WorldWideScience

Sample records for convectors

  1. Air Distribution in Rooms with a Fan-Driven Convector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Bindels, Rob H.W.; Michalak, Lukasz

    2007-01-01

    the acceptable conditions for the supplyJlow rate and the temperature difference for the convector system. The paper shows that the air distribution from the convector results in comfortable velocity and temperature conditions with a heat load of 210 W. This is also confirmed by the draft ratings, which in all...... coming from the dijfuser is partly controlled by the momentum flow and partly from gravity forces, where the thermal load in the room and the temperature difference between room air and supply air affect the airflow from the convector. The convector system was tested in the same test room in which many......Experiments with a fan-driven convector used for both heating and cooling are de.scribed in this paper. Only the cooling situation is considered. The convector is positioned in the upper corner ofthe room, and from there the cold air is let out through the device along the ceiling. The airflow...

  2. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  3. Giga-LES of Hector the Convector keeping the tallest updrafts undiluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauhut, Thibaut; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Escobar, Juan; Mascart, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The trend of stratospheric water vapour during the past decades is not correctly reproduced by current GCMs. This may be due to lack of representation of rapid water transfers from troposphere to stratosphere. Our modeling study focused on a particular case of tropical very deep convection which takes an active part in this transport. We aimed at understanding its dynamics and the stratosphere moistening processes. We selected a Hector thunderstorm observed on 30 November 2005 over Tiwi Islands, Australia, during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign. Plumes of ice particles reaching 19 km altitude were measured by lidar aboard the Geophysica stratospheric aircraft. We performed a Giga Large-Eddy Simulation of Hector (100 m horizontal resolution, more than 1 billion grid points) using cutting-edge computing resources, as well as a series of simulations with coarser and coarser horizontal resolutions, from 200 m to 1600 m. A strong morning sea breeze deviated boundary layer westerlies and led to intense convergence of humid air over Tiwi Islands. Deep convection triggered around 12:15 pm and quickly reached 14 km altitude. The associated cold pools organised and generated upward motions at the surface. The most intense upward transport started 1 hour later and lasted around 2 hours. As a result, a couple of updrafts overshot the tropopause carrying ice crystals in the stratosphere. Part of the ice particles precipitated then whereas the remainder sublimated in the lower stratosphere. The consequent vapour pockets were transported and diluted within the stratosphere by easterlies. While moistening appeared to be robust with respect to the grid spacing used, grid spacing on the order of 100 m may be necessary for a reliable estimate of hydration (Dauhut et al. ASL 2014, doi: 10.1002/asl2.534). A comprehensive analysis of individual updrafts and their properties once sorted by their height has been carried out. The couple of updrafts that reach the stratosphere presents a higher buoyancy, stronger vertical velocities and larger hydrometeor contents compared to the ordinary deep convective updrafts. At the cloud base, the stronger horizontal convergence due to the cold pools generated by the previous deep convective updrafts strengthens the vertical velocity while no differences in the size of the cloud base have been found. At 10 km altitude, the overshooting updrafts show a much larger core size suggesting that the reduced lateral mixing promotes the tropopause overshoot. Similar results are obtained whatever the resolution. The preconditioning through cold pools generation and troposphere moistening is found to be determinant for the transition from the deep to the very deep convection. This study was supported by the StratoClim project.

  4. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    ). The room air temperature was kept at 21 °C. Tracer gas was used to simulate pollution from floor and desk. The experimental conditions comprised: 1) night time without heat sources in the room; the room air conditioning system was used to heat up the room; 2) heat load generated by an occupant (simulated...... by dressed thermal manikin) and a laptop; 3) heating by convectors positioned under the window (convectors used alone and convector used together with CSW supplying isothermal air for ventilation). The heat distribution provided by the systems was not effective compare to the distribution provided......The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  5. The Effect of Obstacles on the Boundary Layer Flow at a Vertical Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Overby, Heine; Bjørn, Erik

    The objective of this research is to investigate if the structural system of a glazed facade or an atrium can be used to reduce downdraft and to avoid thermal comfort problems in the occupied zone. Thereby, the initial costs of e.g. a convector or ventilation system could be saved and the energy ...

  6. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph.

    1960-01-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [fr

  7. New technology for intelligent ventilation; Nieuwe technologie maakt intelligente ventilatie mogelijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, R. [Biddle, Kootstertille (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    A brief overview of the new developments, characteristics and performance of ventilation convectors is given. By applying an advanced air valve construction and intelligent control a better comfort can be realized next to a reduction of energy consumption. 7 fig., 3 ills., 5 refs.

  8. How to heat a 'semi-nomadic' building?; Comment chauffer un batiment ''semi-nomade''?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, M.

    2005-05-01

    The Fratellini circus and dramatic art academy, settled in the north of Paris (France), has chosen simple and efficient technical energy solutions adapted to each building with respect to its vocation. These solutions combine helio-atmospheric solar collectors, heat pumps, convectors and radiant heating systems. A technical management system controls the automata, thermal equipments and lighting systems. (J.S.)

  9. The 'Ball children' juggle with ''solar'' and ''all-electrical'' energy...; Les ''enfants de la balle'' jonglent avec le ''solaire'' et le ''tout electrique''...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-05-01

    The Fratellini circus academy, settled in the north of Paris (France), has chosen technical energy solutions adapted to each building with respect to its vocation. These solutions combine helio-atmospheric solar collectors, heat pumps, convectors and radiant heating systems. (J.S.)

  10. Small-scale nuclear fusion needs investors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasteren, J. van.

    1985-01-01

    The only Dutch high-risk research company 'Convector' needs money. In the beginning of October, investors could put at most five million Dutch florins in a highly disputed project for the development of a thermonuclear reactor, based on the principle of globular lightnings. (G.J.P.)

  11. Regional savings bank Oldenburg heats and cools with geothermal energy. Temperation of buildings supports real smartness of architecture; Landessparkasse zu Oldenburg heizt und kuehlt mit Geothermie. Gebaeudetemperierung unterstuetzt sachliche Eleganz der Architektur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    Clear lines and real elegance on the basis of a well-contrived scanning system mark the new building of the regional savings bank Oldenburg (Federal Republic of Germany). The minimalistic style of the new centre also repeats itself in the selection of temperation system for buildings being hided quasi invisibly in the floor. In addition, the linear grating of the underfloor panel convectors along the external walls accentuate the clear lines of architecture and set own accents.

  12. Development of special automation devices and systems for the Zhezkazgan Copper Smeltery Melting Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namazbaev, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    In the article the description of the automated systems of flux materials batching and the multichannel control of temperature over caisson of ore-thermal furnace and horizontal convectors of melting shop is resulted. Due to an original design of primary gauges and application of powerful controller of industrial purpose the developed systems meet the requirements of high reliability of the technological processes control and management in a combination to sufficient productivity on processing the measuring information. (author)

  13. Estudio del empleo de un convertidor catalítico para las emisiones gaseosas en un motor de ignición por chispa usando etanol como combustible. // Study of the employment of a catalytic convertor for the gassy emissions in an spark ignition engine using et

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. R. Martins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo de investigación se estudia el índice de emisiones gaseosas en un motor de ignición por chispa movido conetanol y se analiza el control de estas emisiones con aplicación de un convertidor catalítico platino/paladio (Pt/Pd en elsistema de descarga del motor. Fueron realizados ensayos dinamométricos de un motor de combustión interna MCI paraanalizar las emisiones y el control de estas, en condiciones operacionales, en función de la rotación y ángulo de avance deignición. El convertidor catalítico alcanzó un 75% de eficiencia cuando el ángulo de avance de ignición del motor aumentópara 16o. Se observó que en rotaciones de 2000 r.p.m el convertidor catalítico presentó mayor reducción de las emisionesde hidrocarburos no quemados HC, monóxido de carbono CO y óxidos de nitrógeno NOx. Con la aplicación de unconvertidor catalítico en un vehículo se debe estandarizar nuevas regulaciones en cuanto al ángulo de avance de igniciónpara optimizar el funcionamiento del motor.Palabras claves: Convertidor catalítico; emisiones de escape; eficiencia catalítica; etanol.____________________________________________________________________________Summary.With this investigation work the index of gassy emissions is studied in an spark ignition engine using ethanol, the control ofthese emissions is analyzed with application of a platinum/palladium (Pt/Pd catalytic convector in the engine dischargesystem. Rehearsals carried out in engines in order to analyze the emissions and the control of these, under operationalconditions, in function of the rotation and angle of ignition advance were carried out. The catalytic convector reaches 75%of efficiency when the ignition advance angle of the engine increased to 16o. It was observed that in rotations of 2000r.p.m the catalytic convector presented bigger reduction of the emissions of non-burnt hydrocarbons HC, monoxide ofcarbon CO and nitrogen oxides NOx. With the application of a

  14. Geothermal Energy Utilization for the Homeowner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how geothermal energy can be utilized for residential space heating. Background information on the resource introduce this natural source of energy, followed by an explanation of the development of the resource (mainly by drilling wells) and the extraction of the energy. Various types of heat convectors and heat exchangers are described, along with how to estimate energy requirements and the associated costs. Finally, regulations and tax advantages are covered together with additional sources of information and a list of agencies who can provide assistance.

  15. Geothermal power in the H2 Office in Duisburg.. New standards in the matter of sustainability; Geothermie im H2 Office in Duisburg. Neue Massstaebe in Sachen Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Tobias; Oehlert, Stephan [Zent-Frenger Gebaeudetechnik mbH, Heppenheim (Germany). Kompetenzzentrum Geothermie

    2011-07-01

    There are many innovations in the second stage of construction of this project. The office area of nearly 10,500 m{sup 2} primarily is heated and cooled primarily by means of a geothermal plant. 230 of the statically necessary foundation piles take over the role of the geothermal heat exchangers. In combination with a geothermal plant, a concrete core activation as well as additional convectors are used in the official space. Besides this, a photovoltaic plant and a central controlling of the building services by means of bus technology are to reduce the additional expenses sustainable.

  16. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  17. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  18. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R; Wallet, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  19. Development of Direct-Use Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.

    2011-01-01

    A geothermal direct-use project utilizes a natural resource, a flow of geothermal fluid at elevated temperatures, which is capable of providing heat and/or cooling to buildings, greenhouses, aquaculture ponds, and industrial processes. Geothermal utilization requires matching the varied needs of the user and characteristics of the resource in order to development a successful project. Each application is unique; guidelines are provided for the logical steps required to implement a project. Recommended temperature and flows are suggested for spas and pools, space and district heating, greenhouse and aquaculture pond heating, and industrial applications. Guidelines are provided for selecting the necessary equipment for successfully implementing a direct-use project, including downhole pumps, piping, heat exchangers, and heat convectors. Additionally, the relationship between temperature, flow rate, and the use of heat exchangers to provide heat to a space with hot water or hot air is provided for a number of applications, with suggested 'rules of thumb'.

  20. Kastenhof - museum in Landau. Kastenhof - Museum in Landau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1991-08-01

    When modifying the box-type court to a subsidiary museum of the prehistoric national compilation of Munich with multiple-purpose hall and a little restaurant, a considerable expenditure with regard to the preservation of monuments had to be done in order to uncover and keep the old built volumes. A low-temperature heating system as well as low-temperature oil/gas boiler were applied as heating system. The heating is realized via floor heating, plate heat exchanger for avoiding corrossions, hot-air heating, heating units and fan convectors. For energy saving an air-to-water heat pump was applied which can be used alternatively for heating or cooling. In addition, energy distribution and system control are treated by means of flowsheets. (BWI).

  1. The challenge of introducing an exergy indicator in a local law on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.; Epelly, O.

    2008-01-01

    Extending the exergy concept to practitioners and policy makers is still a major challenge. Recently the 'Canton of Geneva' in Switzerland introduced a new law governing the procedures of attribution of building permits for new or retrofitted city areas. Authorities were asked to define a procedure including the calculation of an exergy indicator to be quantified in each file concerning large projects submitted for acceptance. This paper summarizes the problem definition, a clarification of the limits expected from the exergy indicator as well as the spreadsheet tool and the tables used to facilitate this quantification both for heating and air conditioning. For simplification the overall system was divided into a superstructure formed by four subsystems including the room convector, the plant of the building, a possible district heating and cooling plant and an external power plant. Three temperature ranges were considered for the building distribution networks both in heating and cooling. Ten different technology combinations were considered ranking from the lowest heating exergy efficiency with nuclear electricity and joule heating to the best efficiency with hydroelectricity and District heating electric heat pumps using lake water

  2. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  3. Numerical research of dynamic characteristics in tower solar cavity receiver based on step-change radiation flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengwei; Wang, Yueshe; Hao, Yun; Wang, Qizhi

    2013-07-01

    The solar cavity receiver is an important light-energy to thermal-energy convector in the tower solar thermal power plant system. The heat flux in the inner surface of the cavity will show the characteristics of non-continuous step change especially in non-normal and transient weather conditions, which may result in a continuous dynamic variation of the characteristic parameters. Therefore, the research of dynamic characteristics of the receiver plays a very important role in the operation and the control safely in solar cavity receiver system. In this paper, based on the non-continuous step change of radiation flux, a non-linear dynamic model is put forward to obtain the effects of the non-continuous step change radiation flux and step change feed water flow on the receiver performance by sequential modular approach. The subject investigated in our study is a 1MW solar power station constructed in Yanqing County, Beijing. This study has obtained the dynamic responses of the characteristic parameters in the cavity receiver, such as drum pressure, drum water level, main steam flow and main steam enthalpy under step change radiation flux. And the influence law of step-change feed water flow to the dynamic characteristics in the receiver also has been analyzed. The results have a reference value for the safe operation and the control in solar cavity receiver system.

  4. Momentum, vorticity, and helicity in covariant superfluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.; Khalatnikov, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The convective and potential variational principles that can be used for alternative derivations of the same natural relativistic generalisation of the standard Landau theory of perfect superfluid dynamics are both characterised by the feature that, instead of attributing special importance to a partition in terms of certain non-conserved open-quotes superfluidclose quotes and open-quotes normalclose quotes current vectors j v s and j v N they accord a much more prominent role to certain open-quotes particleclose quotes and open-quotes thermalclose quotes momentum convectors μ v and Θ v of which the latter in particular has been unduly neglected in traditional discussions. The present article discusses the interdependence and the dynamic evolution of these quantities, drawing attention to consequences such as the conservation of the flux associated with the open-quotes thermal velocityclose quotes form W μv , and the conservation of the related open-quotes thermal helicityclose quotes current H v . The comparison of this theory with some other conducting fluid theories is briefly discussed, and more particularly it is shown explicitly how this generalisation of the fully non-linear Landau theory relates to an analogous generalisation of the more restricted type of theory previously developed by Tisza and London, in which the quantities j v s and j v N had a more fundamental role. 40 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Constructing identities in the media: newspaper coverage analysis of a major UK Clostridium difficile outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Emma; Johnston, Bridget; Corlett, Joanne; Kearney, Nora

    2014-07-01

    To examine how a major Clostridium difficile outbreak in the UK was represented in the media. Clostridium difficile is a serious health care-associated infection with significant global prevalence. As major outbreaks have continued to occur worldwide over the last few decades, it has also resulted in increasing media coverage. Newspaper journalists are, however, frequently criticized for sensationalized and inaccurate reporting and alarming the public. Despite such criticisms, nothing is known about how the media frame Clostridium difficile related coverage. Qualitative interpretive descriptive study. An interpretive analysis of newspaper articles from the national press that reported about the outbreak from the first day of coverage over 3 weeks (12 June-3 July 2008). Twenty-eight newspaper articles were included in the study from tabloids, broadsheets, a regional and a Sunday newspaper. Monster and war metaphors were frequently adopted to portray the severity of Clostridium difficile and the impact it can have on patient safety. In addition, the positioning of the affected patients, their families, healthcare professionals and the Government produced representations of victims, villains and heroes. This subsequently evoked notions of vulnerability, blame and conflict. The media are and will remain critical convectors of public information and, as such, are hugely influential in risk perceptions and responses. Rather than simply dismissing media coverage, further understanding around how such stories in specific contexts are constructed and represented is needed so that it can help inform future communication and management strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.