area analyzed by GC-MS and HPLC. Continuos monitoring by a long path differential absorption analyzer (DOAS) has also been performed. The Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP) along with the USEPA and the collaboration of the Mexican environmental authorities have performed, following the EPA TO-14 method, four sampling campaigns of ambient air in canisters among 1992 and 1993. The campaigns were designed to be performed during March, month in which the worst ozone episodes have taken place. Additional sampling was performed in November in order to compare differences between seasons. In March 1993, samples in three different kinds of cartridges were used which selectively adsorb carbonyl compounds, light hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) and heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5}-C{sub 1}5). The three techniques employed, canisters, cartridges and the DOAS, reveal very high atmospheric concentrations of the volatile organic compounds, species identified as ozone precursors, these high concentration might appear as responsible for the ozone standards excess. The kinetics of the whole set of atmospheric reactions points then to nitrogen oxides as the limiting species since their relative smaller abundance. This fact engender a NOx limited atmosphere. The three techniques offer different advantages for the determination of species in the atmosphere, the canisters samples provides the total VOC concentration, the speciation of more than 200 compounds and the determination of CO and CH{sub 4}. The sampling in cartridges could be used to detect occasional emissions. On the other hand the DOAS provides the means to follow the evolution of selected species during long periods and the influence of meteorological parameters as the wind speed and direction, on the concentration of each pollutant. The

  15. Factors enabling and inhibiting facilitator development: lessons learned from Essentials of Care in South Eastern Sydney Local Health District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamera Watling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Building and sustaining facilitation capacity for the creation of person-centred workplace cultures is a strategic priority of the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Nursing and Midwifery Practice and Workforce Unit. Skilled facilitation is considered critical to the successful implementation and sustainability of practice development-based programmes, including Essentials of Care. Review of facilitator activity across the district revealed that less than half of those who had participated in a facilitation development programme were actively applying their knowledge to the facilitation of Essentials of Care. Aim: To understand the enablers and barriers to the development and application of facilitation skills and the implementation of Essentials of Care from the perspective of the programme’s facilitators. The purpose was to inform ongoing strategies to build and sustain facilitation capacity for its effective implementation. Method: A 21-question qualitative survey was designed using Survey Monkey. Questions were framed to allow free text responses for qualitative content analysis. Ethics approval was applied for and deemed unnecessary by the local health district ethics committee; the committee deemed the project to be a quality improvement activity not requiring independent ethical review. The survey was distributed electronically to 230 health professionals who had participated in the facilitation development programme between 2008 and 2013. Findings: The key enablers for both facilitator development and implementation of Essentials of Care were time, engagement of staff and leadership support. Additional enablers for facilitation development included access to development opportunities and practical application of skills. Facilitation was an enabler of Essentials of Care implementation. Leadership support is pivotal, especially where time and patient acuity impinge on the release of staff for facilitated activities

  16. COSTS AND PROFITABILITIES IN THE ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTION VEGETABLES IN ESPÍRITO SANTO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacimar Luis de Souza

    2013-07-01

    various components of their costs of production. We used a database of 20 years, from 1990 to 2009, of the Reference Area in Agroecology in the INCAPER, located in the Domingos Martins City, Espírito Santo State. The organic system confirmed large economic viability, with average production cost per hectare 8% lower than the average conventional vegetables. Spending on hand labor was slightly lower in the organic system and proved to be the component of greater participation in the costs of both production systems. The organic squash, strawberries, cabbage and tomato showed lower costs than conventional systems. Conventional systems produce garlic, potatoes and okra showed lower costs than organic systems. Crops of carrots, peppers and yam have similar costs in organic and conventional systems. All vegetable crops in organic farming showed higher net revenues to the conventional, with ratios ranging from 1.1 for strawberry until 28.4 for cabbage.

  17. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  18. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the

  19. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  20. Smart City trends and ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344107744; de Klerk, Daniel; Geertman, S.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924

    2017-01-01

    Research into smart city projects and applications has been increasing in recent years (Meijer & Bolivar, 2015). The smart city concept is mostly considered from a technology-oriented perspective that stresses the usage of data technologies, big data and ICT to ‘smarten up’ cities. In contrast,

  1. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2003-01-01

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sicily...

  2. Nanofabrication: conventional and nonconventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Pépin, A

    2001-01-01

    Nanofabrication is playing an ever increasing role in science and technology on the nanometer scale and will soon allow us to build systems of the same complexity as found in nature. Conventional methods that emerged from microelectronics are now used for the fabrication of structures for integrated circuits, microelectro-mechanical systems, microoptics and microanalytical devices. Nonconventional or alternative approaches have changed the way we pattern very fine structures and have brought about a new appreciation of simple and low-cost techniques. We present an overview of some of these methods, paying particular attention to those which enable large-scale production of lithographic patterns. We preface the review with a brief primer on lithography and pattern transfer concepts. After reviewing the various patterning techniques, we discuss some recent application issues in the fields of microelectronics, optoelectronics, magnetism as well as in biology and biochemistry.

  3. Green and sustainable City will become the development objective of China's Low Carbon City in future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Qun, Liu; Chun-Xia, Liu; Yun-Guang, Gao

    2014-01-14

    Environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming significant environmental issues in China, thus the sustainable development and revival of the country is impossible using the conventional path of encouraging economic growth at the expense of the environment. In response to the global warming, the prices of the traditional energy rise considerably, and a series of environmental problems, China must improve its own mode of economic development. Hundreds of Chinese cities have billions of square meters of buildings and most industry and the annual energy demand is an astronomical figure. China's government is facing increasing pressure in the low carbon international backdrop, and the low carbon city becomes the inevitable developmental direction of Chinese city in the foreseeable future. The description is first centered on energy structure/energy consumption per unit/urbanized status, and urban energy consumption status, and then concerned with the efforts and measures of Chinese government, to realize the energy saving. Finally, we present the developmental prospect and barriers and the promotion measures related to the low carbon city under the government policy, financial incentives and funding supports, etc.

  4. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  5. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...... the future of cities and mobilities as a matter of rather more efficient technologies than of social cohesion, integration and connectivity. Sustainable mobility needs the mobilities of ideas and concepts and the reflexivity of policies. Communicative planning theory and the ‘argumentative turn’ have given...... this article, was to explicitly provide an intersection for reflexivity, interdisciplinarity and exchange, to foster the creation of such stories....

  6. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over a period...... of time thus establishing an emergent urban space divergent from both the intentions of the planner, architect, artist and user. Through the examples, I suggest that each urban body or design deterritorialize connecting with the city. Broadening up the perspective, I ask whether philosophical aesthetics...... associated with architecture and design can be redefined in terms of an emergent urbanity. Here socio-material assemblages play an important role as milieus are created as temporary intensities as they constantly territorialize and deterritorialize urban space. According to this, I define the city close...

  7. Use of and short-term impacts of new cycling infrastructure in inner-Sydney, Australia: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Greaves, Stephen; Wen, Li Ming; Crane, Melanie; Standen, Chris

    2015-10-06

    Given increasing investment in new cycling infrastructure, it is important to understand its impacts. The Sydney Transport and Health Study evaluates a new 2.4 km bi-directional separated bicycle path in inner-Sydney. This paper describes the users of the new bicycle path, and examines its short-term impacts upon cycling behaviour and perceptions of the local environment. Data were collected from two bike counts at two intersections on the new bicycle path in the intervention area in 2013 and 2014. On-line surveys collected individual participant data in the intervention area and a similar comparison area before the bicycle path was built (2013), and 12 months later (four months after completion) (n = 512). The data included self-reported cycling behaviour, use of the new bicycle path and perceptions of changes in the local environment. Bike counts at two sites on the new bicycle path reported an increase of 23% and 97% respectively at 12 months. However, among the participants in the cohort, there was no change in the self-reported weekly frequency of cycling. One in six (approximately 15%) participants reported using the new bicycle path, with most users (76%) living in the intervention area. Bicycle path users were most likely to be frequent riders (at least weekly) [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.50, 95 % CI 3.93-14.31], be a high intensity recreational rider (AOR = 4.38, 95 % CI 1.53-12.54) or a low intensity transport rider (AOR = 2.42, 95 % CI 1.17-5.04) and live closer to the bicycle path (AOR = 1.24, 1.13-1.37). Perceptions that the neighbourhood was more pleasant, that there were more people walking and cycling were significantly higher in the intervention area at 12 months (both P values bicycle path were associated with the use of the new bicycle path. Increased use of the new bicycle path as reported by the participants in the intervention area and increased cycling recorded by the bike counts may be due to existing cyclists changing

  8. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak’s No......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  9. Garden City, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Center pivot irrigation systems create red circles of healthy vegetation in this image of croplands near Garden City, Kansas. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 25, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using near infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  10. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013 ...... is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics.......We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013...... to 2017 for every citizen in Copenhagen receiving home care (27,775 citizens) show that prediction can achieve state of the art performance as reported in similar health related domains (AUC=0.715). We further find that competitive results can be obtained by using limited information for training, which...

  11. The City as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    century, the major tendency has been the population’s relocation from the country to the city. In developing countries, the development has clearly been towards major cities while growth in industrialised countries has spread out through the entire urban system, including minor urban developments. A key...... concentration of people in a smaller area, without necessarily being followed by increased interaction by way of increased infrastructure. Both situations are interdependent through globalisation and in the long term, neither situation is sustainable. The relevance of discussing linear city principles today...... concerns the need of flexible urban structures, saving land, transportation and energy. The ideas of linear cities can be seen as a compromise between concentrated cities and garden cities, making coherence between public transportation and the physical lay-out of the city. The paper will submit on two...

  12. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Hoeven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the destruction of the Rotterdam inner city, the city still struggles to be the vibrant, rigorous urban environment it needs to be in order to attract the so-called creative class.This article provides a contextual overview of the transformations of a number of key public spaces that are symbolic for the challenges the city faces. After the post-war reconstruction the city continue to transform itself beyond modernism.

  13. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  14. Energy and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martinico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning should have a key role in creating urban environments that support less energy-intense lifestyles. A wise consideration of energy in urban land use policies should play an important role considering that, in spite of having a land occupation of 2% and accommodating 50% of the world population, cities produce 80% of GHG emissions and consume 80 % of the world’s resources.In the building industry, the green economy is already part of the designers’ approach. This has already produced several energy efficient buildings that also feature high architectural quality. Now is the turn of cities to take the same direction in developing the capacity of formulating sounded urban policies. This will contribute to develop adequate new tools for achieving the energy efficiency goal.Climate change concern, the dominating environmental paradigm, is permeating the political scenario worldwide, producing a plethora of formal documents. The most recent one is the COP21 agreed in Paris in December 2015, after the failure of the Copenhagen summit in 2009, and formally signed in April 2016 in New York. The challenge for land use planning now is to translate these general commitments into actions that modify planning practices at all levels, from cities to regions.In this field, the current situation is extremely varied. EU has issued several documents focussed mainly at building level but also sustainable transports are considered a key issue. However, a further step is needed in order to increase the level of integration among all land use approaches, including the idea of green infrastructure as a key component of any human settlement. (European Commission, 2013. The relationship between urbanisation and climate change has become key worldwide but looking at it from a Mediterranean perspective arises some specificities, considering also the political strain that this part of the world is facing. Both Southern Europe and Middle East and North

  15. Sensitivity of an indigenous amphipod (Corophium colo) to chemical contaminants in laboratory toxicity tests conducted with sediments from Sydney Harbor, Australia, and vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, Stephanie; Greely, Christopher R; Hyne, Ross V; Birch, Gavin F; Long, Edward R

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory survival tests were conducted with an indigenous infaunal amphipod, Corophium colo, on 103 sediment samples from Sydney Harbor (NSW, Australia) and vicinity, containing a wide range of chemicals and concentrations. The present study describes the sensitivity of C. colo to the sediments and compares the results to data for North American amphipods (Rhepoxynius abronius and Ampelisca abdita) previously used to establish and validate sediment-quality guidelines (SQGs). The incidence of toxicity increased with increasing contamination, as indicated by increasing numbers of SQGs exceeded and increasing mean SQG quotients. The incidence of highly toxic results (p Corophium colo reburial tests showed greater sensitivity compared to survival tests, with a maximum incidence of statistically significant responses in moderately contaminated sediments of 70%. The present study showed that adult Corophium organisms are suitable for testing lethal responses in highly contaminated sediments (i.e., with mean effects range-median quotients of >1.5). Reburial results provide additional sensitivity.

  16. Analysis of the Tick Size and the Impact of Varying Dollar Ticks on Market Quality – Evidence from the Sydney Futures Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the minimum price variation and marketquality variables for 3 interest rate futures contracts on the Sydney Futures Exchange.Intraday trade and quote data are obtained for the period 4 January 2000 and 1 February 2002,which includes the change in transparency on 19 January 2001. Analysis of the frequencydistributions of bid and ask quote variations show a high frequency of these variations postedat 1 tick in the sample periods. Analysis of the quoted bid-ask spreads also show a highfrequency of spreads posted at 1 tick. These evidence suggest that the tick sizes for thesefutures contracts are too large. Examination of the relationships between dollar spreads anddollar ticks provide further evidence that dollar spreads are constrained by the tick size. Dollarspreads are found to be positively related to dollar ticks, average quoted depth and trade pricevolatility, and negatively related to traded volume.

  17. Use of 210Pb and 137Cs to simultaneously constrain ages and sources of post-dam sediments in the Cordeaux reservoir, Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Ava D; Woodroffe, Colin; Jones, Brian G; Heijnis, Henk; Mann, Rob A; Harrison, Jennifer

    2008-07-01

    Environmental radionuclides can be employed as tracers of sediment movement and delivery to water bodies such as lakes and reservoirs. The chronologies of sediments that have accumulated in the Cordeaux reservoir in Sydney, Australia, were determined by the rate of change of (210)Pb(ex) with depth and indicate slow accretion in the reservoir. The ratio of enrichment of radionuclides in sediment cores to (210)Pb(ex) and (137)Cs concentrations in a reference soil sample within the Cordeaux catchment indicates that the dominant source of sediment in the Cordeaux reservoir is surface erosion (detachment and removal of sediment at depths less than 30 cm). However, in the Kembla Creek arm of the reservoir a mixture of sources was detected and includes sheet and rill erosion together with sub-soil contributions. Implications for the utility of these radionuclide sedimentation assessments, especially where samples are limited, are that well-constrained chronologies and sources of soil erosion are facilitated.

  18. Why mixed equilibria may not be conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    on dropping Lewis' eccentric ‘coordination' requirement as well as that of common knowledge, they are confused on whether conventions should be regarded as proper thereby precluding mixed equilibria. In this paper I argue that mixed equilibria may not be conventions, but also suggest that the reason...... for this reveals that though common knowledge is not necessary for a convention to operate, it may be utilized as to identify the conventional aspect of a given practice....

  19. Blueprint for a greener city: growth need not cost the earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J M

    2005-01-01

    The current human use of global natural resources exceeds the long-term sustainable capacity of the planet. New and more sustainable ways of building cities and providing urban water services are needed. The Australian city of Sydney is expected to grow by more than 1 million people over the next 30 years. Water use from the Hawkesbury-Nepean River system already exceeds system capacity. Current proposals to allocate a greater proportion of low flows to meet environmental flow needs will limit urban water allocations and require the development of more efficient water and sewerage systems for new and existing urban development. This paper presents a hypothetical case study of how water supply and sewerage services might be provided for an additional 1 million people over a 25-year period. It compares traditional service provision with alternative scenarios incorporating water conservation measures, rainwater harvesting and water reuse. The paper presents both economic and environmental comparisons. The economic comparisons include valuations of environmental externalities in the form of environmental levies. It shows that the extra capital costs of water conservation, alternative water sources and water reuse scenarios are offset by operating savings and environmental benefits. Ecological footprints are reduced because of lower water diversions, discharges, energy use and CO2 emissions. The paper also discusses the implication of alternative infrastructure ownership and water pricing arrangements, and the opportunities to create incentives for additional investment in water conservation and reuse projects.

  20. Ethnomedicine and dominant medicine in multicultural Australia: a critical realist reflection on the case of Korean-Australian immigrants in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballis Harry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viewed through the micro focus of an interpretive lens, medical anthropology remains mystified because interpretivist explanations seriously downplay the given context in which individual health seeking-behaviours occur. This paper draws upon both the interpretivist and political economy perspectives to reflect on the ethno medical practices within the Korean-Australian community in Sydney. Methods We draw on research data collected between 1995 and 1997 for an earlier study of the use of biomedical and traditional medicine by Korean-Australians in Sydney. A total of 120 interviews were conducted with a range of participants, including biomedical doctors, traditional health professionals, Korean community leaders and Korean migrants representing a range of socio-economic backgrounds and migration patterns. Results and Discussion First, the paper highlights the extent to which the social location of migrants in a host society alters or restructures their initial cultural practices they bring with them. Second, taking hanbang medicine in the Korean-Australian community as an illustrative case, the paper explores the transformation of the dominant biomedicine in Australia as a result of the influx of ethnomedicine in the era of global capitalism and global movement. Conclusion In seeking to explain the popularity and supply of alternative health care, it is important to go beyond the culture of each kind of health care itself and to take into consideration the changes occurring at societal, national and global levels as well as consequential individual response to the changes. New social conditions influence the choice of health care methods, including herbal/alternative medicine, health foods and what are often called New Age therapies.

  1. Field Evaluation of Melolure, a Formate Analogue of Cuelure, and Reassessment of Fruit Fly Species Trapped in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Campbell, Angus J; Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, tephritids are usually attracted to either cuelure or methyl eugenol. Methyl eugenol is a very effective lure, but cuelure is less effective likely due to low volatility. A new formate analogue of cuelure, melolure, has increased volatility, resulting in improved efficacy with the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett. We tested the efficacy of melolure with fruit fly species in Sydney as part of the National Exotic Fruit Fly Monitoring programme. This monitoring programme has 71 trap sites across Sydney, with each trap site comprising separate Lynfield traps containing either cuelure, methyl eugenol, or capilure lure. In 2008, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure plugs was added to seven sites. In 2009 and 2010, an additional Lynfield trap with melolure wicks was added to 11 trap sites and traps were monitored fortnightly for 2 yr. Capture rates for melolure traps were similar to cuelure traps for Dacus absonifacies (May) and Dacus aequalis (Coquillet), but melolure traps consistently caught fewer Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) than cuelure traps. However, trap sites with both a cuelure and melolure traps had increased capture rates for D. absonifacies and D. aequalis, and a marginally significant increase for B. tryoni. Melolure plugs were less effective than melolure wicks, but this effect may be related to lure concentration. The broader Bactrocera group species were attracted more to cuelure than melolure while the Dacus group species were attracted more to melolure than cuelure. There is no benefit in switching from cuelure to melolure to monitor B. tryoni, the most important fruit fly pest in Australia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A qualitative study of smoking within a Western Sydney Arabic-speaking community: a focus on men in the context of their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anastasia; Monaem, Abdul; Newman, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Smoking rates are high among Arabic-speaking populations, particularly men, and there is limited evidence to formulate effective tobacco-control strategies in this group. This study explored smoking within an Arabic-speaking community in Sydney, focusing on men's smoking in the context of their families. We conducted six focus groups with a total of 60 Arabic-speaking participants recruited through health workers, counsellors and community leaders in Western Sydney, Australia. The focus groups, conducted in Arabic or English, discussed smoking experiences, family issues and quit attempts. Focus group data were recorded, transcribed and analysed for emerging themes. Male smoking was normalised in home, social and religious settings. There was concern about children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), but less concern for adults, particularly wives. Smoking created conflict within families and quit attempts were often made without assistance. There was a lack of enthusiasm for telephone support services with participants suggesting free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and programs in religious settings as potential strategies. Smoking is normalised in Arabic-speaking society and is socially acceptable. Strategies to de-normalise smoking, particularly among men, are critical. Ongoing ETS exposure of wives is concerning and suggests the need to empower women to control their exposure. There is an opportunity to create locally tailored interventions by engaging leaders in religious settings and to improve perceptions of telephone support services. SO WHAT?: Culturally appropriate strategies to de-normalise smoking for Arabic-speaking male smokers are needed together with novel approaches that incorporate families and involve community leaders.

  3. The early childhood oral health program: a qualitative study of the perceptions of child and family health nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh

    2016-05-16

    Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.

  4. Does Walkability Contribute to Geographic Variation in Psychosocial Distress? A Spatial Analysis of 91,142 Members of the 45 and Up Study in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Darren J; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Bauman, Adrian E

    2018-02-06

    Walkability describes the capacity of the built environment to promote walking, and has been proposed as a potential focus for community-level mental health planning. We evaluated this possibility by examining the contribution of area-level walkability to variation in psychosocial distress in a population cohort at spatial scales comparable to those used for regional planning in Sydney, Australia. Data on psychosocial distress were analysed for 91,142 respondents to the 45 and Up Study baseline survey between January 2006 and April 2009. We fit conditional auto regression models at the postal area level to obtain smoothed "disease maps" for psychosocial distress, and assess its association with area-level walkability after adjusting for individual- and area-level factors. Prevalence of psychosocial distress was 7.8%; similar for low (7.9%), low-medium (7.9%), medium-high (8.0%), and high (7.4%) walkability areas; and decreased with reducing postal area socioeconomic disadvantage: 12.2% (most), 9.3%, 7.5%, 5.9%, and 4.7% (least). Unadjusted disease maps indicated strong geographic clustering of psychosocial distress with 99.0% of excess prevalence due to unobserved and spatially structured factors, which was reduced to 55.3% in fully adjusted maps. Spatial and unstructured variance decreased by 97.3% and 39.8% after adjusting for individual-level factors, and another 2.3% and 4.2% with the inclusions of area-level factors. Excess prevalence of psychosocial distress in postal areas was attenuated in adjusted models but remained spatially structured. Postal area prevalence of high psychosocial distress is geographically clustered in Sydney, but is unrelated to postal area walkability. Area-level socioeconomic disadvantage makes a small contribution to this spatial structure; however, community-level mental health planning will likely deliver greatest benefits by focusing on individual-level contributors to disease burden and inequality associated with psychosocial

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of caregivers regarding children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among Arabic and Vietnamese-speaking communities in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochelson, Tanya; Hua, Myna; Rissel, Chris

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to inform the design of a culturally appropriate health communication campaign addressing exposure of young children to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in homes and cars, targeted at caregivers of children aged 0-6 years in the Arabic and Vietnamese-speaking communities in Sydney, Australia. Nine focus groups (five Arabic and four Vietnamese) were conducted by qualified bilingual facilitators, recorded, transcribed, then translated and analysed qualitatively. Results revealed concerning levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding children's exposure to ETS. A poor understanding existed regarding what constituted passive smoking and the severity and extent of harm that ETS has on children. Smoking attitudes and behaviours described were not always consistent with the concern expressed about children's vulnerability to smoke. Initial changes in smoking patterns at home since the arrival of children were not always sustained. Despite awareness of the harm caused by smoking in the presence of their children, some caregivers continued to smoke in closed environments. Others felt it was sufficient protection to smoke in another room, with doors and/or windows open or by ensuring that visible smoke did not reach the child directly, whilst some smoked in the home or car only when children were not present. Smoking attitudes and behaviours in the presence of children were influenced by cultural and social norms associated with smoking. The desire to be sociable and hospitable often superseded concerns for children's health. The findings suggest that an effective communication campaign focusing on ETS and children in the Arabic and Vietnamese-speaking communities in Sydney should attempt to address knowledge deficits regarding ETS, as well as tackling entrenched culturally related attitudes and behaviours associated with smoking which are strongly linked to sociability and hospitality.

  6. Middle Permian paleomagnetism of the Sydney Basin, Eastern Gondwana: Testing Pangea models and the timing of the end of the Kiaman Reverse Superchron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, M. E.; Tohver, E.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; Jourdan, F.; Denyszyn, S.; George, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from the eastern margin of Gondwana have been obtained from the Gerringong Volcanics in the southern Sydney Basin, Australia. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole at 56.9°S, 154.8°E (N = 131; A95 = 9.1°) has a 40Ar/39Ar plagioclase plateau age of 265.05 ± 0.35 [0.46] Ma from the Bumbo Latite, and overlaps with recent radio-isotopic and paleomagnetic results published from Western Gondwana. The long-documented inconsistency between Middle Permian Eastern and Western Gondwanan paleomagnetic datasets is most likely an artefact of a lack of reliable paleomagnetic data from Eastern Gondwana for this period. A number of well-dated and recently published ca. 265 Ma paleomagnetic results from Gondwana and Laurussia are shown to be consistent with the Wegenerian Pangea A configuration, with a loose N-S fit of the continents for the Middle Permian. The lack of crustal overlap negates the need for a Pangea B configuration, which if valid must have been assembled to Pangea A by ca. 265 Ma. The reverse polarity Bumbo Latite was sampled from the Kiaman type-section located in the southern Sydney Basin. Three cases of normal polarity were detected in the overlying Saddleback, Dapto, and Berkeley Latites, previously assigned to the Kiaman Reverse Superchron (KRS). We review KRS-aged magnetostratigraphic data and propose that an age assignment of 265 Ma most likely represents the termination of the non-reversing field, with longer stable intervals of normal polarity recorded and able to be correlated globally.

  7. Tobacco control priorities for Arabic speakers: key findings from a baseline telephone survey of Arabic speakers residing in Sydney's south-west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusco, Andrew; Rikard-Bell, Glenys; Mohsin, Mohammed; Millen, Elizabeth; Sabry, Marial; Poder, Natasha; Williams, Mandy; Farag, Lydia; Hua, Myna; Guirguis, Sanaa

    2007-08-01

    The Arabic-speaking population is a priority for tobacco control in Sydney's south-west. Current smoking prevalence and smokers' preferences for evidence-based cessation therapies are reported for this population. A telephone survey of Arabic speakers conducted in Sydney's south-west between August and November 2004 included: utilisation of tobacco products, tobacco and health knowledge, quit attempts and likelihood to use evidence-based cessation strategies. A 70% response rate was achieved (n=1,102). Twenty-six per cent of respondents (95% CI 23.5-28.7) self-reported being current smokers. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that poor knowledge of the harms of smoking (AOR=7.50, 95% CI 3.20-17.59), being male (AOR=2.63, 95% CI 1.89-3.65), being aged between 40 and 59 (AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.96) and non-tertiary educated (AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.97) were independent predictors of self-reported smoking. Smokers' preferences for evidence-based cessation strategies included: vouchers for discounted nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (58.8%, 95% CI 52.9-64.6), standard self-help booklet (56.6%, 95% CI 50.7-62.4) and tailored self-help written materials (mailed) (54.0%, 95% CI 48.1- 59.9). More than one-third of all current cigarette smokers (39.4%, n=108, 95% CI 33.6-45.2) indicated they had made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Well-designed trials of efficacy for preferred evidence-based strategies, particularly among middle-aged male Arabic-speaking smokers, appear warranted prior to policy development and implementation.

  8. Smart Cities need architects; Las Smart Cities necesita a los arquitectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoz Palacio, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Architects and urban planners have always been at the forefront of technical and social innovation processes, researching and proposing new urban models and buildings based on cognitive materials from both their own and other fields of knowledge. In fact, current society, including our ways of life and habits, could not be comprehended without the open, curious minds and progressive even defiant attitudes of architects such as Brunelleschi, Violletle- Duc, Perret, Le Corbusier and Fuller, who defied the threshold of conceptual and vital convention and staked everything on exploring and applying the characteristic technological breakthroughs of their day to architecture and the design of cities. (Author)

  9. Seasonal and daily variation in blood and urine concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-17

    Mar 17, 1998 ... Department of Biology, City College, City University of New York. 138St W at Convent, NY 10031. USA ... School of Biological Science. The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. Gary N. Bronner. School of ...... Australian desert mice: in- dependen(.:e of exogenous water. Science 158: ...

  10. Playable cities the city as a digital playground

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. The contributions presented here examine various aspects of playable cities, including developments in pervasive and urban games, the use of urban data to design games and playful applications, architecture design and playability, and mischief and humor in playable cities. The smartness of digital cities can be found in the sensors and actuators that are embedded in their environment. This smartness allows them to monitor, anticipate and support our activities and increases the efficiency of the cities and our activities. These urban smart technologies can offer citizens playful interactions with streets, buildings, street furniture, traffic, public art and entertainment, large public displays and public events.

  11. Playable Cities: The City as a Digital Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The first book to exhaustively review key recent research into playability in smart and digital cities. - Addresses pervasive games and the relation between gameful and gamified applications and the design of playful architecture - Includes special chapters on playful civic hacking applications and the use of urban data for playful applications This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. T...

  12. Snake City North

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    SkivproduktionJonas Kullhammar Quartet with Norrbotten Big Band – Snake City North, 2005Utgiven av Moserobie music production 2005Inspelad av Göran Stegborn och Tomas JohannessonMixad av Göran StegbornMastrad av Claes PerssonGrammisnominerad till årets jazzskiva 2005Musiker:Jonas Kullhammar: Tenor SaxophoneJonas Holgersson: DrumsTorbjörn Gulz: PianoTorbjörn Zetterberg: BassNorrbotten Big Band:Trumpets: Bo Strandberg, Magnus Ekholm, Tapio MaunuvaaraTrumpet & Fluegelhorn: Dan Johansson (2,5...

  13. Mapping the gendered city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2017-01-01

    Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  14. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  15. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    In the midst of a global refugee crisis, the influx of refugees into Europe presents unique challenges. The large scale of the migration, the extent of the human suffering driving it, and the political complexities of resolving it come on top of substantial existing strains on the European project...... institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...

  16. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test......-site, where 15 LED RGB Park lamps, controlled driven by a wind sensor, mobile phone applications or by thermal camera tracking. According to the specialists are the social and aesthetical dimensions more interesting than the energy use cases and efficiency. This motivates an interdisciplinary discussion...

  17. City of Epitaphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hicks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement lies like a ledger-stone on a tomb. Buried underneath are the remains of fertile landscapes and the life they once supported. Inscribed on its upper side are epitaphic writings. Whatever their ostensible purpose, memorial plaques and public artworks embedded in the pavement are ultimately expressions of civic bereavement and guilt. The pavement's role as both witness and accomplice to fatality is confirmed by private individuals who publicize their grief with death notices graffitied on the asphalt. To walk the city is to engage in a dialogue about death.

  18. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  19. 300 Cities - An Exploration in Characterizing US Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Metropolitan Area Name Proportion of Population Honolulu, HI MSA 5.9608% Flagstaff, AZ--UT MSA 3.6542% Jersey City, NJ PMSA 3.6026% Yuba City, CA MSA...Stamford--Norwalk, CT PMSA 4520 189 Louisville, KY--IN MSA 9340 189 Yuba City, CA MSA 2620 184 Flagstaff, AZ--UT MSA 8000 181 Springfield, MA MSA...5660 111 Newburgh, NY--PA PMSA 9340 111 Yuba City, CA MSA 4160 110 Lawrence, MA--NH PMSA 9240 109 Worcester, MA--CT PMSA 3560 108 Jackson, MS

  20. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. A better understanding of the complex organizational change processes in city logistics projects with many stakeholders may expand city logistics capabilities and thereby help prevent future failures. The purpose of this paper...... is therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics....... Organizational change theory is applied to capture the social processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is a qualitative processual analysis of a single longitudinal case. Findings: – The change process took different forms over time. At the time of concluding the analysis, positive...

  1. Biophilic Cities and Healthy Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Beatley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biophilia holds that as a species humans are innately drawn to nature and to living things. Mounting research confirms the many positive health benefits of contact with nature, and the need for daily (and hourly contact with the natural environment in order to live happy, healthy, meaningful lives. A new vision of Biophilic Cities is put forward here: cities that are nature-abundant, that seek to protect and grow nature, and that foster deep connections with the natural world. This article describes the emergence of this global movement, the new and creative ways that cities are restoring, growing and connecting with nature, and the current status and trajectory of a new global Biophilic Cities Network, launched in 2013. There remain open questions, and significant challenges, to advancing the Biophilic Cities vision, but it also presents unusual opportunities to create healthier, livable cities and societies.

  2. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  3. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-01-01

    A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cos...

  4. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  5. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  6. Smart Cities and Sustainability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our age cities are complex systems and we can say systems of systems. Today locality is the result of using information and communication technologies in all departments of our life, but in future all cities must to use smart systems for improve quality of life and on the other hand for sustainable development. The smart systems make daily activities more easily, efficiently and represent a real support for sustainable city development. This paper analysis the sus-tainable development and identified the key elements of future smart cities.

  7. USING OF NON-CONVENTIONAL FUELS IN HYBRID VEHICLE DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Barta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric or hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common on roads. While electric vehicles are still more or less intended for city traffic, hybrid vehicles allow normal use due to wider driving range. The use of internal combustion engines in hybrid drives is still an inspiration to find the way to reduce the produc-tion of emissions. Numbers of alternative energy resources were studied as a substitution of conventional fuels for hybrid vehicles drives worldwide. The paper deals with the possibility of using alternative fuels as CNG, LPG and LNG in combination with hybrid drive of a midibus with the capacity of 20 passengers. Various aspects and techniques of hybrid vehicles from energy management system, propulsion system and using of various alternative fuels are explored in this paper. Other related fields of hybrid vehicles such as changes of vehicle weight or influence of electric energy sources on the total vehicle emission production are also included.

  8. Inner-city station areas in Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Redevelopments of Chinese inner-­?city station areas introduced both new transport infrastructures (high speed railway, urban mass transit system, etc.) and real estate projects to station vicinities during the past decades. However, existing station areas are isolated from the rest of the city, and

  9. Human rights and conventionality control in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azul América Aguiar-Aguilar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The protection of human rights in Mexico has, de jure, suffered an important change in the last years, given a new judicial interpretation delivered by the National Supreme Court of Justice that allows the use of conventionality control, which means, that it allows federal and state judges to verify the conformity of domestic laws with those established in the Inter-American Convention of Human Rights. To what extent domestic actors are protecting human rights using this new legal tool called conventionality control? In this article I explore whom and how is conventionality control being used in Mexico. Using N-Vivo Software I reviewed concluded decisions delivered by intermediate level courts (Collegiate Circuit Courts in three Mexican states. The evidence points that conventionality control is a very useful tool especially to defenders, who appear in sentences claiming compliance with the commitments Mexico has acquired when this country ratified the Convention.

  10. Nature in the city or the city in nature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on urban green spaces opens up the old paradigmatic question on the relationship between the city and nature. At the common sense level, the answers are simple and one-dimensional, but a more elaborate analysis necessarily runs into the archetypical conflict relationship between “nature and culture”. The present text deals with different, more or less successful examples how to reconcile this relationship. In modern societies, people’s dissatisfaction with the mere symbolic presence of nature in the cities has had a substantial impact on suburbanisation processes, which are themselves environmentally rather problematic. The conclusion argues that the question of nature in the city should be replaced by that of the city in nature. Urban green spaces should be treated as part of the ecosystem at the regional level, not as an exclusively internal city problem.

  11. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  12. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  13. Cities and peripheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Swati

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a methodological problem of urban history faced with the current environmental crisis that urges us to think of humans as ‘geological’ agents. It suggests that the concept of the uncanny that pushes our understanding of spatio-temporality may be a useful device for approaching the methodological need to reconcile what we can and cannot experience/visualize. Viewing the mapping projects around Calcutta in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries through the lens of the uncanny offers us the possibility of such a reconciliation. It enables us to see the landscape as a product of multiple spatio-temporal modes, and loosens the grip of the current urban vocabulary on our imagination of cities.

  14. Biometeorology for cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M.; Balling, Robert C.; Andrade, Riley; Scott Krayenhoff, E.; Middel, Ariane; Urban, Aleš; Georgescu, Matei; Sailor, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Improvements in global sustainability, health, and equity will largely be determined by the extent to which cities are able to become more efficient, hospitable, and productive places. The development and evolution of urban areas has a significant impact on local and regional weather and climate, which subsequently affect people and other organisms that live in and near cities. Biometeorologists, researchers who study the impact of weather and climate on living creatures, are well positioned to help evaluate and anticipate the consequences of urbanization on the biosphere. Motivated by the 60th anniversary of the International Society of Biometeorology, we reviewed articles published in the Society's International Journal of Biometeorology over the period 1974-2017 to understand if and how biometeorologists have directed attention to urban areas. We found that interest in urban areas has rapidly accelerated; urban-oriented articles accounted for more than 20% of all articles published in the journal in the most recent decade. Urban-focused articles in the journal span five themes: measuring urban climate, theoretical foundations and models, human thermal comfort, human morbidity and mortality, and ecosystem impacts. Within these themes, articles published in the journal represent a sizeable share of the total academic literature. More explicit attention from urban biometeorologists publishing in the journal to low- and middle-income countries, indoor environments, animals, and the impacts of climate change on human health would help ensure that the distinctive perspectives of biometeorology reach the places, people, and processes that are the foci of global sustainability, health, and equity goals.

  15. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cities targeted to sustainable and smarter models.As a matter of fact, almost all the projects to get a “smart city” are based on the idea of joining the potentialities of ICTs and the needs of urban management through people living or using the city.In such a vision, “tourist dimension” of the city becomes fundamental in promoting urban image as well as in improving efficiency of the city. This efficiency also depends on the capability of each city to share historical and cultural heritage as “common good”.As tourist demand has deeply changed also driven by technological development, this paper tries to investigate how the urban supply will change in order to meet the rising demand of quality and efficiency. The transition to smart tourist destination currently seems to be strongly connected with the number and the variety of apps to improve the “experiential component”. A lack of interest there seems to be in finding strategies and policies oriented to plan the urban supply of services tourist or not.This consideration, if shared, opens up new perspectives for research and experimentation in which city planning could have a key-role also in proposing an holistic approach to city development towards smart city.

  16. New York City's Education Battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When Bloomberg gave his first State of the City address, in January, 2002, he announced his intention to seek mayoral control of the schools and abolish the infamous New York City Board of Education, which he called "a rinky-dink candy store." He joined a long list of New York mayors, educators, and business leaders who believed that the…

  17. City And Its Open Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramayana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The city requires open spaces of sufficient breadth to maintain a balance between the regions. The city has a circulatory system that brings together the various regions and provides facilities to carry trade goods from farm to distribution centers in the city. Cities have many shortcomings in service to its population. Cities can be too dense too many houses are less worthy the unemployment center and has its government. Taxes tend to be high while the service is inadequate. Even so the cities will still be there. The task for planners at all levels both government and private sectors are seeking to be important elements in our social system is more comfortable to live in especially when it is in the city found many open spaces that can neutralize the possibility of air pollution. Formation and good urban planning is the dream of society. With a good arrangement the city will be more comfortable as a residence. Urban and open space are two things that can not be separated from one another. Although it has different functions and benefits remains a single entity. It really should be understood by all urban communities.

  18. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  19. Building the food secure city

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    Seen on a map, the four arterial roads that connect Dar es. Salaam's city centre to the urban fringe and the hinterland beyond resemble a giant spider's web. The vast majority of the city's inhabitants — seven out of every 10 — live in a warren of unplanned settlements that are scattered between the principal byways outside ...

  20. Chicago, Illinois: The Windy City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Once famous mainly for stockyards and steel mills, Chicago now boasts more top-rated five-star restaurants than any other city in the United States and has been voted by various publications as one of the "Top 10 U.S. Destinations," one of the "Best Walking Cities" in the United States, and one of the "Ten Best Places to…

  1. Educating cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  2. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  3. Cities Farming for the Future

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban agriculture can be defined as the growing of plants and the raising of animals for food and other uses within and around cities and towns, and related activities such as the production and delivery of inputs, and the processing and marketing of products. Urban Agriculture is located within or on the fringe of a city and ...

  4. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    become a multicultural city with vibrant neighbourhoods and successful new developments such as the Western Harbour. The Øresund bridge has increased its linkages with Denmark and Europe providing easy access for employment and residential opportunities. The success of the city will be measured in its...

  5. Participatory prototyping for future cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waart, P.; Mulder, I.J.; De Bont, C.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because

  6. Participatory Prototyping for Future Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Waart; I.J. Mulder; C.J.P.M. Bont

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because

  7. Traffic gridlock on a honeycomb city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, L. E.; Muñoz, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by an old and almost in oblivion urban plan, we report the behavior of the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) model—a paradigm for studying phase transitions of traffic flow—on a hypothetical city with a perfect honeycomb street network. In contrast with the original BML model on a square lattice, the same model on a honeycomb does not show any anisotropy or intermediate states, but a single continuous phase transition between free and totally congested flow, a transition that can be completely characterized by the tools of classical percolation. Although the transition occurs at a lower density than for the conventional BML, simple modifications, like randomly stopping the cars with a very small probability or increasing the traffic light periods, drives the model to perform better on honeycomb lattices. As traffic lights and disordered perturbations are inherent in real traffic, these results question the actual role of the square gridlike designs and suggest the honeycomb topology as an interesting alternative for urban planning in real cities.

  8. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    from the point of view of the city, where order, design, planning and commerce are important cityscape qualities. The article deals with the way in which these two parts of the city, landscape and brandscape are complementary parts of the city-web. Analytical points made by Mauss, Lévi......Abstract  Based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighbourhoods in the outskirts of Århus, Denmark, this article focusses on how landscapes are perceived. Local residents describe and use the landscapes of Skåde Bakker and Fedet as endowed...... with “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...

  9. The Right to the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Lefebvre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a new proposition of thinking about such categoriesas a city, the urban, urban strategy and social practices connected with analyticalscience of the city, which is only at the outline stage, but also projected by Lefebvrehimself. This turn seems necessary due to the death of traditional city and oldhumanism. The article is also a passionate and utopian (in positive sense of termmanifesto for democratization of right to the city consisting of cry and demand ofthe dispossessed from such a prerogative. The author argues that an urban strategybased on a new science of the city needs social support and political force. They willbe provided by the working class, putting an end to the urban segregation.

  10. Experiences in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine use and associated depression in gay men and HIV positive men: in-depth interviews with general practitioners in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kippax Susan C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the experiences of Australian general practitioners (GPs in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth use among two groups of male patients: gay men and HIV positive men. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews with GPs with HIV medication prescribing rights were conducted in Sydney, Adelaide and a rural-coastal town in New South Wales between August and October 2006. Participants were recruited from practices with high caseloads of gay and HIV positive men. Results Sixteen GPs were recruited from seven practices to take part in interviews. Participants included 14 male GPs and two female GPs, and the number of years each had been working in HIV medicine ranged from two to 24. Eleven of the GPs who were based in Sydney raised the issue of problematic crystal meth use in these two patient populations. Five key themes were identified: an increasing problem; associations with depression; treatment challenges; health services and health care; workforce issues. Conclusion Despite study limitations, key implications can be identified. Health practitioners may benefit from broadening their understandings of how to anticipate and respond to problematic levels of crystal meth use in their patients. Early intervention can mitigate the impact of crystal meth use on co-morbid mental illness and other health issues. Management of the complex relationships between drug use, depression, sexuality and HIV can be addressed following a 'stepped care' approach. General practice guidelines for the management of crystal meth use problems should address specific issues associated with gay men and HIV positive men. GPs and other health practitioners must appreciate drug use as a social practice in order to build trust with gay men to encourage full disclosure of drug use. Education programs should train health practitioners in these issues, and increased resourcing provided to support the often difficult

  11. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomised controlled trial. D. A. A. VERKUYL, C. A. CROWTHER .Abstract This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients ...

  12. Organic and conventional production systems, microbial fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A common belief among consumers is the superior quality of organically grown tomato fruits over their conventionally grown counterparts. The present study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics of tomatoes grown using organic and conventional production systems and to determine the effects of microbial ...

  13. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Since its designation as a national Clean City in 1994, Salt Lake Clean Cities has put more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on community streets. The 82 business, nonprofit, and government agencies that comprise the coalition are all dedicated to cleaning the air by reducing vehicle exhaust. Salt Lake Clean Cities has the third largest compressed natural gas and propane-refueling infrastructure in the country, with 98 locations available. They sponsor an annual ''Spring Soiree'' to increase public awareness about the program and educate the public about the benefits of alternative fuel and AFVs.

  14. CITIES: Centre for IT-Intelligent Energy Systems in Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; O'Connell, Niamh; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This extended abstract provides an introduction to an interdisciplinary strategic research project, CITIES which has been funded with an excess of € 7 million from a wide range of industrial and academic partners, and the Danish Council for Strategic Research. CITIES was launched January 1, 2014...... between operations and planning. This extended abstract outlines the challenges to be met by city and energy planning bodies in an energy efficient future. The necessity of novel, data driven and IT intelligent solutions is stressed. A focus is placed on energy system planning in systems with high...

  15. Club convergence of house prices: Evidence from China’s ten key cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-09-01

    The latest global financial tsunami and its follow-up global economic recession has uncovered the crucial impact of housing markets on financial and economic systems. The Chinese stock market experienced a marked fall during the global financial tsunami and China’s economy has also slowed down by about 2%-3% when measured in GDP. Nevertheless, the housing markets in diverse Chinese cities seemed to continue the almost nonstop mania for more than 10 years. However, the structure and dynamics of the Chinese housing market are less studied. Here, we perform an extensive study of the Chinese housing market by analyzing 10 representative key cities based on both linear and nonlinear econophysical and econometric methods. We identify a common collective driving force which accounts for 96.5% of the house price growth, indicating very high systemic risk in the Chinese housing market. The 10 key cities can be categorized into clubs and the house prices of the cities in the same club exhibit an evident convergence. These findings from different methods are basically consistent with each other. The identified city clubs are also consistent with the conventional classification of city tiers. The house prices of the first-tier cities grow the fastest and those of the third- and fourth-tier cities rise the slowest, which illustrates the possible presence of a ripple effect in the diffusion of house prices among different cities.

  16. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  17. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  18. Applications of big data to smart cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Nuaimi, Eiman; Al Neyadi, Hind; Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela

    2015-01-01

    Many governments are considering adopting the smart city concept in their cities and implementing big data applications that support smart city components to reach the required level of sustainability...

  19. Are city logistics solutions sustainable? The Cityporto case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available City logistics studies the best solutions for urban freight distribution with high environmental objectives. However, most actions are started by public authorities without taking into account the impacts of the new organizational schemas in the existing distribution enterprises’ organization. This paper shows how city logistics approaches can meet the goals of Sustainable Development. In order to define the notion of sustainable city logistics, the main aspects of each sphere of sustainable development, respectively economic, environmental and societal, have been investigated. The main aspects of each sphere are described in order to unify the concept of sustainability related to city logistics. Then, we present the successful experience of Cityporto, the urban delivery service for the city of Padova (Italy, started in 2004 that uses low-pollution lorries. So, the service is considered as less polluting as a conventional approach, and is allowed to enter the city centre (including the Limited Traffic Zone without hour limitations.The study is based on the findings from an exploratory qualitative approach, based on a documentary analysis and a case study research from several interviews that involved three internal stakeholders of Interporto di Padova (the company which manages the intermodal platform of Padova, in charge of Cityporto and one member of Padova’s Municipality (which promote the project.The results of the case study show that environmental aspect is one of the foundations of the project, but the economic continuity has to be first ensured. Indeed, the preservation of this service on the long term is subjected to its solvency. Moreover, its success is associated to the recognition by employees and customers. With regard to the collected information, it is possible to propose a balanced scorecard, where three axes emerged in connexion with economic, environmental and social dimensions. From this qualitative analysis, a discussion

  20. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed for diab......The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed...... for diabetes in Copenhagen. As part of the quantitative mapping phase of the Cities Changing Diabetes project in Copenhagen, a RoH analysis was conducted. The results of this analysis are summarized below. The figure shows that the ‘Halves’ rule does not generally apply for Copenhagen. On most of the levels......, Copenhagen is doing better than simple halves. For example, the results indicate that almost three quarters of the true diabetes population are diagnosed and that almost all of those diagnosed with diabetes receive some form of care. Although the analysis indicates that Copenhagen is doing better than...

  1. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Clare Kristensen, Elisabeth; Malling, Gritt Marie Hviid

    The overall objectives of the Vulnerability Assessmentis to gain in-depth information on what attributes the most to vulnerability seen from the perspectives of vulnerable diabetes patients and citizens at risk. In Copenhagen, we focused on how everyday life influences the perceptions and experie......The overall objectives of the Vulnerability Assessmentis to gain in-depth information on what attributes the most to vulnerability seen from the perspectives of vulnerable diabetes patients and citizens at risk. In Copenhagen, we focused on how everyday life influences the perceptions...... and experiences of health risks and illness among fifty vulnerable patients and citizens at risk in the city. We aimed at investigating how the local environment and practices influence individual practices and behavior, and how the management of diabetes is influenced by social factors. Also, the analysis...... of diabetes or health issues in general. Vulnerability was closely associated with the Danish term “manglende overskud”, in English ‘lack of reserves of energy’. Due to a range of issues and worries in everyday life, such as comorbidity, unemployment, economic problems, major life events and loneliness...

  2. Analysis of city buses operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Papírník

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of city buses operation. This analysis is focused on the energy balance of propulsion system of these buses. The energy balance gives an overview about necessary amount of energy for city buses in pure city operation. The operation of city buses is divided for this analysis into three basic modes: stop state, drive and deceleration. The fleet of the same 19 city buses was chosen for collection of all operation data. These city buses are located in one city. The buses were changing all bus routes and were driven by all bus drivers. These conditions are necessary for elimination of bus route topology and bus driver behaviour. The required operation data were saved into engines and transmissions control units. The saved data were uploaded from control units for data processing. The aim of the analysis is determination of the energy for each drive mode. The energy for individual mode gives an overview about possible energy savings when hybrid drive system is used for these buses. The energy balance is groundwork for correct design of hybrid drive system and for hybrid drive system control.

  3. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM.

  4. Project Haystack: The Search for Life in the Galaxy and Life: Here? There? Elsewhere? North Sydney Girls High School and using curriculum materials as a partnership opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzo, Les

    In this workshop participants will trial some of the missions from Project Haystack and Life: Here, There and Elsewhere. Both teachers' guides are from The Life in the Universe series of curriculum resources developed by the SETI Institute. The missions discussed have been adapted for use in two teaching units based on the NSW Stage 4-5 Science Syllabus. The units used `Life in the Universe' as a context for motivating students in science. The Stage 4 (Year 7) unit explored how life may be detected on Mars and other planetary objects in our solar system, and the Stage 5 (Year 9) unit explored the nature of our universe and the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence beyond our solar system. During this workshop participants will design a spacecraft-lander for exploring the Martian landscape. Then, the participants will compare their design to what was produced by students at North Sydney Girls High School. Alternative activities that assisted students in improving their design will also be discussed. Other missions presented in this workshop include the making of a model of the entire Milky Way Galaxy, examining the spectra from different stars, and using the Doppler shift as a way to measure the very small "wobble" of stars that would indicate the presence of other planetary systems.

  5. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of {sup 131}I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veliscek Carolan, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.veliscek-carolan@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Hughes, Catherine E.; Hoffmann, Emmy L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. {sup 131}I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, {sup 131}I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from {sup 131}I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 {mu}Gy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing {sup 131}I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 {mu}Sv/year, respectively.

  6. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  7. What has happened to the practice of short term dynamic psychotherapy in Australia's mental health services? A multidisciplinary training programme in Western Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliburn, Joan; Baker, Ashley

    2014-10-01

    Short term psychodynamic psychotherapies have been markedly phased out of Australia's mental health services. This paper aims to describe the successful introduction of a Conversational Model of Short Term Intensive Psychodynamic Psychotherapy into a public health service in an attempt to revive its practice. A brief review of relevant papers in the Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists journals since 1980 gives a background to the decline of dynamic psychotherapy in Australia. The development of a Conversational Model of Short Term Intensive Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in the author's private practice over 20 years, and its introduction into a hospital-based training programme are described. A structured programme by scholarship has been offered yearly since 2011 to 10 multidisciplinary mental health clinicians of the Western Sydney Health District. Trainees see two patients from their own service. Over three years, 29 trainees have treated 57 patients with weekly supervision provided. The model has been easily learned. Trainees report a sense of re-invigoration, refinement of existing skills and acquisition of new skills. Resolution of problems in a significant number of patients is noted and improvement and satisfaction reported by others. A valuable service is provided and research is underway. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  8. In situ stabilization/solidification pilot testing of coal tar contaminated sediment focusing on mix uniformity, post-treatment curing and workability evaluation, Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonneau, K.; Flood, P.J.; Noble, B. [AECOM Environmental, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A study conducted by Environment Canada during the 1980s demonstrated the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above risk benchmarks for aquatic organisms in the sediments of estuarine ponds located in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia. This paper presented the results of pilot-scale demonstration conducted to determine post-treatment uniformity and workability of the solidification/stabilization (S/S) solution used to remove exposure pathways, reduce erodability, and improve sediment strength. Interlocking steel sheet pile (SSP) was driven through the sediment into the underlying natural soils in 6 distinct cells in order to evaluate multiple reagent mix designs. Grain size distribution, moisture content, and sediment bulk density were measured. Dynamic cone penetrometer tests were conducted after each cell was mixed. Samples were taken to assess unconfined compressive strength and hydraulic conductivity. The post-treatment curing and workability rate was also assessed. Results of the study showed consistent hardness with depth in each cell and increasing hardness with depth as a function of the cement content of the mix. The post-treated material did not exhibit a well-defined moisture density relationship. Moisture sensitivity was demonstrated by a rapid loss of strength upon a relatively small increase in moisture content. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Public assessment of the usefulness of "draft" tsunami evacuation maps from Sydney, Australia – implications for the establishment of formal evacuation plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas – a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami prevention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Sydney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall'Osso et al., 2009b, we use the results of the analysis by Dall'Osso et al. (2009b to "draft" tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the survey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and understandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk management specialists during the development of official evacuation maps (and plans in the future.

  10. Standardised orientation program for first year undergraduate students in the College of Health and Science at the University of Western Sydney. A Practice Report

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    Betty Gill

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFirst year students often feel ill-equipped academically and emotionally, hindering their integration and adjustment into university life. This paper describes a standardised orientation program for first year undergraduate students focusing on peer and academic support based on ‘just-in-time’ and ‘just-for-me’ principles, assisting commencing students to achieve a smooth transition into university. This initiative has been employed since 2009, in one of the three large colleges at the University of Western Sydney, to foster a sense of community and reduce stress among commencing students. Building on existing orientation activities, we introduced three new activities which focused on ‘just-in-time’ information for the first year, first semester experience, incorporation of student presentations and the inclusion of ice-breaker activities. Evaluative feedback revealed strong academic support for the initiatives, with College of Health & Science students reporting their orientation experience significantly more positively (P=0.003 than students from the other two colleges.

  11. FTIR and py-GC-MS spectra of true-fern and seed-fern sphenopterids (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, Pennsylvanian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Sphenopterid specimens from the Late Pennsylvanian of Sydney Coalfield, Canada, are investigated by FTIR and py-GC-MS techniques as part of an on-going research project into the biochemistry and chemotaxonomy of Pennsylvanian-age pteridophylls. Included in the investigation are samples of the true-fern species Oligocarpia brongniartii and Zeilleria delicatula that are preserved as naturally macerated cuticles (NMC), and the seed-fern Eusphenopteris neuropteroides that is also preserved as a compression/impression. FTIR spectra of NMC seed-fern E. neuropteroides, and fern sphenopterid O. brongniartii are very similar, except that the latter does not have aromatic bands in the 700-900 cm-1 out-of-plane region, py-GC-MS show more aromatic compounds for the seed fern than for the two true-fern sphenopterids. Another difference between seed-fern and true-fern sphenopterids is a lower ratio of CH2 to CH3 in chemically treated specimens (CTC) for the seed fern. These observations suggest slightly higher aromaticity for the seed ferns, perhaps related to some chemotaxonomic differences. Comparison of FTIR and py-GC-MS characteristics of sphenopterids and other plant groups shows that these two techniques have potential to identifying chemotaxonomic signals from Carboniferous pteridophylls in general, although more data are needed to confirm this. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The gaijin at home: A study of the use of the word gaijin by the Japanese speech community in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The word gaijin, typically glossed as ‘foreigner’, has been the focus of academic interest spanning across several disciplines, ranging from studies in intercultural communication, discourse analysis, and discriminatory language. These studies have perhaps logically been confined to the context of Japan, as it makes sense to study ‘foreigners’ in a context in which they are indeed ‘foreign’. It may be by an extension of this logic that the use of the word gaijin has not been studied in contexts outside of Japan at all. This study made use of a novel methodology of focus groups and follow-up interviews to capture the use of the word gaijin by members of the Japanese speech community in Sydney, to ascertain empirically how members of the community use the word gaijin, and in what contexts such usage occurs. The article identifies the interpretations of the word of native and non-native speakers of Japanese, and discovers two models of the use of the word gaijin.

  13. Influenza outbreak during Sydney World Youth Day 2008: the utility of laboratory testing and case definitions on mass gathering outbreak containment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J van Hal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza causes annual epidemics and often results in extensive outbreaks in closed communities. To minimize transmission, a range of interventions have been suggested. For these to be effective, an accurate and timely diagnosis of influenza is required. This is confirmed by a positive laboratory test result in an individual whose symptoms are consistent with a predefined clinical case definition. However, the utility of these clinical case definitions and laboratory testing in mass gathering outbreaks remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: An influenza outbreak was identified during World Youth Day 2008 in Sydney. From the data collected on pilgrims presenting to a single clinic, a Markov model was developed and validated against the actual epidemic curve. Simulations were performed to examine the utility of different clinical case definitions and laboratory testing strategies for containment of influenza outbreaks. Clinical case definitions were found to have the greatest impact on averting further cases with no added benefit when combined with any laboratory test. Although nucleic acid testing (NAT demonstrated higher utility than indirect immunofluorescence antigen or on-site point-of-care testing, this effect was lost when laboratory NAT turnaround times was included. The main benefit of laboratory confirmation was limited to identification of true influenza cases amenable to interventions such as antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous re-evaluation of case definitions and laboratory testing strategies are essential for effective management of influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings.

  14. Successful implementation of Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) in Medical Physics education: The University of Sydney's initial experience and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Yobelli A; Hansen, Christian Rønn; Juneja, Prabhjot; Thwaites, David I

    2017-12-01

    This report outlines the University of Sydney's initial experience with the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system in the Master of Medical Physics program. VERT is a commercially available system, simulating linear accelerators, patient computed tomography (CT) sets, plans and treatment delivery. It was purpose built for radiation therapy (RT) education and offers learners the opportunity to gain knowledge and skills within an interactive, risk-free environment. The integration of VERT into the RT physics module of the Master of Medical Physics program was intended to enhance student knowledge and skills relevant to the curriculum's learning objectives, and to alleviate some of the burden associated with student access to clinical equipment. Three VERT practical sessions were implemented: "RT treatment planning systems", "(CT) Anatomy for physicists" and "Linear accelerator measurements". Our experience and student evaluations were positive and demonstrated the viability of VERT for medical physics (MP) student education. We anticipate that integration of VERT into MP teaching is a valuable addition to traditional methods and can aid MP students' understanding and readiness for practice. Additional evaluations should be conducted to ascertain VERT's role in delivering efficient quantity and quality of MP education, and its potential in alleviating burdens placed on clinical departments.

  15. City positioning method based on streetlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Jiang, Youyi; Yang, Yongchong; Lou, Ning

    2008-10-01

    The relation between city positioning and people's life & production is very close. City positioning method can reflect the city's management level and the city's modernization degree. By virtue of the example of digital city management system, the author first analyzed the traditional method of city positioning, then aiming at the characteristics of streetlight which distributes regular and neatly in city, put forward the method of city positioning based on streetlight. In this paper, the author mainly discussed the streetlight's encoding method, positioning method based on streetlight and its application requests.

  16. Urban Landsat: Cities from Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Urban Landsat: Cities from Space data set contains images for 66 urban areas and the raw, underlying data for 28 of these places. Each image shows a Landsat...

  17. Global cities and cultural experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Gaviria, Pilar; Emontspool, Julie

    2015-01-01

    to the important role of global cities for cultural experimentation. Such cities are not only an interesting market for culturally diverse products, but also learning hubs. Managers willing to address multicultural marketplaces might target these markets with dynamic cultural offers that ensure a balance between......Purpose: Studying the cultural dynamics of expatriate amateur theater in Brussels, this paper investigates multicultural marketplace development in contemporary global cities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper performs an interpretive analysis of the expatriate amateur scene in Brussels from...... an ethnographic perspective, combining observations of rehearsals and performances, in-depth interviews with actors, directors and audience, and secondary data. Findings: The fluidity of global cities allows their inhabitants to engage in collective creative processes of cultural experimentation, performing...

  18. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  19. 500 Cities: Census Tract Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This census tract shapefile for the 500 Cities project was extracted from the Census 2010 Tiger/Line database and modified to remove portions of census tracts that...

  20. Mitigation: Decarbonization unique to cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nadine

    2017-10-01

    Strategies that reduce fossil-fuel use can achieve both global carbon mitigation and local health-protection goals. Now research shows the dual benefits of compact urban design and circular economy policies in Chinese cities.