Yoshimura, H.
1976-01-01
Extensive numerical studies of the dynamo equations due to the global convection are presented to simulate the solar cycle and to open the way to study general stellar magnetic cycles. The dynamo equations which represent the longitudinally-averaged magnetohydrodynamical action (mean magnetohydrodynamics) of the global convection under the influence of the rotation in the solar convection zone are considered here as an initial boundary-value problem. The latitudinal and radial structure of the dynamo action consisting of a generation action due to the differential rotation and a regeneration action due to the global convection is parameterized in accordance with the structure of the rotation and of the global convection. This is done especially in such a way as to represent the presence of the two cells of the regeneration action in the radial direction in which the action has opposite signs, which is typical of the regeneration action of the global convection. The effects of the dynamics of the global convection (e.g., the effects of the stratification of the physical conditions in the solar convection zone) are presumed to be all included in those parameters used in the model and they are presumed not to alter the results drastically since these effects are only to change the structure of the regeneration action topologically. (Auth.)
A Single Mode Study of a Quasi-Geostrophic Convection-Driven Dynamo Model
Plumley, M.; Calkins, M. A.; Julien, K. A.; Tobias, S.
2017-12-01
Planetary magnetic fields are thought to be the product of hydromagnetic dynamo action. For Earth, this process occurs within the convecting, turbulent and rapidly rotating outer core, where the dynamics are characterized by low Rossby, low magnetic Prandtl and high Rayleigh numbers. Progress in studying dynamos has been limited by current computing capabilities and the difficulties in replicating the extreme values that define this setting. Asymptotic models that embrace these extreme parameter values and enforce the dominant balance of geostrophy provide an option for the study of convective flows with actual relevance to geophysics. The quasi-geostrophic dynamo model (QGDM) is a multiscale, fully-nonlinear Cartesian dynamo model that is valid in the asymptotic limit of low Rossby number. We investigate the QGDM using a simplified class of solutions that consist of a single horizontal wavenumber which enforces a horizontal structure on the solutions. This single mode study is used to explore multiscale time stepping techniques and analyze the influence of the magnetic field on convection.
Yoshimura, H.
1975-01-01
The dynamo equation which represents the longitudinally averaged magnetohydrodynamical action of the global convection influenced by the rotation in the solar convection zone is solved numerically to simulate the solar cycle as an initial boundary-value problem. The radial and latitudinal structure of the dynamo action is parametrized in accordance with the structure of the rotation, and of the global convection especially in such a way as to represent the presence of the two cells of the regeneration action in the radial direction in which the action has opposite signs, which is typical of the regeneration action of the global convection. A nonlinear process is included by assuming that part of the magnetic field energy is dissipated when the magnetic field strength exceeds some critical value; the formation of active regions and subsequent dissipations are thus simulated. By adjusting the parameters within a reasonable range, oscillatory solutions are obtained to simulate the solar cycle with the period of the right order of magnitude and with the patterns of evolution of the latitudinal distribution of the toroidal component of the magnetic field similar to the observed Butterfly Diagram of sunspots. The evolution of the latitudinal distribution of the radial component of the magnetic field shows patterns similar to the Butterfly Diagram, but having two branches of different polarity in each hemisphere. The development of the radial structure of the magnetic field associated with the solar cycle is presented. The importance of the poleward migrating branch of the Butterfly Diagram is emphasized in relation to the relative importance of the role of the latitudinal and radial shears of the differential rotation
Stellar convection and dynamo theory
Jennings, R L
1989-10-01
In considering the large scale stellar convection problem the outer layers of a star are modelled as two co-rotating plane layers coupled at a fluid/fluid interface. Heating from below causes only the upper fluid to convect, although this convection can penetrate into the lower fluid. Stability analysis is then used to find the most unstable mode of convection. With parameters appropriate to the Sun the most unstable mode is steady convection in thin cells (aspect ratio {approx equal} 0.2) filling the convection zone. There is negligible vertical motion in the lower fluid, but considerable thermal penetration, and a large jump in helicity at the interface, which has implications for dynamo theory. An {alpha}{omega} dynamo is investigated in isolation from the convection problem. Complexity is included by allowing both latitudinal and time dependence in the magnetic fields. The nonlinear dynamics of the resulting partial differential equations are analysed in considerable detail. On varying the main control parameter D (the dynamo number), many transitions of behaviour are found involving many forms of time dependence, but not chaos. Further, solutions which break equatorial symmetry are common and provide a theoretical explanation of solar observations which have this symmetry. Overall the behaviour was more complicated than expected. In particular, there were multiple stable solutions at fixed D, meaning that similar stars can have very different magnetic patterns, depending upon their history. (author).
Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.
We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....
Transitions in rapidly rotating convection dynamos
Tilgner, A.
2013-12-01
It is commonly assumed that buoyancy in the fluid core powers the geodynamo. We study here the minimal model of a convection driven dynamo, which is a horizontal plane layer in a gravity field, filled with electrically conducting fluid, heated from below and cooled from above, and rotating about a vertical axis. Such a plane layer may be viewed as a local approximation to the geophysically more relevant spherical geometry. The numerical simulations have been run on graphics processing units with at least 960 cores. If the convection is driven stronger and stronger at fixed rotation rate, the flow behaves at some point as if it was not rotating. This transition shows in the scaling of the heat transport which can be used to distinguish slow from rapid rotation. One expects dynamos to behave differently in these two flow regimes. But even within the convection flows which are rapidly rotating according to this criterion, it will be shown that different types of dynamos exist. In one state, the magnetic field strength obeys a scaling indicative of a magnetostrophic balance, in which the Lorentz force is in equilibrium with the Coriolis force. The flow in this case is helical. A different state exists at higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, in which the magnetic energy obeys a different scaling law and the helicity of the flow is much reduced. As one increases the Rayleigh number, all other parameters kept constant, one may find both types of dynamos separated by an interval of Rayleigh numbers in which there are no dynamos at all. The effect of these transitions on energy dissipation and mean field generation have also been studied.
Šimkanin, Ján; Kyselica, Juraj; Guba, P.
2018-01-01
Roč. 212, č. 3 (2018), s. 2194-2205 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : composition and structure of the core * dynamo * nonlinear differential equations * numerical modelling Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2016
Solar Dynamo Driven by Periodic Flow Oscillation
Mayr, Hans G.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have proposed that the periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle is determined by wave mean flow interactions analogous to those driving the Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the Earth's atmosphere. Upward propagating gravity waves would produce oscillating flows near the top of the radiation zone that in turn would drive a kinematic dynamo to generate the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The dynamo we propose is built on a given time independent magnetic field B, which allows us to estimate the time dependent, oscillating components of the magnetic field, (Delta)B. The toroidal magnetic field (Delta)B(sub phi) is directly driven by zonal flow and is relatively large in the source region, (Delta)(sub phi)/B(sub Theta) much greater than 1. Consistent with observations, this field peaks at low latitudes and has opposite polarities in both hemispheres. The oscillating poloidal magnetic field component, (Delta)B(sub Theta), is driven by the meridional circulation, which is difficult to assess without a numerical model that properly accounts for the solar atmosphere dynamics. Scale-analysis suggests that (Delta)B(sub Theta) is small compared to B(sub Theta) in the dynamo region. Relative to B(sub Theta), however, the oscillating magnetic field perturbations are expected to be transported more rapidly upwards in the convection zone to the solar surface. As a result, (Delta)B(sub Theta) (and (Delta)B(sub phi)) should grow relative to B(sub Theta), so that the magnetic fields reverse at the surface as observed. Since the meridional and zonai flow oscillations are out of phase, the poloidal magnetic field peaks during times when the toroidal field reverses direction, which is observed. With the proposed wave driven flow oscillation, the magnitude of the oscillating poloidal magnetic field increases with the mean rotation rate of the fluid. This is consistent with the Bode-Blackett empirical scaling law, which reveals that in massive astrophysical bodies the magnetic moment tends
Modeling the Solar Convective Dynamo and Emerging Flux
Fan, Y.
2017-12-01
Significant advances have been made in recent years in global-scale fully dynamic three-dimensional convective dynamo simulations of the solar/stellar convective envelopes to reproduce some of the basic features of the Sun's large-scale cyclic magnetic field. It is found that the presence of the dynamo-generated magnetic fields plays an important role for the maintenance of the solar differential rotation, without which the differential rotation tends to become anti-solar (with a faster rotating pole instead of the observed faster rotation at the equator). Convective dynamo simulations are also found to produce emergence of coherent super-equipartition toroidal flux bundles with a statistically significant mean tilt angle that is consistent with the mean tilt of solar active regions. The emerging flux bundles are sheared by the giant cell convection into a forward leaning loop shape with its leading side (in the direction of rotation) pushed closer to the strong downflow lanes. Such asymmetric emerging flux pattern may lead to the observed asymmetric properties of solar active regions.
A long-lived lunar dynamo driven by continuous mechanical stirring.
Dwyer, C A; Stevenson, D J; Nimmo, F
2011-11-09
Lunar rocks contain a record of an ancient magnetic field that seems to have persisted for more than 400 million years and which has been attributed to a lunar dynamo. Models of conventional dynamos driven by thermal or compositional convection have had difficulty reproducing the existence and apparently long duration of the lunar dynamo. Here we investigate an alternative mechanism of dynamo generation: continuous mechanical stirring arising from the differential motion, due to Earth-driven precession of the lunar spin axis, between the solid silicate mantle and the liquid core beneath. We show that the fluid motions and the power required to drive a dynamo operating continuously for more than one billion years and generating a magnetic field that had an intensity of more than one microtesla 4.2 billion years ago are readily obtained by mechanical stirring. The magnetic field is predicted to decrease with time and to shut off naturally when the Moon recedes far enough from Earth that the dissipated power is insufficient to drive a dynamo; in our nominal model, this occurred at about 48 Earth radii (2.7 billion years ago). Thus, lunar palaeomagnetic measurements may be able to constrain the poorly known early orbital evolution of the Moon. This mechanism may also be applicable to dynamos in other bodies, such as large asteroids.
Convective Cold Pool Structure and Boundary Layer Recovery in DYNAMO
Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Lee, C.; Jorgensen, D. P.
2012-12-01
One of the key factors controlling convective cloud systems in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean is the property of the atmospheric boundary layer. Convective downdrafts and precipitation from the cloud systems produce cold pools in the boundary layer, which can inhibit subsequent development of convection. The recovery time is the time it takes for the boundary layer to return to pre convective conditions. It may affect the variability of the convection on various time scales during the initiation of MJO. This study examines the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observations, include the flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data, collected during the Dynamics of MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign from November-December 2011. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy, which can be computed from the dropsonde data. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO seems to enhance convective downdraft, making the cold pools stronger and deeper. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by the strength and depth of the cold pools and also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO over the Indian Ocean, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO. Preliminary results show that the strength and depth of the cold pools are inversely correlated with the surrounding mid-level moisture. During the convectively suppressed phase, the recovery time is ~5-20 hours in relative weak wind condition with small air-sea fluxes. The recovery time is generally less than 6 hours during the active phase of MJO with moist mid-levels and stronger surface wind and air-sea fluxes.
Effects of Brinkman number on thermal-driven convective spherical ...
Michael Horsfall
KEYWORDS: Magnetic field generation, Thermal-driven convection, Brinkman number, Dynamo action, Fluid outer core ... The problem considers conducting fluid motion in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. The ... is, that the energy lost by the electric currents must be ... which are sources of free electrons and basically due.
Impact of Convection on Surface Fluxes Observed During LASP/DYNAMO 2011
2014-12-01
20 Figure 8. FFM maneuver used in the LASP/DYNAMO experiment (from Wang et al. 2013...Atmosphere Response Experiment DYNAMO Dynamics of Madden-Julian Oscillation EM electro-magnetic EO electro-optical FFM flight-level flux mapping FVS...level flux mapping ( FFM ) modules. Convection modules consisted of dropsonde cloud survey or radar convective element maneuver. Dropsonde modules
Bohan, Richard J.; Vandegrift, Guy
2003-02-01
Warm air aloft is stable. This explains the lack of strong winds in a warm front and how nighttime radiative cooling can lead to motionless air that can trap smog. The stability of stratospheric air can be attributed to the fact that it is heated from above as ultraviolet radiation strikes the ozone layer. On the other hand, fluid heated from below is unstable and can lead to Bernard convection cells. This explains the generally turbulent nature of the troposphere, which receives a significant fraction of its heat directly from the Earth's warmer surface. The instability of cold fluid aloft explains the violent nature of a cold front, as well as the motion of Earth's magma, which is driven by radioactive heating deep within the Earth's mantle. This paper describes how both effects can be demonstrated using four standard beakers, ice, and a bit of food coloring.
TIDALLY DRIVEN DYNAMOS IN A ROTATING SPHERE
Cébron, D.; Hollerbach, R.
2014-01-01
Large-scale planetary or stellar magnetic fields generated by a dynamo effect are mostly attributed to flows forced by buoyancy forces in electrically conducting fluid layers. However, these large-scale fields may also be controlled by tides, as previously suggested for the star τ-boo, Mars, or the early Moon. By simulating a small local patch of a rotating fluid, Barker and Lithwick have recently shown that tides can drive small-scale dynamos by exciting a hydrodynamic instability, the so-called elliptical (or tidal) instability. By performing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a rotating spherical fluid body, we investigate if this instability can also drive the observed large-scale magnetic fields. We are thus interested in the dynamo threshold and the generated magnetic field in order to test if such a mechanism is relevant for planets and stars. Rather than solving the problem in a geometry deformed by tides, we consider a spherical fluid body and add a body force to mimic the tidal deformation in the bulk of the fluid. This allows us to use an efficient spectral code to solve the magnetohydrodynamic problem. We first compare the hydrodynamic results with theoretical asymptotic results and numerical results obtained in a truly deformed ellipsoid, which confirms the presence of elliptical instability. We then perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations and investigate the dynamo capability of the flow. Kinematic and self-consistent dynamos are finally simulated, showing that the elliptical instability is capable of generating a dipole-dominated large-scale magnetic field in global simulations of a fluid rotating sphere
GRAND MINIMA AND EQUATORWARD PROPAGATION IN A CYCLING STELLAR CONVECTIVE DYNAMO
Augustson, Kyle; Miesch, Mark [High Altitude Observatory, Center Green 1, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM–CNRS–Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toomre, Juri [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
2015-08-20
The 3D MHD Anelastic Spherical Harmonic code, using slope-limited diffusion, is employed to capture convective and dynamo processes achieved in a global-scale stellar convection simulation for a model solar-mass star rotating at three times the solar rate. The dynamo-generated magnetic fields possesses many timescales, with a prominent polarity cycle occurring roughly every 6.2 years. The magnetic field forms large-scale toroidal wreaths, whose formation is tied to the low Rossby number of the convection in this simulation. The polarity reversals are linked to the weakened differential rotation and a resistive collapse of the large-scale magnetic field. An equatorial migration of the magnetic field is seen, which is due to the strong modulation of the differential rotation rather than a dynamo wave. A poleward migration of magnetic flux from the equator eventually leads to the reversal of the polarity of the high-latitude magnetic field. This simulation also enters an interval with reduced magnetic energy at low latitudes lasting roughly 16 years (about 2.5 polarity cycles), during which the polarity cycles are disrupted and after which the dynamo recovers its regular polarity cycles. An analysis of this grand minimum reveals that it likely arises through the interplay of symmetric and antisymmetric dynamo families. This intermittent dynamo state potentially results from the simulation’s relatively low magnetic Prandtl number. A mean-field-based analysis of this dynamo simulation demonstrates that it is of the α-Ω type. The timescales that appear to be relevant to the magnetic polarity reversal are also identified.
Convection and Dynamo Action in Ice Giant Dynamo Models with Electrical Conductivity Stratification
Soderlund, K. M.; Featherstone, N. A.; Heimpel, M. H.; Aurnou, J. M.
2017-12-01
Uranus and Neptune are relatively unexplored, yet critical for understanding the physical and chemical processes that control the behavior and evolution of giant planets. Because their multipolar magnetic fields, three-jet zonal winds, and extreme energy balances are distinct from other planets in our Solar System, the ice giants provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses for internal dynamics and magnetic field generation. While it is generally agreed that dynamo action in the ionic ocean generates their magnetic fields, the mechanisms that control the morphology, strength, and evolution of the dynamos - which are likely distinct from those in the gas giants and terrestrial planets - are not well understood. We hypothesize that the dynamos and zonal winds are dynamically coupled and argue that their characteristics are a consequence of quasi-three-dimensional turbulence in their interiors. Here, we will present new dynamo simulations with an inner electrically conducting region and outer electrically insulating layer to self-consistently couple the ionic oceans and molecular envelopes of these planets. For each simulation, the magnetic field morphology and amplitude, zonal flow profile, and internal heat flux pattern will be compared against corresponding observations of Uranus and Neptune. We will also highlight how these simulations will both contribute to and benefit from a future ice giant mission.
Dynamo Scaling Laws for Uranus and Neptune: The Role of Convective Shell Thickness on Dipolarity
Stanley, Sabine; Yunsheng Tian, Bob
2017-10-01
Previous dynamo scaling law studies (Christensen and Aubert, 2006) have demonstrated that the morphology of a planet’s magnetic field is determined by the local Rossby number (Ro_l): a non-dimensional diagnostic variable that quantifies the ratio of inertial forces to Coriolis forces on the average length scale of the flow. Dynamos with Ro_l ~ 0.1 produce multipolar magnetic fields. Scaling studies have also determined the dependence of the local Rossby number on non-dimensional parameters governing the system - specifically the Ekman, Prandtl, magnetic Prandtl and flux-based Rayleigh numbers (Olson and Christensen, 2006). When these scaling laws are applied to the planets, it appears that Uranus and Neptune should have dipole-dominated fields, contrary to observations. However, those scaling laws were derived using the specific convective shell thickness of the Earth’s core. Here we investigate the role of convective shell thickness on dynamo scaling laws. We find that the local Rossby number depends exponentially on the convective shell thickness. Including this new dependence on convective shell thickness, we find that the dynamo scaling laws now predict that Uranus and Neptune reside deeply in the multipolar regime, thereby resolving the previous contradiction with observations.
MAGNETIC CYCLES IN A DYNAMO SIMULATION OF FULLY CONVECTIVE M-STAR PROXIMA CENTAURI
Yadav, Rakesh K.; Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Christensen, Ulrich R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Poppenhaeger, Katja, E-mail: rakesh.yadav@cfa.harvard.edu [Astrophysics Research Center, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)
2016-12-20
The recent discovery of an Earth-like exoplanet around Proxima Centauri has shined a spot light on slowly rotating fully convective M-stars. When such stars rotate rapidly (period ≲20 days), they are known to generate very high levels of activity that is powered by a magnetic field much stronger than the solar magnetic field. Recent theoretical efforts are beginning to understand the dynamo process that generates such strong magnetic fields. However, the observational and theoretical landscape remains relatively uncharted for fully convective M-stars that rotate slowly. Here, we present an anelastic dynamo simulation designed to mimic some of the physical characteristics of Proxima Centauri, a representative case for slowly rotating fully convective M-stars. The rotating convection spontaneously generates differential rotation in the convection zone that drives coherent magnetic cycles where the axisymmetric magnetic field repeatedly changes polarity at all latitudes as time progress. The typical length of the “activity” cycle in the simulation is about nine years, in good agreement with the recently proposed activity cycle length of about seven years for Proxima Centauri. Comparing our results with earlier work, we hypothesis that the dynamo mechanism undergoes a fundamental change in nature as fully convective stars spin down with age.
EFFECTS OF FOSSIL MAGNETIC FIELDS ON CONVECTIVE CORE DYNAMOS IN A-TYPE STARS
Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Toomre, Juri; Browning, Matthew K.; Brun, Allan Sacha
2009-01-01
The vigorous magnetic dynamo action achieved within the convective cores of A-type stars may be influenced by fossil magnetic fields within their radiative envelopes. We study such effects through three-dimensional simulations that model the inner 30% by radius of a 2 M sun A-type star, capturing the convective core and a portion of the overlying radiative envelope within our computational domain. We employ the three-dimensional anelastic spherical harmonic code to model turbulent dynamics within a deep rotating spherical shell. The interaction between a fossil field and the core dynamo is examined by introducing a large-scale magnetic field into the radiative envelope of a mature A star dynamo simulation. We find that the inclusion of a twisted toroidal fossil field can lead to a remarkable transition in the core dynamo behavior. Namely, a super-equipartition state can be realized in which the magnetic energy built by dynamo action is 10-fold greater than the kinetic energy of the convection itself. Such strong-field states may suggest that the resulting Lorentz forces should seek to quench the flows, yet we have achieved super-equipartition dynamo action that persists for multiple diffusion times. This is achieved by the relative co-alignment of the flows and magnetic fields in much of the domain, along with some lateral displacements of the fastest flows from the strongest fields. Convection in the presence of such strong magnetic fields typically manifests as 4-6 cylindrical rolls aligned with the rotation axis, each possessing central axial flows that imbue the rolls with a helical nature. The roll system also possesses core-crossing flows that couple distant regions of the core. We find that the magnetic fields exhibit a comparable global topology with broad, continuous swathes of magnetic field linking opposite sides of the convective core. We have explored several poloidal and toroidal fossil field geometries, finding that a poloidal component is essential
Dynamos driven by poloidal flows in untwisted, curved and flat Riemannian diffusive flux tubes
De Andrade, L.C.G.
2010-01-01
Recently Vishik anti-fast dynamo theorem has been tested against non-stretching flux tubes (Phys. Plasmas, 15 (2008)). In this paper, another anti dynamo theorem, called Cowling's theorem, which states that axisymmetric magnetic fields cannot support dynamo action, is carefully tested against thick tubular and curved Riemannian untwisted flows, as well as thin flux tubes in diffusive and diffusion less media. In the non-diffusive media Cowling's theorem is not violated in thin Riemann-flat untwisted flux tubes, where the Frenet curvature is negative. Nevertheless the diffusion action in the thin flux tube leads to a dynamo action driven by poloidal flows as shown by Love and Gubbins (Geophysical Res., 23 (1996) 857) in the context of geo dynamos. Actually it is shown that a slow dynamo action is obtained. In this case the Frenet and Riemann curvature still vanishes. In the case of magnetic filaments in diffusive media dynamo action is obtained when the Frenet scalar curvature is negative. Since the Riemann curvature tensor can be expressed in terms of the Frenet curvature of the magnetic flux tube axis, this result can be analogous to a recent result obtained by Chicone, Latushkin and Smith, which states that geodesic curvature in compact Riemannian manifolds can drive dynamo action in the manifold. It is also shown that in the absence of diffusion, magnetic energy does not grow but magnetic toroidal magnetic field can be generated by the poloidal field, what is called a plasma dynamo.
Relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection during DYNAMO
Ciesielski, Paul E.; Johnson, Richard H.; Jiang, Xianan; Zhang, Yunyan; Xie, Shaocheng
2017-03-01
The relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection on an intraseasonal time scale are examined with data taken during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) field campaign. Specifically, column-net, as well as vertical profiles of radiative heating rates, computed over Gan Island in the central Indian Ocean (IO) are used along with an objective analysis of large-scale fields to examine three MJO events that occurred during the 3 month period (October to December 2011) over this region. Longwave (LW) and shortwave radiative heating rates exhibit tilted structures, reflecting radiative effects associated with the prevalence of shallow cumulus during the dry, suppressed MJO phase followed by increasing deep convection leading into the active phase. As the convection builds going into the MJO active phase, there are increasingly top-heavy anomalous radiative heating rates while the column-net radiative cooling rate progressively decreases. Temporal fluctuations in the cloud radiative forcing, being quite sensitive to changes in high cloudiness, are dominated by LW effects with an intraseasonal variation of 0.4-0.6 K/d. While both the water vapor and cloud fields are inextricably linked, it appears that the tilted radiative structures are more related to water vapor effects. The intraseasonal variation of column-net radiative heating enhances the convective signal in the mean by 20% with a minimum in this enhancement 10 days prior to peak MJO rainfall and maximum 7 days after. This suggests that as MJO convective envelope weakens over the central IO, cloud-radiative feedbacks help maintain the mature MJO as it moves eastward.
Dynamo action and magnetic buoyancy in convection simulations with vertical shear
Guerrero, G.; Käpylä, P.
2011-10-01
A hypothesis for sunspot formation is the buoyant emergence of magnetic flux tubes created by the strong radial shear at the tachocline. In this scenario, the magnetic field has to exceed a threshold value before it becomes buoyant and emerges through the whole convection zone. In this work we present the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible turbulent convection that include a vertical shear layer. Like the solar tachocline, the shear is located at the interface between convective and stable layers. We follow the evolution of a random seed magnetic field with the aim of study under what conditions it is possible to excite the dynamo instability and whether the dynamo generated magnetic field becomes buoyantly unstable and emerges to the surface as expected in the flux-tube context. We find that shear and convection are able to amplify the initial magnetic field and form large-scale elongated magnetic structures. The magnetic field strength depends on several parameters such as the shear amplitude, the thickness and location of the shear layer, and the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm). Models with deeper and thicker shear layers allow longer storage and are more favorable for generating a mean magnetic field. Models with higher Rm grow faster but saturate at slightly lower levels. Whenever the toroidal magnetic field reaches amplitudes greater a threshold value which is close to the equipartition value, it becomes buoyant and rises into the convection zone where it expands and forms mushroom shape structures. Some events of emergence, i.e., those with the largest amplitudes of the amplified field, are able to reach the very uppermost layers of the domain. These episodes are able to modify the convective pattern forming either broader convection cells or convective eddies elongated in the direction of the field. However, in none of these events the field preserves its initial structure. The back-reaction of the magnetic field on the fluid is also
Le Bars, M.; Kanuganti, S. R.; Favier, B.
2017-12-01
Most of the time, planetary dynamos are - tacitly or not - associated with thermo-solutal convection. The convective dynamo model has indeed proven successful to explain the current Earth's magnetic field. However, its results are sometimes difficult to reconcile with observational data and its validity can be questioned for several celestial bodies. For instance, the small size of the Moon and Ganymede makes it difficult to maintain a sufficient temperature gradient to sustain convection and to explain their past and present magnetic fields, respectively. The same caveat applies to the growing number of planetesimals shown to have generated magnetic fields in their early history. Finally, the energy budget of the early Earth is difficult to reconcile with a convective dynamo before the onset of inner core growth. Significant effort has thus been put into finding new routes for planetary dynamo. In particular, the rotational dynamics of planets, moons and small bodies, where their average spinning motion is periodically perturbed by the small mechanical forcings of libration, precession and/or tides, is now widely accepted as an efficient source of core turbulence. The underlying mechanism relies on a parametric instability where the inertial waves of the rotating fluid core are resonantly excited by the small forcing, leading to exponential growth and bulk filling intense motions, pumping their energy from the orbital dynamics. Dynamos driven by mechanical forcing have been suggested for the Moon, Mars, Io, the early Earth, etc. However, the real dynamo capacity of the corresponding flows has up-to-now been studied only in very limited cases, with simplified spherical/spheroidal geometries and/or overly viscous fluids. We will present here the first numerical simulations of dynamos driven by libration, precession and tides, in the triaxial ellipsoidal geometry and in the turbulent regime relevant for planetary cores. We will describe the numerical techniques
Diurnal Cycle of ITCZ Convection during the MJO Suppressed Phase in DYNAMO
Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Schubert, W. H.
2017-12-01
During the special observing period of the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) experiment, conducted over the Indian Ocean from 1 October to 30 November 2011, two sounding arrays - one north and one south of the equator, referred to here as the NSA and SSA, respectively - took 4-8 soundings/day. We augment this 3-h dataset with observations of radiation and rainfall to investigate the diurnal cycle of convection during the suppressed phase of the October MJO. During this 14-day period when convection was suppressed over the NSA but prominent over the SSA, the circulation over the sounding arrays could be characterized as a local Hadley cell embedded within a monsoonal flow. Strong rising motion was present within the ITCZ and compensating subsidence over the NSA. A prominent diurnal pulsing of this cell was observed, impacting conditions on both sides of the equator, with the cell running strongest in the early morning hours (05-08 LT) and notably weakening later in the day (17-20LT). The reduction in evening subsidence over the NSA may have assisted the moistening of the low to mid-troposphere there during the pre-onset stage of the MJO. Apparent heating Q1 within the ITCZ exhibits a diurnal evolution from early morning bottom-heavy profiles to weaker daytime top-heavy profiles. Making use of the weak temperature gradient approximation, results suggest that direct radiative effects played a dominant role in controlling diurnal variations of vertical motion and convection within the ITCZ while non-radiative processes were more prominent over the NSA.
GLOBAL GALACTIC DYNAMO DRIVEN BY COSMIC RAYS AND EXPLODING MAGNETIZED STARS
Hanasz, Michal; Woltanski, Dominik; Kowalik, Kacper
2009-01-01
We report the first results of the first global galactic-scale cosmic ray (CR)-MHD simulations of CR-driven dynamo. We investigate the dynamics of magnetized interstellar medium (ISM), which is dynamically coupled with CR gas. We assume that exploding stars deposit small-scale, randomly oriented, dipolar magnetic fields into the differentially rotating ISM, together with a portion of CRs, accelerated in supernova shocks. We conduct numerical simulations with the aid of a new parallel MHD code PIERNIK. We find that the initial magnetization of galactic disks by exploding magnetized stars forms favorable conditions for the CR-driven dynamo. We demonstrate that dipolar magnetic fields supplied on small supernova remnant scales can be amplified exponentially by the CR-driven dynamo, to the present equipartition values, and transformed simultaneously to large galactic scales. The resulting magnetic field structure in an evolved galaxy appears spiral in the face-on view and reveals the so-called X-shaped structure in the edge-on view.
Ab Initio Simulations of a Supernova-driven Galactic Dynamo in an Isolated Disk Galaxy
Butsky, Iryna [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zrake, Jonathan; Kim, Ji-hoon; Yang, Hung-I; Abel, Tom [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)
2017-07-10
We study the magnetic field evolution of an isolated spiral galaxy, using isolated Milky Way–mass galaxy formation simulations and a novel prescription for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) supernova feedback. Our main result is that a galactic dynamo can be seeded and driven by supernova explosions, resulting in magnetic fields whose strength and morphology are consistent with observations. In our model, supernovae supply thermal energy and a low-level magnetic field along with their ejecta. The thermal expansion drives turbulence, which serves a dual role by efficiently mixing the magnetic field into the interstellar medium and amplifying it by means of a turbulent dynamo. The computational prescription for MHD supernova feedback has been implemented within the publicly available ENZO code and is fully described in this paper. This improves upon ENZO 's existing modules for hydrodynamic feedback from stars and active galaxies. We find that the field attains microgauss levels over gigayear timescales throughout the disk. The field also develops a large-scale structure, which appears to be correlated with the disk’s spiral arm density structure. We find that seeding of the galactic dynamo by supernova ejecta predicts a persistent correlation between gas metallicity and magnetic field strength. We also generate all-sky maps of the Faraday rotation measure from the simulation-predicted magnetic field, and we present a direct comparison with observations.
Effect of metallic walls on dynamos generated by laminar boundary-driven flow in a spherical domain.
Guervilly, Céline; Wood, Toby S; Brummell, Nicholas H
2013-11-01
We present a numerical study of dynamo action in a conducting fluid encased in a metallic spherical shell. Motions in the fluid are driven by differential rotation of the outer metallic shell, which we refer to as "the wall." The two hemispheres of the wall are held in counter-rotation, producing a steady, axisymmetric interior flow consisting of differential rotation and a two-cell meridional circulation with radial inflow in the equatorial plane. From previous studies, this type of flow is known to maintain a stationary equatorial dipole by dynamo action if the magnetic Reynolds number is larger than about 300 and if the outer boundary is electrically insulating. We vary independently the thickness, electrical conductivity, and magnetic permeability of the wall to determine their effect on the dynamo action. The main results are the following: (a) Increasing the conductivity of the wall hinders the dynamo by allowing eddy currents within the wall, which are induced by the relative motion of the equatorial dipole field and the wall. This processes can be viewed as a skin effect or, equivalently, as the tearing apart of the dipole by the differential rotation of the wall, to which the field lines are anchored by high conductivity. (b) Increasing the magnetic permeability of the wall favors dynamo action by constraining the magnetic field lines in the fluid to be normal to the wall, thereby decoupling the fluid from any induction in the wall. (c) Decreasing the wall thickness limits the amplitude of the eddy currents, and is therefore favorable for dynamo action, provided that the wall is thinner than the skin depth. We explicitly demonstrate these effects of the wall properties on the dynamo field by deriving an effective boundary condition in the limit of vanishing wall thickness.
REVERSALS IN THE 6-CELLS CONVECTION DRIVEN
G.M. Vodinchar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We describe the large-scale model geodynamo, which based on indirect data of inhomogeneities in the density of the Earth’s core. Convection structure is associated with spherical harmonic Y24 , which defines the basic poloidal component of velocity. Coriolis drift of this mode determines the toroidal component of velocity. Thus, 6 convective cells are formed. The model takes into account the feedback effect of the magnetic field on convection. It was ascertained that the model contains stable regimes of field generation. The velocity of convection and the dipole component of the magnetic field are close to the observed ones.
Abdel-Lathif, Ahmat Younous; Roehrig, Romain; Beau, Isabelle; Douville, Hervé
2018-03-01
A single-column model (SCM) approach is used to assess the CNRM climate model (CNRM-CM) version 6 ability to represent the properties of the apparent heat source (Q1) and moisture sink (Q2) as observed during the 3 month CINDY2011/DYNAMO field campaign, over its Northern Sounding Array (NSA). The performance of the CNRM SCM is evaluated in a constrained configuration in which the latent and sensible heat surface fluxes are prescribed, as, when forced by observed sea surface temperature, the model is strongly limited by the underestimate of the surface fluxes, most probably related to the SCM forcing itself. The model exhibits a significant cold bias in the upper troposphere, near 200 hPa, and strong wet biases close to the surface and above 700 hPa. The analysis of the Q1 and Q2 profile distributions emphasizes the properties of the convective parameterization of the CNRM-CM physics. The distribution of the Q2 profile is particularly challenging. The model strongly underestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep moistening profiles, which likely involve misrepresentation of the shallow and congestus convection. Finally, a statistical approach is used to objectively define atmospheric regimes and construct a typical convection life cycle. A composite analysis shows that the CNRM SCM captures the general transition from bottom-heavy to mid-heavy to top-heavy convective heating. Some model errors are shown to be related to the stratiform regimes. The moistening observed during the shallow and congestus convection regimes also requires further improvements of this CNRM-CM physics.
Chen, Feng; Rempel, Matthias; Fan, Yuhong, E-mail: chenfeng@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO, 80307 (United States)
2017-09-10
We present a realistic numerical model of sunspot and active region formation based on the emergence of flux bundles generated in a solar convective dynamo. To this end, we use the magnetic and velocity fields in a horizontal layer near the top boundary of the solar convective dynamo simulation to drive realistic radiative-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the uppermost layers of the convection zone. The main results are as follows. (1) The emerging flux bundles rise with the mean speed of convective upflows and fragment into small-scale magnetic elements that further rise to the photosphere, where bipolar sunspot pairs are formed through the coalescence of the small-scale magnetic elements. (2) Filamentary penumbral structures form when the sunspot is still growing through ongoing flux emergence. In contrast to the classical Evershed effect, the inflow seems to prevail over the outflow in a large part of the penumbra. (3) A well-formed sunspot is a mostly monolithic magnetic structure that is anchored in a persistent deep-seated downdraft lane. The flow field outside the spot shows a giant vortex ring that comprises an inflow below 15 Mm depth and an outflow above 15 Mm depth. (4) The sunspots successfully reproduce the fundamental properties of the observed solar active regions, including the more coherent leading spots with a stronger field strength, and the correct tilts of bipolar sunspot pairs. These asymmetries can be linked to the intrinsic asymmetries in the magnetic and flow fields adapted from the convective dynamo simulation.
Grannan, Alexander Michael
2017-08-01
The energy for driving turbulent flows in planetary fluid layers comes from a combination of thermocompositional sources and the motion of the boundary in contact with the fluid through mechanisms like precessional, tidal, and librational forcing. Characterizing the resulting turbulent fluid motions are necessary for understanding many aspects of the planet's dynamics and evolution including the generation of magnetic fields in the electrically conducting fluid layers and dissipation in the oceans. Although such flows are strongly inertial they are also strongly influenced by the Coriolis force whose source is in the rotation of the body and tends to constrain the inertial effects and provide support for fluid instabilities that might in-turn generate turbulence. Furthermore, the magnetic fields generated by the electrically conducting fluids act back on the fluid through the Lorentz force that also tends to constrain the flow. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the characteristics of turbulent flows under the influence of mechanical, convective, rotational and magnetic forcing. In order to investigate the response of the fluid to mechanical forcing, I have modified a unique set of laboratory experiments that allows me to quantify the generation of turbulence driven by the periodic oscillations of the fluid containing boundary through tides and libration. These laboratory experiments replicate the fundamental ingredients found in planetary environments and are necessary for the excitation of instabilities that drive the turbulent fluid motions. For librational forcing, a rigid ellipsoidal container and ellipsoidal shell of isothermal unstratified fluid is made to rotate with a superimposed oscillation while, for tidal forcing, an elastic ellipsoidal container of isothermal unstratified fluid is made to rotate while an independently rotating perturbance also flexes the elastic container. By varying the strength and frequencies of these oscillations the
Persistence and origin of the lunar core dynamo
Suavet, Clément; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Chan, Lindsey; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Head, James W.; Grove, Timothy L.; Fuller, Michael D.
2013-01-01
The lifetime of the ancient lunar core dynamo has implications for its power source and the mechanism of field generation. Here, we report analyses of two 3.56-Gy-old mare basalts demonstrating that they were magnetized in a stable and surprisingly intense dynamo magnetic field of at least ∼13 μT. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by ∼160 My and indicate that the field was likely continuously active until well after the final large basin-forming impact. This likely excludes impact-driven changes in rotation rate as the source of the dynamo at this time in lunar history. Rather, our results require a persistent power source like precession of the lunar mantle or a compositional convection dynamo. PMID:23650386
Basal melting driven by turbulent thermal convection
Rabbanipour Esfahani, Babak; Hirata, Silvia C.; Berti, Stefano; Calzavarini, Enrico
2018-05-01
Melting and, conversely, solidification processes in the presence of convection are key to many geophysical problems. An essential question related to these phenomena concerns the estimation of the (time-evolving) melting rate, which is tightly connected to the turbulent convective dynamics in the bulk of the melt fluid and the heat transfer at the liquid-solid interface. In this work, we consider a convective-melting model, constructed as a generalization of the Rayleigh-Bénard system, accounting for the basal melting of a solid. As the change of phase proceeds, a fluid layer grows at the heated bottom of the system and eventually reaches a turbulent convection state. By means of extensive lattice-Boltzmann numerical simulations employing an enthalpy formulation of the governing equations, we explore the model dynamics in two- and three-dimensional configurations. The focus of the analysis is on the scaling of global quantities like the heat flux and the kinetic energy with the Rayleigh number, as well as on the interface morphology and the effects of space dimensionality. Independently of dimensionality, we find that the convective-melting system behavior shares strong resemblances with that of the Rayleigh-Bénard one, and that the heat flux is only weakly enhanced with respect to that case. Such similarities are understood, at least to some extent, considering the resulting slow motion of the melting front (with respect to the turbulent fluid velocity fluctuations) and its generally little roughness (compared to the height of the fluid layer). Varying the Stefan number, accounting for the thermodynamical properties of the material, also seems to have only a mild effect, which implies the possibility of extrapolating results in numerically delicate low-Stefan setups from more convenient high-Stefan ones. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for the geophysically relevant problem of modeling Arctic ice melt ponds.
Convection flows driven by laser heating of a liquid layer
Rivière , David; Selva , Bertrand; Chraibi , Hamza; Delabre , Ulysse; Delville , Jean-Pierre
2016-01-01
International audience; When a fluid is heated by the absorption of a continuous laser wave, the fluid density decreases in the heated area. This induces a pressure gradient that generates internal motion of the fluid. Due to mass conservation, convection eddies emerge in the sample. To investigate these laser-driven bulk flows at the microscopic scale, we built a setup to perform temperature measurements with a fluorescent-sensitive dye on the one hand, and measured the flow pattern at diffe...
Non-Boussinesq Dissolution-Driven Convection in Porous Media
Amooie, M. A.; Soltanian, M. R.; Moortgat, J.
2017-12-01
Geological carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers has been increasingly recognized as a feasible technology to stabilize the atmospheric carbon concentrations and subsequently mitigate the global warming. Solubility trapping is one of the most effective storage mechanisms, which is associated initially with diffusion-driven slow dissolution of gaseous CO2 into the aqueous phase, followed by density-driven convective mixing of CO2 throughout the aquifer. The convection includes both diffusion and fast advective transport of the dissolved CO2. We study the fluid dynamics of CO2 convection in the underlying single aqueous-phase region. Two modeling approaches are employed to define the system: (i) a constant-concentration condition for CO2 in aqueous phase at the top boundary, and (ii) a sufficiently low, constant injection-rate for CO2 from top boundary. The latter allows for thermodynamically consistent evolution of the CO2 composition and the aqueous phase density against the rate at which the dissolved CO2 convects. Here we accurately model the full nonlinear phase behavior of brine-CO2 mixture in a confined domain altered by dissolution and compressibility, while relaxing the common Boussinesq approximation. We discover new flow regimes and present quantitative scaling relations for global characters of spreading, mixing, and dissolution flux in two- and three-dimensional media for the both model types. We then revisit the universal Sherwood-Rayleigh scaling that is under debate for porous media convective flows. Our findings confirm the sublinear scaling for the constant-concentration case, while reconciling the classical linear scaling for the constant-injection model problem. The results provide a detailed perspective into how the available modeling strategies affect the prediction ability for the total amount of CO2 dissolved in the long term within saline aquifers of different permeabilities.
A basal magma ocean dynamo to explain the early lunar magnetic field
Scheinberg, Aaron L.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.
2018-06-01
The source of the ancient lunar magnetic field is an unsolved problem in the Moon's evolution. Theoretical work invoking a core dynamo has been unable to explain the magnitude of the observed field, falling instead one to two orders of magnitude below it. Since surface magnetic field strength is highly sensitive to the depth and size of the dynamo region, we instead hypothesize that the early lunar dynamo was driven by convection in a basal magma ocean formed from the final stages of an early lunar magma ocean; this material is expected to be dense, radioactive, and metalliferous. Here we use numerical convection models to predict the longevity and heat flow of such a basal magma ocean and use scaling laws to estimate the resulting magnetic field strength. We show that, if sufficiently electrically conducting, a magma ocean could have produced an early dynamo with surface fields consistent with the paleomagnetic observations.
Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection
Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard
2016-02-01
Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications.
Paleomagnetic evidence for dynamo activity driven by inward crystallisation of a metallic asteroid
Bryson, James F. J.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Harrison, Richard J.; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Kronast, Florian
2017-08-01
The direction in which a planetary core solidifies has fundamental implications for the feasibility and nature of dynamo generation. Although Earth's core is outwardly solidifying, the cores of certain smaller planetary bodies have been proposed to inwardly solidify due to their lower central pressures. However, there have been no unambiguous observations of inwardly solidified cores or the relationship between this solidification regime and planetary magnetic activity. To address this gap, we present the results of complimentary paleomagnetic techniques applied to the matrix metal and silicate inclusions within the IVA iron meteorites. This family of meteorites has been suggested to originate from a planetary core that had its overlaying silicate mantle removed by collisions during the early solar system. This process is thought to have produced a molten ball of metal that cooled rapidly and has been proposed to have inwardly solidified. Recent thermal evolution models of such a body predict that it should have generated an intense, multipolar and time-varying dynamo field. This field could have been recorded as a remanent magnetisation in the outer, cool layers of a solid crust on the IVA parent core. We find that the different components in the IVA iron meteorites display a range of paleomagnetic fidelities, depending crucially on the cooling rate of the meteorite. In particular, silicate inclusions in the quickly cooled São João Nepomuceno meteorite are poor paleomagnetic recorders. On the other hand, the matrix metal and some silicate subsamples from the relatively slowly cooled Steinbach meteorite are far better paleomagnetic recorders and provide evidence of an intense (≳100 μT) and directionally varying (exhibiting significant changes on a timescale ≲200 kyr) magnetic field. This is the first demonstration that some iron meteorites record ancient planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, the observed field intensity, temporal variability and dynamo
Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core
More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu
2018-04-01
Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.
THE DOMINANCE OF NEUTRINO-DRIVEN CONVECTION IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam
2013-01-01
Multi-dimensional instabilities have become an important ingredient in core-collapse supernova (CCSN) theory. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the driving mechanism of the dominant instability. We compare our parameterized three-dimensional CCSN simulations with other buoyancy-driven simulations and propose scaling relations for neutrino-driven convection. Through these comparisons, we infer that buoyancy-driven convection dominates post-shock turbulence in our simulations. In support of this inference, we present four major results. First, the convective fluxes and kinetic energies in the neutrino-heated region are consistent with expectations of buoyancy-driven convection. Second, the convective flux is positive where buoyancy actively drives convection, and the radial and tangential components of the kinetic energy are in rough equipartition (i.e., K r ∼ K θ + K φ ). Both results are natural consequences of buoyancy-driven convection, and are commonly observed in simulations of convection. Third, buoyant driving is balanced by turbulent dissipation. Fourth, the convective luminosity and turbulent dissipation scale with the driving neutrino power. In all, these four results suggest that in neutrino-driven explosions, the multi-dimensional motions are consistent with neutrino-driven convection.
Scaling behavior in the convection-driven Brazil nut effect
Hejmady, Prakhyat; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek
2012-11-01
The Brazil nut effect is the phenomenon in which a large intruder particle immersed in a vertically shaken bed of smaller particles rises to the top, even when it is much denser. The usual practice while describing these experiments has been to use the dimensionless acceleration Γ=aω2/g, where a and ω are, respectively, the amplitude and the angular frequency of vibration and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Considering a vibrated quasi-two-dimensional bed of mustard seeds, we show here that the peak-to-peak velocity of shaking v=aω, rather than Γ, is the relevant parameter in the regime where boundary-driven granular convection is the main driving mechanism. We find that the rise time τ of an intruder is described by the scaling law τ˜(v-vc)-α, where vc is identified as the critical vibration velocity for the onset of convective motion of the mustard seeds. This scaling form holds over a wide range of (a,ω), diameter, and density of the intruder.
Thermally driven convective cells and tokamak edge turbulence
Thayer, D.R.; Diamond, P.H.
1987-07-01
A unified theory for the dynamics of thermally driven convective cell turbulence is presented. The cells are excited by the combined effects of radiative cooling and resistivity gradient drive. The model also includes impurity dynamics. Parallel thermal and impurity flows enhanced by turbulent radial duffusion regulate and saturate overlapping cells, even in regimes dominated by thermal instability. Transport coefficients and fluctuation levels characteristic of the saturated turbulence are calculated. It is found that the impurity radiation increases transport coefficients for high density plasmas, while the parallel conduction damping, elevated by radial diffusion, in turn quenches the thermal instability. The enhancement due to radiative cooling provides a resolution to the dilemma of explaining the experimental observation that potential fluctuations exceed density fluctuations in the edge plasma (e PHI/T/sub e/ > n/n 0 )
Brandenburg, A.; Helsinki Univ.; Tuominen, I.
1991-01-01
The traditional αΩ-dynamo as a model for the solar cycle has been successful in explaining the butterfly diagram, phase relations between poloidal and toroidal field, and polar branch migration features. Observational and theoretical achievements in recent years have however shaken this picture. The current trend is towards dynamos operating in the overshoot region of the convection zone. Nevertheless, there are many open questions and a consistent picture has not been established. In this paper we compare recent approaches and discuss remaining problems. (orig.)
Gravitational dynamos and the low-frequency geomagnetic secular variation.
Olson, P
2007-12-18
Self-sustaining numerical dynamos are used to infer the sources of low-frequency secular variation of the geomagnetic field. Gravitational dynamo models powered by compositional convection in an electrically conducting, rotating fluid shell exhibit several regimes of magnetic field behavior with an increasing Rayleigh number of the convection, including nearly steady dipoles, chaotic nonreversing dipoles, and chaotic reversing dipoles. The time average dipole strength and dipolarity of the magnetic field decrease, whereas the dipole variability, average dipole tilt angle, and frequency of polarity reversals increase with Rayleigh number. Chaotic gravitational dynamos have large-amplitude dipole secular variation with maximum power at frequencies corresponding to a few cycles per million years on Earth. Their external magnetic field structure, dipole statistics, low-frequency power spectra, and polarity reversal frequency are comparable to the geomagnetic field. The magnetic variability is driven by the Lorentz force and is characterized by an inverse correlation between dynamo magnetic and kinetic energy fluctuations. A constant energy dissipation theory accounts for this inverse energy correlation, which is shown to produce conditions favorable for dipole drift, polarity reversals, and excursions.
Implications of Tidally Driven Convection and Lithospheric Arguments on the Topography of Europa
Sattler-Cassara, L.; Lyra, W.
2017-11-01
We present 3D numerical simulations of tidally driven convection in Europa. By associating the resulting normal stress from plumes with surface weakening and resistance from shallower layers, we successfully reproduce domes and double ridges.
A new lattice Boltzmann equation to simulate density-driven convection of carbon dioxide
Allen, Rebecca; Reis, Tim; Sun, Shuyu
2013-01-01
-driven convection becomes an important transport process to model. However, the challenge lies in simulating this transport process accurately with high spatial resolution and low CPU cost. This issue can be addressed by using the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE
Double-diffusive mixed convection in a lid-driven cavity with non ...
S SIVASANKARAN
2017-11-11
Nov 11, 2017 ... transfer are solved using the finite-volume method. The numerical ... Keywords. Mixed convection; double diffusion; non-uniform heating; lid-driven cavity. 1. ... exhaustive research due to its importance in various engi- neering ...
Interaction of externally-driven acoustic waves with compressible convection
Jones, P.; Merryfield, W.
1992-01-01
Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to examine the interaction of acoustic waves with a compressible convecting fluid. Acoustic waves are forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagate through a three-layer system undergoing vigorous penetrative convection. Energy exchange between the wave and the fluid is analyzed using a work integral formulation
A study of the required Rayleigh number to sustain dynamo with various inner core radius
Nishida, Y.; Katoh, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kumamoto, A.
2017-12-01
It is widely accepted that the geomagnetic field is sustained by thermal and compositional driven convections of a liquid iron alloy in the outer core. The generation process of the geomagnetic field has been studied by a number of MHD dynamo simulations. Recent studies of the ratio of the Earth's core evolution suggest that the inner solid core radius ri to the outer liquid core radius ro changed from ri/ro = 0 to 0.35 during the last one billion years. There are some studies of dynamo in the early Earth with smaller inner core than the present. Heimpel et al. (2005) revealed the Rayleigh number Ra of the onset of dynamo process as a function of ri/ro from simulation, while paleomagnetic observation shows that the geomagnetic field has been sustained for 3.5 billion years. While Heimpel and Evans (2013) studied dynamo processes taking into account the thermal history of the Earth's interior, there were few cases corresponding to the early Earth. Driscoll (2016) performed a series of dynamo based on a thermal evolution model. Despite a number of dynamo simulations, dynamo process occurring in the interior of the early Earth has not been fully understood because the magnetic Prandtl numbers in these simulations are much larger than that for the actual outer core.In the present study, we performed thermally driven dynamo simulations with different aspect ratio ri/ro = 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 to evaluate the critical Ra for the thermal convection and required Ra to maintain the dynamo. For this purpose, we performed simulations with various Ra and fixed the other control parameters such as the Ekman, Prandtl, and magnetic Prandtl numbers. For the initial condition and boundary conditions, we followed the dynamo benchmark case 1 by Christensen et al. (2001). The results show that the critical Ra increases with the smaller aspect ratio ri/ro. It is confirmed that larger amplitude of buoyancy is required in the smaller inner core to maintain dynamo.
O'Connell, R.; Forest, C. B.; Plard, F.; Kendrick, R.; Lovell, T.; Thomas, M.; Bonazza, R.; Jensen, T.; Politzer, P.; Gerritsen, W.; McDowell, M.
1997-11-01
A MHD experiment is being constructed which will have the possibility of showing dynamo action: the self--generation of currents from fluid motion. The design allows sufficient experimental flexibility and diagnostic access to study a variety of issues central to dynamo theory, including mean--field electrodynamics and saturation (backreaction physics). Initially, helical flows required for dynamo action will be driven by propellers embedded in liquid sodium. The flow fields will first be measured using laser doppler velocimetry in a water experiment with an identical fluid Reynolds number. The magnetic field evolution will then be predicted using a MHD code, replacing the water with sodium; if growing magnetic fields are found, the experiment will be repeated with sodium.
Glatzmaier, G. A.
2010-12-01
There has been considerable interest during the past few years about the banded zonal winds and global magnetic field on Saturn (and Jupiter). Questions regarding the depth to which the intense winds extend below the surface and the role they play in maintaining the dynamo continue to be debated. The types of computer models employed to address these questions fall into two main classes: general circulation models (GCMs) based on hydrostatic shallow-water assumptions from the atmospheric and ocean modeling communities and global non-hydrostatic deep convection models from the geodynamo and solar dynamo communities. The latter class can be further divided into Boussinesq models, which do not account for density stratification, and anelastic models, which do. Recent efforts to convert GCMs to deep circulation anelastic models have succeeded in producing fluid flows similar to those obtained from the original deep convection anelastic models. We describe results from one of the original anelastic convective dynamo simulations and compare them to a recent anelastic dynamo benchmark for giant gas planets. This benchmark is based on a polytropic reference state that spans five density scale heights with a radius and rotation rate similar to those of our solar system gas giants. The resulting magnetic Reynolds number is about 3000. Better spatial resolution will be required to produce more realistic predictions that capture the effects of both the density and electrical conductivity stratifications and include enough of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. Important additional physics may also be needed in the models. However, the basic models used in all simulation studies of the global dynamics of giant planets will hopefully first be validated by doing these simpler benchmarks.
Convectively driven flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder with ...
2013-10-01
Oct 1, 2013 ... tical cylinder with combined effects of heat and mass transfer is an ... presented a numerical study of free convective flow of a viscous ... models. The simultaneous effects of thermal and mass stratifications have application.
Systematic parameter study of dynamo bifurcations in geodynamo simulations
Petitdemange, Ludovic
2018-04-01
We investigate the nature of the dynamo bifurcation in a configuration applicable to the Earth's liquid outer core, i.e. in a rotating spherical shell with thermally driven motions with no-slip boundaries. Unlike in previous studies on dynamo bifurcations, the control parameters have been varied significantly in order to deduce general tendencies. Numerical studies on the stability domain of dipolar magnetic fields found a dichotomy between non-reversing dipole-dominated dynamos and the reversing non-dipole-dominated multipolar solutions. We show that, by considering weak initial fields, the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. Such a result was also observed in models with free-slip boundaries in which the geostrophic zonal flow can develop and participate to the dynamo mechanism for non-dipolar fields. We show that a similar process develops in no-slip models when viscous effects are reduced sufficiently. The following three regimes are distinguished: (i) Close to the onset of convection (Rac) with only the most critical convective mode (wave number) being present, dynamos set in supercritically in the Ekman number regime explored here and are dipole-dominated. Larger critical magnetic Reynolds numbers indicate that they are particularly inefficient. (ii) in the range 3 10) , the relative importance of zonal flows increases with Ra in non-magnetic models. The field topology depends on the magnitude of the initial magnetic field. The dipolar branch has a subcritical behavior whereas the multipolar branch has a supercritical behavior. By approaching more realistic parameters, the extension of this bistable regime increases. A hysteretic behavior questions the common interpretation for geomagnetic reversals. Far above the dynamo threshold (by increasing the magnetic Prandtl number), Lorentz forces contribute to the first order force balance, as predicted for planetary dynamos. When
Long-lived magnetism from solidification-driven convection on the pallasite parent body
Bryson, James F.J.; Nichols, Claire I. O.; Herrero-Albillos, Julia
2015-01-01
of long-lived magnetic activity on the pallasite parent body, capturing the decay and eventual shutdown of the magnetic field as core solidification completed.We demonstrate that magnetic activity driven by progressive solidification of an inner core is consistent with our measuredmagnetic field......Palaeomagnetic measurements of meteorites suggest that, shortly after the birth of the Solar System, themolten metallic cores ofmany small planetary bodies convected vigorously and were capable of generating magnetic fields. Convection on these bodies is currently thought to have been thermally...... characteristics and cooling rates. Solidification-driven convectionwas probably commonamong small body cores, and, in contrast to thermally driven convection, will have led to a relatively late (hundreds of millions of years after accretion), long-lasting, intense and widespread epoch of magnetic activity among...
Soret-driven double diffusive magneto-convection in couple stress liquid
Mishra P.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The stability analysis of Soret driven double diffusive convection for electrically conducting couple stress liquid is investigated theoretically. The couple stress liquid is confined between two horizontal surfaces and a constant vertical magnetic field is applied across the surfaces. Linear stability analysis is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the onset of convection. Effect of magnetic field on the onset of convection is presented by means of Chandrasekhar number. The problem is analyzed as a function of Chandrasekhar number (Q, positive and negative Soret parameter (S r and couple stress parameter (C, mainly. The results show that the Q, both positive and negative Sr and C delay the onset of convection. The effect of other parameters is also discussed in paper and shown by graphs.
Dynamical Regimes and the Dynamo Bifurcation in Geodynamo Simulations
Petitdemange, L.
2017-12-01
We investigate the nature of the dynamo bifurcation in a configuration applicable to the Earth's liquid outer core : in a rotating spherical shell with thermally driven motions with no-slip boundaries. Unlike previous studies on dynamo bifurcations, the control parameters have been varied significantly in order to deduce general tendencies. Numerical studies on the stability domain of dipolar magnetic fields found a dichotomy between non-reversing dipole-dominated dynamos and the reversing non-dipole-dominated multipolar solutions. We show that, by considering weak initial fields, the above transition is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. Such a result was also observed in models with free-slip boundaries in which the strong shear of geostrophic zonal flows can develop and gives rise to non-dipolar fields. We show that a similar process develops in no-slip models when viscous effects are reduced sufficiently.Close to the onset of convection (Rac), the axial dipole grows exponentially in the kinematic phase and saturation occurs by marginally changing the flow structure close to the dynamo threshold Rmc. The resulting bifurcation is then supercritical.In the range 3RacIf (Ra/Ra_c>10), important zonal flows develop in non-magnetic models with low viscosity. The field topology depends on the initial magnetic field. The dipolar branch has a subcritical behaviour whereas the multipolar branch is supercritical. By approaching more realistic parameters, the extension of this bistable regime increases (lower Rossby numbers). An hysteretic behaviour questions the common interpretation for geomagnetic reversals. Far above Rm_c$, the Lorentz force becomes dominant, as it is expected in planetary cores.
Convectively Driven Tropopause-Level Cooling and Its Influences on Stratospheric Moisture
Kim, Joowan; Randel, William J.; Birner, Thomas
2018-01-01
Characteristics of the tropopause-level cooling associated with tropical deep convection are examined using CloudSat radar and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation measurements. Extreme deep convection is sampled based on the cloud top height (>17 km) from CloudSat, and colocated temperature profiles from COSMIC are composited around the deep convection. Response of moisture to the tropopause-level cooling is also examined in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using microwave limb sounder measurements. The composite temperature shows an anomalous warming in the troposphere and a significant cooling near the tropopause (at 16-19 km) when deep convection occurs over the western Pacific, particularly during periods with active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The composite of the tropopause cooling has a large horizontal scale ( 6,000 km in longitude) with minimum temperature anomaly of -2 K, and it lasts more than 2 weeks with support of mesoscale convective clusters embedded within the envelope of the MJO. The water vapor anomalies show strong correlation with the temperature anomalies (i.e., dry anomaly in the cold anomaly), showing that the convectively driven tropopause cooling actively dehydrate the lower stratosphere in the western Pacific region. The moisture is also affected by anomalous Matsuno-Gill-type circulation associated with the cold anomaly, in which dry air spreads over a wide range in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). These results suggest that convectively driven tropopause cooling and associated transient circulation play an important role in the large-scale dehydration process in the TTL.
IMPACT OF A REALISTIC DENSITY STRATIFICATION ON A SIMPLE SOLAR DYNAMO CALCULATION
Cardoso, Elisa; Lopes, Ilidio, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2012-09-20
In our Sun, the magnetic cycle is driven by the dynamo action occurring inside the convection zone, beneath the surface. Rotation couples with plasma turbulent motions to produce organized magnetic fields that erupt at the surface and undergo relatively regular cycles of polarity reversal. Among others, the axisymmetric dynamo models have been proved to be a quite useful tool to understand the dynamical processes responsible for the evolution of the solar magnetic cycle and the formation of the sunspots. Here, we discuss the role played by the radial density stratification on the critical layers of the Sun on the solar dynamo. The current view is that a polytropic description of the density stratification from beneath the tachocline region up to the Sun's surface is sufficient for the current precision of axisymmetric dynamo models. In this work, by using an up-to-date density profile obtained from a standard solar model, which is itself consistent with helioseismic data, we show that the detailed peculiarities of the density in critical regions of the Sun's interior, such as the tachocline, the base of the convection zone, the layers of partial ionization of hydrogen and helium, and the super-adiabatic layer, play a non-negligible role on the evolution of the solar magnetic cycle. Furthermore, we found that the chemical composition of the solar model plays a minor role in the formation and evolution of the solar magnetic cycle.
IMPACT OF A REALISTIC DENSITY STRATIFICATION ON A SIMPLE SOLAR DYNAMO CALCULATION
Cardoso, Elisa; Lopes, Ilídio
2012-01-01
In our Sun, the magnetic cycle is driven by the dynamo action occurring inside the convection zone, beneath the surface. Rotation couples with plasma turbulent motions to produce organized magnetic fields that erupt at the surface and undergo relatively regular cycles of polarity reversal. Among others, the axisymmetric dynamo models have been proved to be a quite useful tool to understand the dynamical processes responsible for the evolution of the solar magnetic cycle and the formation of the sunspots. Here, we discuss the role played by the radial density stratification on the critical layers of the Sun on the solar dynamo. The current view is that a polytropic description of the density stratification from beneath the tachocline region up to the Sun's surface is sufficient for the current precision of axisymmetric dynamo models. In this work, by using an up-to-date density profile obtained from a standard solar model, which is itself consistent with helioseismic data, we show that the detailed peculiarities of the density in critical regions of the Sun's interior, such as the tachocline, the base of the convection zone, the layers of partial ionization of hydrogen and helium, and the super-adiabatic layer, play a non-negligible role on the evolution of the solar magnetic cycle. Furthermore, we found that the chemical composition of the solar model plays a minor role in the formation and evolution of the solar magnetic cycle.
Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity with partial slip
Ismael, Muneer A.; Pop, Ioan; Chamkha, Ali J.
2014-01-01
Steady laminar mixed convection inside a lid-driven square cavity filled with water is studied numerically. The lid is due to the movement of the isothermal top and bottom walls which are maintained at T c and T h , respectively, with T h is higher than T c . A partial slip condition was imposed in these two moving walls. The vertical walls of the cavity are kept adiabatic. The appliance of the numerical analysis was USR finite difference method with upwind scheme treatments of the convective terms included in the momentum and energy equations. The studied relevant parameters were: the partial slip parameter S (0-∞); Richardson number Ri (0.01-100) and the direction of the moving walls (λ t = 1, λ b = ±1). The results have showed that there are critical values for the partial slip parameter at which the convection is declined. (authors)
Ionospheric disturbance dynamo
Blanc, M.; Richmond, A.D.
1980-01-01
A numerical simulation study of the thermospheric winds produced by auroral heating during magnetic storms, and of their global dynamo effects, establishes the main features of the ionospheric disturbanc dynamo. Driven by auroral heating, a Hadley cell is created with equatorward winds blowing above about 120 km at mid-latitudes. The transport of angular momentum by these winds produces a subrotation of the midlatitude thermosphere, or westward motion with respect to the earth. The westward winds in turn drive equatorward Pedersen currents which accumulate charge toward the equator, resulting in the generation of a poleward electric field, a westward E x B drift, and an eastward current. When realistic local time conductivity variations are simulated, the eastward mid-latitude current is found to close partly via lower latitudes, resulting in an 'anti-Sq' type of current vortex. Both electric field and current at low latitudes thus vary in opposition to their normal quiet-day behavior. This total pattern of distrubance winds, electric fields, and currents is superimposed upon the background quiet-day pattern. When the neutral winds are artificially confined on the nightside, the basic pattern of predominantly westward E x B plasma drifts still prevails on the nightside but no longer extends into the dayside. Considerable observational evidence exists, suggesting that the ionospheric disturbance dynamo has an appreciable influence on storm-time ionospheric electric fields at middle and low latitudes
Alpha-Effect, Current and Kinetic Helicities for Magnetically Driven ...
tribpo
Key words. Sun—dynamo, helicity, turbulent convection. Extended abstract. Recent numerical simulations lead to the result that turbulence is much more mag- netically driven than believed. ... positive (and negative in the northern hemisphere), this being just opposite to what occurs for the current helicity which is negative ...
NEUTRINO-DRIVEN CONVECTION IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS
Radice, David; Ott, Christian D. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Abdikamalov, Ernazar [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Couch, Sean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Haas, Roland [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: dradice@caltech.edu [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2016-03-20
We present results from high-resolution semiglobal simulations of neutrino-driven convection in core-collapse supernovae. We employ an idealized setup with parameterized neutrino heating/cooling and nuclear dissociation at the shock front. We study the internal dynamics of neutrino-driven convection and its role in redistributing energy and momentum through the gain region. We find that even if buoyant plumes are able to locally transfer heat up to the shock, convection is not able to create a net positive energy flux and overcome the downward transport of energy from the accretion flow. Turbulent convection does, however, provide a significant effective pressure support to the accretion flow as it favors the accumulation of energy, mass, and momentum in the gain region. We derive an approximate equation that is able to explain and predict the shock evolution in terms of integrals of quantities such as the turbulent pressure in the gain region or the effects of nonradial motion of the fluid. We use this relation as a way to quantify the role of turbulence in the dynamics of the accretion shock. Finally, we investigate the effects of grid resolution, which we change by a factor of 20 between the lowest and highest resolution. Our results show that the shallow slopes of the turbulent kinetic energy spectra reported in previous studies are a numerical artifact. Kolmogorov scaling is progressively recovered as the resolution is increased.
NEUTRINO-DRIVEN CONVECTION IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS
Radice, David; Ott, Christian D.; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Couch, Sean M.; Haas, Roland; Schnetter, Erik
2016-01-01
We present results from high-resolution semiglobal simulations of neutrino-driven convection in core-collapse supernovae. We employ an idealized setup with parameterized neutrino heating/cooling and nuclear dissociation at the shock front. We study the internal dynamics of neutrino-driven convection and its role in redistributing energy and momentum through the gain region. We find that even if buoyant plumes are able to locally transfer heat up to the shock, convection is not able to create a net positive energy flux and overcome the downward transport of energy from the accretion flow. Turbulent convection does, however, provide a significant effective pressure support to the accretion flow as it favors the accumulation of energy, mass, and momentum in the gain region. We derive an approximate equation that is able to explain and predict the shock evolution in terms of integrals of quantities such as the turbulent pressure in the gain region or the effects of nonradial motion of the fluid. We use this relation as a way to quantify the role of turbulence in the dynamics of the accretion shock. Finally, we investigate the effects of grid resolution, which we change by a factor of 20 between the lowest and highest resolution. Our results show that the shallow slopes of the turbulent kinetic energy spectra reported in previous studies are a numerical artifact. Kolmogorov scaling is progressively recovered as the resolution is increased
Montague, James A.; Pinder, George F.; Gonyea, Jay V.; Hipko, Scott; Watts, Richard
2018-05-01
Magnetic resonance imaging is used to observe solute transport in a 40 cm long, 26 cm diameter sand column that contained a central core of low permeability silica surrounded by higher permeability well-sorted sand. Low concentrations (2.9 g/L) of Magnevist, a gadolinium based contrast agent, produce density driven convection within the column when it starts in an unstable state. The unstable state, for this experiment, exists when higher density contrast agent is present above the lower density water. We implement a numerical model in OpenFOAM to reproduce the observed fluid flow and transport from a density difference of 0.3%. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in observing three-dimensional gravity-driven convective-dispersive transport behaviors in medium scale experiments.
Convectively-driven cold layer and its influences on moisture in the UTLS
Kim, J.; Randel, W. J.; Birner, T.
2016-12-01
Characteristics of the cold anomaly in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) that is commonly observed with deep convection are examined using CloudSat and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation measurements. Deep convection is sampled based on the cloud top height (>17 km) from CloudSat 2B-CLDCLASS, and then temperature profiles from COSMIC are composited around the deep convection. The composite temperature shows anomalously warm troposphere (up to 14 km) and a significantly cold layer near the tropopause (at 16-18 km) in the regions of deep convection. Generally in the tropics, the cold layer has very large horizontal scale (2,000 - 6,000 km) compared to that of mesoscale convective cluster, and it lasts one or two weeks with minimum temperature anomaly of - 2K. The cold layer shows slight but clear eastward-tilted vertical structure in the deep tropics indicating a large-scale Kelvin wave response. Further analyses on circulation patterns suggest that the anomaly can be explained as a part of Gill-type response in the TTL to deep convective heating in the troposphere. Response of moisture to the cold layer is also examined in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using microwave limb sounder (MLS) measurements. The water vapor anomalies show coherent structures with the temperature and circulation anomalies. A clear dry anomaly is found in the cold layer and its outflow region, implying a large-scale dehydration process due to the convectively driven cold layer in the upper TTL.
Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals
Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan
2016-11-01
We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.
Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage
Allen, Rebecca
2015-04-01
ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for
Adolfo Ribeiro
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Planets and stars are often capable of generating their own magnetic fields. This occurs through dynamo processes occurring via turbulent convective stirring of their respective molten metal-rich cores and plasma-based convection zones. Present-day numerical models of planetary and stellar dynamo action are not carried out using fluids properties that mimic the essential properties of liquid metals and plasmas (e.g., using fluids with thermal Prandtl numbers Pr < 1 and magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm ≪ 1. Metal dynamo simulations should become possible, though, within the next decade. In order then to understand the turbulent convection phenomena occurring in geophysical or astrophysical fluids and next-generation numerical models thereof, we present here canonical, end-member examples of thermally-driven convection in liquid gallium, first with no magnetic field or rotation present, then with the inclusion of a background magnetic field and then in a rotating system (without an imposed magnetic field. In doing so, we demonstrate the essential behaviors of convecting liquid metals that are necessary for building, as well as benchmarking, accurate, robust models of magnetohydrodynamic processes in Pm ≪ Pr < 1 geophysical and astrophysical systems. Our study results also show strong agreement between laboratory and numerical experiments, demonstrating that high resolution numerical simulations can be made capable of modeling the liquid metal convective turbulence needed in accurate next-generation dynamo models.
Negredo, A. M.; Rodríguez-González, J.; Fullea, J.; Van Hunen, J.
2017-12-01
The close location between many hotspots and the edges of cratonic lithosphere has led to the hypothesis that these hotspots could be explained by small-scale mantle convection at the edge of cratons (Edge Driven Convection, EDC). The Canary Volcanic Province hotspot represents a paradigmatic example of this situation due to its close location to the NW edge of the African Craton. Geochemical evidence, prominent low seismic velocity anomalies in the upper and lower mantle, and the rough NE-SW age-progression of volcanic centers consistently point out to a deep-seated mantle plume as the origin of the Canary Volcanic Province. It has been hypothesized that the plume material could be affected by upper mantle convection caused by the thermal contrast between thin oceanic lithosphere and thick (cold) African craton. Deflection of upwelling blobs due to convection currents would be responsible for the broader and more irregular pattern of volcanism in the Canary Province compared to the Madeira Province. In this study we design a model setup inspired on this scenario to investigate the consequences of possible interaction between ascending mantle plumes and EDC. The Finite Element code ASPECT is used to solve convection in a 2D box. The compositional field and melt fraction distribution are also computed. Free slip along all boundaries and constant temperature at top and bottom boundaries are assumed. The initial temperature distribution assumes a small long-wavelength perturbation. The viscosity structure is based on a thick cratonic lithosphere progressively varying to a thin, or initially inexistent, oceanic lithosphere. The effects of assuming different rheologies, as well as steep or gradual changes in lithospheric thickness are tested. Modelling results show that a very thin oceanic lithosphere (models assuming temperature-dependent viscosity and large viscosity variations evolve to large-scale (upper mantle) convection cells, with upwelling of hot material being
D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E
2014-01-01
Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration
Helicity--vorticity turbulent pumping of magnetic fields in the solar dynamo
Pipin, V. V.
2012-01-01
The interaction of helical convective motions and differential rotation in the solar convection zone results in turbulent drift of a large-scale magnetic field. We discuss the pumping mechanism and its impact on the solar dynamo.
Mixed convection of nanofluids in a lid-driven rough cavity
Guo, Zhimeng; Wang, Jinyu; Mozumder, Aloke K.; Das, Prodip K.
2017-06-01
Mixed convection heat transfer and fluid flow of air, water or oil in enclosures have been studied extensively using experimental and numerical means for many years due to their ever-increasing applications in many engineering fields. In comparison, little effort has been given to the problem of mixed convection of nanofluids in spite of several applications in solar collectors, electronic cooling, lubrication technologies, food processing, and nuclear reactors. Mixed convection of nanofluids is a challenging problem due to the complex interactions among inertia, viscous, and buoyancy forces. In this study, mixed convection of nanofluids in a lid-driven square cavity with sinusoidal roughness elements at the bottom is studied numerically using the Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation. The numerical model is developed using commercial finite volume software ANSYS-FLUENT for Al2O3-water and CuO-water nanofluids inside a square cavity with various roughness elements. The effects of number and amplitude of roughness elements on the heat transfer and fluid flow are analysed for various volume concentrations of Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles. The flow fields, temperature fields, and heat transfer rates are examined for different values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. The outcome of this study provides some important insight into the heat transfer behaviour of Al2O3-water and CuO-water nanofluids inside a lid-driven rough cavity. This knowledge can be further used in developing novel geometries with enhanced and controlled heat transfer for solar collectors, electronic cooling, and food processing industries.
Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects
Ji, Hantao
1998-01-01
The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation
Magnetohydrodynamic dynamos in the presence of fossil magnetic fields
Boyer, D.W.
1982-01-01
A fossil magnetic field embedded in the radiative core of the Sun has been thought possible for some time now. However, such a fossil magnetic field has, a priori, not been considered a visible phenomenon due to the effects of turbulence in the solar convection zone. Since a well developed theory (referred to herein as magnetohydrodynamic dynamo theory) exists for describing the regeneration of magnetic fields in astrophysical objects like the Sun, it is possible to quantitatively evaluate the interaction of a fossil magnetic field with the magnetohydrodynamic dynamo operating in the solar convection zone. In this work, after a brief description of the basic dynamo equations, a spherical model calculation of the solar dynamo is introduced. First, the interaction of a fossil magnetic field with a dynamo in which the regeneration mechanisms of cyclonic convection and large-scale, nonuniform rotation are confined to spherical shells is calculated. It is argued that the amount of amplification or suppression of a fossil magnetic field will be smallest for a uniform distribution of cyclonic convection and nonuniform rotation, as expected in the Sun. Secondly, the interaction of a fossil magnetic field with a dynamo having a uniform distribution of cyclonic convection and large-scale, nonuniform rotation is calculated. It is found that the dipole or quadrupole moments of a fossil magnetic field are suppressed by factors of -0.35 and -0.37, respectively
Cheng, W. Y.; Kim, D.; Rowe, A.; Park, S.
2017-12-01
Despite the impact of mesoscale convective organization on the properties of convection (e.g., mixing between updrafts and environment), parameterizing the degree of convective organization has only recently been attempted in cumulus parameterization schemes (e.g., Unified Convection Scheme UNICON). Additionally, challenges remain in determining the degree of convective organization from observations and in comparing directly with the organization metrics in model simulations. This study addresses the need to objectively quantify the degree of mesoscale convective organization using high quality S-PolKa radar data from the DYNAMO field campaign. One of the most noticeable aspects of mesoscale convective organization in radar data is the degree of convective clustering, which can be characterized by the number and size distribution of convective echoes and the distance between them. We propose a method of defining contiguous convective echoes (CCEs) using precipitating convective echoes identified by a rain type classification algorithm. Two classification algorithms, Steiner et al. (1995) and Powell et al. (2016), are tested and evaluated against high-resolution WRF simulations to determine which method better represents the degree of convective clustering. Our results suggest that the CCEs based on Powell et al.'s algorithm better represent the dynamical properties of the convective updrafts and thus provide the basis of a metric for convective organization. Furthermore, through a comparison with the observational data, the WRF simulations driven by the DYNAMO large-scale forcing, similarly applied to UNICON Single Column Model simulations, will allow us to evaluate the ability of both WRF and UNICON to simulate convective clustering. This evaluation is based on the physical processes that are explicitly represented in WRF and UNICON, including the mechanisms leading to convective clustering, and the feedback to the convective properties.
Waldmeier's Rules in the Solar and Stellar Dynamos
Pipin, Valery; Kosovichev, Alexander
2015-08-01
The Waldmeier's rules [1] establish important empirical relations between the general parameters of magnetic cycles (such as the amplitude, period, growth rate and time profile) on the Sun and solar-type stars [2]. Variations of the magnetic cycle parameters depend on properties of the global dynamo processes operating in the stellar convection zones. We employ nonlinear mean-field axisymmetric dynamo models [3] and calculate of the magnetic cycle parameters, such as the dynamo cycle period, total magnetic and Poynting fluxes for the Sun and solar-type stars with rotational periods from 15 to 30 days. We consider two types of the dynamo models: 1) distributed (D-type) models employing the standard α - effect distributed in the whole convection zone, and 2) Babcock-Leighton (BL-type) models with a non-local α - effect. The dynamo models take into account the principal mechanisms of the nonlinear dynamo generation and saturation, including the magnetic helicity conservation, magnetic buoyancy effects, and the feedback on the angular momentum balance inside the convection zones. Both types of models show that the dynamo generated magnetic flux increases with the increase of the rotation rate. This corresponds to stronger brightness variations. The distributed dynamo model reproduces the observed dependence of the cycle period on the rotation rate for the Sun analogs better than the BL-type model. For the solar-type stars rotating more rapidly than the Sun we find dynamo regimes with multiple periods. Such stars with multiple cycles form a separate branch in the variability-rotation diagram.1. Waldmeier, M., Prognose für das nächste Sonnenfleckenmaximum, 1936, Astron. Nachrichten, 259,262. Soon,W.H., Baliunas,S.L., Zhang,Q.,An interpretation of cycle periods of stellar chromospheric activity, 1993, ApJ, 414,333. Pipin,V.V., Dependence of magnetic cycle parameters on period of rotation in nonlinear solar-type dynamos, 2015, astro-ph: 14125284
A new lattice Boltzmann equation to simulate density-driven convection of carbon dioxide
Allen, Rebecca
2013-01-01
The storage of CO2 in fluid-filled geological formations has been carried out for more than a decade in locations around the world. After CO2 has been injected into the aquifer and has moved laterally under the aquifer\\'s cap-rock, density-driven convection becomes an important transport process to model. However, the challenge lies in simulating this transport process accurately with high spatial resolution and low CPU cost. This issue can be addressed by using the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) to formulate a model for a similar scenario when a solute diffuses into a fluid and density differences lead to convective mixing. The LBE is a promising alternative to the traditional methods of computational fluid dynamics. Rather than discretizing the system of partial differential equations of classical continuum mechanics directly, the LBE is derived from a velocity-space truncation of the Boltzmann equation of classical kinetic theory. We propose an extension to the LBE, which can accurately predict the transport of dissolved CO2 in water, as a step towards fluid-filled porous media simulations. This is achieved by coupling two LBEs, one for the fluid flow and one for the convection and diffusion of CO2. Unlike existing lattice Boltzmann equations for porous media flow, our model is derived from a system of moment equations and a Crank-Nicolson discretization of the velocity-truncated Boltzmann equation. The forcing terms are updated locally without the need for additional central difference approximation. Therefore our model preserves all the computational advantages of the single-phase lattice Boltzmann equation and is formally second-order accurate in both space and time. Our new model also features a novel implementation of boundary conditions, which is simple to implement and does not suffer from the grid-dependent error that is present in the standard "bounce-back" condition. The significance of using the LBE in this work lies in the ability to efficiently
Sekar, R.; Raju, K.; Vasanthakumari, R.
2013-01-01
The Soret-driven ferrothermoconvective instability of multi- component fluid in an anisotropic porous medium heated from below and salted from above has been analyzed using Brinkman model for various values of anisotropic parameter. The salinity effect is contained in magnetization and density of the ferrofluid and the system is assumed to have anisotropy in the vertical direction and isotropy in the horizontal direction. A small perturbation imparted on the basic state and a linear stability analysis is used for this model for which the normal mode technique is applied. The present analysis has been carried out through both stationary as well as oscillatory modes. The vertical anisotropy tends to destabilize the system. -- Highlights: ► We examine the effect of anisotropy and magnetization of convection in Soret effect. ► The system loses its stability for critical Rayleigh number for various parameters like R s and K 1 . ► The larger temperature difference is needed to guarantee the occurring of convection. ► The Soret effect plays a dominant role for the stability of the system
Convection-driven melting in an n-octane pool fire bounded by an ice wall
Farmahini Farahani, Hamed; Alva, Ulises; Rangwala, Ali; Jomaas, Grunde
2017-11-01
Burning of the liquid fuels adjacent to ice bodies creates a lateral cavity due to melting of the ice. The formation of lateral cavities are noticed recently and only a few experimental studies have addressed them. One study has shown lateral cavity formation with length of 12 cm for 5 minutes burning of oil. Based on the hypothesis that melting is facilitated by the convection in the liquid fuel, a series of PIV tests were conducted on burning of n-octane in a square glass tray with a 3 cm thick ice wall placed on one side of the tray. Marangoni generates a flow below the surface of the fuel and near the ice from hot to cold regions. The flow measurements by a 2D PIV system indicated the existence of different flow regimes. Before ignition, combined surface tension and buoyancy effects led to a one roll structure. After ignition the flow field began transitioning toward an unstable regime with an increase in velocity magnitude. Unfortunately, the PIV quality declined in the unstable regime, but indications of a multi-roll structure separating from a primary horizontal flow on the top driven by Marangoni convection were observed. The knowledge gained from these experiments will help determine the influential parameters in ice melting during burning of oil in ice-infested waters.
Harvesting electrical energy from torsional thermal actuation driven by natural convection.
Kim, Shi Hyeong; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Hyeon, Jae Sang; Suh, Dongseok; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong
2018-06-07
The development of practical, cost-effective systems for the conversion of low-grade waste heat to electrical energy is an important area of renewable energy research. We here demonstrate a thermal energy harvester that is driven by the small temperature fluctuations provided by natural convection. This harvester uses coiled yarn artificial muscles, comprising well-aligned shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) microfibers, to convert thermal energy to torsional mechanical energy, which is then electromagnetically converted to electrical energy. Temperature fluctuations in a yarn muscle, having a maximum hot-to-cold temperature difference of about 13 °C, were used to spin a magnetic rotor to a peak torsional rotation speed of 3,000 rpm. The electromagnetic energy generator converted the torsional energy to electrical energy, thereby producing an oscillating output voltage of up to 0.81 V and peak power of 4 W/kg, based on SMPU mass.
Turbulent Liquid Metal Dynamo Experiments
Forest, Cary
2007-01-01
The self-generation of magnetic fields in planets and stars--the dynamo effect--is a long-standing problem of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Until recently, research on the self-excitation process has been primarily theoretical. In this talk, I will begin with a tutorial on how magnetic fields are generated in planets and stars, describing the 'Standard Model' of self-excitation known as the alpha-omega dynamo. In this model, axisymmetric differential rotation can produce the majority of the magnetic field, but some non-axisymmetric, turbulence driven currents are also necessary. Understanding the conversion of turbulent kinetic energy in the fluid motion into electrical currents and thus magnetic fields, is a major challenge for both experiments and theory at this time. I will then report on recent results from a 1 meter diameter, spherical, liquid sodium dynamo experiment at the University of Wisconsin, in which the first clear evidence for these turbulence driven currents has been observed.
Maxworthy, T.
1997-08-01
A simple three-layer model of the dynamics of partially enclosed seas, driven by a surface buoyancy flux, is presented. It contains two major elements, a hydraulic constraint at the exit contraction and friction in the interior of the main body of the sea; both together determine the vertical structure and magnitudes of the interior flow variables, i.e. velocity and density. Application of the model to the large-scale dynamics of the Red Sea gives results that are not in disagreement with observation once the model is applied, also, to predict the dense outflow from the Gulf of Suez. The latter appears to be the agent responsible for the formation of dense bottom water in this system. Also, the model is reasonably successful in predicting the density of the outflow from the Persian Gulf, and can be applied to any number of other examples of convectively driven flow in long, narrow channels, with or without sills and constrictions at their exits.
Mixed convection of ferrofluids in a lid driven cavity with two rotating cylinders
Fatih Selimefendigil
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Mixed convection of ferrofluid filled lid driven cavity in the presence of two rotating cylinders were numerically investigated by using the finite element method. The cavity is heated from below, cooled from driven wall and rotating cylinder surfaces and side vertical walls of the cavity are assumed to be adiabatic. A magnetic dipole source is placed below the bottom wall of the cavity. The study is performed for various values of Reynolds numbers (100 ≤ Re ≤ 1000, angular rotational speed of the cylinders (−400 ≤ Ω ≤ 400, magnetic dipole strengths (0 ≤ γ ≤ 500, angular velocity ratios of the cylinders (0.25≤Ωi/Ωj≤4 and diameter ratios of the cylinders (0.5≤Di/Dj≤2. It is observed that flow patterns and thermal transport within the cavity are affected by variation in Reynolds number and magnetic dipole strength. The results of this investigation revealed that cylinder angular velocities, ratio of the angular velocities and diameter ratios have profound effect on heat transfer enhancement within the cavity. Averaged heat transfer enhancements of 181.5 % is achieved for clockwise rotation of the cylinder at Ω = −400 compared to motionless cylinder case. Increasing the angular velocity ratio from Ω2/Ω1=0.25 to Ω2/Ω1=4 brings about 91.7 % of heat transfer enhancement.
DOUBLE DYNAMO SIGNATURES IN A GLOBAL MHD SIMULATION AND MEAN-FIELD DYNAMOS
Beaudoin, Patrice; Simard, Corinne; Cossette, Jean-François; Charbonneau, Paul [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2016-08-01
The 11 year solar activity cycle is the most prominent periodic manifestation of the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) large-scale dynamo operating in the solar interior, yet longer and shorter (quasi-) periodicities are also present. The so-called “quasi-biennial” signal appearing in many proxies of solar activity has been gaining increasing attention since its detection in p -mode frequency shifts, which suggests a subphotospheric origin. A number of candidate mechanisms have been proposed, including beating between co-existing global dynamo modes, dual dynamos operating in spatially separated regions of the solar interior, and Rossby waves driving short-period oscillations in the large-scale solar magnetic field produced by the 11 year activity cycle. In this article, we analyze a global MHD simulation of solar convection producing regular large-scale magnetic cycles, and detect and characterize shorter periodicities developing therein. By constructing kinematic mean-field α {sup 2}Ω dynamo models incorporating the turbulent electromotive force (emf) extracted from that same simulation, we find that dual-dynamo behavior materializes in fairly wide regions of the model’s parameters space. This suggests that the origin of the similar behavior detected in the MHD simulation lies with the joint complexity of the turbulent emf and differential rotation profile, rather that with dynamical interactions such as those mediated by Rossby waves. Analysis of the simulation also reveals that the dual dynamo operating therein leaves a double-period signature in the temperature field, consistent with a dual-period helioseismic signature. Order-of-magnitude estimates for the magnitude of the expected frequency shifts are commensurate with helioseismic measurements. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the solar quasi-biennial oscillations are associated with a secondary dynamo process operating in the outer reaches of the solar convection zone.
Gilman, P. A.; Morrow, C. A.; Deluca, E. E.
1989-01-01
The implications of a newly proposed picture of the sun's internal rotation (Brown et al., 1989; Morrow, 1988) for the distribution and transport of angular momentum and for the solar dynamo are considered. The new results, derived from an analysis of solar acoustic oscillations, affect understanding of how momentum is cycled in the sun and provide clues as to how and where the solar dynamo is driven. The data imply that the only significant radial gradient of angular velocity exists in a transitional region between the bottom of the convection zone, which is rotating like the solar surface, and the top of the deep interior, which is rotating rigidly at a rate intermediate between the equatorial and polar rates at the surface. Thus the radial gradient must change sign at the latitude where the angular velocity of the surface matches that of the interior. These inferences suggest that the cycle of angular momentum that produces the observed latitudinal differential rotation in the convection zone may be coupled to layers of the interior beneath the convection zone. 35 refs
DIPOLE COLLAPSE AND DYNAMO WAVES IN GLOBAL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS
Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel [MAG (ENS/IPGP), LRA, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Petitdemange, Ludovic, E-mail: martin@schrinner.eu [Previously at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. (Germany)
2012-06-20
Magnetic fields of low-mass stars and planets are thought to originate from self-excited dynamo action in their convective interiors. Observations reveal a variety of field topologies ranging from large-scale, axial dipoles to more structured magnetic fields. In this article, we investigate more than 70 three-dimensional, self-consistent dynamo models in the Boussinesq approximation obtained by direct numerical simulations. The control parameters, the aspect ratio, and the mechanical boundary conditions have been varied to build up this sample of models. Both strongly dipolar and multipolar models have been obtained. We show that these dynamo regimes in general can be distinguished by the ratio of a typical convective length scale to the Rossby radius. Models with a predominantly dipolar magnetic field were obtained, if the convective length scale is at least an order of magnitude larger than the Rossby radius. Moreover, we highlight the role of the strong shear associated with the geostrophic zonal flow for models with stress-free boundary conditions. In this case the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. We interpret our results in terms of dynamo eigenmodes using the so-called test-field method. We can thus show that models in the dipolar regime are characterized by an isolated 'single mode'. Competing overtones become significant as the boundary to multipolar dynamos is approached. We discuss how these findings relate to previous models and to observations.
Computer simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo II
Kageyama, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya.
1994-11-01
We performed a computer simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. Extensive parameter runs are carried out changing the electrical resistivity. It is found that the total magnetic energy can grow more than ten times larger than the total kinetic energy of the convection motion when the resistivity is sufficiently small. When the resistivity is relatively large and the magnetic energy is comparable or smaller than the kinetic energy, the convection motion maintains its well-organized structure. However, when the resistivity is small and the magnetic energy becomes larger than the kinetic energy, the well-organized convection motion is highly disturbed. The generated magnetic field is organized as a set of flux tubes which can be divided into two categories. The magnetic field component parallel to the rotation axis tends to be confined inside the anticyclonic columnar convection cells. On the other hand, the component perpendicular to the rotation axis is confined outside the convection cells. (author)
Non-gray gas radiation effect on mixed convection in lid driven square cavity
Cherifi, Mohammed, E-mail: production1998@yahoo.fr; Benbrik, Abderrahmane, E-mail: abenbrik@umbb.dz; Laouar-Meftah, Siham, E-mail: laouarmeftah@gmail.com [M’Hamed Bougara University, Faculty of Hydrocarbons and Chemistry, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Lemonnier, Denis, E-mail: denis.lemonnier@ensma.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS, ENSMA, University of Poitiers, Poitiers Futuroscope (France)
2016-06-02
A numerical study is performed to investigate the effect of non-gray radiation on mixed convection in a vertical two sided lid driven square cavity filled with air-H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} gas mixture. The vertical moving walls of the enclosure are maintained at two different but uniform temperatures. The horizontal walls are thermally insulated and considered as adiabatic walls. The governing differential equations are solved by a finite-volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the pressure–velocity coupling. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by the discrete ordinates method (DOM). The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. Simulations are performed in configurations where thermal and shear forces induce cooperating buoyancy forces. Streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number are analyzed for three different values of Richardson’s number (from 0.1 to 10) and by considering three different medium (transparent medium, gray medium using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, and non-gray medium assumption).
Keek, L. [X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Heger, A., E-mail: laurens.keek@nasa.gov [Monash Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)
2017-06-20
Thermonuclear flashes of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars produce the frequently observed Type I X-ray bursts. It is the current paradigm that almost all material burns in a burst, after which it takes hours to accumulate fresh fuel for the next burst. In rare cases, however, bursts are observed with recurrence times as short as minutes. We present the first one-dimensional multi-zone simulations that reproduce this phenomenon. Bursts that ignite in a relatively hot neutron star envelope leave a substantial fraction of the fuel unburned at shallow depths. In the wake of the burst, convective mixing events driven by opacity bring this fuel down to the ignition depth on the observed timescale of minutes. There, unburned hydrogen mixes with the metal-rich ashes, igniting to produce a subsequent burst. We find burst pairs and triplets, similar to the observed instances. Our simulations reproduce the observed fraction of bursts with short waiting times of ∼30%, and demonstrate that short recurrence time bursts are typically less bright and of shorter duration.
Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung
1991-01-01
The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.
Putin, Gennady; Belyaev, Mikhail; Babushkin, Igor; Glukhov, Alexander; Zilberman, Evgeny; Maksimova, Marina; Ivanov, Alexander; Sazonov, Viktor; Nikitin, Sergey; Zavalishin, Denis; Polezhaev, Vadim
The system for studying buoyancy driven convection and low-frequency microaccelerations aboard spacecraft is described. The system consists of: 1. facility for experimentation on a spaceship - the convection sensor and electronic equipment for apparatus control and for acquisition and processing of relevant information; 2. facility for ground-based laboratory modeling of various fluid motion mechanisms in application to orbital flight environment; 3. the system for computer simulations of convection processes in a fluid cell of a sensor using the data on microaccelerations obtained by accelerometers and another devices aboard the orbital station. The arrangement and functioning of the sensor and control hardware are expounded. The results of terrestrial experiments performed in order to determine the sensitivity of the sensor are described. The results of experiments carried out in 2008 - 2011 with the “DACON-M” apparatus in different modules of the Russian Segment of International Space Station and for various regimes of Station activity are reported. Experimental data recorded by “DACON-M” apparatus have been compared with the calculations of acceleration components based on the telemetry information about the orientation of the Station.
The Oscillatory Nature of Rotating Convection in Liquid Metal
Aurnou, J. M.; Bertin, V. L.; Grannan, A. M.
2016-12-01
Earth's magnetic field is assumed to be generated by fluid motions in its liquid metal core. In this fluid, the heat diffuses significantly more than momentum and thus, the ratio of these two diffusivities, the Prandtl number Pr=ν/Κ, is well below unity. The convective flow dynamics of liquid metal is very different from Pr ≈ 1 fluids like water and those used in current dynamo simulations. In order to characterize rapidly rotating thermal convection in low Pr number fluids, we have performed laboratory experiments in a cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr ≈ 0.023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number, which characterizes the effect of rotation, varies from E = 4 10-5 to 4 10-6 and the dimensionless buoyancy forcing (Rayleigh number, Ra) varies from Ra =3 105 to 2 107. Using heat transfer measurements (Nusselt number, Nu) as well as temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes are identified for the first time in liquid metal laboratory experiments. These wall modes coexist with the bulk inertial oscillatory modes. When the strengh of the buoyancy increases, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr ≈ 1 dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, the flows that drive thermally-driven dynamo action in low Pr geophysical and astrophysical fluids can differ substantively than those occuring in current-day Pr ≈ 1 numerical models. In addition, our results suggest that relatively low wavenumber, wall-attached modes may be dynamically important in rapidly-rotating convection in liquid metals.
Bettaibi, Soufiene, E-mail: Bettaibisoufiene@gmail.com [UR: Rayonnement Thermique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kuznik, Frédéric [INSA-Lyon, CETHIL, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Université de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5008, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Sediki, Ezeddine [UR: Rayonnement Thermique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)
2014-06-27
Highlights: • Mixed convection heat transfer in 2D lid-driven cavity is studied numerically. • Hybrid scheme with multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method is used to obtain the velocity field. • Finite difference method is used to compute the temperature. • Effect of both Richardson and Reynolds numbers for mixed convection is studied. - Abstract: Mixed convection heat transfer in two-dimensional lid-driven rectangular cavity filled with air (Pr=0.71) is studied numerically. A hybrid scheme with multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is used to obtain the velocity field while the temperature field is deduced from energy balance equation by using the finite difference method (FDM). The main objective of this work is to investigate the model effectiveness for mixed convection flow simulation. Results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers. Excellent agreement is obtained between our results and previous works. The different comparisons demonstrate the robustness and the accuracy of our proposed approach.
Stable Alfven wave dynamo action in the reversed field pinch
Werley, K.A.
1984-01-01
Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. Static quasi-linear Alfven wave calculations have shown that dynamo emfs on the order of eta vector J are possible. This suggested a possible explanation of RFP behavior and a new (externally driven) mechanism for extending operation and controlling field profiles (possibly reducing plasma transport). This thesis demonstrates that the dynamo emf can quickly induce plasma currents whose emf cancels the dynamo effect. This thesis also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number
Han, Li-Hsin; Wu, Shaomin; Condit, J. Christopher; Kemp, Nate J.; Milner, Thomas E.; Feldman, Marc D.; Chen, Shaochen
2010-05-01
We report on the design, fabrication, and analysis of a light-driven micromotor. The micromotor was created from a nanoporous polymer with close-packed gold nanoparticles which generate heat by absorbing light. The blades of the micromotor were curved, forming convex and concave sides. Upon lateral irradiation, by geometric effect the convex side transfers more photon-generated heat to the surrounding gas molecules, causing a convective motion of gas and leading to the rotation of the micromotor. The light-driven motions of gas molecules were analyzed using molecular dynamics modeling.
Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves.
Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Christopher C; Jackson, Andrew
2016-11-24
A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines by columnar convection. Here we present an example of another class of reversing-geodynamo model, which operates in a regime of comparatively low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity. This class does not fit into the paradigm of reversal regimes that are dictated by the value of the local Rossby number (the ratio of advection to Coriolis force). Instead, stretching of the magnetic field by a strong shear in the east-west flow near the imaginary cylinder just touching the inner core and parallel to the axis of rotation is crucial to the reversal mechanism in our models, which involves a process akin to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.
Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F.; Haas, Roland; Reisswig, Christian; Mösta, Philipp; Klion, Hannah; Schnetter, Erik
2015-01-01
We conduct a series of numerical experiments into the nature of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics in the postbounce stalled-shock phase of core-collapse supernovae using 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a 27 M ⊙ progenitor star with a neutrino leakage/heating scheme. We vary the strength of neutrino heating and find three cases of 3D dynamics: (1) neutrino-driven convection, (2) initially neutrino-driven convection and subsequent development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and (3) SASI-dominated evolution. This confirms previous 3D results of Hanke et al. and Couch and Connor. We carry out simulations with resolutions differing by up to a factor of ∼4 and demonstrate that low resolution is artificially favorable for explosion in the 3D convection-dominated case since it decreases the efficiency of energy transport to small scales. Low resolution results in higher radial convective fluxes of energy and enthalpy, more fully buoyant mass, and stronger neutrino heating. In the SASI-dominated case, lower resolution damps SASI oscillations. In the convection-dominated case, a quasi-stationary angular kinetic energy spectrum E(ℓ) develops in the heating layer. Like other 3D studies, we find E(ℓ) ∝ℓ −1 in the “inertial range,” while theory and local simulations argue for E(ℓ) ∝ ℓ −5/3 . We argue that current 3D simulations do not resolve the inertial range of turbulence and are affected by numerical viscosity up to the energy-containing scale, creating a “bottleneck” that prevents an efficient turbulent cascade
Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F.; Haas, Roland; Reisswig, Christian; Mösta, Philipp; Klion, Hannah [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2015-07-20
We conduct a series of numerical experiments into the nature of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics in the postbounce stalled-shock phase of core-collapse supernovae using 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a 27 M{sub ⊙} progenitor star with a neutrino leakage/heating scheme. We vary the strength of neutrino heating and find three cases of 3D dynamics: (1) neutrino-driven convection, (2) initially neutrino-driven convection and subsequent development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and (3) SASI-dominated evolution. This confirms previous 3D results of Hanke et al. and Couch and Connor. We carry out simulations with resolutions differing by up to a factor of ∼4 and demonstrate that low resolution is artificially favorable for explosion in the 3D convection-dominated case since it decreases the efficiency of energy transport to small scales. Low resolution results in higher radial convective fluxes of energy and enthalpy, more fully buoyant mass, and stronger neutrino heating. In the SASI-dominated case, lower resolution damps SASI oscillations. In the convection-dominated case, a quasi-stationary angular kinetic energy spectrum E(ℓ) develops in the heating layer. Like other 3D studies, we find E(ℓ) ∝ℓ{sup −1} in the “inertial range,” while theory and local simulations argue for E(ℓ) ∝ ℓ{sup −5/3}. We argue that current 3D simulations do not resolve the inertial range of turbulence and are affected by numerical viscosity up to the energy-containing scale, creating a “bottleneck” that prevents an efficient turbulent cascade.
Large scale circulation in the convection zone and solar differential rotation
Belvedere, G [Instituto di Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, 95125 Italy; Paterno, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, 95125 Italy
1976-04-01
In this paper the dependence on depth and latitude of the solar angular velocity produced by a meridian circulation in the convection zone is studied assuming that the main mechanism responsible for setting up and driving the circulation is the interaction of rotation with convection. The first order equations (perturbation of the spherically symmetric state are solved in the Boussinesq approximation and in the steady state for the axissymmetric case. The interaction of convection with rotation is modelled by a convective transport coefficient. The model is consistent with the fact that the interaction of convection with rotation sets up a circulation (driven by the temperature gradient) which carries angular momentum toward the equator against the viscous friction. Unfortunately also a large flux variation at the surface is obtained. Nevertheless it seems that the model has the basic requisites for correct dynamo action.
Forest, C. B.
2002-01-01
The project is designed to understand current and magnetic field generation in plasmas and other magnetohydrodynamic systems. The experiments will investigate the generation of a dynamo using liquid Na
Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...
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Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...
Ihle, Christian F.; Nino, Yarko
2011-01-01
Stability conditions of a quiescent, horizontally infinite fluid layer with adiabatic bottom subject to sudden cooling from above are studied. Here, at difference from Rayleigh-Benard convection, the temperature base state is never steady. Instability limits are studied using linear analysis while stability is analyzed using the energy method. Critical stability curves in terms of Rayleigh numbers and convection onset times were obtained for several kinematic boundary conditions. Stability curves resulting from energy and linear approaches exhibit the same temporal growth rate for large values of time, suggesting a bound for the temporal asymptotic behavior of the energy method. - Highlights: → Non-penetrative convection appears after a time-evolving temperature base state. → Global stability and instability limits were analyzed. → Critical Rayleigh numbers were computed for different kinematic boundary conditions. → Adiabatic, bottom boundary was found to have a de-stabilizing effect. → System is less stable than in Benard convection.
Convection and magnetic field generation in the interior of planets (August Love Medal Lecture)
Christensen, U. R.
2009-04-01
Thermal convection driven by internal energy plays a role of paramount importance in planetary bodies. Its numerical modeling has been an essential tool for understanding how the internal engine of a planet works. Solid state convection in the silicate or icy mantles is the cause of endogenic tectonic activity, volcanism and, in the case of Earth, of plate motion. It also regulates the energy budget of the entire planet, including that of its core, and controls the presence or absence of a dynamo. The complex rheology of solid minerals, effects of phase transitions, and chemical heterogeneity are important issues in mantle convection. Examples discussed here are the convection pattern in Mars and the complex morphology of subducted slabs that are observed by seismic tomography in the Earth's mantle. Internally driven convection in the deep gas envelopes of the giant planets is possibly the cause for the strong jet streams at the surfaces that give rise to their banded appearance. Modeling of the magnetohydrodynamic flow in the conducting liquid core of the Earth has been remarkably successful in reproducing the primary properties of the geomagnetic field. As an examplefor attempts to explain also secondary properties, I will discuss dynamo models that account for the thermal coupling to the mantle. The understanding of the somewhat enigmatic magnetic fields of some other planets is less advanced. Here I will show that dynamos that operate below a stable conducting layer in the upper part of the planetary core can explain the unusual magnetic field properties of Mercury and Saturn. The question what determines the strength of a dynamo-generated magnetic field has been a matter of debate. From a large set of numerical dynamo simulations that cover a fair range of control parameters, we find a rule that relates magnetic field strength to the part of the energy flux that is thermodynamically available to be transformed into other forms of energy. This rules predicts
Snow precipitation on Mars driven by cloud-induced night-time convection
Spiga, Aymeric; Hinson, David P.; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Navarro, Thomas; Millour, Ehouarn; Forget, François; Montmessin, Franck
2017-09-01
Although it contains less water vapour than Earth's atmosphere, the Martian atmosphere hosts clouds. These clouds, composed of water-ice particles, influence the global transport of water vapour and the seasonal variations of ice deposits. However, the influence of water-ice clouds on local weather is unclear: it is thought that Martian clouds are devoid of moist convective motions, and snow precipitation occurs only by the slow sedimentation of individual particles. Here we present numerical simulations of the meteorology in Martian cloudy regions that demonstrate that localized convective snowstorms can occur on Mars. We show that such snowstorms--or ice microbursts--can explain deep night-time mixing layers detected from orbit and precipitation signatures detected below water-ice clouds by the Phoenix lander. In our simulations, convective snowstorms occur only during the Martian night, and result from atmospheric instability due to radiative cooling of water-ice cloud particles. This triggers strong convective plumes within and below clouds, with fast snow precipitation resulting from the vigorous descending currents. Night-time convection in Martian water-ice clouds and the associated snow precipitation lead to transport of water both above and below the mixing layers, and thus would affect Mars' water cycle past and present, especially under the high-obliquity conditions associated with a more intense water cycle.
Cameron, R. H.; Dikpati, M.; Brandenburg, A.
2017-09-01
A brief summary of the various observations and constraints that underlie solar dynamo research are presented. The arguments that indicate that the solar dynamo is an alpha-omega dynamo of the Babcock-Leighton type are then shortly reviewed. The main open questions that remain are concerned with the subsurface dynamics, including why sunspots emerge at preferred latitudes as seen in the familiar butterfly wings, why the cycle is about 11 years long, and why the sunspot groups emerge tilted with respect to the equator (Joy's law). Next, we turn to magnetic helicity, whose conservation property has been identified with the decline of large-scale magnetic fields found in direct numerical simulations at large magnetic Reynolds numbers. However, magnetic helicity fluxes through the solar surface can alleviate this problem and connect theory with observations, as will be discussed.
Kim, E.; Newton, A. P.
2012-04-01
One major problem in dynamo theory is the multi-scale nature of the MHD turbulence, which requires statistical theory in terms of probability distribution functions. In this contribution, we present the statistical theory of magnetic fields in a simplified mean field α-Ω dynamo model by varying the statistical property of alpha, including marginal stability and intermittency, and then utilize observational data of solar activity to fine-tune the mean field dynamo model. Specifically, we first present a comprehensive investigation into the effect of the stochastic parameters in a simplified α-Ω dynamo model. Through considering the manifold of marginal stability (the region of parameter space where the mean growth rate is zero), we show that stochastic fluctuations are conductive to dynamo. Furthermore, by considering the cases of fluctuating alpha that are periodic and Gaussian coloured random noise with identical characteristic time-scales and fluctuating amplitudes, we show that the transition to dynamo is significantly facilitated for stochastic alpha with random noise. Furthermore, we show that probability density functions (PDFs) of the growth-rate, magnetic field and magnetic energy can provide a wealth of useful information regarding the dynamo behaviour/intermittency. Finally, the precise statistical property of the dynamo such as temporal correlation and fluctuating amplitude is found to be dependent on the distribution the fluctuations of stochastic parameters. We then use observations of solar activity to constrain parameters relating to the effect in stochastic α-Ω nonlinear dynamo models. This is achieved through performing a comprehensive statistical comparison by computing PDFs of solar activity from observations and from our simulation of mean field dynamo model. The observational data that are used are the time history of solar activity inferred for C14 data in the past 11000 years on a long time scale and direct observations of the sun spot
Judit Lecina-Diaz
Full Text Available Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1 determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together and (2 ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires. The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn
Lecina-Diaz, Judit; Alvarez, Albert; Retana, Javier
2014-01-01
Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1) determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together) and (2) ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires). The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires) showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn as extreme
J. L. Palau
2009-01-01
Full Text Available By experimentation and modelling, this paper analyses the atmospheric dispersion of the SO_{2} emissions from a power plant on complex terrain under strong convective conditions, describing the main dispersion features as an ensemble of "stationary dispersive scenarios" and reformulating some "classical" dispersive concepts to deal with the systematically monitored summer dispersive scenarios in inland Spain. The results and discussions presented arise from a statistically representative study of the physical processes associated with the multimodal distribution of pollutants aloft and around a 343-m-tall chimney under strong dry convective conditions in the Iberian Peninsula. This paper analyses the importance of the identification and physical implications of transitional periods for air quality applications. The indetermination of a transversal plume to the preferred transport direction during these transitional periods implies a small (or null physical significance of the classical definition of horizontal standard deviation of the concentration distribution.
Magnetic Helicities and Dynamo Action in Magneto-rotational Turbulence
Bodo, G.; Rossi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Cattaneo, F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago IL 60637 (United States); Mignone, A., E-mail: bodo@oato.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)
2017-07-10
We examine the relationship between magnetic flux generation, taken as an indicator of large-scale dynamo action, and magnetic helicity, computed as an integral over the dynamo volume, in a simple dynamo. We consider dynamo action driven by magneto-rotational turbulence (MRT) within the shearing-box approximation. We consider magnetically open boundary conditions that allow a flux of helicity in or out of the computational domain. We circumvent the problem of the lack of gauge invariance in open domains by choosing a particular gauge—the winding gauge—that provides a natural interpretation in terms of the average winding number of pairwise field lines. We use this gauge precisely to define and measure the helicity and the helicity flux for several realizations of dynamo action. We find in these cases that the system as a whole does not break reflectional symmetry and that the total helicity remains small even in cases when substantial magnetic flux is generated. We find no particular connection between the generation of magnetic flux and the helicity or the helicity flux through the boundaries. We suggest that this result may be due to the essentially nonlinear nature of the dynamo processes in MRT.
Fourel, Loïc; Limare, Angela; Jaupart, Claude; Surducan, Emanoil; Farnetani, Cinzia G.; Kaminski, Edouard C.; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile
2017-08-01
Convective motions in silicate planets are largely driven by internal heat sources and secular cooling. The exact amount and distribution of heat sources in the Earth are poorly constrained and the latter is likely to change with time due to mixing and to the deformation of boundaries that separate different reservoirs. To improve our understanding of planetary-scale convection in these conditions, we have designed a new laboratory setup allowing a large range of heat source distributions. We illustrate the potential of our new technique with a study of an initially stratified fluid involving two layers with different physical properties and internal heat production rates. A modified microwave oven is used to generate a uniform radiation propagating through the fluids. Experimental fluids are solutions of hydroxyethyl cellulose and salt in water, such that salt increases both the density and the volumetric heating rate. We determine temperature and composition fields in 3D with non-invasive techniques. Two fluorescent dyes are used to determine temperature. A Nd:YAG planar laser beam excites fluorescence, and an optical system, involving a beam splitter and a set of colour filters, captures the fluorescence intensity distribution on two separate spectral bands. The ratio between the two intensities provides an instantaneous determination of temperature with an uncertainty of 5% (typically 1K). We quantify mixing processes by precisely tracking the interfaces separating the two fluids. These novel techniques allow new insights on the generation, morphology and evolution of large-scale heterogeneities in the Earth's lower mantle.
A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BABCOCK-LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO MODEL
Miesch, Mark S.; Dikpati, Mausumi
2014-01-01
We present a three-dimensional (3D) kinematic solar dynamo model in which poloidal field is generated by the emergence and dispersal of tilted sunspot pairs (more generally bipolar magnetic regions, or BMRs). The axisymmetric component of this model functions similarly to previous 2.5 dimensional (2.5D, axisymmetric) Babcock-Leighton (BL) dynamo models that employ a double-ring prescription for poloidal field generation but we generalize this prescription into a 3D flux emergence algorithm that places BMRs on the surface in response to the dynamo-generated toroidal field. In this way, the model can be regarded as a unification of BL dynamo models (2.5D in radius/latitude) and surface flux transport models (2.5D in latitude/longitude) into a more self-consistent framework that builds on the successes of each while capturing the full 3D structure of the evolving magnetic field. The model reproduces some basic features of the solar cycle including an 11 yr periodicity, equatorward migration of toroidal flux in the deep convection zone, and poleward propagation of poloidal flux at the surface. The poleward-propagating surface flux originates as trailing flux in BMRs, migrates poleward in multiple non-axisymmetric streams (made axisymmetric by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion), and eventually reverses the polar field, thus sustaining the dynamo. In this Letter we briefly describe the model, initial results, and future plans
Stellar rotation, dynamo, electromagnetic braking, age an lithium burning
Schatzmann, E.
1989-01-01
After an introduction describing the problem and the observational tests of the theory a consistant model of the dynamo mechanism in rotating star is presented. This provides for the electromagnetic braking a law Ω ∼ (1.t/t c har) -3 / 4 , in good agreement with the observations. This rests on the hypothesis that the main contribution to the EM braking is due to the magnetic field present in bipolar magnetic spots at the surface of the stellar disk. The premain sequence EM braking provides an initial angular velocity on arrival on the main sequence which is slightly smaller than the angular velocity when the dynamo turns on. Starting the dynamo takes place when the level at which the (αΩ) dynamo number becomes larger than one drops below the ionization level of hydrogen. Before that time, the surface dynamo mechanism would take place in a region of low ionization, where the magnetic Reynods number is so small that dissipation overtakes the building of the magnetic field. Turbulent mixing with a turbulent diffusion coefficient proportional to Ω 2 provides a consistant picture of the time and mass dependance of the surface abundance of Lithium. When the level of Li-burning is sufficiently far from the bottom of the convective zone an asymptotic value of lithium abundance is reached. This can explain the anomalous Li abundance of pop.II stars. (author). 40 refs
Akasofu, S.-I.
1983-01-01
This paper emphasizes an effort to link processes which relate solar activity and magnetospheric disturbances in terms of energy transfer through a chain of four elements. In this view, each element is explicitly thought to be powered by a dynamo, namely the solar wind generation dynamo, the solar flare dynamo, the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo and the aurora dynamo, respectively. Each dynamo powers a plasma acceleration process by the Lorentz force and the plasma flows thus generated are the solar wind, the flare-generated solar wind disturbance, the magnetospheric plasma convection and the ionospheric convection, respectively. Each plasma flow conveys the energy from one element to the next in the chain. Some of the kinetic energy of the photospheric plasma is eventually deposited in the polar ionosphere as heat energy. (author)
An update of Leighton's solar dynamo model
Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M.
2017-03-01
In 1969, Leighton developed a quasi-1D mathematical model of the solar dynamo, building upon the phenomenological scenario of Babcock published in 1961. Here we present a modification and extension of Leighton's model. Using the axisymmetric component (longitudinal average) of the magnetic field, we consider the radial field component at the solar surface and the radially integrated toroidal magnetic flux in the convection zone, both as functions of latitude. No assumptions are made with regard to the radial location of the toroidal flux. The model includes the effects of (I) turbulent diffusion at the surface and in the convection zone; (II) poleward meridional flow at the surface and an equatorward return flow affecting the toroidal flux; (III) latitudinal differential rotation and the near-surface layer of radial rotational shear; (iv) downward convective pumping of magnetic flux in the shear layer; and (v) flux emergence in the form of tilted bipolar magnetic regions treated as a source term for the radial surface field. While the parameters relevant for the transport of the surface field are taken from observations, the model condenses the unknown properties of magnetic field and flow in the convection zone into a few free parameters (turbulent diffusivity, effective return flow, amplitude of the source term, and a parameter describing the effective radial shear). Comparison with the results of 2D flux transport dynamo codes shows that the model captures the essential features of these simulations. We make use of the computational efficiency of the model to carry out an extended parameter study. We cover an extended domain of the 4D parameter space and identify the parameter ranges that provide solar-like solutions. Dipole parity is always preferred and solutions with periods around 22 yr and a correct phase difference between flux emergence in low latitudes and the strength of the polar fields are found for a return flow speed around 2 m s-1, turbulent
High resolution geodynamo simulations with strongly-driven convection and low viscosity
Schaeffer, Nathanael; Fournier, Alexandre; Jault, Dominique; Aubert, Julien
2015-04-01
Numerical simulations have been successful at explaining the magnetic field of the Earth for 20 years. However, the regime in which these simulations operate is in many respect very far from what is expected in the Earth's core. By reviewing previous work, we find that it appears difficult to have both low viscosity (low magnetic Prandtl number) and strong magnetic fields in numerical models (large ratio of magnetic over kinetic energy, a.k.a inverse squared Alfvén number). In order to understand better the dynamics and turbulence of the core, we have run a series of 3 simulations, with increasingly demanding parameters. The last simulation is at the limit of what nowadays codes can do on current super computers, with a resolution of 2688 grid points in longitude, 1344 in latitude, and 1024 radial levels. We will show various features of these numerical simulations, including what appears as trends when pushing the parameters toward the one of the Earth. The dynamics is very rich. From short time scales to large time scales, we observe at large scales: Inertial Waves, Torsional Alfvén Waves, columnar convective overturn dynamics and long-term thermal winds. In addition, the dynamics inside and outside the tangent cylinder seem to follow different routes. We find that the ohmic dissipation largely dominates the viscous one and that the magnetic energy dominates the kinetic energy. The magnetic field seems to play an ambiguous role. Despite the large magnetic field, which has an important impact on the flow, we find that the force balance for the mean flow is a thermal wind balance, and that the scale of convective cells is still dominated by viscous effects.
EVIDENCE OF ACTIVE MHD INSTABILITY IN EULAG-MHD SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION
Lawson, Nicolas; Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul, E-mail: nicolas.laws@gmail.ca, E-mail: strugarek@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2015-11-10
We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD “millennium simulation” of Passos and Charbonneau. This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally oriented bands of strong magnetic fields accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly sub-adiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities that are otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of sub-adiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.
Hossain, Md. Anwar; Rees, D.A.S.
2002-05-01
The effect of surface tension on unsteady laminar natural convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in a rectangle enclosure with internal heat generation and in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field acting in the direction normal to the gravity has been investigated. The top horizontal surface of the rectangular cavity is assumed to be free and the bottom ones insulated; whereas the left vertical wall is cold and the right one is uniformly hot. The equations are non-dimensionalized and solved numerically by an upwind finite difference method together with a successive over-relaxation (SOR) technique. The effects of heat generation together with the combined effects of the magnetic field and the surface tension are presented graphically in terms of isotherms, streamlines and velocity vector plots. The effects of varying the physical parameters on the rate of heat transfer from the heated surface of the enclosure are also depicted. The fluid here has Prandtl number Pr=0.054 while the value of the Grashof number is 2x10 4 . (author)
Spiga, A.; Madeleine, J. B.; Hinson, D.; Millour, E.; Forget, F.; Navarro, T.; Määttänen, A.; Montmessin, F.
2017-09-01
We unveil two examples of deep convection on Mars - in dust storms and water-ice clouds - to demonstrate that the radiative effect of aerosols and clouds can lead to powerful convective motions just as much as the release of latent heat in moist convection
Turbulent transport coefficients in spherical wedge dynamo simulations of solar-like stars
Warnecke, J.; Rheinhardt, M.; Tuomisto, S.; Käpylä, P. J.; Käpylä, M. J.; Brandenburg, A.
2018-01-01
Aims: We investigate dynamo action in global compressible solar-like convective dynamos in the framework of mean-field theory. Methods: We simulate a solar-type star in a wedge-shaped spherical shell, where the interplay between convection and rotation self-consistently drives a large-scale dynamo. To analyze the dynamo mechanism we apply the test-field method for azimuthally (φ) averaged fields to determine the 27 turbulent transport coefficients of the electromotive force, of which six are related to the α tensor. This method has previously been used either in simulations in Cartesian coordinates or in the geodynamo context and is applied here for the first time to fully compressible simulations of solar-like dynamos. Results: We find that the φφ-component of the α tensor does not follow the profile expected from that of kinetic helicity. The turbulent pumping velocities significantly alter the effective mean flows acting on the magnetic field and therefore challenge the flux transport dynamo concept. All coefficients are significantly affected by dynamically important magnetic fields. Quenching as well as enhancement are being observed. This leads to a modulation of the coefficients with the activity cycle. The temporal variations are found to be comparable to the time-averaged values and seem to be responsible for a nonlinear feedback on the magnetic field generation. Furthermore, we quantify the validity of the Parker-Yoshimura rule for the equatorward propagation of the mean magnetic field in the present case.
Yang, T.; Wang, L.
A numerical study is made on the fully developed bifurcation structure and stability of forced convection in a rotating curved duct of square cross-section. Solution structure is determined as variation of a parameter that indicates the effect of rotation (Coriolis-force-driven multiplicity). Three solutions for the flows in a stationary curved duct obtained in the work of Yang and Wang [1] are used as initial solutions of continuation calculations to unfold the solution branches. Twenty-one solution branches are found comparing with five obtained by Selmi and Nandakumar [2]. Dynamic responses of the multiple solutions to finite random disturbances are examined by the direct transient computation. Results show that characteristics of physically realizable fully developed flows changes significantly with variation of effect of rotation. Fourteen sub-ranges are identified according to characteristics of physically realizable solutions. As rotation effect changes, possible physically realizable fully-developed flows can be stable steady 2-cell state, stable multi-cell state, temporal periodic oscillation between symmetric/asymmetric 2-cell/4-cell flows, temporal oscillation with intermittency, temporal chaotic oscillation and temporal oscillation with pseudo intermittency. Among these possible physically realizable fully developed flows, stable multi-cell state and stable steady 2-cell state exist as dual stable. And oscillation with pseudo intermittency is a new phenomenon. In addition to the temporal oscillation with intermittency, sudden shift from stationary stable solution to temporal chaotic oscillation is identified to be another way of onset of chaos.
A one-dimensional model of the semiannual oscillation driven by convectively forced gravity waves
Sassi, Fabrizio; Garcia, Rolando R.
1994-01-01
A one-dimensional model that solves the time-dependent equations for the zonal mean wind and a wave of specified zonal wavenumber has been used to illustrate the ability of gravity waves forced by time-dependent tropospheric heating to produce a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the middle atmosphere. When the heating has a strong diurnal cycle, as observed over tropical landmasses, gravity waves with zonal wavelengths of a few thousand kilometers and phase velocities in the range +/- 40-50 m/sec are excited efficiently by the maximum vertical projection criterion (vertical wavelength approximately equals 2 x forcing depth). Calculations show that these waves can account for large zonal mean wind accelerations in the middle atmosphere, resulting in realistic stratopause and mesopause oscillations. Calculations of the temporal evolution of a quasi-conserved tracer indicate strong down-welling in the upper stratosphere near the equinoxes, which is associated with the descent of the SAO westerlies. In the upper mesosphere, there is a semiannual oscillation in tracer mixing ratio driven by seasonal variability in eddy mixing, which increases at the solstices and decreases at the equinoxes.
Physical conditions for Jupiter-like dynamo models
Duarte, Lúcia D. V.; Wicht, Johannes; Gastine, Thomas
2018-01-01
The Juno mission will measure Jupiter's magnetic field with unprecedented precision and provide a wealth of additional data that will allow us to constrain the planet's interior structure and dynamics. Here we analyse 66 different numerical simulations in order to explore the sensitivity of the dynamo-generated magnetic field to the planets interior properties. Jupiter field models based on pre-Juno data and up-to-date interior models based on ab initio simulations serve as benchmarks. Our results suggest that Jupiter-like magnetic fields can be found for a number of different models. These complement the steep density gradients in the outer part of the simulated shell with an electrical conductivity profile that mimics the low conductivity in the molecular hydrogen layer and thus renders the dynamo action in this region largely unimportant. We find that whether we assume an ideal gas or use the more realistic interior model based on ab initio simulations makes no difference. However, two other factors are important. A low Rayleigh number leads to a too strong axial dipole contribution while the axial dipole dominance is lost altogether when the convective driving is too strong. The required intermediate range that yields Jupiter-like magnetic fields depends on the other system properties. The second important factor is the convective magnetic Reynolds number radial profile Rmc(r), basically a product of the non-axisymmetric flow velocity and electrical conductivity. We find that the depth where Rmc exceeds about 50 is a good proxy for the top of the dynamo region. When the dynamo region sits too deep, the axial dipole is once more too dominant due to geometric reasons. Extrapolating our results to Jupiter and the result suggests that the Jovian dynamo extends to 95% of the planetary radius. The zonal flow system in our simulations is dominated by an equatorial jet which remains largely confined to the molecular layer. Where the jet reaches down to higher
Numerical models of planetary dynamos
Glatzmaier, G.A.; Roberts, P.H.
1992-01-01
We describe a nonlinear, axisymmetric, spherical-shell model of planetary dynamos. This intermediate-type dynamo model requires a prescribed helicity field (the alpha effect) and a prescribed buoyancy force or thermal wind (the omega effect) and solves for the axisymmetric time-dependent magnetic and velocity fields. Three very different time dependent solutions are obtained from different prescribed sets of alpha and omega fields
On the saturation of astrophysical dynamos
Dorch, Bertil; Archontis, Vasilis
2004-01-01
In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate in the li......In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate...
Fierro, Elisa; Capitanio, Fabio A.; Schettino, Antonio; Morena Salerno, V.
2017-04-01
We use numerical modeling to investigate the coupling of mantle instabilities and surface tectonics along lithospheric steps developing during rifting. We address whether edge driven convection (EDC) beneath rifted continental margins and shear flow during rift-drift transition can play a role in the observed post-rift compressive tectonic evolution of the divergent continental margins along the Red Sea. We run a series of 2D simulations to examine the relationship between the maximum compression and key geometrical parameters of the step beneath continental margins, such as the step height due to lithosphere thickness variation and the width of the margins, and test the effect of rheology varying temperature- and stress-dependent viscosity in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. The development of instabilities is initially illustrated as a function of these parameters, to show the controls on the lithosphere strain distribution and magnitude. We then address the transient evolution of the instabilities to characterize their duration. In an additional suite of models, we address the development of EDC during plate motions, thus accounting for the mantle shearing due to spreading. Our results show an increase of strain with the step height as well as with the margin width up to 200 km. After this value the influence of ridge margin can be neglected. Strain rates are, then, quantified for a range of laboratory-constrained constitutive laws for mantle and lithosphere forming minerals. These models propose a viable mechanism to explain the post-rift tectonic inversion observed along the Arabian continental margin and the episodic ultra-fast sea floor spreading in the central Red Sea, where the role of EDC has been invoked.
Core flow inversion tested with numerical dynamo models
Rau, Steffen; Christensen, Ulrich; Jackson, Andrew; Wicht, Johannes
2000-05-01
We test inversion methods of geomagnetic secular variation data for the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the core with synthetic data. These are taken from self-consistent 3-D models of convection-driven magnetohydrodynamic dynamos in rotating spherical shells, which generate dipole-dominated magnetic fields with an Earth-like morphology. We find that the frozen-flux approximation, which is fundamental to all inversion schemes, is satisfied to a fair degree in the models. In order to alleviate the non-uniqueness of the inversion, usually a priori conditions are imposed on the flow; for example, it is required to be purely toroidal or geostrophic. Either condition is nearly satisfied by our model flows near the outer surface. However, most of the surface velocity field lies in the nullspace of the inversion problem. Nonetheless, the a priori constraints reduce the nullspace, and by inverting the magnetic data with either one of them we recover a significant part of the flow. With the geostrophic condition the correlation coefficient between the inverted and the true velocity field can reach values of up to 0.65, depending on the choice of the damping parameter. The correlation is significant at the 95 per cent level for most spherical harmonic degrees up to l=26. However, it degrades substantially, even at long wavelengths, when we truncate the magnetic data sets to l currents, similar to those seen in core-flow models derived from geomagnetic data, occur in the equatorial region. However, the true flow does not contain this flow component. The results suggest that some meaningful information on the core-flow pattern can be retrieved from secular variation data, but also that the limited resolution of the magnetic core field could produce serious artefacts.
MHD dynamo action in space plasmas
Faelthammar, C.G.
1984-05-01
Electric currents are now recognized to play a major role in the physical process of the Earths magnetosphere as well as in distant astrophysical plasmas. In driving these currents MHD dynamos as well as generators of a thermoelectric nature are important. The primary source of power for the Earths magnetospheric process is the solar wind, which supplies a voltage of the order of 200 kV across the magnetosphere. The direction of the large-scale solar wind electric field varies of many different time scales. The power input to the magnetosphere is closely correlated with the direction of the large-scale solar wind electric field in such a fashion as to mimick the response of a half-wave rectifier with a down-to-dusk conduction direction. Behind this apparently simple response there are complex plasma physical processes that are still very incompletely understood. They are intimately related to auroras, magnetic storms, radiation belts and changes in magnetospheric plasma populations. Similar dynamo actions should occur at other planets having magnetospheres. Recent observations seem to indicate that part of the power input to the Earths magnetosphere comes through MHD dynamo action of a forced plasma flow inside the flanks of the magnetopause and may play a role in other parts of the magnetosphere, too. An example of a cosmical MHD connected to a solid load is the corotating plasma of Jupiters inner magnetosphere, sweeping past the plants inner satelites. In particular the electric currents thereby driven to and from the satellite Io have attracted considerable interest.(author)
Hejda, Pavel; Reshetnyak, M.
2010-01-01
Roč. 104, č. 5-6 (2010), s. 491-504 ISSN 0309-1929 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Boussinesq convection * geostrophy * quenching * triads Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.831, year: 2010
Furno, I.; Weisen, H.
2003-01-01
In the Tokamak a Configuration Variable [F. Hofmann, J.B. Lister, M. Anton et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 36, B277 (1994)], inward or outward convection in the core of electron cyclotron heated and current driven plasmas is observed, depending on discharge conditions. In sawtoothing discharges with central electron cyclotron heating, outward convection is observed when a quasicontinuous m=1 kink mode is present, resulting in inverted sawteeth on the central electron density, while in the absence thereof, inward convection between successive sawtooth crashes leads to 'normal' sawteeth. The occurrence of a kink mode depends sensitively on plasma triangularity. When sawteeth are stabilized with central co- or counterelectron cyclotron current drive, stationary hollow electron density profiles are observed in the presence of m=1 modes, while peaked or flat profiles are observed in magnetohydrodynamic quiescent discharges. The observation of peaked density profiles in fully electron cyclotron driven plasmas demonstrates that pinch processes other than the Ware pinch must be responsible for these phenomena
Faraday's first dynamo: A retrospective
Smith, Glenn S.
2013-12-01
In the early 1830s, Michael Faraday performed his seminal experimental research on electromagnetic induction, in which he created the first electric dynamo—a machine for continuously converting rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy. His machine was a conducting disc, rotating between the poles of a permanent magnet, with the voltage/current obtained from brushes contacting the disc. In his first dynamo, the magnetic field was asymmetric with respect to the axis of the disc. This is to be contrasted with some of his later symmetric designs, which are the ones almost invariably discussed in textbooks on electromagnetism. In this paper, a theoretical analysis is developed for Faraday's first dynamo. From this analysis, the eddy currents in the disc and the open-circuit voltage for arbitrary positioning of the brushes are determined. The approximate analysis is verified by comparing theoretical results with measurements made on an experimental recreation of the dynamo. Quantitative results from the analysis are used to elucidate Faraday's qualitative observations, from which he learned so much about electromagnetic induction. For the asymmetric design, the eddy currents in the disc dissipate energy that makes the dynamo inefficient, prohibiting its use as a practical generator of electric power. Faraday's experiments with his first dynamo provided valuable insight into electromagnetic induction, and this insight was quickly used by others to design practical generators.
Consequences of high effective Prandtl number on solar differential rotation and convective velocity
Karak, Bidya Binay; Miesch, Mark; Bekki, Yuto
2018-04-01
Observations suggest that the large-scale convective velocities obtained by solar convection simulations might be over-estimated (convective conundrum). One plausible solution to this could be the small-scale dynamo which cannot be fully resolved by global simulations. The small-scale Lorentz force suppresses the convective motions and also the turbulent mixing of entropy between upflows and downflows, leading to a large effective Prandtl number (Pr). We explore this idea in three-dimensional global rotating convection simulations at different thermal conductivity (κ), i.e., at different Pr. In agreement with previous non-rotating simulations, the convective velocity is reduced with the increase of Pr as long as the thermal conductive flux is negligible. A subadiabatic layer is formed near the base of the convection zone due to continuous deposition of low entropy plumes in low-κ simulations. The most interesting result of our low-κ simulations is that the convective motions are accompanied by a change in the convection structure that is increasingly influenced by small-scale plumes. These plumes tend to transport angular momentum radially inward and thus establish an anti-solar differential rotation, in striking contrast to the solar rotation profile. If such low diffusive plumes, driven by the radiative-surface cooling, are present in the Sun, then our results cast doubt on the idea that a high effective Pr may be a viable solution to the solar convective conundrum. Our study also emphasizes that any resolution of the conundrum that relies on the downward plumes must take into account the angular momentum transport and heat transport.
Karak, Bidya Binay; Cameron, Robert, E-mail: bkarak@ucar.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2016-11-20
The key elements of the Babcock–Leighton dynamos are the generation of poloidal field through decay and the dispersal of tilted bipolar active regions and the generation of toroidal field through the observed differential rotation. These models are traditionally known as flux transport dynamo models as the equatorward propagations of the butterfly wings in these models are produced due to an equatorward flow at the bottom of the convection zone. Here we investigate the role of downward magnetic pumping near the surface using a kinematic Babcock–Leighton model. We find that the pumping causes the poloidal field to become predominately radial in the near-surface shear layer, which allows the negative radial shear to effectively act on the radial field to produce a toroidal field. We observe a clear equatorward migration of the toroidal field at low latitudes as a consequence of the dynamo wave even when there is no meridional flow in the deep convection zone. Both the dynamo wave and the flux transport type solutions are thus able to reproduce some of the observed features of the solar cycle including the 11-year periodicity. The main difference between the two types of solutions is the strength of the Babcock–Leighton source required to produce the dynamo action. A second consequence of the magnetic pumping is that it suppresses the diffusion of fields through the surface, which helps to allow an 11-year cycle at (moderately) larger values of magnetic diffusivity than have previously been used.
Karak, Bidya Binay; Cameron, Robert
2016-01-01
The key elements of the Babcock–Leighton dynamos are the generation of poloidal field through decay and the dispersal of tilted bipolar active regions and the generation of toroidal field through the observed differential rotation. These models are traditionally known as flux transport dynamo models as the equatorward propagations of the butterfly wings in these models are produced due to an equatorward flow at the bottom of the convection zone. Here we investigate the role of downward magnetic pumping near the surface using a kinematic Babcock–Leighton model. We find that the pumping causes the poloidal field to become predominately radial in the near-surface shear layer, which allows the negative radial shear to effectively act on the radial field to produce a toroidal field. We observe a clear equatorward migration of the toroidal field at low latitudes as a consequence of the dynamo wave even when there is no meridional flow in the deep convection zone. Both the dynamo wave and the flux transport type solutions are thus able to reproduce some of the observed features of the solar cycle including the 11-year periodicity. The main difference between the two types of solutions is the strength of the Babcock–Leighton source required to produce the dynamo action. A second consequence of the magnetic pumping is that it suppresses the diffusion of fields through the surface, which helps to allow an 11-year cycle at (moderately) larger values of magnetic diffusivity than have previously been used.
Effects of anisotropies in turbulent magnetic diffusion in mean-field solar dynamo models
Pipin, V. V. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); Kosovichev, A. G. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2014-04-10
We study how anisotropies of turbulent diffusion affect the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields and the dynamo process on the Sun. The effect of anisotropy is calculated in a mean-field magnetohydrodynamics framework assuming that triple correlations provide relaxation to the turbulent electromotive force (so-called the 'minimal τ-approximation'). We examine two types of mean-field dynamo models: the well-known benchmark flux-transport model and a distributed-dynamo model with a subsurface rotational shear layer. For both models, we investigate effects of the double- and triple-cell meridional circulation, recently suggested by helioseismology and numerical simulations. To characterize the anisotropy effects, we introduce a parameter of anisotropy as a ratio of the radial and horizontal intensities of turbulent mixing. It is found that the anisotropy affects the distribution of magnetic fields inside the convection zone. The concentration of the magnetic flux near the bottom and top boundaries of the convection zone is greater when the anisotropy is stronger. It is shown that the critical dynamo number and the dynamo period approach to constant values for large values of the anisotropy parameter. The anisotropy reduces the overlap of toroidal magnetic fields generated in subsequent dynamo cycles, in the time-latitude 'butterfly' diagram. If we assume that sunspots are formed in the vicinity of the subsurface shear layer, then the distributed dynamo model with the anisotropic diffusivity satisfies the observational constraints from helioseismology and is consistent with the value of effective turbulent diffusion estimated from the dynamics of surface magnetic fields.
Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. II. Simulations
Schober, Jennifer; Rogachevskii, Igor; Brandenburg, Axel; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Kleeorin, Nathan
2018-05-01
Using direct numerical simulations (DNS), we study laminar and turbulent dynamos in chiral magnetohydrodynamics with an extended set of equations that accounts for an additional contribution to the electric current due to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). This quantum phenomenon originates from an asymmetry between left- and right-handed relativistic fermions in the presence of a magnetic field and gives rise to a chiral dynamo. We show that the magnetic field evolution proceeds in three stages: (1) a small-scale chiral dynamo instability, (2) production of chiral magnetically driven turbulence and excitation of a large-scale dynamo instability due to a new chiral effect (α μ effect), and (3) saturation of magnetic helicity and magnetic field growth controlled by a conservation law for the total chirality. The α μ effect becomes dominant at large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers and is not related to kinetic helicity. The growth rate of the large-scale magnetic field and its characteristic scale measured in the numerical simulations agree well with theoretical predictions based on mean-field theory. The previously discussed two-stage chiral magnetic scenario did not include stage (2), during which the characteristic scale of magnetic field variations can increase by many orders of magnitude. Based on the findings from numerical simulations, the relevance of the CME and the chiral effects revealed in the relativistic plasma of the early universe and of proto-neutron stars are discussed.
Simulation study of dynamo structure in reversed field pinch
Nagata, A.; Sato, K.I.; Ashida, H.; Amano, T.
1992-10-01
The dynamo structure in the reversed field pinch (RFP) is studied through the nonlinear dynamics of single-helicity mode. Simulation is concentrated upon the physical structure of nonlinear interactions of the plasma flow and magnetic fluctuation. The result indicates that when the initial equilibrium profile is deformed by resistive diffusion, the radial flow is driven near the core of the plasma. As this flow forms a vortex structure and magnetic fluctuation grows radially, the dynamo electric field is spirally induced just inside the reversal surface and then the toroidal flux is increased. This dynamo electric field correlates to nonlinear evolution of the kinetic energy of m=1 mode, and the increase of the toroidal flux is originated in the growth process of the magnetic energy of this mode. Consequently, the RFP configuration can be sustained by the single-helicity evolution of m=1 mode alone, and the electric field induced by the interactions of the toroidal velocity and the radial magnetic field is the most dominant source on the dynamo action. (author)
Dynamo Tests for Stratification Below the Core-Mantle Boundary
Olson, P.; Landeau, M.
2017-12-01
Evidence from seismology, mineral physics, and core dynamics points to a layer with an overall stable stratification in the Earth's outer core, possibly thermal in origin, extending below the core-mantle boundary (CMB) for several hundred kilometers. In contrast, energetic deep mantle convection with elevated heat flux implies locally unstable thermal stratification below the CMB in places, consistent with interpretations of non-dipole geomagnetic field behavior that favor upwelling flows below the CMB. Here, we model the structure of convection and magnetic fields in the core using numerical dynamos with laterally heterogeneous boundary heat flux in order to rationalize this conflicting evidence. Strongly heterogeneous boundary heat flux generates localized convection beneath the CMB that coexists with an overall stable stratification there. Partially stratified dynamos have distinctive time average magnetic field structures. Without stratification or with stratification confined to a thin layer, the octupole component is small and the CMB magnetic field structure includes polar intensity minima. With more extensive stratification, the octupole component is large and the magnetic field structure includes intense patches or high intensity lobes in the polar regions. Comparisons with the time-averaged geomagnetic field are generally favorable for partial stratification in a thin layer but unfavorable for stratification in a thick layer beneath the CMB.
A wet, heterogeneous lunar interior: Lower mantle and core dynamo evolution
Evans, A. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Weiss, B. P.; Tikoo, S. M.
2014-05-01
While recent analyses of lunar samples indicate the Moon had a core dynamo from at least 4.2-3.56 Ga, mantle convection models of the Moon yield inadequate heat flux at the core-mantle boundary to sustain thermal core convection for such a long time. Past investigations of lunar dynamos have focused on a generally homogeneous, relatively dry Moon, while an initial compositionally stratified mantle is the expected consequence of a postaccretionary lunar magma ocean. Furthermore, recent re-examination of Apollo samples and geophysical data suggests that the Moon contains at least some regions with high water content. Using a finite element model, we investigate the possible consequences of a heterogeneously wet, compositionally stratified interior for the evolution of the Moon. We find that a postoverturn model of mantle cumulates could result in a core heat flux sufficiently high to sustain a dynamo through 2.5 Ga and a maximum surface, dipolar magnetic field strength of less than 1 μT for a 350-km core and near ˜2 μT for a 450-km core. We find that if water was transported or retained preferentially in the deep interior, it would have played a significant role in transporting heat out of the deep interior and reducing the lower mantle temperature. Thus, water, if enriched in the lower mantle, could have influenced core dynamo timing by over 1.0 Gyr and enhanced the vigor of a lunar core dynamo. Our results demonstrate the plausibility of a convective lunar core dynamo even beyond the period currently indicated by the Apollo samples.
Introduction to Plasma Dynamo, Reconnection and Shocks
Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-08-30
In our plasma universe, most of what we can observe is composed of ionized gas, or plasma. This plasma is a conducting fluid, which advects magnetic fields when it flows. Magnetic structure occurs from the smallest planetary to the largest cosmic scales. We introduce at a basic level some interesting features of non linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). For example, in our plasma universe, dynamo creates magnetic fields from gravitationally driven flow energy in an electrically conducting medium, and conversely magnetic reconnection annihilates magnetic field and accelerates particles. Shocks occur when flows move faster than the local velocity (sonic or Alfven speed) for the propagation of information. Both reconnection and shocks can accelerate particles, perhaps to gigantic energies, for example as observed with 10{sup 20} eV cosmic rays.
Šimkanin, Ján; Kyselica, Juraj
2017-12-01
Numerical simulations of the geodynamo are becoming more realistic because of advances in computer technology. Here, the geodynamo model is investigated numerically at the extremely low Ekman and magnetic Prandtl numbers using the PARODY dynamo code. These parameters are more realistic than those used in previous numerical studies of the geodynamo. Our model is based on the Boussinesq approximation and the temperature gradient between upper and lower boundaries is a source of convection. This study attempts to answer the question how realistic the geodynamo models are. Numerical results show that our dynamo belongs to the strong-field dynamos. The generated magnetic field is dipolar and large-scale while convection is small-scale and sheet-like flows (plumes) are preferred to a columnar convection. Scales of magnetic and velocity fields are separated, which enables hydromagnetic dynamos to maintain the magnetic field at the low magnetic Prandtl numbers. The inner core rotation rate is lower than that in previous geodynamo models. On the other hand, dimensional magnitudes of velocity and magnetic fields and those of the magnetic and viscous dissipation are larger than those expected in the Earth's core due to our parameter range chosen.
Magnetic fluctuation induced transport and edge dynamo measurements in the MST reversed-field pinch
Hokin, S.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.
1994-09-01
Probe measurements in MST indicate that RFP particle and energy loss is governed by magnetic fluctuations inside r/a = 0.8, with energy carried out convectively by superthermal electrons. The radial loss rate is lower than the Rechester-Rosenbluth level, presumably due to the establishment of a restraining ambipolar potential. Several aspects of these measurements contradict the Kinetic Dynamo Theory, while the MHD dynamo EMF is measured to be large enough to drive the edge current carried by these superthermal electrons
The metastable dynamo model of stellar rotational evolution
Brown, Timothy M.
2014-01-01
This paper introduces a new empirical model for the rotational evolution of Sun-like stars—those with surface convection zones and non-convective interior regions. Previous models do not match the morphology of observed (rotation period)-color diagrams, notably the existence of a relatively long-lived 'C-sequence' of fast rotators first identified by Barnes. This failure motivates the Metastable Dynamo Model (MDM) described here. The MDM posits that stars are born with their magnetic dynamos operating in a mode that couples very weakly to the stellar wind, so their (initially very short) rotation periods at first change little with time. At some point, this mode spontaneously and randomly changes to a strongly coupled mode, the transition occurring with a mass-dependent lifetime that is of the order of 100 Myr. I show that with this assumption, one can obtain good fits to observations of young clusters, particularly for ages of 150-200 Myr. Previous models and the MDM both give qualitative agreement with the morphology of the slower-rotating 'I-sequence' stars, but none of them have been shown to accurately reproduce the stellar-mass-dependent evolution of the I-sequence stars, especially for clusters older than a few hundred million years. I discuss observational experiments that can test aspects of the MDM, and speculate that the physics underlying the MDM may be related to other situations described in the literature, in which stellar dynamos may have a multi-modal character.
Farajzadeh, R. [Shell International Exploration and Production, Houston, TX (United States); Ranganathan, P.; Zitha, P.L.J.; Bruining, J. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)
2010-07-01
This paper investigated the effect of heterogeneity on the character of natural-convection flow of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in aquifers and on the dissolution rate of CO{sub 2} in brine, contributing to a better understanding of the effect of heterogeneity on CO{sub 2} mass transfer in aquifers, which is necessary for efficient storage of CO{sub 2} in aquifers. The aquifer permeability, which is in practice heterogeneous, largely governs the efficiency of mixing in density-driven natural convection. The aquifer's degree of permeability variance and the correlation length informs the character of flow-driven mixing processes. Numerical simulation was used to identify different flow regimes of a density-driven natural flow regime. Heterogeneous fields were generated using a spectral method that allows the use of power-law variograms. From the simulations it was observed that the rate of mass transfer of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into water is higher for heterogeneous media. The formulation of the physical model and related equations and the method for generating the permeability fields were described. The simulation results indicated that gravity-induced fingering is the dominant pattern in low heterogeneity, but fingering will not occur in realistic porous media. The results also showed that the permeability field structure dominates at moderate heterogeneity, and that the flow is dispersive at high heterogeneity when the correlation length of the field is small. Heterogeneous media facilitate a larger rate of CO{sub 2} dissolution than homogenous media, which means that the former can store larger volumes of CO{sub 2}. 49 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs.
A Model of the Turbulent Electric Dynamo in Multi-Phase Media
Dementyeva, Svetlana; Mareev, Evgeny
2016-04-01
Many terrestrial and astrophysical phenomena witness the conversion of kinetic energy into electric energy (the energy of the quasi-stationary electric field) in conducting media, which is natural to treat as manifestations of electric dynamo by analogy with well-known theory of magnetic dynamo. Such phenomena include thunderstorms and lightning in the Earth's atmosphere and atmospheres of other planets, electric activity caused by dust storms in terrestrial and Martian atmospheres, snow storms, electrical discharges occurring in technological setups, connected with intense mixing of aerosol particles like in the milling industry. We have developed a model of the large-scale turbulent electric dynamo in a weakly conducting medium, containing two heavy-particle components. We have distinguished two main classes of charging mechanisms (inductive and non-inductive) in accordance with the dependence or independence of the electric charge, transferred during a particle collision, on the electric field intensity and considered the simplified models which demonstrate the possibility of dynamo realization and its specific peculiarities for these mechanisms. Dynamo (the large-scale electric field growth) appears due to the charge separation between the colliding and rebounding particles. This process is may be greatly intensified by the turbulent mixing of particles with different masses and, consequently, different inertia. The particle charge fluctuations themselves (small-scale dynamo), however, do not automatically mean growth of the large-scale electric field without a large-scale asymmetry. Such an asymmetry arises due to the dependence of the transferred charge magnitude on the electric field intensity in the case of the inductive mechanism of charge separation, or due to the gravity and convection for non-inductive mechanisms. We have found that in the case of the inductive mechanism the large-scale dynamo occurs if the medium conductivity is small enough while the
Bipolar Jets Launched by a Mean-field Accretion Disk Dynamo
Fendt, Christian; Gaßmann, Dennis
2018-03-01
By applying magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the launching of jets driven by a disk magnetic field generated by a mean-field disk dynamo. Extending our earlier studies, we explore the bipolar evolution of the disk α 2Ω-dynamo and the outflow. We confirm that a negative dynamo-α leads to a dipolar field geometry, whereas positive values generate quadrupolar fields. The latter remain mainly confined to the disk and cannot launch outflows. We investigate a parameter range for the dynamo-α ranging from a critical value below which field generation is negligible, {α }0,{crit}=-0.0005, to α 0 = ‑1.0. For weak | {α }0| ≤slant 0.07, two magnetic loop structures with opposite polarity may arise, which leads to reconnection and disturbs the field evolution and accretion-ejection process. For a strong dynamo-α, a higher poloidal magnetic energy is reached, roughly scaling with {E}mag}∼ | {α }0| , which also leads to higher accretion and ejection rates. The terminal jet speed is governed by the available magnetic energy and increases with the dynamo-α. We find jet velocities on the order of the inner disk Keplerian velocity. For a strong dynamo-α, oscillating dynamo modes may occur that can lead to a pulsed ejection. This is triggered by an oscillating mode in the toroidal field component. The oscillation period is comparable to the Keplerian timescale in the launching region, thus too short to be associated with the knots in observed jets. We find a hemispherically asymmetric evolution for the jet and counter-jet in the mass flux and field structure.
New results on an equipartition dynamo
Dorch, S. B. F.; Archontis, V.
2006-01-01
This contribution presents results from numerical computer experiments with a 3-d steady sine flow (with zero mean helicity) that drives fast dynamo action. The mode of operation of this so-called ``no-cosines" dynamo (recently dubbed ``the Archontis dynamo"" by David Galloway) was studied during...... significantly higher that intermittent turbulent dynamos: Namely very close to energy equipartition for high Reynolds numbers. The equipartition solution however is not turbulent but a laminar solution that acts as an attractor to other modes. Similarities and differences, in the way the magnetic field...
Azam, Mohammad, E-mail: azam09mebuet@gmail.com; Hasanuzzaman, Md., E-mail: hasanuzzaman138@gmail.com; Saha, Sumon, E-mail: sumonsaha@me.buet.ac.bd [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)
2016-07-12
The present study investigates the thermal mixing scenarios of steady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection in a two-dimensional lid-driven trapezoidal cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid. The top wall of the cavity slides with a uniform velocity from left to right direction, while the other walls are fixed. The bottom wall is kept with a constant higher temperature than the top one. The governing mass, momentum and energy equations are expressed in non-dimensional forms and Galerkin finite element method has been employed to solve these equations. Special attention is paid on investigating the onset of transition from laminar to chaos at pure mixed convection case. Hence, the computations are carried out for a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re = 0.1 − 400) and Grashof numbers (Gr = 10{sup −2} − 1.6 × 10{sup 5}) at unity Richardson number and fixed Hartmann number (Ha = 10). The variation of average Nusselt number of the bottom heated wall indicates the influence of governing parameters (Re and Gr) on heat transfer characteristics. The results are presented and explained through the visualisation of isotherms, streamlines and heatlines.
G.A. Sheikhzadeh
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, mixed convection of Al2O3-EG-Water nanofluid in a square lid-driven enclosure is investigated numerically. The focus of this study is on the effects of variable thermophysical properties of the nanofluid on the heat transfer characteristics. The top moving and the bottom stationary horizontal walls are insulated, while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. The study is carried out for Richardson numbers of 0.01–1000, the solid volume fractions of 0–0.05 and the Grashof number of 104. The transport equations are solved numerically with a finite volume approach using the SIMPLER algorithm. The results show that the Nusselt number is mainly affected by the viscosity, density and conductivity variations. For low Richardson numbers, although viscosity increases by increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction, due to high intensity convection of enhanced conductivity nanofluid, the average Nusselt number increases for both constant and variable cases. However, for high Richardson numbers, as the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases heat transfer enhancement occurs for the constant properties cases but deterioration in heat transfer occurs for the variable properties cases. The distinction is due to underestimation of viscosity of the nanofluid by the constant viscosity model in the constant properties cases and states important effects of temperature dependency of thermophysical properties, in particular the viscosity distribution in the domain.
Sumit Malik
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, a two sided lid-driven mixed convection nanofluid flow with discrete heat sources have been numerically investigated. A two dimensional computational visualization technique is used to study the flow behavior using four different cases; depending on the direction of moving vertical walls with fixed upper and lower walls. Two discrete heat sources of equal lengths are taken on the lower wall and the rest of it is kept insulated. The other walls are kept at constant low temperature. The effect of flow governing parameters such as Reynolds number 1⩽Re⩽100, Richardson number 0.1⩽Ri⩽10 and solid volume fraction 0.0⩽ϕ⩽0.2 with Prandtl number Pr=6.2 is studied to understand the fluid flow pattern and the heat transfer effect using isotherms and average Nusselt number.
The pattern of convection in the Sun
Weiss, N.O.
1976-01-01
The structure of solar magnetic fields is dominated by the effects of convection, which should be incorporated in any model of the solar cycle. Although mixing length theory is adequate for calculating the structure of main sequence stars, a better description of convection is needed for any detailed dynamo model. Recent work on nonlinear convection at low Prandt numbers is reviewed. There has been some progress towards a theory of compressible convection, though there is still no firm theoretical evidence for cells with scales less than the depth of the convecting layer. However, it remains likely that the pattern of solar convection is dominated by granules, supergranules and giant cells. The effects of rotation on these cells are briefly considered. (Auth.)
Khan Md. Rabbi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Mixed convection has been a center point of attraction to the heat transfer engineers for many years. Here, pure mixed convection analysis in cavity is carried out for two different geometric heater configurations under externally applied magnetic field. Ferrofluid (Fe3O4–water is considered as working fluid and modeled as single phase fluid. The heaters at the bottom wall are kept at constant high temperature while vertical side walls are adiabatic. The top wall is moving at a constant velocity in both geometric configurations and is kept at constant low temperature. Galerkin weighted residuals method of finite element analysis is implemented to solve the governing equations. The analysis has been carried out for a wide range of Richardson number (Ri = 0.1–10, Reynolds number (Re = 100–500, Hartmann number (Ha = 0–100 and solid volume fraction (φ = 0–0.15 of ferrofluid. The overall heat transfer performance for both the configurations is quantitatively investigated by average Nusselt number at the heated boundary wall. It is observed that higher Ri enhances the heat transfer rate, although higher Ha decreases heat transfer rate. Moreover, at higher Ri and lower Ha, semi-circular notched cavity shows significantly better (more than 30% heat transfer rate.
Non-kinematic Flux-transport Dynamos Including the Effects of Diffusivity Quenching
Ichimura, Chiaki; Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2017-04-10
Turbulent magnetic diffusivity is quenched when strong magnetic fields suppress turbulent motion in a phenomenon known as diffusivity quenching. Diffusivity quenching can provide a mechanism for amplifying magnetic field and influencing global velocity fields through Lorentz force feedback. To investigate this effect, we conducted mean field flux-transport dynamo simulations that included the effects of diffusivity quenching in a non-kinematic regime. We found that toroidal magnetic field strength is amplified by up to approximately 1.5 times in the convection zone as a result of diffusivity quenching. This amplification is much weaker than that in kinematic cases as a result of Lorentz force feedback on the system’s differential rotation. While amplified toroidal fields lead to the suppression of equatorward meridional flow locally near the base of the convection zone, large-scale equatorward transport of magnetic flux via meridional flow, which is the essential process of the flux-transport dynamo, is sustainable in our calculations.
Some consequences of shear on galactic dynamos with helicity fluxes
Zhou, Hongzhe; Blackman, Eric G.
2017-08-01
Galactic dynamo models sustained by supernova (SN) driven turbulence and differential rotation have revealed that the sustenance of large-scale fields requires a flux of small-scale magnetic helicity to be viable. Here we generalize a minimalist analytic version of such galactic dynamos to explore some heretofore unincluded contributions from shear on the total turbulent energy and turbulent correlation time, with the helicity fluxes maintained by either winds, diffusion or magnetic buoyancy. We construct an analytic framework for modelling the turbulent energy and correlation time as a function of SN rate and shear. We compare our prescription with previous approaches that include only rotation. The solutions depend separately on the rotation period and the eddy turnover time and not just on their ratio (the Rossby number). We consider models in which these two time-scales are allowed to be independent and also a case in which they are mutually dependent on radius when a radial-dependent SN rate model is invoked. For the case of a fixed rotation period (or a fixed radius), we show that the influence of shear is dramatic for low Rossby numbers, reducing the correlation time of the turbulence, which, in turn, strongly reduces the saturation value of the dynamo compared to the case when the shear is ignored. We also show that even in the absence of winds or diffusive fluxes, magnetic buoyancy may be able to sustain sufficient helicity fluxes to avoid quenching.
An analytic interface dynamo over a shear layer of finite depth
Petrovay, K.; Kerekes, A.; Erdélyi, R.
2010-01-01
Parker's analytic Cartesian interface dynamo is generalized to the case of a shear layer of finite thickness and low resistivity ("tachocline"), bounded by a perfect conductor ("radiative zone") on the one side, and by a highly diffusive medium ("convective zone") supporting an $\\alpha$-effect on the other side. In the limit of high diffusivity contrast between the shear layer and the diffusive medium, thought to be relevant for the Sun, a pair of exact dispersion relations for the growth rat...
Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu
2011-01-01
The turbulent magnetic diffusivity in the solar convection zone is one of the most poorly constrained ingredients of mean-field dynamo models. This lack of constraint has previously led to controversy regarding the most appropriate set of parameters, as different assumptions on the value of turbulent diffusivity lead to radically different solar cycle predictions. Typically, the dynamo community uses double-step diffusivity profiles characterized by low values of diffusivity in the bulk of the convection zone. However, these low diffusivity values are not consistent with theoretical estimates based on mixing-length theory, which suggest much higher values for turbulent diffusivity. To make matters worse, kinematic dynamo simulations cannot yield sustainable magnetic cycles using these theoretical estimates. In this work, we show that magnetic cycles become viable if we combine the theoretically estimated diffusivity profile with magnetic quenching of the diffusivity. Furthermore, we find that the main features of this solution can be reproduced by a dynamo simulation using a prescribed (kinematic) diffusivity profile that is based on the spatiotemporal geometric average of the dynamically quenched diffusivity. This bridges the gap between dynamically quenched and kinematic dynamo models, supporting their usage as viable tools for understanding the solar magnetic cycle.
Joe Tien
Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of elevated pressure on the invasive phenotype of patterned three-dimensional (3D aggregates of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. We found that the directionality of the interstitial pressure profile altered the frequency of invasion by cells located at the surface of an aggregate. In particular, application of pressure at one end of an aggregate suppressed invasion at the opposite end. Experimental alteration of the configuration of cell aggregates and computational modeling of the resulting flow and solute concentration profiles revealed that elevated pressure inhibited invasion by altering the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid near the surface of the aggregate. Our data reveal a link between hydrostatic pressure, interstitial convection, and invasion.
Nonlinear MHD dynamo operating at equipartition
Archontis, V.; Dorch, Bertil; Nordlund, Åke
2007-01-01
Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy-equipartition a......Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy......, and that it can saturate at a level significantly higher than intermittent turbulent dynamos, namely at energy equipartition, for high values of the magnetic and fluid Reynolds numbers. The equipartition solution however does not remain time-independent during the simulation but exhibits a much more intricate...
On self-exciting coupled Faraday disk homopolar dynamos driving series motors
Moroz, Irene M.; Hide, Raymond; Soward, Andrew M.
1998-06-01
We present the results of a preliminary analytical and numerical study of one of the simpler members of a hierarchy of N (where N ≥ 1) coupled self-exciting Faraday disk homopolar dynamos, incorporating motors as additional electrical elements driven by the dynamo-generated current, as proposed by Hide (1997). The hierarchy is a generalisation of a single disk dynamo ( N = 1) with just one electric motor in the system, and crucially, incorporating effects due to mechanical friction in both the disk and the motor, as investigated by Hide et al. (1996). This is describable by a set of three coupled autonomous nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which, due to the presence of the motor, has solutions corresponding to co-existing periodic states of increasing complexity, as well as to chaotic dynamics. We consider the case of two such homopolar dynamos ( N = 2) with generally dissimilar characteristics but coupled together magnetically, with the aim of determining the extent to which this coupled system differs in its behaviour from the single disk dynamo with a series motor (Hide et al. 1996). In the case when the units are identical, the behaviour of the double dynamo system (after initial transients have decayed away) is identical to that of the single dynamo system, with solutions (including “synchronised chaos”) locked in both amplitude and phase. When there is no motor in the system and the coefficient of mechanical friction in the disks is small, these transients resemble the well-known ‘non-synchronous’, but structurally unstable Rikitake solution.
UNDERSTANDING SOLAR TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS FROM GLOBAL DYNAMO MODELS
Guerrero, G.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.
2016-01-01
The phenomenon of solar “torsional oscillations” (TO) represents migratory zonal flows associated with the solar cycle. These flows are observed on the solar surface and, according to helioseismology, extend through the convection zone. We study the origin of the TO using results from a global MHD simulation of the solar interior that reproduces several of the observed characteristics of the mean-flows and magnetic fields. Our results indicate that the magnetic tension (MT) in the tachocline region is a key factor for the periodic changes in the angular momentum transport that causes the TO. The torque induced by the MT at the base of the convection zone is positive at the poles and negative at the equator. A rising MT torque at higher latitudes causes the poles to speed up, whereas a declining negative MT torque at the lower latitudes causes the equator to slow-down. These changes in the zonal flows propagate through the convection zone up to the surface. Additionally, our results suggest that it is the magnetic field at the tachocline that modulates the amplitude of the surface meridional flow rather than the opposite as assumed by flux-transport dynamo models of the solar cycle.
Manjunatha, N.; Sumithra, R.
2018-04-01
The problem of surface tension driven two component magnetoconvection is investigated in a Porous-Fluid system, consisting of anincompressible two component electrically conducting fluid saturatedporous layer above which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field. The lower boundary of the porous layeris rigid and the upper boundary of the fluid layer is free with surfacetension effects depending on both temperature and concentration, boththese boundaries are insulating to heat and mass. At the interface thevelocity, shear and normal stress, heat and heat flux, mass and mass fluxare assumed to be continuous suitable for Darcy-Brinkman model. Theeigenvalue problem is solved in linear, parabolic and inverted parabolictemperature profiles and the corresponding Thermal Marangoni Numberis obtained for different important physical parameters.
THE MEAN-FIELD SOLAR DYNAMO WITH A DOUBLE CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION PATTERN
Pipin, V. V. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, 664033 (Russian Federation); Kosovichev, A. G. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2013-10-10
Recent helioseismology findings, as well as advances in direct numerical simulations of global dynamics of the Sun, have indicated that in each solar hemisphere meridional circulation may form more than one cell along the radius in the convection zone. In particular, recent helioseismology results revealed a double-cell structure of the meridional circulation. We investigate properties of a mean-field solar dynamo with such double-cell meridional circulation. The dynamo model also includes the realistic profile of solar differential rotation (including the tachocline and subsurface shear layer) and takes into account effects of turbulent pumping, anisotropic turbulent diffusivity, and conservation of magnetic helicity. Contrary to previous flux-transport dynamo models, we find that the dynamo model can robustly reproduce the basic properties of the solar magnetic cycles for a wide range of model parameters and circulation speeds. The best agreement with observations is achieved when the surface meridional circulation speed is about 12 m s{sup –1}. For this circulation speed, the simulated sunspot activity shows good synchronization with the polar magnetic fields. Such synchronization was indeed observed during previous sunspot Cycles 21 and 22. We compare theoretical and observed phase diagrams of the sunspot number and the polar field strength and discuss the peculiar properties of Cycle 23.
Magnetism, dynamo action and the solar-stellar connection
Allan Sacha Brun
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract The Sun and other stars are magnetic: magnetism pervades their interiors and affects their evolution in a variety of ways. In the Sun, both the fields themselves and their influence on other phenomena can be uncovered in exquisite detail, but these observations sample only a moment in a single star’s life. By turning to observations of other stars, and to theory and simulation, we may infer other aspects of the magnetism—e.g., its dependence on stellar age, mass, or rotation rate—that would be invisible from close study of the Sun alone. Here, we review observations and theory of magnetism in the Sun and other stars, with a partial focus on the “Solar-stellar connection”: i.e., ways in which studies of other stars have influenced our understanding of the Sun and vice versa. We briefly review techniques by which magnetic fields can be measured (or their presence otherwise inferred in stars, and then highlight some key observational findings uncovered by such measurements, focusing (in many cases on those that offer particularly direct constraints on theories of how the fields are built and maintained. We turn then to a discussion of how the fields arise in different objects: first, we summarize some essential elements of convection and dynamo theory, including a very brief discussion of mean-field theory and related concepts. Next we turn to simulations of convection and magnetism in stellar interiors, highlighting both some peculiarities of field generation in different types of stars and some unifying physical processes that likely influence dynamo action in general. We conclude with a brief summary of what we have learned, and a sampling of issues that remain uncertain or unsolved.
Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation
King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.
2013-01-01
The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, . Most analog models of planetary dynamos, however, use moderate fluids, and the systematic influence of reducing is not well understood. We perform rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium over a range of nondimensional bu...
Dynamo generated by the centrifugal instability
Marcotte, Florence; Gissinger, Christophe
2016-10-01
We present a scenario for magnetic field amplification where an electrically conducting fluid is confined in a differentially rotating, spherical shell with thin aspect ratio. When the angular momentum sufficiently decreases outwards, a hydrodynamic instability develops in the equatorial region, characterized by pairs of counter-rotating toroidal vortices similar to those observed in cylindrical Couette flow. These spherical Taylor-Couette vortices generate a subcritical dynamo magnetic field dominated by nonaxisymmetric components. We show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number seems to reach a constant value at large Reynolds number and that the global rotation can strongly decrease the dynamo onset. Our numerical results are understood within the framework of a simple dynamical system, and we propose a low-dimensional model for subcritical dynamo bifurcations. Implications for both laboratory dynamos and astrophysical magnetic fields are finally discussed.
Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.
Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S
2015-08-01
The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.
Kareem, Ali Khaleel; Gao, Shian
2018-02-01
The aim of the present numerical investigation is to comprehensively analyse and understand the heat transfer enhancement process using a roughened, heated bottom wall with two artificial rib types (R-s and R-c) due to unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure that has a central rotating cylinder, and to compare these cases with the smooth bottom wall case. These different cases (roughened and smooth bottom walls) are considered at various clockwise and anticlockwise rotational speeds, -5 ≤ Ω ≤ 5, and Reynolds numbers of 5000 and 10 000. The top and bottom walls of the lid-driven cavity are differentially heated, whilst the remaining cavity walls are assumed to be stationary and adiabatic. A standard k-ɛ model for the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to deal with the turbulent flow. The heat transfer improvement is carefully considered and analysed through the detailed examinations of the flow and thermal fields, the turbulent kinetic energy, the mean velocity profiles, the wall shear stresses, and the local and average Nusselt numbers. It has been concluded that artificial roughness can strongly affect the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving the introduced artificial rips. Increasing the cylinder rotational speed or Reynolds number can enhance the heat transfer process, especially when the wall roughness exists.
Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos
Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.
2018-05-01
We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.
The effect of collisionality and diamagnetism on the plasma dynamo
Ji, H.; Yagi, Y.; Hattori, K.; Hirano, Y.; Shimada, T.; Maejima, Y.; Hayase, K.; Almagri, A.F.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.
1995-01-01
Fluctuation-induced dynamo forces are measured over a wide range of electron collisionality in the edge of TPE-1RM20 Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). In the collisionless region the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo alone can sustain the parallel current, while in the collisional region a new dynamo mechanism resulting from the fluctuations in the electron diamagnetic drift becomes dominant. A comprehensive picture of the RFP dynamo emerges by combining with earlier results from MST and REPUTE RFPs
Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves
Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Chris; Jackson, Andrew
2016-01-01
A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes ...... to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.......A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes...... place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines...
Matsui, H.; Buffett, B. A.
2017-12-01
The flow in the Earth's outer core is expected to have vast length scale from the geometry of the outer core to the thickness of the boundary layer. Because of the limitation of the spatial resolution in the numerical simulations, sub-grid scale (SGS) modeling is required to model the effects of the unresolved field on the large-scale fields. We model the effects of sub-grid scale flow and magnetic field using a dynamic scale similarity model. Four terms are introduced for the momentum flux, heat flux, Lorentz force and magnetic induction. The model was previously used in the convection-driven dynamo in a rotating plane layer and spherical shell using the Finite Element Methods. In the present study, we perform large eddy simulations (LES) using the dynamic scale similarity model. The scale similarity model is implement in Calypso, which is a numerical dynamo model using spherical harmonics expansion. To obtain the SGS terms, the spatial filtering in the horizontal directions is done by taking the convolution of a Gaussian filter expressed in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion, following Jekeli (1981). A Gaussian field is also applied in the radial direction. To verify the present model, we perform a fully resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) with the truncation of the spherical harmonics L = 255 as a reference. And, we perform unresolved DNS and LES with SGS model on coarser resolution (L= 127, 84, and 63) using the same control parameter as the resolved DNS. We will discuss the verification results by comparison among these simulations and role of small scale fields to large scale fields through the role of the SGS terms in LES.
Differential rotation and the solar dynamo
Stix, M.
1976-01-01
A number of numerical models for the generation of mean magnetic fields is examined and the fields are compared with the mean field of the Sun. In particular, αω-dynamos, which are based on differential rotation and cyclonic turbulence, are studied in the case of cylindrical surfaces of isorotation. Such dynamos have an oscillatory antisymmetric field as the most easily excited mode. Only models with an angular velocity which increases with increasing depth appear to be compatible with observations. A search for oscillatory ω x j-dynamos, where the α-effect is replaced by a different mean electric field perpendicular to the rotation vector ω and the mean current density j is also made. Oscillatory modes do exist for models with radial shear. Their migration is equatorwards for inwards increasing angular velocity. (orig./BJ) [de
Dynamos and MHD theory of turbulence suppression
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu; Itoh, Sanae-I; Itoh, Kimitaka
2003-12-01
Characteristics of electrically-conducting media are reviewed from the macroscopic viewpoint based on the mean-field magnetohydrodynamics, while being compared with the methodology and knowledge in fluid mechanics. The themes covered in this review range from the generation mechanism of stellar magnetic fields (dynamo) to transport properties in fusion. The primary concern here is to see the characteristics common to these apparently different phenomena, within the framework of the mean-field theory. Owing to the intrinsic limitation of the approach, the present discussions are limited more or less to specific aspects of phenomena. They are supplemented with the reference to theoretical, numerical, and observational approaches intrinsic to each theme. In the description of dynamo phenomena, an emphasis is put on the cross-helicity dynamo. Features common to the stellar magnetic-field generation and the rotational-motion drive in toroidal plasmas are illustrated on this basis. (author)
Li, Xiaowen; Janiga, Matthew A.; Wang, Shuguang; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Rowe, Angela; Xu, Weixin; Liu, Chuntao; Matsui, Toshihisa; Zhang, Chidong
2018-04-01
Evolution of precipitation structures are simulated and compared with radar observations for the November Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) event during the DYNAmics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign. Three ground-based, ship-borne, and spaceborne precipitation radars and three cloud-resolving models (CRMs) driven by observed large-scale forcing are used to study precipitation structures at different locations over the central equatorial Indian Ocean. Convective strength is represented by 0-dBZ echo-top heights, and convective organization by contiguous 17-dBZ areas. The multi-radar and multi-model framework allows for more stringent model validations. The emphasis is on testing models' ability to simulate subtle differences observed at different radar sites when the MJO event passed through. The results show that CRMs forced by site-specific large-scale forcing can reproduce not only common features in cloud populations but also subtle variations observed by different radars. The comparisons also revealed common deficiencies in CRM simulations where they underestimate radar echo-top heights for the strongest convection within large, organized precipitation features. Cross validations with multiple radars and models also enable quantitative comparisons in CRM sensitivity studies using different large-scale forcing, microphysical schemes and parameters, resolutions, and domain sizes. In terms of radar echo-top height temporal variations, many model sensitivity tests have better correlations than radar/model comparisons, indicating robustness in model performance on this aspect. It is further shown that well-validated model simulations could be used to constrain uncertainties in observed echo-top heights when the low-resolution surveillance scanning strategy is used.
Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo theory
Krause, F
2013-01-01
Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory provides a systematic introduction to mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and the dynamo theory, along with the results achieved. Topics covered include turbulence and large-scale structures; general properties of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneity, isotropy, and mirror symmetry of turbulent fields; and turbulent electromotive force in the case of non-vanishing mean flow. The turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion is also considered. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of the gen
Spectral gaps, inertial manifolds and kinematic dynamos
Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es
2005-10-17
Inertial manifolds are desirable objects when ones wishes a dynamical process to behave asymptotically as a finite-dimensional ones. Recently [Physica D 194 (2004) 297] these manifolds are constructed for the kinematic dynamo problem with time-periodic velocity. It turns out, however, that the conditions imposed on the fluid velocity to guarantee the existence of inertial manifolds are too demanding, in the sense that they imply that all the solutions tend exponentially to zero. The inertial manifolds are meaningful because they represent different decay rates, but the classical dynamos where the magnetic field is maintained or grows are not covered by this approach, at least until more refined estimates are found.
Is a deep one-cell meridional circulation essential for the flux transport solar dynamo?
Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai
2014-01-01
The solar activity cycle is successfully modeled by the flux transport dynamo, in which the meridional circulation of the Sun plays an important role. Most of the kinematic dynamo simulations assume a one-cell structure of the meridional circulation within the convection zone, with the equatorward return flow at its bottom. In view of the recent claims that the return flow occurs at a much shallower depth, we explore whether a meridional circulation with such a shallow return flow can still retain the attractive features of the flux transport dynamo (such as a proper butterfly diagram, the proper phase relation between the toroidal and poloidal fields). We consider additional cells of the meridional circulation below the shallow return flow—both the case of multiple cells radially stacked above one another and the case of more complicated cell patterns. As long as there is an equatorward flow in low latitudes at the bottom of the convection zone, we find that the solar behavior is approximately reproduced. However, if there is either no flow or a poleward flow at the bottom of the convection zone, then we cannot reproduce solar behavior. On making the turbulent diffusivity low, we still find periodic behavior, although the period of the cycle becomes unrealistically large. In addition, with a low diffusivity, we do not get the observed correlation between the polar field at the sunspot minimum and the strength of the next cycle, which is reproduced when diffusivity is high. On introducing radially downward pumping, we get a more reasonable period and more solar-like behavior even with low diffusivity.
Is a deep one-cell meridional circulation essential for the flux transport solar dynamo?
Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai, E-mail: ghazra@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)
2014-02-20
The solar activity cycle is successfully modeled by the flux transport dynamo, in which the meridional circulation of the Sun plays an important role. Most of the kinematic dynamo simulations assume a one-cell structure of the meridional circulation within the convection zone, with the equatorward return flow at its bottom. In view of the recent claims that the return flow occurs at a much shallower depth, we explore whether a meridional circulation with such a shallow return flow can still retain the attractive features of the flux transport dynamo (such as a proper butterfly diagram, the proper phase relation between the toroidal and poloidal fields). We consider additional cells of the meridional circulation below the shallow return flow—both the case of multiple cells radially stacked above one another and the case of more complicated cell patterns. As long as there is an equatorward flow in low latitudes at the bottom of the convection zone, we find that the solar behavior is approximately reproduced. However, if there is either no flow or a poleward flow at the bottom of the convection zone, then we cannot reproduce solar behavior. On making the turbulent diffusivity low, we still find periodic behavior, although the period of the cycle becomes unrealistically large. In addition, with a low diffusivity, we do not get the observed correlation between the polar field at the sunspot minimum and the strength of the next cycle, which is reproduced when diffusivity is high. On introducing radially downward pumping, we get a more reasonable period and more solar-like behavior even with low diffusivity.
The importance of wind-flux feedbacks during the November CINDY-DYNAMO MJO event
Riley Dellaripa, Emily; Maloney, Eric; van den Heever, Susan
2015-04-01
High-resolution, large-domain cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations probing the importance of wind-flux feedbacks to Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convection are performed for the November 2011 CINDY-DYNAMO MJO event. The work is motivated by observational analysis from RAMA buoys in the Indian Ocean and TRMM precipitation retrievals that show a positive correlation between MJO precipitation and wind-induced surface fluxes, especially latent heat fluxes, during and beyond the CINDY-DYNAMO time period. Simulations are done using Colorado State University's Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The domain setup is oceanic and spans 1000 km x 1000 km with 1.5 km horizontal resolution and 65 stretched vertical levels centered on the location of Gan Island - one of the major CINDY-DYNAMO observation points. The model is initialized with ECMWF reanalysis and Aqua MODIS sea surface temperatures. Nudging from ECMWF reanalysis is applied at the domain periphery to encourage realistic evolution of MJO convection. The control experiment is run for the entire month of November so both suppressed and active, as well as, transitional phases of the MJO are modeled. In the control experiment, wind-induced surface fluxes are activated through the surface bulk aerodynamic formula and allowed to evolve organically. Sensitivity experiments are done by restarting the control run one week into the simulation and controlling the wind-induced flux feedbacks. In one sensitivity experiment, wind-induced surface flux feedbacks are completely denied, while in another experiment the winds are kept constant at the control simulations mean surface wind speed. The evolution of convection, especially on the mesoscale, is compared between the control and sensitivity simulations.
Present state of the theory of a MHD-dynamo
Soward, A M; Roberts, P H
1976-01-01
A review is given of the state of the theory of a MHD-dynamo, that is, the theory of self-excited magnetic fields in homogeneous moving liquids. A description is given of two basic approaches-the turbulent dynamos of Steinbeck, Krause and Redler and the high-conductivity dynamo of Braginski, and a look is also taken at the relation between these dynamos. Finally a look is taken at the results of recent studies of the total problem of a MHD-dynamo, that is, at the results of recent attempts to solve the electro- and hydrodynamic equations and to obtain self-excited fields. 6 figs., 122 ref. (SJR)
Magnetorotational Dynamo Action in the Shearing Box
Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav
2017-10-01
Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale nonzero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. NSF AGS-1261659, Vilas Associates Award, NSF-Teragrid Project TG-PHY110016.
Belucz, Bernadett; Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Dikpati, Mausumi
2015-01-01
Babcock–Leighton type-solar dynamo models with single-celled meridional circulation are successful in reproducing many solar cycle features. Recent observations and theoretical models of meridional circulation do not indicate a single-celled flow pattern. We examine the role of complex multi-cellular circulation patterns in a Babcock–Leighton solar dynamo in advection- and diffusion-dominated regimes. We show from simulations that the presence of a weak, second, high-latitude reverse cell speeds up the cycle and slightly enhances the poleward branch in the butterfly diagram, whereas the presence of a second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing to an antisolar type. A butterfly diagram constructed from the middle of convection zone yields a solar-like pattern, but this may be difficult to realize in the Sun because of magnetic buoyancy effects. Each of the above cases behaves similarly in higher and lower magnetic diffusivity regimes. However, our dynamo with a meridional circulation containing four cells in latitude behaves distinctly differently in the two regimes, producing solar-like butterfly diagrams with fast cycles in the higher diffusivity regime, and complex branches in butterfly diagrams in the lower diffusivity regime. We also find that dynamo solutions for a four-celled pattern, two in radius and two in latitude, prefer to quickly relax to quadrupolar parity if the bottom flow speed is strong enough, of similar order of magnitude as the surface flow speed
Belucz, Bernadett; Forgács-Dajka, Emese [Eötvös University, Department of Astronomy, 1518 Budapest, Pf. 32 (Hungary); Dikpati, Mausumi, E-mail: bbelucz@astro.elte.hu, E-mail: dikpati@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)
2015-06-20
Babcock–Leighton type-solar dynamo models with single-celled meridional circulation are successful in reproducing many solar cycle features. Recent observations and theoretical models of meridional circulation do not indicate a single-celled flow pattern. We examine the role of complex multi-cellular circulation patterns in a Babcock–Leighton solar dynamo in advection- and diffusion-dominated regimes. We show from simulations that the presence of a weak, second, high-latitude reverse cell speeds up the cycle and slightly enhances the poleward branch in the butterfly diagram, whereas the presence of a second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing to an antisolar type. A butterfly diagram constructed from the middle of convection zone yields a solar-like pattern, but this may be difficult to realize in the Sun because of magnetic buoyancy effects. Each of the above cases behaves similarly in higher and lower magnetic diffusivity regimes. However, our dynamo with a meridional circulation containing four cells in latitude behaves distinctly differently in the two regimes, producing solar-like butterfly diagrams with fast cycles in the higher diffusivity regime, and complex branches in butterfly diagrams in the lower diffusivity regime. We also find that dynamo solutions for a four-celled pattern, two in radius and two in latitude, prefer to quickly relax to quadrupolar parity if the bottom flow speed is strong enough, of similar order of magnitude as the surface flow speed.
Phoenix, Daniel B.; Homeyer, Cameron R.; Barth, Mary C.
2017-08-01
Tropopause-penetrating convection is capable of rapidly transporting air from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), where it can have important impacts on chemistry, the radiative budget, and climate. However, obtaining in situ measurements of convection and convective transport is difficult and such observations are historically rare. Modeling studies, on the other hand, offer the advantage of providing output related to the physical, dynamical, and chemical characteristics of storms and their environments at fine spatial and temporal scales. Since these characteristics of simulated convection depend on the chosen model design, we examine the sensitivity of simulated convective transport to the choice of physical (bulk microphysics or BMP and planetary boundary layer or PBL) and chemical parameterizations in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). In particular, we simulate multiple cases where in situ observations are available from the recent (2012) Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment. Model output is evaluated using ground-based radar observations of each storm and in situ trace gas observations from two aircraft operated during the DC3 experiment. Model results show measurable sensitivity of the physical characteristics of a storm and the transport of water vapor and additional trace gases into the UTLS to the choice of BMP. The physical characteristics of the storm and transport of insoluble trace gases are largely insensitive to the choice of PBL scheme and chemical mechanism, though several soluble trace gases (e.g., SO2, CH2O, and HNO3) exhibit some measurable sensitivity.
Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos
Shebalin, John V.
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much
Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone
Fan Yuhong
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.
Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata (India)
2016-11-20
At present, the Babcock–Leighton flux transport solar dynamo models appear to be the most promising models for explaining diverse observational aspects of the sunspot cycle. The success of these flux transport dynamo models is largely dependent upon a single-cell meridional circulation with a deep equatorward component at the base of the Sun’s convection zone. However, recent observations suggest that the meridional flow may in fact be very shallow (confined to the top 10% of the Sun) and more complex than previously thought. Taken together, these observations raise serious concerns on the validity of the flux transport paradigm. By accounting for the turbulent pumping of magnetic flux, as evidenced in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar convection, we demonstrate that flux transport dynamo models can generate solar-like magnetic cycles even if the meridional flow is shallow. Solar-like periodic reversals are recovered even when meridional circulation is altogether absent. However, in this case, the solar surface magnetic field dynamics does not extend all the way to the polar regions. Very importantly, our results demonstrate that the Parker–Yoshimura sign rule for dynamo wave propagation can be circumvented in Babcock–Leighton dynamo models by the latitudinal component of turbulent pumping, which can generate equatorward propagating sunspot belts in the absence of a deep, equatorward meridional flow. We also show that variations in turbulent pumping coefficients can modulate the solar cycle amplitude and periodicity. Our results suggest the viability of an alternate magnetic flux transport paradigm—mediated via turbulent pumping—for sustaining solar-stellar dynamo action.
Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu
2016-01-01
At present, the Babcock–Leighton flux transport solar dynamo models appear to be the most promising models for explaining diverse observational aspects of the sunspot cycle. The success of these flux transport dynamo models is largely dependent upon a single-cell meridional circulation with a deep equatorward component at the base of the Sun’s convection zone. However, recent observations suggest that the meridional flow may in fact be very shallow (confined to the top 10% of the Sun) and more complex than previously thought. Taken together, these observations raise serious concerns on the validity of the flux transport paradigm. By accounting for the turbulent pumping of magnetic flux, as evidenced in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar convection, we demonstrate that flux transport dynamo models can generate solar-like magnetic cycles even if the meridional flow is shallow. Solar-like periodic reversals are recovered even when meridional circulation is altogether absent. However, in this case, the solar surface magnetic field dynamics does not extend all the way to the polar regions. Very importantly, our results demonstrate that the Parker–Yoshimura sign rule for dynamo wave propagation can be circumvented in Babcock–Leighton dynamo models by the latitudinal component of turbulent pumping, which can generate equatorward propagating sunspot belts in the absence of a deep, equatorward meridional flow. We also show that variations in turbulent pumping coefficients can modulate the solar cycle amplitude and periodicity. Our results suggest the viability of an alternate magnetic flux transport paradigm—mediated via turbulent pumping—for sustaining solar-stellar dynamo action.
A spherical Taylor-Couette dynamo
Marcotte, Florence; Gissinger, Christophe
2016-04-01
We present a new scenario for magnetic field amplification in the planetary interiors where an electrically conducting fluid is confined in a differentially rotating, spherical shell (spherical Couette flow) with thin aspect-ratio. When the angular momentum sufficiently decreases outwards, a primary hydrodynamic instability is widely known to develop in the equatorial region, characterized by pairs of counter-rotating, axisymmetric toroidal vortices (Taylor vortices) similar to those observed in cylindrical Couette flow. We characterize the subcritical dynamo bifurcation due to this spherical Taylor-Couette flow and study its evolution as the flow successively breaks into wavy and turbulent Taylor vortices for increasing Reynolds number. We show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number seems to reach a constant value as the Reynolds number is gradually increased. The role of global rotation on the dynamo threshold and the implications for planetary interiors are finally discussed.
Nonlinear dynamo in the intracluster medium
Beresnyak, Andrey; Miniati, Francesco
2018-05-01
Hot plasma in galaxy clusters, the intracluster medium is observed to be magnetized with magnetic fields of around a μG and the correlation scales of tens of kiloparsecs, the largest scales of the magnetic field so far observed in the Universe. Can this magnetic field be used as a test of the primordial magnetic field in the early Universe? In this paper, we argue that if the cluster field was created by the nonlinear dynamo, the process would be insensitive to the value of the initial field. Our model combines state of the art hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy cluster formation in a fully cosmological context with nonlinear dynamo theory. Initial field is not a parameter in this model, yet it predicts magnetic scale and strength compatible with observations.
New computation results for the solar dynamo
Csada, I.K.
1983-01-01
The analytical solution to the solar dynamo equation leads to a relatively simple algorythm for the computation in terms of kinematic models. The internal and external velocities taken to be in the form of axisymmetric meridional circulation and differential rotation, respectively. Pure radial expanding motions in the corona are also taken into consideration. Numerical results are presented in terms of the velocity parameters for the period of field reversal, decay time, magnitudes and phases of the first four multipoles. (author)
The Hottest Hot Jupiters May Host Atmospheric Dynamos
Rogers, T. M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); McElwaine, J. N. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
2017-06-01
Hot Jupiters have proven themselves to be a rich class of exoplanets that test our theories of planetary evolution and atmospheric dynamics under extreme conditions. Here, we present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and analytic results that demonstrate that a dynamo can be maintained in the thin, stably stratified atmosphere of a hot Jupiter, independent of the presumed deep-seated dynamo. This dynamo is maintained by conductivity variations arising from strong asymmetric heating from the planets’ host star. The presence of a dynamo significantly increases the surface magnetic field strength and alters the overall planetary magnetic field geometry, possibly affecting star–planet magnetic interactions.
When did the lunar core dynamo cease?
Tikoo, S. M.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Fuller, M.
2013-12-01
Remanent magnetization in the lunar crust and in returned Apollo samples has long suggested that the Moon formed a metallic core and an ancient dynamo magnetic field. Recent paleomagnetic investigations of lunar samples demonstrate that the Moon had a core dynamo which produced ~30-110 μT surface fields between at least 4.2 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). Tikoo et al. (1) recently found that the field declined to below several μT by 3.19 Ga. However, given that even values of a few μT are at the upper end of the intensities predicted by dynamo theory for this late in lunar history, it remains uncertain when the lunar dynamo actually ceased completely. Determining this requires a young lunar rock with extraordinarily high magnetic recording fidelity. With this goal, we are conducting a new analysis of young regolith breccia 15498. Although the breccia's age is currently uncertain, the presence of Apollo 15-type mare basalt clasts provides an upper limit constraint of ~3.3 Ga, while trapped Ar data suggest a lithification age of ~1.3 Ga. In stark contrast to the multidomain character of virtually all lunar crystalline rocks, the magnetic carriers in 15498 are on average pseudo-single domain to superparamagnetic, indicating that the sample should provide high-fidelity paleointensity records. A previous alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization study of 15498 by Gose et al. (2) observed that the sample carries stable remanent magnetization which persists to unblocking temperatures of at least 650°C. Using a modified Thellier technique, they reported a paleointensity of 2 μT. Although this value may have been influenced by spurious remanence acquired during pretreatment with AF demagnetization, our results confirm the presence of an extremely stable (blocked to coercivities >290 mT) magnetization in the glassy matrix. We also found that this magnetization is largely unidirectional across mutually oriented subsamples. The cooling timescale of this rock (~1
Low-latitude plasma drifts from a simulation of the global atmospheric dynamo
Crain, D.J.; Heelis, R.A.; Bailey, G.J.; Richmond, A.D.
1993-01-01
The authors work with a dynamo model to address questions about plasma drifts in the E region, primarily at low latitudes. Tidal winds have been known to have a big influence on electric fields in the E region, and magnetic fields and ion drifts in the equatorial F region. Recent work has centered on self consistency in simulations, using realistic wind distributions, 3-D current distributions, and more accurate measures of the currents and conductivities. The wind dynamo in the ionosphere is well accepted as the main source of electric fields in the low and mid latitudes. The authors present a self consistent model of the plasma distribution and the dynamo driven electric potential distribution. Their results are compared with other simulations. A major concern in their model was reproducing ion drift observations in the equatorial region. Their conclusion is that the F region plays a significant role in the low latitude dyanamo effects, much larger than was previously assumed. When they build into their model realistic ionospheric conditions, allow for appropriate wind distributions, and allow a self consistent redistribution of plasma in the night, they find the model simulates measured ion drifts more closely. Their model is normalized against observations at Jicamarca. By allowing E x B drifts in the ionosphere, and F region zonal winds they can reproduce many of the night changes in the ion drifts at Jicamarca
Energy fluxes in helical magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo action
... large-scale magnetic ﬁeld arising due to non-helical interactions and (2) inverse energy ﬂux of magnetic energy caused by helical interactions. Based on our ﬂux results, a primitive model for galactic dynamo has been constructed. Our calculations yield dynamo time-scale for a typical galaxy to be of the order of 108 years.
Efficiency Measurement Using a Motor-Dynamo Module
Ng, Pun-hon; Wong, Siu-ling; Mak, Se-yuen
2009-01-01
In this article, we describe a simple method which can be used to measure the efficiency of a low power dc motor, a motor-converted dynamo and a coupled motor-dynamo module as a function of the speed of rotation. The result can also be used to verify Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. (Contains 1 table and 8 figures.)
Small-scale kinematic dynamo and non-dynamo in inertial-range turbulence
Eyink, Gregory L; Neto, Antonio F
2010-01-01
We investigate the Lagrangian mechanism of the kinematic 'fluctuation' magnetic dynamo in a turbulent plasma flow at small magnetic Prandtl numbers. The combined effect of turbulent advection and plasma resistivity is to carry infinitely many field lines to each space point, with the resultant magnetic field at that point given by the average over all the individual line vectors. As a consequence of the roughness of the advecting velocity, this remains true even in the limit of zero resistivity. We show that the presence of the dynamo effect requires sufficient angular correlation of the passive line vectors that arrive simultaneously at the same space point. We illustrate this in detail for the Kazantsev-Kraichnan model of the kinematic dynamo with a Gaussian advecting velocity that is spatially rough and white noise in time. In the regime where dynamo action fails, we also obtain the precise rate of decay of the magnetic energy. These exact results for the model are obtained by a generalization of the 'slow-mode expansion' of Bernard, Gawedzki and Kupiainen to non-Hermitian evolution. Much of our analysis applies also to magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.
Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L
2017-08-01
Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.
Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation.
King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2013-04-23
The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.
H. Khorasanizadeh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the natural convection heat transfer of variable properties Al2O3-EG-water nanofluid in a differentially heated rectangular cavity has been investigated numerically. The governing equations, for a Newtonian fluid, have been solved numerically with a finite volume approach. The influences of the pertinent parameters such as Ra in the range of 103-107 and volume fraction of nanoparticles from 0 to 0.04 on heat transfer characteristics have been studied. The results verified by making overall comparison with some existing experimental results have shown that for Ra=103, for which conduction heat transfer is dominant, the average Nusselt number increases as volume fraction of nanoparticles increases, but for higher Ra numbers in contradiction with the constant properties cases it decreases. This reduction, which is associated with increased viscosity, is more severe at Ra of 104 compared to higher Ra numbers such that the least deterioration in heat transfer occurs for Ra=107. This is due to the fact that as Ra increases, the Brownian motion enhances; thus conductivity improves and becomes more important than viscosity increase. An scale analysis, performed to clarify the contradictory reports in the literature on the natural convection heat transfer enhancement or deterioration of nanofluids, showed that different kinds of evaluating the base fluid Rayleigh number has led to such a difference.
Parameterizing convective organization
Brian Earle Mapes
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Lateral mixing parameters in buoyancy-driven deep convection schemes are among the most sensitive and important unknowns in atmosphere models. Unfortunately, there is not a true optimum value for plume mixing rate, but rather a dilemma or tradeoff: Excessive dilution of updrafts leads to unstable stratification bias in the mean state, while inadequate dilution allows deep convection to occur too easily, causing poor space and time distributions and variability. In this too-small parameter space, compromises are made based on competing metrics of model performance. We attempt to escape this “entrainment dilemma” by making bulk plume parameters (chiefly entrainment rate depend on a new prognostic variable (“organization,” org meant to reflect the rectified effects of subgrid-scale structure in meteorological fields. We test an org scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with a new unified shallow-deep convection scheme (UW-ens, a 2-plume version of the University of Washington scheme. Since buoyant ascent involves natural selection, subgrid structure makes convection systematically deeper and stronger than the pure unorganized case: plumes of average (or randomly sampled air rising in the average environment. To reflect this, org is nonnegative, but we leave it dimensionless. A time scale characterizes its behavior (here ∼3 h for a 2o model. Currently its source is rain evaporation, but other sources can be added easily. We also let org be horizontally transported by advection, as a mass-weighted mean over the convecting layer. Linear coefficients link org to a plume ensemble, which it assists via: 1 plume base warmth above the mean temperature 2 plume radius enhancement (reduced mixing, and 3 increased probability of overlap in a multi-plume scheme, where interactions benefit later generations (this part has only been implemented in an offline toy column model. Since rain evaporation is a source for org, it functions as a time
Convection and magnetism of solar-type stars (G and K)
Do-Cao, Olivier Long
2013-01-01
account the dynamical coupling with the underlying radiative zone. We show that the dynamics is mainly driven by the Rossby number, and that the flow characteristics qualitatively change when the Rossby number is above unity. We also derive scaling laws for the global flows properties (differential rotation, meridional circulation, etc.) as function of mass and rotation rate. The last part sums up the main results and the perspectives of the work presented above. We are developing 3D numerical simulations involving magnetic dynamo action in rapidly rotating stars. In these stars, the magnetic field is self-organized in strong wreathes close to the equator extracting its energy from the convective kinetic energy but also from the strong differential rotation. Finally, we explain the benefits of a combined approach that uses both 2D and 3D models. (author) [fr
Jiji, Latif M.
Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.
K. Z. Zaka
2009-09-01
Full Text Available During magnetic storms, the auroral electrojets intensification affects the thermospheric circulation on a global scale. This process which leads to electric field and current disturbance at middle and low latitudes, on the quiet day after the end of a storm, has been attributed to the ionospheric disturbance dynamo (Ddyn. The magnetic field disturbance observed as a result of this process is the reduction of the H component amplitude in the equatorial region which constitutes the main characteristic of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo process, associated with a westward electric current flow. The latitudinal profile of the Ddyn disturbance dynamo magnetic signature exhibits an eastward current at mid latitudes and a westward one at low latitudes with a substantial amplification at the magnetic equator. Such current flow reveals an "anti-Sq" system established between the mid latitudes and the equatorial region and opposes the normal Sq current vortex. However, the localization of the eastward current and consequently the position and the extent of the "anti-Sq" current vortex changes from one storm to another. Indeed, for a strong magnetic storm, the eastward current is well established at mid latitudes about 45° N and for a weak magnetic storm, the eastward current is established toward the high latitudes (about 60° N, near the Joule heating region, resulting in a large "anti-Sq" current cell. The latitudinal profile of the Ddyn disturbance as well as the magnetic disturbance DP2 generated by the mechanism of prompt penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field in general, show a weak disturbance at the low latitudes with a substantial amplification at the magnetic equator. Due to the intensity of the storm, the magnitude of the DP2 appears higher than the Ddyn over the American and Asian sector contrary to the African sector.
A simple stochastic model for dipole moment fluctuations in numerical dynamo simulations
Domenico G. eMeduri
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Earth's axial dipole field changes in a complex fashion on many differenttime scales ranging from less than a year to tens of million years.Documenting, analysing, and replicating this intricate signalis a challenge for data acquisition, theoretical interpretation,and dynamo modelling alike. Here we explore whether axial dipole variationscan be described by the superposition of a slow deterministic driftand fast stochastic fluctuations, i.e. by a Langevin-type system.The drift term describes the time averaged behaviour of the axial dipole variations,whereas the stochastic part mimics complex flow interactions over convective time scales.The statistical behaviour of the system is described by a Fokker-Planck equation whichallows useful predictions, including the average rates of dipole reversals and excursions.We analyse several numerical dynamo simulations, most of which havebeen integrated particularly long in time, and also the palaeomagneticmodel PADM2M which covers the past 2 Myr.The results show that the Langevin description provides a viable statistical modelof the axial dipole variations on time scales longer than about 1 kyr.For example, the axial dipole probability distribution and the average reversalrate are successfully predicted.The exception is PADM2M where the stochastic model reversal rate seems too low.The dependence of the drift on the axial dipolemoment reveals the nonlinear interactions that establish thedynamo balance. A separate analysis of inductive and diffusive magnetic effectsin three dynamo simulations suggests that the classical quadraticquenching of induction predicted by mean-field theory seems at work.
Sleuthing the Dynamo: the Final Frontier
Ayres, Thomas
1996-07-01
Innovative technologies are opening new windows into the Sun;from its hidden interior to the far reaches of its turbulentouter envelope: rare-earth detectors for solar neutrinos; theGONG project for helioseismology; SOHO for high-resolutionXUV spectroscopy, and YOHKOH for coronal X-ray imaging. Atthe same time, a fleet of space observatories--ROSAT, EUVE,ASCA, and HST itself--are providing unprecedented views ofthe vacuum-UV and X-ray emissions of stars in our Galacticneighborhood. These seemingly unrelated developments are infact deeply connected. A central issue of solar-stellarphysics is the nature and origin of magnetic activity: thelink between the interior dynamics of a late-type star and theviolent state of its outermost coronal layers. As solarphysicists are unlocking the secrets of the hydromagneticDynamo deep inside the Sun, we and others have beendocumenting the early evolution of the Dynamo and itsassociated external gas-dynamic activity. In particular, wehave obtained HST/FOS spectra of ten young solar-type starsin three nearby open clusters--the Hyades, Pleiades, andAlpha Persei--ranging in age from 50 Myr to 600 Myr. We havesupplemented the HST spectroscopy with deep ROSAT pointings, and ground-based studies. Here, we will continue the HSTside of our project by obtaining FUV spectra of two AlphaPerseids from our original program (but not yet observed),and high-S/N follow-up measurements of the hyperactive PleiadH II 314.
Hung, Ching Pui; Jouve, Laurène; Brun, Allan Sacha; Fournier, Alexandre; Talagrand, Olivier
2015-01-01
We show how magnetic observations of the Sun can be used in conjunction with an axisymmetric flux-transport solar dynamo model in order to estimate the large-scale meridional circulation throughout the convection zone. Our innovative approach rests on variational data assimilation, whereby the distance between predictions and observations (measured by an objective function) is iteratively minimized by means of an optimization algorithm seeking the meridional flow that best accounts for the data. The minimization is performed using a quasi-Newton technique, which requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the objective function to the meridional flow. That sensitivity is efficiently computed via the integration of the adjoint flux-transport dynamo model. Closed-loop (also known as twin) experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the validity and accuracy of this technique for a variety of meridional flow configurations, ranging from unicellular and equatorially symmetric to multicellular and equatorially asymmetric. In this well-controlled synthetic context, we perform a systematic study of the behavior of our variational approach under different observational configurations by varying their spatial density, temporal density, and noise level, as well as the width of the assimilation window. We find that the method is remarkably robust, leading in most cases to a recovery of the true meridional flow to within better than 1%. These encouraging results are a first step toward using this technique to (i) better constrain the physical processes occurring inside the Sun and (ii) better predict solar activity on decadal timescales
Hung, Ching Pui; Jouve, Laurène; Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU Université Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Fournier, Alexandre [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot UMR 7154 CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Talagrand, Olivier [Laboratoire de météorologie dynamique, UMR 8539, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2015-12-01
We show how magnetic observations of the Sun can be used in conjunction with an axisymmetric flux-transport solar dynamo model in order to estimate the large-scale meridional circulation throughout the convection zone. Our innovative approach rests on variational data assimilation, whereby the distance between predictions and observations (measured by an objective function) is iteratively minimized by means of an optimization algorithm seeking the meridional flow that best accounts for the data. The minimization is performed using a quasi-Newton technique, which requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the objective function to the meridional flow. That sensitivity is efficiently computed via the integration of the adjoint flux-transport dynamo model. Closed-loop (also known as twin) experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the validity and accuracy of this technique for a variety of meridional flow configurations, ranging from unicellular and equatorially symmetric to multicellular and equatorially asymmetric. In this well-controlled synthetic context, we perform a systematic study of the behavior of our variational approach under different observational configurations by varying their spatial density, temporal density, and noise level, as well as the width of the assimilation window. We find that the method is remarkably robust, leading in most cases to a recovery of the true meridional flow to within better than 1%. These encouraging results are a first step toward using this technique to (i) better constrain the physical processes occurring inside the Sun and (ii) better predict solar activity on decadal timescales.
MHD turbulent dynamo in astrophysics: Theory and numerical simulation
Chou, Hongsong
2001-10-01
This thesis treats the physics of dynamo effects through theoretical modeling of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems and direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. After a brief introduction to astrophysical dynamo research in Chapter 1, the following issues in developing dynamic models of dynamo theory are addressed: In Chapter 2, nonlinearity that arises from the back reaction of magnetic field on velocity field is considered in a new model for the dynamo α-effect. The dependence of α-coefficient on magnetic Reynolds number, kinetic Reynolds number, magnetic Prandtl number and statistical properties of MHD turbulence is studied. In Chapter 3, the time-dependence of magnetic helicity dynamics and its influence on dynamo effects are studied with a theoretical model and 3D direct numerical simulations. The applicability of and the connection between different dynamo models are also discussed. In Chapter 4, processes of magnetic field amplification by turbulence are numerically simulated with a 3D Fourier spectral method. The initial seed magnetic field can be a large-scale field, a small-scale magnetic impulse, and a combination of these two. Other issues, such as dynamo processes due to helical Alfvénic waves and the implication and validity of the Zeldovich relation, are also addressed in Appendix B and Chapters 4 & 5, respectively. Main conclusions and future work are presented in Chapter 5. Applications of these studies are intended for astrophysical magnetic field generation through turbulent dynamo processes, especially when nonlinearity plays central role. In studying the physics of MHD turbulent dynamo processes, the following tools are developed: (1)A double Fourier transform in both space and time for the linearized MHD equations (Chapter 2 and Appendices A & B). (2)A Fourier spectral numerical method for direct simulation of 3D incompressible MHD equations (Appendix C).
3-dimensional simulation of dynamo effect of reversed field pinch
Koide, Shinji.
1990-09-01
A non-linear numerical simulation of the dynamo effect of a reversed field pinch (RFP) with finite beta is presented. It is shown that the m=-1, n=(9,10,11,....,19) modes cause the dynamo effect and sustain the field reversed configuration. The role of the m=0 modes on the dynamo effect is carefully examined. Our simulation shows that the magnetic field fluctuation level scales as S -0.2 or S -0.3 in the range of 10 3 5 , while Nebel, Caramana and Schnack obtained the fluctuation level is independent of S for a pressureless RFP plasma. (author)
Mean-field theory and self-consistent dynamo modeling
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2001-12-01
Mean-field theory of dynamo is discussed with emphasis on the statistical formulation of turbulence effects on the magnetohydrodynamic equations and the construction of a self-consistent dynamo model. The dynamo mechanism is sought in the combination of the turbulent residual-helicity and cross-helicity effects. On the basis of this mechanism, discussions are made on the generation of planetary magnetic fields such as geomagnetic field and sunspots and on the occurrence of flow by magnetic fields in planetary and fusion phenomena. (author)
Large-scale flows, sheet plumes and strong magnetic fields in a rapidly rotating spherical dynamo
Takahashi, F.
2011-12-01
Mechanisms of magnetic field intensification by flows of an electrically conducting fluid in a rapidly rotating spherical shell is investigated. Bearing dynamos of the Eartn and planets in mind, the Ekman number is set at 10-5. A strong dipolar solution with magnetic energy 55 times larger than the kinetic energy of thermal convection is obtained. In a regime of small viscosity and inertia with the strong magnetic field, convection structure consists of a few large-scale retrograde flows in the azimuthal direction and sporadic thin sheet-like plumes. The magnetic field is amplified through stretching of magnetic lines, which occurs typically through three types of flow: the retrograde azimuthal flow near the outer boundary, the downwelling flow of the sheet plume, and the prograde azimuthal flow near the rim of the tangent cylinder induced by the downwelling flow. It is found that either structure of current loops or current sheets is accompanied in each flow structure. Current loops emerge as a result of stretching the magnetic lines along the magnetic field, wheres the current sheets are formed to counterbalance the Coriolis force. Convection structure and processes of magnetic field generation found in the present model are distinct from those in models at larger/smaller Ekman number.
Kinematic Dynamo Action in the Presence of a Large Scale Velocity
Carvalho, J. C.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Se investiga la influencia de Un campo de velocidades de ran escala sobre la acci6n del tur bulento. Usando Un proceso de expansi6n, las soluciones se encuentran en el del movimiento lobal y de cizalla pequeflo y para randes de Reynolds. Se calcula la re jeneraci6n tica hasta un orden en el de expansi6n usando convectivas ciclotr6nicas para el campo turbulento de velocidad. ABSTRACT. The influence a scale velocity field upon the kinernatic turbulent dynamo action is . Usinj an expansion process, the solutions are found in the limit of small bulk motion and shear, and for Reynolds number. The majnetic is calculated up to second order in the expansion parameter usin cyclonic convective cells for the turbulent velocity field. Key o'td : HYDROMAGNETICS
Ouattara, B; Khouzam, A; Mojtabi, A [Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Charrier-Mojtabi, M C, E-mail: bouattar@imft.fr, E-mail: akhouzam@imft.fr, E-mail: mojtabi@imft.fr, E-mail: cmojtabi@cict.fr [PHASE, EA 810, UFR PCA, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France)
2012-06-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conducting boundaries on the onset of convection in a binary fluid-saturated porous layer. The isotropic saturated porous layer is bounded by two impermeable but thermally conducting plates, subjected to a constant heat flux. These plates have identical conductivity. Moreover, the conductivity of the plates is generally different from the porous layer conductivity. The overall layer is of large extent in both horizontal directions. The problem is governed by seven dimensionless parameters, namely the normalized porosity of the medium {epsilon}, the ratio of plates over the porous layer thickness {delta} and their relative thermal conductivities ratio d, the separation ratio {delta}, the Lewis number Le and thermal Rayleigh number Ra. In this work, an analytical and numerical stability analysis is performed. The equilibrium solution is found to lose its stability via a stationary bifurcation or a Hopf bifurcation depending on the values of the dimensionless parameters. For the long-wavelength mode, the critical Rayleigh number is obtained as Ra{sub cs}=12(1+2d{delta} )/[1+{psi} (2d{delta}Le+Le+1)] and k{sub cs}=0 for {psi}> {psi} {sub uni}> 0. This work extends an earlier paper by Mojtabi and Rees (2011 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 54 293-301) who considered a configuration where the porous layer is saturated by a pure fluid.
Planetary Dynamos: Investigations of Saturn and Ancient Mars
Stanley, Sabine [University of Toronto
2012-04-18
Magnetic field observations by spacecraft missions have provided vital information on planetary dynamos. The four giant planets as well as Earth, Mercury and Ganymede have observable magnetic fields generated by active dynamos. In contrast, Moon and Mars only have remanent crustal fields from dynamo action in their early histories. A variety of magnetic field morphologies and intensities can be found in the solar system. We have found that some of the differences between planetary magnetic fields can be explained as the result of the presence of boundary thermal variations or stably-stratified layers. In this talk, I will discuss how dynamos are affected by these complications and discuss the implications for Mars’ magnetic dichotomy and Saturn’s extremely axisymmetric magnetic field.
Energy transfers in dynamos with small magnetic Prandtl numbers
Kumar, Rohit
2015-06-25
We perform numerical simulation of dynamo with magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid, and compute the energy fluxes and the shell-to-shell energy transfers. These computations indicate that the magnetic energy growth takes place mainly due to the energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field and that the magnetic energy flux is forward. The steady-state magnetic energy is much smaller than the kinetic energy, rather than equipartition; this is because the magnetic Reynolds number is near the dynamo transition regime. We also contrast our results with those for dynamo with Pm = 20 and decaying dynamo. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Energy fluxes in helical magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo action
Kinetic and magnetic helicities do not affect the renormalized parameters, ... Generation of magnetic field in plasma, usually referred to as 'dynamo', is one of the ..... energy fluxes for the inertial-range wave numbers where the same power.
Nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo
R. Hide
1997-01-01
Full Text Available In the interpretation of geomagnetic polarity reversals with their highly variable frequency over geological time it is necessary, as with other irregularly fluctuating geophysical phenomena, to consider the relative importance of forced contributions associated with changing boundary conditions and of free contributions characteristic of the behaviour of nonlinear systems operating under fixed boundary conditions. New evidence -albeit indirect- in favour of the likely predominance of forced contributions is provided by the discovery reported here of the possibility of complete quenching by nonlineax effects of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo with its single Faraday disk driven into rotation with angular speed y(τ (where τ denotes time by a steady applied couple. The armature of an electric motor connected in series with the coil of the dynamo is driven into rotation' with angular speed z(τ by a torque xf (x due to Lorentz forces associated with the electric current x(τ in the system (just as certain parts of the spectrum of eddies within the liquid outer core are generated largely by Lorentz forces associated with currents generated by the self-exciting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD geodynamo. The discovery is based on bifurcation analysis supported by computational studies of the following (mathematically novel autonomous set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: dx/dt = x(y - 1 - βzf(x, dy/dt = α(1 - x² - κy, dz/dt = xf (x -λz, where f (x = 1 - ε + εσx, in cases when the dimensionless parameters (α, β, κ, λ, σ are all positive and 0 ≤ ε ≤ 1. Within those regions of (α, β, κ, λ, σ parameter space where the applied couple, as measured by α, is strong enough for persistent dynamo action (i.e. x ≠ 0 to occur at all, there are in general extensive regions where x(τ exhibits large amplitude regular or irregular (chaotic fluctuations. But these fluctuating r
Nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo
Hide, R.
In the interpretation of geomagnetic polarity reversals with their highly variable frequency over geological time it is necessary, as with other irregularly fluctuating geophysical phenomena, to consider the relative importance of forced contributions associated with changing boundary conditions and of free contributions characteristic of the behaviour of nonlinear systems operating under fixed boundary conditions. New evidence -albeit indirect- in favour of the likely predominance of forced contributions is provided by the discovery reported here of the possibility of complete quenching by nonlineax effects of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo with its single Faraday disk driven into rotation with angular speed y(τ) (where τ denotes time) by a steady applied couple. The armature of an electric motor connected in series with the coil of the dynamo is driven into rotation' with angular speed z(τ) by a torque xf (x) due to Lorentz forces associated with the electric current x(τ) in the system (just as certain parts of the spectrum of eddies within the liquid outer core are generated largely by Lorentz forces associated with currents generated by the self-exciting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) geodynamo). The discovery is based on bifurcation analysis supported by computational studies of the following (mathematically novel) autonomous set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: dx/dt = x(y - 1) - βzf(x), dy/dt = α(1 - x²) - κy, dz/dt = xf (x) -λz, where f (x) = 1 - ɛ + ɛσx, in cases when the dimensionless parameters (α, β, κ, λ, σ) are all positive and 0 ≤ ɛ ≤ 1. Within those regions of (α, β, κ, λ, σ) parameter space where the applied couple, as measured by α, is strong enough for persistent dynamo action (i.e. x ≠ 0) to occur at all, there are in general extensive regions where x(τ) exhibits large amplitude regular or irregular (chaotic) fluctuations. But these fluctuating régimes shrink in size as increases
Activity-related characteristics of the convective envelopes in evolving low-mass stars
Rucinski, S.M.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Victoria Univ., Canada)
1986-01-01
Convective envelope structures have been computed for the post-main-sequence evolutionary phases of 0.7-1.6 solar mass model stars having initial mass-fraction abundances of helium and heavier elements equal to Y = 0.25 and Z = 0.0169 (solar), respectively. Two types of quantities as a function of the basic stellar parameters have been studied. The first of these is relevant to the theory of stellar dynamos and includes estimates of the convective turnover time, various dynamo number parameters, and the maximum nonthermal energy which is available for the dynamo action. The other is related to the expected sizes of inhomogeneities on the stellar surfaces and comprises the determination of the depth of the convective zone, the pressure scale height at the outer edge of the convective region, and the thicknesses of the shells where the superadiabatic gradient is large and where the opacity is within 10 percent of its maximum. All of the above properties, which are fully discussed, are extensively tabulated and their variations as a function of evolutionary state are conveniently displayed in a number of contour plots to facilitate comparisons with observations. 29 references
Full sphere hydrodynamic and dynamo benchmarks
Marti, P.; Schaeffer, N.; Hollerbach, R.; Cebron, D.; Nore, C.; Luddens, F.; Guermond, J.- L.; Aubert, J.; Takehiro, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Hayashi, Y.- Y.; Simitev, R.; Busse, F.; Vantieghem, S.; Jackson, A.
2014-01-01
of computer codes designed to calculate fluid flow within a whole sphere. The flows are incompressible and rapidly rotating and the forcing of the flow is either due to thermal convection or due to moving boundaries. All problems defined have solutions
National Convective Weather Diagnostic
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...
Antartic observations of plasma convection
Hansen, H.J.
1983-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the use of whistler duct tracking as a diagnostic for the behaviour of plasma in the plasmasphere. As a setting for the results given in the thesis, a broad review is presented which embraces pertinent aspects of previous experimental and theoretical studies of the plasmasphere. From a study of 24 hours of continuous whistler data recorded at Sanae, (L = 3,98), it is shown that associated with quiet magnetic conditions (Av Ksub(p)=1), there exists two plasmasphere bulges centred on about 1700 and 0100 UT. There is evidence that these plasmasphere bulge structures are part of a ground-state or reference base drift pattern. Electric field measurements provide some evidence that quiet time plasmasphere drift behaviour is controlled by the internal ionospheric current systems of dynamo origin, rather than being controlled by magnetospheric convection. Finally, this thesis describes an application of the whistler duct tracking technique to whistler data recorded simultaneously at two ground-based stations (Sanae (L = 3,98) and Halley (L = 4,23)). The identification of common whistler components on each station's data set provides a means of estimating the lifetimes of the associated whistler ducts. Duct lifetimes of as little as 30 minutes are found. Such short lived ducts have important implications for current theories of duct formation
RED DWARF DYNAMO RAISES PUZZLE OVER INTERIORS OF LOWEST-MASS STARS
2002-01-01
-years away in the constellation Aquila. Gliese 752A is a red dwarf that is one-third the mass of the Sun and slightly more than half its diameter. By contrast, VB10 is physically smaller than the planet Jupiter and only about nine percent the mass of our Sun. This very faint star is near the threshold of the lowest possible mass for a true star (.08 solar masses), below which nuclear fusion processes cannot take place according to current models. A team led by Linsky used Hubble's Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) to make a one-hour long exposure of VB10 on October 12, 1994. No detectable ultraviolet emission was seen until the last five minutes, when bright emission was detected in a flare. Though the star's normal surface temperature is 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit, Hubble's GHRS detected a sudden burst of 270,000 degrees Fahrenheit in the star's outer atmosphere. Linsky attributes this rapid heating to the presence of an intense, but unstable, magnetic field. THE INTERIOR WORKINGS OF A STELLAR DYNAMO Before the Hubble observation, astronomers thought magnetic fields in stars required the same dynamo process which creates magnetic fields on the Sun. In the classic solar model, heat generated by nuclear fusion reactions at the star's center escapes through a radiative zone just outside the core. The heat travels from the radiative core to the star's surface through a convection zone. In this region, heat bubbles to the surface by motions similar to boiling in a pot of water. Dynamos, which accelerate electrons to create magnetic forces, operate when the interior of a star rotates faster than the surface. Recent studies of the Sun indicate its convective zone rotates at nearly the same rate at all depths. This means the solar dynamo must operate in the more rapidly rotating radiative core just below the convective zone. The puzzle is that stars below 20 percent the mass of our Sun do not have radiative cores, but instead transport heat from their core through
Tzeferacos, P.; Rigby, A.; Bott, A.; Bell, A.; Bingham, R.; Casner, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Churazov, E.; Forest, C.; Katz, J.; Koenig, M.; Li, C.-K.; Meinecke, J.; Petrasso, R.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B.; Ross, J.; Ryutov, D.; Ryu, D.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A.; Froula, D.; Lamb, D.; Gregori, G.
2017-10-01
The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model for cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo. We have conceived experiments to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through large-scale 3D FLASH simulations on the Mira supercomputer at ANL, and the laser-driven experiments we conducted with the OMEGA laser at LLE. Our results indicate that turbulence is capable of rapidly amplifying seed fields to near equipartition with the turbulent fluid motions. This work was supported in part from the ERC (FP7/2007-2013, No. 256973 and 247039), and the U.S. DOE, Contract No. B591485 to LLNL, FWP 57789 to ANL, Grant No. DE-NA0002724 and DE-SC0016566 to the University of Chicago, and DE-AC02-06CH11357 to ANL.
Measurement of the dynamo effect in a plasma
Ji, H.; Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Sarff, J.S.; Hirano, Y.; Toyama, H.
1995-11-01
A series of the detailed experiments has been conducted in three laboratory plasma devices to measure the dynamo electric field along the equilibrium field line (the α effect) arising from the correlation between the fluctuating flow velocity and magnetic field. The fluctuating flow velocity is obtained from probe measurement of the fluctuating E x B drift and electron diamagnetic drift. The three major findings are (1) the α effect accounts for the dynamo current generation, even in the time dependence through a ''sawtooth'' cycle; (2) at low collisionality the dynamo is explained primarily by the widely studied pressureless Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, i.e., the fluctuating velocity is dominated by the E x B drift; (3) at high collisionality, a new ''electron diamagnetic dynamo'' is observed, in which the fluctuating velocity is dominated by the diamagnetic drift. In addition, direct measurements of the helicity flux indicate that the dynamo activity transports magnetic helicity from one part of the plasma to another, but the total helicity is roughly conserved, verifying J.B. Taylor's conjecture
THE TURBULENT DYNAMO IN HIGHLY COMPRESSIBLE SUPERSONIC PLASMAS
Federrath, Christoph [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Schober, Jennifer [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bovino, Stefano; Schleicher, Dominik R. G., E-mail: christoph.federrath@anu.edu.au [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2014-12-20
The turbulent dynamo may explain the origin of cosmic magnetism. While the exponential amplification of magnetic fields has been studied for incompressible gases, little is known about dynamo action in highly compressible, supersonic plasmas, such as the interstellar medium of galaxies and the early universe. Here we perform the first quantitative comparison of theoretical models of the dynamo growth rate and saturation level with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of supersonic turbulence with grid resolutions of up to 1024{sup 3} cells. We obtain numerical convergence and find that dynamo action occurs for both low and high magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm = ν/η = 0.1-10 (the ratio of viscous to magnetic dissipation), which had so far only been seen for Pm ≥ 1 in supersonic turbulence. We measure the critical magnetic Reynolds number, Rm{sub crit}=129{sub −31}{sup +43}, showing that the compressible dynamo is almost as efficient as in incompressible gas. Considering the physical conditions of the present and early universe, we conclude that magnetic fields need to be taken into account during structure formation from the early to the present cosmic ages, because they suppress gas fragmentation and drive powerful jets and outflows, both greatly affecting the initial mass function of stars.
Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden@gmail.com, E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)
2014-07-01
We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.
Convective cells and transport in toroidal plasmas
Hassam, A.B.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1978-12-01
The properties of convective cells and the diffusion resulting from such cells are significantly influenced by an inhomogeneity in the extermal confining magnetic field, such as that in toroidal plasmas. The convective diffusion in the presence of a field inhomogeneity is estimated. For a thermal background, this diffusion is shown to be substantially smaller than classical collisional diffusion. For a model nonthermal background, the diffusion is estimated, for typical parameters, to be at most of the order of collisional diffusion. The model background employed is based on spectra observed in numerical simulations of drift-wave-driven convective cells
Tracing control of chaos for the coupled dynamos dynamical system
Wang Xuedi; Tian Lixin
2004-01-01
This paper introduces a new method for the coupled dynamos dynamical system, which can be applied to the decision of the chaotic behavior of the system. And research the tracing control of the chaos for the coupled dynamos dynamical system by gradually changing the driving parameter for the chaos. With the different design of controllers, the numerical simulation results show the relation between the chaotic behavior and the changes of the parameter value. Furthermore, the result shows the difference of the controllers. In the mean time, it reveals the process of the orbit's gradual changing with the parameter value
Feasible homopolar dynamo with sliding liquid-metal contacts
Priede, Jānis; Avalos-Zúñiga, Raúl
2013-01-01
We present a feasible homopolar dynamo design consisting of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil, which is placed above a fast-spinning metal ring and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Using a simple, analytically solvable axisymmetric model, we determine the optimal design of such a setup. For small contact resistance, the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, Rm~34.6, at which the dynamo can work, is attained at the optimal ratio of the outer and inner radii of the ri...
Magnetic field saturation in the Riga dynamo experiment.
Gailitis, A; Lielausis, O; Platacis, E; Dement'ev, S; Cifersons, A; Gerbeth, G; Gundrum, T; Stefani, F; Christen, M; Will, G
2001-04-02
After the dynamo experiment in November 1999 [A. Gailitis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4365 (2000)] had shown magnetic field self-excitation in a spiraling liquid metal flow, in a second series of experiments emphasis was placed on the magnetic field saturation regime as the next principal step in the dynamo process. The dependence of the strength of the magnetic field on the rotation rate is studied. Various features of the saturated magnetic field are outlined and possible saturation mechanisms are discussed.
Hide, Raymond
1997-02-01
This paper discusses the derivation of the autonomous sets of dimensionless nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE's) that govern the behaviour of a hierarchy of related electro-mechanical self-exciting Faraday-disk homopolar dynamo systems driven by steady mechanical couples. Each system comprises N interacting units which could be arranged in a ring or lattice. Within each unit and connected in parallel or in series with the coil are electric motors driven into motion by the dynamo, all having linear characteristics, so that nonlinearity arises entirely through the coupling between components. By introducing simple extra terms into the equations it is possible to represent biasing effects arising from impressed electromotive forces due to thermoelectric or chemical processes and from the presence of ambient magnetic fields. Dissipation in the system is due not only to ohmic heating but also to mechanical friction in the disk and the motors, with the latter agency, no matter how weak, playing an unexpectedly crucial rôle in the production of régimes of chaotic behaviour. This has already been demonstrated in recent work on a case of a single unit incorporating just one series motor, which is governed by a novel autonomous set of nonlinear ODE's with three time-dependent variables and four control parameters. It will be of mathematical as well as geophysical and astrophysical interest to investigate systematically phase and amplitude locking and other types of behaviour in the more complicated cases that arise when N > 1, which can typically involve up to 6 N dependent variables and 19 N-5 control parameters. Even the simplest members of the hierarchy, with N as low as 1, 2 or 3, could prove useful as physically-realistic low-dimensional models in theoretical studies of fluctuating stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Geomagnetic polarity reversals could be affected by the presence of the Earth's solid metallic inner core, driven like an electric motor
Southern Ocean Convection and tropical telleconnections
Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.
2014-12-01
We show that Southern Ocean (SO) temperatures in the latest generation of Earth System Models exhibit two major modes of variation, one driven by deep convection, the other by tropical variability. We perform a CMIP5 model intercomparison to understand why different climate models represent SO variability so differently in long, control simulations. We show that multiyear variability in Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can in turn influence oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropics on short (atmospheric) time-scales. We argue that the strength and pattern of SO-tropical teleconnections depends on the intensity of SO deep convection. Periodic convection in the SO is a feature of most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al., 2014). Models show a wide distribution in the spatial extent, periodicity and intensity of their SO convection, with some models convecting most of the time, and some showing very little convection. In a highly convective coupled model, we find that multidecadal variability in SO and global SSTs, as well as SO heat storage are driven by Weddell Sea convective variability, with convective decades relatively warm due to the heat released from the deep southern ocean and non-convective decades cold due to the subsurface storage of heat. Furthermore, pulses of SO convection drive SST and sea ice variations, influencing absorbed shortwave and emitted longwave radiation, wind, cloud and precipitation patterns, with climatic implications for the low latitudes via fast atmospheric teleconnections. We suggest that these high-low latitude teleconnection mechanisms are relevant for understanding hiatus decades. Additionally, Southern Ocean deep convection varied significantly during past, natural climate changes such as during the last deglaciation. Weddell Sea open convection was recently weakened, likely as a consequence of anthropogenic forcing and the resulting surface freshening. Our study opens up the
Energy transfers in dynamos with small magnetic Prandtl numbers
Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra K.; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-01-01
We perform numerical simulation of dynamo with magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid, and compute the energy fluxes and the shell-to-shell energy transfers. These computations indicate that the magnetic energy growth takes place mainly due
Identification of vortexes obstructing the dynamo mechanism in laboratory experiments
Limone, A.; Hatch, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Jenko, F.
2013-06-01
The magnetohydrodynamic dynamo effect explains the generation of self-sustained magnetic fields in electrically conducting flows, especially in geo- and astrophysical environments. Yet the details of this mechanism are still unknown, e.g., how and to which extent the geometry, the fluid topology, the forcing mechanism, and the turbulence can have a negative effect on this process. We report on numerical simulations carried out in spherical geometry, analyzing the predicted velocity flow with the so-called singular value decomposition, a powerful technique that allows us to precisely identify vortexes in the flow which would be difficult to characterize with conventional spectral methods. We then quantify the contribution of these vortexes to the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the system. We identify an axisymmetric vortex, whose rotational direction changes periodically in time, and whose dynamics are decoupled from those of the large scale background flow, that is detrimental for the dynamo effect. A comparison with experiments is carried out, showing that similar dynamics were observed in cylindrical geometry. These previously unexpected eddies, which impede the dynamo effect, offer an explanation for the experimental difficulties in attaining a dynamo in spherical geometry.
Yoshimura, H.
1983-01-01
Dynamo processes as a magnetic field generation mechanism in astrophysics can be described essentially by movement and deformation of magnetic field lines due to plasma fluid motions. A basic element of the processes is a kinematic problem. As an important prototype of these processes, we investigate the case of the solar magnetic cycle. To follow the movement and deformation, we solve magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations by a numerical method with a prescribed velocity field. A simple combination of differential rotation and global convection, given by a linear analysis of fluid dynamics in a rotating sphere, can perpetually create and reverse great magnetic flux tubes encircling the Sun. We call them the main flux tubes of the solar cycle. They are progenitors of small-scale flux ropes of the solar activity. This shows that magnetic field generation by fluid motions is, in fact, possible and that MHD equations have a new type of oscillatory solution. The solar cycle can be identified with one of such oscillatory solutions. This means that we can follow detailed stages of the field generation and reversal processes of the dynamo by continuously observing the Sun. It is proposed that the magnetic flux tube formation by streaming plasma flows exemplified here could be a universal mechanism of flux tube formation in astrophysics
Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers
Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S.
2012-12-01
The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓϑ, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ). We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rmcrit, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rmcrit is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rmcrit provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.
Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.
Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S
2012-12-01
The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓ^{ϑ}, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.
Prandtl-number Effects in High-Rayleigh-number Spherical Convection
Orvedahl, Ryan J.; Calkins, Michael A.; Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Hindman, Bradley W.
2018-03-01
Convection is the predominant mechanism by which energy and angular momentum are transported in the outer portion of the Sun. The resulting overturning motions are also the primary energy source for the solar magnetic field. An accurate solar dynamo model therefore requires a complete description of the convective motions, but these motions remain poorly understood. Studying stellar convection numerically remains challenging; it occurs within a parameter regime that is extreme by computational standards. The fluid properties of the convection zone are characterized in part by the Prandtl number \\Pr = ν/κ, where ν is the kinematic viscosity and κ is the thermal diffusion; in stars, \\Pr is extremely low, \\Pr ≈ 10‑7. The influence of \\Pr on the convective motions at the heart of the dynamo is not well understood since most numerical studies are limited to using \\Pr ≈ 1. We systematically vary \\Pr and the degree of thermal forcing, characterized through a Rayleigh number, to explore its influence on the convective dynamics. For sufficiently large thermal driving, the simulations reach a so-called convective free-fall state where diffusion no longer plays an important role in the interior dynamics. Simulations with a lower \\Pr generate faster convective flows and broader ranges of scales for equivalent levels of thermal forcing. Characteristics of the spectral distribution of the velocity remain largely insensitive to changes in \\Pr . Importantly, we find that \\Pr plays a key role in determining when the free-fall regime is reached by controlling the thickness of the thermal boundary layer.
Full sphere hydrodynamic and dynamo benchmarks
Marti, P.
2014-01-26
Convection in planetary cores can generate fluid flow and magnetic fields, and a number of sophisticated codes exist to simulate the dynamic behaviour of such systems. We report on the first community activity to compare numerical results of computer codes designed to calculate fluid flow within a whole sphere. The flows are incompressible and rapidly rotating and the forcing of the flow is either due to thermal convection or due to moving boundaries. All problems defined have solutions that alloweasy comparison, since they are either steady, slowly drifting or perfectly periodic. The first two benchmarks are defined based on uniform internal heating within the sphere under the Boussinesq approximation with boundary conditions that are uniform in temperature and stress-free for the flow. Benchmark 1 is purely hydrodynamic, and has a drifting solution. Benchmark 2 is a magnetohydrodynamic benchmark that can generate oscillatory, purely periodic, flows and magnetic fields. In contrast, Benchmark 3 is a hydrodynamic rotating bubble benchmark using no slip boundary conditions that has a stationary solution. Results from a variety of types of code are reported, including codes that are fully spectral (based on spherical harmonic expansions in angular coordinates and polynomial expansions in radius), mixed spectral and finite difference, finite volume, finite element and also a mixed Fourier-finite element code. There is good agreement between codes. It is found that in Benchmarks 1 and 2, the approximation of a whole sphere problem by a domain that is a spherical shell (a sphere possessing an inner core) does not represent an adequate approximation to the system, since the results differ from whole sphere results. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.
Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection
Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.
1993-01-01
Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection
Exploring the Flux Tube Paradigm in Solar-like Convection Zones
Weber, Maria A.; Nelson, Nicholas; Browning, Matthew
2017-08-01
In the solar context, important insight into the flux emergence process has been obtained by assuming the magnetism giving rise to sunspots consists partly of idealized flux tubes. Global-scale dynamo models are only now beginning to capture some aspects of flux emergence. In certain regimes, these simulations self-consistently generate magnetic flux structures that rise buoyantly through the computational domain. How similar are these dynamo-generated, rising flux structures to traditional flux tube models? The work we present here is a step toward addressing this question. We utilize the thin flux tube (TFT) approximation to simply model the evolution of flux tubes in a global, three-dimensional geometry. The TFTs are embedded in convective flows taken from a global dynamo simulation of a rapidly rotating Sun within which buoyant flux structures arise naturally from wreaths of magnetism. The initial conditions of the TFTs are informed by rising flux structures identified in the dynamo simulation. We compare the trajectories of the dynamo-generated flux loops with those computed through the TFT approach. We also assess the nature of the relevant forces acting on both sets of flux structures, such as buoyancy, the Coriolis force, and external forces imparted by the surrounding convection. To achieve the fast <15 day rise of the buoyant flux structures, we must suppress the large retrograde flow established inside the TFTs which occurs due to a strong conservation of angular momentum as they move outward. This tendency is common in flux tube models in solar-like convection zones, but is not present to the same degree in the dynamo-generated flux loops. We discuss the mechanisms that may be responsible for suppressing the axial flow inside the flux tube, and consider the implications this has regarding the role of the Coriolis force in explaining sunspot latitudes and the observed Joy’s Law trend of active regions. Our work aims to provide constraints, and possible
Solar and Stellar Dynamos Saas-Fee Advanced Course 39 Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy
2013-01-01
Astrophysical dynamos are at the heart of cosmic magnetic fields of a wide range of scales, from planets and stars to entire galaxies. This book presents a thorough, step-by-step introduction to solar and stellar dynamos. Looking first at the ultimate origin of cosmic seed magnetic fields, the antagonists of field amplification are next considered: resistive decay, flux expulsion, and flows ruled out by anti-dynamo theorems. Two kinematic flows that can act as dynamos are then studied: the Roberts cell and the CP-flow. Mean-field electrodynamics and derivation of the mean-field dynamo equations lead to the alpha Omega-dynamo, the flux transport dynamo, and dynamos based on the Babcock-Leighton mechanism. Alternatives to the mean-field theory are also presented, as are global MHD dynamo simulations. Fluctuations and grand minima in the solar cycle are discussed in terms of dynamo modulations through stochastic forcing and nonlinear effects. The book concludes with an overview of the major challenges in underst...
Integral equation approach to time-dependent kinematic dynamos in finite domains
Xu Mingtian; Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter
2004-01-01
The homogeneous dynamo effect is at the root of cosmic magnetic field generation. With only a very few exceptions, the numerical treatment of homogeneous dynamos is carried out in the framework of the differential equation approach. The present paper tries to facilitate the use of integral equations in dynamo research. Apart from the pedagogical value to illustrate dynamo action within the well-known picture of the Biot-Savart law, the integral equation approach has a number of practical advantages. The first advantage is its proven numerical robustness and stability. The second and perhaps most important advantage is its applicability to dynamos in arbitrary geometries. The third advantage is its intimate connection to inverse problems relevant not only for dynamos but also for technical applications of magnetohydrodynamics. The paper provides the first general formulation and application of the integral equation approach to time-dependent kinematic dynamos, with stationary dynamo sources, in finite domains. The time dependence is restricted to the magnetic field, whereas the velocity or corresponding mean-field sources of dynamo action are supposed to be stationary. For the spherically symmetric α 2 dynamo model it is shown how the general formulation is reduced to a coupled system of two radial integral equations for the defining scalars of the poloidal and toroidal field components. The integral equation formulation for spherical dynamos with general stationary velocity fields is also derived. Two numerical examples - the α 2 dynamo model with radially varying α and the Bullard-Gellman model - illustrate the equivalence of the approach with the usual differential equation method. The main advantage of the method is exemplified by the treatment of an α 2 dynamo in rectangular domains
National Convective Weather Forecast
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...
Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository
Y. Hao; J. Nitao; T.A. Buscheck; Y. Sun
2006-01-01
In this study, we conduct a two-dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have strong impacts on the in-drift convective flow and transport
Feasible homopolar dynamo with sliding liquid-metal contacts
Priede, Jānis; Avalos-Zúñiga, Raúl
2013-01-01
We present a feasible homopolar dynamo design consisting of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil, which is placed above a fast-spinning metal ring and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Using a simple, analytically solvable axisymmetric model, we determine the optimal design of such a setup. For small contact resistance, the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, Rm≈34.6, at which the dynamo can work, is attained at the optimal ratio of the outer and inner radii of the rings R i /R o ≈0.36 and the spiral pitch angle 54.7°. In a setup of two copper rings with the thickness of 3 cm, R i =10 cm and R o =30 cm, self-excitation of the magnetic field is expected at a critical rotation frequency around 10 Hz
Magnetic field dynamos and magnetically triggered flow instabilities
Stefani, F.; Albrecht, T.; Arlt, R.; Christen, M.; Gailitis, A.; Gellert, M.; Giesecke, A.; Goepfert, O.; Herault, J.; Kirillov, O. N.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Priede, J.; Rüdiger, G.; Seilmayer, M.; Tilgner, A.; Vogt, T.
2017-07-01
The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). An associated starting grant was focused on the dimensioning of a liquid metal experiment on the newly found magnetic destabilization of rotating flows with positive shear. In this survey paper, the main results of these two projects are summarized.
Boundary effects on the MHD dynamo in laboratory plasmas
Ho, Y.L.; Prager, S.C.
1989-07-01
In recent laboratory experiments, a dynamo-like mechanism has been demonstrated in which a portion of the axisymmetric component of the magnetic field is believed to be sustained by 3D spatial fluctuations in the field and flow. With a conducting shell at the plasma surface, past MHD computation shows that sustainment arises from fluctuations which cause magnetic reconnection. If the conducting wall is retracted from the plasma surface, the fluctuations are amplified and the dynamo sustainment is still active for the times studied, but an increased energy input to the plasma is required through the applied electric field. The retraction of the conducting wall enhances the helicity dissipation rate by the intersection of the fields with the resistive surface which bounds the plasma. This enhanced helicity dissipation is balanced by the helicity injection that accompanies the increased applied electric field. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory
Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ruchayskiy, Oleg [Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Boyarsky, Alexey [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Fröhlich, Jürg [Institute of Theoretical Physics, ETH Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brandenburg, Axel; Schober, Jennifer, E-mail: gary@bgu.ac.il [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2017-09-10
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that the chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.
Dynamos of the Sun, Stars, and Planets - Preface
Stix, M.
2005-04-01
The conference ``Dynamos of the Sun, Stars, and Planets'' was organized by the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik Freiburg, and was held at the University of Freiburg from 4th to 6th October 2004. About 50 participants attended the conference, with 8 review lectures, 20 contributed talks, and 6 posters. With only few exceptions, these contributions appear in the present issue of Astronomische Nachrichten. This preface summarizes the discussion of the closing session.
Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory
Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Brandenburg, Axel; Schober, Jennifer
2017-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that the chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.
Chaotic Dynamos Generated by a Turbulent Flow of Liquid Sodium
Ravelet, F.; Monchaux, R.; Aumaitre, S.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Berhanu, M.; Fauve, S.; Mordant, N.; Petrelis, F.; Bourgoin, M.; Odier, Ph.; Plihon, N.; Pinton, J.-F.; Volk, R.
2008-01-01
We report the observation of several dynamical regimes of the magnetic field generated by a turbulent flow of liquid sodium (VKS experiment). Stationary dynamos, transitions to relaxation cycles or to intermittent bursts, and random field reversals occur in a fairly small range of parameters. Large scale dynamics of the magnetic field result from the interactions of a few modes. The low dimensional nature of these dynamics is not smeared out by the very strong turbulent fluctuations of the flow
Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.
1985-01-01
A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.
Faraday rotation signatures of fluctuation dynamos in young galaxies
Sur, Sharanya; Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2018-03-01
Observations of Faraday rotation through high-redshift galaxies have revealed that they host coherent magnetic fields that are of comparable strengths to those observed in nearby galaxies. These fields could be generated by fluctuation dynamos. We use idealized numerical simulations of such dynamos in forced compressible turbulence up to rms Mach number of 2.4 to probe the resulting rotation measure (RM) and the degree of coherence of the magnetic field. We obtain rms values of RM at dynamo saturation of the order of 45-55 per cent of the value expected in a model where fields are assumed to be coherent on the forcing scale of turbulence. We show that the dominant contribution to the RM in subsonic and transonic cases comes from the general sea of volume filling fields, rather than from the rarer structures. However, in the supersonic case, strong field regions as well as moderately overdense regions contribute significantly. Our results can account for the observed RMs in young galaxies.
Den Hartog, D.J.; Almagri, A.F.
1996-09-01
A three- to five-fold enhancement of the energy confinement time in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) by reducing the amplitude of tearing mode fluctuations responsible for anomalous transport in the core of the RFP. By applying a transient poloidal inductive electric field to flatten the current density profile, the fluctuation amplitude b/B decreases from 1.5% to 0.8%, the electron temperature T e0 increases from 250 eV to 370 eV, the ohmic input power decreases from 4.5 MW to approximately 1.5 MW, the poloidal beta β 0 increases from 6% to 9%, and the energy confinement time τ E increases from 1 ms to ∼5 ms in I φ = 340 kA plasmas with density n = 1 x 10 19 m -3 . Current profile control methods are being developed for the RFP in a program to eliminate transport associated with these current-gradient-driven fluctuations. In addition to controlling the amplitude of the tearing modes, we are vigorously pursuing an understanding of the physics of these fluctuations. In particular, plasma flow, both equilibrium and fluctuating, plays a critical role in a diversity of physical phenomena in MST. The key results: 1) Edge probe measurements show that the MHD dynamo is active in low collisionality plasmas, while at high collisionality a new mechanism, the 'electron diamagnetic dynamo,' is observed. 2) Core spectroscopic measurements show that the toroidal velocity fluctuations of the plasma are coherent with the large-scale magnetic tearing modes; the scalar product of these two fluctuating quantities is similar to that expected for the MHD dynamo electromotive force. 3) Toroidal plasma flow in MST exhibits large radial shear and can be actively controlled, including unlocking locked discharges, by modifying E r with a robust biased probe. 24 refs
Subcritical thermal convection of liquid metals in a rapidly rotating sphere
Cardin, P.; Schaeffer, N.; Guervilly, C.; Kaplan, E.
2017-12-01
Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct (down to Ek=10-7) and a quasi geostrophic (down to Ek=10-10) numerical simulations. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superceded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are continuously connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the continuous transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ekforcing decreases well below the linear onset of convection (Ra 0.4Racrit in this study for Ek=10-10 and Pr=0.01). We highlight the importance of the Reynolds stress, which is required for convection to persist below the linear onset. We further note the presence of a strong zonal flow that is nonetheless unimportant to the convective subcritical state. Our study suggests that, in the asymptotic regime of rapid rotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets and shuts down through a subcritical bifurcation. This scenario may be relevant to explain the lunar and martian dynamo extinctions.
Magnetic fields driven by tidal mixing in radiative stars
Vidal, Jérémie; Cébron, David; Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Hollerbach, Rainer
2018-04-01
Stellar magnetism plays an important role in stellar evolution theory. Approximatively 10 per cent of observed main sequence (MS) and pre-main-sequence (PMS) radiative stars exhibit surface magnetic fields above the detection limit, raising the question of their origin. These stars host outer radiative envelopes, which are stably stratified. Therefore, they are assumed to be motionless in standard models of stellar structure and evolution. We focus on rapidly rotating, radiative stars which may be prone to the tidal instability, due to an orbital companion. Using direct numerical simulations in a sphere, we study the interplay between a stable stratification and the tidal instability, and assess its dynamo capability. We show that the tidal instability is triggered regardless of the strength of the stratification (Brunt-Väisälä frequency). Furthermore, the tidal instability can lead to both mixing and self-induced magnetic fields in stably stratified layers (provided that the Brunt-Väisälä frequency does not exceed the stellar spin rate in the simulations too much). The application to stars suggests that the resulting magnetic fields could be observable at the stellar surfaces. Indeed, we expect magnetic field strengths up to several Gauss. Consequently, tidally driven dynamos should be considered as a (complementary) dynamo mechanism, possibly operating in radiative MS and PMS stars hosting orbital companions. In particular, tidally driven dynamos may explain the observed magnetism of tidally deformed and rapidly rotating Vega-like stars.
From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence
Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2015-01-01
Double-diffusive convection (DDC), which is the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering environments. Of great interests are scalars’ transfer rate and flow structures. Here we systematically investigate DDC flow
Computer simulation of transport driven current in tokamaks
Nunan, W.J.; Dawson, J.M.
1993-01-01
Plasma transport phenomena can drive large currents parallel to an externally applied magnetic field. The Bootstrap Current Theory accounts for the effect of Banana diffusion on toroidal current, but the effect is not confined to that transport regime. The authors' 2 1/2-D, electromagnetic, particle simulations have demonstrated that Maxwellian plasmas in static toroidal and vertical fields spontaneously develop significant toroidal current, even in the absence of the open-quotes seed currentclose quotes which the Bootstrap Theory requires. Other simulations, in both toroidal and straight cylindrical geometries, and without any externally imposed electric field, show that if the plasma column is centrally fueled, and if the particle diffusion coefficient exceeds the magnetic diffusion coefficient (as is true in most tokamaks) then the toroidal current grows steadily. The simulations indicate that such fueling, coupled with central heating due to fusion reactions may drive all of the tokamak's toroidal current. The Bootstrap and dynamo mechanisms do not drive toroidal current where the poloidal magnetic field is zero. The simulations, as well as initial theoretical work, indicate that in tokamak plasmas, various processes naturally transport current from the outer regions of the plasma to the magnetic axis. The mechanisms which cause this effective electron viscosity include conventional binary collisions, wave emission and reabsorption, and also convection associated with rvec E x rvec B vortex motion. The simulations also exhibit preferential loss of particles carrying current opposing the bulk plasma current. This preferential loss generates current even at the magnetic axis. If these self-seeding mechanisms function in experiments as they do in the simulations, then transport driven current would eliminate the need for any external current drive in tokamaks, except simple ohmic heating for initial generation of the plasma
Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo
Kumar, Rohit Raj; Verma, Mahendra K.; Samtaney, Ravi
2013-01-01
In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20
A NEW SIMPLE DYNAMO MODEL FOR STELLAR ACTIVITY CYCLE
Yokoi, N.; Hamba, F. [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Schmitt, D. [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen D-37077 (Germany); Pipin, V., E-mail: nobyokoi@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Solar–Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation)
2016-06-20
A new simple dynamo model for stellar activity cycle is proposed. By considering an inhomogeneous flow effect on turbulence, it is shown that turbulent cross helicity (velocity–magnetic-field correlation) enters the expression of turbulent electromotive force as the coupling coefficient for the mean absolute vorticity. This makes the present model different from the current α –Ω-type models in two main ways. First, in addition to the usual helicity ( α ) and turbulent magnetic diffusivity ( β ) effects, we consider the cross-helicity effect as a key ingredient of the dynamo process. Second, the spatiotemporal evolution of cross helicity is solved simultaneously with the mean magnetic fields. The basic scenario is as follows. In the presence of turbulent cross helicity, the toroidal field is induced by the toroidal rotation. Then, as in usual models, the α effect generates the poloidal field from the toroidal one. This induced poloidal field produces a turbulent cross helicity whose sign is opposite to the original one (negative production). With this cross helicity of the reversed sign, a reversal in field configuration starts. Eigenvalue analyses of the simplest possible model give a butterfly diagram, which confirms the above scenario and the equatorward migrations, the phase relationship between the cross helicity and magnetic fields. These results suggest that the oscillation of the turbulent cross helicity is a key for the activity cycle. The reversal of the cross helicity is not the result of the magnetic-field reversal, but the cause of the latter. This new model is expected to open up the possibility of the mean-field or turbulence closure dynamo approaches.
Anelastic spherical dynamos with radially variable electrical conductivity
Dietrich, W.; Jones, C. A.
2018-05-01
A series of numerical simulations of the dynamo process operating inside gas giant planets has been performed. We use an anelastic, fully nonlinear, three-dimensional, benchmarked MHD code to evolve the flow, entropy and magnetic field. Our models take into account the varying electrical conductivity, high in the ionised metallic hydrogen region, low in the molecular outer region. Our suite of electrical conductivity profiles ranges from Jupiter-like, where the outer hydrodynamic region is quite thin, to Saturn-like, where there is a thick non-conducting shell. The rapid rotation leads to the formation of two distinct dynamical regimes which are separated by a magnetic tangent cylinder - mTC. Outside the mTC there are strong zonal flows, where Reynolds stress balances turbulent viscosity, but inside the mTC Lorentz force reduces the zonal flow. The dynamic interaction between both regions induces meridional circulation. We find a rich diversity of magnetic field morphologies. There are Jupiter-like steady dipolar fields, and a belt of quadrupolar dominated dynamos spanning the range of models between Jupiter-like and Saturn-like conductivity profiles. This diversity may be linked to the appearance of reversed sign helicity in the metallic regions of our dynamos. With Saturn-like conductivity profiles we find models with dipolar magnetic fields, whose axisymmetric components resemble those of Saturn, and which oscillate on a very long time-scale. However, the non-axisymmetric field components of our models are at least ten times larger than those of Saturn, possibly due to the absence of any stably stratified layer.
Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble
Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric
2017-11-01
Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.
Gurgenashvili, Eka; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi; Shergelashvili, Bidzina [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory at Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hanslmeier, Arnold [IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Poedts, Stefaan, E-mail: teimuraz.zaqarashvili@uni-graz.at [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium)
2016-07-20
Solar activity undergoes a variation over timescales of several months known as Rieger-type periodicity, which usually occurs near maxima of sunspot cycles. An early analysis showed that the periodicity appears only in some cycles and is absent in other cycles. But the appearance/absence during different cycles has not been explained. We performed a wavelet analysis of sunspot data from the Greenwich Royal Observatory and the Royal Observatory of Belgium during cycles 14–24. We found that the Rieger-type periods occur in all cycles, but they are cycle dependent: shorter periods occur during stronger cycles. Our analysis revealed a periodicity of 185–195 days during the weak cycles 14–15 and 24 and a periodicity of 155–165 days during the stronger cycles 16–23. We derived the dispersion relation of the spherical harmonics of the magnetic Rossby waves in the presence of differential rotation and a toroidal magnetic field in the dynamo layer near the base of the convection zone. This showed that the harmonics of fast Rossby waves with m = 1 and n = 4, where m ( n ) indicates the toroidal (poloidal) wavenumbers, perfectly fit with the observed periodicity. The variation of the toroidal field strength from weaker to stronger cycles may lead to the different periods found in those cycles, which explains the observed enigmatic feature of the Rieger-type periodicity. Finally, we used the observed periodicity to estimate the dynamo field strength during cycles 14–24. Our estimations suggest a field strength of ∼40 kG for the stronger cycles and ∼20 kG for the weaker cycles.
Turbulent Diffusion of the Geomagnetic Field and Dynamo Theories
Filippi, Enrico
2016-01-01
The thesis deals with the Dynamo Theories of the Earth’s Magnetic Field and mainly deepens the turbulence phenomena in the fluid Earth’s core. Indeed, we think that these phenomena are very important to understand the recent decay of the geomagnetic field. The thesis concerns also the dynamics of the outer core and some very rapid changes of the geomagnetic field observed in the Earth’s surface and some aspects regarding the (likely) isotropic turbulence in the Magnetohydrodynamics. These top...
The magnetic universe geophysical and astrophysical dynamo theory
Rüdiger, Günther
2004-01-01
Magnetism is one of the most pervasive features of the Universe, with planets, stars and entire galaxies all having associated magnetic fields. All of these fields are generated by the motion of electrically conducting fluids, the so-called dynamo effect. The precise details of what drives the motion, and indeed what the fluid consists of, differ widely though. In this work the authors draw upon their expertise in geophysical and astrophysical MHD to explore some of these phenomena, and describe the similarities and differences between different magnetized objects. They also explain why magn
A homopolar disc dynamo experiment with liquid metal contacts
Avalos-Zúñiga, R. A.; Priede, J.; Bello-Morales, C. E.
2017-01-01
We present experimental results of a homopolar disc dynamo constructed at CICATA-Quer\\'etaro in Mexico. The device consists of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil which is placed above a fast-spinning metal disc and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Theoretically, self-excitation of the magnetic field is expected at the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm~45, which corresponds to a critical rotation rate of about 10 Hz. We measured the magnetic field above the di...
Energy coupling function and solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo
Kan, J.R.; Lee, L.C.
1979-01-01
The power delivered by the solar wind dynamo to the open magnetosphere is calculated based on the concept of field line reconnection, independent of the MHD steady reconnection theories. By recognizing a previously overlooked geometrical relationship between the reconnection electric field and the magnetic field, the calculated power is shown to be approximately proportional to the Akasofu-Perreault energy coupling function for the magnetospheric substorm. In addition to the polar cap potential, field line reconnection also gives rise to parallel electric fields on open field lines in the high-latitude cusp and the polar cap reions
Finite correlation time effects in kinematic dynamo problem
Schekochihin, A.A.; Kulsrud, R.M.
2000-01-01
One-point statistics of the magnetic fluctuations in kinematic regime with large Prandtl number and non delta-correlated in time advecting velocity field are studied. A perturbation expansion in the ratio of the velocity correlation time to the dynamo growth time is constructed in the spirit of the Kliatskin-Tatarskii functional method and carried out to first order. The convergence properties are improved compared to the commonly used van Kampen-Terwiel method. The zeroth-order growth rate of the magnetic energy is estimated to be reduced (in three dimensions) by approximately 40%. This reduction is quite close to existing numerical results
Spatial Inhomogeneity of Kinetic and Magnetic Dissipations in Thermal Convection
Hotta, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba university, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)
2017-08-20
We investigate the inhomogeneity of kinetic and magnetic dissipations in thermal convection using high-resolution calculations. In statistically steady turbulence, the injected and dissipated energies are balanced. This means that a large amount of energy is continuously converted into internal energy via dissipation. As in thermal convection, downflows are colder than upflows and the inhomogeneity of the dissipation potentially changes the convection structure. Our investigation of the inhomogeneity of the dissipation shows the following. (1) More dissipation is seen around the bottom of the calculation domain, and this tendency is promoted with the magnetic field. (2) The dissipation in the downflow is much larger than that in the upflow. The dissipation in the downflow is more than 80% of the total at maximum. This tendency is also promoted with the magnetic field. (3) Although 2D probability density functions of the kinetic and magnetic dissipations versus the vertical velocity are similar, the kinetic and magnetic dissipations are not well correlated. Our result suggests that the spatial inhomogeneity of the dissipation is significant and should be considered when modeling a small-scale strong magnetic field generated with an efficient small-scale dynamo for low-resolution calculations.
Grobler, Carla
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Natural convection is convection where the fluid motion is driven by buoyancy forces. Porous media and nanofluids have an impact on the heat transfer capabilities of thermal systems. The present experimental study is part of ongoing research...
Natural Convection Analysis with Various Turbulent Models Using FLUENT
Park, Yu Sun
2007-01-01
The buoyancy driven convective flow fields are steady circulatory flows which were made between surfaces maintained at two fixed temperatures. They are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in many engineering applications. Especially, in last decades, natural convection in a close loop or cavity becomes the main issue in the molecular biology for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Application of a natural convection can reduce the costs and efforts remarkably. This paper focuses on the sensitivity study of turbulence analysis using CFD for a natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity. Using commercial CFD code, FLUENT, various turbulent models were applied to the turbulent flow. Results from each CFD model will be compared each other in the viewpoints of flow characteristics. This work will suggest the best turbulent model of CFD for analyzing turbulent flows of the natural convection in an enclosure system
Hamiltonian Description of Convective-cell Generation
Krommes, J.A.; Kolesnikov, R.A.
2004-01-01
The nonlinear statistical growth rate eq for convective cells driven by drift-wave (DW) interactions is studied with the aid of a covariant Hamiltonian formalism for the gyrofluid nonlinearities. A statistical energy theorem is proven that relates eq to a second functional tensor derivative of the DW energy. This generalizes to a wide class of systems of coupled partial differential equations a previous result for scalar dynamics. Applications to (i) electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes at small ion temperature, and (ii) weakly electromagnetic collisional DW's are noted
Observing Convective Aggregation
Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita
2017-11-01
Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.
Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C.; Amouzou, Ernest C.; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Senkpeil, Ryan R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tlatov, Andrey G. [Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Nagovitsyn, Yury A. [Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Pevtsov, Alexei A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Chapman, Gary A.; Cookson, Angela M. [San Fernando Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Watson, Fraser T. [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Balmaceda, Laura A. [Institute for Astronomical, Terrestrial and Space Sciences (ICATE-CONICET), San Juan (Argentina); DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martens, Petrus C. H., E-mail: munoz@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)
2015-02-10
In this work, we take advantage of 11 different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions—where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) 10{sup 21}Mx (10{sup 22}Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behavior of a power-law distribution (when extended to smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al. We propose that this is evidence of two separate mechanisms giving rise to visible structures on the photosphere: one directly connected to the global component of the dynamo (and the generation of bipolar active regions), and the other with the small-scale component of the dynamo (and the fragmentation of magnetic structures due to their interaction with turbulent convection)
Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa
2014-01-01
Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....
SpF: Enabling Petascale Performance for Pseudospectral Dynamo Models
Jiang, W.; Clune, T.; Vriesema, J.; Gutmann, G.
2013-12-01
Pseudospectral (PS) methods possess a number of characteristics (e.g., efficiency, accuracy, natural boundary conditions) that are extremely desirable for dynamo models. Unfortunately, dynamo models based upon PS methods face a number of daunting challenges, which include exposing additional parallelism, leveraging hardware accelerators, exploiting hybrid parallelism, and improving the scalability of global memory transposes. Although these issues are a concern for most models, solutions for PS methods tend to require far more pervasive changes to underlying data and control structures. Further, improvements in performance in one model are difficult to transfer to other models, resulting in significant duplication of effort across the research community. We have developed an extensible software framework for pseudospectral methods called SpF that is intended to enable extreme scalability and optimal performance. High-level abstractions provided by SpF unburden applications of the responsibility of managing domain decomposition and load balance while reducing the changes in code required to adapt to new computing architectures. The key design concept in SpF is that each phase of the numerical calculation is partitioned into disjoint numerical 'kernels' that can be performed entirely in-processor. The granularity of domain-decomposition provided by SpF is only constrained by the data-locality requirements of these kernels. SpF builds on top of optimized vendor libraries for common numerical operations such as transforms, matrix solvers, etc., but can also be configured to use open source alternatives for portability. SpF includes several alternative schemes for global data redistribution and is expected to serve as an ideal testbed for further research into optimal approaches for different network architectures. In this presentation, we will describe the basic architecture of SpF as well as preliminary performance data and experience with adapting legacy dynamo codes
Solar Physics at Evergreen: Solar Dynamo and Chromospheric MHD
Zita, E. J.; Maxwell, J.; Song, N.; Dikpati, M.
2006-12-01
We describe our five year old solar physics research program at The Evergreen State College. Famed for its cloudy skies, the Pacific Northwest is an ideal location for theoretical and remote solar physics research activities. Why does the Sun's magnetic field flip polarity every 11 years or so? How does this contribute to the magnetic storms Earth experiences when the Sun's field reverses? Why is the temperature in the Sun's upper atmosphere millions of degrees higher than the Sun's surface temperature? How do magnetic waves transport energy in the Sun’s chromosphere and the Earth’s atmosphere? How does solar variability affect climate change? Faculty and undergraduates investigate questions such as these in collaboration with the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder. We will describe successful student research projects, logistics of remote computing, and our current physics investigations into (1) the solar dynamo and (2) chromospheric magnetohydrodynamics.
MODELING THE RISE OF FIBRIL MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FULLY CONVECTIVE STARS
Weber, Maria A.; Browning, Matthew K., E-mail: mweber@astro.ex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom)
2016-08-20
Many fully convective stars exhibit a wide variety of surface magnetism, including starspots and chromospheric activity. The manner by which bundles of magnetic field traverse portions of the convection zone to emerge at the stellar surface is not especially well understood. In the solar context, some insight into this process has been gleaned by regarding the magnetism as consisting partly of idealized thin flux tubes (TFTs). Here we present the results of a large set of TFT simulations in a rotating spherical domain of convective flows representative of a 0.3 M {sub ⊙} main-sequence star. This is the first study to investigate how individual flux tubes in such a star might rise under the combined influence of buoyancy, convection, and differential rotation. A time-dependent hydrodynamic convective flow field, taken from separate 3D simulations calculated with the anelastic equations, impacts the flux tube as it rises. Convective motions modulate the shape of the initially buoyant flux ring, promoting localized rising loops. Flux tubes in fully convective stars have a tendency to rise nearly parallel to the rotation axis. However, the presence of strong differential rotation allows some initially low-latitude flux tubes of moderate strength to develop rising loops that emerge in the near-equatorial region. Magnetic pumping suppresses the global rise of the flux tube most efficiently in the deeper interior and at lower latitudes. The results of these simulations aim to provide a link between dynamo-generated magnetic fields, fluid motions, and observations of starspots for fully convective stars.
CONVECTIVE BURSTS AND THE COUPLING OF SATURN'S EQUATORIAL STORMS AND INTERIOR ROTATION
Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan M.
2012-01-01
Temporal variations of Saturn's equatorial jet and magnetic field hint at rich dynamics coupling the atmosphere and the deep interior. However, it has been assumed that rotation of the interior dynamo must be steady over tens of years of modern observations. Here we use a numerical convection model and scaling estimates to show how equatorial convective bursts can transfer angular momentum to the deeper interior. The numerical model allows angular momentum transfer between a fluid outer spherical shell and a rigid inner sphere. Convection drives a prograde equatorial jet exhibiting quasiperiodic bursts that fill the equatorial volume outside the tangent cylinder. For each burst strong changes in the equatorial surface velocity are associated with retrograde torque on the inner sphere. Our results suggest that Saturn's Great White Spot, a giant storm that was observed to fill the equatorial region in 1990, could mobilize a volume of fluid carrying roughly 15% of Saturn's moment of inertia. Conservation of angular momentum then implies that a 20% change in the equatorial jet angular velocity could change the average interior rotation rate by about 0.1%—roughly an order of magnitude less than the apparent rotation rate changes associated with Saturn's kilometric radio (SKR) signal. However, if the SKR signal originates outside the liquid metal core in a 'planetary tachocline' that separates the layer of fast zonal flow from the magnetically controlled and slowly convecting deep interior, then convective bursts can provide a possible mechanism for the observed ∼1% SKR changes.
Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers
Suo-Antilla, A.J.
1977-02-01
The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase
Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries
Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.
2000-01-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.
Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap
Allen, Rebecca; Sun, Shuyu
2012-01-01
of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport
Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme
C. Hohenegger
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.
Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.
MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION DYNAMICS FROM 3D MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION
Passos, Dário; Charbonneau, Paul; Miesch, Mark
2015-01-01
The form of solar meridional circulation is a very important ingredient for mean field flux transport dynamo models. However, a shroud of mystery still surrounds this large-scale flow, given that its measurement using current helioseismic techniques is challenging. In this work, we use results from three-dimensional global simulations of solar convection to infer the dynamical behavior of the established meridional circulation. We make a direct comparison between the meridional circulation that arises in these simulations and the latest observations. Based on our results, we argue that there should be an equatorward flow at the base of the convection zone at mid-latitudes, below the current maximum depth helioseismic measures can probe (0.75 R ⊙ ). We also provide physical arguments to justify this behavior. The simulations indicate that the meridional circulation undergoes substantial changes in morphology as the magnetic cycle unfolds. We close by discussing the importance of these dynamical changes for current methods of observation which involve long averaging periods of helioseismic data. Also noteworthy is the fact that these topological changes indicate a rich interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows, which challenges the ubiquitous kinematic approach used in the vast majority of mean field dynamo simulations
Stochastic generation of MAC waves and implications for convection in Earth's core
Buffett, Bruce; Knezek, Nicholas
2018-03-01
Convection in Earth's core can sustain magnetic-Archemedes-Coriolis (MAC) waves through a variety of mechanisms. Buoyancy and Lorentz forces are viable sources for wave motion, together with the effects of magnetic induction. We develop a quantitative description for zonal MAC waves and assess the source mechanisms using a numerical dynamo model. The largest sources at conditions accessible to the dynamo model are due to buoyancy forces and magnetic induction. However, when these sources are extrapolated to conditions expected in Earth's core, the Lorentz force emerges as the dominant generation mechanism. This source is expected to produce wave velocities of roughly 2 km yr-1 when the internal magnetic field is characterized by a dimensionless Elsasser number of roughly Λ ≈ 10 and the root-mean-square convective velocity defines a magnetic Reynolds number of Rm ≈ 103. Our preferred model has a radially varying stratification and a constant (radial) background magnetic field. It predicts a broad power spectrum for the wave velocity with most power distributed across periods from 30 to 100 yr.
A COUPLED 2 × 2D BABCOCK–LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO MODEL. II. REFERENCE DYNAMO SOLUTIONS
Lemerle, Alexandre; Charbonneau, Paul
2017-01-01
In this paper we complete the presentation of a new hybrid 2 × 2D flux transport dynamo (FTD) model of the solar cycle based on the Babcock–Leighton mechanism of poloidal magnetic field regeneration via the surface decay of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). This hybrid model is constructed by allowing the surface flux transport (SFT) simulation described in Lemerle et al. to provide the poloidal source term to an axisymmetric FTD simulation defined in a meridional plane, which in turn generates the BMRs required by the SFT. A key aspect of this coupling is the definition of an emergence function describing the probability of BMR emergence as a function of the spatial distribution of the internal axisymmetric magnetic field. We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate this function, together with other model parameters, against observed cycle 21 emergence data. We present a reference dynamo solution reproducing many solar cycle characteristics, including good hemispheric coupling, phase relationship between the surface dipole and the BMR-generating internal field, and correlation between dipole strength at cycle maximum and peak amplitude of the next cycle. The saturation of the cycle amplitude takes place through the quenching of the BMR tilt as a function of the internal field. The observed statistical scatter about the mean BMR tilt, built into the model, acts as a source of stochasticity which dominates amplitude fluctuations. The model thus can produce Dalton-like epochs of strongly suppressed cycle amplitude lasting a few cycles and can even shut off entirely following an unfavorable sequence of emergence events.
A COUPLED 2 × 2D BABCOCK–LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO MODEL. II. REFERENCE DYNAMO SOLUTIONS
Lemerle, Alexandre; Charbonneau, Paul, E-mail: lemerle@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca [Département de physique, Université de Montréal, 2900 Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, QC, H3T 1J4 (Canada)
2017-01-10
In this paper we complete the presentation of a new hybrid 2 × 2D flux transport dynamo (FTD) model of the solar cycle based on the Babcock–Leighton mechanism of poloidal magnetic field regeneration via the surface decay of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). This hybrid model is constructed by allowing the surface flux transport (SFT) simulation described in Lemerle et al. to provide the poloidal source term to an axisymmetric FTD simulation defined in a meridional plane, which in turn generates the BMRs required by the SFT. A key aspect of this coupling is the definition of an emergence function describing the probability of BMR emergence as a function of the spatial distribution of the internal axisymmetric magnetic field. We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate this function, together with other model parameters, against observed cycle 21 emergence data. We present a reference dynamo solution reproducing many solar cycle characteristics, including good hemispheric coupling, phase relationship between the surface dipole and the BMR-generating internal field, and correlation between dipole strength at cycle maximum and peak amplitude of the next cycle. The saturation of the cycle amplitude takes place through the quenching of the BMR tilt as a function of the internal field. The observed statistical scatter about the mean BMR tilt, built into the model, acts as a source of stochasticity which dominates amplitude fluctuations. The model thus can produce Dalton-like epochs of strongly suppressed cycle amplitude lasting a few cycles and can even shut off entirely following an unfavorable sequence of emergence events.
Convection and stellar oscillations
Aarslev, Magnus Johan
2017-01-01
for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them...
Bau, H.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
1995-12-31
Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.
Dynamical role of Ekman pumping in rapidly rotating convection
Stellmach, Stephan; Julien, Keith; Cheng, Jonathan; Aurnou, Jonathan
2015-04-01
The exact nature of the mechanical boundary conditions (i.e. no-slip versus stress-free) is usually considered to be of secondary importance in the rapidly rotating parameter regime characterizing planetary cores. While they have considerable influence for the Ekman numbers achievable in today's global simulations, for planetary values both the viscous Ekman layers and the associated secondary flows are generally expected to become negligibly small. In fact, usually the main purpose of using stress-free boundary conditions in numerical dynamo simulations is to suppress unrealistically large friction and pumping effects. In this study, we investigate the influence of the mechanical boundary conditions on core convection systematically. By restricting ourselves to the idealized case of rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we are able to combine results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), laboratory experiments and asymptotic theory into a coherent picture. Contrary to the general expectation, we show that the dynamical effects of Ekman pumping increase with decreasing Ekman number over the investigated parameter range. While stress-free DNS results converge to the asymptotic predictions, both no-slip simulations and laboratory experiments consistently reveal increasingly large deviations from the existing asymptotic theory based on dynamically passive Ekman layers. The implications of these results for core dynamics are discussed briefly.
Convection causes enhanced magnetic turbulence in accretion disks in outburst
Hirose, Shigenobu [Department of Mathematical Science and Advanced Technology, JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Blaes, Omer; Coleman, Matthew S. B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Krolik, Julian H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sano, Takayoshi, E-mail: shirose@jamstec.go.jp [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2014-05-20
We present the results of local, vertically stratified, radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shearing box simulations of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) turbulence appropriate for the hydrogen ionizing regime of dwarf nova and soft X-ray transient outbursts. We incorporate the frequency-integrated opacities and equation of state for this regime, but neglect non-ideal MHD effects and surface irradiation, and do not impose net vertical magnetic flux. We find two stable thermal equilibrium tracks in the effective temperature versus surface mass density plane, in qualitative agreement with the S-curve picture of the standard disk instability model. We find that the large opacity at temperatures near 10{sup 4} K, a corollary of the hydrogen ionization transition, triggers strong, intermittent thermal convection on the upper stable branch. This convection strengthens the magnetic turbulent dynamo and greatly enhances the time-averaged value of the stress to thermal pressure ratio α, possibly by generating vertical magnetic field that may seed the axisymmetric MRI, and by increasing cooling so that the pressure does not rise in proportion to the turbulent dissipation. These enhanced stress to pressure ratios may alleviate the order of magnitude discrepancy between the α-values observationally inferred in the outburst state and those that have been measured from previous local numerical simulations of magnetorotational turbulence that lack net vertical magnetic flux.
Convective transport in tokamaks
D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.
2005-01-01
Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)
Arnett, W. David
2009-05-01
We review recent progress using numerical simulations as a testbed for development of a theory of stellar convection, much as envisaged by John von Newmann. Necessary features of the theory, non-locality and fluctuations, are illustrated by computer movies. It is found that the common approximation of convection as a diffusive process presents the wrong physical picture, and improvements are suggested. New observational results discussed at the conference are gratifying in their validation of some of our theoretical ideas, especially the idea that SNIb and SNIc events are related to the explosion of massive star cores which have been stripped by mass loss and binary interactions [1
Mathematical models of convection
Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V
2012-01-01
Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel
Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations
Holloway, Christopher E.
2017-01-01
To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15-day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibriu...
Convective Self-Aggregation in Numerical Simulations: A Review
Wing, Allison A.; Emanuel, Kerry; Holloway, Christopher E.; Muller, Caroline
Organized convection in the tropics occurs across a range of spatial and temporal scales and strongly influences cloud cover and humidity. One mode of organization found is ``self-aggregation,'' in which moist convection spontaneously organizes into one or several isolated clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing. Self-aggregation is driven by interactions between clouds, moisture, radiation, surface fluxes, and circulation, and occurs in a wide variety of idealized simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium. Here we provide a review of convective self-aggregation in numerical simulations, including its character, causes, and effects. We describe the evolution of self-aggregation including its time and length scales and the physical mechanisms leading to its triggering and maintenance, and we also discuss possible links to climate and climate change.
Regime-dependent forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation
Keil, Christian; Craig, George C. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.
2011-04-15
Forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation is influenced by all scales, but in different ways in different meteorological situations. Forecasts of the high resolution ensemble prediction system COSMO-DE-EPS of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) are used to examine the dominant sources of uncertainty of convective precipitation. A validation with radar data using traditional as well as spatial verification measures highlights differences in precipitation forecast performance in differing weather regimes. When the forecast uncertainty can primarily be associated with local, small-scale processes individual members run with the same variation of the physical parameterisation driven by different global models outperform all other ensemble members. In contrast when the precipitation is governed by the large-scale flow all ensemble members perform similarly. Application of the convective adjustment time scale confirms this separation and shows a regime-dependent forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation. (orig.)
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows
Fedorovich, E; Viegas, D; Wyngaard, J
1998-01-01
Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameteriz...
Convective Concrete : Additive Manufacturing to facilitate activation of thermal mass
de Witte, D.; de Klijn-Chevalerias, M.L.; Loonen, R.C.G.M.; Hensen, JLM; Knaack, U.; Zimmermann, G
2017-01-01
This paper reports on the research-driven design process of an innovative thermal mass concept: Convective Concrete. The goal is to improve building energy efficiency and comfort levels by addressing some of the shortcomings of conventional building slabs with high thermal storage capacity. Such
Geothermal Heating, Convective Flow and Ice Thickness on Mars
Rosenberg, N. D.; Travis, B. J.; Cuzzi, J.
2001-01-01
Our 3D calculations suggest that hydrothermal circulation may occur in the martian regolith and may significantly thin the surface ice layer on Mars at some locations due to the upwelling of warm convecting fluids driven solely by background geothermal heating. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...
Presentation on Tropical Mesoscale convective Systems and ...
IAS Admin
Shallow convection- 70% of the storm heights are below 6 km. ♢ Deep convection ... Decay convection, the convective top is found at a higher altitude than deep .... Stratospheric Fountain – Two step process. Warm tropopause- preferable for.
A small-scale dynamo in feedback-dominated galaxies - III. Cosmological simulations
Rieder, Michael; Teyssier, Romain
2017-12-01
Magnetic fields are widely observed in the Universe in virtually all astrophysical objects, from individual stars to entire galaxies, even in the intergalactic medium, but their specific genesis has long been debated. Due to the development of more realistic models of galaxy formation, viable scenarios are emerging to explain cosmic magnetism, thanks to both deeper observations and more efficient and accurate computer simulations. We present here a new cosmological high-resolution zoom-in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, using the adaptive mesh refinement technique, of a dwarf galaxy with an initially weak and uniform magnetic seed field that is amplified by a small-scale dynamo (SSD) driven by supernova-induced turbulence. As first structures form from the gravitational collapse of small density fluctuations, the frozen-in magnetic field separates from the cosmic expansion and grows through compression. In a second step, star formation sets in and establishes a strong galactic fountain, self-regulated by supernova explosions. Inside the galaxy, the interstellar medium becomes highly turbulent, dominated by strong supersonic shocks, as demonstrated by the spectral analysis of the gas kinetic energy. In this turbulent environment, the magnetic field is quickly amplified via a SSD process and is finally carried out into the circumgalactic medium by a galactic wind. This realistic cosmological simulation explains how initially weak magnetic seed fields can be amplified quickly in early, feedback-dominated galaxies, and predicts, as a consequence of the SSD process, that high-redshift magnetic fields are likely to be dominated by their small-scale components.
Lin, W.; Xie, S.; Jackson, R. C.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Collis, S. M.; Golaz, J. C.
2017-12-01
Climate models are known to have difficulty in simulating tropical diurnal convections that exhibit distinct characteristics over land and open ocean. While the causes are rooted in deficiencies in convective parameterization in general, lack of representations of mesoscale dynamics in terms of land-sea breeze, convective organization, and propagation of convection-induced gravity waves also play critical roles. In this study, the problem is investigated at the process-level with the U.S. Department of Energy Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) model in short-term hindcast mode using the Cloud Associated Parameterization Testbed (CAPT) framework. Convective-scale radar retrievals and observation-driven convection-permitting simulations for the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) cases are used to guide the analysis of the underlying processes. The emphasis will be on linking deficiencies in representation of detailed process elements to the model biases in diurnal convective properties and their contrast among inland, coastal and open ocean conditions.
Convective overshooting in stars
Andrássy, R.
2015-01-01
Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing
On the determination of the neutral drag coefficient in the convective boundary layer
Grachev, A.A.; Fairall, C.W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1998-01-01
Based on the idea that free convection can be considered as a particular case of forced convection, where the gusts driven by the large-scale eddies are scaled with the Deardorff convective velocity scale, a new formulation for the neutral drag coefficient, C-Dn, in the convective boundary layer...... for mean wind speed less than about 2 m s(-1). The new approach also clarifies several contradictory results from earlier works. Some aspects related to an alternate definition of the neutral drag coefficient and the wind speed and the stress averaging procedure are considered....
Convective Propagation Characteristics Using a Simple Representation of Convective Organization
Neale, R. B.; Mapes, B. E.
2016-12-01
Observed equatorial wave propagation is intimately linked to convective organization and it's coupling to features of the larger-scale flow. In this talk we a use simple 4 level model to accommodate vertical modes of a mass flux convection scheme (shallow, mid-level and deep). Two paradigms of convection are used to represent convective processes. One that has only both random (unorganized) diagnosed fluctuations of convective properties and one with organized fluctuations of convective properties that are amplified by previously existing convection and has an explicit moistening impact on the local convecting environment We show a series of model simulations in single-column, 2D and 3D configurations, where the role of convective organization in wave propagation is shown to be fundamental. For the optimal choice of parameters linking organization to local atmospheric state, a broad array of convective wave propagation emerges. Interestingly the key characteristics of propagating modes are the low-level moistening followed by deep convection followed by mature 'large-scale' heating. This organization structure appears to hold firm across timescales from 5-day wave disturbances to MJO-like wave propagation.
Project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG)
Mohr, Susanna; Richter, Alexandra; Kunz, Michael; Ruck, Bodo
2017-04-01
Convectively-driven strong winds usually associated with thunderstorms frequently cause substantial damage to buildings and other structures in many parts of the world. Decisive for the high damage potential are the short-term wind speed maxima with duration of a few seconds, termed as gusts. Several studies have shown that convectively-driven gusts can reach even higher wind speeds compared to turbulent gusts associated with synoptic-scale weather systems. Due to the small-scale and non-stationary nature of convective wind gusts, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding their characteristics and statistics. Furthermore, their interaction with urban structures and their influence on buildings is not yet fully understood. For these two reasons, convective wind events are not included in the present wind load standards of buildings and structures, which so far have been based solely on the characteristics of synoptically-driven wind gusts in the near-surface boundary layer (e. g., DIN EN 1991-1-4:2010-12; ASCE7). However, convective and turbulent gusts differ considerably, e.g. concerning vertical wind-speed profiles, gust factors (i.e., maximum to mean wind speed), or exceedance probability curves. In an effort to remedy this situation, the overarching objective of the DFG-project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG) is to investigate the characteristics and statistics of convective gusts as well as their interaction with urban structures. Based on a set of 110 climate stations of the German Weather Service (DWD) between 1992 and 2014, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution, intensity, and occurrence probability of convective gusts. Similar to thunderstorm activity, the frequency of convective gusts decreases gradually from South to North Germany. A relation between gust intensity/probability to orography or climate conditions cannot be identified. Rather, high wind speeds, e.g., above 30 m/s, can be expected everywhere in Germany with almost
STELLAR EVIDENCE THAT THE SOLAR DYNAMO MAY BE IN TRANSITION
Metcalfe, Travis S.; Egeland, Ricky; Van Saders, Jennifer
2016-01-01
Precise photometry from the Kepler space telescope allows not only the measurement of rotation in solar-type field stars, but also the determination of reliable masses and ages from asteroseismology. These critical data have recently provided the first opportunity to calibrate rotation–age relations for stars older than the Sun. The evolutionary picture that emerges is surprising: beyond middle-age the efficiency of magnetic braking is dramatically reduced, implying a fundamental change in angular momentum loss beyond a critical Rossby number (Ro ∼ 2). We compile published chromospheric activity measurements for the sample of Kepler asteroseismic targets that were used to establish the new rotation–age relations. We use these data along with a sample of well-characterized solar analogs from the Mount Wilson HK survey to develop a qualitative scenario connecting the evolution of chromospheric activity to a fundamental shift in the character of differential rotation. We conclude that the Sun may be in a transitional evolutionary phase, and that its magnetic cycle might represent a special case of stellar dynamo theory.
STELLAR EVIDENCE THAT THE SOLAR DYNAMO MAY BE IN TRANSITION
Metcalfe, Travis S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder CO 80301 (United States); Egeland, Ricky [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder CO 80307 (United States); Van Saders, Jennifer [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena CA 91101 (United States)
2016-07-20
Precise photometry from the Kepler space telescope allows not only the measurement of rotation in solar-type field stars, but also the determination of reliable masses and ages from asteroseismology. These critical data have recently provided the first opportunity to calibrate rotation–age relations for stars older than the Sun. The evolutionary picture that emerges is surprising: beyond middle-age the efficiency of magnetic braking is dramatically reduced, implying a fundamental change in angular momentum loss beyond a critical Rossby number (Ro ∼ 2). We compile published chromospheric activity measurements for the sample of Kepler asteroseismic targets that were used to establish the new rotation–age relations. We use these data along with a sample of well-characterized solar analogs from the Mount Wilson HK survey to develop a qualitative scenario connecting the evolution of chromospheric activity to a fundamental shift in the character of differential rotation. We conclude that the Sun may be in a transitional evolutionary phase, and that its magnetic cycle might represent a special case of stellar dynamo theory.
Evolution of pulsarmagnetism by virtue of a Faraday dynamo mechanism
Heintzmann, H.; Novello, M.
1983-01-01
The evidence that radio-pulsars are slowed-down and Roentgen - pulsars accelerated predominantly by magnetic torques is now very strong. Angular momentum is transferred away from the neutron star to the velocity-of-light cylinder or from the Alfven - cylinder down to the neutron star by means of a magnetic spring the physical origin of which is an appropriate current flowing along the magnetic field lines. As this current must be closed at the neutron star's surface and no Hall-Field can be built-up a Faraday dynamo mechanism is set up. It is pointed out that this mechanism could switch -off a radio pulsar or turn-on a Roentgen pulsar. Many disconcerting pulsar observations could thus be explained, if radio pulsars can be reactivated in the galactic plane by means of accretion of matter in dense clouds and if Roentgenpulsars must first create a sufficiently strong magnetic field to function as a regularly pulsed emitter. (Author) [pt
NONLINEAR DYNAMO IN A ROTATING ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLUID
M. I. Kopp
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We found a new large-scale instability, which arises in the rotating conductive fluid with small-scale turbulence. Turbulence is generated by small-scale external force with a low Reynolds number. The theory is built simply by the method of multiscale asymptotic expansions. Nonlinear equations for vortex and magnetic perturbations obtained in the third order for small Reynolds number. It is shown that the combined effects of the Coriolis force and the small external forces in a rotating conducting fluid possible large-scale instability. The large-scale increments of the instability, correspond to generation as the vortex and magnetic disturbances. This type of instability is classified as hydrodynamic and MHD alpha-effect. We studied the stationary regimes of nonlinear equations of magneto-vortex dynamo. In the limit of weakly conducting fluid found stationary solutions in the form of helical kinks. In the limit of high conductivity fluid was obtained stationary solutions in the form of nonlinear periodic waves and kinks.
Sasaki, Youhei; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Yamada, Michio
2018-03-01
Linear stability analysis of anelastic thermal convection in a rotating spherical shell with entropy diffusivities varying in the radial direction is performed. The structures of critical convection are obtained in the cases of four different radial distributions of entropy diffusivity; (1) κ is constant, (2) κT0 is constant, (3) κρ0 is constant, and (4) κρ0T0 is constant, where κ is the entropy diffusivity, T0 is the temperature of basic state, and ρ0 is the density of basic state, respectively. The ratio of inner and outer radii, the Prandtl number, the polytropic index, and the density ratio are 0.35, 1, 2, and 5, respectively. The value of the Ekman number is 10-3 or 10-5 . In the case of (1), where the setup is same as that of the anelastic dynamo benchmark (Jones et al., 2011), the structure of critical convection is concentrated near the outer boundary of the spherical shell around the equator. However, in the cases of (2), (3) and (4), the convection columns attach the inner boundary of the spherical shell. A rapidly rotating annulus model for anelastic systems is developed by assuming that convection structure is uniform in the axial direction taking into account the strong effect of Coriolis force. The annulus model well explains the characteristics of critical convection obtained numerically, such as critical azimuthal wavenumber, frequency, Rayleigh number, and the cylindrically radial location of convection columns. The radial distribution of entropy diffusivity, or more generally, diffusion properties in the entropy equation, is important for convection structure, because it determines the distribution of radial basic entropy gradient which is crucial for location of convection columns.
Extended Subadiabatic Layer in Simulations of Overshooting Convection
Käpylä, Petri J.; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rheinhardt, Matthias; Käpylä, Maarit J.; Olspert, Nigul [ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Department of Computer Science, P.O. Box 15400, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Brandenburg, Axel [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Lagg, Andreas; Warnecke, Jörn [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2017-08-20
We present numerical simulations of hydrodynamic overshooting convection in local Cartesian domains. We find that a substantial fraction of the lower part of the convection zone (CZ) is stably stratified according to the Schwarzschild criterion while the enthalpy flux is outward directed. This occurs when the heat conduction profile at the bottom of the CZ is smoothly varying, based either on a Kramers-like opacity prescription as a function of temperature and density or a static profile of a similar shape. We show that the subadiabatic layer arises due to nonlocal energy transport by buoyantly driven downflows in the upper parts of the CZ. Analysis of the force balance of the upflows and downflows confirms that convection is driven by cooling at the surface. We find that the commonly used prescription for the convective enthalpy flux being proportional to the negative entropy gradient does not hold in the stably stratified layers where the flux is positive. We demonstrate the existence of a non-gradient contribution to the enthalpy flux, which is estimated to be important throughout the convective layer. A quantitative analysis of downflows indicates a transition from a tree-like structure where smaller downdrafts merge into larger ones in the upper parts to a structure in the deeper parts where a height-independent number of strong downdrafts persist. This change of flow topology occurs when a substantial subadiabatic layer is present in the lower part of the CZ.
Measurement of beam driven hydrodynamic turbulence
Norem, J.; Black, E.; Bandura, L.; Errede, D.; Cummings, M. A. C.
2003-01-01
Cooling intense muon beams in liquid hydrogen absorbers introduces kW of heating to the cold fluid, which will drive turbulent flow. The amount of turbulence may be sufficient to help cool the liquid, but calculations are difficult. We have used a 20 MeV electron beam in a water tank to look at the scale of the beam driven convection and turbulence. The density and flow measurements are made with schlieren and Ronchi systems. We describe the optical systems and the turbulence measured. These data are being used to calibrate hydrodynamic calculations of convection driven and forced flow cooling in muon cooling absorbers
Bejan, Adrian
2013-01-01
Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.
Concepts of magnetospheric convection
Vasyliunas, V.M.
1975-01-01
Magnetospheric physics, which grew out of attempts to understand the space environment of the Earth, is becoming increasingly applicable to other systems in the Universe. Among the planets, in addition to the Earth, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and (in a somewhat different way) Venus are now known to have magnetospheres. The magnetospheres of pulsars have been regarded as an essential part of the pulsar phenomenon. Other astrophysical systems, such as supernova remnant shells or magnetic stars and binary star systems, may be describable as magnetospheres. The major concepts of magnetospheric physics thus need to be formulated in a general way not restricted to the geophysical context in which they may have originated. Magnetospheric convection has been one of the most important and fruitful concepts in the study of the Earth's magnetosphere. This paper describes the basic theoretical notions of convection in a manner applicable to magnetospheres generally and discusses the relative importance of convective corotational motions, with particular reference to the comparison of the Earth and Jupiter. (Auth.)
A. D. Pataraya
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Non-linear α-ω; dynamo waves existing in an incompressible medium with the turbulence dissipative coefficients depending on temperature are studied in this paper. We investigate of α-ω solar non-linear dynamo waves when only the first harmonics of magnetic induction components are included. If we ignore the second harmonics in the non-linear equation, the turbulent magnetic diffusion coefficient increases together with the temperature, the coefficient of turbulent viscosity decreases, and for an interval of time the value of dynamo number is greater than 1. In these conditions a stationary solution of the non-linear equation for the dynamo wave's amplitude exists; meaning that the magnetic field is sufficiently excited. The amplitude of the dynamo waves oscillates and becomes stationary. Using these results we can explain the existence of Maunder's minimum.
Jacobson, A.R.; Moses, R.W.
1984-01-01
The plasma dynamo is both an intriguing and a practical concept. The intrigue derives from attempting to explain naturally occurring and man-made plasmas whose strong field-aligned currents j/sub parallel/ apparently disobey the most naive Ohm's law j/sub parallel/ = sigma/sub parallel/E/sub parallel/. The practical importance derives from the dynamo's role both in formation and in sustainment of reversed-field pinch (RFP) and Spheromak fusion plasmas. We will examine certain features of the documented quasi-steady discharges on ZT-40M, and RFP in apparent need of a sustainment dynamo. We will show that the tail electrons (which carry j/sub parallel/) are probably wandering (along stochastic B Vector-field lines) over much of the minor radius in one mean-free-path
Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo
Kumar, Rohit Raj
2013-12-01
In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20 on 10243 grid using the pseudospectral method. We demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers moves towards lower wave numbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason why the integral scale of the magnetic field increases with time. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.
Ebrahimi, Fatima [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences
2018-02-22
Magnetic fields are observed to exist on all scales in many astrophysical sources such as stars, galaxies, and accretion discs. Understanding the origin of large scale magnetic fields, whereby the field emerges on spatial scales large compared to the fluctuations, has been a particularly long standing challenge. Our physics objective are: 1) what are the minimum ingredients for large-scale dynamo growth? 2) could a large-scale magnetic field grow out of turbulence and sustained despite the presence of dissipation? These questions are fundamental for understanding the large-scale dynamo in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Here, we report major new findings in the area of Large-Scale Dynamo (magnetic field generation).
Large-scale dynamo action due to α fluctuations in a linear shear flow
Sridhar, S.; Singh, Nishant K.
2014-12-01
We present a model of large-scale dynamo action in a shear flow that has stochastic, zero-mean fluctuations of the α parameter. This is based on a minimal extension of the Kraichnan-Moffatt model, to include a background linear shear and Galilean-invariant α-statistics. Using the first-order smoothing approximation we derive a linear integro-differential equation for the large-scale magnetic field, which is non-perturbative in the shearing rate S , and the α-correlation time τα . The white-noise case, τα = 0 , is solved exactly, and it is concluded that the necessary condition for dynamo action is identical to the Kraichnan-Moffatt model without shear; this is because white-noise does not allow for memory effects, whereas shear needs time to act. To explore memory effects we reduce the integro-differential equation to a partial differential equation, valid for slowly varying fields when τα is small but non-zero. Seeking exponential modal solutions, we solve the modal dispersion relation and obtain an explicit expression for the growth rate as a function of the six independent parameters of the problem. A non-zero τα gives rise to new physical scales, and dynamo action is completely different from the white-noise case; e.g. even weak α fluctuations can give rise to a dynamo. We argue that, at any wavenumber, both Moffatt drift and Shear always contribute to increasing the growth rate. Two examples are presented: (a) a Moffatt drift dynamo in the absence of shear and (b) a Shear dynamo in the absence of Moffatt drift.
DYNAMO-HIA--a Dynamic Modeling tool for generic Health Impact Assessments.
Stefan K Lhachimi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, no standard tool is publicly available that allows researchers or policy-makers to quantify the impact of policies using epidemiological evidence within the causal framework of Health Impact Assessment (HIA. A standard tool should comply with three technical criteria (real-life population, dynamic projection, explicit risk-factor states and three usability criteria (modest data requirements, rich model output, generally accessible to be useful in the applied setting of HIA. With DYNAMO-HIA (Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment, we introduce such a generic software tool specifically designed to facilitate quantification in the assessment of the health impacts of policies. METHODS AND RESULTS: DYNAMO-HIA quantifies the impact of user-specified risk-factor changes on multiple diseases and in turn on overall population health, comparing one reference scenario with one or more intervention scenarios. The Markov-based modeling approach allows for explicit risk-factor states and simulation of a real-life population. A built-in parameter estimation module ensures that only standard population-level epidemiological evidence is required, i.e. data on incidence, prevalence, relative risks, and mortality. DYNAMO-HIA provides a rich output of summary measures--e.g. life expectancy and disease-free life expectancy--and detailed data--e.g. prevalences and mortality/survival rates--by age, sex, and risk-factor status over time. DYNAMO-HIA is controlled via a graphical user interface and is publicly available from the internet, ensuring general accessibility. We illustrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA with two example applications: a policy causing an overall increase in alcohol consumption and quantifying the disease-burden of smoking. CONCLUSION: By combining modest data needs with general accessibility and user friendliness within the causal framework of HIA, DYNAMO-HIA is a potential standard tool for health impact assessment based
Finite-correlation-time effects in the kinematic dynamo problem
Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Kulsrud, Russell M.
2001-01-01
Most of the theoretical results on the kinematic amplification of small-scale magnetic fluctuations by turbulence have been confined to the model of white-noise-like (δ-correlated in time) advecting turbulent velocity field. In this work, the statistics of the passive magnetic field in the diffusion-free regime are considered for the case when the advecting flow is finite-time correlated. A new method is developed that allows one to systematically construct the correlation-time expansion for statistical characteristics of the field such as its probability density function or the complete set of its moments. The expansion is valid provided the velocity correlation time is smaller than the characteristic growth time of the magnetic fluctuations. This expansion is carried out up to first order in the general case of a d-dimensional arbitrarily compressible advecting flow. The growth rates for all moments of the magnetic-field strength are derived. The effect of the first-order corrections due to the finite correlation time is to reduce these growth rates. It is shown that introducing a finite correlation time leads to the loss of the small-scale statistical universality, which was present in the limit of the δ-correlated velocity field. Namely, the shape of the velocity time-correlation profile and the large-scale spatial structure of the flow become important. The latter is a new effect, that implies, in particular, that the approximation of a locally-linear shear flow does not fully capture the effect of nonvanishing correlation time. Physical applications of this theory include the small-scale kinematic dynamo in the interstellar medium and protogalactic plasmas
Moist Orographic Convection: Physical Mechanisms and Links to Surface-Exchange Processes
Daniel J. Kirshbaum
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the current understanding of moist orographic convection and its regulation by surface-exchange processes. Such convection tends to develop when and where moist instability coincides with sufficient terrain-induced ascent to locally overcome convective inhibition. The terrain-induced ascent can be owing to mechanical (airflow over or around an obstacle and/or thermal (differential heating over sloping terrain forcing. For the former, the location of convective initiation depends on the dynamical flow regime. In “unblocked” flows that ascend the barrier, the convection tends to initiate over the windward slopes, while in “blocked” flows that detour around the barrier, the convection tends to initiate upstream and/or downstream of the high terrain where impinging flows split and rejoin, respectively. Processes that destabilize the upstream flow for mechanically forced moist convection include large-scale moistening and ascent, positive surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and differential advection in baroclinic zones. For thermally forced flows, convective initiation is driven by thermally direct circulations with sharp updrafts over or downwind of the mountain crest (daytime or foot (nighttime. Along with the larger-scale background flow, local evapotranspiration and transport of moisture, as well as thermodynamic heterogeneities over the complex terrain, regulate moist instability in such events. Longstanding limitations in the quantitative understanding of related processes, including both convective preconditioning and initiation, must be overcome to improve the prediction of this convection, and its collective effects, in weather and climate models.
A Study of Stochastic Resonance in the Periodically Forced Rikitake Dynamo
Chien-Chih Chen Chih-Yuan Tseng
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The geodynamo has widely been thought to be an intuitive and selfsustained model of the Earth¡¦s magnetic field. In this paper, we elucidate how a periodic signal could be embedded in the geomagnetic filed via the mechanism of stochastic resonance in a forced Rikitake dynamo. Based on the stochastic resonance observed in the periodically forced Rikitake dynamo, we thus suggest a common triggering for geomagnetic reversal and glacial events. Both kinds of catastrophes may result from the cyclic variation of the Earth¡¦s orbital eccentricity.
Bounds on the growth of the magnetic energy for the Hall kinematic dynamo equation
Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico Universidad de Valladolid 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2005-09-09
While the magnetic induction equation in plasmas, governing kinematic dynamos, is a linear one admitting exponential growth of the magnetic energy for certain velocity fields, the addition of the Hall term turns it into a nonlinear parabolic equation. Local existence of solutions may be proved, but in contrast with the magnetohydrodynamics case, for a number of boundary conditions the magnetic energy grows at most linearly in time for stationary velocity fields, and like the square of the time in the general case. It appears that the Hall effect enhances diffusivity in some way to compensate for the positive contribution of the transport of the magnetic field by the flow occurring in fast dynamos.
Generation of a Magnetic Field by Dynamo Action in a Turbulent Flow of Liquid Sodium
Monchaux, R.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Gasquet, C.; Marie, L.; Ravelet, F.; Berhanu, M.; Fauve, S.; Mordant, N.; Petrelis, F.; Bourgoin, M.; Moulin, M.; Odier, Ph.; Pinton, J.-F.; Volk, R.
2007-01-01
We report the observation of dynamo action in the von Karman sodium experiment, i.e., the generation of a magnetic field by a strongly turbulent swirling flow of liquid sodium. Both mean and fluctuating parts of the field are studied. The dynamo threshold corresponds to a magnetic Reynolds number R m ∼30. A mean magnetic field of the order of 40 G is observed 30% above threshold at the flow lateral boundary. The rms fluctuations are larger than the corresponding mean value for two of the components. The scaling of the mean square magnetic field is compared to a prediction previously made for high Reynolds number flows
Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch
Scime, E.; Hokin, S.; Watts, C.; Mattor, N.
1992-01-01
Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 200 eV for I = 350 kA, increases by as much as 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5--5 MHz were also measured. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion gyro-orbit scales
Analysis and modeling of tropical convection observed by CYGNSS
Lang, T. J.; Li, X.; Roberts, J. B.; Mecikalski, J. R.
2017-12-01
The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a multi-satellite constellation that utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS) reflectometry to retrieve near-surface wind speeds over the ocean. While CYGNSS is primarily aimed at measuring wind speeds in tropical cyclones, our research has established that the mission may also provide valuable insight into the relationships between wind-driven surface fluxes and general tropical oceanic convection. Currently, we are examining organized tropical convection using a mixture of CYGNSS level 1 through level 3 data, IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement), and other ancillary datasets (including buoys, GPM level 1 and 2 data, as well as ground-based radar). In addition, observing system experiments (OSEs) are being performed using hybrid three-dimensional variational assimilation to ingest CYGNSS observations into a limited-domain, convection-resolving model. Our focus for now is on case studies of convective evolution, but we will also report on progress toward statistical analysis of convection sampled by CYGNSS. Our working hypothesis is that the typical mature phase of organized tropical convection is marked by the development of a sharp gust-front boundary from an originally spatially broader but weaker wind speed change associated with precipitation. This increase in the wind gradient, which we demonstrate is observable by CYGNSS, likely helps to focus enhanced turbulent fluxes of convection-sustaining heat and moisture near the leading edge of the convective system where they are more easily ingested by the updraft. Progress on the testing and refinement of this hypothesis, using a mixture of observations and modeling, will be reported.
Gellert, M; Beltrame, P; Egbers, C
2005-01-01
Spherical Rayleigh-Benard convection under the influence of an artificial central force field produced by the so-called dielectrophoretic effect is studied as a simplified model of the flow in the outer earth core. The fluid motion there is most probably driving the earth's dynamo and the energy source for the earth's magnetic field. Studying convective flows in earth-like geometry could lead to a deeper understanding of the basics of these processes. This research is a preparatory study for the experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). A bifurcation-theoretical approach shows the existence of heteroclinic cycles between spherical modes (l, l + 1) for the non-rotating system. This behavior depends strong on the radius ratio of the spheres and will be hard to detect in the experiment. For slow rotations interactions of the azimuthal modes (m, m + 1) found in numerical simulations for supercritical states are supposed to be experimentally observable
Bidispersive-inclined convection
Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian
2016-01-01
A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934
Upscale Impact of Mesoscale Disturbances of Tropical Convection on Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves
Yang, Q.; Majda, A.
2017-12-01
Tropical convection associated with convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) is typically organized by an eastward-moving synoptic-scale convective envelope with numerous embedded westward-moving mesoscale disturbances. It is of central importance to assess upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances on CCKWs as mesoscale disturbances propagate at various tilt angles and speeds. Here a simple multi-scale model is used to capture this multi-scale structure, where mesoscale fluctuations are directly driven by mesoscale heating and synoptic-scale circulation is forced by mean heating and eddy transfer of momentum and temperature. The two-dimensional version of the multi-scale model drives the synoptic-scale circulation, successfully reproduces key features of flow fields with a front-to-rear tilt and compares well with results from a cloud resolving model. In the scenario with an elevated upright mean heating, the tilted vertical structure of synoptic-scale circulation is still induced by the upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances. In a faster propagation scenario, the upscale impact becomes less important, while the synoptic-scale circulation response to mean heating dominates. In the unrealistic scenario with upward/westward tilted mesoscale heating, positive potential temperature anomalies are induced in the leading edge, which will suppress shallow convection in a moist environment. In its three-dimensional version, results show that upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances that propagate at tilt angles (110o 250o) induces negative lower-tropospheric potential temperature anomalies in the leading edge, providing favorable conditions for shallow convection in a moist environment, while the remaining tilt angle cases have opposite effects. Even in the presence of upright mean heating, the front-to-rear tilted synoptic-scale circulation can still be induced by eddy terms at tilt angles (120o 240o). In the case with fast propagating mesoscale heating, positive
New Mexico Liquid Metal αω -dynamo experiment: Most Recent Progress
Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard; Colgate, Art; Li, Hui
2017-10-01
The goal of the New Mexico Liquid Metal αω -dynamo experiment is to demonstrate a galactic dynamo can be generated through two phases, the ω-phase and α-phase by two semi-coherent flows in laboratory. We have demonstrated an 8-fold poloidal-to-toroidal flux amplification from differential rotation (the ω-effect) by minimizing turbulence in our apparatus. To demonstrate the α-effect, major upgrades are needed. The upgrades include building a helicity injection facility, mounting new 100hp motors and new sensors, designing a new data acquisition system capable of transmitting data from about 80 sensors in a high speed rotating frame with an overall 200kS/sec sampling rate. We hope the upgrade can be utilized to answer the question of whether a self-sustaining αω -dynamo can be implemented with a realistic lab fluid flow field, as well as to obtain more details to understand dynamo action in highly turbulent Couette flow.
Dynamo: A Model Transition Framework for Dynamic Stability Control and Body Mass Manipulation
2011-11-01
driving at high speed, and you turn the steering wheel hard to the right and slam on the brakes, then you will end up in the oversteer regime. At the...sensors (GPS, IMU, LIDAR ) for vehicle control. Figure 17: Dynamo high-speed small UGV hardware platform We will perform experiments to measure the MTC
Stable Alfven-wave dynamo action in the reversed-field pinch
Werley, K.A.
1984-01-01
Previous theoretical work has suggested that Alfven waves may be related to the anomalous toroidal magnetic flux generation and extended (over classical expectations) discharge times observed in the reversed-field pinch. This thesis examines the dynamo action of stable Alfven waves as a means of generating toroidal flux. Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. This technique is readily extendable to other plasmas in which dynamic stable model action is of interest. Such plasmas include Alfven wave current-drive and plasma heating for fusion devices, as well as astrophysical and geophysical dynamo systems. This study also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number
Instrumental Implementation of an Experiment to Demonstrate αω -dynamos in Accretion Disks
Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard; Colgate, Art; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark
2016-10-01
The New Mexico Liquid Metal αω -dynamo experiment is aimed to demonstrate a galactic dynamo. Our goal is to generate the ω-effect and α-effect by two semi-coherent flows in laboratory. Two coaxial cylinders are used to generate Taylor-Couette flows to simulate the differential rotation of accretion disks. Plumes induced by jets injected into the Couette flows are expected to produce helicities necessary for the α-effect. We have demonstrated an 8-fold poloidal-to-toroidal flux amplification from differential rotation (the ω-effect) by minimizing turbulence in our apparatus. To demonstrate the α-effect, the experimental apparatus is undergoing significant upgrade. We have constructed a helicity injection facility, and are also designing and testing a new data acquisition system capable of transmitting data in a high speed rotating frame. Additional magnetic field diagnostics will also be included. The upgrade is intended to answer the question of whether a self-sustaining αω -dynamo can be constructed with a realistic fluid flow field, as well as to obtain more details to understand dynamo action in highly turbulent Couette flow.
Degenerate Hopf bifurcation in a self-exciting Faraday disc dynamo
Weiquan Pan
2017-05-31
May 31, 2017 ... Recently, self-exciting Faraday disk dynamo is also a topic of con- cern [16–20]. ..... Hopf bifurcation. (a) Projected on the x–z plane and (b) pro- ... Key Lab of Com- plex System Optimization and Big Data Processing. (No.
Sudden transitions and grand variations in the solar dynamo, past and future
de Jager, C.; Duhau, S.
2012-01-01
The solar dynamo is the exotic dance of the sun's two major magnetic field components, the poloidal and the toroidal, interacting in anti-phase. On the basis of new data on the geomagnetic aa index, we improve our previous forecast of the properties of the current Schwabe cycle #24. Its maximum will
Mirnov, V.V.
2002-01-01
Large-scale tearing instabilities have long been considered to underlie transport and dynamo processes in the reversed field pinch (RFP). The vast majority of theoretical and computational RFP work has focused on pressureless, single-fluid MHD in cylindrical plasmas driven solely by a toroidal electric field. We report results of five investigations covering two-fluid dynamos, toroidal nonlinear MHD computation, nonlinear computation of Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD), the effect of shear flow on tearing instability, and the effect of pressure on resistive instability. The key findings are: (1) two-fluid dynamo arising from the Hall term is much larger than the standard MHD dynamo present in a single-fluid treatment, (2) geometric coupling from toroidicity precludes the occurrence of laminar single helicity states, except for nonreversed plasmas, (3) OFCD, a form of AC helicity injection, can sustain the RFP plasma current, although magnetic fluctuations are enhanced, (4) edge shear flow can destabilize the edge resonant m=0 modes, which occur as spikes in experiment, and (5) pressure driven modes are resistive at low beta, only becoming ideal at extremely high beta. (author)
Fully three dimensional simulations of rotating convection at low Prandtl number
Kaplan, E.; Schaeffer, N.; Cardin, P.
2016-12-01
Rotating thermal convection in spheres or spherical shells has been extensively studied for Prandtl number unity.However, planetary cores are made of liquid metals which have low Prandtl numbers Pr ≤ 0.1. Recently, using a quasi-geostrophic approximation, Guervilly & Cardin (2016) have studied nonlinear convection in rotating full sphere with internal heating at low Prandtl (0.01 ≤ Pr ≤ 0.1) and Ekman (10-8 ≤ Ek ≤ 10-5 ) numbers. They have found a bifurcation between a weak branch characterized by thermal Rossby waves and a strong branch characterized by a strong zonal flow with multiple jets. In these quasi-geostrophic simulations, where vorticity is defined to be constant along the axis of rotation, these bifurcations could be super- or sub-critical or exhibit hysteresis depending on the Ek and Prnumbers of the simulations. Here we present fully three dimensional simulations carried out over a portion of the parameter space (down to Ek = 10-6, Pr = 0.01) that confirm the scaling and bifurcations of the weak and strong branches found in the QG models. Additionally, by modeling the full flow we get information about the full meridional circulation of the convective fluid. The vigorous flows of the sub-critical strong branch may help to generate powerful dynamos before an inner-core has been formed, with a heat flux extracted from the mantle very close to the adiabatic flux.
Horn, S.; Schmid, P. J.; Aurnou, J. M.
2016-12-01
The Earth's metal core acts as a dynamo whose efficiency in generating and maintaining the magnetic field is essentially determined by the rotation rate and the convective motions occurring in its outer liquid part. For the description of the primary physics in the outer core the idealized system of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is often invoked, with the majority of studies considering only working fluids with Prandtl numbers of Pr ≳ 1. However, liquid metals are characterized by distinctly smaller Prandtl numbers which in turn result in an inherently different type of convection. Here, we will present results from direct numerical simulations of rapidly rotating convection in a fluid with Pr ≈ 0.025 in cylindrical containers and Ekman numbers as low as 5 × 10-6. In this system, the Coriolis force is the source of two types of inertial modes, the so-called wall modes, that also exist at moderate Prandtl numbers, and cylinder-filling oscillatory modes, that are a unique feature of small Prandtl number convection. The obtained flow fields were analyzed using the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). This technique allows to extract and identify the structures that govern the dynamics of the system as well as their corresponding frequencies. We have investigated both the regime where the flow is purely oscillatory and the regime where wall modes and oscillatory modes co-exist. In the purely oscillatory regime, high and low frequency oscillatory modes characterize the flow. When both types of modes are present, the DMD reveals that the wall-attached modes dominate the flow dynamics. They precess with a relatively low frequency in retrograde direction. Nonetheless, also in this case, high frequency oscillations have a significant contribution.
Nield, Donald A
2013-01-01
Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...
Nield, Donald A
1992-01-01
This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches
Simulation of convection-driven wet-chemical etching
Driesen, C.H.
1999-01-01
In a wet-chemical etching process, the resulting etched shape is smaller than the originally designed shape at the mask. This is caused by the fact that, as soon as material next to the mask is dissolved, material under the mask will be dissolved too. This is the so-called undercut effect. During an
Simulation of convection-driven wet-chemical etching
Driesen, C.H.
1999-01-01
a wet-chemical etching process, the resulting etched shape is smaller than the originally designed shape at the mask. This is caused by the fact that, as soon as material next to the mask is dissolved, material under the mask will be dissolved too. This is the so-called undercut effect. During an
Sparse identification of a predator-prey system from simulation data of a convection model
Dam, Magnus; Brøns, Morten; Rasmussen, Jens Juul
2017-01-01
of a convection problem. A convection model with a pressure source centered at the inner boundary models the edge dynamics of a magnetically confined plasma. The convection problem undergoes a sequence of bifurcations as the strength of the pressure source increases. The time evolution of the energies......The use of low-dimensional dynamical systems as reduced models for plasma dynamics is useful as solving an initial value problem requires much less computational resources than fluid simulations. We utilize a data-driven modeling approach to identify a reduced model from simulation data...
The convection patterns in microemulsions
Korneta, W.; Lopez Quintela, M.A.; Fernandez Novoa, A.
1991-07-01
The Rayleigh-Benard convection in the microemulsion consisting of water (7.5%), cyclohexan (oil-61.7%) and diethylenglycolmonobutylether (surfactant-30.8%) is studied from the onset of convection to the phase separation. The five classes of convection patterns are observed and recorded on the video: localized travelling waves, travelling waves, travelling waves and localized steady rolls, steady rolls and steady polygons. The Fourier transforms and histograms of these patterns are presented. The origin of any pattern is discussed. The intermittent behaviour close to the phase separation was observed. Possible applications of the obtained results are suggested. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs
Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies
Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.
2013-12-01
Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.
Time-resolved observation of discrete and continuous MHD dynamo in the reversed-field pinch edge
Ji, H.; Almagri, A.F.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.
1994-01-01
We report the first experimental verification of the MHD dynamo in the RFP. A burst of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo electric field is observed during the sawtooth crash, followed by an increase in the local parallel current in the MST RFP edge. By measuring each term, the parallel MHD mean-field Ohm's law is observed to hold within experimental error bars both between and during sawtooth crashes
Lorentz violation bounds from torsion trace fermion sector and galaxy M51 data and chiral dynamos
Garcia de Andrade, L.C. [IF-UERJ, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-06-15
Earlier we have computed a Lorentz violation (LV) bound for torsion terms via galactic dynamos and found bounds similar to the one obtained by Kostelecky et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:111102, 2008) which is of the order of 10{sup -31} GeV. Their result was found making use of the axial torsion vector in terms of Dirac spinors and minimal torsion coupling in flat space-time of fermions. In this paper, a torsion dynamo equation obtained using the variation of the torsion trace and galaxy M51 data of 500 pc are used to place an upper bound of 10{sup -26} GeV in LV, which agrees with the one by Kostelecky and his group using an astrophysical framework background. Their lowest bound was obtained in earth laboratory using dual masers. One of the purposes of this paper is to apply the Faraday self-induction magnetic equation, recently extended to torsioned space-time, by the author to show that it lends support to physics in Riemann-Cartan space-time, in several distinct physical backgrounds. Backreaction magnetic effects are used to obtain the LV bounds. Previously Bamba et al. (JCAP 10:058, 2012) have used the torsion trace in their teleparallel investigation of the IGMF, with the argument that the torsion trace leads to less weaker effects than the other irreducible components of the torsion tensor. LV is computed in terms of a chiral-torsion-like current in the new dynamo equation analogous to the Dvornikov and Semikoz dynamo equation with chiral magnetic currents. Making use of the chiral-torsion dynamo equation we estimate the LV bounds in the early universe to be of the order of 10{sup -24} GeV, which was the order of the charged-lepton sector. Our main result is that it is possible to obtain more stringent bounds than the ones found in the fermion sector of astrophysics in the new revised 2017 data table for CPT and Lorentz violation by Kostelecky and Mewes. They found in several astrophysical backgrounds, orders of magnitude such as 10{sup -24} and 10{sup -23} Ge
Kesseli, Aurora Y.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Mann, Andrew W.; Mace, Greg
2018-06-01
Main-sequence, fully convective M dwarfs in eclipsing binaries are observed to be larger than stellar evolutionary models predict by as much as 10%–15%. A proposed explanation for this discrepancy involves effects from strong magnetic fields, induced by rapid rotation via the dynamo process. Although, a handful of single, slowly rotating M dwarfs with radius measurements from interferometry also appear to be larger than models predict, suggesting that rotation or binarity specifically may not be the sole cause of the discrepancy. We test whether single, rapidly rotating, fully convective stars are also larger than expected by measuring their R\\sin i distribution. We combine photometric rotation periods from the literature with rotational broadening (v\\sin i) measurements reported in this work for a sample of 88 rapidly rotating M dwarf stars. Using a Bayesian framework, we find that stellar evolutionary models underestimate the radii by 10 % {--}15{ % }-2.5+3, but that at higher masses (0.18 theory is 13%–18%, and we argue that the discrepancy is unlikely to be due to effects from age. Furthermore, we find no statistically significant radius discrepancy between our sample and the handful of M dwarfs with interferometric radii. We conclude that neither rotation nor binarity are responsible for the inflated radii of fully convective M dwarfs, and that all fully convective M dwarfs are larger than models predict.
Convection in the Labrador Sea
Davis, R
1997-01-01
The long-term goal of this grant was to describe the process of deep oceanic convection well enough to provide critical tests of, and guidance to, models used to predict subsurface ocean conditions...
Convection-enhanced water evaporation
B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard
2011-01-01
Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...
Stochastic disk dynamo as a model of reversals of the Earth's magnetic field
Ito, H.M.
1988-01-01
A stochastic model is given of a system composed of N similar disk dynamos interacting with one another. The time evolution of the system is governed by a master equation of the class introduced by van Kampen as relevant to stochastic macrosystems. In the model, reversals of the Earth's magnetic field are regarded as large deviations caused by a small random force of O(N/sup -1/2/) from one of the field polarities to the other. Reversal processes are studied by simulation, which shows that the model explains well the activities of the paleomagnetic field inclusive of statistical laws of the reversal sequence and the intensity distribution. Comparison are made between the model and dynamical disk dynamo models
Akasofu, S.-I.
1974-01-01
Review of recent progress in magnetospheric physics, in particular, in understanding the magnetospheric substorm. It is shown that a number of magnetospheric phenomena can now be understood by viewing the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction as an MHD dynamo; auroral phenomena are powered by the dynamo. Also, magnetospheric responses to variations of the north-south and east-west components of the interplanetary magnetic field have been identified. The magnetospheric substorm is entirely different from the responses of the magnetosphere to the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field. It may be associated with the formation of a neutral line within the plasma sheet and with an enhanced reconnection along the line. A number of substorm-associated phenomena can be understood by noting that the new neutral line formation is caused by a short-circuiting of a part of the magnetotail current.
Large-scale dynamo of accretion disks around supermassive nonrotating black holes
Poplavsky A.L.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper one presents an analytical model of accretion disk magnetosphere dynamics around supermassive nonrotating black holes in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Based on general relativistic equations of magneto hydrodynamics, the nonstationary solutions for time-dependent dynamo action in the accretion disks, spatial and temporal distribution of magnetic field are found. It is shown that there are two distinct stages of dynamo process: the transient and the steady-state regimes, the induction of magnetic field at t > 6:6665 x 1011GM/c3 s becomes stationary, magnetic field is located near the innermost stable circular orbit, and its value rises up to ~ 105 G. Applications of such systems with nonrotating black holes in real active galactic nuclei are discussed.
Recovery from Maunder-like Grand Minima in a Babcock–Leighton Solar Dynamo Model
Karak, Bidya Binay; Miesch, Mark
2018-06-01
The Sun occasionally goes through Maunder-like extended grand minima when its magnetic activity drops considerably from the normal activity level for several decades. Many possible theories have been proposed to explain the origin of these minima. However, how the Sun managed to recover from such inactive phases every time is even more enigmatic. The Babcock–Leighton type dynamos, which are successful in explaining many features of the solar cycle remarkably well, are not expected to operate during grand minima due to the lack of a sufficient number of sunspots. In this Letter, we explore the question of how the Sun could recover from grand minima through the Babcock–Leighton dynamo. In our three-dimensional dynamo model, grand minima are produced spontaneously as a result of random variations in the tilt angle of emerging active regions. We find that the Babcock–Leighton process can still operate during grand minima with only a minimal number of sunspots, and that the model can emerge from such phases without the need for an additional generation mechanism for the poloidal field. The essential ingredient in our model is a downward magnetic pumping, which inhibits the diffusion of the magnetic flux across the solar surface.
Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch
Scime, E.E.
1992-05-01
Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The characteristic anomalously high ion temperature of RFP discharges has been observed in the MST. The evolution of the ion and electron temperature, as well as density and charge exchange power loss, were measured for a series of reproducible discharges. The ion heating expected from collisional processes with the electrons is calculated and shown too small to explain the measured ion temperatures. The charge exchange determined ion temperature is also compared to measurements of the thermally broadened CV 227.1 nm line. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 250 eV for I = 360 kA, increases by more than 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5 endash 5 MHz were also measured during the dynamo bursts. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion cyclotron frequencies. Theoretical models for ion heating are reviewed and discussed in light of the experimental results. Similar electron heating mechanisms may be responsible for the discrepancy between measured and expected loop voltages in the RFP. The electrons, as well as the ions, may be heated by turbulent mechanisms, and a RFP energy budget including such phenomena is described
Rädler, K.-H.
This article elucidates the basic ideas of electrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics of mean fields in turbulently moving conducting fluids. It is stressed that the connection of the mean electromotive force with the mean magnetic field and its first spatial derivatives is in general neither local nor instantaneous and that quite a few claims concerning pretended failures of the mean-field concept result from ignoring this aspect. In addition to the mean-field dynamo mechanisms of α2 and α Ω type several others are considered. Much progress in mean-field electrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics results from the test-field method for calculating the coefficients that determine the connection of the mean electromotive force with the mean magnetic field. As an important example the memory effect in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is explained. In magnetohydrodynamic turbulence there is the possibility of a mean electromotive force that is primarily independent of the mean magnetic field and labeled as Yoshizawa effect. Despite of many efforts there is so far no convincing comprehensive theory of α quenching, that is, the reduction of the α effect with growing mean magnetic field, and of the saturation of mean-field dynamos. Steps toward such a theory are explained. Finally, some remarks on laboratory experiments with dynamos are made.
Energy transfers in large-scale and small-scale dynamos
Samtaney, Ravi; Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra
2015-11-01
We present the energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers in small-scale dynamo (SSD) and large-scale dynamo (LSD) using numerical simulations of MHD turbulence for Pm = 20 (SSD) and for Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid. For SSD, we demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers move towards lower wavenumbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason for the growth of the magnetic fields at the large scales. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. For LSD, we show that the magnetic energy growth takes place via energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field. We observe forward U2U and B2B energy flux, similar to SSD.
Steady-state dynamo and current drive in a nonuniform bounded plasma
Mett, R.R.; Taylor, J.B.
1991-03-01
Current drive due to helicity injection and dynamo effect are examined in an inhomogeneous bounded plasma. Averaged over a magnetic surface, there is in general no dynamo effect independent of resistivity -- contrary to the results found previously for an unbounded plasma. The dynamo field is calculated explicitly for an incompressible visco-resistive fluid in the plane-slab model. In accord with our general conclusion, outside the Alfven resonant layer it is proportional to the resistivity. Within the resonant layer there is a contribution which is enhanced, relative to its value outside the layer, by a factor (ωa 2 /(η + ν)), where ω is the wave frequency, a the plasma radius, η the magnetic diffusivity, and ν the kinematic viscosity. However, this contribution vanishes when integrated across the layer. The average field in the layer is enhanced by factor (ωa 2 /(η + ν)) 2/3 and is proportional to the shear in the magnetic field and the cube root of the gradient of the Alfven speed. These results are interpreted in terms of helicity balance, and reconciled with the infinite medium calculations. 15 refs
Changes in Convective Rainfall in future climates over Western Europe.
Gadian, A.; Burton, R.; Blyth, A. M.; Mobbs, S.; Warner, J.; Groves, J.; Holland, G. J.; Bruyere, C. L.; Done, J.; Tye, M. R.; Thielen, J.
2016-12-01
This project aims to analyse extreme convective weather events over the European domain in a future climate scenario using the Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF). Climate models have insufficient resolution to properly simulate small meso-scale precipitation events which are critical in understanding climate change. Use of a weather model is specifically designed to resolve small (and large) scale processes and in particular to be convection permitting. Changes in extreme weather events in the future climate can be represented as small scale processes and regional meso-scale precipitation events. A channel outer domain (D01), with a resolution of 20km at +/-300 N/S and 8km at 680N, drives a one way nested inner domain resolution which is a factor of 5:1 smaller. For calibration purposes, the outer domain is driven at the Northern / Southern boundaries either by ERA-interim or bias corrected data CCSM for 1989-1995. For the future simulations, the outer domain is driven by CCSM data for 2020-2025 and 2030-2035. An initial analysis for the inner domain convection over Western Europe will be presented. This presentation will provide details of the project. An inter-comparison of the simulations driven for 1990-1995 will provide information on the applicability of using the climate data driven results for the analysis of the future years. Initial plots of changes in precipitation over the future decades will focus on the summer precipitation, providing mean and standard deviation changes. The results indicate that the summer months are dryer, the wet events become shorter, with longer dry periods. The peak precipitation for the events does not increase, but the average rainfall and the amount of heavy rain (>7.6mm / hour) does increase. Future plans for use of the data will be discussed. Use the output data to drive the EFAS (European Flood model) to examine the predicted changes in quantity and frequency of severe and hazardous convective rainfall events and
Mantle Convection on Modern Supercomputers
Weismüller, J.; Gmeiner, B.; Huber, M.; John, L.; Mohr, M.; Rüde, U.; Wohlmuth, B.; Bunge, H. P.
2015-12-01
Mantle convection is the cause for plate tectonics, the formation of mountains and oceans, and the main driving mechanism behind earthquakes. The convection process is modeled by a system of partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Characteristic to mantle flow is the vast disparity of length scales from global to microscopic, turning mantle convection simulations into a challenging application for high-performance computing. As system size and technical complexity of the simulations continue to increase, design and implementation of simulation models for next generation large-scale architectures is handled successfully only in an interdisciplinary context. A new priority program - named SPPEXA - by the German Research Foundation (DFG) addresses this issue, and brings together computer scientists, mathematicians and application scientists around grand challenges in HPC. Here we report from the TERRA-NEO project, which is part of the high visibility SPPEXA program, and a joint effort of four research groups. TERRA-NEO develops algorithms for future HPC infrastructures, focusing on high computational efficiency and resilience in next generation mantle convection models. We present software that can resolve the Earth's mantle with up to 1012 grid points and scales efficiently to massively parallel hardware with more than 50,000 processors. We use our simulations to explore the dynamic regime of mantle convection and assess the impact of small scale processes on global mantle flow.
Convective behaviour in severe accidents
Clement, C.F.
1988-01-01
The nature and magnitude of the hazard from radioactivity posed by a possible nuclear accident depend strongly on convective behaviour within and immediately adjacent to the plant in question. This behaviour depends upon the nature of the vapour-gas-aerosol mixture concerned, and can show unusual properties such as 'upside-down' convection in which hot mixtures fall and cold mixtures rise. Predictions and criteria as to the types of behaviour which could possibly occur are summarised. Possible applications to present reactors are considered, and ways in which presently expected convection could be drastically modified are described. In some circumstances these could be used to suppress the radioactive source term or to switch its effect between distant dilute contamination and severe local contamination. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs
Convective Concrete: additive manufacturing to facilitate activation of thermal mass
Dennis de Witte
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Convective Concrete is about a research-driven design process of an innovative thermal mass concept. The goal is to improve building energy efficiency and comfort levels by addressing some of the shortcomings of conventional building slabs with high thermal storage capacity. Such heavyweight constructions tend to have a slow response time and do not make use of the available thermal mass effectively. Convective Concrete explores new ways of using thermal mass in buildings more intelligently. To accomplish this ondemand charging of thermal mass, a network of ducts and fans is embedded in the concrete wall element. This is done by developing customized formwork elements in combination with advanced concrete mixtures. To achieve an efficient airflow rate, the embedded lost formwork and the concrete itself function like a lung.
Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra
Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, A.; Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S.
2001-11-01
The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)
Three caveats for linear stability theory: Rayleigh-Benard convection
Greenside, H.S.
1984-06-01
Recent theories and experiments challenge the applicability of linear stability theory near the onset of buoyancy-driven (Rayleigh-Benard) convection. This stability theory, based on small perturbations of infinite parallel rolls, is found to miss several important features of the convective flow. The reason is that the lateral boundaries have a profound influence on the possible wave numbers and flow patterns even for the largest cells studied. Also, the nonlinear growth of incoherent unstable modes distorts the rolls, leading to a spatially disordered and sometimes temporally nonperiodic flow. Finally, the relation of the skewed varicose instability to the onset of turbulence (nonperiodic time dependence) is examined. Linear stability theory may not suffice to predict the onset of time dependence in large cells close to threshold
Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra
Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, A. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S. [Nancy-1 Univ., 54 (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises
2001-11-01
The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)
Topology Optimization for Convection Problems
Alexandersen, Joe
2011-01-01
This report deals with the topology optimization of convection problems.That is, the aim of the project is to develop, implement and examine topology optimization of purely thermal and coupled thermomechanical problems,when the design-dependent eects of convection are taken into consideration.......This is done by the use of a self-programmed FORTRAN-code, which builds on an existing 2D-plane thermomechanical nite element code implementing during the course `41525 FEM-Heavy'. The topology optimizationfeatures have been implemented from scratch, and allows the program to optimize elastostatic mechanical...
Experimental methods in natural convection
Koster, J.N.
1982-11-01
Some common experimental techniques to determine local velocities and to visualize temperature fields in natural convection research are discussed. First the physics and practice of anemometers are discussed with emphasis put on optical anemometers. In the second and third case the physics and practice of the most developed interferometers are discussed; namely differential interferometry for visualization of temperature gradient fields and holographic interferometry for visualization of temperature fields. At the Institut fuer Reaktorbauelemente these three measuring techniques are applied for convection and pipe flow studies. (orig.) [de
The excitation of solar-like oscillations in a δ Sct star by efficient envelope convection
Antoci, V.; Handler, G.; Kallinger, T.
2011-01-01
Delta Scuti (δSct) stars are opacity-driven pulsators with masses of 1.5-2.5Msolar, their pulsations resulting from the varying ionization of helium. In less massive stars such as the Sun, convection transports mass and energy through the outer 30per cent of the star and excites a rich spectrum...... of resonant acoustic modes. Based on the solar example, with no firm theoretical basis, models predict that the convective envelope in δSct stars extends only about 1per cent of the radius, but with sufficient energy to excite solar-like oscillations. This was not observed before the Kepler mission, so...... the presence of a convective envelope in the models has been questioned. Here we report the detection of solar-like oscillations in the δSct star HD187547, implying that surface convection operates efficiently in stars about twice as massive as the Sun, as the ad hoc models predicted....
Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization
Winterberg, F. [University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada (United States)
2016-01-15
Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.
Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization
Winterberg, F.
2016-01-01
Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.
Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization
Winterberg, F.
2016-01-01
Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable
Detection of soil moisture impact in convective initiation in the central region of Mexico
Dolores, Edgar; Caetano, Ernesto
2017-04-01
Soil moisture is important for understanding hydrological cycle variability in many regions. Local surface heat and moisture fluxes represent a major source of convective rainfall in Mexico during the summer, driven by positive evaporation-precipitation feedback. The effects of soil moisture are directly reflected in the limitation of evapotranspiration, affecting the development of the planetary boundary layer and, therefore, the initiation and intensity of convective precipitation. This study presents preliminary analysis of the role of soil moisture in convective initiations in central Mexico, for which a methodology for the detection of convective initiations similar to Taylor (2015) has been considered. The results show that the moisture fluxes from the surface influence the development of convection favored by mesoscale circulations at low levels. Initiations are more frequent in regions less humid than their surroundings with the very strong signal during the month of September. The knowledge of the soil predisposition to allow the development of deep convection suggests an alternative tool for the prediction of convective rains in Mexico.
Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection in Heterogeneous Porous media for CO2 Geological Storage
Ranganathan, P.; Farajzadeh, R.; Bruining, J.; Zitha, P.L.J.
2012-01-01
We report a modeling and numerical simulation study of density-driven natural convection during geological CO2 storage in heterogeneous formations. We consider an aquifer or depleted oilfield overlain by gaseous CO2, where the water density increases due to CO2 dissolution. The heterogeneity of the
Segregation and convection in dendritic alloys
Poirier, D. R.
1990-01-01
Microsegregation in dentritic alloys is discussed, including solidification with and without thermal gradient, the convection of interdendritic liquid. The conservation of momentum, energy, and solute is considered. Directional solidification and thermosolutal convection are discussed.
Plume structure in high-Rayleigh-number convection
Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2005-10-01
Near-wall structures in turbulent natural convection at Rayleigh numbers of 10^{10} to 10^{11} at A Schmidt number of 602 are visualized by a new method of driving the convection across a fine membrane using concentration differences of sodium chloride. The visualizations show the near-wall flow to consist of sheet plumes. A wide variety of large-scale flow cells, scaling with the cross-section dimension, are observed. Multiple large-scale flow cells are seen at aspect ratio (AR)= 0.65, while only a single circulation cell is detected at AR= 0.435. The cells (or the mean wind) are driven by plumes coming together to form columns of rising lighter fluid. The wind in turn aligns the sheet plumes along the direction of shear. the mean wind direction is seen to change with time. The near-wall dynamics show plumes initiated at points, which elongate to form sheets and then merge. Increase in rayleigh number results in a larger number of closely and regularly spaced plumes. The plume spacings show a common log normal probability distribution function, independent of the rayleigh number and the aspect ratio. We propose that the near-wall structure is made of laminar natural-convection boundary layers, which become unstable to give rise to sheet plumes, and show that the predictions of a model constructed on this hypothesis match the experiments. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the presence of a mean wind, the local near-wall boundary layers associated with each sheet plume in high-rayleigh-number turbulent natural convection are likely to be laminar mixed convection type.
Ribes, E.
1986-01-01
A large-scale circulation pattern has been detected in the solar convective zone, for the first time. Tracers used to probe the convective layers are newly-born sunspots and long-lived Hsub(α) filaments. The coincidence of the zonal meridional circulation with the magnetic pattern drawn by the Hsub(α) filaments suggests that we are looking at rotating rolls. The direction of rotation is associated with the magnetic polarity. Another result concerns the rotational rate of the deep convective layers. Young spots seem to rotate more rigidly, in contrast with older spots which exhibit a differential rotation similar to the surface rotation. However, the rotational rate exhibits a large dispersion, partly due to young spots located at the site of converging of diverging rolls. This is the consequence of the Coriolis force which decelerates or accelerates the plasma. These results shed a completely new light on problems dealing with the differential rotation, the transport of angular momentum and the dynamo action [fr
Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow
Aounallah, Y.
2004-01-01
The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)
Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems
Tournay, Robert C.
Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to the hydrologic cycle in many regions of the world as well as major sources of severe weather. MCSs continue to challenge forecasters and researchers alike, arising from difficulties in understanding system initiation, propagation, and demise. One distinct type of MCS is that formed from individual convective cells initiated primarily by daytime heating over high terrain. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the land surface sensitivity of this class of MCS in the contiguous United States. First, a climatology of mesoscale convective systems originating in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains from Wyoming southward to New Mexico is developed through a combination of objective and subjective methods. This class of MCS is most important, in terms of total warm season precipitation, in the 500 to 1300m elevations of the Great Plains (GP) to the east in eastern Colorado to central Nebraska and northwest Kansas. Examining MCSs by longevity, short lasting MCSs (15 hrs) reveals that longer lasting systems tend to form further south and have a longer track with a more southerly track. The environment into which the MCS is moving showed differences across commonly used variables in convection forecasting, with some variables showing more favorable conditions throughout (convective inhibition, 0-6 km shear and 250 hPa wind speed) ahead of longer lasting MCSs. Other variables, such as convective available potential energy, showed improving conditions through time for longer lasting MCSs. Some variables showed no difference across longevity of MCS (precipitable water and large-scale vertical motion). From subsets of this MCS climatology, three regions of origin were chosen based on the presence of ridgelines extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains known to be foci for convection initiation and subsequent MCS formation: Southern Wyoming (Cheyenne Ridge), Colorado (Palmer divide) and
Dynamo dominated accretion and energy flow: The mechanism of active galactic nuclei
Colgate, S.A.; Li, H.
1998-12-31
An explanation of the magnetic fields of the universe, the central mass concentration of galaxies, the massive black hole of every galaxy, and the AGN phenomena has been an elusive goal. The authors suggest here the outlines of such a theoretical understanding and point out where the physical understanding is missing. They believe there is an imperative to the sequence of mass flow and hence energy flow in the collapse of a galactic mass starting from the first non-linearity appearing in structure formation following decoupling. This first non-linearity of a two to one density fluctuation, the Lyman-{alpha} clouds, ultimately leads to the emission spectra of the phenomenon of AGN, quasars, blazars, etc. The over-arching physical principle is the various mechanisms for the transport of angular momentum. They believe they have now understood the new physics of two of these mechanisms that have previously been illusive and as a consequence they impose strong constraints on the initial conditions of the mechanisms for the subsequent emission of the gravitational binding energy. The new phenomena described are: (1) the Rossby vortex mechanism of the accretion disk {alpha}-viscosity, and (2) the mechanism of the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo in the accretion disk. The Rossby vortex mechanism leads to a prediction of the black hole mass and rate of energy release and the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo leads to the generation of the magnetic flux of the galaxy (and the far greater magnetic flux of clusters) and separately explains the primary flux of energy emission as force-free magnetic energy density. This magnetic flux and magnetic energy density separately are the necessary consequence of the saturation of a dynamo created by the accretion disk with a gain greater than unity.
Solar Cycle Variability Induced by Tilt Angle Scatter in a Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo Model
Karak, Bidya Binay; Miesch, Mark
2017-09-01
We present results from a three-dimensional Babcock-Leighton (BL) dynamo model that is sustained by the emergence and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). On average, each BMR has a systematic tilt given by Joy’s law. Randomness and nonlinearity in the BMR emergence of our model produce variable magnetic cycles. However, when we allow for a random scatter in the tilt angle to mimic the observed departures from Joy’s law, we find more variability in the magnetic cycles. We find that the observed standard deviation in Joy’s law of {σ }δ =15^\\circ produces a variability comparable to the observed solar cycle variability of ˜32%, as quantified by the sunspot number maxima between 1755 and 2008. We also find that tilt angle scatter can promote grand minima and grand maxima. The time spent in grand minima for {σ }δ =15^\\circ is somewhat less than that inferred for the Sun from cosmogenic isotopes (about 9% compared to 17%). However, when we double the tilt scatter to {σ }δ =30^\\circ , the simulation statistics are comparable to the Sun (˜18% of the time in grand minima and ˜10% in grand maxima). Though the BL mechanism is the only source of poloidal field, we find that our simulations always maintain magnetic cycles even at large fluctuations in the tilt angle. We also demonstrate that tilt quenching is a viable and efficient mechanism for dynamo saturation; a suppression of the tilt by only 1°-2° is sufficient to limit the dynamo growth. Thus, any potential observational signatures of tilt quenching in the Sun may be subtle.
Arkani-Hamed, J.; Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Aldridge, K. D.; Baker, R. E.
2008-06-01
We propose a causal relationship between the creation of the giant impact basins on Mars by a large asteroid, ruptured when it entered the Roche limit, and the excitation of the Martian core dynamo. Our laboratory experiments indicate that the elliptical instability of the Martian core can be excited if the asteroid continually exerts tidal forces on Mars for ~20,000 years. Our numerical experiments suggest that the growth-time of the instability was 5,000-15,000 years when the asteroid was at a distance of 50,000-75,000 km. We demonstrate the stability of the orbital motion of an asteroid captured by Mars at a distance of 100,000 km in the presence of the Sun and Jupiter. We also present our results for the tidal interaction of the asteroid with Mars. An asteroid captured by Mars in prograde fashion can survive and excite the elliptical instability of the core for only a few million years, whereas a captured retrograde asteroid can excite the elliptical instability for hundreds of millions of years before colliding with Mars. The rate at which tidal energy dissipates in Mars during this period is over two orders of magnitude greater than the rate at which magnetic energy dissipates. If only 1% of the tidal energy dissipation is partitioned to the core, sufficient energy would be available to maintain the core dynamo. Accordingly, a retrograde asteroid is quite capable of exciting an elliptical instability in the Martian core, thus providing a candidate process to drive a core dynamo.
Spectroscopic measurement of the MHD dynamo in the MST reversed field pinch
Chapman, James Tharp [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1998-09-01
The author has directly observed the coupling of ion velocity fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations to produce an MHD dynamo electric field in the interior of the MST reversed field pinch. Chord averaged ion velocity fluctuations were measured with a fast spectroscopic diagnostic which collects line radiation from intrinsic carbon impurities simultaneously along two lines of sight. The chords employed for the measurements resolved long wavelength velocity fluctuations of several km/s at 8-20 kHz as tiny, fast Doppler shifts in the emitted line profile. During discrete dynamo events the velocity fluctuations, like the magnetic fluctuations, increase dramatically. The toroidal and poloidal chords with impact parameters of 0.3 a and 0.6 a respectively, resolved fluctuation wavenumbers with resonance surfaces near or along the lines of sight indicating a radial velocity fluctuation width for each mode which spans only a fraction of the plasma radius. The phase between the measured toroidal velocity fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations matches the predictions of resistive MHD while the poloidal velocity fluctuations exhibit a phase consistent with the superposition of MHD effects and the advection of a mean flow gradient past the poloidal line of sight. Radial velocity fluctuations resolved by a chord through the center of the plasma were small compared to the poloidal and toroidal fluctuations and exhibited low coherence with the magnetic fluctuations. The ensembled nonlinear product of the ion velocity fluctuations and fluctuations in the magnetic field indicates a substantial dynamo electric field which peaks during the periods of spontaneous flux generation.
Spectroscopic measurement of the MHD dynamo in the MST reversed field pinch
Chapman, J.T.
1998-09-01
The author has directly observed the coupling of ion velocity fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations to produce an MHD dynamo electric field in the interior of the MST reversed field pinch. Chord averaged ion velocity fluctuations were measured with a fast spectroscopic diagnostic which collects line radiation from intrinsic carbon impurities simultaneously along two lines of sight. The chords employed for the measurements resolved long wavelength velocity fluctuations of several km/s at 8--20 kHz as tiny, fast Doppler shifts in the emitted line profile. During discrete dynamo events the velocity fluctuations, like the magnetic fluctuations, increase dramatically. The toroidal and poloidal chords with impact parameters of 0.3 a and 0.6 a respectively, resolved fluctuation wavenumbers with resonance surfaces near or along the lines of sight indicating a radial velocity fluctuation width for each mode which spans only a fraction of the plasma radius. The phase between the measured toroidal velocity fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations matches the predictions of resistive MHD while the poloidal velocity fluctuations exhibit a phase consistent with the superposition of MHD effects and the advection of a mean flow gradient past the poloidal line of sight. Radial velocity fluctuations resolved by a chord through the center of the plasma were small compared to the poloidal and toroidal fluctuations and exhibited low coherence with the magnetic fluctuations. The ensembled nonlinear product of the ion velocity fluctuations and fluctuations in the magnetic field indicates a substantial dynamo electric field which peaks during the periods of spontaneous flux generation
Castaño-Díez, Daniel
2017-06-01
Dynamo is a package for the processing of tomographic data. As a tool for subtomogram averaging, it includes different alignment and classification strategies. Furthermore, its data-management module allows experiments to be organized in groups of tomograms, while offering specialized three-dimensional tomographic browsers that facilitate visualization, location of regions of interest, modelling and particle extraction in complex geometries. Here, a technical description of the package is presented, focusing on its diverse strategies for optimizing computing performance. Dynamo is built upon mbtools (middle layer toolbox), a general-purpose MATLAB library for object-oriented scientific programming specifically developed to underpin Dynamo but usable as an independent tool. Its structure intertwines a flexible MATLAB codebase with precompiled C++ functions that carry the burden of numerically intensive operations. The package can be delivered as a precompiled standalone ready for execution without a MATLAB license. Multicore parallelization on a single node is directly inherited from the high-level parallelization engine provided for MATLAB, automatically imparting a balanced workload among the threads in computationally intense tasks such as alignment and classification, but also in logistic-oriented tasks such as tomogram binning and particle extraction. Dynamo supports the use of graphical processing units (GPUs), yielding considerable speedup factors both for native Dynamo procedures (such as the numerically intensive subtomogram alignment) and procedures defined by the user through its MATLAB-based GPU library for three-dimensional operations. Cloud-based virtual computing environments supplied with a pre-installed version of Dynamo can be publicly accessed through the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), enabling users to rent GPU computing time on a pay-as-you-go basis, thus avoiding upfront investments in hardware and longterm software maintenance.
Using dynamo theory to predict the sunspot number during solar cycle 21
Schatten, K. H.; Scherrer, P. H.; Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.
1978-01-01
On physical grounds it is suggested that the polar field strength of the sun near a solar minimum is closely related to the solar activity of the following cycle. Four methods of estimating the polar magnetic field strength of the sun near solar minimum are employed to provide an estimate of the yearly mean sunspot number of cycle 21 at solar maximum of 140 + or - 20. This estimate may be considered a first-order attempt to predict the cycle activity using one parameter of physical importance based upon dynamo theory.
Integration of Environmental Sensors with BIM: case studies using Arduino, Dynamo, and the Revit API
Kensek, K. M.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM. A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study followed a similar procedure by implementing the Revit API directly instead of using Dynamo. Then the process was reversed to demonstrate that not only could data could be sent from sensors to change the 3D model, but changes to parameters of a 3D model could effect a physical model through the use of actuators. It is intended that these virtual/physical prototypes could be used as the basis for testing intelligent façade systems before constructing full size mock-ups.Este estudio investiga la posibilidad de conectar sensores ambientales como de luz, humedad, o dióxido de carbono con un modelo de información de un edificio (siglas BIM en inglés. Un caso base fue creado en Rhino; usando Grasshopper and Firefly, donde un simple modelo digital respondió a niveles de luz detectados por un foto resistor en una tarjeta Arduino. El caso de estudio fue duplicado usando Revit Architecture, una herramienta popular en BIM, y Dynamo, un ambiente de programación gráfica, en una creativa aplicación. Un segundo caso de estudio siguió un procedimiento similar implementando Revit API directamente en vez de usar Dynamo. Entonces el proceso fue revertido para demostrar que no solamente la información podría ser enviada desde sensores para cambiar el modelo tridimensional, pero cambios en los parámetros de un modelo tridimensional podrían afectar un modelo físico mediante el uso de actuadores. Se espera que esos modelos virtuales puedan ser usados como base para
Montella, Raffaele; Kosta, S.; Foster, I.
2018-01-01
Data crowdsourcing is a increasingly pervasive and lifestyle-changing technology, due to the flywheel effect that results from the interaction between the internet of things and cloud computing. In smart cities, for example, many initiatives harvest valuable data from citizen sensors. However, th...... weather and marine predictions via the use of data assimilation methods. We show our preliminary results about the DYNAMO Daemon, a SignalK server we embedded in the native level of the Android operating system enabling the data gathering and transfer from vessels to the cloud....
Internally driven inertial waves in geodynamo simulations
Ranjan, A.; Davidson, P. A.; Christensen, U. R.; Wicht, J.
2018-05-01
Inertial waves are oscillations in a rotating fluid, such as the Earth's outer core, which result from the restoring action of the Coriolis force. In an earlier work, it was argued by Davidson that inertial waves launched near the equatorial regions could be important for the α2 dynamo mechanism, as they can maintain a helicity distribution which is negative (positive) in the north (south). Here, we identify such internally driven inertial waves, triggered by buoyant anomalies in the equatorial regions in a strongly forced geodynamo simulation. Using the time derivative of vertical velocity, ∂uz/∂t, as a diagnostic for traveling wave fronts, we find that the horizontal movement in the buoyancy field near the equator is well correlated with a corresponding movement of the fluid far from the equator. Moreover, the azimuthally averaged spectrum of ∂uz/∂t lies in the inertial wave frequency range. We also test the dispersion properties of the waves by computing the spectral energy as a function of frequency, ϖ, and the dispersion angle, θ. Our results suggest that the columnar flow in the rotation-dominated core, which is an important ingredient for the maintenance of a dipolar magnetic field, is maintained despite the chaotic evolution of the buoyancy field on a fast timescale by internally driven inertial waves.
A transilient matrix for moist convection
Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.
2011-08-15
A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.
Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations
Holloway, Christopher E.
2017-06-01
To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather
Generation of dynamo waves by spatially separated sources in the Earth and other celestial bodies
Popova, E.
2017-12-01
The amplitude and the spatial configuration of the planetary and stellar magnetic field can changing over the years. Celestial bodies can have cyclic, chaotic or unchanging in time magnetic activity which is connected with a dynamo mechanism. This mechanism is based on the consideration of the joint influence of the alpha-effect and differential rotation. Dynamo sources can be located at different depths (active layers) of the celestial body and can have different intensities. Application of this concept allows us to get different forms of solutions and some of which can include wave propagating inside the celestial body. We analytically showed that in the case of spatially separated sources of magnetic field each source generates a wave whose frequency depends on the physical parameters of its source. We estimated parameters of sources required for the generation nondecaying waves. We discus structure of such sources and matter motion (including meridional circulation) in the liquid outer core of the Earth and active layers of other celestial bodies.
Xu Hao; Collins, David C.; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai
2009-01-01
We present self-consistent cosmological magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations that simultaneously follow the formation of a galaxy cluster and the magnetic field ejection by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find that the magnetic fields ejected by the AGNs, though initially distributed in relatively small volumes, can be transported throughout the cluster and be further amplified by the intracluster medium (ICM) turbulence during the cluster formation process. The ICM turbulence is shown to be generated and sustained by the frequent mergers of smaller halos. Furthermore, a cluster-wide dynamo process is shown to exist in the ICM and amplify the magnetic field energy and flux. The total magnetic energy in the cluster can reach ∼10 61 erg while micro Gauss (μG) fields can distribute over ∼ Mpc scales throughout the whole cluster. This finding shows that magnetic fields from AGNs, being further amplified by the ICM turbulence through small-scale dynamo processes, can be the origin of cluster-wide magnetic fields.
Hidden hyperchaos and electronic circuit application in a 5D self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo
Wei, Zhouchao; Moroz, Irene; Sprott, J. C.; Akgul, Akif; Zhang, Wei
2017-03-01
We report on the finding of hidden hyperchaos in a 5D extension to a known 3D self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo. The hidden hyperchaos is identified through three positive Lyapunov exponents under the condition that the proposed model has just two stable equilibrium states in certain regions of parameter space. The new 5D hyperchaotic self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo has multiple attractors including point attractors, limit cycles, quasi-periodic dynamics, hidden chaos or hyperchaos, as well as coexisting attractors. We use numerical integrations to create the phase plane trajectories, produce bifurcation diagram, and compute Lyapunov exponents to verify the hidden attractors. Because no unstable equilibria exist in two parameter regions, the system has a multistability and six kinds of complex dynamic behaviors. To the best of our knowledge, this feature has not been previously reported in any other high-dimensional system. Moreover, the 5D hyperchaotic system has been simulated using a specially designed electronic circuit and viewed on an oscilloscope, thereby confirming the results of the numerical integrations. Both Matlab and the oscilloscope outputs produce similar phase portraits. Such implementations in real time represent a new type of hidden attractor with important consequences for engineering applications.
Solar activity simulation and forecast with a flux-transport dynamo
Macario-Rojas, Alejandro; Smith, Katharine L.; Roberts, Peter C. E.
2018-06-01
We present the assessment of a diffusion-dominated mean field axisymmetric dynamo model in reproducing historical solar activity and forecast for solar cycle 25. Previous studies point to the Sun's polar magnetic field as an important proxy for solar activity prediction. Extended research using this proxy has been impeded by reduced observational data record only available from 1976. However, there is a recognised need for a solar dynamo model with ample verification over various activity scenarios to improve theoretical standards. The present study aims to explore the use of helioseismology data and reconstructed solar polar magnetic field, to foster the development of robust solar activity forecasts. The research is based on observationally inferred differential rotation morphology, as well as observed and reconstructed polar field using artificial neural network methods via the hemispheric sunspot areas record. Results show consistent reproduction of historical solar activity trends with enhanced results by introducing a precursor rise time coefficient. A weak solar cycle 25, with slow rise time and maximum activity -14.4% (±19.5%) with respect to the current cycle 24 is predicted.
CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code
Bertram, L.A.
1975-03-01
The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)
Fluid convection, constraint and causation
Bishop, Robert C.
2012-01-01
Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955
Problems in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics: G-Jitter Convection
Homsy, G. M.
2005-01-01
This is the final report on our NASA grant, Problems in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics NAG3-2513: 12/14/2000 - 11/30/2003, extended through 11/30/2004. This grant was made to Stanford University and then transferred to the University of California at Santa Barbara when the PI relocated there in January 2001. Our main activity has been to conduct both experimental and theoretical studies of instabilities in fluids that are relevant to the microgravity environment, i.e. those that do not involve the action of buoyancy due to a steady gravitational field. Full details of the work accomplished under this grant are given below. Our work has focused on: (i) Theoretical and computational studies of the effect of g-jitter on instabilities of convective states where the convection is driven by forces other than buoyancy (ii) Experimental studies of instabilities during displacements of miscible fluid pairs in tubes, with a focus on the degree to which these mimic those found in immiscible fluids. (iii) Theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of time dependent electrohydrodynamic forces on chaotic advection in drops immersed in a second dielectric liquid. Our objectives are to acquire insight and understanding into microgravity fluid mechanics problems that bear on either fundamental issues or applications in fluid physics. We are interested in the response of fluids to either a fluctuating acceleration environment or to forces other than gravity that cause fluid mixing and convection. We have been active in several general areas.
Sensitivity study of CFD turbulent models for natural convection analysis
Yu sun, Park
2007-01-01
The buoyancy driven convective flow fields are steady circulatory flows which were made between surfaces maintained at two fixed temperatures. They are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in many engineering applications. Application of a natural convection can reduce the costs and efforts remarkably. This paper focuses on the sensitivity study of turbulence analysis using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) for a natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity. Using commercial CFD code, FLUENT and various turbulent models were applied to the turbulent flow. Results from each CFD model will be compared each other in the viewpoints of grid resolution and flow characteristics. It has been showed that: -) obtaining general flow characteristics is possible with relatively coarse grid; -) there is no significant difference between results from finer grid resolutions than grid with y + + is defined as y + = ρ*u*y/μ, u being the wall friction velocity, y being the normal distance from the center of the cell to the wall, ρ and μ being respectively the fluid density and the fluid viscosity; -) the K-ε models show a different flow characteristic from K-ω models or from the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM); and -) the y + parameter is crucial for the selection of the appropriate turbulence model to apply within the simulation
Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund
2015-01-01
-state and dynamic conditions. With the air-based cooling system, a dependency of the convective heat transfer on the air jet trajectory has been observed. New correlations have been developed, introducing a modified Archimedes number to account for the air flow pattern. The accuracy of the new correlations has been...... evaluated to±15%. Besides the study with an air-based cooling system, the convective heat transfer with a radiant cooling system has also been investigated. The convective flow at the activated surface is mainly driven by natural convection. For other surfaces, the complexity of the flow and the large......The complexity and diversity of airflow in buildings make the accurate definition of convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) difficult. In a full-scale test facility, the convective heat transfer of two cooling systems (active chilled beam and radiant wall) has been investigated under steady...
Cryogenic helium gas convection research
Donnelly, R.J.
1994-10-01
This is a report prepared by a group interested in doing research in thermal convection using the large scale refrigeration facilities available at the SSC Laboratories (SSCL). The group preparing this report consists of Michael McAshan at SSCL, Robert Behringer at Duke University, Katepalli Sreenivasan at Yale University, Xiao-Zhong Wu at Northern Illinois University and Russell Donnelly at the University of Oregon, who served as Editor for this report. This study reports the research and development opportunities in such a project, the technical requirements and feasibility of its construction and operation, and the costs associated with the needed facilities and support activities. The facility will be a unique national resource for studies of high-Reynolds-number and high-Rayleigh-number and high Rayleigh number turbulence phenomena, and is one of the six items determined as suitable for potential funding through a screening of Expressions of Interest. The proposed facility is possible only because of the advanced cryogenic technology available at the SSCL. Typical scientific issues to be addressed in the facility will be discussed. It devolved during our study, that while the main experiment is still considered to be the thermal convection experiment discussed in our original Expression of Interest, there are now a very substantial set of other, important and fundamental experiments which can be done with the large cryostat proposed for the convection experiment. We believe the facility could provide several decades of front-line research in turbulence, and shall describe why this is so
Thermosolutal convection during dendritic solidification
Heinrich, J. C.; Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.; Felicelli, S.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical model for directional solidification of a binary alloy including a dendritic region underlying an all-liquid region. It is assumed initially that there exists a nonconvecting state with planar isotherms and isoconcentrates solidifying at a constant velocity. The stability of this system has been analyzed and nonlinear calculations are performed that show the effect of convection in the solidification process when the system is unstable. Results of calculations for various cases defined by the initial temperature gradient at the dendrite tips and varying strength of the gravitational field are presented for systems involving lead-tin alloys. The results show that the systems are stable for a gravitational constant of 0.0001 g(0) and that convection can be suppressed by appropriate choice of the container's size for higher values of the gravitational constant. It is also concluded that for the lead-tin systems considered, convection in the mushy zone is not significant below the upper 20 percent of the dendritic zone, if al all.
The amplitude of the deep solar convection and the origin of the solar supergranulation
Rast, Mark
2017-11-01
Recent observations and models have raised questions about our understanding of the dynamics of the deep solar convection. In particular, the amplitude of low wavenumber convective motions appears to be too high in both local area radiative magnetohydrodynamic and global spherical shell magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In global simulations this results in weaker than needed rotational constraints and consequent non solar-like differential rotation profiles. In deep local area simulations it yields strong horizontal flows in the photosphere on scales much larger than the observed supergranulation. We have undertaken numerical studies that suggest that solution to this problem is closely related to the long standing question of the origin of the solar supergranulation. Two possibilities have emerged. One suggests that small scale photospherically driven motions dominate convecive transport even at depth, descending through a very nearly adiabatic interior (more more nearly adiabatic than current convection models achieve). Convection of this form can meet Rossby number constraints set by global scale motions and implies that the solar supergranulation is the largest buoyantly driven scale of motion in the Sun. The other possibility is that large scale convection driven deeep in the Sun dynamically couples to the near surface shear layer, perhaps as its origin. In this case supergranulation would be the largest non-coupled convective mode, or only weakly coupled and thus potentially explaining the observed excess power in the prograde direction. Recent helioseismic results lend some support to this. We examind both of these possibilities using carefully designed numerical experiments, and weigh thier plausibilities in light of recent observations.
König, Jörg; Tschulik, Kristina; Büttner, Lars; Uhlemann, Margitta; Czarske, Jürgen
2013-03-19
To experimentally reveal the correlation between electrodeposited structure and electrolyte convection induced inside the concentration boundary layer, a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field, generated by a magnetized Fe-wire, has been applied to an electrochemical system. The influence of Lorentz and magnetic field gradient force to the local transport phenomena of copper ions has been studied using a novel two-component laser Doppler velocity profile sensor. With this sensor, the electrolyte convection within 500 μm of a horizontally aligned cathode is presented. The electrode-normal two-component velocity profiles below the electrodeposited structure show that electrolyte convection is induced and directed toward the rim of the Fe-wire. The measured deposited structure directly correlates to the observed boundary layer flow. As the local concentration of Cu(2+) ions is enhanced due to the induced convection, maximum deposit thicknesses can be found at the rim of the Fe-wire. Furthermore, a complex boundary layer flow structure was determined, indicating that electrolyte convection of second order is induced. Moreover, the Lorentz force-driven convection rapidly vanishes, while the electrolyte convection induced by the magnetic field gradient force is preserved much longer. The progress for research is the first direct experimental proof of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer that correlates to the deposited structure and reveals that the magnetic field gradient force is responsible for the observed structuring effect.
Effects of a Simple Convective Organization Scheme in a Two-Plume GCM
Chen, Baohua; Mapes, Brian E.
2018-03-01
A set of experiments is described with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) using a two-plume convection scheme. To represent the differences of organized convection from General Circulation Model (GCM) assumptions of isolated plumes in uniform environments, a dimensionless prognostic "organization" tracer Ω is invoked to lend the second plume a buoyancy advantage relative to the first, as described in Mapes and Neale (2016). When low-entrainment plumes are unconditionally available (Ω = 1 everywhere), deep convection occurs too easily, with consequences including premature (upstream) rainfall in inflows to the deep tropics, excessive convective versus large-scale rainfall, poor relationships to the vapor field, stable bias in the mean state, weak and poor tropical variability, and midday peak in diurnal rainfall over land. Some of these are shown to also be characteristic of CAM4 with its separated deep and shallow convection schemes. When low-entrainment plumes are forbidden by setting Ω = 0 everywhere, some opposite problems can be discerned. In between those extreme cases, an interactive Ω driven by the evaporation of precipitation acts as a local positive feedback loop, concentrating deep convection: In areas of little recent rain, only highly entraining plumes can occur, unfavorable for rain production. This tunable mechanism steadily increases precipitation variance in both space and time, as illustrated here with maps, time-longitude series, and spectra, while avoiding some mean state biases as illustrated with process-oriented diagnostics such as conserved variable profiles and vapor-binned precipitation curves.
Direct numerical simulation and statistical analysis of turbulent convection in lead-bismuth
Otic, I.; Grotzbach, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kern-und Energietechnik (Germany)
2003-07-01
Improved turbulent heat flux models are required to develop and analyze the reactor concept of an lead-bismuth cooled Accelerator-Driven-System. Because of specific properties of many liquid metals we have still no sensors for accurate measurements of the high frequency velocity fluctuations. So, the development of the turbulent heat transfer models which are required in our CFD (computational fluid dynamics) tools needs also data from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows. We use new simulation results for the model problem of Rayleigh-Benard convection to show some peculiarities of the turbulent natural convection in lead-bismuth (Pr = 0.025). Simulations for this flow at sufficiently large turbulence levels became only recently feasible because this flow requires the resolution of very small velocity scales with the need for recording long-wave structures for the slow changes in the convective temperature field. The results are analyzed regarding the principle convection and heat transfer features. They are also used to perform statistical analysis to show that the currently available modeling is indeed not adequate for these fluids. Basing on the knowledge of the details of the statistical features of turbulence in this convection type and using the two-point correlation technique, a proposal for an improved statistical turbulence model is developed which is expected to account better for the peculiarities of the heat transfer in the turbulent convection in low Prandtl number fluids. (authors)
Mixed convection between horizontal plates and consequences for chemical vapor deposition flows
Chiu, K.C.
1986-01-01
To simulate the fluid dynamics of VD systems, mixed convection between horizontal plates (AR = width/height = 10) heated from below was studied by laser Doppler anemometry in a range 1368 < Ra < 8300 and 15 < R3 < 170. The entrance effects were characterized by two lengths: one for the onset of bouyancy-driven instability, and one for the full development of longitudinal convection rolls. Explicit expressions for both entrance lengths are given in terms of Ra and Re. In addition, unsteady longitudinal convection rolls were observed. These are discussed in terms of the admixture of transverse convection rolls and/or contributions from upstream turbulence. For the fully developed region it is shown analytically that the transverse velocities of the longitudinal convection rolls, v and w, are independent of the forced flow and are identical to those of the two-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection rolls. These fundamental results serve as a base for the discussion of horizontal CVD flows. The entrance and sidewall effects are found to have pronounced influences on the flow patterns observed in CVD (AR = 2) reactors
Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Yeates, Anthony R.
2010-01-01
The emergence of tilted bipolar active regions (ARs) and the dispersal of their flux, mediated via processes such as diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional circulation, is believed to be responsible for the reversal of the Sun's polar field. This process (commonly known as the Babcock-Leighton mechanism) is usually modeled as a near-surface, spatially distributed α-effect in kinematic mean-field dynamo models. However, this formulation leads to a relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed which is opposite to that suggested by physical insight and predicted by surface flux-transport simulations. With this in mind, we present an improved double-ring algorithm for modeling the Babcock-Leighton mechanism based on AR eruption, within the framework of an axisymmetric dynamo model. Using surface flux-transport simulations, we first show that an axisymmetric formulation-which is usually invoked in kinematic dynamo models-can reasonably approximate the surface flux dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate that our treatment of the Babcock-Leighton mechanism through double-ring eruption leads to an inverse relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed as expected, reconciling the discrepancy between surface flux-transport simulations and kinematic dynamo models.
Two-dimensional convection and interchange motions in fluids and magnetized plasmas
Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.
2006-01-01
fluids, emphasizing its relation to interchange motions of non- uniformly magnetized plasmas. This is followed by a review of the theories for the onset of convection and quasi-linear saturation in driven-dissipative systems. Non-linear numerical simulations which result in stationary convective states...... behaviour of the fluctuation level which is associated with relaxation oscillations in the kinetic energy of the azimuthally mean flows. This leads to a state of large-scale intermittency manifested by exponential tails in the single-point probability distribution function of the dependent variables...
Free surface deformation and heat transfer by thermocapillary convection
Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael; Basting, Steffen; Bänsch, Eberhard
2016-04-01
Knowing the location of the free liquid/gas surface and the heat transfer from the wall towards the fluid is of paramount importance in the design and the optimization of cryogenic upper stage tanks for launchers with ballistic phases, where residual accelerations are smaller by up to four orders of magnitude compared to the gravity acceleration on earth. This changes the driving forces drastically: free surfaces become capillary dominated and natural or free convection is replaced by thermocapillary convection if a non-condensable gas is present. In this paper we report on a sounding rocket experiment that provided data of a liquid free surface with a nonisothermal boundary condition, i.e. a preheated test cell was filled with a cold but storable liquid in low gravity. The corresponding thermocapillary convection (driven by the temperature dependence of the surface tension) created a velocity field directed away from the hot wall towards the colder liquid and then in turn back at the bottom towards the wall. A deformation of the free surface resulting in an apparent contact angle rather different from the microscopic one could be observed. The thermocapillary flow convected the heat from the wall to the liquid and increased the heat transfer compared to pure conduction significantly. The paper presents results of the apparent contact angle as a function of the dimensionless numbers (Weber-Marangoni and Reynolds-Marangoni number) as well as heat transfer data in the form of a Nusselt number. Experimental results are complemented by corresponding numerical simulations with the commercial software Flow3D and the inhouse code Navier.
Plume dynamics in quasi-2D turbulent convection
Bizon, C.; Werne, J.; Predtechensky, A.A.; Julien, K.; McCormick, W.D.; Swift, J.B.; Swinney, H.L.
1997-01-01
We have studied turbulent convection in a vertical thin (Hele-Shaw) cell at very high Rayleigh numbers (up to 7x10 4 times the value for convective onset) through experiment, simulation, and analysis. Experimentally, convection is driven by an imposed concentration gradient in an isothermal cell. Model equations treat the fields in two dimensions, with the reduced dimension exerting its influence through a linear wall friction. Linear stability analysis of these equations demonstrates that as the thickness of the cell tends to zero, the critical Rayleigh number and wave number for convective onset do not depend on the velocity conditions at the top and bottom boundaries (i.e., no-slip or stress-free). At finite cell thickness δ, however, solutions with different boundary conditions behave differently. We simulate the model equations numerically for both types of boundary conditions. Time sequences of the full concentration fields from experiment and simulation display a large number of solutal plumes that are born in thin concentration boundary layers, merge to form vertical channels, and sometimes split at their tips via a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Power spectra of the concentration field reveal scaling regions with slopes that depend on the Rayleigh number. We examine the scaling of nondimensional heat flux (the Nusselt number, Nu) and rms vertical velocity (the Pacute eclet number, Pe) with the Rayleigh number (Ra * ) for the simulations. Both no-slip and stress-free solutions exhibit the scaling NuRa * ∼Pe 2 that we develop from simple arguments involving dynamics in the interior, away from cell boundaries. In addition, for stress-free solutions a second relation, Nu∼√(nPe), is dictated by stagnation-point flows occurring at the horizontal boundaries; n is the number of plumes per unit length. (Abstract Truncated)
Deriving Global Convection Maps From SuperDARN Measurements
Gjerloev, J. W.; Waters, C. L.; Barnes, R. J.
2018-04-01
A new statistical modeling technique for determining the global ionospheric convection is described. The principal component regression (PCR)-based technique is based on Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observations and is an advanced version of the PCR technique that Waters et al. (https//:doi.org.10.1002/2015JA021596) used for the SuperMAG data. While SuperMAG ground magnetic field perturbations are vector measurements, SuperDARN provides line-of-sight measurements of the ionospheric convection flow. Each line-of-sight flow has a known azimuth (or direction), which must be converted into the actual vector flow. However, the component perpendicular to the azimuth direction is unknown. Our method uses historical data from the SuperDARN database and PCR to determine a fill-in model convection distribution for any given universal time. The fill-in data process is driven by a list of state descriptors (magnetic indices and the solar zenith angle). The final solution is then derived from a spherical cap harmonic fit to the SuperDARN measurements and the fill-in model. When compared with the standard SuperDARN fill-in model, we find that our fill-in model provides improved solutions, and the final solutions are in better agreement with the SuperDARN measurements. Our solutions are far less dynamic than the standard SuperDARN solutions, which we interpret as being due to a lack of magnetosphere-ionosphere inertia and communication delays in the standard SuperDARN technique while it is inherently included in our approach. Rather, we argue that the magnetosphere-ionosphere system has inertia that prevents the global convection from changing abruptly in response to an interplanetary magnetic field change.
Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool
Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan
2013-01-01
After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10 8 to 10 15 . Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu i ). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v 2 -f (commonly called as v 2 -f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)
Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool
Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian, E-mail: camila@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Niceno, Bojan, E-mail: bojan.niceno@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety
2013-07-01
After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 15}. Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu{sub i}). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v{sup 2} -f (commonly called as v{sup 2}-f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)
Yoshimura, H.; Wang, Z.; Wu, F.
1984-01-01
Differential rotation dependence of the selection mechanism for magnetic parity of solar and stellar cycles is studied by assuming various differential rotation profiles inn the dynamo equation. The parity selection depends on propagation direction of oscillating magnetic fields in the form of dynamo waves which propagate along isorotation surfaces. When there is any radial gradient in the differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate either equatorward or poleward. In the former case, field systems of the two hemispheres approach each other and collide at the equator. Then, odd parity is selected. In the latter case, field systems of the two hemispheres recede from each other and do not collide at the equator, an even parity is selected. Thus the equatorial migration of wings of the butterfly iagram of the solar cycle and its odd parity are intrinsically related. In the case of purely latitudibnal differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate purely radially and growth rates of odd and even modes are nearly the same even when dynamo strength is weak when the parity selection mechanism should work most efficiently. In this case, anisotropy of turbulent diffusivity is a decisive factor to separate odd and even modes. Unlike in the case of radial-gradient-dominated differential rotation in which any difference between diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields enhancess the parity selection without changing the parity, the parity selection in the case of latitudinal-gradient-dominated differential rotation depends on the difference of diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields. When diffusivity for poloidal fields iss larger than that for toroidal fields, odd parity is selected; and when diffusivity for toroidal fields is larger, even parity is selected
Hydrodynamical simulation of the core helium flash with two-dimensional convection
Cole, P.W.
1981-01-01
The thermonuclear runaway of helium reactions under the condition of electron degeneracy in the hot, dense central regions of a low mass Population II red giant is investigated. A two-dimensional finite difference approach to time dependent convection has been applied to a peak energy production model of this phenomenon called the core helium flash. The dynamical conservation equations are integrated in two spatial dimensions and time which allow the horizontal variations of the dynamical variables to be followed explicitly. The unbalanced bouyancy forces in convectively unstable regions lead to mass flow (i.e., convective energy transport) by calculation of the velocity flow patterns produced by the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy without recourse to any phenomenological theory of convection. The initial phase of this hydrodynamical simulation is characterized by a thermal readjustment via downward convective energy transport into the neutrino cooled core in a series of convection modulated thermal pulses. Each of these pulses is driven by the thermal runaway and quenched by the convective energy transport when the actual temperature gradient in the flash region becomes sufficiently superadiabatic. These convection modulated thermal pulses are observed throughout 95% of the calculation, the duration of which is approximately 570,000 cycles or nearly 96,000 seconds of evolution. After this initial thermal restructuring, there ensues in the simulation a dynamic phase in which the thermonuclear runaway becomes violent. The degree of violence, the final composition, and the peak temperature depend sensitively on the nuclear energy generation rates of those reactions involving alpha particle captures
Taylor dispersion in wind-driven current
Li, Gang; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Wei-Quan; Zeng, Li; Li, Zhi; Chen, G. Q.
2017-12-01
Taylor dispersion associated with wind-driven currents in channels, shallow lakes and estuaries is essential to hydrological environmental management. For solute dispersion in a wind-driven current, presented in this paper is an analytical study of the evolution of concentration distribution. The concentration moments are intensively derived for an accurate presentation of the mean concentration distribution, up to the effect of kurtosis. The vertical divergence of concentration is then deduced by Gill's method of series expansion up to the fourth order. Based on the temporal evolution of the vertical concentration distribution, the dispersion process in the wind-driven current is concretely characterized. The uniform shear leads to a special symmetrical distribution of mean concentration free of skewness. The non-uniformity of vertical concentration is caused by convection and smeared out gradually by the effect of diffusion, but fails to disappear even at large times.
Convective overshoot at the solar tachocline
Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Anders, Evan H.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Burns, Keaton; Vasil, Geoffrey M.
2017-08-01
At the base of the solar convection zone lies the solar tachocline. This internal interface is where motions from the unstable convection zone above overshoot and penetrate downward into the stiffly stable radiative zone below, driving gravity waves, mixing, and possibly pumping and storing magnetic fields. Here we study the dynamics of convective overshoot across very stiff interfaces with some properties similar to the internal boundary layer within the Sun. We use the Dedalus pseudospectral framework and study fully compressible dynamics at moderate to high Peclet number and low Mach number, probing a regime where turbulent transport is important, and where the compressible dynamics are similar to those of convective motions in the deep solar interior. We find that the depth of convective overshoot is well described by a simple buoyancy equilibration model, and we consider implications for dynamics at the solar tachocline and for the storage of magnetic fields there by overshooting convection.
The convection electric field in auroral substorms
Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.
2001-01-01
Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...
Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Lagarde, N.; Gallet, F.; Palacios, A.; Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Mathis, S.; Anderson, R. I.; Dintrans, B.
2017-09-01
Context. Recent spectropolarimetric observations of otherwise ordinary (in terms e.g. of surface rotation and chemical properties) G, K, and M giants have revealed localized magnetic strips in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram coincident with the regions where the first dredge-up and core helium burning occur. Aims: We seek to understand the origin of magnetic fields in such late-type giant stars, which is currently unexplained. In analogy with late-type dwarf stars, we focus primarily on parameters known to influence the generation of magnetic fields in the outer convective envelope. Methods: We compute the classical dynamo parameters along the evolutionary tracks of low- and intermediate-mass stars at various metallicities using stellar models that have been extensively tested by spectroscopic and asteroseismic observations. Specifically, these include convective turnover timescales and convective Rossby numbers, computed from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or the early asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. To investigate the effects of the very extended outer convective envelope, we compute these parameters both for the entire convective envelope and locally, that is, at different depths within the envelope. We also compute the turnover timescales and corresponding Rossby numbers for the convective cores of intermediate-mass stars on the main sequence. Results: Our models show that the Rossby number of the convective envelope becomes lower than unity in the well-delimited locations of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where magnetic fields have indeed been detected. Conclusions: We show that α - Ω dynamo processes might not be continuously operating, but that they are favored in the stellar convective envelope at two specific moments along the evolution tracks, that is, during the first dredge-up at the base of the RGB and during central helium burning in the helium-burning phase and early-AGB. This general behavior can explain
Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...
Scale analysis of convective clouds
Micha Gryschka
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.
Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres
Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank
2011-01-01
We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.
Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch
Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Chapman, J.T.
1998-01-01
Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data
Two-dimensional turbulent convection
Mazzino, Andrea
2017-11-01
We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].
Thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model
Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg
2017-05-01
The combined effects of buoyancy-driven Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RC) and surface tension-driven Marangoni convection (MC) are studied in a triple-layer configuration which serves as a simplified model for a liquid metal battery (LMB). The three-layer model consists of a liquid metal alloy cathode, a molten salt separation layer, and a liquid metal anode at the top. Convection is triggered by the temperature gradient between the hot electrolyte and the colder electrodes, which is a consequence of the release of resistive heat during operation. We present a linear stability analysis of the state of pure thermal conduction in combination with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear turbulent evolution on the basis of a pseudospectral method. Five different modes of convection are identified in the configuration, which are partly coupled to each other: RC in the upper electrode, RC with internal heating in the molten salt layer, and MC at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode as well as anticonvection in the middle layer and lower electrode. The linear stability analysis confirms that the additional Marangoni effect in the present setup increases the growth rates of the linearly unstable modes, i.e., Marangoni and Rayleigh-Bénard instability act together in the molten salt layer. The critical Grashof and Marangoni numbers decrease with increasing middle layer thickness. The calculated thresholds for the onset of convection are found for realistic current densities of laboratory-sized LMBs. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated RC. The global turbulent momentum transfer is comparable with turbulent convection in the classical Rayleigh-Bénard case. In summary, our studies show that incorporating Marangoni effects generates smaller flow structures, alters the velocity magnitudes, and enhances the turbulent heat transfer across the triple-layer configuration.
Yang, Bernard; Young, Joelle; Brown, Laura; Wells, Mathew
2017-12-01
Detailed observations of thermal structure over an entire winter in a large lake reveal the presence of large (10-20 m) overturns under the ice, driven by diurnal solar heating. Convection can occur in the early winter, but the most vigorous convection occurred near the end of winter. Both periods are when our lake ice model suggest thinner ice that would have been transparent. This under-ice convection led to a deepening of the mixed layer over time, consistent with previous short-term studies. During periods of vigorous convection under the ice at the end of winter, the dissolved oxygen had become supersaturated from the surface to 23 m below the surface, suggesting abundant algal growth. Analysis of our high-frequency observations over the entire winter of 2015 using the Thorpe-scale method quantified the scale of mixing. Furthermore, it revealed that changes in oxygen concentrations are closely related to the intensity of mixing.
The effect of transitional particles driven by single wave
Qiu Yunqing; Xia Mengfen
1987-05-01
The unperturbed separatrix crossing driven by a single wave in a tokamak plasma is discussed. The separatrix crossing is followed by a mixing process, and a small-scale structure occurs in the distribution function in h-ψ plane. The separatrix crossing is a convective process in h-ψ plane, and there is a definite crossing channel. The convective flux and the net flux in h-direction are calculated. The separatrix crossing is accompanied by a radial flux, which is composed of a directional flux and a diffusion flux. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs
Benard convection in gaps and cavities
Mueller, U.
1981-04-01
The article contains two parts. In the first part a condensed review of the most striking phenomena in Benard convection in laterally confined fluid layers is given. In the second part recent experimental and theoretical work on Benard convection in gaps is presented an analysed. (orig.) [de
Convective mixing and accretion in white dwarfs
Koester, D.
1976-01-01
The evolution of convection zones in cooling white dwarfs with helium envelopes and outer hydrogen layers is calculated with a complete stellar evolution code. It is shown that white dwarfs of spectral type DB cannot be formed from DA stars by convective mixing. However, for cooler temperatures (Tsub(e) [de
Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems
Alexandersen, Joe
This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport...... in a surrounding uid, governed by a convection-diffusion equation, where the convective velocity field is found from solving the isothermal incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. Topology optimisation is also applied to steady-state natural convection problems. The modelling is done using stabilised...... finite elements, the formulation and implementation of which was done partly during a special course as prepatory work for this thesis. The formulation is extended with a Brinkman friction term in order to facilitate the topology optimisation of fluid flow and convective cooling problems. The derived...
Convective penetration in a young sun
Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group
2018-01-01
To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.
Numerical simulations of convectively excited gravity waves
Glatzmaier, G.A.
1983-01-01
Magneto-convection and gravity waves are numerically simulated with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent model of a stratified, rotating, spherical fluid shell heated from below. A Solar-like reference state is specified while global velocity, magnetic field, and thermodynamic perturbations are computed from the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations. Convective overshooting from the upper (superadiabatic) part of the shell excites gravity waves in the lower (subadiabatic) part. Due to differential rotation and Coriolis forces, convective cell patterns propagate eastward with a latitudinally dependent phase velocity. The structure of the excited wave motions in the stable region is more time-dependent than that of the convective motions above. The magnetic field tends to be concentrated over giant-cell downdrafts in the convective zone but is affected very little by the wave motion in the stable region
Pilon, Romain; Zhang, Chidong; Dudhia, Jimy
2016-09-01
The November event of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) during the Dynamics of North Atlantic Models (DYNAMO) field campaign was simulated using the global compressible nonhydrostatic Model for Prediction Across Scales with global coarse (60 and 15 km) and regional (the Indian Ocean) cloud-permitting (3 km) meshes. The purpose of this study is to compare roles of parameterized deep and shallow cumulus and microphysics in MJO simulations. Two cumulus schemes were used: Tiedtke and Grell-Freitas. The deep and shallow components of Tiedtke scheme can be turned on and off individually. The results reveal that microphysics alone (without cumulus parameterization) is able to produce strong signals of the MJO in precipitation with 3 km mesh and weak MJO signals with 15 km mesh. A shallow scheme (Tiedtke) along with microphysics strengthens the MJO signals but makes them less well organized on large scales. A deep cumulus scheme can either improve the large-scale organization of MJO precipitation produced by microphysics and shallow convection (Tiedtke) or impair them (Grell-Freitas). The deep scheme of Tiedtke cannot reproduce the MJO well without its shallow counterpart. The main role of shallow convection in the model is to transport moisture upward to the lower to middle troposphere. By doing so, it removes dry biases in the lower to middle troposphere, a distinct feature in simulations with weak or no MJO signals, and enhances total precipitation and diabatic heating produced by microphysics and deep cumulus schemes. Changing model grid spacing from 60 to 15 km makes a little difference in the model fidelity of reproducing the MJO. All roles of shallow convection in 15 km simulations with parameterized deep convection cannot be reproduced in 3 km simulations without parameterized deep convection. Results from this study suggest that we should pay more attention to the treatment of shallow convection and its connection to other parameterized processes for improving
Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses
P. E. Sandholt
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.
A numerical method for investigating crystal settling in convecting magma chambers
Verhoeven, J.; Schmalzl, J.
2009-12-01
Magma chambers can be considered as thermochemically driven convection systems. We present a new numerical method that describes the movement of crystallized minerals in terms of active spherical particles in a convecting magma that is represented by an infinite Prandtl number fluid. The main part focuses on the results we obtained. A finite volume thermochemical convection model for two and three dimensions and a discrete element method, which is used to model granular material, are combined. The new model is validated with floating experiments using particles of different densities and an investigation of single and multiparticle settling velocities. The resulting velocities are compared with theoretical predictions by Stokes's law and a hindered settling function for the multiparticle system. Two fundamental convection regimes are identified in the parameter space that is spanned by the Rayleigh number and the chemical Rayleigh number, which is a measure for the density of the particles. We define the T regime that is dominated by thermal convection. Here the thermal driving force is strong enough to keep all particles in suspension. As the particles get denser, they start settling to the ground, which results in a C regime. The C regime is characterized by the existence of a sediment layer with particle-rich material and a suspension layer with few particles. It is shown that the presence of particles can reduce the vigor of thermal convection. In the frame of a parameter study we discuss the change between the regimes that is systematically investigated. We show that the so-called TC transition fits a power law. Furthermore, we investigate the settling behavior of the particles in vigorous thermal convection, which can be linked to crystal settling in magma chambers. We develop an analytical settling law that describes the number of settled particles against time and show that the results fit the observations from numerical and laboratory experiments.
Huang, Zhu
2015-03-01
The periodic unsteady natural convection flow and heat transfer in a square enclosure containing a concentric circular cylinder is numerically studied. The temperature of the inner circular cylinder fluctuates periodically with time at higher averaged value while the temperature of the enclosure keeps lower constant, and the natural convection is driven by the temperature difference. The two-dimensional natural convection is simulated with high accuracy temporal spectral method and local radial basis functions method. The Rayleigh number is studied in the range 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, the temperature pulsating period ranges from 0.01 to 100 and the temperature pulsating amplitudes are a = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Numerical results reveal that the fluid flow and heat transfer is strongly dependent on the pulsating temperature of inner cylinder. Comparing with the steady state natural convection, the heat transfer is enhanced generally for the time-periodic unsteady natural convection, and the local maximum heat transfer rate is observed for Ra = 105 and 106. Moreover, the phenomenon of backward heat transfer is discussed quantitatively. Also, the influence of pulsating temperature on the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analyzed.
Assessing the role of slab rheology in coupled plate-mantle convection models
Bello, Léa; Coltice, Nicolas; Tackley, Paul J.; Dietmar Müller, R.; Cannon, John
2015-11-01
Reconstructing the 3D structure of the Earth's mantle has been a challenge for geodynamicists for about 40 yr. Although numerical models and computational capabilities have substantially progressed, parameterizations used for modeling convection forced by plate motions are far from being Earth-like. Among the set of parameters, rheology is fundamental because it defines in a non-linear way the dynamics of slabs and plumes, and the organization of lithosphere deformation. In this study, we evaluate the role of the temperature dependence of viscosity (variations up to 6 orders of magnitude) and the importance of pseudo-plasticity on reconstructing slab evolution in 3D spherical models of convection driven by plate history models. Pseudo-plasticity, which produces plate-like behavior in convection models, allows a consistent coupling between imposed plate motions and global convection, which is not possible with temperature-dependent viscosity alone. Using test case models, we show that increasing temperature dependence of viscosity enhances vertical and lateral coherence of slabs, but leads to unrealistic slab morphologies for large viscosity contrasts. Introducing pseudo-plasticity partially solves this issue, producing thin laterally and vertically more continuous slabs, and flat subduction where trench retreat is fast. We evaluate the differences between convection reconstructions employing different viscosity laws to be very large, and similar to the differences between two models with the same rheology but using two different plate histories or initial conditions.
Teamah, M.A. [Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Mech. Eng. Dept, Alexandria (Egypt); El-Maghlany, W.M. [Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)
2010-09-15
The present study is concerned with the mixed convection in a rectangular lid-driven cavity under the combined buoyancy effects of thermal and mass diffusion. Double-diffusive convective flow in a rectangular enclosure with moving upper surface is studied numerically. Both upper and lower surfaces are being insulated and impermeable. Constant different temperatures and concentration are imposed along the vertical walls of the enclosure, steady state laminar regime is considered. The transport equations for continuity, momentum, energy and spices transfer are solved. The numerical results are reported for the effect of Richardson number, Lewis number, and buoyancy ratio on the iso-contours of stream line, temperature, and concentration. In addition, the predicted results for both local and average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented and discussed for various parametric conditions. This study was done for 0.1 <= Le <= 50 and Prandtl number Pr = 0.7. Through out the study the Grashof number and aspect ratio are kept constant at 10{sup 4} and 2 respectively and -10 <= N <= 10, while Richardson number has been varied from 0.01 to 10 to simulate forced convection dominated flow, mixed convection and natural convection dominated flow. (authors)
Actively convected liquid metal divertor
Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi
2014-01-01
The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)
Getzin, B. L.; Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Gattacceca, J.
2016-12-01
Chondritic meteorites are traditionally assumed to originate from undifferentiated asteroids due to their unmelted texture and composition. This implies that their parent bodies should not have formed a core or generated a dynamo. However, recent measurements of the H chondrite Portales Valley (Bryson et al., this meeting) observed post-accretional remanent magnetization interpreted as a record of a core dynamo, indicating that some chondrite parent bodies were partially differentiated. However, it has been proposed that the H chondrites may have been magnetized instead by a crustal remanent field. If this crustal magnetization was imparted by an early external source, such as nebular fields or even the solar wind, then the magnetization of H chondrites may not require a core dynamo. To test this hypothesis, we measured the magnetic properties of the Forest Vale H4 ordinary chondrite. Forest Vale cooled quickly (10000 K/My) and so would have acquired magnetization that represents the bulk of the H chondrite parent body's crust during the first 10 My of the solar system. Based on alternating field and pressure demagnetization experiments of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization, we conclude that Forest Vale contains no ancient magnetization and, due to its poor intrinsic magnetic recording properties, is unable to acquire a magnetization that is stable against even weak shocks (0.2 GPa). Furthermore, we show that a crust composed of Forest-Vale-like material magnetized by the upper limit field intensities expected for the nebula and solar wind fields (50 μT and 1 μT, respectively) produces an insufficient crustal remanent field (<2.5 μT and <0.045 μT, respectively) to explain the paleointensity recorded by Portales Valley ( 10 μT). Thus, we conclude that the field that magnetization Portales Valley is unlikely to be from a crustal remanence magnetized by early external fields, favoring a partially differentiated asteroid
de Paor, A. M.
Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998) has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ɛ has the value 1 is proved via the Popov theorem from feedback system stability theory.
A. M. de Paor
1998-01-01
International audience; Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998) has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ? has the value 1 is proved via ...
Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2016-03-01
Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, β _0^mid = p_gas / p_B. For 10^5 ≥ β _0^mid ≥ 10 the effective α-viscosity parameter scales as a power law. Dynamo activity persists up to and including β _0^mid = 10^2, at which point the entire vertical column of the disc is magnetic pressure dominated. Still stronger fields result in a highly inhomogeneous disc structure, with large density fluctuations. We show that the turbulent steady state βmid in our simulations is well matched by the analytic model of Begelman et al. describing the creation and buoyant escape of toroidal field, while the vertical structure of the disc can be broadly reproduced using this model. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for observed properties of X-ray binaries.
Kensek, K. M.
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM). A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study...
A thermodynamically general theory for convective vortices
Renno, Nilton O.
2008-08-01
Convective vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject higher-entropy-energy to space. These vortices range from small to large-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective vortices is important to our understanding of some of the basic features of planetary atmospheres. The heat engine framework is a useful tool for studying convective vortices. However, current theories assume that convective vortices are reversible heat engines. Since there are questions about how reversible real atmospheric heat engines are, their usefulness for studying real atmospheric vortices is somewhat controversial. In order to reduce this problem, a theory for convective vortices that includes irreversible processes is proposed. The paper's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines that includes the effects of irreversible processes. It is shown that a simplified version of this expression is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. It is speculated that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also sheds light on other basic features of convective vortices such as their physical appearance.
Boundary Layer Control of Rotating Convection Systems
King, E. M.; Stellmach, S.; Noir, J.; Hansen, U.; Aurnou, J. M.
2008-12-01
Rotating convection is ubiquitous in the natural universe, and is likely responsible for planetary processes such magnetic field generation. Rapidly rotating convection is typically organized by the Coriolis force into tall, thin, coherent convection columns which are aligned with the axis of rotation. This organizational effect of rotation is thought to be responsible for the strength and structure of magnetic fields generated by convecting planetary interiors. As thermal forcing is increased, the relative influence of rotation weakens, and fully three-dimensional convection can exist. It has long been assumed that rotational effects will dominate convection dynamics when the ratio of buoyancy to the Coriolis force, the convective Rossby number, Roc, is less than unity. We investigate the influence of rotation on turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection via a suite of coupled laboratory and numerical experiments over a broad parameter range: Rayleigh number, 10310; Ekman number, 10-6≤ E ≤ ∞; and Prandtl number, 1≤ Pr ≤ 100. In particular, we measure heat transfer (as characterized by the Nusselt number, Nu) as a function of the Rayleigh number for several different Ekman and Prandtl numbers. Two distinct heat transfer scaling regimes are identified: non-rotating style heat transfer, Nu ~ Ra2/7, and quasigeostrophic style heat transfer, Nu~ Ra6/5. The transition between the non-rotating regime and the rotationally dominant regime is described as a function of the Ekman number, E. We show that the regime transition depends not on the global force balance Roc, but on the relative thicknesses of the thermal and Ekman boundary layers. The transition scaling provides a predictive criterion for the applicability of convection models to natural systems such as Earth's core.
Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.
2017-12-01
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Large-scale convection fueling the MJO is initiated over the tropical Indian Ocean and propagates eastward across the Maritime Continent (MC) and into the western Pacific. Observational studies have shown that near 40-50% of the MJO events cannot pass through the MC, which is known as the MC barrier effect. Previous studies have also shown a strong diurnal cycle of convection over the islands and coastal seas, with an afternoon precipitation maximum over land and high terrain, and an early morning maximum over water and mountain valley areas. As an eastward-propagating MJO convective event passes over the MC, its nature may be altered due to the complex interaction with the large Islands and topography. In turn, the passage of an MJO event modulates local conditions over the MC. The diurnal cycle of convection over the MC and its modulation by the MJO are not well understood and poorly represented in global numerical prediction models. This study aims to improve our understanding of how the diurnal cycle of convection and the presence of islands of the MC affect the eastward propagation of the MJO over the region. To this end, we use the Unified Wave Interface-Coupled Model (UWIN-CM) in its fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration at a convection-permitting (4 km) resolution over the region. The control simulation is from the MJO event that occurred in November-December 2011, and has been verified against the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign observations, TRMM precipitation, and reanalysis products. To investigate the effects of the tropical islands on the MJO, we conduct two additional numerical experiments, one with preserved island shape but flattened topography, and one where islands are replaced by water. The difference in the diurnal cycle and convective organization among these experiments will provide some insights on the origin of the MC
Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans
Raymond, David
2017-04-01
Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and
Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP
Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-10-19
The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.
Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP
Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard
2015-01-01
The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.
Localized traveling pulses in natural doubly diffusive convection
Lo Jacono, D.; Bergeon, A.; Knobloch, E.
2017-09-01
Two-dimensional natural doubly diffusive convection in a vertical slot driven by an imposed temperature difference in the horizontal is studied using numerical continuation and direct numerical simulation. Two cases are considered and compared. In the first a concentration difference that balances thermal buoyancy is imposed in the horizontal and stationary localized structures are found to be organized in a standard snakes-and-ladders bifurcation diagram. Disconnected branches of traveling pulses TPn consisting of n ,n =1 ,2 ,⋯ , corotating cells are identified and shown to accumulate on a tertiary branch of traveling waves. With Robin or mixed concentration boundary conditions on one wall all localized states travel and the hitherto stationary localized states may connect up with the traveling pulses. The stability of the TPn states is determined and unstable TPn shown to evolve into spatio-temporal chaos. The calculations are done with no-slip boundary conditions in the horizontal and periodic boundary conditions in the vertical.
Convective instabilities in liquid centrifugation for nuclear wastes separation
Camassa, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)
1995-10-01
The separation of fission products from liquid solutions using centrifugal forces may prove an effective alternative to chemical processing in cases where radioactive materials necessitate minimal mixed-waste products or when allowing access to sophisticated chemical processing is undesirable. This investigation is a part of the effort to establish the feasibility of using liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste separation in the Accelerator Driven Energy Production (ADEP) program. A number of fundatmental issues in liquid centrifugation with radioactive elements need to be addressed in order to validate the approach and provide design criteria for experimental liquid salt (LiF and BeF{sub 2}) centrifuge. The author concentrates on one such issue, the possible onset of convective instabilities which could inhibit separation.
Convection in Cool Stars, as Seen Through Kepler's Eyes
Bastien, Fabienne A.
2015-01-01
Stellar surface processes represent a fundamental limit to the detection of extrasolar planets with the currently most heavily-used techniques. As such, considerable effort has gone into trying to mitigate the impact of these processes on planet detection, with most studies focusing on magnetic spots. Meanwhile, high-precision photometric planet surveys like CoRoT and Kepler have unveiled a wide variety of stellar variability at previously inaccessible levels. We demonstrate that these newly revealed variations are not solely magnetically driven but also trace surface convection through light curve ``flicker.'' We show that ``flicker'' not only yields a simple measurement of surface gravity with a precision of ˜0.1 dex, but it may also improve our knowledge of planet properties, enhance radial velocity planet detection and discovery, and provide new insights into stellar evolution.
Soluto-capillary convection in micro-encapsulation
Subramanian, P.; Zebib, A.
2005-01-01
Spherical shells used as laser targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments are made by micro-encapsulation. In one phase of manufacturing, the spherical shells contain a solvent (fluoro-benzene, FB) and a solute (polystyrene, PAMS) in a water-FB environment. Evaporation of the FB results in the desired hardened plastic hollow spherical shells, 1-2 mm in diameter. Perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition and the observed surface roughness maybe driven by Marangoni instabilities due to surface tension dependence on the FB concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this micro-scale problem). Here we model this drying process and compute nonlinear, time-dependent, axisymmetric, variable viscosity, infinite Schmidt number soluto-capillary convection in the shells. Comparison with results from linear theory and available experiments are made. (authors)
Adjoint optimization of natural convection problems: differentially heated cavity
Saglietti, Clio; Schlatter, Philipp; Monokrousos, Antonios; Henningson, Dan S.
2017-12-01
Optimization of natural convection-driven flows may provide significant improvements to the performance of cooling devices, but a theoretical investigation of such flows has been rarely done. The present paper illustrates an efficient gradient-based optimization method for analyzing such systems. We consider numerically the natural convection-driven flow in a differentially heated cavity with three Prandtl numbers (Pr=0.15{-}7) at super-critical conditions. All results and implementations were done with the spectral element code Nek5000. The flow is analyzed using linear direct and adjoint computations about a nonlinear base flow, extracting in particular optimal initial conditions using power iteration and the solution of the full adjoint direct eigenproblem. The cost function for both temperature and velocity is based on the kinetic energy and the concept of entransy, which yields a quadratic functional. Results are presented as a function of Prandtl number, time horizons and weights between kinetic energy and entransy. In particular, it is shown that the maximum transient growth is achieved at time horizons on the order of 5 time units for all cases, whereas for larger time horizons the adjoint mode is recovered as optimal initial condition. For smaller time horizons, the influence of the weights leads either to a concentric temperature distribution or to an initial condition pattern that opposes the mean shear and grows according to the Orr mechanism. For specific cases, it could also been shown that the computation of optimal initial conditions leads to a degenerate problem, with a potential loss of symmetry. In these situations, it turns out that any initial condition lying in a specific span of the eigenfunctions will yield exactly the same transient amplification. As a consequence, the power iteration converges very slowly and fails to extract all possible optimal initial conditions. According to the authors' knowledge, this behavior is illustrated here for
Convection in complex shaped vessel; Convection dans des enceintes de forme complexe
NONE
2000-07-01
The 8 november 2000, the SFT (Societe Francaise de Thermique) organized a technical day on the convection in complex shaped vessels. Nine papers have been presented in the domains of the heat transfers, the natural convection, the fluid distribution, the thermosyphon effect, the steam flow in a sterilization cycle and the transformers cooling. Eight papers are analyzed in ETDE and one paper dealing with the natural convection in spent fuels depository is analyzed in INIS. (A.L.B.)
Convective Radio Occultations Final Campaign Summary
Biondi, R. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)
2016-03-01
Deep convective systems are destructive weather phenomena that annually cause many deaths and injuries as well as much damage, thereby accounting for major economic losses in several countries. The number and intensity of such phenomena have increased over the last decades in some areas of the globe. Damage is mostly caused by strong winds and heavy rain parameters that are strongly connected to the structure of the particular storm. Convection over land is usually stronger and deeper than over the ocean and some convective systems, known as supercells, also develop tornadoes through processes that remain mostly unclear. The intensity forecast and monitoring of convective systems is one of the major challenges for meteorology because in situ measurements during extreme events are too sparse or unreliable and most ongoing satellite missions do not provide suitable time/space coverage.
Ignition in Convective-Diffusive Systems
Law, Chung
1999-01-01
... efficiency as well as the knock and emission characteristics. The ignition event is clearly controlled by the chemical reactions of fuel oxidation and the fluid mechanics of convective and diffusive transport...
Understanding and controlling plasmon-induced convection
Roxworthy, Brian J.; Bhuiya, Abdul M.; Vanka, Surya P.; Toussaint, Kimani C.
2014-01-01
The heat generation and fluid convection induced by plasmonic nanostructures is attractive for optofluidic applications. However, previously published theoretical studies predict only nanometre per second fluid velocities that are inadequate for microscale mass transport. Here we show both theoretically and experimentally that an array of plasmonic nanoantennas coupled to an optically absorptive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate can generate >micrometre per second fluid convection. Crucially, the ITO distributes thermal energy created by the nanoantennas generating an order of magnitude increase in convection velocities compared with nanoantennas on a SiO2 base layer. In addition, the plasmonic array alters absorption in the ITO, causing a deviation from Beer-Lambert absorption that results in an optimum ITO thickness for a given system. This work elucidates the role of convection in plasmonic optical trapping and particle assembly, and opens up new avenues for controlling fluid and mass transport on the micro- and nanoscale.
What favors convective aggregation and why?
Muller, Caroline; Bony, Sandrine
2015-07-01
The organization of convection is ubiquitous, but its physical understanding remains limited. One particular type of organization is the spatial self-aggregation of convection, taking the form of cloud clusters, or tropical cyclones in the presence of rotation. We show that several physical processes can give rise to self-aggregation and highlight the key features responsible for it, using idealized simulations. Longwave radiative feedbacks yield a "radiative aggregation." In that case, sufficient spatial variability of radiative cooling rates yields a low-level circulation, which induces the upgradient energy transport and radiative-convective instability. Not only do vertically integrated radiative budgets matter but the vertical profile of cooling is also crucial. Convective aggregation is facilitated when downdrafts below clouds are weak ("moisture-memory aggregation"), and this is sufficient to trigger aggregation in the absence of longwave radiative feedbacks. These results shed some light on the sensitivity of self-aggregation to various parameters, including resolution or domain size.
Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake
Zhilin, A. A.
2017-10-01
The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.
Dynamos in asymptotic-giant-branch stars as the origin of magnetic fields shaping planetary nebulae.
Blackman, E G; Frank, A; Markiel, J A; Thomas, J H; Van Horn, H M
2001-01-25
Planetary nebulae are thought to be formed when a slow wind from the progenitor giant star is overtaken by a subsequent fast wind generated as the star enters its white dwarf stage. A shock forms near the boundary between the winds, creating the relatively dense shell characteristic of a planetary nebula. A spherically symmetric wind will produce a spherically symmetric shell, yet over half of known planetary nebulae are not spherical; rather, they are elliptical or bipolar in shape. A magnetic field could launch and collimate a bipolar outflow, but the origin of such a field has hitherto been unclear, and some previous work has even suggested that a field could not be generated. Here we show that an asymptotic-giant-branch (AGB) star can indeed generate a strong magnetic field, having as its origin a dynamo at the interface between the rapidly rotating core and the more slowly rotating envelope of the star. The fields are strong enough to shape the bipolar outflows that produce the observed bipolar planetary nebulae. Magnetic braking of the stellar core during this process may also explain the puzzlingly slow rotation of most white dwarf stars.
The Nature of Grand Minima and Maxima from Fully Nonlinear Flux Transport Dynamos
Inceoglu, Fadil; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Rempel, Matthias, E-mail: finceoglu@aip.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)
2017-10-20
We aim to investigate the nature and occurrence characteristics of grand solar minimum and maximum periods, which are observed in the solar proxy records such as {sup 10}Be and {sup 14}C, using a fully nonlinear Babcock–Leighton type flux transport dynamo including momentum and entropy equations. The differential rotation and meridional circulation are generated from the effect of turbulent Reynolds stress and are subjected to back-reaction from the magnetic field. To generate grand minimum- and maximum-like periods in our simulations, we used random fluctuations in the angular momentum transport process, namely the Λ-mechanism, and in the Babcock–Leighton mechanism. To characterize the nature and occurrences of the identified grand minima and maxima in our simulations, we used the waiting time distribution analyses, which reflect whether the underlying distribution arises from a random or a memory-bearing process. The results show that, in the majority of the cases, the distributions of grand minima and maxima reveal that the nature of these events originates from memoryless processes. We also found that in our simulations the meridional circulation speed tends to be smaller during grand maximum, while it is faster during grand minimum periods. The radial differential rotation tends to be larger during grand maxima, while it is smaller during grand minima. The latitudinal differential rotation, on the other hand, is found to be larger during grand minima.
Magnetorotational instability and dynamo action in gravito-turbulent astrophysical discs
Riols, A.; Latter, H.
2018-02-01
Though usually treated in isolation, the magnetorotational and gravitational instabilities (MRI and GI) may coincide at certain radii and evolutionary stages of protoplanetary discs and active galactic nuclei. Their mutual interactions could profoundly influence several important processes, such as accretion variability and outbursts, fragmentation and disc truncation, or large-scale magnetic field production. Direct numerical simulations of both instabilities are computationally challenging and remain relatively unexplored. In this paper, we aim to redress this neglect via a set of 3D vertically stratified shearing-box simulations, combining self-gravity and magnetic fields. We show that gravito-turbulence greatly weakens the zero-net-flux MRI. In the limit of efficient cooling (and thus enhanced GI), the MRI is completely suppressed, and yet strong magnetic fields are sustained by the gravito-turbulence. This turbulent `spiral wave' dynamo may have widespread application, especially in galactic discs. Finally, we present preliminary work showing that a strong net-vertical-flux revives the MRI and supports a magnetically dominated state in which the GI is secondary.
Sudden transitions and grand variations in the solar dynamo, past and future☆
De Jager Cornelis
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The solar dynamo is the exotic dance of the sun’s two major magnetic field components, the poloidal and the toroidal, interacting in anti-phase. On the basis of new data on the geomagnetic aa index, we improve our previous forecast of the properties of the current Schwabe cycle #24. Its maximum will occur in 2013.5 and the maximum sunspot number Rmax will then be 62 ± 12, which is within the bounds of our earlier forecasts. The subsequent analysis, based on a phase diagram, which is a diagram showing the relation between maximum sunspot numbers and minimum geomagnetic aa index values leads to the conclusion that a new Grand Episode in solar activity has started in 2008. From the study of the natural oscillations in the sunspot number time series, as found by an analysis based on suitable wavelet base functions, we predict that this Grand Episode will be of the Regular Oscillations type, which is the kind of oscillations that also occurred between 1724 and 1924. Previous expectations of a Grand (Maunder-type Minimum of solar activity cannot be supported. We stress the significance of the Hallstatt periodicity for determining the character of the forthcoming Grand Episodes. No Grand Minimum is expected to occur during the millennium that has just started.
Onset of density-driven instabilities in fractured aquifers
Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Hassanzadeh, Hassan
2018-04-01
Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of density-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of C O2 in fractured aquifers. The effect of physical properties of a fracture network on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in a saturated fractured porous media is investigated using the dual porosity concept. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in fractured porous media with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable. We present scaling relations for the onset of convective instability in fractured aquifers with single and variable matrix block size distribution. These findings improve our understanding of density-driven flow in fractured aquifers and are important in the estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage site characterization and screening.
Hide, Raymond; Moroz, Irene M.
1999-10-01
The elucidation of the behaviour of physically realistic self-exciting Faraday-disk dynamos bears inter alia on attempts by theoretical geophysicists to interpret observations of geomagnetic polarity reversals. Hide [The nonlinear differential equations governing a hierarchy of self-exciting coupled Faraday-disk homopolar dynamos, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 103 (1997) 281-291; Nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 4 (1998) 201-205] has introduced a novel 4-mode set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations to describe such a dynamo in which a nonlinear electric motor is connected in series with the coil. The applied couple, α, driving the disk is steady and the Lorentz couple driving the motor is a quadratic function, x(1-ɛ)+ɛσx 2, of the dynamo-generated current x, with 0≤ɛ≤1. When there are no additional biasing effects due to background magnetic fields etc., the behaviour of the dynamo is determined by eight independent non-negative control parameters. These include ρ, proportional to the resistance of the disk to azimuthal eddy currents, and β, an inverse measure of the moment of inertia of the armature of the motor. When β=0 (the case when the motor is absent and ɛ and σ are redundant) and ρ -1≠0 , the 4-mode dynamo equations reduce to the 3-mode Lorenz equations, which can behave chaotically [E. Knobloch, Chaos in the segmented disc dynamo, Phys. Lett. A 82 (1981) 439-440]. When β≠0 but ρ -1=0 , the 4-mode set of equations reduces to a 3-mode dynamo [R. Hide (1997), see above], which can also behave chaotically when ɛ=0 [R. Hide, A.C. Skeldon, D.J. Acheson, A study of two novel self-exciting single-disk homopolar dynamos: theory, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 452 (1996) 1369-1395] but not when ɛ=1 [R. Hide (1998), see above]. In the latter case, however, all persistent fluctuations are completely quenched [R. Hide (1998), see above]. In this paper we investigate
CONVECTION IN CONDENSIBLE-RICH ATMOSPHERES
Ding, F. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: fding@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)
2016-05-01
Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO{sub 2} is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.
D. A. Belikov
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A modified cumulus convection parametrisation scheme is presented. This scheme computes the mass of air transported upward in a cumulus cell using conservation of moisture and a detailed distribution of convective precipitation provided by a reanalysis dataset. The representation of vertical transport within the scheme includes entrainment and detrainment processes in convective updrafts and downdrafts. Output from the proposed parametrisation scheme is employed in the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES global chemical transport model driven by JRA-25/JCDAS reanalysis. The simulated convective precipitation rate and mass fluxes are compared with observations and reanalysis data. A simulation of the short-lived tracer ^{222}Rn is used to further evaluate the performance of the cumulus convection scheme. Simulated distributions of ^{222}Rn are evaluated against observations at the surface and in the free troposphere, and compared with output from models that participated in the TransCom-CH_{4} Transport Model Intercomparison. From this comparison, we demonstrate that the proposed convective scheme in general is consistent with observed and modeled results.
Large-eddy simulation of maritime deep tropical convection
Peter A Bogenschutz
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This study represents an attempt to apply Large-Eddy Simulation (LES resolution to simulate deep tropical convection in near equilibrium for 24 hours over an area of about 205 x 205 km2, which is comparable to that of a typical horizontal grid cell in a global climate model. The simulation is driven by large-scale thermodynamic tendencies derived from mean conditions during the GATE Phase III field experiment. The LES uses 2048 x 2048 x 256 grid points with horizontal grid spacing of 100 m and vertical grid spacing ranging from 50 m in the boundary layer to 100 m in the free troposphere. The simulation reaches a near equilibrium deep convection regime in 12 hours. The simulated vertical cloud distribution exhibits a trimodal vertical distribution of deep, middle and shallow clouds similar to that often observed in Tropics. A sensitivity experiment in which cold pools are suppressed by switching off the evaporation of precipitation results in much lower amounts of shallow and congestus clouds. Unlike the benchmark LES where the new deep clouds tend to appear along the edges of spreading cold pools, the deep clouds in the no-cold-pool experiment tend to reappear at the sites of the previous deep clouds and tend to be surrounded by extensive areas of sporadic shallow clouds. The vertical velocity statistics of updraft and downdraft cores below 6 km height are compared to aircraft observations made during GATE. The comparison shows generally good agreement, and strongly suggests that the LES simulation can be used as a benchmark to represent the dynamics of tropical deep convection on scales ranging from large turbulent eddies to mesoscale convective systems. The effect of horizontal grid resolution is examined by running the same case with progressively larger grid sizes of 200, 400, 800, and 1600 m. These runs show a reasonable agreement with the benchmark LES in statistics such as convective available potential energy, convective inhibition
Vertical natural convection: application of the unifying theory of thermal convection
Ng, C.S.; Ooi, A.; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, D.
2015-01-01
Results from direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection at Rayleigh numbers 1.0×10 5 –1.0×10 9 and Prandtl number 0.709 support a generalised applicability of the Grossmann–Lohse (GL) theory, which was originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh–Bénard) convection. In
A Decade-Long European-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation on GPUs
Leutwyler, D.; Fuhrer, O.; Ban, N.; Lapillonne, X.; Lüthi, D.; Schar, C.
2016-12-01
Convection-resolving models have proven to be very useful tools in numerical weather prediction and in climate research. However, due to their extremely demanding computational requirements, they have so far been limited to short simulations and/or small computational domains. Innovations in the supercomputing domain have led to new supercomputer designs that involve conventional multi-core CPUs and accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs). One of the first atmospheric models that has been fully ported to GPUs is the Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling weather and climate model COSMO. This new version allows us to expand the size of the simulation domain to areas spanning continents and the time period up to one decade. We present results from a decade-long, convection-resolving climate simulation over Europe using the GPU-enabled COSMO version on a computational domain with 1536x1536x60 gridpoints. The simulation is driven by the ERA-interim reanalysis. The results illustrate how the approach allows for the representation of interactions between synoptic-scale and meso-scale atmospheric circulations at scales ranging from 1000 to 10 km. We discuss some of the advantages and prospects from using GPUs, and focus on the performance of the convection-resolving modeling approach on the European scale. Specifically we investigate the organization of convective clouds and on validate hourly rainfall distributions with various high-resolution data sets.
Wells, A.; Langton, T.; Rees Jones, D. W.; Moon, W.; Kim, J. H.; Wilkinson, J.
2016-12-01
Melt ponds have key impacts on the evolution of Arctic sea ice and summer ice melt. Small changes to the energy budget can have significant consequences, with a net heat-flux perturbation of only a few Watts per square metre sufficient to explain the thinning of sea ice over recent decades. Whilst parameterisations of melt-pond thermodynamics often assume that pond temperatures remain close to the freezing point, recent in-situ observations show more complex thermal structure with significant diurnal and synoptic variability. We here consider the energy budget of melt ponds and explore the role of internal convective heat transfer in determining the thermal structure within the pond in relatively calm conditions with low winds. We quantify the energy fluxes and temperature variability using two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of convective turbulence within a melt pond, driven by internal radiative heating and surface fluxes. Our results show that the convective flow dynamics are modulated by changes to the incoming radiative flux and sensible heat flux at the pond surface. The evolving pond surface temperature controls the outgoing longwave emissions from the pond. Hence the convective flow modifies the net energy balance of a melt pond, modulating the relative fractions of the incoming heat flux that is re-emitted to the atmosphere or transferred downward into the sea ice to drive melt.
Numerical modelling of convective heat transport by air flow in permafrost talus slopes
J. Wicky
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Talus slopes are a widespread geomorphic feature in the Alps. Due to their high porosity a gravity-driven internal air circulation can be established which is forced by the gradient between external (air and internal (talus temperature. The thermal regime is different from the surrounding environment, leading to the occurrence of permafrost below the typical permafrost zone. This phenomenon has mainly been analysed by field studies and only few explicit numerical modelling studies exist. Numerical simulations of permafrost sometimes use parameterisations for the effects of convection but mostly neglect the influence of convective heat transfer in air on the thermal regime. In contrast, in civil engineering many studies have been carried out to investigate the thermal behaviour of blocky layers and to improve their passive cooling effect. The present study further develops and applies these concepts to model heat transfer in air flows in a natural-scale talus slope. Modelling results show that convective heat transfer has the potential to develop a significant temperature difference between the lower and the upper parts of the talus slope. A seasonally alternating chimney-effect type of circulation develops. Modelling results also show that this convective heat transfer leads to the formation of a cold reservoir in the lower part of the talus slope, which can be crucial for maintaining the frozen ground conditions despite increasing air temperatures caused by climate change.
Kulacki, F.A.; Emara, A.A.
1976-06-01
An experimental study of the transient response of a horizontal fluid layer subjected to a step change in internal energy generation has been conducted to determine the time scales for the development and decay of natural convection driven solely by the internal heat release. The layer is bounded from above by a rigid, constant temperature surface and from below by a rigid, insulated surface. Two types of unsteady convection processes are considered. In the first, the layer is brought to a motionless, isothermal state, and internal energy generation is suddenly started. In the second, steady natural convection is the initial state, and internal energy generation is suddenly stopped. For both cases, the time required for the development of the final steady state is determined by measuring the temperature response of the fluid with a small thermocouple probe. The time required for the development of the maximum temperature difference in the layer with internal generation and the time required for the complete decay of the maximum temperature difference of steady convection at a given Rayleigh number when internal energy generation is suddenly stopped are correlated with the Rayleigh number in equations which will find general application in PAHR problems in nuclear power reactors and particularly in the analysis of the small-time thermal response of in-vessel and ex-vessel molten core retention devices
Belucz, Bernadett; Dikpati, Mausumi
2013-01-01
Solar cycles in the north and south hemispheres differ in cycle length, amplitude, profile, polar fields, and coronal structure. To show what role differences in meridional flow could play in producing these differences, we present the results of three sets of numerical simulations from a flux transport dynamo in which one property of meridional circulation has been changed in the south only. The changes are in amplitude and the presence of a second cell in latitude or in depth. An ascending phase speedup causes weakening of polar and toroidal fields; a speed decrease in a late descending phase does not change amplitudes. A long-duration speed increase leads to lower toroidal field peaks but unchanged polar field peaks. A second high-latitude circulation cell in an ascending phase weakens the next polar and toroidal field peaks, and the ascending phase is lengthened. A second cell in a late descending phase speeds up the cycle. A long-duration second cell leads to a poleward branch of the butterfly diagram and weaker polar fields. A second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing, decreasing polar fields when added during an ascending phase and increasing them during a late descending phase. A long-duration presence of a second cell in radius evolves the butterfly diagram far away from the observed one, with different dynamo periods in low and high latitudes. Thus, a second cell in depth is unlikely to persist more than a few years if the solar dynamo is advection-dominated. Our results show the importance of time variation and north-south asymmetry in meridional circulation in producing differing cycles in the north and south.
Belucz, Bernadett [Eötvös University, Department of Astronomy, 1518 Budapest, Pf. 32 (Hungary); Dikpati, Mausumi [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)
2013-12-10
Solar cycles in the north and south hemispheres differ in cycle length, amplitude, profile, polar fields, and coronal structure. To show what role differences in meridional flow could play in producing these differences, we present the results of three sets of numerical simulations from a flux transport dynamo in which one property of meridional circulation has been changed in the south only. The changes are in amplitude and the presence of a second cell in latitude or in depth. An ascending phase speedup causes weakening of polar and toroidal fields; a speed decrease in a late descending phase does not change amplitudes. A long-duration speed increase leads to lower toroidal field peaks but unchanged polar field peaks. A second high-latitude circulation cell in an ascending phase weakens the next polar and toroidal field peaks, and the ascending phase is lengthened. A second cell in a late descending phase speeds up the cycle. A long-duration second cell leads to a poleward branch of the butterfly diagram and weaker polar fields. A second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing, decreasing polar fields when added during an ascending phase and increasing them during a late descending phase. A long-duration presence of a second cell in radius evolves the butterfly diagram far away from the observed one, with different dynamo periods in low and high latitudes. Thus, a second cell in depth is unlikely to persist more than a few years if the solar dynamo is advection-dominated. Our results show the importance of time variation and north-south asymmetry in meridional circulation in producing differing cycles in the north and south.
Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor
Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan
2012-11-01
It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.
Chassefiere, E.; Nagy, A.; Mandea, M.
2004-01-01
DYNAMO is a small multi-instrument payload aimed at characterizing current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly constrained, and improving gravity and magnetic field representations, in order to better understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars. The internal structure...... of periapsis 170 km), and in a lesser extent 2a, offers an unprecedented opportunity to investigate by in situ probing the chemical and dynamical properties of the deep ionosphere, thermosphere, and the interaction between the atmosphere and the solar wind, and therefore the present atmospheric escape rate...
1985-07-05
The magnitude of the large-scale direct-current earth potential was measured on a section of a recently laid transatlantic telecommunications cable. Analysis of the data acquired on the 4476-kilometer cable yielded a mean direct-current potential drop of less than about 0.072 +/- 0.050 millivolts per kilometer. Interpreted in terms of a generation of the potential by the earth's geodynamo, such a small value of the mean potential implies that the toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields of the dynamo are approximately equal at the core-mantle boundary.
Colgate, Stirling A.; Beckley, Howard; Si, Jiahe; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David; Slutz, James; Westrom, Cebastian; Klein, Brianna; Schendel, Paul; Scharle, Cletus; McKinney, Travis; Ginanni, Rocky; Bentley, Ian; Mickey, Timothy; Ferrel, Regnar; Li, Hui; Pariev, Vladimir; Finn, John
2011-01-01
The Ω phase of the liquid sodium α-Ω dynamo experiment at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated a high toroidal field B φ that is ≅8xB r , where B r is the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by the rotational shear in stable Couette flow within liquid sodium at a magnetic Reynolds number Rm≅120. Small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette flow is caused by Ekman flow at the end walls, which causes an estimated turbulence energy fraction of (δv/v) 2 ∼10 -3 .
Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.
1986-01-01
Using the dynamo theory method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.
Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.
1984-01-01
Using the 'dynamo theory' method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.
A. M. de Paor
1998-01-01
Full Text Available Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998 has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ε has the value 1 is proved via the Popov theorem from feedback system stability theory.
Solutal convection induced by dissolution. Influence on erosion dynamics and interface shaping.
Berhanu, Michael; Philippi, Julien; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain
2017-04-01
dissolution patterns can be related to the characteristic of the convective flow. C. Oltéan, F. Golfier and M.A. Buès, Numerical and experimental investigation of buoyancy-driven dissolution in vertical fracture, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118(5), 2038-2048 (2013) C. Cohen, M. Berhanu, J. Derr and S. Courrech du Pont, Erosion patterns on dissolving and melting bodies (2015 Gallery of Fluid motion), Phys. Rev. Fluids, 1, 050508 (2016) T. S. Sullivan, Y. Liu, and R. E. Ecke, Turbulent solutal convection and surface patterning in solid dissolution, Phys. Rev. E 54, 486 (1996)
Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs
Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.
1979-01-01
The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion
Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Mitrovica, J. X.
2011-12-01
The enigmatic origin of large-magnitude earthquakes far from active plate boundaries, especially those occurring in so-called "stable" continental interiors, is a source of continuing controversy that has eluded a satisfactory explanation using past geophysical models of intraplate deformation and faulting. One outstanding case of such major intraplate earthquakes is the 1811-1812 series of events in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). We contend that the origin of some of these enigmatic intraplate events is due to regional variations in the pattern of tectonic stress generated by mantle convective flow acting on the overlying lithosphere and crust. Mantle convection affects the entire surface of the planet, irrespective of the current configuration of surface plate boundaries. In addition, it must be appreciated that plate tectonics is not a 2-D process, because the convective flow that drives the observed horizontal motions of the tectonic plates also drives vertical displacements of the crust across distances as great as 2 to 3 km. This dynamic topography is directly correlated with convection-driven stress field variations in the crust and lithosphere and these stresses can be locally focussed if the mantle rheology below the lithosphere is characterised by sufficiently low viscosities. We have developed global models of convection-driven mantle flow [Forte et al. 2009,2010] that are based on recent high-resolution 3-D tomography models derived from joint inversions of seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data [Simmons et al. 2007,2008,2010]. These tomography-based mantle convection models also include a full suite of surface geodynamic (postglacial rebound and convection) constraints on the depth-dependent average viscosity of the mantle [Mitrovica & Forte 2004]. Our latest tomography-based and geodynamically-constrained convection calculations reveal that mantle flow under the central US are driven by density anomalies within the lower mantle associated
Uncertainty associated with convective wet removal of entrained aerosols in a global climate model
B. Croft
2012-11-01
scheme since nearly all entrained accumulation and coarse mode aerosols are assumed to be cloud-droplet borne or ice-crystal borne, and evaporation due to the Bergeron-Findeisen process is neglected.
The simulated convective wet scavenging of entrained accumulation and coarse mode aerosols has feedbacks on new particle formation and the number of Aitken mode aerosols, which control stratiform and convective cloud droplet number concentrations and yield precipitation changes in the ECHAM5-HAM model. However, the geographic distribution of aerosol annual mean convective wet deposition change in the model is driven by changes to the assumptions regarding the scavenging of aerosols entrained above cloud bases rather than by precipitation changes, except for sea salt deposition in the tropics. Uncertainty in the seasonal, regional cycles of AOD due to assumptions about entrained aerosol wet scavenging is similar in magnitude to the estimated error in the AOD retrievals.
The uncertainty in aerosol concentrations, burdens, and AOD attributed to different assumptions for the wet scavenging of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases in a global model motivates the ongoing need to better understand and model the activation and impaction processes that aerosols undergo after entrainment into convective updrafts.
Uncertainty associated with convective wet removal of entrained aerosols in a global climate model
Croft, B.; Pierce, J. R.; Martin, R. V.; Hoose, C.; Lohmann, U.
2012-11-01
entrained accumulation and coarse mode aerosols are assumed to be cloud-droplet borne or ice-crystal borne, and evaporation due to the Bergeron-Findeisen process is neglected. The simulated convective wet scavenging of entrained accumulation and coarse mode aerosols has feedbacks on new particle formation and the number of Aitken mode aerosols, which control stratiform and convective cloud droplet number concentrations and yield precipitation changes in the ECHAM5-HAM model. However, the geographic distribution of aerosol annual mean convective wet deposition change in the model is driven by changes to the assumptions regarding the scavenging of aerosols entrained above cloud bases rather than by precipitation changes, except for sea salt deposition in the tropics. Uncertainty in the seasonal, regional cycles of AOD due to assumptions about entrained aerosol wet scavenging is similar in magnitude to the estimated error in the AOD retrievals. The uncertainty in aerosol concentrations, burdens, and AOD attributed to different assumptions for the wet scavenging of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases in a global model motivates the ongoing need to better understand and model the activation and impaction processes that aerosols undergo after entrainment into convective updrafts.
Slow convection of a magnetized plasma and the earth plasma sheet
Hruska, A.
1980-01-01
Stationary convection of an isotropic, infinitely conducting plasma in a magnetic field with non-trivial geometry is discussed under the assumption that the inertial term in the equation of motion may be ignored. The energy gained or lost by a volume element of plasma per unit time does not vary along the field-lines. Simple relations between the components of the current density, depending on the field-line geometry, exist. Similar relations hold for the components of the plasma velocity. The theoretical analysis is applied to the geomagnetically-quiet plasma sheet and a qualitative physical picture of the sheet is suggested. The observed structure of the sheet is compatible with Axford-Hines type of convection perhaps combined with a low-speed flow from a distant neutral point. The magnetic-field-aligned currents are driven by the deformations of the closed field-lines which are enforced by the solar wind. (orig.)
Numerical investigation on natural convection and solidification of molten pool with OpenFOAM
Wang Xi; Meng Zhaocan; Cheng Xu
2015-01-01
The in-vessel retention is adopted by the third generation nuclear power technology as an important severe accident mitigation strategy. The integrity of reactor pressure vessel depends on the heat flux distribution of molten pool. In present study, the solidification model in open source CFD software OpenFOAM was applied to simulate solidification and natural convection which was driven by internal heat source or temperature difference. The stratified molten pool heat transfer experiment carried out by Royal Institute of Technology was analyzed in the paper, and the solidified crust, temperature and heat flux distributions were obtained. The simulation results were compared with experimental data. It is shown that this numerical method can be used in the simulation of natural convection and solidification of molten pool, and it will probably be used in the analysis of molten corium behavior in reactor lower head. (authors)