Sotelo, Luz; Lee, Donghee; Jung, Sunghwan; Ryu, Sangjin
Vorticella convallaria is a stalked ciliate observed in the sessile form (trophont) or swimming form (telotroch). Trophonts are mainly composed of an inverted bell-shaped cell body generating vortical feeding currents, and a slender stalk attaching the cell body to a substrate. If the surrounding environment is no longer suitable, the trophont transforms into a telotroch by elongating its cell body into a cylindrical shape, resorbing its oral cilia and producing an aboral cilia wreath. After a series of contractions, the telotroch will completely detach from the stalk and swim away to find a better location. While sessile Vorticella has been widely studied because of its stalk contraction and usefulness in waste treatment, Vorticella's swimming has not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study is to describe V. convallaria's swimming modes, both in its trophont and telotroch forms, in different confined geometries. Using video microscopy, we observed Vorticellae swimming in semi-infinite field, in Hele-Shaw configurations, and in capillary tubes. Based on measured swimming displacement and velocity, we investigated how V. convallaria's mobility was affected by the geometry constrictions. We acknolwedge support from the First Award grant of Nebraska EPSCoR.
Kantha, Deependra; van Winkle, David
The contraction of Vorticella convallaria was triggered by applying a voltage pulse in its host culturing medium. The 50V, 1ms wide pulse was applied across platinum wires separated by 0.7 cm on a microscope slide. The contractions were recorded as cines (image sequences) by a Phantom V5 camera (Vision Research) on a bright field microscope with 20X objective, with the image size of 256 pixels x 128 pixels at 7352 pictures per second. The starting time of the cines was synchronized with the starting of the electrical pulse. We recorded five contractions of each of 12 organisms. The cines were analyzed to obtain the initiation time, defined as the difference in time between the leading edge of the electrical pulse and the first frame showing zooid movement. From multiple contractions of same organism, we found the initiation time is reproducible. In comparing different organisms, we found the average initiation time of 1.73 ms with a standard deviation of 0.63 ms. This research is supported by the state of Florida (MARTECH) and Research Corporation.
Chung, Eun-Gul; Ryu, Sangjin
Vorticella convallaria is a sessile stalked ciliate living in water, and its stalk coils to move the cell body (zooid) towards its residence substrate at a maximum speed of ~ 50 mm/s. Our previous microfluidics study shows that the isometric tension of the V. convallaria stalk is linearly proportional to the stalk length. Based on this observation, we hypothesize that the contractility of V. convallaria during normal contraction is also dependent on the stalk length. To investigate our hypothesis, we measured the contraction speed of V. convallaria using high-speed videography and evaluated the contractile force and energetics of V. convallaria using fluid dynamics modeling. We appreciate support from UNL Layman Seed Grant and Nebraska EPSCoR First Award Grant.
Application of a mechanical stimulus to the cell body of the peritrich ciliate Vorticella convallaria evoked an all-or-nothing membrane depolarization, the large pulse. This was always accompanied by an all-or-nothing cellular contraction, and simultaneous recordings of the two events revealed that the large pulse was always preceded by the cellular contraction. A smaller graded membrane depolarization (the medium pulse) was sometimes produced in response to a weaker mechanical stimulus. The medium pulse was accompanied by a small, graded, localized contraction of the cell body and was occasionally followed by a large pulse. When a large pulse occurred during a medium pulse, it reached the same peak level as that of a large pulse evoked without a preceding medium pulse. When a medium pulse occurred during a medium pulse, summation of the two pulses was observed. Sustained contraction causes V. convallaria to become rounded, and in this state a mechanical stimulus stronger than that used to evoke the large pulse evoked a graded depolarizing mechanoreceptor potential in the cell. We conclude that both the large and medium pulses are caused by an inward receptor current that is activated mechanically following contraction of the cell body. A localized contraction evokes a small mechanoreceptor current, causing a medium pulse. An all-or-nothing contraction evokes a saturated, all-or-nothing mechanoreceptor current, causing a large pulse.
Ryu, Sangjin; Lang, Matthew J.; Matsudaira, Paul
The millisecond stalk contraction of the sessile ciliate Vorticella convallaria is powered by energy from Ca2+ binding to generate contractile forces of ∼10 nN. Its contractile organelle, the spasmoneme, generates higher contractile force under increased stall resistances. By applying viscous drag force to contracting V. convallaria in a microfluidic channel, we observed that the mechanical force and work of the spasmoneme depended on the stalk length, i.e., the maximum tension (150–350 nN) a...
Sartory, D.P.; Lloyd, B.J.
The presence of large amounts of heavy metals in sewages may cause sever disruption of the biologica1processes involved in sewage treatment, and thus a decline in the quality of the effluent produced. Unadapted populations of Vorticella convallaria var similis, a sessile peritrich protozoan found abundantly in healthy rivers, activated sludge, percolating filters and slow sand filters, were subjected to a range of concentrations of three common pollutant metals. It was found that these populations were killed by concentrations of, and above, 0.0005 mg/l of the free metal ion of either lead or mercury. Colonies were also killed by concentrations of, and above, 0.075 mg/l of the free metal ion of zinc. 12 hr 50% lethal doses were calculated, and for V. convallaria var similis were found to be 0.0036 mg/l. for lead, 0.005 mg/l for mercury and 0.29 mg/l for zinc.
Ryu, Sangjin; Lang, Matthew J; Matsudaira, Paul
The millisecond stalk contraction of the sessile ciliate Vorticella convallaria is powered by energy from Ca(2+) binding to generate contractile forces of ∼10 nN. Its contractile organelle, the spasmoneme, generates higher contractile force under increased stall resistances. By applying viscous drag force to contracting V. convallaria in a microfluidic channel, we observed that the mechanical force and work of the spasmoneme depended on the stalk length, i.e., the maximum tension (150-350 nN) and work linearly depended on the stalk length (∼2.5 nN and ∼30 fJ per 1 μm of the stalk). This stalk-length dependency suggests that motor units of the spasmoneme may be organized in such a way that the mechanical force and work of each unit cumulate in series along the spasmoneme.
Mancuso, Adrian P; Groves, Matthew R; Polozhentsev, Oleg E; Williams, Garth J; McNulty, Ian; Antony, Claude; Santarella-Mellwig, Rachel; Soldatov, Aleksander V; Lamzin, Victor; Peele, Andrew G; Nugent, Keith A; Vartanyants, Ivan A
We have applied Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging (FCDI) to image an intact pollen grain from Convallaria majalis. This approach allows us to resolve internal structures without the requirement to chemically treat or slice the sample into thin sections. Coherent X-ray diffraction data from this p
Moriyama, Y; Yasuda, K; Ishiwata, S; Asai, H
We have developed a method of measuring the isometric tension in glycerinated stalks of Vorticella convallaria. Using this method, we measured tension vs. pCa relations in glycerinated V. convallaria stalks. The maximum isometric tension was 4 x 10(-8) N on average. The Hill's parameter, n, which is the number of calcium ions bound simultaneously and cooperatively to a contractile element (a force generating element), is approximately 3.2 when the Ca2+ concentration is increased and 2.5 when it is decreased. In order to estimate the efficiency of the energy conversion of Ca2+ binding to mechanical work, we measured the Ca(2+)-induced Carnot cycle in the Vorticella stalk. The energy efficiency was tentatively estimated to be about 7%. With this method, we have also succeeded in measuring the isometric tension of isolated spasmoneme, the rubber-like contractile fibrous organelle in the stalk. The maximum tension of spasmoneme was approximately one tenth that of the glycerinated stalk. We speculate that the isolated spasmoneme was only partially functional due to damage sustained when it was pulled out of the stalk.
Sallaq, R.; van Winkle, D. H.; Cao, J.
The contractile avoidance response of the single cell vorticella convallaria is one of the fastest motions in a biological system. Previous studies of this system have been limited by the difficulty in setting up high speed camera and triggering equipment to capture the contraction, occurring over several milliseconds. Using a CMOS camera, which can continuously record and store 64x256 pel images at rep rate up to 13 kHz into 500 MB of on-board memory (Vision Research, In.-Phantom), we are able to capture the spontaneous fast contraction of the vorticella in real time. By measuring the stalk length vs. time from these recorded images , the contraction velocity and acceleration vs. time plots are determined. Using estimates of mass the contractile forces exerted by the stalk are found to be on the order of 10-10N. In addition , significant variations in all measured quantities are observed even for the same organism.
Kantha, Deependra; van Winkle, David
The contraction of the stalk of Vorticella Convallaria behaves as one of the most powerful single cell biological engines.Contractions in three different viscous mediums were recorded by a PhantomV5 camera (Vision Research) on a bright field microscope with 20X objective. The contractions were recorded as cines (image sequences) with the image resolution of 256 pixels X 128 pixels at 7000 pictures per second. The maximum variation in maximum velocity of one organism was 5.2 cm/s and the minimum variation for a different organism was 0.4 cm/s for the same viscous medium. It occurred at 2-3ms after the start of contraction. The force of contraction and the force constant were calculated as a function of the time to see the effect of viscosity on the contraction of the stalk. This experiment needs further investigation to see the net effect of viscosity on the contraction of the stalk.
Sotelo, Luz; Davidson, John; Park, Young-Gil; Jung, Sunghwan; Ryu, Sangjin
In the trophont form Vorticella convallariais a sessile stalked ciliate, which consists of an inverted bell-shaped cell body (zooid) and a slender stalk attaching the zooid to a substrate. Under mechanical shearing, the zooid is separated from the stalk and can swim using circular cilia rows around the oral part. Here we present how the stalkless trophont zooid of V. convallariaswims in Hele-Shaw geometries, as a model system for microorganism swimming. After having harvested stalkless zooids, we observed their swimming in water between two glass surfaces with narrow gaps using video microscopy. Based on their swimming trajectories measured with image analysis, we investigated how the swimming pattern of the trophont zooid of V. convallaria was influenced by the constraints. Supported by Nebraska EPSCoR First Award Grant for SR and UTPA URI Award for YP.
Zhou, Jiazhong; Admiraal, David; Ryu, Sangjin
Vorticella convallaria is a genus of protozoa living in freshwater. Its stalk contracts and coil pulling the cell body towards the substrate at a remarkable speed, and then relaxes to its extended state much more slowly than the contraction. However, the reason for Vorticella's stalk contraction is still unknown. It is presumed that water flow induced by the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle may augment mass transfer near the substrate. We investigated this hypothesis using an experimental model with particle tracking velocimetry and a computational fluid dynamics model. In both approaches, Vorticella was modeled as a solid sphere translating perpendicular to a solid surface in water. After having been validated by the experimental model and verified by grid convergence index test, the computational model simulated water flow during the cycle based on the measured time course of stalk length changes of Vorticella. Based on the simulated flow field, we calculated trajectories of particles near the model Vorticella, and then evaluated the mass transfer effect of Vorticella's stalk contraction based on the particles' motion. We acknowlege support from Laymann Seed Grant of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Ryu, Sangjin; Matsudaira, Paul
Vorticella convallaria, a sessile peritrich having a body and spring-like stalk, is a model for a bioinspired actuator because of its remarkably fast (msec) and powerful contractions (nN). An example of a biological spring, the stalk converts biochemical energy to physical motion, but the mechanics of contraction are poorly understood. To evaluate contraction force, past models have assumed the body to be a sphere moving in quiescent water and have equated contraction force to drag force on the body described by Stokes' law. However, flow induced by contracting Vorticella does not satisfy conditions of Stokes' law because the flow is unsteady (Womersley number > 1) and bound with a solid substrate to which the cell is tethered. We develop a more rigorous model for contraction force evaluation by assuming the body to be a sphere unsteadily moving perpendicularly toward a solid surface. The model comprises quasi-steady drag force, added mass force and history force with wall effect correction terms for each force. Vorticella not only generates a maximum contraction force greater than Stokes' drag, but it also experiences drag force in the direction of contraction in the later stage of contraction due to the memory effect of water.
Bras, Rafael; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Ortiz, Christine
The rod-like, contractile stalk (25-300 micron length, 4 micron diameter) of the single-celled peritrich Vorticella Convallaria can collapse into a tightly coiled helix in > 1/60 second. The stalk consists of membranes stiffened by an assembly of protein bundles (batonets) surrounding the spasmoneme, an asymmetrically located bundle of negatively charged polyelectrolytic spasmin protein. It is thought that contraction results from the entropic collapse of spasmin via Ca2+ screening of electrostatic repulsion. After culturing, an aqueous solution containing detached cells was filtered and placed on freshly cleaved mica substrates to dry in air for 30min. The samples were imaged via contact mode atomic force microscopy. The following was clearly visualized; the helicity of the stalk, the spasmonene (1.3-2.4 micron diameter), batonets (230-300nm), the outer stalk membrane morphology, and organelles in the stalk. The circular stalk "foot" (2.8 micron diameter) where the organism attached itself to substrates was also imaged, which may be the biological "glue" used for surface attachment.
Full Text Available This paper presents the structure of developmental stages and the age structure of Convallaria majalis L. populations. The investigation material consisted of individuals and modules from populations in Betulo-Quercetum, Fago-Quercetum, Melico-Fagetum and Tilio-Carpinetum, in which the leaves and inflorescence of C. majalis were cut annually over a period of three years. Fifty percent of the C. majalis regional population consisted of mature modules, 20% of juvenile modules, 25% of senile modules and a very small percentage of generative modules. In populations of Fago-Quercetum there are four times more senile modules than juvenile modules, while in Melico-Fagetum the percentage of juvenile modules is four times more numerous than the percentage of senile modules. The average age of modules is 4.7±3.8 years. Three year old individuals dominate in the population, while 10 year or older individuals are very rare. In the population disturbed by the three raw material collections, the percentage of juvenile modules was decreased by 50% and the percentage of generative modules was nonexistent. As a result, the average module age is higher than in the undisturbed population. Cutting leaves and inflorescence is an important factor in limiting the recruitment of juvenile modules. The growth of individuals in the disturbed population occurs among older modules, which were able to reproduce before the disturbance occurred. Young individuals (three to four years old are less numerous in the disturbed population, and the majority of individuals are three to six years old.
Itabashi, Takeshi; Mikami, Kazuyuki; Fang, Jie; Asai, Hiroshi
Vorticellid ciliates generally dwell in freshwater. In nature, the species have up until now been identified by comparison with previous descriptions. It is difficult to identify between species of the genus Vorticella, because the morphological markers of vorticellid ciliates described in reports are limited and variable. Unfortunately, culturing them has only succeeded with certain species such as Vorticella convallaria, but many others have been impossible to culture. To find out whether the sequence of a small subunit rRNA gene was an appropriate marker to identify vorticellid ciliates, the gene was aligned and compared. Finding a new convenient method will contribute to research on vorticellid ciliates. In strains of V. convallaria, classified morphologically, some varieties of the SSrRNA gene sequences were recognized, but there were large variations within the same species. According to the phylogenetic tree, these strains are closely related. However, the difference was not as big as between Vorticella and Carchesium. In addition, Carchesium constructed a distinct clade from the genus Vorticella and Epistylis. These results show the possibility that the SSrRNA gene is one of the important markers to identify species of Vorticella. This study is first to approach and clarify the complicated taxa in the genus Vorticella.
Maciejewski, J J; Vacchiano, E J; McCutcheon, S M; Buhse, H E
The stalked, ciliated protozoan Vorticella convallaria possesses a highly contractile cytoskeleton consisting of spasmonemes and myonemes. The major component of these contractile organelles is the calcium-binding protein(s) called spasmin. Cloning and characterization of spasmin would help elucidate this contractile system. Therefore, enriched spasmoneme protein preparations from these contractile stalks were used to produce a monoclonal antibody to spasmin. A monoclonal antibody, 1F5, was obtained that immunolocalized specifically to the spasmonemes and the myonemes and recognized a 20-kD calcium-binding protein in spasmoneme protein preparations. A putative spasmin cDNA was obtained from a V. convallaria cDNA library and the derived amino acid sequence of this cDNA revealed an acidic, 20-kD protein with calcium-binding helix-loop-helix domains. The physical properties of the putative spasmin were assessed by characterization of a recombinantly-produced spasmin protein. The recombinant spasmin protein was shown to bind calcium using calcium gel-shift assays and was recognized by the anti-spasmin antibody. Therefore, a V. convallaria spasmin was cloned and shown to be a member of the EF-hand superfamily of calcium-binding proteins.
Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus
The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.
施心路; 王文敬; 刘桂杰; 彭晓辉
Full Text Available ope platyphylla GN=matK P... 30 4.9 sp|Q9TNB1|MATK_CONMJ Maturase K OS=Convallaria majali...FLYPLLFQEYIYALAHNHGL---NGSIFYEPVEVFGYDNKSSLVLVKRLITRIYQQNFLI 74 >sp|Q9TNB1|MATK_CONMJ Maturase K OS=Convallaria majali
Nagai, Moeto; ASAI, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroyuki
We have studied the contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria and its mechanical properties with a microfluidic loading system. Cells of V. convallaria were injected to a microfluidic channel (500 μm in width and 100 μm in height) and loaded by flow up to ∼350 mm s−1. The flow produced a drag force on the order of nanonewton on a typical vorticellid cell body. We gradually increased the loading force on the same V. convallaria specimen and examined its mechanical property and stalk ...
Nagai, Moeto; Asai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroyuki
We have studied the contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria and its mechanical properties with a microfluidic loading system. Cells of V. convallaria were injected to a microfluidic channel (500 μm in width and 100 μm in height) and loaded by flow up to ∼350 mm s(-1). The flow produced a drag force on the order of nanonewton on a typical vorticellid cell body. We gradually increased the loading force on the same V. convallaria specimen and examined its mechanical property and stalk motion of V. convallaria. With greater drag forces, the contraction distance linearly decreased; the contracted length was close to around 90% of the stretched length. We estimated the drag force on Vorticella in the channel by calculating the force on a sphere in a linear shear flow.
Nagai, Moeto; Ryu, Sangjin; Thorsen, Todd; Matsudaira, Paul; Fujita, Hiroyuki
In this report, we demonstrate a microfluidic platform to control the stalk contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria by changing concentration of Ca2+ with pneumatically-actuated elastomeric microvalves. Habitation, extraction and control of V. convallaria were carried out in a PDMS-based microfluidic device. By treating the cells with the permeant saponin, external actuation of cell-anchoring stalk between an extended and contracted state was achieved by cyclic exposure of the cells to a Ca2+ buffer (10(-6) M) and a rinse buffer containing EGTA as a chelation agent. When solutions were switched, the stalk contracted and extended responding to the ambient Ca2+ concentration change. The length of the stalk changed between 20 and 60 microm, resulting in a working distance of about 40 microm.
Li, Yi-Di; Chen, Ying; Wang, Li; Yao, Lin; Pan, Xu-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong
This study for the first time confirmed that eight dominating protozoan species, Cryptomonas erosa, Euglena axyuris, Euglena caudate, Euglena gasterosteus, Euglena acus, Vorticella campanula, Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis lacustris, were the pollution tolerant species at chemical oxygen demand 54-104mg/L. These species cannot be used as indicator for clean water quality as commonly believed. The protozoa can be actively participating in the energy transfer chain between nano-planktonic and higher plants in polluted wetlands.
N. V. Gerasimyuk
Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.
Foissner, Wilhelm; Blake, Natalie; Wolf, Klaus; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Stoeck, Thorsten
Using standard methods, we studied the morphology and 18S rDNA sequence of some peritrich ciliates from tank bromeliads of Costa Rica, Jamaica, and Ecuador. The new genus Orborhabdostyla differs from Rhabdostyla by the discoidal macronucleus. Two species from the literature and a new species from Ecuadoran tank bromeliads are combined with the new genus: O. previpes (Claparède and Lachmann, 1857) nov. comb., O. kahli (Nenninger, 1948) nov. comb., and O. bromelicola nov. spec. Orborhabdostyla bromelicola is a slender species with stalk-like narrowed posterior half and operculariid/epistylidid oral apparatus. An epistylidid relationship is also suggested by the gene sequence. Vorticella gracilis, described by Dujardin (1841) from French freshwater, belongs to the V. convallaria complex but differs by the yellowish colour and the number of silverlines. The classification as a distinct species is supported by the 18S rDNA, which differs nearly 10% from that of V. convallaria s. str. Based on the new data, especially the very stable yellowish colour, we neotypify V. gracilis with the Austrian population studied by Foissner (1979). Vorticella gracilis forms a strongly supported phyloclade together with V. campanula, V. fusca and V. convallaria, while Vorticellides astyliformis and Vorticella microstoma branch in a separate, fully-supported clade that includes Astylozoon and Opisthonecta. The new genus Vorticellides comprises five small (usually < 60 μm), barrel-shaped species with two epistomial membranes: V. aquadulcis (Stokes, 1887) nov. comb., V. astyliformis (Foissner, 1981) nov. comb., V. platysoma (Stokes, 1887) nov. comb., V. infusionum (Dujardin, 1841) nov. comb., and V. (Spinivorticellides) echini (King, 1931) nov. comb. Two of these species are redescribed in the present study: V. astyliformis and V. aquadulcis, which is neotypified with a Costa Rican population. Pseudovorticella bromelicola nov. spec. differs from the congeners by the location of the two
Asai, H; Ochiai, T; Fukui, K; Watanabe, M; Kano, F
An improved method for the preparation of glycerinated Vorticella convallaria was investigated. The pretreatment of living vorticellas with a medium containing 0.1% saponins and subsequent treatment with an extraction medium containing 35% glycerol at about 0 degrees C was satisfactory. The equilibrium average length of contractile stalks of glycerinated vorticellas was measured at various free calcium concentrations in the reaction medium. It was found that the contractile element in the spasmoneme of the stalk is contracted by a cooperative interaction involving at least two calcium ions.
France, Danielle; Tejada, Jonathan; Matsudaira, Paul
The ciliated protozoan Vorticella convallaria is noted for its exceptionally fast adenosine triphosphate-independent cellular contraction, but direct measurements of contractile force have proven difficult given the length scale, speed, and forces involved. We used high-speed video microscopy to image live Vorticella stalled in midcontraction by deflection of an attached micropipette. Stall forces correlate with both distance contracted and the resting stalk length. Estimated isometric forces range from 95 to 177 nanonewtons (nN), or 1.12 nN·μm(-1) of the stalk. Maximum velocity and work are also proportional to distance contracted. These parameters constrain proposed biochemical/physical models of the contractile mechanism.
Full Text Available Background: Antioxidant compounds are widely used in health protection. Homoeopathic mother tinctures are commonly prescribed for prevention and cure of many illnesses. Objective: The present study focused to determine the antioxidant potential of six commonly prescribed mother tinctures. i.e. Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was estimated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH inhibition assay. A volume of 0.1 mM solution of DPPH was used while mother tinctures (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl volumes were used for estimating antioxidant activity. Quercetin was taken as a standard control in antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent assay. Total phenolic content of mother tinctures was measured in comparison to gallic acid. Results: Results of the study showed the significant antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content of all tested mother tinctures in the following order: Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Conclusion: Antioxidant potential of mother tinctures is related to total phenolic content present in them, and their role in prevention and cure of diseases may link through their antioxidant activity. Among six selected mother tinctures, S. jambolanum has highest antioxidant potential.
Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint
The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species ( Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.
Dzyubak, S N; Dzyubak, O P; Sorokin, P V; Popov, V F; Orlov, A A; Krasnov, V P; Gubin, Yu.I.
As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We have presented new results of the transfer of Cs-137 from contaminated Digitalis grandiflora Mill. and Convallaria majalis L. to medicine. We found that the extraction of Cs-137 depends strongly on the hydrophilicity of the solvent. For example 96.5%(vol.) ethyl alcohol extracts less Cs-137 (11.6%) than 40%(vol.) ethyl alcohol or pure water (66.2%). The solubility of the cardiac glycosides is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicine.
2014年3~5月,利用PFU法对汉中市兴元湖水中纤毛虫群落进行调查,从3个采样点共观察到56种纤毛虫,隶属1门,3纲,11目,32属。优势种为纵长板壳虫(Coleps elonqatus)、钝漫游虫(Litonotus obtusus)、钩刺斜管虫(Chilodonella uncinata)、珍珠映毛虫(Cinetochilum margaritaceum)、沟钟虫(Vorti-cella convallaria)、尾瘦尾虫(Uroleptus candatus)、伪尖毛虫(Oxyticha fallax)、阔口游仆虫(Euplotes eurys-tomus)。通过计算水体纤毛虫的多样性指数,大小关系为3号采样点﹤1号采样点﹤2号采样点。水质评价结果,1号采样点属于β-中污型,2号采样点属于寡污型,3号采样点属于a-中污型。%The investigation on ciliates community and water quality assessment in Xingyuan Lake was carried out from April to May in 2014. Fifty-six species belonging to three classes of eleven orders of thirty genuses are discovered from three test sites. The dominant spices were Coleps elonqatus, Litonotus obtusus, Chilodonella uncinata, Cinetochilum margaritaceum, Vorticella convallaria, Uroleptus candatus, Oxyticha fallax and Euplotes eurystomus. Using species diversity index to assess water quality of Xingyuan Lake, the results showed that site one belonged to β-mesosaprobic zone; site two belonged to oligosaprobic zone; and site three belonged to a-mesosaprobic zone.
Müllenbroich, M. Caroline; McGhee, Ewan J.; Wright, Amanda J.; Anderson, Kurt I.; Mathieson, Keith
Nonlinear microscopy is capable of imaging biological tissue non-invasively with sub-cellular resolution in three dimensions. For efficient multiphoton signal generation, it is necessary to focus high power, ultra-fast laser pulses into a volume of femtolitres. Aberrations introduced either by the system's optical setup or the sample under investigation cause a broadening of the diffraction limited focal spot which leads to loss of image intensity and resolution. Adaptive optics provides a means to compensate for these aberrations and is capable of restoring resolution and signal strength when imaging at depth. We describe the use of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable membrane mirror in a multiphoton adaptive microscope. The aberration correction is determined in a wavefront sensorless approach by rapidly altering the mirror shape with a random search algorithm until the fluorescence or second harmonic signal intensity is improved. We demonstrate the benefits of wavefront correction in a wide-variety of samples, including urea crystals, convallaria and organotypic tissue cultures. We show how the optimization algorithm can be adjusted, for example by including a bleaching compensation, to allow the user to switch between different imaging modalities, producing a versatile approach to aberration correction.
Saboon; Yamin Bibi; Muhammad Arshad; Sidra Sabir; Muhammad Shoaib Amjad; Ejaz Ahmed; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari
Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn.) All. syn.Convallaria verticillata Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the temperate Himalaya at the elevations 2 400 to 2 800 m. It is a perennial rhizomatous herb and contains various pharmacologically important secondary metabolites among which the most important areα-bulnesene, linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic, pentacosane, piperitone, docasane, diosgenin, santonin and calarene. It also possesses antimalarial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, diuretic, tracheorelaxant, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial and bronchodilator activities. The plant also got importance in traditional systems of medicine due to its broad therapeutic potential especially of its rhizome. But in the past few years, over exploitation of plant parts caused the decline in the frequency of this species due to which it became threatened, endangered and vulnerable in different parts of the world. So efforts are being made in certain regions of the world for bothex-situ and in-situ conservation. This paper briefly reviewed the botanical, traditional, phytochemical, pharmacological and conservation related aspects of this plant.
Full Text Available Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn. All. syn. Convallaria verticillata Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the temperate Himalaya at the elevations 2400 to 2800 m. It is a perennial rhizomatous herb and contains various pharmacologically important secondary metabolites among which the most important are α-bulnesene, linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic, pentacosane, piperitone, docasane, diosgenin, santonin and calarene. It also possesses antimalarial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, diuretic, tracheorelaxant, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial and bronchodilator activities. The plant also got importance in traditional systems of medicine due to its broad therapeutic potential especially of its rhizome. But in the past few years, over exploitation of plant parts caused the decline in the frequency of this species due to which it became threatened, endangered and vulnerable in different parts of the world. So efforts are being made in certain regions of the world for both ex-situ and in-situ conservation. This paper briefly reviewed the botanical, traditional, phytochemical, pharmacological and conservation related aspects of this plant.
Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copăcel hill, between Băla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Pawł species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copăcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.
Skliar V. G.
Full Text Available We summarized information on association of small undergrowth of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. and English oak (Quercus robur L. under the canopy of the forest with plants that form the grass-shrub layer within Novgorod-Severskoye Polesye. We founded that the association at certain extent depends on the type of population behavior of undergrowth and grasses. Small undergrowth of A. platanoides being the tolerant species according to the type of population behavior demonstrates negative association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. The pattern of association of A. platanoides with tolerant species depends on their vegetative mobility: the maple has positive association with species with no vegetative mobility and positive and negative association with species characterized by high extent of vegetative mobility. The undergrowth of Q. robur which is the competitive species due to population behavior shows positive association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. We estimated the coenotic parameters that are required for successful resumption of maple and oak in the region of research. We also shown that coenotic optimum for A. platanoides corresponds to the environment with weak intensity of competition in the living soil cover with thin grass layer and density of coverage does not exceed 50%. Q. robur has coenotic optimum among habitats in the herbaceous layer with domination of green moss and (or Convallaria majalis L., Fragaria vesca L. with no grains and density of coverage in living ground cover not more than 60%.
Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.
Sk Sarif Hassan; Pabitra Pal Choudhury; Amita Pal; R L Brahmachary; Arunava Goswami
Ligands for only two human olfactory receptors are known. One of them, OR1D2, binds to Bourgeonal, a volatile chemical constituent of the fragrance of the mythical flower, Lily of the valley or Our Lady’s tears, Convallaria majalis (also the national flower of Finland). OR1D2, OR1D4 and OR1D5 are three full-length olfactory receptors present in an olfactory locus in the human genome. These receptors are more than 80% identical in DNA sequences and have 108 base pair mismatches among them. Apparently, these mismatch positions show no striking pattern using computer pattern recognition tools. In an attempt to find a mathematical rule in those mismatches, we find that an L-system generated sequence can be inserted into the OR1D2 subfamily-specific star model and novel full-length olfactory receptors can be generated. This remarkable mathematical principle could be utilized for making new subfamily olfactory receptor members from any olfactory receptor subfamily. The aroma and electronic nose industry might utilize this rule in future.
Kantha, Deependra; van Winkle, David
The contraction of the stalk of Vorticella Convallaria was studied in media with different concentrations of calcium ion solution. Seven solutions were prepared by adding different amounts of CaCl2 in the range of 0.001M to 0.004M in 0.005M EGTA, 0.1M KCl and 0.02M MOPS. The pH values of the solutions were maintained between 6.7 and 6.9. The contractions were recorded as cines (image sequences) by a Phantom V5 camera (Vision Research) on a bright field microscope with 20X objective, with the image resolution of 256 x 128 pixels at 7000 pictures per second. The change in length of stalk as a function of time was analyzed to compute velocity, acceleration, force and force coefficient. The apparent force coefficient increases linearly with time until the whole stalk is contracting. Considering time dependence of force coefficient, the contracting length is modeled as: [ L(t)=L02[ ( 1+CA )( -C+A2mt )+( 1-CA )( -C-A2mt ) ] ] Where L0 is initial contractile length, C=6πηr, A=√C^2-4mK(t) , η is coefficient of viscosity, m is mass and r is radius of zooid.
Clamp, John C; Williams, Daniel
The gene coding for 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in seven free-living, marine species of the sessiline peritrich genus Zoothamnium. These were Zoothamnium niveum, Zoothamnium alternans, Zoothamnium pelagicum, and four unidentified species. The ssu rRNA gene also was sequenced in Vorticella convallaria, Vorticella microstoma, and in an unidentified, freshwater species of Vorticella. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using these new sequences to test a previously published phylogenetic association between Zoothamnium arbuscula, currently in the family Zoothamniidae, and peritrichs in the family Vorticellidae. Trees constructed by means of neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods all had similar topologies. The seven new sequences of Zoothamnium species grouped into three well-supported clades, each of which contained a diversity of morphological types. The three clades formed a poorly supported, larger clade that was deeply divergent from Z. arbuscula, which remained more closely associated with vorticellid peritrichs. It is apparent that Zoothamnium is a richly diverse genus and that a much more intensive investigation, involving both morphological and molecular data and a wider selection of species, will be necessary to resolve its phylogeny. A greater amount of molecular diversity than is predicted by morphological data exists within all major clades of sessiline peritrichs that have been included in molecular phylogenies, indicating that characteristics of stalk and peristomial structure traditionally used to differentiate taxa at the generic level and above may not be uniformly reliable.
Misra, Gaurav; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Tony
Vorticella Convallaria is one of a class of fast-moving organisms, traversing its body size in less than a millisecond. It has two main parts, the cell body and a stalk, which attaches the cell body to the substrate. The stalk houses a slender, elastic structure called Spasmoneme, which winds helically inside the stalk and generates a strong tensile force in response to Calcium signaling. We are developing numerical simulations of the collapsing stalk to quantify the magnitude and time scale of the force generation. We have coupled a Kirchhoff model of an elastic rod (representing the stalk) with an embedded helically wound filament (representing the Spasmoneme). Contraction of this assembly is driven by a constant velocity Calcium signal that induces a state of tension in the Spasmoneme. Depending on the speed of the Calcium signal, we observe different mechanical responses from the contracting stalk, which we compare with experimental observations. We follow the interplay of contraction, twist and bend to explain some unexpected features of the retraction process. Two different macroscopic models have been proposed to explain the time-dependent velocity of the cell body; we compare the predictions of these models with the dynamics revealed by our filament model.
Risse-Buhl, Ute; Felsmann, Katja; Mutz, Michael
Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment. Sediment shifting significantly affected the abundance and growth rate of the ciliate morphotypes. The free-swimming filter feeder Dexiostoma campylum was vulnerable to washout by sediment shifting since significantly higher numbers occurred in the overlying water than in pore water. Abundance of D. campylum only increased in pore water of stable sediments. On the contrary, the vagile grasper feeder Chilodonella uncinata and the sessile filter feeder Vorticella convallaria had positive growth rates and successfully colonized sediments that shifted periodically and continuously. Thus, the spatio-temporal pattern of sediment dynamics acts as an essential factor of impact on the structure, distribution and function of ciliate communities in sand-bed streams.
Kantha, Deependra; van Winkle, David
A fast response polarized light microscope was designed based on the algorithm by Shribak et. al (Applied Optics, vol. 42, 3009-3017). A pulsed laser beam was passed through two Pockels cells aligned at different angles with respect to optical axis. The retardance of the Pockels cell was controlled by external switches and power supplies. The electronics circuit in the system allows change of the retardance of the Pockels cell each millisecond for four milliseconds. In four milliseconds, four images of a birefringent sample, formed by different states of polarized light are recorded. The images are added appropriately to calculate retardence amplitude and phase by using codes written in imageJ software. The microscope was used to show the retardance and phase of a rabbit muscle fiber. Recordings were also taken of the contraction of Vorticella convallaria but the changes were too fast to yield retardance images. This type of microscope can be used to study different kinds of biological functions that change on a timescale slower than four milliseconds but faster than two seconds.
卢云中; 宁应之; 马正学; 刘智峰
从2006年2月至2006年4月,对兰州市雁儿湾污水处理厂曝气池活性污泥中的纤毛虫群落进行了调查研究.共记录到纤毛虫57种,隶属于11目21科27属.缘毛目为优势类群.其中优势种为:小口钟虫(Vorticella microstoma)、沟钟虫(Vorticella convallaria)、八钟虫(Vorticella octava)、卑怯管叶虫(Trachelophyllum pusillum)、彩盖虫(Opercularia phryganeae)、有肋楯纤虫(Aspidisca costata)、片状漫游虫(Litonotus fasciola).同时记录到10种常见种.与两对照样点相比较,活性污泥中纤毛虫种类数、丰度都大于两对照样点.结果表明,缘毛目优势种可以作为污水处理效果的指示生物.
Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and dark septate endophyte (DSE associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM was found in 34 species (94%; 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morphology. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging from 2.5% (Helianthus tuberosus to 77.9% (Convallaria majalis. The mycelium of DSE was observed in 13 plant species (36%, however, the percentage of root colonization by these fungi was low. Spores of 7 AMF species (Glomeromycota were isolated from trap cultures established from rhizosphere soils of the investigated plants: Archaeospora trappei (Archaeosporaceae, Glomus aureum, Glomus caledonium, Glomus claroideum, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme (Glomeraceae. Our results are the first detailed report of root endophyte associations of the plant species under study. Moreover, the mycorrhizal status of 14 plant species is reported for the first time.
王小雪; 彭徐剑; 胡海清
通过对黑龙江省48种主要草本可燃物理化性质的测定,并分析了草本间在各指标上的差异,采用层次分析法(AHP)对可燃物的燃烧性的各指标进行权重的确定,并计算各草本的燃烧性值,最后对草本的燃烧性进行排序.结果表明:各草本风干含水率在10.53％～104.55％,其中假升麻Aruncus sylvester Kostel.最低,铃兰Convallaria majalisL.最高；绝干含水率在135.29％～2200％,其中苔草Carex tristachya最低,水金凤Flos seu Radix Impatientis nolitangeris最高；灰分含量在4.52％～25.84％,其中耳叶蓼Polygonum manshuriense V.Petr.ex Kom.最低,灰菜Chenopodium albumL.最高；热值在6342J/g～12687J/g,其中灰菜Chenopodium albumL.最低,独行菜Lepidium apetalum最高；苯-乙醇抽提物含量在2.42％～11.40％,其中耳叶蓼Polygonum manshuriense V.Petr.exKom.最低,水金凤Flos seu Radix Impatientis nolitangeris最高;最难燃的草本是水金凤Flos seu Radix Impatientis nolitangeris,最易燃的草本是苔草Carex tristachya.%The combustibility of 48 major herbs properties in Heilongjiang Province was comprehensively evaluated by the analysis of physical property,the differences of testing indexes between different herb fuels were also explored.By using analytic hierarchy process (AHP),the weighing values of combustibility indexes were determined,the combustibility values of different herbs fuels were calculated,finally the combustibility values of different herbs were ordered by magnitude.The results show that the dried herbs moisture rates were from 10.53％ to 104.55％,of them,that of Aruncus sylvester Kostel was the lowest,the Convallaria majalis L.was the highest; the ash content was from 4.52％ to 25.84％,that ofPolygonum manshuriense V.Petr.ex Kom.was the lowest and that of Chenopodium album L.is the highest; the heat values were from 6 342 J/g to 12 687 J/g,that of C.album was the lowest,that of Lepidium apetalum was the highest; the contents of
Hu, Bo; Qi, Rong; Yang, Min
The indicator values of microfauna functional groups and species for treatment performance were systematically evaluated based on the continuous monitoring of the entire microfauna communities including both protozoa and metazoa over a period of 14 months, in two parallel full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems in a plant in Beijing, China. A total of 57 species of ciliates, 14 species (units) of amoebae, 14 species (units) of flagellates and 4 classes of small metazoa were identified, with Arcella hemisphaerica, Vorticella striata, Vorticella convallaria, Epistylis plicatilis and small flagellates (e.g. Bodo spp.) as the dominant protozoa, and rotifers as the dominant metazoa. The abundance of the sessile ciliates was correlated with the removals of BOD5 (Pearson's r = 0.410, p < 0.05) and CODcr (r = 0.397, p < 0.05) while the testate amoebae was significantly positively related to nitrification (r = 0.523, p < 0.01). At the same time, some other associations were also identified: the abundances of the large flagellates (r = 0.447, p < 0.01), the metazoa (r = 0.718, p < 0.01) and species Aspidisca sulcata (r = 0.337, p < 0.05) were positively related to nitrification; the abundance of Aspidisca costata was correlated to the TN (total nitrogen) removal (r = -0.374, p < 0.05 ); the abundances of the sessile species Carchesium polypinum (r = 0.458, p < 0.01) and E. plicatilis (r = 0.377, p < 0.05) were correlated with the removal of suspended solids.
Allen, R D
An electron microscope investigation of the interface between the myonemes of Vorticella convallaria and their associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has revealed structures of a complex morphology linking these two organelles. These structures are named "linkage complexes". Each complex contains a spindle-shaped midpiece which lies in a groove of the ER membrane. Microfilaments splay out from the tips of the midpiece and may come in contact with the inner alveolar sac membrane. Three to six raillike structures lie on each side of the midpiece and parallel it. The ER membrane appears to pass through the sides of the rails. In the lumen of the ER these rails are associated with a meshwork of filaments. A cradle of five rods lies within the groove under the midpiece. The ER membrane also passes through these rods which contact the same meshwork. In the scopular region and in the stalk the microfilaments from the midpiece form a bundle which passes into the lumen of modified basal bodies. These basal bodies are connected to the alveolar sac which, in the stalk, passes as a flattened tube along its length. The parts of the dissociated linkage complex are scattered throughout the spasmoneme of the stalk along membranes of the intraspasmonemal tubules. Thus, both stalk and body contractile bundles have linkage complexes that link their associated membrane systems to the microfibrils and, in turn, connect this membrane-microfibrillar interface to the pellicular membranes. The arrangement of the linkage complex suggests an involvement in the control of the transport of calcium ions between ER and microfibrils, and possibly the transfer of a message from the surface membranes to the sites of calcium release to trigger myonemal contraction.
Eibl, Matthias; Karpf, Sebastian; Hakert, Hubertus; Weng, Daniel; Huber, Robert
Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) are powerful imaging techniques in bio-molecular science. The need for elaborate light sources for TPEF and speed limitations for FLIM, however, hinder an even wider application. We present a way to overcome this limitations by combining a robust and inexpensive fiber laser for nonlinear excitation with a fast analog digitization method for rapid FLIM imaging. The applied sub nanosecond pulsed laser source is synchronized to a high analog bandwidth signal detection for single shot TPEF- and single shot FLIM imaging. The actively modulated pulses at 1064nm from the fiber laser are adjustable from 50ps to 5ns with kW of peak power. At a typically applied pulse lengths and repetition rates, the duty cycle is comparable to typically used femtosecond pulses and thus the peak power is also comparable at same cw-power. Hence, both types of excitation should yield the same number of fluorescence photons per time on average when used for TPEF imaging. However, in the 100ps configuration, a thousand times more fluorescence photons are generated per pulse. In this paper, we now show that the higher number of fluorescence photons per pulse combined with a high analog bandwidth detection makes it possible to not only use a single pulse per pixel for TPEF imaging but also to resolve the exponential time decay for FLIM. To evaluate the performance of our system, we acquired FLIM images of a Convallaria sample with pixel rates of 1 MHz where the lifetime information is directly measured with a fast real time digitizer. With the presented results, we show that longer pulses in the many-10ps to nanosecond regime can be readily applied for TPEF imaging and enable new imaging modalities like single pulse FLIM.
Full Text Available In the paper we have summarized the results of a research which was realized in the Báb forest (Veľký Báb, Nitra upland. The target of the research is the evaluation of species composition in the clearcuts in 2012. In the Báb forest, during spring records there were 80 and during summer records 102 taxa of taxons recorded. The woody plants of spring and summer reports were mainly represented by typical forest species. Moreover, these are woody plants of forest open parts and there are also two invasive woody Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia plants documented. During the summer reports, three new woody plants Clematis vitalba, Lonicera caprifolium, Ulmus minor appeared in the herb layer. Herbs are represented during the spring reports by typical spring ephemeroids, geophytes and forest herbs presenting the spring synusia. During the summer reports, ephemeroids are absent and there were new species, mainly Alliaria petiolata, Convallaria majalis, Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum, Melica nutans of forest herbs reported. In the clearcut areas also clearcut, synanthropic, mainly Cirsium vulgare, Lamium purpureum, Sambucus ebulus, Serratula tinctoria, Torilis japonica and invasive species Aster lanceolatus, A. novi-belgii agg., Erigeron annuus ssp. annuus, Impatiens parviflora occurred. Generally, we can state that the diversity of clearcut plant taxa is high. Taxa are represented by forest woody plants, woody plants of clearcuts, forest open parts and forest edges. Within clearcut herbs, there are typical forest species of oak-hornbeam forests represented, species of clearcuts and human-influenced posts and there are also invasive taxa found
Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.
The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude ( 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57 86 Upper quartile 66 101 Minimum 51 70 Maximum 79 116 Variation range 28 46 Standard deviation 8,6 12
陈声贵; 许木启; 曹宏; 周可新; 徐军; 杨向平; 甘一萍; 翟家骥; 刘伟岩; 邵永怡
2001～2002年,系统地研究了高碑店污水厂四系列曝气池活性污泥中的微型动物种群动态与水质变化的相互关系.在该污水处理系统的四系列曝气池内所发现的122种原生动物中,褶累枝虫(Epistylis plicatilis)、沟钟虫(Vorticella convallaria)、有肋?J纤虫(Aspidisca costata)和半圆表壳虫(Arcella hemisphaerica)、是经常大量出现的原生动物种类.冬季褶累枝虫占绝对优势.5月和6月,有肋?J纤虫为活性污泥动物群落的优势种群.纤毛虫和后口动物总数越多,污水净化效能越强,污泥的沉降性越好.游泳类纤毛虫总数与出水BOD5值呈正相关,固着类纤毛虫的多样性值与出水的总氮呈正相关,爬行类纤毛虫的多样性值与出水的硝态氮和出水总磷都呈正相关,与厌氧段总磷呈负相关.研究结果表明,微型动物种群动态规律与污水处理效果关系密切,该厂污水处理系统中四系列的硝化和反硝化显著,活性污泥的运转效能良好,各种主要污染物得到有效净化[动物学报49(6):775～786,2003].
胡小兵; 饶强; 叶星; 周东宝; 完颜健飞
为了分析难降解焦化废水活性污泥法处理中的微型动物群落特征,本研究考察了活性污泥法焦化废水处理厂中的微型动物群落,分析了其与处理性能之间的相互关系.结果发现,本研究共采集的64个水样中,鉴别出28个种属微型动物,其中,原生动物27种(22种纤毛虫、4种鞭毛虫、1种有壳变形虫),1个类群微型后生动物.固着型和匍匐型纤毛虫为共优势群,固着型小口钟虫(Vorticella microstoma)为绝对优势种.除小口钟虫(V.microstoma)(出现频率100％)外,出现频率较高的种类还有轮虫(rotifers)(97％)、沟钟虫(Vorticella convallaria)(69％)等.与常规废水活性污泥法处理系统相比,焦化废水处理系统中的微型动物种类和数量相对偏低.相关性分析结果表明,生物学参数与出水水质、运行参数间存在着不同的相关性.其中,累枝虫属(Epatyla spp.)与出水氨氮(r=-0.740,p＜0.01)、氰化物(r=0.509,p＜0.05)和DO(r=0.514,p＜0.05)存在着显著的相关性;吸管虫属(Podophrya spp.)与硝化效率呈显著负相关(p＜0.05),它们可作为系统处理性能参数的指示微生物;其他种属与出水水质和运行参数间的相关性不显著(p＞0.05).因子分析揭示了与系统相关联的潜在的重要影响因素,以及某些微型动物种属间存在的相互关系.