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Sample records for controversies deliberative democracy

  1. Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller

    Deliberative democracy is the current Buzz-word in contemporary democratic thinking. However deliberative democracy is deeply rooted in the republican tradition of democracy.  Nevertheless these democratic roots are often forgotten when researchers "jump on the bandwagon". This paper will shows how...... deliberation appear within the writing of five important political thinkers within the republican tradition of democracy. Secondly it will investigate the rise of deliberative democracy and explain why the deliberative turn suddenly occurred. However, first a brief general account of deliberative democracy...... is presented in order to outline the focus of deliberative democracy....

  2. Assessing the public's views in research ethics controversies: deliberative democracy and bioethics as natural allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y H; Wall, Ian F; Stanczyk, Aimee; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    In a liberal democracy, policy decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a longstanding research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed.

  3. Assessing the Public’s Views in Research Ethics Controversies: Deliberative Democracy and Bioethics as Natural Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y. H.; Wall, Ian F.; Stanczyk, Aimee; Vries, Raymond De

    2010-01-01

    In a Liberal Democracy, Policy Decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a long-standing research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed. PMID:19919315

  4. Urban sprawl, smart growth, and deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2010-10-01

    Urban sprawl is an increasingly common feature of the built environment in the United States and other industrialized nations. Although there is considerable evidence that urban sprawl has adverse affects on public health and the environment, policy frameworks designed to combat sprawl-such as smart growth-have proven to be controversial, making implementation difficult. Smart growth has generated considerable controversy because stakeholders affected by urban planning policies have conflicting interests and divergent moral and political viewpoints. In some of these situations, deliberative democracy-an approach to resolving controversial public-policy questions that emphasizes open, deliberative debate among the affected parties as an alternative to voting-would be a fair and effective way to resolve urban-planning issues.

  5. Deliberative Democracy and Adult Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcasson, Martin; Sprain, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Adult education programs should turn to the deliberative democracy movement in order to help their communities better address the "wicked problems" they face. The authors contend that due to the "wicked" nature of problems in the diverse democracies, communities must develop and sustain their capacity for deliberative democracy and collaborative…

  6. Deliberative Democracy and Adult Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcasson, Martin; Sprain, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Adult education programs should turn to the deliberative democracy movement in order to help their communities better address the "wicked problems" they face. The authors contend that due to the "wicked" nature of problems in the diverse democracies, communities must develop and sustain their capacity for deliberative democracy and collaborative…

  7. University and deliberative democracy. Towards citizenship education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Scotton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deliberative democracy represents one of the most relevant political theories and it has acquired a growing importance within political debates and practices. However it presents some crucial problems in relation to the very high standards of rationality required to citizens for the deliberative process, in particular regarding the problem of public ignorance and the capabilities’ deficit. Amid these problems this article argues in favour of the necessity of education to political life as an unavoidable precondition for deliberative democracy. Since the theory is mainly concerned with the participation of adults within society, the task of offering possible solutions to these questions evidently stands on the shoulders of university education. The article calls for a fundamental ethical and social role of university within society without which the gap between the abstract theory of deliberative democracy and its real practices would determine its complete rejection and any form of democratic participation would ultimately be meaningless, if not dangerous.

  8. Deliberative Democracy V. Politics of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR PÉREZ DE LA FUENTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The defenders of deliberative democracy insist in the idea that for searching political truths is necessary to use values as universality, rationality and fairness. The defenders of the politics of identity distrust from this deliberative approach because, the interests of the powerful groups of the society are often behind those values. The common approach of deliberative democracy misunderstands the proper role, language, expression and actual interests of the members of the minorities. Deliberative democracy isn't really compromised with pluralism –social, cultural, ethnic, racial…– because it is more compromised with formal and substantial rules of decision that finally determine the result of the deliberation. Minorities claim for a new understanding of the democracy from the difference, from the identity. Thus, democracy is the result of a dialogue, not from abstractions, but from the particularity. In this sense, it is important the notion of ethics of alterity as a moral effort to understand the Other. This exercise excludes all kind of alterophobia (misogyny, xenophobia, racism, homophobia... and it is against relativist approach. An identity is legitimate in the way it includes the alterity. The minorities claim to think, other time, topics as democracy from the dynamics between identity/alterity, inclusion/exclusion, equal dignity/differentiated identity.

  9. Music Education and Deliberative Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladh, Stephan; Heimonen, Marja

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the influence of democracy and law on music education in Sweden and Finland, and the potential for music education as training in democracy. The latter consideration can be instructive regardless of the nation, or its laws and paradigms of music education. The theoretical background is based on Jurgen Habermas'…

  10. Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The theory of deliberative democracy places public deliberations at the heart of democracy. In order to participate in democratic deliberations, citizens need certain skills, attitudes, and values. Within the field of education for deliberative democracy, it is assumed that these are learned through participation in democratic deliberation. Thus,…

  11. Deliberative Democracy between Social Liberalism and Neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftager, Jørn

    During the same decades as neoliberalism has expanded at the expense of social liberalism, democratic theory has witnessed a profound deliberative turn. The paper explores links be-tween these developments and presents a double argument. First, it argues for a critical oppo-sition between a current...... agenda with problems calling for effective public reasoning and the predominance of neoliberal politics and ideas of citizenship. Whereas a social liberal notion of citizenship based on equal rights is conducive to deliberative democracy, recent years’ ne-oliberalism tends to define citizenship in terms...... in neoliberal ontology (Hayek). Here there is a remarkable parallel to French solidarism and especially the social liberal think-ing of Durkheim. Danish politics will serve as an illustrative empirical, least likely, case in point....

  12. Deliberative Democracy and Precautionary Public Reasoning : Exploratory Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Fuji-Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Because public policy is legally binding and, perhaps more pointedly, can have pervasive social and environmental consequences for the autonomy of persons, it should be justifiable to those it could so affect. What is much more controversial, and what constitutes the basic intuitive claim of this exploratory paper, is that certain public policies should be morally justifiable to both existing and future persons. My concern is with policies in such areas as energy, climate change control, nuclear waste management, natural resources management, and genomics research and commercialization, which can no doubt improve our lives and our descendant’s lives, but which can also result in tremendous adverse effects for centuries to come. In this short paper, I suggest that the ideal of deliberative democracy provides a way of morally justifying such policies to both existing and future generations. If we take seriously the requirements of this ideal, we may have to modify our public reasoning so that it includes reasons that are generally acceptable among contemporaries as well as reasons that would be acceptable to posterity. The suggestion I make in this paper is thatintegral to the ideal of deliberative democracy in the transgenerational contextis a future-oriented and precautionary public reasoning.

  13. Deliberative Democracy in China: A Sociology of Knowledge Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOSHENG; TAN

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes from the perspective of the sociology of knowledge how the theory of deliberative democracy was introduced into China.This perspective means that the analysis of this article will not focus on the theory itself,but rather on the various strategies adopted in this process(the strategy of introducing deliberative democracy theory into China and the strategy of putting this theory into practice)and their effects.

  14. Community Engagement for Big Epidemiology: Deliberative Democracy as a Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah E. McWhirter; Critchley, Christine R.; Dianne Nicol; Don Chalmers; Tess Whitton; Margaret Otlowski; Burgess, Michael M.; Dickinson, Joanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Public trust is critical in any project requiring significant public support, both in monetary terms and to encourage participation. The research community has widely recognized the centrality of public trust, garnered through community consultation, to the success of large-scale epidemiology. This paper examines the potential utility of the deliberative democracy methodology within the public health research setting. A deliberative democracy event was undertaken in Tasmania, Australia, as pa...

  15. The Critique of Deliberative Discussion. A Response to "Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, David I.

    2017-01-01

    My response to Samuelsson's (2016) recent essay offers a different paradigm with which to think about education, deliberative discussion and democracy. I call this paradigm the critique of deliberative discussion. Following Ruitenberg's application of Mouffe's critiques of deliberative democracy to education, the critique of deliberative…

  16. The Equality Paradox of Deliberative Democracy: Evidence from a National Deliberative Poll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2010-01-01

    democracy is the equality paradox. The equality paradox of deliberation relates to the idea that deliberative democrats advocate the importance of securing that the deliberative process fulfills political equality as the participants in the deliberative process are able to express their views freely...... the citizens' capabilities to form reasoned and reflective opinions based on the common good rather than self-interest. The focus on the normative potential of deliberation has to a large extent neglected deliberations' many pitfalls and contradictions. One of the most troubling paradoxes in deliberative...... and openly without any procedural restrictions. At the same time, however it is argued that arguments referring to the common good and public interest should and will be emphasized in a deliberative process, which favors participants accustomed to this kind of reasoning, thus, compromising political equality...

  17. Why Deliberative Democracy is (Still) Untenable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    response is that the correct conclusion to draw from the evidence is simply that we must work harder to ensure that the deliberative process improves the deliberators’ epistemic situation. The main problem for this response is that there are non-deliberative alternatives—most prominently information...

  18. Dissent, Criticism, and Transformative Political Action in Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Many discussions of deliberative democracy ignore or misunderstand the purposes of the ideal speech situation in Habermas' theory. These purposes are to show the possibility of dissent in actual communication and of supplying a normative standard of social criticism. I elaborate the significance...

  19. Deliberative democracy in health care: current challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaei J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jalil Safaei Department of Economics, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC, CanadaBackground: There is a vast body of literature on deliberative, participative, or engaged democracy. In the area of health care there is a rapidly expanding literature on deliberative democracy as embodied in various notions of public engagement, shared decision-making (SDM, patient-centered care, and patient/care provider autonomy over the past few decades. It is useful to review such literature to get a sense of the challenges and prospects of introducing deliberative democracy in health care.Objective: This paper reviews the key literature on deliberative democracy and SDM in health care settings with a focus on identifying the main challenges of promoting this approach in health care, and recognizing its progress so far for mapping out its future prospects in the context of advanced countries.Method: Several databases were searched to identify the literature pertinent to the subject of this study. A total of 56 key studies in English were identified and reviewed carefully for indications and evidence of challenges and/or promising avenues of promoting deliberative democracy in health care.Results: Time pressure, lack of financial motivation, entrenched professional interests, informational imbalance, practical feasibility, cost, diversity of decisions, and contextual factors are noted as the main challenges. As for the prospects, greater clarity on conception of public engagement and policy objectives, real commitment of the authorities to public input, documenting evidence of the effectiveness of public involvement, development of patient decision supports, training of health professionals in SDM, and use of multiple and flexible methods of engagement leadership suited to specific contexts are the main findings in the reviewed literature.Conclusion: Seeking deliberative democracy in health care is both challenging and rewarding. The

  20. From Deliberative Democracy to Communicative Democracy in the Classroom. A Response to "Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weasel, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This response to Samuelsson's typology for assessing deliberative democracy in classroom discussions views his analysis through an equity lens. It offers Young's model of communicative democracy as a resource and argues that incorporating that model's emphasis on greeting, rhetoric, and storytelling into the typology can help to promote more…

  1. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't.

  2. Aggregate Democracyand Deliberative Democracy: An Inevitable Practical Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Marey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets forth programmatically a series of conditions necessary for a deliberative theory of democracy to be able to account for the normative value of the two fundamental principles of democracy: human rights and popular sovereignty. The starting point is the question of whether aggregate conceptions are capable ofdesigning collective decision-making procedures in which those two principles are mutually entailed. The article emphasizes the importance for democratic procedures to include a reciprocal justification requirement that cannot be fully satisfied by aggregate or agonistic conceptions.

  3. Community engagement for big epidemiology: deliberative democracy as a tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Rebekah E; Critchley, Christine R; Nicol, Dianne; Chalmers, Don; Whitton, Tess; Otlowski, Margaret; Burgess, Michael M; Dickinson, Joanne L

    2014-11-20

    Public trust is critical in any project requiring significant public support, both in monetary terms and to encourage participation. The research community has widely recognized the centrality of public trust, garnered through community consultation, to the success of large-scale epidemiology. This paper examines the potential utility of the deliberative democracy methodology within the public health research setting. A deliberative democracy event was undertaken in Tasmania, Australia, as part of a wider program of community consultation regarding the potential development of a Tasmanian Biobank. Twenty-five Tasmanians of diverse backgrounds participated in two weekends of deliberation; involving elements of information gathering; discussion; identification of issues and formation of group resolutions. Participants demonstrated strong support for a Tasmanian Biobank and their deliberations resulted in specific proposals in relation to consent; privacy; return of results; governance; funding; and, commercialization and benefit sharing. They exhibited a high degree of satisfaction with the event, and confidence in the outcomes. Deliberative democracy methodology is a useful tool for community engagement that addresses some of the limitations of traditional consultation methods.

  4. Community Engagement for Big Epidemiology: Deliberative Democracy as a Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Rebekah E.; Critchley, Christine R.; Nicol, Dianne; Chalmers, Don; Whitton, Tess; Otlowski, Margaret; Burgess, Michael M.; Dickinson, Joanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Public trust is critical in any project requiring significant public support, both in monetary terms and to encourage participation. The research community has widely recognized the centrality of public trust, garnered through community consultation, to the success of large-scale epidemiology. This paper examines the potential utility of the deliberative democracy methodology within the public health research setting. A deliberative democracy event was undertaken in Tasmania, Australia, as part of a wider program of community consultation regarding the potential development of a Tasmanian Biobank. Twenty-five Tasmanians of diverse backgrounds participated in two weekends of deliberation; involving elements of information gathering; discussion; identification of issues and formation of group resolutions. Participants demonstrated strong support for a Tasmanian Biobank and their deliberations resulted in specific proposals in relation to consent; privacy; return of results; governance; funding; and, commercialization and benefit sharing. They exhibited a high degree of satisfaction with the event, and confidence in the outcomes. Deliberative democracy methodology is a useful tool for community engagement that addresses some of the limitations of traditional consultation methods. PMID:25563457

  5. Community Engagement for Big Epidemiology: Deliberative Democracy as a Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah E. McWhirter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Public trust is critical in any project requiring significant public support, both in monetary terms and to encourage participation. The research community has widely recognized the centrality of public trust, garnered through community consultation, to the success of large-scale epidemiology. This paper examines the potential utility of the deliberative democracy methodology within the public health research setting. A deliberative democracy event was undertaken in Tasmania, Australia, as part of a wider program of community consultation regarding the potential development of a Tasmanian Biobank. Twenty-five Tasmanians of diverse backgrounds participated in two weekends of deliberation; involving elements of information gathering; discussion; identification of issues and formation of group resolutions. Participants demonstrated strong support for a Tasmanian Biobank and their deliberations resulted in specific proposals in relation to consent; privacy; return of results; governance; funding; and, commercialization and benefit sharing. They exhibited a high degree of satisfaction with the event, and confidence in the outcomes. Deliberative democracy methodology is a useful tool for community engagement that addresses some of the limitations of traditional consultation methods.

  6. Deliberative democracy between moralism and realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoć Andrija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the debate between political moralists and political realists. I will try to show that it is possible to find the middle ground that simultaneously satisfies the main demands of both camps while resisting objections directed against each. In the first part, I start with the view shared by both moralists and realists: that the main challenge lying before a political theory is solving the problem of legitimacy. I first sketch Rawls’ moralist approach. I then move to outline the realist criticisms of such moralism. I will mainly follow one of the most detailed recent theories - Sleat’s realist theory, although I will also draw from other well-known realists. In the second part, I outline objections against realism. They somewhat similar to the same criticisms they themselves direct against moralists. The main issue is, in short, the problem of underdetermination - that is, the insufficient determination of political action by facts. Since realists hold that a political theory has to be applicable, their view is thus considerably weakened by such criticism. In the third part of the paper, I point to deliberative theory as a view that can answer both realist criticism - because its main aspect is dealing with the way things work in actual politics of concrete societies - but it can also answer criticisms directed against realists themselves, because empirical research of deliberation suggests an actual and viable way to solve the problem of legitimacy - by raising the quality of deliberation. Moreover, a deliberative theory retains autonomy of the ethical, although it doesn’t do that, unlike moralism, by encroaching on the autonomy of politics. Thus, at the end of the paper, I claim that such a deliberative approach can be accepted by both realists and moralists. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179067: Logičko-epistemološki osnovi nauke i metafizike

  7. Social Media, Deliberative Democracy and Social Mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Bodington, Malene; Lerche, Søren

    , these approaches have all taken a normative & meta-theoretical approach to the subject & are rarely grounded in empirical research. Much has been written about using social media in a rationally, purpose-driven or strategic way, relating it to corporations, political organisations, and the latest in relation......Over the past 20 years, researchers have studied how the Internet frames deliberative processes. What is needed to create a framework for dialogue & engagement, & how can the Internet be used to create & support social communities? (Castells 2001, Dyson 1997, Rheingold 1993). However...... successfully used social media to mobilise people. An examination of Kirkeasyl (Church Asylum), a Danish social movement that mobilised people through social media, allows a better understanding of how social media can be used but also of how social media impacts the movements that use them. Kirkeasyl had...

  8. Deliberative Democracy and Emotional Intelligence: An Internal Mechanism to Regulate the Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Deliberative democracy, it is claimed, is essential for the legitimisation of public policy and law. It is built upon an assumption that citizens will be capable of constructing and defending reasons for their moral and political beliefs. However, critics of deliberative democracy suggest that citizens' emotions are not properly considered in this…

  9. Scientific Argumentation and Deliberative Democracy: An Incompatible Mix in School Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erduran, Sibel; Kaya, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates how deliberative democracy is related to argumentation in school science. We use examples of political models of deliberative democracy to synthesize implications for argumentation in science teaching and learning. Some key questions guided our approach: How does democratic deliberation work and how does it relate to…

  10. Has the Deliberative Model of Democracy an epistemic value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Deliberative democracy is a normative ideal of democracy. This model is a proposal for the regeneration of the legitimacy of our institutions, but also a mechanism for decision making. It is based on two different dimensions: a procedural dimension where the model demands the inclusion and an equal capacity to influence the final decision of all those affected (Cohen, 1989; Bohman, 1996; Habermas, 1992 ... and a substantive dimension where the political decisions are made through a collective procedure of argumentation and public discussion. If these conditions are recognized, the decisions will be more rational and better decisions. This paper has two aims. First I will present the key elements of this epistemic conception of political legitimacy. Second I will show the challenges it faces. On a one hand, the counterfactual of many of its postulates and on the other, the obvious problems of bias consensualist of this model.

  11. Deliberative Democracy and stem cell research in New York State: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2009-03-01

    Many states in the U.S. have adopted policies regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research in the last few years. Some have arrived at these policies through legislative debate, some by referendum, and some by executive order. New York has chosen a unique structure for addressing policy decisions regarding this morally controversial issue by creating the Empire State Stem Cell Board with two Committees--an Ethics Committee and a Funding Committee. This essay explores the pros and cons of various policy arrangements for making public policy decisions about morally controversial issues in bioethics (as well as other issues) through the lens of Deliberative Democracy, focusing on the principles of reciprocity, publicity, and accountability. Although New York's unique mechanism potentially offers an opportunity to make policy decisions regarding a morally controversial subject like hESC research in accord with the principles of Deliberative Democracy, this essay demonstrates its failure to do so in actual fact. A few relatively simple changes could make New York's program a real model for putting Deliberative Democracy into practice in making policy decisions regarding controversial bioethical issues.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment Under the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act: Deliberative Democracy in Canada's North?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sinclair, A. John; Mitchell, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    We consider the extent to which the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act (MVRMA) provides an opportunity for deliberative democracy to emerge within the context of resource management in Canada’s North. The focus is on the extent to which the tenets of deliberative democracy are exercised in the environmental assessment (EA) of the Snap Lake diamonds project. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with assessment participants, and a review of documentation surrounding the EA process, and the case study. Results combined four principles of deliberative democracy: generality, autonomy, power neutrality, and ideal role taking. The EA conducted under the MVRMA can serve as a deliberative process, as illustrated by opportunities for dialogue, access to different perspectives, and learning outcomes. However, many of these positive results occurred through nonmandated technical sessions. The absence of participant funding also limits the deliberative potential of the MVRMA.

  13. Contribution of Feminism to the Evolution of Deliberative Democracy Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Boboc Cojocaru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of feminist approaches bring their contribution in the debate on deliberativedemocracy. The first type, which highlights women’s greater capacity to provide care, change and expandesthe deliberation by providing images and models of practice from the experience of women. In this view,women's socialization and role in childrearing, among other causes, makes them especially concerned totransform "I" into "we" and to seek solutions to conflict that accommodate diverse and often suppresseddesires. In our society women are usually brought up to identify their own good with that of others,especially their children and husbands. More than men, women build their identities through relationshipswith friends. Feminist critiques of deliberative democracy have focused on the abstraction, impartiality andrationality of mainstream accounts of deliberation. Feminist writers propose this capacity for broader selfdefinitionas a model for democratic politics.

  14. Majoritarian democracy undermines truth-finding in deliberative committees

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    Jan Lorenz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aggregated judgments of many usually outperform individual estimates of vaguely known facts. Communication among individuals may, however, undermine this wisdom-of-crowd effect because it makes judgments mutually dependent. Deliberative democratic theory, on the other hand, suggests that communication promotes correct decisions. We investigate this puzzle about the positive and negative consequences of consensus formation on the wisdom of crowds using experimental methods. Subjects in small deliberative committees had to communicate and thereafter judge vaguely known facts. We varied the agreement rules in groups and compared the groups’ change of performance from initial to final estimates. Interestingly, groups’ performance worsened on average when they had to reach a majority decision. Groups came on average closer to the truth if they had to decide unanimously or if they did not have any restrictions to reach agreement. The low performance under majority rule is robust against different knowledge questions, group sizes and communication types. The majority rule may be worst because it makes people too focused to reach a majority so that valuable minority opinions are disregarded or not even voiced. This implies that majoritarian democracy may be less suitable for truth-finding than less or more restrictive quorum rules.

  15. Rationality and deliberative democracy: a constructive critique of John Dryzek's democratic theory

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    John Dryzek's justification of deliberative democracy rests on a critiqueof instrumental rationality and a defence of Habermas’s idea of communicativerationality. I question each stage of Dryzek’s theory. It defines instrumentalrationality broadly but only criticises narrow applications of it. It conflates communicative rationality with Habermas’s idea of ‘discourse’ – the real motor ofDryzek’s democratic theory. Deliberative democracy can be better defended byavoiding overstated criticisms o...

  16. Deliberative democracy and the problem of it’s practical implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deliberative democracy holds that, for a democratic decision to be legitimate, it must be preceded by deliberation among decision-makers. This means that democratic decision cannot be merely the aggregation of preferences that occurs in voting. Thus, citizens may change their initial opinions and preferences as a result of the reflection induced by deliberative communication and by taking into account other people’s opinions. The aim of this paper is to outline the view of deliberative democracy developed by Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson as well as to address some of the concerns raised by the critics regarding its practical implementation.

  17. DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEMS OF DEMOCRATIC LEGITIMACY

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    M. S. Zakharchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The article presents deep analyzes of legitimacy and the basics of the process of legitimization in democratic societies. The subject of article is to provide an understanding of deliberative democracy as the answer to the discussion about the essence of democratic legitimacy. The core element of deliberative democracy is a theory of discursive legitimating. Methodology. Taking into account Bourdieu’s theory about symbolic power author explains the processes of legitimization as well as the processes of institute’s delegitimization. Author points out that the form of bureaucratic institutes in the late capitalism may cause the delegitimazation of their power. Another problem of democratic legitimacy is the confusion of the voting as procedure of decision making and voting as legitimate principle. Addressing the theory of Pierre Rosanvallon author explains how the way of decision making mistakenly is taken as the core point of democratic legitimacy. Scientific novelty of received results consists of the approach of deliberative democracy in the light of the problems of democratic legitimacy. Conclusions. The author demonstrates that discursive legitimacy as the main idea of deliberative democracy may clarify the misconception of democratic legitimacy. It is not enough to explain the legitimating power of the state as based on the assumption of legal norms and moral principles. It is discursive principle that activates the legitimacy power of state decisions.

  18. Giving Power Its Due: The Powerful Possibilities and the Problems of Power with Deliberative Democracy and English Language Learners. A Response to "Deliberative Democracy in English-Language Education: Cultural and Linguistic Inclusion in the School Community"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of deliberation with English Language Learners presents possibilities to both improve language learning, but also expand the potential for civics education for all students. In particular, this response examines the issue of power to extend Liggett's (2014) arguments for using deliberative democracy with English Language Learners and…

  19. Giving Power Its Due: The Powerful Possibilities and the Problems of Power with Deliberative Democracy and English Language Learners. A Response to "Deliberative Democracy in English-Language Education: Cultural and Linguistic Inclusion in the School Community"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of deliberation with English Language Learners presents possibilities to both improve language learning, but also expand the potential for civics education for all students. In particular, this response examines the issue of power to extend Liggett's (2014) arguments for using deliberative democracy with English Language Learners and…

  20. [Participatory potential and deliberative function: a debate on broadening the scope of democracy through the health councils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon the relation between democracy and health councils. It seeks to analyze the councils as a space for broadening the scope of democracy. First, some characteristics and principles of the liberal democratic regime are presented, with an emphasis on the minimalist and procedural approach of decision-making. The fragilities of the representative model and the establishment of new relations between the Government and society are then discussed in light of the new social grammar and the complexity of the division between governmental and societal responsibilities. The principles of deliberative democracy and the idea of substantive democracy are subsequently presented. Broadening the scope of democracy is understood not only as the guarantee of civil and political rights, but also especially, of social rights. Lastly, based on discussion of the participation and deliberation categories, the health councils are analyzed as potential mechanisms for broadening the scope of democracy.

  1. A Research Summary of Deliberative Democracy%协商民主研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宝

    2012-01-01

      with the development and perfection of the Chinese socialist market economy system, the Chinese social structure differentiation has becoming more and more growing. Lacking of power of the operation of political system because of the emerge of the new interest groups and the increasing factors of social instability make the function of deliberative democracy Increasing.%  随着中国社会主义市场经济体制的不断发展和完善,中国社会结构分化日益加剧,新的利益主体的不断涌现,社会不稳定因素增多,凸显出的一些问题与矛盾使得某些现有政治运行体制运作的乏力,日益凸显协商民主的作用。

  2. Deliberative democracy and co-management of natural resources: The case of Funäsdalen snowmobile regulation area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karin Elise Zachrisson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to deepen the understanding of how co-management and deliberative democracy relate to one another. Deliberation is an understudied aspect of common-pool resource theory that could be developed by a closer connection to deliberative democratic theory. Co-management studies may also provide needed empirical insights to deliberative democratic theory. A framework is developed to analyze to what degree co-management arrangements incorporate deliberative elements. To test its usefulness, a case study of a co-management process in Sweden is analyzed. In Funäsdalsfjällen, a conflict-ridden situation caused by snowmobiles ended in agreement and the establishment of a municipal regulation area. Central and regional authorities initially failed to resolve the conflict, but when the municipality started working directly with the relevant interest groups, agreement was reached. Deliberative elements are shown central to the success, and it is concluded that co-management and deliberative democratic approaches indeed do cross-fertilize one another.

  3. Sobre o caráter "abstrato" da democracia deliberativa On the "abstract" character of deliberative democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rouanet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto propõe-se discutir o suposto caráter abstrato da chamada democracia deliberativa, tomando como base a ética discursiva e a teoria da ação comunicativa. Se, por um lado, a democracia deliberativa não pretende ser mais que um modelo teórico para orientar as discussões em torno da democracia, por outro, alguns de seus enunciados podem e são efetivamente incorporados à prática política das sociedades democráticas contemporâneas. A questão aqui é saber o quanto de concreto e propositivo se pode encontrar especialmente nas proposições de Habermas a respeito da democracia deliberativa.This paper proposes to discuss, based on discourse ethics and communicative action theory, the supposed abstract character of deliberative democracy. If on the one hand deliberative democracy does not intend to be more than a theoretical model to guide discussions on democracy, on the other hand some of its ideas and can be, and are being, effectively incorporated into the political practice of contemporary democratic societies. The question here is one of knowing how much of the concrete and relevant can be found in Habermas' proposals regarding deliberative democracy.

  4. Assessing the quality of a deliberative democracy mini-public event about advanced biofuel production and development in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Holly; Secko, David M

    2016-02-01

    The importance of evaluating deliberative public engagement events is well recognized, but such activities are rarely conducted for a variety of theoretical, political and practical reasons. In this article, we provide an assessment of the criteria presented in the 2008 National Research Council report on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making (NRC report) as explicit indicators of quality for the 2012 'Advanced Biofuels' deliberative democracy event. The National Research Council's criteria were selected to evaluate this event because they are decision oriented, are the products of an exhaustive review of similar past events, are intended specifically for environmental processes and encompass many of the criteria presented in other evaluation frameworks. It is our hope that the results of our study may encourage others to employ and assess the National Research Council's criteria as a generalizable benchmark that may justifiably be used in forthcoming deliberative events exploring different topics with different audiences.

  5. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste: An Example of Deliberative Democracy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    gaining access to the agenda, and a request for participatory deliberative democracy. The permission to hold a presentation can be connected to criticism of the previous consultations in Oskarshamn and Stockholm. At these consultations, environmental organisations requested opportunities to set the agenda without success. These consultations can therefore mainly be seen as information arenas for SKB rather than arenas for deliberation. At all the consultations, different actors tried to place the deep holes method on an equal footing with the KBS 3-method without any success. There are also examples of how SKB tried to play down the alternative expert conclusions that organisations wanted to raise by saying that the organisations did not have enough knowledge to participate in the discussion on equal terms with SKB. This is an example of one actor showing a preference for a participatory deliberative democracy and another for a rational deliberative democracy. To conclude, the consultations are firstly important to study in order to get a picture of how actors try to draw boundaries about the decision of where to site the Swedish HLNW. The results of the paper are secondly of importance for further studies of the siting process of HLNW, as well as the EIA-process, because of the final conclusions as to which actor(s) that got support for their attempts to impact the decision, which actor(s) that had access to the discussions, and the character of the deliberations. Thirdly, the design of the EIA is an interesting example of a process that opens up for more participative deliberations in advance of important decisions than is usual in a representative democracy.

  6. Transnational deliberative democracy in the context of the European Union: The institutionalisation of the European Integration Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García Agustín

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Deliberative democracy is increasingly discussed in relation to the transnational sphere in terms of promoting democratic mechanisms of representation and participation. The establishment of the European Integration Forum (EIF represents an effort to apply deliberation to the field of integration policies at the EU level. The EIF combines an original structure consisting of civil society actors and EU institutions, on the one hand, and national and European organisations, on the other. In this article, the institutional and discursive dimensions of the EIF are discussed. The institutional dimension refers to the benefits of the deliberative model for inclusive policy making and it is argued that it is particularly useful for incorporating immigrant voices in consultative processes. The discursive dimension relates to the articulation of a common European discourse on integration within the already existing EU framework. Discourses of contestation emanating from civil society are constrained especially in relation to the identification of a sole target group of integration policies, namely third-country nationals. The deliberative approach of the EIF is efficient in its institutionalisation through the inclusion of multiple civil society actors, but its discursive potential in terms of reflecting a heterogeneity of viewpoints and the capacity for generating contestation are reduced.

  7. Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    Digital democracy debate often has had more to do with the potential role of technology in alternative, idealized visions of deliberative or participatory democracy than with representative democratic practice as we know it. Real-world democracies are distinguished less by informed debate or active...... democratic theorists and much of the digital avant-garde are more interested in alternative visions than in existing realities. The result is that we may have spent more time discussing what digital technologies might mean for forms of democracy that do not exist than what digital technologies mean...... for democracies that do exist and that in many places today—despite global enthusiasm for the label “democracy”—face serious problems of legitimacy, efficiency, and institutional integrity....

  8. 网络传媒对协商民主的影响%Network Media’s Impacts on Deliberative Democracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫坤; 张磊

    2013-01-01

    在网络时代,网络传媒的运用,给协商民主的实现赋予了无限可能,提供了种种便利,它克服了传统公共领域中协商民主所存在的弊端,如话语权被掌握在少数人手中,也展示出了强大的生命力,引发了强烈的反响,使社会大众在更自由、更理性的协商基础上达成了共识。从协商民主的内涵入手,分析了网络传媒对协商民主的积极影响和消极作用,提出了完善网络环境下协商民主的对策和建议。%In the network era,the use of network media gives infinite possibility and provides a va-riety of conveniences for the realization of the deliberative democracy.It overcomes the traditional weakness of the deliberative democracy in the public domain,such as voice controlled in the hands of a few people.It also shows strong vitality and causes strong repercussion which enables the public to reach a consensus on a more freedom and more rational negotiation basis.This article started from the definition of the deliberative democracy and then analyzed the network media’s positive and negative impacts on deliberative democracy.Some countermeasures and suggestions were proposed to improve deliberative democracy in the network environment.

  9. 参政党看社会主义协商民主——评《协商民主理论与实践研究》%Participating Parties Observing Socialist Deliberative Democracy:Book Review About"Deliberative Democracy Theory and Practice Research"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈世培

    2015-01-01

    社会主义协商民主,是对选举民主的有效补充,丰富和发展了社会主义民主政治.农工民主党安徽省委编写的《协商民主理论与实践研究》一书,从参政党角度对社会主义协商民主理论和实践研究作了三个方面研究:协商民主理论研究,在梳理中西协商民主理论研究的基础上,从参政党角度提出自己的理论认识,概念准确,内涵全面,理论准确,提出多种协商民主形式;协商民主实践研究,有实践回顾,有对实践中存在问题的思考等;参政党与协商民主建设关系研究,阐述了参政党在协商民主制度建设中有着重要的地位和作用,其特殊性和优势是显而易见的,提出了如何提高民主党派参与协商民主水平的办法.该书观点系统、全面,有新意,促进了社会主义协商民主研究.%The socialist deliberative democracy is an effective complement to the electoral democracy,which enriches and develops the socialist democratic politics."Deliberative Democracy Theory and Practice Research"written by Anhui Province Committee of Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party studies three aspects of socialist deliberative democracy theory and practice from the perspective of participating parties. The first aspect is about deliberative democracy theories , their own theoretical knowledge on the basis of combing Chinese and western deliberative democracy theory research and from the perspective of participating parties,the definition is accurate,the connotation is comprehensive,the theory is accurate,and various forms of the deliberative democracy are put forward. The second one is about deliberative democracy practice research,which has a practice to review and thinking about the problems existing in the practice. The third one is about the relationship between the participating parties and deliberative democracy construction,which states an important position and role in the construction of participating parties in

  10. El rol de la democracia deliberativa y su ejercicio legítimo (the role of the deliberative democracy and its legitimate exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Castillo Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente texto, derivado de proceso de investigación, busca dejar elementos para el debate en torno a la construcción de la democracia deliberativa procurando establecer cuál podría ser el marco teórico en el que se puede ajustar el caso Colombiano. Para tal fin, el texto presentará: Un aparte para el debate en torno a la democracia deliberativa como procedimientos de legitimación de decisiones, estableciendo cuál es el papel de los tribunales constitucionales en la construcción de este tipo de democracia; segundo, ahondar con especial énfasis en las decisiones de la Corte Constitucional, si permiten o no, un espacio abierto para la democracia deliberativa; y tercero, se presenta un aporte al debate académico, en torno a la situación actual en Colombia en la construcción de una democracia deliberativa. ABSTRACT The present text, derived from a research process, seeks to allow aims to leave elements to the debate over the construction of the deliberative democracy managing to establish, which the theoretical framework could be, in which the Colombian case can be adjusted. For such a purpose, the text will introduce, first, the debate over the deliberative democracy as legitimacy of decision-making procedures, establishing what the role played by the Constitutional Court, in the construction of this type of democracy, is. Second, to deepen, with special emphasis, on the decisions of the Constitutional Court, whether they allow it or not, an open space for the deliberative democracy, and third, it introduces a contribution to the academic debate over the current situation in Colombia in the construction of a deliberative democracy.

  11. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  12. Theory and Experience in Deliberative Democracy and Budget Review%协商民主与预算审议的理论与经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾维萌

    2012-01-01

    The theory of deliberative democracy emphasizes that through the way of rational dialogue in freedom and equality, debate, citizens should participate in public affairs consultation, deliberation, giving legitimacy to legislation and decision, which will be of great significance to the budget review. The practices of participatory budgeting in Brazil Porto Alegre and China Wenling are typical cases of deliberative democracy. Referring to the theory of deliberative democracy and participatory budgeting practice, China's regime improvement about budget review should start from consummating legal system; Structuring procedure mechanism and promoting citizens' autonomous ability in participation.%协商民主理论强调公民通过自由、平等的理性对话、辩论、协商、审议等方式来参与公共事务,赋予立法和决策以合法性,对预算审议有着重要意义。巴西阿雷格里港市和中国温岭的参与式预算实践是协商民主的典型体现。要想通过借鉴协商民主理论和参与式预算实践完善我国预算审议制度,就必须完善法律体系,构建程序机制,提升民众参与自治的能力。

  13. Deliberative Democracy, Active Citizenship and Critical Culture: From Aristotle’s Rhetoric to Contemporary Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arenas Dolz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to defend an adequate reading of Aristotle’s deliberative rhetoric that allows us to understand practical rationalization as a process of interpretation of human actions. After the consideration of rhetoric as a general human ability that is indispensable for political coexistence, the impact of the Aristotelian rhetorical proposal is pressed, not just as a defense of the importance of rhetoric in a democratic society, but also as a novel attempt to understand what it means to speak of practical rationality.

  14. Critical multiculturalism and deliberative democracy: Opening spaces for more inclusive communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Awad Cherit (Isabel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe discredit of multiculturalism in contemporary discussions about cultural diversity and democracy is problematic since allegations of multiculturalism’s failure and undemocratic consequences are used to justify a (re)turn to assimilation throughout Western societies. Rejecting assimil

  15. Educating for Deliberative Democracy. New Directions for Higher Education, No. 152

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What needs to be done to strengthen U.S. democracy, to make it work the way it should? Each generation of Americans asks some version of this question, but this book offers an answer that recognizes the heightened urgency and hopefulness in the way individuals are asking the question today. At the heart of the debate is a conviction that…

  16. School Governing Body Election Deficiencies – Deliberative Democracy Knocking at the Door

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Smit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As forums, School Governing Bodies have the makings of a great and unique South African democratic tradition as they reflect local deliberations, participative decision-making by stakeholders in education. The main contention of this article is that the SGB election processes at many public schools in South Africa are deficient. Legal analysis reveals the extent of non-uniformity of SGB election regulations among the nine provinces, as well as unlawful regulatory provisions, the unfair and undemocratic administration of the election process and misconceptions about democracy are causal factors that result deficiencies in SGB elections. The qualitative evidence affirms that parents are concerned about the insufficient information about candidates before and during elections, thus preventing voters from making informed decisions. Undemocratic features in the election process results in the election of unsuitable or incompetent candidates which has a detrimental effect on the governance of public schools. It is therefore recommended that a new set of nationally uniform SGB election regulations, which allows for transparent deliberation between candidates and voters should be promulgated before the next SGB election in order to address these shortcomings.

  17. Ripped from the Headlines: Using Current Events and Deliberative Democracy to Improve Student Performance in and Perceptions of Nonmajors Biology Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Nicole Tinsley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of scientific literacy, many foundational science courses are plagued by low student engagement and performance. In an attempt to improve student outcomes, an introductory biology course for nonscience majors was redesigned to present the course content within the framework of current events and deliberative democratic exercises. During each instructional unit of the redesigned course, students were presented with a highly publicized policy question rooted in biological principles and currently facing lawmakers. Working in diverse groups, students sought out the information that was needed to reach an educated, rationalized decision. This approach models civic engagement and demonstrates the real-life importance of science to nonscience majors. The outcomes from two semesters in which the redesign were taught were compared with sections of the course taught using traditional pedagogies. When compared with other versions of the same course, presenting the course content within a deliberative democratic framework proved to be superior for increasing students’ knowledge gains and improving students’ perceptions of biology and its relevance to their everyday lives. These findings establish deliberative democracy as an effective pedagogical strategy for nonmajors biology.

  18. Pratice of Deliberative Democracy under the Lead of CPC during Anti-Japancse War%抗战时期中国共产党领导的协商民主实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈映霞

    2011-01-01

    协商民主是20世纪后期民主理论的转向,它意味着政治共同体中自由平等的公民通过反思、对话、辩论等,就涉及公共利益的政策达成共识,从而赋予立法和决策以合法性。中国共产党在抗战时期领导的"三三制"政权是协商民主在中国的一种实践雏形,为我们今天的协商民主实践提供了有益的借鉴和思考。%Democratic theory veered toward deliberative democracy in late twenty-centry's.Deliberative democracy means the citizen in a political community who are free and equal reach a consensus on the policies about common interest by introspecting,dialogueing and debating,so that the legislations and policies have the legitimacy."Triangular Organization"regime in the leadship of Chinese Communist Party during the period of Anti-Japanese War was one kind of practical embryo of deliberative democracy in China,All theses provided salutary lesson and consideration for our practice of deliberative democracy today.

  19. Deliberative democracy and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Løvlie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Topos es la palabra griega que denota un lugar. Este término tomó posteriormente el significado del latín locus communis -literalmente, “lugar común”-. Y el Diccionario de Oxford traduce la palabra inglesa “commonplace” como “un tema ordinario de conversación” que viene a ser lo que se entiende en castellano por “tópico” o “lugar común”. En mi artículo me gustaría subrayar el aspecto existencial de los “tópicos”, tales como por ejemplo, la enemistad y el conflicto, o la amistad y amor; que son temas recurrentes y reestablecidos en los escenarios más o menos artificiales a los que llamamos escolarización y educación. Esto me conduce hacia la cuestión de lo trascendental o, mejor, al papel que desempeña lo trascendental en la actividad educativa. El punto principal es que lo trascendental no es lo que está lejano o más allá de nuestra existencia ordinaria, sino que se encuentra dentro de la misma vida que vivimos. Mi argumento comienza con la consideración de la íntima e intrínseca relación entre lo finito y lo infinito, lo real y lo utópico, el aquí y el más allá, tal como la presenta Hegel en el epígrafe dedicado a la Doctrina del Ser, en el primer libro de su Lógica. Sostendré que la dialéctica hegeliana configura un modo de pensar cotidiano, existencial y trascendental, que tiene una gran relevancia para la educación.

  20. Deliberative Pedagogy in a Nonmajors Biology Course: Active Learning That Promotes Student Engagement with Science Policy and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weasel, Lisa H.; Finkel, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Deliberative democracy, a consensus model of decision making, has been used in real-life policy making involving controversial, science-related issues to increase citizen participation and engagement. Here, we describe a pedagogical approach based on this model implemented in a large, lecture-based, nonmajors introductory biology course at an…

  1. Transnational deliberative democracy in the context of the European Union: The institutionalisation of the European Integration Forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    refers to the benefits of the deliberative model for inclusive policy making and it is argued that it is particularly useful for incorporating immigrant voices in consultative processes. The discursive dimension relates to the articulation of a common European discourse on integration within the already...

  2. The Potential for Deliberative Democratic Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jarrod S.; Howe, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The values of aggregative democracy have dominated much of civic education as its values reflect the realities of the American political system. We argue that deliberative democratic theory better addresses the moral and epistemological demands of democracy when compared to aggregative democracy. It better attends to protecting citizens' autonomy…

  3. Contemporary theories of democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to analyze several contemporary theories of democracy, and secondly, to propose a theoretical framework for further investigations based on analyzed theories. The following four theories will be analyzed: pluralism, social choice theory, deliberative democracy and participatory democracy.

  4. Study on Deliberative Democracy between China and Western in Horizon of Political Organization System%政权组织体制视阀下中西协商民主研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋洁; 刘元元; 胡均伟

    2015-01-01

    The theory of deliberative democracy is widely spreading and developing in the whole world, which attracts more and more attention by the political field. As one of the political systems, the deliberative democracy holds its flexibility deliberative feature, which makes it more important in different political organization form countries. This thesis mainly studies the disagreement between the separation of powers in western countries and the combination of legislature and administration in China, as well as its impacts in certain historical and practical conditions.%协商民主理论在全世界范围内的广泛发展和传播,使其越来越受到政治学界和政治活动家的重视。作为民主政治制度的新转向,协商民主制度具备以“公共理性”为基础的柔性协商特征,因此在中西不同的政权组织体制国家内都占据着重要地位。深入探讨西方国家的三权分立体制与中国议行合一制度中的协商因素,对两者存在的差异性进行对位分析和比较研究,有助于突显协商民主在特定的社会背景和政治实践中的作用和意义。

  5. Deliberative Ecological Economics for Sustainability Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Howarth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the recent emergence of ‘deliberative ecological economics’, a field that highlights the potential of deliberation for improving environmental governance. We locate the emergence of this literature in the long concern in ecological economics over the policy implications of limited views of human action and its encounter with deliberative democracy scholarship and the model of communicative rationality as an alternative to utilitarianism. Considering criticisms over methods used and the focus of research in deliberative decision-making, we put forward a research agenda for deliberative ecological economics. Given the promising potential of deliberative processes for improving the effectiveness and legitimacy of environmental decision-making, work in this area could help advance both theory and practice in environmental governance.

  6. Deliberative democracy and public reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baynes, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo reexamina as concepções habermasianas de política deliberativa e democracia procedimental à luz de outras teorias deliberativas, de forma a explorar as suas semelhanças e diferenças e investigar o quanto devem à ideia de razão pública e as implicações práticas daquela ideia

  7. Social innovation and deliberative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Eschweiler, Jennifer

    In much current literature on social entrepreneurship the entire focus is on the innovation and on the social value (the outcome) generated by the innovation. Social innovation is defined as “new and better ways to create social value” (Dees, 1998; 2002), or “social entrepreneurship seeks tipping...

  8. A deliberative solution to the social choice problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Is there a sense in which society makes rational decision in a democratic way that is similar to individual rational decision-making? Social choice theory claims that rational social choice is not possible. Or, at least, that if possible, then the social choice must be dictatorial. I shall present a deliberative solution to the social choice problem. This solution is called deliberative, because it is based on the assumptions of deliberative democracy.

  9. 自媒体民间舆论对协商民主的正面参与%The Positive Influence of We Media’Public Opinions on Deliberative Democracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝雨; 刘凯

    2015-01-01

    On the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Communist Party of China, the deliberative democracy once again became the focus. We media civilian opinion demonstrates a strong vitality in participating the delibera⁃tive democracy. It can not only facilitate the process of deliberative democracy, but also can strengthen the ba⁃sis of democratic decision-making negotiations, meanwhile, it can also show its warnings to the adverse behav⁃iors in the process of deliberative democracy. From the perspective of public opinion, We media provides an open public sphere which can make public affairs clearly presented in the public, reducing the interference ef⁃fect of“stereotype”and improving the quality of public opinion. Meanwhile, we should also realize that optimiz⁃ing the participating function of the We media is quite essential in promoting the process of deliberative democ⁃racy. It requires the change of the way of thinking, the acceleration of the integration of official and the public opinion field, and the power to grasp the trend of the public opinion. What’s more, strengthening the education efforts on new media literacy and improving the public’s ability of using the We media are also needed.%在党的十八届三中全会上,协商民主又一次得到了重点阐述。而在参与协商民主方面,自媒体民间舆论具有强大的生命力。它不仅可以促进协商民主的进程,夯实协商民主的民意基础,同时,它还对协商民主过程中的不良之风具有警示作用。从舆论学角度看,自媒体既为舆论的形成提供了开放的公共领域,又可使公共事务更为清晰地呈现在公众面前,在一定程度上削减了“刻板印象”对公众的干扰作用,从而促进民意质量的提高。而我们也应意识到,若想使自媒体更好地推动协商民主的进程,优化其参与功能也是必不可少的。这不仅需要思维方式的转变和加速官民舆论场的融合,还要

  10. 论协商民主视角下高校管理决策中的问题%On Deliberative Democracy from the Perspective of the Problems in Management Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管家佳; 刘颖

    2014-01-01

    With the reform of university management,decision results involved in all kinds of interests.In this paper,from the perspective of the deliberative democracy participation enthusiasm is not high,participation in the process of debate,negotiation,much less,much less compromise line main management decision,the lack of timely feedback and supervision mechanism problems.Put forward to encourage participation,popularization of deliberative democracy theory knowledge,the mechanism of public debate,the decision results,countermea-sures to perfect the feedback process,to establish the mechanism of supervision standard.In order to improve the scientificity and effective-ness in management decision making.%随着高校改革的不断推进,高校管理决策的结果涉及校内各类主体的权益。从在协商民主的视角下探讨高校管理决策中存在主体参与积极性不高、参与过程少辩论、少协商、多妥协、多看齐,缺乏及时的反馈和监督机制的问题。提出鼓励参与、普及协商民主理论知识,引入辩论机制,公开决策结果、完善反馈程序、建立规范的监督机制的对策。以期提高高校管理决策的科学性和实效性。

  11. Democracia: velhas e novas controvérsias Democracy: old and new controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cabral Neto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A discussão realizada neste artigo busca sistematizar elementos essenciais em torno do tema democracia. Sistematiza fragmentos da democracia dos antigos; analisa a origem e evolução da democracia dos modernos, explicitando a sua relação com o liberalismo e discute a relação democracia e bem-estar social em países de capitalismo avançado e no Brasil. A conclusão sinaliza para a necessidade de ampliação da democracia, articulando as suas dimensões política, econômica e cultural. Isso implicaria a incorporação organizada dos atores sociais aos processos políticos e administrativos e o acesso da população aos bens materiais, culturais e educacionais.In this article the author searches for clarification of essential elements around the theme democracy. He analyses fragments of old democracy, the origin and evolution of modern democracy, making clear its relationship with liberalism. He also discusses the relationship between democracy and social well being in countries of advanced capitalism and Brazil. The conclusion identifies the need for the expansion of democracy, articulating its political, economic and cultural dimensions. This would imply in an organised linking of the social actors to political and administrative processes, as well as the access of the population to goods, both cultural and educational.

  12. In Defense of a Deliberative Democratic Civics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2013-01-01

    Political divides in our democracy are ever-widening. Deliberative democratic civics education provides a new way for civics education to prepare students for a democracy that addresses the diversity in moral perspectives that have created the divides in a more constructive way. Civics education traditionally has been tied to aggregative theories…

  13. Democracia deliberativa: leitura crítica do caso CDES à luz da teoria do discurso Deliberative democracy: a critical look at the CDES case through the discourse theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Vizeu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma leitura crítica da prática da democracia em tempos atuais. Para tanto, empreende uma reflexão sobre a democracia na modernidade, em que os limites impostos pelo Estado burocrático apontam para a possibilidade do desenvolvimento mais profícuo da democracia deliberativa. Os autores observam teoricamente a prática discursiva e seu potencial democratizante, para então desvelar em que medida a orientação estratégica da ação em espaços discursivos pretensamente democráticos compromete o sentido de igualdade participativa. Para ilustrar a abordagem teórica, analisam empiricamente o caso do Conselho de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (CDES, um fórum de debates entre representantes da sociedade civil e do governo, criado no início da gestão Lula no intuito de fomentar a participação da sociedade em questões do Estado. A despeito do avanço obtido na adoção de tal modelo, quando o contexto democrático é analisado à luz da teoria do discurso, surgem novas referências de análise das contradições nas quais se estabelece a prática democrática nesses tipos de fóruns. O caso do CDES revela um paradoxo: apesar de certos procedimentos da democracia deliberativa, é recorrente a orientação estratégica.This article takes a critical look at how democracy is practiced today. It reflects on democracy in modern times, when the boundaries imposed by the bureaucratic state indicate the possibility of a productive development of deliberative democracy. It then observe in theory the discursive practice and its democratic potential so as to reveal to what extent the strategic direction of actions in allegedly democratic discursive spaces compromises the meaning of participatory equality. To illustrate its theoretical approach, it presents an empirical analysis of the case of Economic and Social Development Council (CDES a forum composed by civil society and government representatives created in the beginning of

  14. 论协商民主理念在群众利益维护新机制的嵌入%From the perspective of deliberative democracy to safeguard the interests of the masses of new mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬金

    2013-01-01

      新形势下,受主客观因素影响,党和国家在维护群众利益方面面临极大困境与挑战。协商民主与维护群众利益密切关联,通过多主体间的协商,能为群众利益维护带来效能、秩序、公平正义以及合法性认同等方面的实质功效。群众利益维护新机制中协商民主理念的有效嵌入,需要在理念培育、平台建构、制度保障、氛围塑造等方面予以努力。%Under the new situation, influenced by subjective and objective factors, the Party and the country is facing great difficulties and challenges in maintaining the interests of the masses. Promoting deliberative democracy and safeguarding the interests of the masses are closely related, the multi-agent negotiation, to the interests of the masses to maintain substantive so as to bring efficiency, order, justice and legitimacy. To embed in the interests of the masses to maintain consultation mechanism, we have to take the concept of cultivation, platform construction, the security system, and establish an ideal an atmosphere in which people live and work.

  15. Value and Practice of Deliberative Democracy in Governance of Villages Inside Cities%协商民主在城中村治理中的价值与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓莉; 侯晓光

    2015-01-01

    城市化加速发展和社会结构深刻变化 ,使城中村及村转居社区治理面临许多新挑战.一方面 ,该区域各种社会矛盾和社会问题呈集中多发态势 ,另一方面 ,城中村居民自主管理、民主法制意识和利益诉求在不断提升 ,而基层政府管理体制和工作方法却存在诸多不适应的地方 ,致使社区治理绩效难以达致理想状态.因此 ,探寻政府行政管理和基层群众自治衔接互动的最佳结合点 ,成为理论和实践的难题.协商民主在很大程度上适应了城中村治理中实现政府与村(居)民良性互动的要求 ,同时也为城市基层治理提供了有效的利益整合机制、公共参与机制和协商沟通机制.鉴于目前基层协商机制运行尚处于实践探索阶段 ,故应着力于协商民主制度的完善和协商主体能力的培养 ,以切实推动城中村社会治理改革创新.%The accelerated development of city and the profound changes in social structure make the villages inside cities and the community governance face many new challenges .On the one hand ,various social contradic-tions and social problems in the region are concentrated and of multiple trend .On the other hand ,the independent management ,the democratic and legal consciousness and interest demand of the residents are rising ,w hile the local government management system and working methods have many unsuitable points ,which makes the community governance performance difficult to achieve the ideal state .Therefore ,to explore the best combination of interface interaction between government administrative management and grassroots mass autonomy has been a difficult problem in both theory and practice .Deliberative democracy largely not only meets the demand of benign interac-tion betw een government and villagers in governance of villages inside cites ,but also provides the mechanism of in-terests integration ,effective public participation mechanism and

  16. 'Deliberative Supranationalism' – A Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Joerges

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is essentially a translation of a comment in German (Joerges 2000 on a series of articles in which Rainer Schmalz-Bruns (1998, 1999a, 1999b developed a concept of legitimate governance beyond the constitutional state, which he called ”deliberative supra-nationalism” and contrasted with what Jürgen Neyer and the present author had suggested under the same title (Joerges/Neyer 1997. Our querelles allemandes were not specifically Teutonic: while Schmalz-Bruns presented his approach as a systematic elaboration of the theories of deliberative democracy, based, in particular, on recent contributions by Joshua Cohen, Michael Dorf and Charles Sabel (Cohen/Sabel, 1997; Dorf/Sabel 1998, Jürgen Neyer and I had offered an interpretation of institutional innovations and decision-making practices as observed in the European market-building project. This discussion has had precursors and follow-ups in various contexts, among both lawyers and political scientists. This essay should hence be understood as contribution to an ongoing debate.

  17. A Desconstrução Semântica da Supremacia Judicial e a Necessária Afirmação do Judicial Review: uma análise a partir da democracia deliberativa de Habermas e Nino / The Semantic Descontruction of Judicial Supremacy and the Required Affirmation of Judicial Review: an analysis from the deliberative democracy of Habermas and Nino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lima Marques

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A supremacia judicial pode ser caracterizada como a doutrina que fundamenta a possibilidade da suprema corte dizer, de acordo com a sua visão do texto constitucional, o que a lei é de forma conclusiva. Este trabalho parte do pressuposto de que a teoria da democracia deliberativa, ao postular um modelo de sociedade descentralizado e construído intersubjetivamente por meio de uma discussão aberta entre os distintos atores político-sociais, pode também ser utilizada como uma tese crítica à supremacia judicial. Assim, utilizando-se dos estudos de Gargarella, o presente artigo buscará, com base na visão de democracia deliberativa do autor, demonstrar que a supremacia judicial é prejudicial à democracia, na medida em que retira dos cidadãos a decisão final dos temas sociais mais importantes e os transfere para um poder político supremo.The judicial supremacy can be characterized as the doctrine that underlies the possibility of the supreme court to say, according with its vision of the constitutional text, what the law is conclusively. This paper assumes that the theory of deliberative democracy, by to postulating a decentralized model of society, constructed intersubjectively through an open discussion among the various political and social actors, can also be used as a critical theory to judicial supremacy. Thus, using the Gargarella studies this article will look, based on his vision of deliberative democracy to demonstrate that judicial supremacy is harmful to democracy, because the it removes citizens from the final decision of most important social issues, and transfers them to a supreme political power.

  18. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate chang...

  19. Social Media, Deliberative Democracy and Social Mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Bodington, Malene; Lerche, Søren

    , these approaches have all taken a normative & meta-theoretical approach to the subject & are rarely grounded in empirical research. Much has been written about using social media in a rationally, purpose-driven or strategic way, relating it to corporations, political organisations, and the latest in relation...... successfully used social media to mobilise people. An examination of Kirkeasyl (Church Asylum), a Danish social movement that mobilised people through social media, allows a better understanding of how social media can be used but also of how social media impacts the movements that use them. Kirkeasyl had...... the police that carried out political decisions. By employing social media, volunteers were found & mobilised for blockades and demonstrations when Iraqi refugees were deported, a large amount of money was collected in a very short time, & traditional mass media & politicians were engaged in the debate...

  20. DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY KNOCKING AT THE DOOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13093185

    South African policymakers followed the international trend towards ... elections have taken place at all public schools across the country.2 School governing ... presentation and data analysis of the provincial and national SGB election regulations available. 1 ..... Tricker Corporate Governance Principles 43; IoD King III 7.

  1. Journalism – neo-modern and deliberative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svith, Flemming

    In recent years in literature, journalism in Western countries is considered on a downfall due to digital technologies, the corporate structure of news media and the project of the journalistic profession itself. Despite attempts by scholars and the journalistic profession, the gap between...... journalism and society and democracy still exists. Paraphrasing scholarly work, the idea of this paper is simple: I propose a new journalistic approach, called Analytical Journalism, which adds to representations of reality in news discourse by nuancing dominating frames on a specific issue. Hence, the story...... is the best obtainable deliberative input – both in terms of existing representations of reality, the contingent nature of reality and the journalism practice....

  2. Network Surrounding and Cultivation of Citizenship Consciousness——Based on the Theories of Deliberative Democracy%网络围观与公民意识培育——基于“审议民主”的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2012-01-01

    As an emerging political participation way in the information age, network surrounding plays a positive role in cultivation of citizenship consciousness. But the virtual characteristic and case features of network surrounding cause lacking in discipline constrain of interact users' statements and actions and losing persistent power of cultivation of citizenship conscious- ness. Based on theories of Deliberative Democracy, there are three ways to eliminate adverse impact of network surrounding on the cultivation of citizenship consciousness. Firstly, "deliberative" should be encouraged in "Weak Public" to construct an ideal public expression space; Secondly, a communication platform should be built between "Strong Publics" and "Weak Publics" as to. absorb public opinions; Thirdly, "Strong Publics" should emphasize legitimacy and clarifying.

  3. Potencial participativo e função deliberativa: um debate sobre a ampliação da democracia por meio dos conselhos de saúde Participatory potential and deliberative function: a debate on broadening the scope of democracy through the health councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Patrício Bispo Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo reflete sobre a relação entre democracia e conselhos de saúde. Busca analisar os conselhos enquanto espaço de ampliação da democracia. Na primeira parte, são apresentadas algumas características e princípios do regime democrático liberal, com destaque para o enfoque minimalista e procedimental da tomada de decisão. Em seguida, discute-se sobre as fragilidades do modelo representativo e o estabelecimento de novas relações entre Estado e sociedade, face à nova gramática social e a complexidade de divisão entre as responsabilidades estatais e societais. Posteriormente, são apresentados os princípios da democracia deliberativa e a ideia de democracia substantiva. A ampliação da democracia é compreendida não só como garantia dos direitos civis e políticos, mas, sobretudo, dos direitos sociais. Por fim, a partir da discussão das categorias participação e deliberação, os conselhos de saúde são analisados como potencias mecanismos de ampliação da democracia.This article reflects upon the relation between democracy and health councils. It seeks to analyze the councils as a space for broadening the scope of democracy. First, some characteristics and principles of the liberal democratic regime are presented, with an emphasis on the minimalist and procedural approach of decision-making. The fragilities of the representative model and the establishment of new relations between the Government and society are then discussed in light of the new social grammar and the complexity of the division between governmental and societal responsibilities. The principles of deliberative democracy and the idea of substantive democracy are subsequently presented. Broadening the scope of democracy is understood not only as the guarantee of civil and political rights, but also especially, of social rights. Lastly, based on discussion of the participation and deliberation categories, the health councils are analyzed as potential

  4. Stock options, tax credits or employment contracts please! The value of deliberative public disagreement about human tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Heather L

    2011-07-01

    'Deliberative democracy' is increasingly popular globally, as a means of securing public engagement with emerging health technologies and democratizing their governance. Architects of deliberative 'mini-publics' have tended, however, to privilege consensus within deliberation and the generation of 'action commitments' within a 'decisional context', despite widespread critique. Less attention has been paid to the phenomenon of persistent disagreement within constructed deliberative fora. This paper addresses this lacuna, performing a narrative analysis of four days of deliberation within one small group of demographically diverse public participants at the BC Biobank Deliberation (Vancouver, Canada, 2007). It reveals the value of listening to persistent deliberative disagreements. First, this paper argues that disagreements enable identification of deliberation and evaluation of its quality. Second, they generate insight into the deliberative process and the discursive means through which consensus can be achieved. Third, persistent deliberative disagreements can be creative of innovative governance solutions. In the case of the BC Biobank Deliberation, disagreements about compensation for biobank donors generated a range of suggestions for mediating between donor rights, corporate interests and societal needs--from tissue sample rentals to donor tax credits--suggestions that are unique to the existing academic and policy literature. Finally, this paper argues that practitioners should present persistent disagreements to public and policy audiences as an 'output' of deliberative democracy events.

  5. Policy evaluation and democracy: Do they fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Fritz

    2017-08-05

    The papers assembled in this special issue shed light on the question of the interrelation between democracy and policy evaluation by discussing research on the use of evaluations in democratic processes. The collection makes a case for a stronger presence of evaluation in democracy beyond expert utilization. Parliamentarians prove to be more aquainted with evaluations than expected and the inclusion of evaluations in policy arguments increases the deliberative quality of democratic campaigns. In sum, evaluation and democracy turn out to be well compatible after all. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Christiano’s Deliberative Expertism and Choice Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ivanković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores Thomas Christiano’s account of the moral division of labor in democracy. Christiano’s incorporation of experts serves the purpose of alleviating the epistemic burdens of ordinary citizens in the decision-making process and decreasing the amount of work they would otherwise be required to take on in a modern democracy. The gist of my contribution to the debate is assessing whether Christiano’s account successfully tackles the issues brought about by cognitive biases that people suffer from in communicating their values in decision-making. I argue that Christiano’s notion of experts needs to be extended to choice architects, who possess the knowledge on methods for influencing choice. I also claim that choice architecture is a social fact that an informed deliberative democratic theory needs to deal with.

  7. Distributed Deliberative Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-García, Juan A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén; González-Sanz, Sergio; Sanchez, Lara Quijano

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of most successful applied AI technologies of recent years. Although many CBR systems reason locally on a previous experience base to solve new problems, in this paper we focus on distributed retrieval processes working on a network of collaborating CBR systems. In such systems, each node in a network of CBR agents collaborates, arguments and counterarguments its local results with other nodes to improve the performance of the system's global response. We describe D2ISCO: a framework to design and implement deliberative and collaborative CBR systems that is integrated as a part of jcolibritwo an established framework in the CBR community. We apply D2ISCO to one particular simplified type of CBR systems: recommender systems. We perform a first case study for a collaborative music recommender system and present the results of an experiment of the accuracy of the system results using a fuzzy version of the argumentation system AMAL and a network topology based on a social network. Besides individual recommendation we also discuss how D2ISCO can be used to improve recommendations to groups and we present a second case of study based on the movie recommendation domain with heterogeneous groups according to the group personality composition and a group topology based on a social network.

  8. The Role of Deliberative Collaborative Governance in Achieving Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Gollagher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues involve complex interactions between social, economic, and environmental factors that are often viewed quite differently by disparate stakeholder groups. Issues of non-sustainability are wicked problems that have many, often obscure causes, and for which there is no single, straightforward solution. Furthermore, the concept of sustainability is itself contested. For example there are disputes over whether a strong or weak interpretation of sustainability should be adopted. In cities, as elsewhere, sustainability therefore requires discursive plurality and multiple sites of action. It is the thesis of this paper that effective problem solving, decision-making and enacting of a sustainability agenda require deliberative collaborative governance (DCG, a logical hybrid of the closely related fields of deliberative democracy and collaborative governance. We provide a provisional typology of different modes of deliberative collaborative governance, explaining each with a sustainability example, with a particular focus on DCG initiatives for planning in Western Australia. It is argued that the lens provided by such a typology can help us to understand the factors likely to promote better resolution of wicked problems and increased sustainability.

  9. Deliberative Communication Goes to College: The "Deliberation Forum" Project as a Democratic Agent of Empowerment for Communication Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Vered

    2016-01-01

    A new field of research has developed over the last few decades, called "Deliberative Communication". It focuses on the potential contribution of public deliberations to strengthening the foundations of democracy and the promotion of social-political goals and objectives. The current research focuses on a unique case study, the…

  10. Epistocracy for online deliberative bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Mameli, Matteo; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The suggestion that deliberative democratic approaches would suit the management of bioethical policymaking in democratic pluralistic societies has triggered what has been called the "deliberative turn" in health policy and bioethics. Most of the empirical work in this area has focused on the allocation of healthcare resources and priority setting at the local or national level. The variety of the more or less articulated theoretical efforts behind such initiatives is remarkable and has been accompanied, to date, by an overall lack of method specificity. We propose a set of methodological requirements for online deliberative procedures for bioethics. We provide a theoretical motivation for these requirements. In particular, we discuss and adapt an "epistocratic" proposal and argue that, regardless of its merits as a general political theory, a more refined version of its normative claims can generate a useful framework for the design of bioethical forums that combine maximal inclusiveness with informed and reasonable deliberation.

  11. As origens da discussão do componente social da democracia brasileira: a querela entre Rui Barbosa e Oliveira Vianna Origins of the debate on the social component in brazilian democracy: the controversy between Rui Barbosa and Oliveira Vianna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Godinho de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho recupera a polêmica entre Rui Barbosa e Oliveira Vianna, na origem do debate, no pensamento brasileiro relativo à dimensão social da democracia. Antecede a substituição de um regime político liberal, defendido por Rui Barbosa, por um modelo corporativo, instituidor de direitos sociais, sustentado por Oliveira Vianna. Esses intelectuais revelaram-se “porta-vozes” das representações da sociedade sobre o tema, criando uma cultura política em que ainda são defi nidos os termos desse debate no Brasil. A concepção individualista de Barbosa propõe um regime político baseado no mecanismo das instituições “eletivas” clássicas da democracia representativa. O esforço intelectual de Vianna apresenta um modelo alternativo, enraizado na “realidade social”, cuja conseqüência histórica resulta na instalação de um Estado centralizado e corporativo. Destacamos a necessidade de uma síntese que conjugue ambas as dimensões: a liberal, comprometida com a proteção das liberdades civis e políticas; e a tradição “corporativa”, empenhada no aprofundamento dos direitos sociais. Palavras-chave: Rui Barbosa. Oliveira Vianna. Liberalismo. Corporativismo. Democracia. Cidadania. Origins of the debate on the social component in brazilian democracy: the controversy between Rui Barbosa and Oliveira Vianna This article deals with the controversy between Rui Barbosa and Oliveira Vianna, which lays on the basis of the debate about the social dimension of democracy in Brazilian political thinking. It anticipates the substitution of the liberal regime – sustained by Rui Barbosa – by a corporative one – advocated by Oliveira Vianna. These thinkers appear as representative of the different opinions harbored within the society about this question, creating a political culture that still nowadays establishes the terms of the debate. The individualist view of Barbosa proposes a political regime based on the

  12. Mitigated Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Militant democracy is an attempt to defend democracy against totalitarian parties that would use democratic procedures to rise to power. This article is focused on the consistency of the concept of 'militant democracy'. I argue that what militant democracy defends is not the democratic procedure its

  13. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Direct democracy describes a theory of democracy and a form of collective decision-making in which sovereignty is directly exercised by the people. Democracy is direct if it is characterized by citizens making all decisions together with a maximum of equal participation. Direct democracy can...

  14. Mitigated Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Militant democracy is an attempt to defend democracy against totalitarian parties that would use democratic procedures to rise to power. This article is focused on the consistency of the concept of 'militant democracy'. I argue that what militant democracy defends is not the democratic procedure

  15. Bleaching preferences: Why deliberative procedure should include self-interested preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Someone might vote for an option that on his or her view best promotes his or her self-interest. But, someone might vote for an option that promotes what he or she sees as a common good. The point is that there is no necessity here. Empirically oriented investigations showed that people vote both for self-centered and prosocial reasons. On the standard account of deliberative democracy public discussion is oriented towards achieving the common good. In this paper I shall argue that there is no necessity in supposing that public deliberation will lead to consensus over the common good. If consensus over the common good is neither realistic, nor desirable feature of public deliberation, then the most that practically oriented deliberative democrats might hope for is an open debate which may influence post-deliberative voting. Or so I shall argue. On this account, deliberative democracy makes more probable that outcome of the voting procedure will reflect concerns over the common good. According to this conception the appeal to selfinterest is not ex hypothesi excluded. The role of public deliberation is to bring to the fore both self-centered and prosocial concerns, and eventually to show why prosocial concerns should override private concerns. But there is no necessity here. The most important thing is to have sound procedure for weighting the reasons that speak both for and against self-interested concerns.

  16. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by…

  17. The Claims of Freedom: Habermas' Deliberative Multiculturalism and the Right to Free Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyzes and discusses Jürgen Habermas’ political philosophy, focusing on his theories of multiculturalism and deliberative democracy. This implies an assesment of strengths and weaknesses in Habermas' theory, and an attempt to overcome the weaknesses through some revisions and reinterpretations. More specifically, I apply Habermas' framework to a particular question to which he himself has not paid systematic attention, namely how we should justify and use free speech in culturall...

  18. Reframing Democracy -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Reframing Democracy – intersectional and transnational challenges This presentation will explore the theoretical andnormative challenges to reframe feminist approaches to democracy fromintersectional and transnational perspectives and present empirical findingsfrom EU research projects. The recent...

  19. Landscape democracy, three sets of values, and the connoisseur method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn; Mellqvist, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The European Landscape Convention has brought up the question of democracy in relation to landscape transformation, but without a clear definition of democracy. This paper conceptualises democracy in relation to three main sets of values related to self-determination, co-determination and respect...... for argument. It examines various methods that have been used to try to make landscape decisions more democratic. In the last part of the paper the connoisseur method is introduced. This method emphasises stakeholder participation in deliberative processes with a particular focus on place-based knowledge...

  20. Group Identity, Deliberative Democracy and Diversity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2012-01-01

    Democratic deliberation places the burden of self-governance on its citizens to provide mutual justifying reasons (Gutmann & Thompson, 1996). This article concerns the limiting effect that group identity has on the efficacy of democratic deliberation for equality in education. Under conditions of a powerful majority, deliberation can be repressive…

  1. Blueprint for a deliberative public forum on biobanking policy: were theoretical principles achievable in practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, Caron; Maxwell, Susannah; Youngs, Leanne; Kyne, Gaenor; Hope, Fiona; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Public deliberation is recommended for obtaining citizen input to policy development when policies involve contested ethical dimensions, diverse perspectives on how to trade-off competing public interests and low public awareness of these perspectives. Several norms have been proposed for the design of deliberative methods. Evidence is scarce regarding whether such norms are achievable in practice. This paper refers to principles of deliberative democracy theory to describe a deliberative public forum on biobanking. Practical challenges and contextual facilitators of achieving deliberative ideals are discussed, along with factors that influenced use of the forum output in policy development. The forum ran for 4 days over two weekends in Perth, Western Australia. Key methodological features were socio-demographic stratification to randomly recruit a mini-public of citizens for discursive representation, provision of information inclusive of diverse perspectives and framed for difference, provision of a fair way for reasoning and collective decision making and adoption of processes to achieve publicity, accountability and independence from undue institutional influence. Most design principles were achieved in practice, with the fundamental exception of representativeness. Factors influencing these outcomes, and the use of deliberated outputs to develop policy, included institutional characteristics, the design involvement of deliberative experts and quality of the outputs when compared to other consultation methods. Public deliberations can achieve design ideals and influence (ethics-based) public health policy. The representation of 'hard to reach' citizens and their views needs further consideration, particularly as this relates to the procedural legitimacy of ethical analyses and the just inclusion of deliberative citizen advice within the broader policy-making process. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Urban transport, the environment and deliberative governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2006-01-01

    in searching for new formats for collaboration and deliberative governance and, in particular, for generating trust among interdependent actors. The concluding remark holds that deliberative governance can illuminate conflicting relations and provoke or massage those early in policy and planning processes...

  3. The Issue Network as a Deliberative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Through an analysis of the Danish asylum issue network on the Internet, this article discusses the possibilities of the online sphere as a deliberative space, where politics is happening. By assessing the hyperlink structure of the issue network and a subsequent content analysis of the claims...... and deliberative activity is not as definitive as it is often assumed in network analysis...

  4. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... included as a chapter in the Handbook are possible measures for best practices of implementation, designed for those who wish to tailor direct democracy instruments to their specific needs. In order to further complement the best practices, a variety of global case studies detail the practical uses...... of direct democracy mechanisms in specific contexts. These country case studies allow for in depth discussion of particular issues, including signature collection and voter participation, campaign financing, media coverage, national variations in the usage of direct democracy procedures and national lessons...

  5. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... valuable information regarding the binding or non-binding nature of referendums, as well as issues that can be brought forth to a referendum....

  6. TRUTH OR DARE: ONLINE DELIBERATION. A CASE STUDY OF TWO INTERNET BASED DELIBERATIVE PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Maria BIDAȘCĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I attempt to discuss how the internet can be used to stimulate an effective communication between citizens and decision-makers. In particular, I will aim to see if it can facilitate a greater degree of deliberation among citizens, if it can make democracy more inclusive and if it can make decision makers more responsible. I will first look at the definition and characteristics of deliberative democracy. Then after looking at what has been written so far about the effect of online discussions on democracy, I shall analyze the role the internet played in two case studies: web based participatory budgeting (PB and domnuleprimar.ro (DearMrMayor.ro. Both of these platforms were designed to create a closer bond between decisionmakers and citizens and will thus prove relevant to the discussion. Finally, I conclude that while the two case studies seem to favor increased inclusiveness, it only partially increases accountability and does not register any significant progress with regard to deliberation. Still, I argue that reasons for optimism exist even with regard to the deliberative aspect. Since the debate regarding the value of online deliberation is far from over, more research is needed in order to perhaps design a framework which will allow us to exploit the democratic value of the internet to its full potential.

  7. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  8. Media democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, D.

    2008-01-01

    The present article compendiously presents the interlinked and abruptly developing processes of media democracy and political matters’ personalization. The writer expressly opts for these processes which can radically rejuvenate communication and trust among citizens and politicians and therefore

  9. Property, Propriety and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Devenney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The redefinition of rights of equality and liberty by radical and deliberative democrats during the last decades of the 20th century resulted in the denial that a consideration of property is integral to political philosophy. Theorizing property as intrinsically political demands a return to Marx but on terms he may not have recognized. I outline a politics of property in this paper contending that there can be no universal justification for any regime of property. Property is by definition the institution of a wrong. The articulation of something as property establishes a border, determining what can be owned, how far ownership extends, where it is limited, as well as terms of use and terms of abuse. It establishes a set of property relations, and defines a vocabulary of the proper. Here sovereign state power is enlisted to enforce relations of property beneficial to some, but not all. A challenge to any political regime must of necessity put in to question both the forms of proper behaviour, and the regime of property. These are intrinsically related to each other. I conclude by arguing that democracy is always improper. Property, in all of its forms entails enclosure. Enclosure requires the drawing and the maintenance of boundaries of exclusion and inclusion. The sovereign determination of the proper, as well as of the exception to the proper defines trespass. Trespass is a form of democratic enactment when, and if, it destabilises enclosure.

  10. Property, Propriety and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Devenney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The redefinition of rights of equality and liberty by radical and deliberative democrats during the last decades of the 20th century resulted in the denial that a consideration of property is integral to political philosophy. Theorizing property as intrinsically political demands a return to Marx but on terms he may not have recognized. I outline a politics of property in this paper contending that there can be no universal justification for any regime of property. Property is by definition the institution of a wrong. The articulation of something as property establishes a border, determining what can be owned, how far ownership extends, where it is limited, as well as terms of use and terms of abuse. It establishes a set of property relations, and defines a vocabulary of the proper. Here sovereign state power is enlisted to enforce relations of property beneficial to some, but not all. A challenge to any political regime must of necessity put in to question both the forms of proper behaviour, and the regime of property. These are intrinsically related to each other. I conclude by arguing that democracy is always improper. Property, in all of its forms entails enclosure. Enclosure requires the drawing and the maintenance of boundaries of exclusion and inclusion. The sovereign determination of the proper, as well as of the exception to the proper defines trespass. Trespass is a form of democratic enactment when, and if, it destabilises enclosure.

  11. Blackboxing democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus, Nina; Markussen, Randi

    2011-01-01

    The current popular uprising in the Middle East have given us the possibility to witness how technology (i.e. social media) can be used as a strong weapon for democracy. When it comes to e-voting technologies, however, it remains unclear whether these are “a bomb or a gift for democracy” (Kickbusch......, 2011). The 2000 presidential election presidential in the US—where Bush was announced as a winner in spite of the flaws that were detected in the system—reminds us of the devastating consequences that these technologies may have on our democracy. E-voting technologies are imagined as having...... that these machines are easily hackable. In contrast to the implementation of other technologies (e.g., EPRs), with e-voting technologies mistakes cannot be compensated as these can have devastating consequences on our democracy....

  12. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  13. Paradoxes and Principles of Functioning of the Contemporary Political Democracies: Democracies in Transition in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veton LATIFI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical debate on democracy for a longer period is one of the most dynamic debates within the political sciences, associated with plenty of controversies and paradoxes in terms of lack of consistent principles of functions of contemporary democracies. Various authors continue to disagree regarding the exact foundations of democratic systems, their ideal principles and optimal outcomes for these systems as a result of functioning and failures of the democracy. The situation then is not a source of paradoxes, but rather it brings in visible the paradoxes of functioning of the contemporary political democracies often associated with camouflages under the flag of democracy and abuses under the umbrella of democratic rhetoric in many political processes around the world. The paradoxes of the frontier line what is allowed and what not in a democracy often serves as a starting point for justification of the abuses and misinterpretation of democratic values by the authorities?! The paper is interested in exploring how closely these various conceptualizations of democracy are related to our intuitive sense of what democracy means, or should mean?! In the second part of the paper, using the methods of case study and functional analyses the paradoxes are considered on the practices of the contemporary democracies for the countries in transition of the Balkans, especially discussing the manifestations of the illiberal democratic tendencies.

  14. Daily Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Karin; Giro, Francesca; Graham, Todd

    media are fostering a more ‘connected’ and reciprocal relationship between citizens and politicians. Throughout many Western democracies, research points to the in- creasing valorisation of Twitter as an informal, intimate and open space for (ev- eryday) political communication, raising important......, it ignores the communicative mundaneness of daily democracy. This paper accordingly in- vestigates and compares the ways in which members of parliament (MPs) in three European countries – Italy, Sweden and United Kingdom – utilize Twit- ter during off-peak periods, focusing on the extent to which social...... basic patterns of usage. Second, we analyse the types of tweets (e.g. retweet, @-reply); third, their function (e.g. self-promotion, critiquing, requesting input/support); fourth, interaction (whom MPs communicate with). Finally, we examine the content (the political/personal topics tweeted about...

  15. Democracy Squared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    -Republican model. In the qualitative analysis the discourse is analysed as repeating genres – patterns in the communication form which also reflect the conflict of interest between citizens and politicians. Though the analysis gives insight into the nature of the discourse the site supports, little is known about...... translating this kind of insight into better site design. We match the site’s communication genres with known features of E-democracy sites to generate tentative design improvement possibilities....

  16. Deliberative Monetary Valuation (DMV) in Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores and contrasts the different social processes of valuation now appearing as economic means of valuing the environment. Monetary valuation via stated preference approaches has been criticised for assuming well formed and informed preferences and excluding a range of sustainability concerns such as rights, fairness and equity. Deliberative monetary valuation (DMV) in small groups is a novel hybrid of economic and political approaches which raises the prospect of a transformat...

  17. Improving school governance through participative democracy and the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius H Smit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an inextricable link between democracy, education and the law. After 15 yearsofconstitutional democracy, the alarming percentage of dysfunctional schools raises questions about the efficacy of the system of local school governance. We report on the findings of quantitative and qualitative research on the democratisation of schools and the education system in North-West Province. Several undemocratic features are attributable to systemic weaknesses of traditional models of democracy as well as the misapplication of democratic and legal principles. The findings of the qualitative study confirmed that parents often misconceive participatory democracy for political democracy and misunderstand the role of the school governing body to be a political forum. Despite the shortcomings, the majority of the respondents agreed that parental participation improves school effectiveness and that the decentralised model of local school governance should continue. Recommendations to effect the inculcation of substantive democratic knowledge, values and attitudes into school governance are based on theory of deliberative democracy and principles of responsiveness, accountability and justification of decisions through rational discourse.

  18. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis.

  19. Power, Democracy--and Democracy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses questions of workplace democracy, particularly in relation to school education. Following Luciano Canfora in treating democracy as "the rule of the many", it traces the post-1945 rise of workplace democracy, and its post-1979 decline. Analysing the constitution of contemporary schooling in England, the article concludes that…

  20. Power, Democracy--and Democracy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses questions of workplace democracy, particularly in relation to school education. Following Luciano Canfora in treating democracy as "the rule of the many", it traces the post-1945 rise of workplace democracy, and its post-1979 decline. Analysing the constitution of contemporary schooling in England, the article…

  1. Power, Democracy--and Democracy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses questions of workplace democracy, particularly in relation to school education. Following Luciano Canfora in treating democracy as "the rule of the many", it traces the post-1945 rise of workplace democracy, and its post-1979 decline. Analysing the constitution of contemporary schooling in England, the article…

  2. The university as an encounter for deliberative communication - creating cultural citizenship and professional responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Englund

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How can higher and professional education contribute to the development of responsible citizenship and professional responsibility? In recent discussions on the role of the educational system, the idea of “deliberative communication” has been brought into focus and stands for communication in which different opinions and values can be set against each other in educational settings. It implies an endeavour by each individual to develop his or her view by listening, deliberating, seeking arguments and valuing, coupled to a collective and cooperative endeavour to find values and norms which everyone can accept, at the same time as pluralism is acknowledged. Within higher education deliberative communication might explicitly be used to develop professional responsibility and analysing consequences of different ways of solving problems. To what extent are and can universities become public spaces for encounters dealing with controversial questions of how to solve different problems and analyse different ways of professional acting? Can universities recreate their selective traditions, “institutionalize dissensus”, and “make the university a site of public debate” through deliberative communication?

  3. Democracy and Environmental Integration in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria

    evaluators, the deficit perception was related to lack of ‘authentic influence’ achieved by actors protesting the decision. Signs of strength in the democratic qualities of the process were found in the deliberative practices initiated by organized civil society groups. The results raised the question: what......This dissertation presents an evaluation of the democratic qualities of decision-making processes for large transport infrastructure projects in two Scandinavian countries: Denmark and Sweden. The study uncovers criteria from aggregative and deliberative theories of democracy to create...... a qualitative prism through which it critically analyses the basis of the claim that a democratic deficit exits in this area of decision-making. The study also seeks to understand whether conditions that enhance democratic deliberation in decision processes can contribute to enhance integration of environmental...

  4. The Phenomenology of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…

  5. The Phenomenology of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…

  6. A Review of Researches about Deliberative Democracy in China——On the Inequalities among Deliberators%国内协商民主研究的回顾与反思——协商主体不平等研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守涛

    2011-01-01

    The inequalities among deliberators have important influences on the effectiveness of democratic practices.In order to make further studies about the inequalities mentioned above,and then provide some references to the deliberative practices,this paper makes a systematic review of the existing literatures in China,which includes the following three aspects:the inequalities among deliberators,the influences of the inequalities,the measures to cope with the problems of the inequalities.Based on the review,the final section simply evaluates the values and deficiencies of the existing literatures and makes some recommendations for the future studies.%协商主体不平等是影响协商民主实践有效性的重要因素,为进一步讨论协商主体不平等问题,进而为协商民主实践的推进提供理论与经验意义上的参考,文章在尽量查阅国内相关研究文献的基础上,围绕对主体不平等情况的阐释、对主体不平等影响的分析、对解决不平等影响对策的探究三个方面做了较为系统的回顾,最后在此基础上指出了既有研究的价值与不足,同时从研究的深入化与实证化等方面就后继研究的努力方向提出了几点建议。

  7. Democracia e justiça Democracy and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Vita

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinam-se as relações entre democracia e justiça na teoria política contemporânea. Após evidenciar as insuficiências da vertente competitiva da democracia com respeito a esse tópico, argumenta-se que necessitamos recorrer a uma concepção "epistêmica" de democracia deliberativa, para a qual há um padrão independente de legitimidade política com base no qual os resultados de procedimentos deliberativos devem ser avaliados. Os limites dessa concepção epistêmica, sobretudo no que se refere ao lugar que nela deve ser reservado à competição e ao conflito políticos, são discutidos.The relations between democracy and justice in contemporary political theory are examined. The shortcomings of the competitive tradition of democracy on this score are brought out, and it is argued that we need an "epistemic" conception of deliberative democracy, according to which an independent criterion of political legitimacy should be employed in evaluating the outcomes of deliberative procedures. The limits of such an epistemic conception, particularly with reference to political conflict and competition, are discussed.

  8. Theory of the Deliberate Democracy in the Peaceration Liberation of Tibet in the Period of Practice%论党的协商民主在西藏和平解放时期的践行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳欢

    2015-01-01

    协商民主是我国社会主义民主政治的特有形式和独特优势 ,是中国共产党把马克思主义民主理论与中国革命与建设实践相结合的产物 ,是有中国特色的社会主义协商民主.协商民主思想在西藏和平解放时期党在开展西藏地方工作中得到充分践行.通过对西藏和平解放时期协商民主相关史料的筛理 ,分析协商民主思想在西藏和平解放时期践行的必然性 ,论述协商民主在该历史时期的实现历程及其基本特征 ,同时总结历史经验 ,以期在新时期能够与时俱进.%Deliberative democracy is the specific forms of socialist democratic politics in China and a unique advantage ,is the communist party of China put the democratic theory of marxism and the combination of the practice of Chinese revolution and construction ,Is the deliberative democracy socialism with Chinese characteristics .Deliberative democracy thoughts in the period of peaceful liberation of Tibet party's Tibet work adequately in practice .This article through to the peaceful liberation of Tibet period ,deliberative democracy sieve of relevant historical materials ,analysis of the thinking of deliberative democracy in the period of peaceful liberation of Tibet practiced inevitability ,deliberative democracy in the history period of the implementa-tion process and its basic characteristics ,and summarizing historical experience ,in order to able to keep pace with The Times in the new period .

  9. Deliberative public participation and hexachlorobenzene stockpiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Lyn

    2009-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the quality of citizen involvement in relation to the governance of industrial risks. Specifically, it explores the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) case relative to best practice public participation, which is consistent with deliberative democratic theory. The case could be judged a public participation failure given that the community committee in combination with the corporate sponsor was unable to agree on a mutually acceptable technological pathway. This stalemate might have been attributable in part to the time spent on the task of review. A diligent participation working party could have created a much more effective public participation plan, grounded in the core values of professional public participation practice.

  10. Fuzzy Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm (FHDRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Hengameth

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to introduce a new concept for incorporating fuzzy sets in hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm. After a brief review on basic issues of hybrid paradigm the definition of agent-based fuzzy hybrid paradigm, which enables the agents to proceed and extract their behavior through quantitative numerical and qualitative knowledge and to impose their decision making procedure via fuzzy rule bank, is discussed. Next an example performs a more applied platform for the developed approach and finally an overview of the corresponding agents architecture enhances agents logical framework.

  11. Blackboxing democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus, Nina; Markussen, Randi

    2011-01-01

    the making” (Latour, 1987). We will investigate the discourse surrounding these technologies and raise critical questions regarding e-voting technologies. One of the main concerns is that these devices black-box the electoral process, removing current control and accountability mechanisms conducted by humans......The current popular uprising in the Middle East have given us the possibility to witness how technology (i.e. social media) can be used as a strong weapon for democracy. When it comes to e-voting technologies, however, it remains unclear whether these are “a bomb or a gift for democracy” (Kickbusch...... the capacity to do a wide range of things, including increasing overall voter turnout (particularly of youth), improving equality for all votes (e.g. handicap people), increasing efficiency and accuracy of the electoral process as well as reducing waiting time and costs. Such utopian, idealistic...

  12. On Moral Education through Deliberative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    John Dewey's masterpiece "Democracy and Education", from 1916, is clearly far removed from the dominant tendencies of current education policy in the western world, with their emphasis on the narrow accountability of the New Public Management. Nevertheless, his book still challenges those tendencies and sets forth criteria for…

  13. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  14. E-Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Curran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Democracy means majority rule. This raises some interesting questions. In a truly democratic society, when a majority of citizens vote for one candidate to govern them, then that person would be the elected governor of those people. Following this line of reasoning, if the majority of people do not vote for a leader, does democracy mean not having a leader? This paper examines how e-Democracy can bring about a truer form of Democracy. We examined how e-Democracy may change pluralistic-representative-pseudo democracies into pure democracies. It was found that there are just two main things standing in the way of having true democracy. These are securing the voting process and representatives wanting to give citizens that power.

  15. The Problem of Citizens: E-Democracy for Actually Existing Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kreiss

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that many contemporary e-democracy projects, particularly in the United States, have at their heart a model of atomistic, independent, rational, and general-interest citizens. As such, these projects, variously grouped under the labels of e-governance, online deliberation, open government, and civic technology, often assume a broad shared consensus about collective definitions of “public problems” that both does not exist and sidesteps debates over what these problems are and what potential solutions can and should be. Drawing on recent theories of political parties, social identity, and cultural cognition, this article argues that e-democracy efforts need to account for the fact that the citizens practitioners appeal to see themselves by default as members of social groups, and that this has implications for politics and what Jasanoff calls “civic epistemology.” Presenting the case of attempting to change Republican opinions about climate change, I argue that e-democracy initiatives should seek to foster collaboration and deliberation within, not between, parties and among partisans. To do so, e-democratic reformers need to explicitly structure the collaborative and deliberative environment so there is a range of intra-party opinions and beliefs as part of the consultative and policy-making process.

  16. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether dem

  17. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether dem

  18. Schooling for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread movement today to prepare all students for college, and it is promoted in the name of democracy. I argue here that such a move actually puts our democracy at risk by forcing students into programs that do not interest them and depriving them of courses at which they might succeed. We risk losing the vision of democracy that…

  19. Reclaiming Deep Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrienne Brant

    2010-01-01

    The dawn of the 20th century sparked a world-wide movement to apply democracy in schools, courts, and families. Democracy is a cooperative culture which emerged from vast lands of North America at a time when the European continent was locked in hierarchical rule. Democracy was advocated by visionary youth work pioneers who discovered a better…

  20. Democracy and Education (1894)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Francis W.

    2013-01-01

    True education is the presentation of the conditions necessary for the evolution of personality into freedom. Democracy is the only form of government under which the methods of freedom can be fostered. The great central principle of democracy is mutual responsibility. Democracy in its essence gives to each individual the liberty of becoming free;…

  1. Cosmopolitan Democracy: A Restatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibugi, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Can democracy be expanded beyond borders? For many years, it was taken for granted that the norms and values of democracy could be applied within the boundaries of a state only. But over the last 20 years, it has been increasingly argued that democracy can also inform international organizations and global politics. This article recapitulates the…

  2. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  3. Democracy and Education (1894)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Francis W.

    2013-01-01

    True education is the presentation of the conditions necessary for the evolution of personality into freedom. Democracy is the only form of government under which the methods of freedom can be fostered. The great central principle of democracy is mutual responsibility. Democracy in its essence gives to each individual the liberty of becoming free;…

  4. Reclaiming Deep Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrienne Brant

    2010-01-01

    The dawn of the 20th century sparked a world-wide movement to apply democracy in schools, courts, and families. Democracy is a cooperative culture which emerged from vast lands of North America at a time when the European continent was locked in hierarchical rule. Democracy was advocated by visionary youth work pioneers who discovered a better…

  5. Schooling for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread movement today to prepare all students for college, and it is promoted in the name of democracy. I argue here that such a move actually puts our democracy at risk by forcing students into programs that do not interest them and depriving them of courses at which they might succeed. We risk losing the vision of democracy that…

  6. Cosmopolitan Democracy: A Restatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibugi, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Can democracy be expanded beyond borders? For many years, it was taken for granted that the norms and values of democracy could be applied within the boundaries of a state only. But over the last 20 years, it has been increasingly argued that democracy can also inform international organizations and global politics. This article recapitulates the…

  7. Democracy and Sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Democracy and sense questions practically all that happens in society today. Its aim is to raise a debate on the most urgent problems of economy, democracy, sustainable conduct and the framework for industry and business. A number of untraditional solutions are suggested, but without support...... to either rightwing or leftwing politics. In fact, one of the key points is that political parties have reduced democracy to one day of voting followed by four years of oligarchy. To regain a functioning democracy we must strengthen direct democracy and make the distance between population and government...

  8. Homegrown Democracy, Homegrown Democrats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman K. Denzin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Written on the eve of the 2004 American presidential election, this political narrative offers a critical reading of two models of democracy: Instant-Mix imperial democracy (bring to a boil, add oil, then bomb, criticized by Arundhati Roy, and Garrison Keillor’s Homegrown Democrat. Keillor’s pastoral view of democracy is anchored in LakeWobegon, his imaginary utopian community. His homegrown democracy is narrow, provincial, and White. The author concludes that he must look elsewhere for his alternative view of democracy.

  9. Technologies of democracy: experiments and demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Brice

    2011-12-01

    Technologies of democracy are instruments based on material apparatus, social practices and expert knowledge that organize the participation of various publics in the definition and treatment of public problems. Using three examples related to the engagement of publics in nanotechnology in France (a citizen conference, a series of public meetings, and an industrial design process), the paper argues that Science and Technology Studies provide useful tools and methods for the analysis of technologies of democracy. Operations of experiments and public demonstrations can be described, as well as controversies about technologies of democracy giving rise to counter-experiments and counter-demonstrations. The political value of the analysis of public engagement lies in the description of processes of stabilization of democratic orders and in the display of potential alternative political arrangements.

  10. Designing For Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Mårbjerg Thomsen, Signe

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we focus on ?patient-democracy? and ?shared decision-making? seen from the perspective of design practice and design research. In the research on democracy in healthcare it is rarely questioned what forms of democracy underlies these concepts. We have examined three different theories...... of democracy and the democratic practices that belong to each of these. For designers working to increase patient democracy it is of vital importance to be able to distinguish different structures underlying democratic practices and to work out methods for prototyping democracy. In design research...... there are already a number of approaches available which in one way or the other address the relationship between design, democracy and power. We provide an account of participatory design, adversarial design and design activism thereby pointing towards design?s potential for re-distributing power and authority...

  11. A desarmonia da democracia The disharmony of democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Gutmann

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A vontade popular pode dar apoio a decisões políticas que estão em contradição com as próprias condições para o governo da maioria. Argumenta-se que há uma forma de conceber o ideal democrático - a "democracia deliberativa" - que resolve esse paradoxo da "democracia populista" sem negar, como faz o "liberalismo negativo", o valor do autogoverno na esfera da política. Mesmo o ideal de democracia deliberativa, entretanto, não tem como escapar da desarmonia entre a autodeterminação na política e a autodeterminação individual.The popular will may give support to political results that contradict the very conditions for popular rule. It is argued that the democratic ideal may be conceived - as a "deliberative democracy" - in such a way as to solve this paradox without deying , as negative liberalism does, the value of self-government in politics. Even for the ideal of deliberative democracy, however, the disharmony between autonomy in politics and individual autonomy is inescapable.

  12. Philosophy of democracy and Principles of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Chovancová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the title of suggests the article deals with the problems of democracy, its philosophy and also dominant principles. The author reflects interpretation of democracy on the society with their different understand.             Democracy represents a form of government, a way of political life where these principles are put into practice.             Democracy and its separate principles are expressed in the ultimate legal rules in the democratic countries. Principle of participation as a democratic principle rests with the fact that citizens have right to participate in state administration either directly or via their elected representatives. This principle also ensures that citizens participating in state administration enjoy equal basic rights and liberties and also guarantees that no person can be excluded from participation in state administration or from access to elected or other posts.             Methodology: In the article I using method of analyze - I analyzing dominant problems of democracy-its principles in democratic countries. Another method is comparation- understanding democracy from historical aspect. And the end I also using method of synthesis-explanation democracy understand today.

  13. E-democracy a group decision and negotiation perspective

    CERN Document Server

    French, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Web-based interactions to support participation and deliberative democracy, called e-participation and e-democracy, are coming and coming fast. In some instances, the Internet is already permeating politics. However, it is far from clear if the processes involved in these interactions are meaningful and valid, and most of the research in the field has focused largely on the technologies to facilitate or automate the standard democratic instruments involved, such as e-voting or e-debating. This book, though, uses the point of view of the Group Decision and Negotiation approach to thoroughly discuss how web-based decision support tools can be used for public policy decision making. e-Democracy is structured into five main parts. The first part places democracy in context and reviews participatory instruments already in use in the physical world. The second part reviews methodologies that may be used to support groups in public policy decision making with a view on discussing how they may be used in the virtual ...

  14. River-Basin Politics and the Rise of Ecological and Transnational Democracy in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Sneddon; Coleen Fox

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, debates over 'deliberative', 'transnational' and 'ecological' democracy have proliferated, largely among scholars engaged in discussions of modernisation, globalisation and political identity. Within this broad context, scholars and practitioners of environmental governance have advanced the argument that a democratic society will produce a more environmentally conscious society. We want to make a volte-face of this argument and ask: to what extent does engagement with enviro...

  15. Mapping Deviant Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries have emerged as stable (though minimalist) democracies despite low levels of modernization, lack of democratic neighbouring countries and other factors consistently related to democratic stability in the literature. The study of these deviant democracies is a promising new...... research field but it is afflicted by a notable problem, viz. the lack of a consensus as to which countries are actually instances of deviant democracy. The present article attempts to solve this problem by carrying out a comprehensive mapping of deviant democracies. First, I review the existing literature...... to provide an overview of the cases most often identified as deviant democracies. Second, I use a large-N analysis to systematically map deviant democracies. The analysis includes 159 countries covering the time period 1993–2008. The analysis points to 12 cases that merits further attention, viz...

  16. Democracy against the odds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    Why have a number of poor countries sustained electoral democracy against the odds? The extant literature on democracy and democratization consistently points to the importance of socioeconomic development and democratic neighboring countries, in particular, as important prerequisites for a stable...... democracy. What is it that has enabled these countries to reap the benefits of democratic stability otherwise thought to follow from these structural factors? The dissertation studies these so-called ‘deviant democracies’ in two steps. A descriptive element provides an overview of deviant democracies based...... on a statistical analysis of most countries during the Third Wave of democratization (i.e., from 1975 until today). The overview provides for a systematic case selection of deviant democracies. An explanatory element proposes an alternative theoretical framework that qualifies extant theories of democracy...

  17. Democracy at stake

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquino, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Governmental instability, though a persistent feature of Italian politics, cannot be interpreted as an indicator that there always was a crisis of democracy in Italy. Very often there were, and there are, problems of functioning: crises within democracy. This article argues that Italian parties have been responsible for the appearance, the existence, and the evolution of Italian democracy. The collapse of the party system and the disappearance of all major parties between 1992 and 1994 have s...

  18. Democracy and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Milović Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    It might be that the crisis of democracy is crisis of thinking. Modern metaphysics affirms the monologue of the subject with respect to the problem of rationality, as well as in the social realm. It thus affirms liberal egoism. Such metaphysics structures modernity as a monologue. Thus the question arises: how to think the democracy within this monologue? Democracy appears to be a modern project impossible to achieve.

  19. Democracy and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milović Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It might be that the crisis of democracy is crisis of thinking. Modern metaphysics affirms the monologue of the subject with respect to the problem of rationality, as well as in the social realm. It thus affirms liberal egoism. Such metaphysics structures modernity as a monologue. Thus the question arises: how to think the democracy within this monologue? Democracy appears to be a modern project impossible to achieve.

  20. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  1. Contingency Management and deliberative decision-making processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Regier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contingency Management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of Contingency Management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that Contingency Management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by Contingency Management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  2. COMMUNICATIVE PECULIARITY OF INTERPRETATIVE AND DELIBERATIVE STYLE IN PEDAGOGICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsinkerman Tamara Nikolaevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to characterize the communicative peculiarities of the interpretative-deliberative style in pedagogical discourse. The object of the study is interpretative-deliberative style viewed as one of the communication forms in pedagogical discourse; the subject of the analysis is the stratagem and tactics characteristics of the interpretative-deliberative communicative style. Descriptive and analytical as well as stylistic and discourse analysis methods are employed. The author reveals the most prevalent strategies–explanatory, interpretative and deliberative–employed in communicative interaction in situations of educative persuasion. The communicative characteristics of the analyzed style are: a rational type of the communicative action, a trust-based tone and the emotional involvement of the communication participants. The results can be used for clarifying specifics of speech behavior in educative communication as well as for comparing styles of educative communication in different enthnocultural traditions.

  3. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  4. Dewey's Participatory Educational Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višnovský, Emil; Zolcer, Štefan

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Emil Višnovský and Štefan Zolcer outline John Dewey's contribution to democratic theory as presented in his 1916 classic "Democracy and Education." The authors begin with a review of the general context of Dewey's conception of democracy, and then focus on particular democratic ideas and concepts as presented in…

  5. Dewey's Participatory Educational Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višnovský, Emil; Zolcer, Štefan

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Emil Višnovský and Štefan Zolcer outline John Dewey's contribution to democratic theory as presented in his 1916 classic "Democracy and Education." The authors begin with a review of the general context of Dewey's conception of democracy, and then focus on particular democratic ideas and concepts as presented in…

  6. Making Democracy Work Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftis, Matthew; Petrova, Tsveta

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript revisits democracy's effect on citizens' daily lives and wellbeing. We addresses conflicting findings of the previous literature on this issue with two contributions: the paper focuses 1) on a possible causal pathway linking democracy and human development - the robustness...

  7. Derrida, Democracy and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Mansfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Democracy is usually identified with openness, order and pluralism and thus peace. Yet, everywhere, from the political convulsions that bring it into being to the wars that aim to extend it, democracy is violent. Usually this violence is seen as accidental or forced upon democracy. The aim of this paper is to argue that the violence of democracy springs from its inextricable if denied relationship to revolution, the drive to re-found the political order properly and definitively. Through a reading of Derrida’s account of the relationship between violence and justice in Walter Benjamin, violence is identified as the unstable founding moment which democracy must both pass through in order to emerge and also endlessly recall in its drive to both expand and complete its mission.

  8. Hate Speech Revisited: The "Toon" Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Dhavan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the cartoon controversy which ignited violent protests and ban in various countries, this article examines the contours of "hate speech" in various legal systems. While broadly supporting the case of free speech the authors remind users of free speech to exercise self-restraint. Absolute bans should not be made, but time, person and place constraints may be essential. Ironically, the toon controversy also reveals the silence of the sympathetic majority. Similarly, there is a duty to speak. Even though not enforceable, it remains a duty to democracy.

  9. Três modelos normativos de democracia Three normative models of democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Habermas

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos de democracia propostos pelo liberalismo e pelo republicanismo comunitarista são criticados a partir da perspectiva da política deliberativa tal como concebida pela teoria do discurso. Associando ao processo democrático conotações normativas mais fortes do que o modelo liberal, porém mais fracas do que o modelo republicano, a teoria do discurso articula elementos de ambas numa forma nova.The liberal and republican models of democracy are criticized from the standpoint of deliberative politics as conceived by the discourse theory. The normative implications of this model of deliberative politics are stronger than in the liberal model but weaker than in the republican one. Elements of both are articulated by it into a new form.

  10. Islam and Democracy: Conflicts and Congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Is authoritarianism intrinsic to Islam? Is Islam incompatible with democracy? These questions are frequently debated in the context of the study of the relationship between the Western and Islamic civilization. The debate has gained momentum since the last decade of the twentieth century, especially after the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the subsequent transition of socialist states in Eastern Europe and other authoritarian states in Asia and Latin America to democracy. The publication of The Clash of Civilizations by American scholar Samuel Huntington, in which he presented a controversial argument about a cultural divide and clash between the Islamic world and the West, pushed the debate even further. Apart from Muslim intellectuals, Western academics have spent a significant amount of time on these questions, with a multitude of articles and volumes examining the compatibility of Islam and democracy. In this paper, we will examine Islam’s relationship with democracy from normative and philosophical viewpoints, examining how the established values and principles of Islam as reflected in the Qur’anic and prophetic traditions correspond to Western democratic norms and practices. In order to obtain a profound understanding of this subject, we have delved into, through content analysis, the thoughts of several early modernist Islamic scholars who have had tremendous impact on contemporary Islamic revivalist movements throughout the world, and interviewed a number of contemporary Islamic thinkers in Bangladesh.

  11. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy: How scaling up corporate carbon reporting proliferates information asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lippert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate change as a market failure, where the optimisation of the atmosphere is to be evidence based and data driven. Citizens or consumers, state or private agents of control, all require deep access to information to judge emission realities. Whether we are interested in state-led or in neoliberal ‘solutions’ for either democratic participatory decision-making or for preventing market failure, companies’ emissions need to be known. This paper draws on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Fortune 50 company’s environmental accounting unit to show how carbon reporting interferes with information symmetry requirements, which further troubles possibilities for contesting data. A material-semiotic analysis of the data practices and infrastructures employed in the context of corporate emissions disclosure details the situated political economies of data labour along the data processing chain. The explicit consideration of how information asymmetries are socially and computationally shaped, how contexts are shifted and how data is systematically straightened out informs a reflexive engagement with Big Data. The paper argues that attempts to automatise environmental accounting’s veracity management by means of computing metadata or to ensure that data quality meets requirements through third-party control are not satisfactory. The crossover of Big Data with corporate environmental governance does not promise to trouble the political economy that hitherto sustained unsustainability.

  12. Deliberative Democracy, Institution Building, and the Pragmatics of Cumulative Effects Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Parkins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment is a process of scientific analysis, social choice, and public policy development, yet the linkages among these domains are often less than transparent. Limits to scientific and technical assessment, issues of power and control of information, and episodic forms of civic engagement represent serious challenges to meaningful understanding of cumulative effects assessment and land-use planning. In articulating these challenges, I draw on case studies from Ontario's Lands for Life and Alberta's Land-use Framework to illustrate current limitations to cumulative effects assessment on public lands in Canada. As a partial remedy for these limitations, insights into a pragmatic approach to impact assessment, in contrast to decisionistic and technocratic approaches, offer a way forward through a more robust integration of scientific information, civic engagement, and public policy development. I also identify a need for longer-standing institutions that are dedicated to regional planning and cumulative effects assessment in Canada.

  13. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy: How scaling up corporate carbon reporting proliferates information asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lippert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate change as a market failure, where the optimisation of the atmosphere is to be evidence based and data driven. Citizens or consumers, state or private agents of control, all require deep access to information to judge emission realities. Whether we are interested in state-led or in neoliberal ‘solutions’ for either democratic participatory decision-making or for preventing market failure, companies’ emissions need to be known. This paper draws on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Fortune 50 company’s environmental accounting unit to show how carbon reporting interferes with information symmetry requirements, which further troubles possibilities for contesting data. A material-semiotic analysis of the data practices and infrastructures employed in the context of corporate emissions disclosure details the situated political economies of data labour along the data processing chain. The explicit consideration of how information asymmetries are socially and computationally shaped, how contexts are shifted and how data is systematically straightened out informs a reflexive engagement with Big Data. The paper argues that attempts to automatise environmental accounting’s veracity management by means of computing metadata or to ensure that data quality meets requirements through third-party control are not satisfactory. The crossover of Big Data with corporate environmental governance does not promise to trouble the political economy that hitherto sustained unsustainability.

  14. Democracia deliberativa: entre Rawls e Habermas = Deliberative democracy: between Rawls and Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouanet, Luiz Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Democracia deliberativa consiste em uma proposta de tomada de decisões, em sociedades democráticas, por meio de deliberação, como alternativa preferencial em face de mecanismos de votação. Esta comunicação pretende avaliar criticamente alguns mecanismos de democracia deliberativa, bem como levantar o estado da discussão a esse respeito e, por fim, estudar sua viabilidade em alguns países específicos, entre eles o Brasil

  15. Beyond the conflict: religion in the public sphere and deliberative democracy

    OpenAIRE

    González Esteban, Elsa; Lozano Aguilar, José Félix; Pérez Zafrilla, Pedro Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, liberals have confined religion to the sphere of the ‘private’ or ‘non-political’. However, recent debates over the use of religious symbols in public spaces, state financing of faith schools, and tax relief for religious organisations suggest that this distinction is not particularly useful in easing the tension between liberal ideas of equality among citizens and freedom of religion. This article deals with one aspect of this debate, which concerns whether memb...

  16. Emotion and deliberative reasoning in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Cummins, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a) decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b) the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a "greater good" outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian ("yes") decisions, but contrary to the model's predictions, (a) vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b) violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say "no." Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether "yes" or "no" constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model's predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results are consistent with the

  17. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  18. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  19. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  20. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  1. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of the explanatory variables. We also find that, surprisingly, higher democracy and rule of law are positively associated with the level of corruption while higher bureaucracy negatively.

  2. Evaluating deliberative dialogues focussed on healthy public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2014-12-17

    Deliberative dialogues have recently captured attention in the public health policy arena because they have the potential to address several key factors that influence the use of research evidence in policymaking. We conducted an evaluation of three deliberative dialogues convened in Canada by the National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy in order to learn more about deliberative dialogues focussed on healthy public policy. The evaluation included a formative assessment of participants' views about and experiences with ten key design features of the dialogues, and a summative assessment of participants' intention to use research evidence of the type that was discussed at the dialogue. We surveyed participants immediately after each dialogue was completed and again six months later. We analyzed the ratings using descriptive statistics and the written comments by conducting a thematic analysis. A total of 31 individuals participated in the three deliberative dialogues that we evaluated. The response rate was 94% (N = 29; policymakers (n = 9), stakeholders (n = 18), researchers (n = 2)) for the initial survey and 56% (n = 14) for the follow-up. All 10 of the design features that we examined as part of the formative evaluation were rated favourably by all participant groups. The findings of the summative evaluation demonstrated a mean behavioural intention score of 5.8 on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Our findings reinforce the promise of deliberative dialogues as a strategy for supporting evidence-informed public health policies. Additional work is needed to understand more about which design elements work in which situations and for different issues, and whether intention to use research evidence is a suitable substitute for measuring actual behaviour change.

  3. Designing For Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Thomsen, Signe Mårbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we focus on ‘patient-democracy’ and ‘shared decision-making’ seen from the perspective of design practice and design research. In the research on democracy in healthcare it is rarely questioned what forms of democracy underlies these concepts. We have examined three different theories...... there are already a number of approaches available which in one way or the other address the relationship between design, democracy and power. We provide an account of participatory design, adversarial design and design activism thereby pointing towards design’s potential for re-distributing power and authority...... in healthcare. Positioning ourselves within design activism, we have set up a series of disruptive design experiments at a Danish Hospital. The aim of these experiments is to make inquiries into the hospital’s own conception of democracy and to use design activism to re-negotiate the roles and rights...

  4. Inclusive or managed democracy?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mozambique's commitments to build an inclusive democracy, corruption unmasks ..... and the adoption of electoral and administrative rules that allow it to exist as .... In 2005, citizens were killed, injured and houses destroyed during a.

  5. Paradoxes of Peruvian Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steven Levitsky

    2014-01-01

      Whereas in most democracies public opinion cor- responds closely with the state of the economy, in Peru presidential approval ratings consistently plummeted during the 2000s, even as growth soared...

  6. Designing For Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Mårbjerg Thomsen, Signe

    2014-01-01

    in healthcare. Positioning ourselves within design activism, we have set up a series of disruptive design experiments at a Danish Hospital. The aim of these experiments is to make inquiries into the hospital?s own conception of democracy and to use design activism to re-negotiate the roles and rights......n this paper we focus on ?patient-democracy? and ?shared decision-making? seen from the perspective of design practice and design research. In the research on democracy in healthcare it is rarely questioned what forms of democracy underlies these concepts. We have examined three different theories...... for patients thereby exploring various disruptive realities wherein the patient becomes a citizen with democratic rights....

  7. Nanotechnology as an experiment in democracy: how do citizens form opinions about technology and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Susanna Hornig; Greenhalgh, Ted

    2011-04-01

    This article analyzes nanotechnology as an experiment in democratic deliberation, one that seems motivated both by a desire to improve deliberative democracy and to protect the technology from undue public interference. However, rather than involving amplified (overstated) risks, nanotechnology appears to involve attenuated (understated) risks. Results from a 3-year panel study are presented to illustrate the ways in which citizens form opinions about nanotechnology, supporting the assertion that public opinion about complex technology can be both reasonable and stable. Nevertheless, the authors also voice concern that, in the absence of public pressure, risk regulation may not evolve as swiftly as it should to protect both society and industry.

  8. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of t...

  9. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    tiwari, aviral kumar

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of t...

  10. Democracy in the Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The focus of China's grassroots democracy building has shifted from the countryside to urban areas. In recent years, many Chinese cities, including Beijing, have been actively exploring ways to realize democracy at the grassroots level. What is the driving force behind this campaign? What challenges does it face presently? How can it achieve new breakthroughs in the future? With these questions in mind, Beijing Review spoke with Li Fan, Director of the World and China Institute, a non-governmental think ...

  11. Grassroots innovations and democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adrian; Stirling, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this working paper we introduce an area of activity that has flourished for decades in all corners of the globe, namely grassroots innovation for sustainable development. We also argue why innovation in general is a matter for democracy. Combining these two points, we explore how grassroots innovation can contribute to what we call innovation democracy, and help guide innovation so that it supports rather than hinders social justice and environmental resilience. \\ud \\ud We suggest it does ...

  12. Democracy and dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Krastev, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of elections (frequently free and sometimes fair) and the universal acceptance of the language of human rights have become the distinctive feature of politics in the beginning of the new century. By 2005 for the first time in history, more than half of the world's population was living in democracies. However, the paradoxical outcome of the triumph of democracy is that two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall there is a growing dissatisfaction with the really existing d...

  13. Semiotic, Rhetoric and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Mackey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper unites Deely’s call for a better understanding of semiotics with Jaeger’s insight into the sophists and the cultural history of the Ancient Greeks. The two bodies of knowledge are brought together to try to better understand the importance of rhetorical processes to political forms such as democracy. Jaeger explains how cultural expression, particularly poetry, changed through the archaic and classical eras to deliver, or at least to be commensurate with contemporary politics and ideologies. He explains how Plato (429-347 BCE struggled against certain poetry and prose manifestations in his ambition to create a ‘perfect man’ – a humanity which would think in a way which would enable the ideal Republic to flourish. Deely’s approach based on Poinsot and Peirce presents a theoretical framework by means of which we can think of the struggle to influence individual and communal conceptualisation as a struggle within semiotics. This is a struggle over the ways reality is signified by signs. Signs are physical and mental indications which, in the semiotic tradition, are taken to produce human subjectivity – human ‘being’. Deely’s extensive body of work is about how these signs are the building blocks of realist constructions of understanding. This paper is concerned with the deliberate use of oral and written signs in rhetorical activity which have been deliberately crafted to change subjectivity. We discuss: (1 what thought and culture is in terms of semiotics and (2 Jaeger’s depiction of Ancient Greece as an illustration of the conjunction between culture and subjectivity. These two fields are brought together in order to make the argument that rhetoric can be theorised as the deliberate harnessing of semiotic effects. The implication is that the same semiotic, subjectivity-changing potency holds for 21st century rhetoric. However fourth century BCE Athens is the best setting for a preliminary discussion of rhetoric as

  14. Developing a deliberative process for ethically informed radioactive waste management decision making in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, Matthew [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Risk

    2006-09-15

    In the UK and internationally, there is widespread recognition that decision-making processes over long-term radioactive waste management are subject to a broad array of inherent technical, political, social, psychological and ethical issues. This paper seeks to specifically address the ethical aspects of long-term radioactive waste management and siting by proposing a framework for evaluating and integrating stakeholders' ethical values into a political decision-making process. Evaluation and integration of the ethical issues and related values takes place within the context of a comprehensive program of stakeholder engagement; a process necessary in fostering support amongst stakeholder groups and potentially affected communities - allowing legitimate and defensible political decisions to be made. In pluralistic democracies such as the UK, there is a recognition that a broad array of ethical values are held by the affected stakeholder groups, and the tools used to integrate ethical values into a stakeholder engagement process must be designed to reflect this pattern of moral diversity. This paper outlines the implications of this diversity for participatory decision making and addresses it by outlining a 'tool' or procedure for stakeholder deliberation as part of a broader 'toolbox' of deliberative methods: a tool that allows not only the elicitation of stakeholders' moral values, but also a critical re-evaluation of those values in light of ethical principles agreed upon by the participants themselves. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of ethical pragmatism, the goal is to turn what philosopher John Rawls has termed an ethical 'reflective equilibrium' into a practical procedure for stakeholder deliberation. The paper describes how the model of reflective equilibrium can be used as a basis for designing this deliberative procedure, in a way that is multi-staged and iterative in nature; with a goal to providing the

  15. Political discourse in the news: democratizing responsibility or aestheticizing politics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chouliaraki, Syragoula Milner

    2000-01-01

    critical discourse analysis, deliberative democracy, media discourse, nationalism, recontextualization......critical discourse analysis, deliberative democracy, media discourse, nationalism, recontextualization...

  16. Taiwan’s Democracy: Towards a Liberal Democracy or Authoritarianism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafydd J. Fell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Taiwan moved from being viewed as a model Asian democracy to one allegedly suffering from democratic reversal. The reasons for the declining domestic and international reputation of Taiwan’s democracy are discussed. Lastly, some key political challenges facing Taiwan’s democracy are outlined.

  17. Paradoxes of Deliberative Interactions on Government-Managed Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zhu, Demi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of government agencies on increasingly popular social media platforms potentially enables interactions that go beyond one-way government-to-citizen information or service provision, and include citizen-to-citizen open interactions. These interactions can either contribute...... on government-managed social media accounts. Drawing on a survey of 417 users of the Chinese social media platform Weibo, data show that, on the one hand, general conversations between users are characterized by homophily and polarization, even though participants tend to perceive their own interactions...... as deliberative in some key aspects; and, on the other hand, that participants in conversations on government-managed Weibo accounts -- which are used to a low extent -- perceive their interactions as less deliberative. Findings contribute to research and practice of government social media management aimed...

  18. Models of E-Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Päivärinta, Tero; Sæbø, Øystein

    2006-01-01

    Several theories of E-Democracy have been presented, and implementations of and experiments in E-Democracy emerged. However, existing literature on the subject appears rather non-comprehensive, lacking an integrated basis, for gathering knowledge in the future. After an analysis of theories of E-Democracy versus implementations reported in related literature, we address the need for a model generally absent from contemporary theoretical literature: the Partisan model of E-Democracy. We aim to...

  19. The use of deliberative method in educational reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Buljan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The project named Higher Education Reform was established in 2004 as one of the implementation elements of the European higher education policy. The core activities of the project were executed throughout the formation of National Teams of Bologna Experts who had the task and duty to contribute to the general and real awareness-rising on the topic of the higher education reform among different stakeholders in participating countries of the Bologna Process. The Croatian National Team of Bologna Expert (Hrvatska stručna skupina za Bolonjski proces was established in 2011. Among the diversity of activities executed by the student representatives in the Team, the important place is reserved for the deliberative workshops held during 2013. The target groups of the deliberative workshops were students and other stakeholders in the higher education. This paper presents the process of including the stakeholders in educational reform through the deliberative workshops. During the workshops, the organizers found out how the stakeholders are rethinking on some of the aspects of the Bologna Process, how they perceive and value the work of student representative and volunteering activities, and what they think about the extra-curricular activities of the student and how they value such activities. The form of deliberative workshops encouraged participants to freely and in constructive way express their thoughts and expectances in order to exchange ideas and knowledge about the matter, and to make a decision on common suggestions to solve a particular problem in the context of higher education (introduction of a new practice, modifications and alternations of existing practices, etc. This type of the application of deliberation method is extremely useful, which is the reason for the suggestion of the method’s use in preparing, implementing and evaluating the educational reforms.

  20. Multilingualism and Education for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biseth, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to show the importance of linguistic issues in education for democracy and the close relationship between democracy and multilingualism. Increasingly nation-states are having to adapt to linguistic diversity within their borders and to recognize that democracy requires the participation of all citizens, including those…

  1. Multilingualism and Education for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biseth, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to show the importance of linguistic issues in education for democracy and the close relationship between democracy and multilingualism. Increasingly nation-states are having to adapt to linguistic diversity within their borders and to recognize that democracy requires the participation of all citizens, including those…

  2. Beyond the manual. Practicing deliberative visioning in a Greek island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallis, Giorgos [Marie Curie International Fellow, Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310, Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States); Hatzilacou, Dionyssia [National Center for the Environment and Sustainable Development, Villa Kazouli, Kiffissias and Lampraki 1, 14561 Athens (Greece); Mexa, Alexandra [Department of Marine Science, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100 (Greece); Coccossis, Harry [University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, Volos 38 834 (Greece); Svoronou, Eleni [WWF-Greece, Fillelinon 26, Athens 105 58 (Greece)

    2009-02-15

    Deliberative visioning refers to processes of inclusive, multi-stakeholder deliberation over a desirable future. Methodologies include scenario workshops, future searches and community visioning. This paper looks critically at the assumptions of deliberative visioning benefiting from a case study in Greece. We argue that there are fundamental choices to be made concerning how to frame the process, who to invite and how to facilitate it. These are not just a matter of following manuals' good practice guidance. We emphasize the need for epistemological and methodological awareness of: the assumptions which frame DV itself; the assumptions of the users of DV; and the situation in which DV is deployed. We find that whereas visioning motivates participants to work together and provides a good framework to systematize discussion, it is not necessarily effective for developing systemic perspectives and plan actions. This is especially true in contexts such as that of our case study, where there is lack of a collaborative culture and there are insufficient mechanisms that integrate effectively a deliberative process with other processes of policy or social change. (author)

  3. COMMUNICATIVE PECULIARITY OF INTERPRETATIVE AND DELIBERATIVE STYLE IN PEDAGOGICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тамара Николаевна Цинкерман

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to characterize the communicative peculiarities of the interpretative-deliberative style in pedagogical discourse. The object of the study is interpretative-deliberative style viewed as one of the communication forms in pedagogical discourse; the subject of the analysis is the stratagem and tactics characteristics of the interpretative-deliberative communicative style.  Descriptive and analytical as well as stylistic and discourse analysis methods are employed. The author reveals the most prevalent strategies–explanatory, interpretative and deliberative–employed in communicative interaction in situations of educative persuasion. The communicative characteristics of the analyzed style are: a rational type of the communicative action, a trust-based tone and the emotional involvement of the communication participants. The results can be used for clarifying specifics of speech behavior in educative communication as well as for comparing styles of educative communication in different enthnocultural traditions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-32

  4. Cognitive aspect of education for democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Bojanović Mirosava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Education for democracy is of particular importance for a society undergoing democratization. The paper investigates a cognitive aspect of education for democracy, and identifies psychological predispositions for the acceptance of plurality of ideas as a central indicator of democratic thinking. The acceptance of plurality is defined as the ability of an individual to consider different arguments in controversial topics, to accept the existence of different ideas in a discussion as well as different explanations. This psychological phenomenon integrates certain cognitive affective and conative characteristics. The acceptance of plurality of ideas is a fundamental prerequisite for democratic communication, therefore a prerequisite for the creation of democratic climate in a society. The concept of cognitive style has been examined from the perspective of different research traditions in an attempt to identify a psychological profile of cognitive style, provisionally named pluralist profile, which would help an individual behave democratically. The paper also studies the connection between the manner of thinking, personality characteristics and cognitive style. It is the author’s conclusion that it is reasonable to assume that there are ways to encourage the development of pluralistic cognitive style by practicing the acceptance of different ideas through teaching process which would significantly improve the effectiveness of education for democracy.

  5. Local Democracy in Myanmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyed, Helene Maria; Harrisson, Annika Pohl; McCarthy, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar is undergoing a comprehensive political transition. In April this year the first democratically elected government in six decades came into power under the leadership of NLD, the pro-democracy party headed by Aung San Suu Kyi. The largest peace conference in the country’s history was held....... However, often overlooked in this larger picture of transition is the state of local democracy, including village level governance and everyday state-citizen engagements. Political changes at this level are equally crucial for the wider democratization process. This roundtable summary discusses the 2016...... local elections of village tract and urban ward administrators and reflects on the future of local democracy and decentralization in Myanmar. Local administrators are the primary point of contact between the state and citizens. How they are elected and how they govern in the everyday are essential...

  6. After racial democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio Alfredo Guimarães

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I trace a scenario that is becoming increasingly actual and close to Brazilians. In that scenario racial inequalities coexist with a popular state regime in which Black NGOs participate in the implementation of multicultural policies and racial democracy ceases to be a hegemonic discourse. We have acquired consciousness of the limitations of our democracy, of the multicultural nature of our national formation, and of our invidious system of racial inequalities, but we are not successful in stopping it from reproducing itself. I take this scenario as an occasion to point to two current misinterpretations in the sociological literature: neither are racial inequalities in Brazil the product of racial democracy, neither can racial inequalities result from the mere existence of racial categories.

  7. Designing For Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Thomsen, Signe Mårbjerg

    2014-01-01

    in healthcare. Positioning ourselves within design activism, we have set up a series of disruptive design experiments at a Danish Hospital. The aim of these experiments is to make inquiries into the hospital’s own conception of democracy and to use design activism to re-negotiate the roles and rights......n this paper we focus on ‘patient-democracy’ and ‘shared decision-making’ seen from the perspective of design practice and design research. In the research on democracy in healthcare it is rarely questioned what forms of democracy underlies these concepts. We have examined three different theories...... for patients thereby exploring various disruptive realities wherein the patient becomes a citizen with democratic rights....

  8. Democracy and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Lutz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that democratic political systems provide greater opportunities for terrorist groups and create permissive environments in which terrorist networkscan operate more easily. While the argument has a solid logical grounding that has been widely accepted, empirical tests of the connection between democracy and terrorism have been few and not very comprehensive in scope. The analysis below will consider the relationship between the degree of openness (democracy and international terrorist activity from 1972 to 1995 in approximately 100 countries. The results should shed light on whether democratic political systems actually contribute to the activities of terrorist groups.

  9. Advantages and Consultation Role of Democracy%协商民主的优势与作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝林

    2014-01-01

    协商民主不仅充分体现了中国社会主义民主政治的特色,而且是我们党深化政治体制改革的有力措施。协商民主有助于改进党的领导方式和执政方式;有助于拓展公民有序政治参与的渠道;有助于国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。推进中国特色社会主义民主政治的发展,必须发挥协商民主的优势和作用。%Deliberative democracy not only fully reflects the characteristics of Chi-na's socialist democratic politics, but also effective measures to deepen political reform our Party. Deliberative democracy helps improve the Party ’s leadership and governance;help expand citizens’ orderly political participation channels; contribute to national gov-ernance systems and governance capacity modernization. To Promote the development of socialist democratic politics with Chinese characteristics, it is necessary to play a consul-tative role in democracy.

  10. Social incentives improve deliberative but not procedural learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlick, Marissa A; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits are seen across tasks where learning depends on asocial feedback processing, however plasticity has been observed in some of the same tasks in social contexts suggesting a novel way to attenuate deficits. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this plasticity is due to a deliberative motivational shift toward achieving well-being with age (positivity effect) that reverses when executive processes are limited (negativity effect). The present study examined the interaction of feedback valence (positive, negative) and social salience (emotional face feedback - happy; angry, asocial point feedback - gain; loss) on learning in a deliberative task that challenges executive processes and a procedural task that does not. We predict that angry face feedback will improve learning in a deliberative task when executive function is challenged. We tested two competing hypotheses regarding the interactive effects of deliberative emotional biases on automatic feedback processing: (1) If deliberative emotion regulation and automatic feedback are interactive we expect happy face feedback to improve learning and angry face feedback to impair learning in older adults because cognitive control is available. (2) If deliberative emotion regulation and automatic feedback are not interactive we predict that emotional face feedback will not improve procedural learning regardless of valence. Results demonstrate that older adults show persistent deficits relative to younger adults during procedural category learning suggesting that deliberative emotional biases do not interact with automatic feedback processing. Interestingly, a subgroup of older adults identified as potentially using deliberative strategies tended to learn as well as younger adults with angry relative to happy feedback, matching the pattern observed in the deliberative task. Results suggest that deliberative emotional biases can improve deliberative learning, but have no effect on procedural learning.

  11. Local Democracy in Myanmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyed, Helene Maria; Harrisson, Annika Pohl; McCarthy, Gerard

    Myanmar is undergoing a comprehensive political transition. In April this year the first democratically elected government in six decades came into power under the leadership of NLD, the pro-democracy party headed by Aung San Suu Kyi. The largest peace conference in the country’s history was held...

  12. Mindfulness, Democracy, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Andrea Marie; LaPrad, James G.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explain how mindfulness can enhance a democratic way of being, connecting practices of awareness, reflection, dialog, and action to democratic citizenship and social arrangements. We begin by sharing our understanding of democracy as a philosophy and a political system. We then provide a background for the concept of…

  13. A path to democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2008-01-01

    and conservative groups inside the communist regime will shape the process of China's democratization; (2) the hope of China's political future lies in continued economic development, a mature civil society, and the building of democratic political culture in society; and (3) the current intra-party democracy...

  14. More democracy, less politics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josje den Ridder; Paul Dekker

    2015-01-01

    Original Title: Meer democratie, minder politiek?   Concerns about the functioning and future of democracy in the Netherlands can have a variety of causes. One such is the attitude of the demos: there is an assumption that political dissatisfaction is growing and that democratic engagement is

  15. Gaming and "Functional Democracy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, F. L.

    An example of the way gaming can be used to bring attention to, and improve skills in, making democracy function better is presented. The game is played by seven people seated around two triangular playing boards; it involves making choices among least, intermediate, and most preferred alternatives, keeping the preferences of the majority in…

  16. Macedonia: Illiberal Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Abazi

    2014-01-01

    The recent presidential and early parliamentary elections in Macedonia are only one illustration of the country’s long-term political condition: illiberal democracy. What is needed is a re-think of the instruments and the manner in which major international actors could and should foster constitutio

  17. Philosophy for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Rob; Onstenk, Jeroen; Veugelers, Wiel

    2016-01-01

    Philosophy for Democracy is a research project that aims to examine whether and how Philosophy with Children contributes to the development of democratic skills and attitudes. In the Netherlands, as in almost all Western countries, Philosophy with Children is linked with the movement for citizenship education. This article reports the research on…

  18. A method for the deliberate and deliberative selection of policy instrument mixes for climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen L. P. Mees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy instruments can help put climate adaptation plans into action. Here, we propose a method for the systematic assessment and selection of policy instruments for stimulating adaptation action. The multi-disciplinary set of six assessment criteria is derived from economics, policy, and legal studies. These criteria are specified for the purpose of climate adaptation by taking into account four challenges to the governance of climate adaptation: uncertainty, spatial diversity, controversy, and social complexity. The six criteria and four challenges are integrated into a step-wise method that enables the selection of instruments starting from a generic assessment and ending with a specific assessment of policy instrument mixes for the stimulation of a specific adaptation measure. We then apply the method to three examples of adaptation measures. The method's merits lie in enabling deliberate choices through a holistic and comprehensive set of adaptation specific criteria, as well as deliberative choices by offering a stepwise method that structures an informed dialog on instrument selection. Although the method was created and applied by scientific experts, policy-makers can also use the method.

  19. Improving school governance through participative democracy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    features are attributable to systemic weaknesses of traditional models of democracy ... qualitative study confirmed that parents often misconceive participatory democracy ... research democracy at the meso level of public school education.

  20. The Use and Abuse of ‘Universal Values' in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of the Danish cartoon controversy, appeals to universal liberal values were often made in ways that marginalized Muslims. An analysis of the controversy reveals that referring to "universal values" can be exclusionary when dominant actors fail to distinguish their own culture......'s embodiment of these values from the more abstract ideas. The article suggests that the solution to this problem is not to discard liberal principles but rather to see them in a more fallibilistic and deliberative democratic way. This means that we should move from focusing on citizens merely as subjects...

  1. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-01-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen’s and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl’s seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, highe...

  2. Democracy and development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolu Lawal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Democracy and development are global phenomena. Every country in the world aspires and claims to be democratic. This is because of the role of the latter in developmental process. This paper examined the linkage between democracy and development in Nigeria, using ethics as the yardstick for democratic adherence. The paper adopted content analysis approach to source its data and concluded that democracy is an ingredient of development. It must therefore be sustained to evolve and ensure sustainable development.

  3. Libya: A Future Arab Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    overlooked. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arab Democracy, Greenfield Pipeline, UN Resolution 1973 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Democracy FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 21 March 2012 WORD COUNT: 5,454 PAGES: 26 KEY TERMS: Arab Democracy, Greenfield Pipeline, UN...operate effective businesses and ventures . Mr. Springborg contends that the youth bulge in the Arab populations, low GDP, and poor education levels

  4. Future generations in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks whether the genuine representation of future generations brings any added value that could not be achieved by institutions or procedures installed to supplement and support ordinary representative democracy. On this background, it reviews some arguments for genuine representation ...... of future generations within current democracy. It is concluded that what really matters in terms of the democratic ideal is to ensure an impartial deliberation which takes the interests of all affected parties sufficiently into account....... of future generations. The analysis reveals that they tend to overlook the democratic costs of such representation (violation of political equality, risk of distortion of the deliberation and undermining of autonomy), while they seem to ignore the alternative of giving consideration to the interests...

  5. Literacy for democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Morais

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available After a brief description of the three conditions or phases of alphabetic reading and spelling learning, I examine the consequences of socioeconomic and sociocultural inequalities both on the beginning and the development of literacy and, more generally, on cognitive development. Given that the access to literacy for all or, on the contrary, only for an elite has also consequences for the society governance, in the third and final part of this paper I discuss what, through many centuries, had been democracy and what it should be, as well as the contribution that the universalization of literacy and of a culture based on free thinking may have for constructing an authentic democracy.

  6. Science, expertise, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Elliott, Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    The combination of government's significant involvement in science, science's significant effects on the public, and public ignorance (of both politics and science) raise important challenges for reconciling scientific expertise with democratic governance. Nevertheless, there have recently been a variety of encouraging efforts to make scientific activity more responsive to social values and to develop citizens' capacity to engage in more effective democratic governance of science. This essay introduces a special issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, "Science, Expertise, and Democracy," consisting of five papers that developed from the inaugural Three Rivers Philosophy conference held at the University of South Carolina in April 2011. The pieces range from a general analysis of the in-principle compatibility of scientific expertise and democracy to much more concrete studies of the intersection between scientific practices and democratic values in areas such as weight-of-evidence analysis, climate science, and studies of locally undesirable land uses.

  7. Democracy and Women's Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly.However, none of them have a focus on women's health.This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  8. Democracy and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health. PMID:21836777

  9. Democracy and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  10. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-02-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen's and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl's seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, higher democratic quality can be attributed to institutional characteristics of consensus democracy, especially proportional representation.

  11. Semiotic, Rhetoric and Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Mackey

    2012-01-01

    This paper unites Deely’s call for a better understanding of semiotics with Jaeger’s insight into the sophists and the cultural history of the Ancient Greeks. The two bodies of knowledge are brought together to try to better understand the importance of rhetorical processes to political forms such as democracy. Jaeger explains how cultural expression, particularly poetry, changed through the archaic and classical eras to deliver, or at least to be commensurate with contemporary politics and i...

  12. Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braunack-Mayer Annette J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures.

  13. Giving voice to the voiceless through deliberative democratic school governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonceba Mabovula

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I focus on the role of learners in the governance of secondary schools. I seek to promote a voice for learner expression as guaranteed in the national Department of Education's guidelines for Representative Council of Learners as part of promoting democratic governance. The potential, limitations, constraints, conse­quen­ces, and challenges facing learners in the school governance structure need to be revealed and debated. The views of school principals were solicited by means of unstructured open-ended questionnaires. Six problem areas emerged from the data. The irony is that although the democratisation of school governance has given all stakeholders a powerful voice in school affairs, learners' voices are, seemingly, being silenced. In attempting to resolve the problem, a new model of democratic school governance to be known as 'deliberative democratic school governance' (DDSG is suggested. There are several DDSG approaches that can be employed in creating elements for stakeholder empowerment and in driving deliberative democratic school governance forward. These include inclusion, motivational communication, consensus, deliberation/ dialogue, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Some school governance stake­holders and schools may use only one or a few of these strategies to create spaces for learner voices in their respective schools.

  14. Duality and 'particle' democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Elena

    2017-08-01

    Weak/strong duality is usually accompanied by what seems a puzzling ontological feature: the fact that under this kind of duality what is viewed as 'elementary' in one description gets mapped to what is viewed as 'composite' in the dual description. This paper investigates the meaning of this apparent 'particle democracy', as it has been called, by adopting an historical approach. The aim is to clarify the nature of the correspondence between 'dual particles' in the light of a historical analysis of the developments of the idea of weak/strong duality, starting with Dirac's electric-magnetic duality and its successive generalizations in the context of (Abelian and non-Abelian) field theory, to arrive at its first extension to string theory. This analysis is then used as evidential basis for discussing the 'elementary/composite' divide and, after taking another historical detour by analyzing an instructive analogy case (DHS duality and related nuclear democracy), drawing some conclusions on the particle-democracy issue.

  15. Democracy-based consensus in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Massimiliano; Zangrillo, Alberto; Mucchetti, Marta; Nobile, Leda; Landoni, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    High-quality evidence and derived guidelines, as typically published in major academic journals, are a major process that shapes physician decision-making worldwide. However, for many aspects of medical practice, there is a lack of High-quality evidence or an overload of somewhat contradictory low-quality information, which makes decision-making a difficult, uncertain, and unpredictable process. When the issues in question are important and evidence limited or controversial, the medical community seeks to establish common ground for "best practice" through consensus conferences and consensus statements or guidelines. Such consensus statements are seen as a useful tool to establish expert agreement, define the boundaries of acceptable practice, provide priorities for the research agenda, and obtain opinions from different countries and healthcare systems. This standard approach, however, can be criticized for being elitist, noninclusive, and poorly representative of the community of clinicians who will have to make decisions about the implementation of such recommendations. Accordingly, the authors propose a new model based on a combination of a local core meeting (detailed review and expert input) followed by a worldwide web-based network assessment (democracy-based consensus). The authors already have applied this approach to develop consensus on all nonsurgical interventions that increase or reduce perioperative mortality in critically ill patients and in those with acute kidney injury. The methodology was based on 5 sequential local and web-based steps. Both a panel of experts and a large number of professionals from all over the world were involved, giving birth to a new type of "democracy-based consensus." This new type of "democracy-based consensus" has the potential to increase grass-root clinician involvement, expand the reach to less-developed countries, provide a more global perspective on proposed interventions, and perhaps more importantly, increase

  16. Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

  17. Mathematics Education and Democracy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Ömer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Democracy is a most accepted form of government system and has a great importance for citizens by allowing them equal and active participation in common life. As its development and characteristics are important for all citizens of a country, each democratic country puts much emphasis on democracy education in its educational curricula. In recent…

  18. The Mirage of Global Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The literature about global democracy deals with two different types of democratization: Type 1 is about spreading democracy across sovereign states as the basis for good governance. It focuses on the quality of the state/society-nexus: the balance between coercion, reward and identity. Type 2 is ab

  19. Popular support for direct democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, Todd; Karp, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The expanding use of direct democracy in many established democracies reflects a desire to provide citizens with more opportunities to be involved in the political process. These changes are assumed to be embraced by those who demand greater citizen involvement, though the underlining motivation

  20. Mathematics Education and Democracy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Ömer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Democracy is a most accepted form of government system and has a great importance for citizens by allowing them equal and active participation in common life. As its development and characteristics are important for all citizens of a country, each democratic country puts much emphasis on democracy education in its educational curricula. In recent…

  1. Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

  2. Constitucionalismo e democracia: soberania e poder constituinte Constitutionalism and democracy: sovereignty and constituent power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Karam de Chueiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Conciliar democracia e constitucionalismo é uma tarefa tão complexa quanto problemática. Eis o paradoxo: A democracia significa o povo decidindo as questões politicamente relevantes da sua comunidade, inclusive os conteúdos da constituição; e o constitucionalismo significa, por sua vez, limites à soberania popular. A constituição se autoimpõe como manifestação da soberania popular e do poder constituinte, vinculando ambos. Assim, a conjugação entre constitucionalismo e democracia remete a outra, que está na sua base, qual seja, entre soberania e poder constituinte. o artigo pretende explorar essas duas relações, a da soberania com o poder constituinte e a do constitucionalismo com a democracia, mostrando as tensões que lhe são constitutivas, sobretudo para afirmar uma concepção de democracia deliberativa defendida por carlos santiago nino e roberto gargarella.To conciliate democracy and constitutionalism is a complex and problematic task. There is the paradox: Democracy means the people deciding relevant political issues of their community including the contents of their constitution. Constitutionalism, on its side, means to limit popular sovereignty. Constitution imposes itself as the manifestation of popular sovereignty and constituent power linking both. Thus, the conjugation of constitutionalism and democracy leads to another which is in its origin, i.e., sovereignty and constituent power. This article aims at discussing these two relations, i.e., constituent power and sovereignty and constitutionalism and democracy showing their constituting tensions in order to affirm nino's and gargarella's conception of deliberative democracy.

  3. Democracy and Globality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Axtmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I consider the connection between globalisation and democracy with respect of (1 the historical ‘waves’ of democratisation and the (global spread of ‘democratic’ system of political rule, and (2 the debate on a reformulation of democratic rule ‘in the age of globalisation’, and the concerns with global civil society, global governance and ‘cosmopolitan democracy’ in particular. Linking these two parts are considerations of the question as to whether a universal entitlement to democratic governance is emerging as a right in international law.

  4. Why does a woman’s deliberative faculty have no authority? Aristotle on the political role of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss Aristotle’s controversial philosophical views on women. I will critically examine three main interpretations of his claim that women have deliberative faculty “without authority”. According to the first line of interpretation, Aristotle has in mind that women’s incapacity of advice-giving and decision-making in public affairs are determined by conventions in the political context of his time. I will attempt to point out the disadvantages of this kind of interpretation. Furthermore, I will put forward the reasons why is implausible the more recent interpretation, given by Marguerite Deslauriers. According to her reading, the lack of authority of deliberative faculty in women means nothing else than the tasks over which women have authority are for the purpose of the tasks put forth by men. The prevailing interpretation among scholars is that, in Aristotle’s view, women are naturally inferior to men, due to the fact that they are all too frequently overruled by the irrational “forces” of their nature. I will argue that this line of interpretation elucidates what Aristotle presumably has in mind, although it makes his account of women and their rationality, if not inconclusive, then indisputably problematic. In other words, I attempt to prove that, if the prevailing line of interpretation is correct, such view of women produces some philosophically “insurmountable” problems for Aristotle. The aim of the last section of the paper is to point out how some of these problems could eventually be resolved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: History of Serbian Philosophy

  5. A novel deliberative multicriteria evaluation approach to ecosystem service valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Mavrommati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although efforts to address ecosystem services in decision making have advanced considerably in recent years, there remain challenges related to valuation. In particular, conventional economic approaches have been criticized for their inability to capture the collective nature of ecosystem services, for their emphasis on monetary metrics, and the difficulty of assessing the value of ecosystem services to future generations. We present a deliberative multicriteria evaluation (DMCE method that combines the advantages of multicriteria decision analysis with a deliberation process that allows citizens and scientists to exchange knowledge and evaluate ecosystem services in a social context. Compared with previous applications we add the following: (i a choice task that can be expected to lead to a more reliable assessment of trade-offs among ecosystem services, and (ii an explicit consideration of the future by both presenting specific socioeconomic scenarios and asking participating citizens to serve as "trustees" for future generations. We implemented our DMCE framework with 11 panels of residents of the upper Merrimack River watershed in New Hampshire with the goal of assessing the relative value of 10 different ecosystem services in the form of trade-off weights. We found that after group deliberation and expert scientific input, all groups except one were able to reach internal consensus on the relative value of these ecosystem services. Additionally, the pattern of trade-off weights across groups was reasonably similar; there was no statistically significant effect of the specific future scenarios that were presented to the groups. Results of a survey given to participants after the deliberative process revealed that most felt that their opinion during the deliberation was heard by the others and that they were influential on the outcome. Further, the vast majority were satisfied with the outcome of the deliberation. We conclude by discussing

  6. Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Eva E; Tsai, Chia-Hung; Yen, Nai-Shing; Chen, Arbee L P; Lin, Wei-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices)--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes) in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious) preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest otherwise.

  7. Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Lee

    Full Text Available Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest

  8. Romanian Democracy, Theory and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus Brâncoveanu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a comment on the type of democracy in Romania, as illiberal democracy. Given the Romanian democratization process, we can hope that, in the future, all populisms and politicization will cease, and a true liberal and constitutional democracy will be installed, which will not be a „Romanian democracy” as Paul Wolfowitz suggested to be exported in Iraq. The question is whether it is good or not to „export” such a political model. „Romanian democracy” could be an exporting model only as an alternative to dictatorship and under the assumption that it will be adjusted in time, under the external pressure.

  9. The Myth of Bourgeois Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Andreas Christian Møller; Stahl, Rune Møller

    This paper argues that the Left should move beyond the commonplace understanding – upheld by Alain Badiou and Slavoj Žižek - that parliamentary democracy is essentially of a bourgeois nature. We show first how the introduction of parliamentary democracy – defined as constitutionalization of state...... of a structural complicity between capitalism and parliamentary democracy, while problematic even when applied to the Fordist epoch, is today becoming increasingly counterproductive for the Left. In a situation when popular control over states is gradually being eroded by emerging ‘authoritarian neoliberal...

  10. Democracy Aid and Electoral Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Tobias; Loftis, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    cannot tell us how well democracy aid supports the central promise of democracy: accountable government. Since institutions can be subverted in various ways that undermine accountability, it is vital to know whether democracy aid supports accountability to assess its overall success. We provide evidence...... for this by analyzing incumbent turnover in elections following poor economic performance – the economic vote – as a measure of voting to achieve performance accountability. In our analysis of over 1,100 elections in 114 developing countries between 1975 and 2010, we find distinct evidence that increasing receipt...

  11. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M; Lee, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation--deliberative public bioethics--into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice.

  12. E-Voting Solutions for Digital Democracy in Knowledge Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STOICA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent technologies specific to current information and knowledge society, and social networks influence every aspect of our existence, from lucrative activities to recreational ones. There is no part of our life that is not influenced by the explosive development of general information and communication technologies. We witness a spectacular and until recently unimagined metamorphoses of work nature, business process reengineering, controversial evolution of social networks and new directions of electronic government. Over this background of changes, we take on the tasks of deepening the understanding of field that is largely unexplored, namely the electronic vote in digital democracy, without taking any side, pro or against this type of casting our electoral options. The current context encompasses technological, legislative, political, economic and social aspects. Even more, the context of electronic voting in digital democracy involves aspects regarding globalization, technical challenges concerning interoperability, data standardization and security.

  13. Democracy is a historical urgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  14. Public Participation Guide: Electronic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic democracy describes a wide range of interactive tools that embrace existing and emergent media sources as a forum for allowing members of the public to express opinions and seek to influence decision-making.

  15. Educational research, democracy and praxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    I argue that instead of educational research merely contributing to social change it can be a process of change itself. Additionally, ... making, and democracy as a sphere for social and political life in which people may ..... culture and media.

  16. The Dialectics of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Roman-Lagerspetz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ”Thinking publicly otherwise” is one of the foundations of democracy. The task of the opposition in a democratic system is to express distrust, to criticize the actions of the government and to provide an alternative. The opposition institutionalizes distrust, and, paradoxically, the presence of this institutionalized distrust is, for the citizens, one important reason to trust the democratic system. The claim defended here is that the relationship between the government and the opposition can be understood in terms of Hegel’s dialectics. Although Hegel’s political theory as formulated in his Philosophy of Right emphasizes the unifying role of the State, his earlier philosophy contains more democratic potential.

  17. Bolivia: A Gasified Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Assies

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In October 2003 a wave of popular protest  brought down the Sánchez de Lozada government  in Bolivia. The intention to export natural gas to  the United States and Mexico triggered the protests, but actually stood for widespread discontent  with the Sánchez de Lozada government, the  preceding governments and the economic policies  pursued since 1985. The events belie the opinion  of various students of the Latin American democratic transitions who held that Bolivian democracy  was on its way towards consolidation and suggest that the recent inquiries into the quality of Latin  American democracies may point a way ahead in  rethinking democracy in the region. Taking such  assessments as a reference, this article reviews the  ‘gas war’ and looks at the Bolivian political regime as it has functioned over the past decades. It  will be argued that the ‘pacted democracy’, that  until now sustained institutionality, and the economic model adopted in 1985 have excluded an  important part of the population, both in political terms and where poverty alleviation and equity is  concerned. Increasing popular protest has been  met with increasing repression, which gradually  turned Bolivia into a ‘democradura’, or a ‘gasified  democracy’ that relies on teargas and bullets to  uphold itself. At present the country finds itself at  a crossroads. It either may reinvent democracy or  become an institutionalized ‘democradura’. Resumen: Bolivia: una democracia gasificadaEn octubre de 2003 una ola de protesta popular  llevó a la caída del gobierno de Sánchez de Lozada en Bolivia. La intención de exportar gas natural a los Estados Unidos y México gatilló dichas  protestas, aunque en realidad reflejaron un descontento general con el gobierno Sánchez de  Lozada, los gobiernos anteriores y las políticas  económicas implementadas desde 1985. Los  sucesos desmienten la opinión de varios analistas  de las

  18. DEMOCRACY AND THE WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orin Kirshner

    2006-01-01

    <正> The World Trade Organization(WTO)portrays itself as a democraticorganization.Yet many critics claim the WTO is not democratic.The WTO they say catersto the interests of a handful of developed countries and serves the needs of global capital.This article contends that both views are correct.It argues that the WTO does conform todemocratic principles.These principles,however,reflect a form of democracy thatrecognizes formal political equality but does not compensate for disparities in economicpower—a mode of political organization I call"democratic formalism"As a result of itsformal-democratic organization,the WTO possesses a built-in institutional bias that servesthe needs of its most powerful members and the global economic processes that keep thempowerful.That said the formal-democratic organization of the WTO provides an opportunityfor developing countries to steer the organization toward a global trade agenda that betterserves their interests.

  19. Democracy as Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Perez Soto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I propose a radical demystification of the perceived image of Augusto Pinochet Ugarte’s Chilean dictatorship as a period of uniform terror that suffocated all popular contestation. Based on the differentiation of repressive styles and the popular responses to them, I propose that this perceived image has been artificially constructed in order to hide the historical continuity between Pinochet’s dictatorship and the current democratic regime. I relate this historic reconstruction to a more general thesis: I argue that there is an essential continuity between both political periods ruled by the deep dictatorial character of so-called current democratic regimes. To conclude I highlight the dictatorial mechanisms of current democracies as well as the political tasks that would allow for a progressive opposition to these same mechanisms.

  20. Inventions and developments of democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    In traditional approaches to the history of political ideas, the history of democracy is uniformly studied concerning the point of departure, selection of canonical texts, etc. The paper introduces the Koselleckian conceptual history approach (Begriffsgeschichte) and the principle of a broader se...... selection of texts than in the traditional history of ideas to provide a fuller account of usages of the concept, thereby opening up for alternative conceptions of the inventions and development of democracy....

  1. Elites, power sources and democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Yetkin, Deniz

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is about elites in general, and the acquisition and maintenance of power in particular. The last concern of the thesis is democracy. For this reason, the classical elite theorists’ and the democratic elite theorists’ perceptions of the elite were critically analyzed. Moreover, power for becoming a part of the elites and power of the elites were discussed. In addition to these discussions, ideas of classical and democratic elite theorists about the possibility of democracy under el...

  2. Inventions and developments of democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    In traditional approaches to the history of political ideas, the history of democracy is uniformly studied concerning the point of departure, selection of canonical texts, etc. The paper introduces the Koselleckian conceptual history approach (Begriffsgeschichte) and the principle of a broader se...... selection of texts than in the traditional history of ideas to provide a fuller account of usages of the concept, thereby opening up for alternative conceptions of the inventions and development of democracy....

  3. Public Speaking in a Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A. L.; Evans, V.; Kanra, A. M. Lami; Jones, O. S. L.

    2004-01-01

    In this day, people all over academia feel that our democracy is eroding and that there is no need for rhetoric. Yet, if some effort is not made to help young people understand democracy and the role of public speaking in this form of government, all will truly be lost. The battle is always ongoing as long as on person stands to tell the story.…

  4. 哈贝马斯话语民主政治理论的基本内核%The Basic Kernel of Habermas’ Theory of Discourse Democracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡传; 陈吉

    2016-01-01

    Habermas’ s theory of discourse democracy is a kind of deliberative democra-cy and procedure democracy.The basic kernel of the theory reflects the appropriateness of the inner clue,that is,discourse democracy has its innate political and philosophical base. This form of democracy functions in and on social and political environment.Therefore, Habermas constructed a third democratic model between liberalism and republicanism.%哈贝马斯的话语民主政治概念体现的是一种协商民主、程序民主,其理论体系的基本内核反映了内在线索的自恰性,即话语民主有其内在的政治哲学基础,这一民主形式在一定的社会和政治环境中运行,同时又反作用于社会和政治体系。由此,哈贝马斯构建起介于自由主义和共和主义之间的第三种民主模式。

  5. Deweyan Democracy: The Epistemic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jón Olafsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available John Dewey famously argued that we should think of democracy as a “way of life”. What this consists in he described as participating according to capacity in public decisions and participating according to need or desire in forming values. He also characterized democracy as “a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience” (Dewey 1966 p. 87; 1954 p. 147; 1957 p. 209. Such and other passages in Dewey’s works show that his conception of democracy is complex. He did not think of it simply as a way of decision-making, nor is democratic procedure of particular importance to him. Concepts such as “associated living” or “communicated experience” point to the social dimensions Dewey was particularly interested in. Dewey also repeatedly claims that democracy demands “social return” from every individual and that democracy enables everyone to develop “distinct capacities” (Dewey 1966, p. 122. A related claim emphasizes how, in a democracy, “all share in useful service and enjoy a worthy leisure” (Dewey 1966, p. 256.

  6. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  7. Is democracy good for health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2006-01-01

    Studies of health have recognized the influence of socioeconomic position on health outcomes. People with higher socioeconomic ranking, in general, tend to be healthier than those with lower socioeconomic rankings. The effect of political environment on population health has not been adequately researched, however. This study investigates the effect of democracy (or lack thereof) along with socioeconomic factors on population health. It is maintained that democracy may have an impact on health independent of the effects of socioeconomic factors. Such impact is considered as the direct effect of democracy on health. Democracy may also affect population health indirectly by affecting socioeconomic position. To investigate these theoretical links, some broad measures of population health (e.g., mortality rates and life expectancies) are empirically examined across a spectrum of countries categorized as autocratic, incoherent, and democratic polities. The regression findings support the positive influence of democracy on population health. Incoherent polities, however, do not seem to have any significant health advantage over autocratic polities as the reference category. More rigorous tests of the links between democracy and health should await data from multi-country population health surveys that include specific measures of mental and physical morbidity.

  8. Theoretical perspectives on participation and democracy - The possibility of bridging the gap between the science of the problems and the politics of the solutions. Deliverable D13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskens, Gaston; Laes, Erik (SCK-CEN, Mol (Bulgaria))

    2009-10-15

    Work Package 2 examines how democratic societies handle risk governance - i.e. the ensemble of rules, procedures and practices affecting how powers are exercised with respect to the control of potential adverse consequences to human health or the environment - with an emphasis on the possibilities and limits of public participation and the use of knowledge in deliberation. WP2 seeks to offer the intellectual tools to describe, explain, compare and possibly improve the way risks are handled by democratic states. It also sets out to show how some 'overarching' theories of risk governance need to be modified or supplemented. Broadly speaking, this study combines two approaches to inquiring what 'good governance' means. The first approach looks at the methods of governance while the second focuses on the ways actors use knowledge and mandates in governance. In a first approach, we will mainly draw upon one important tradition in governance studies, namely the one rooted in normative political philosophy (i.e. theories which seek to set out the conditions for 'good governance' mainly based on the ideal of 'deliberative democracy') to analyse and discuss the form, functioning and overall character of social interactions). To a large extent, WP2 builds on knowledge gained in the RISCOM - II project, and the conditions for the implementation of the RISCOM model are further investigated. However, following this, the framework is broadened to include reflections about how the so-called 'transparency approach' and the 'deliberative approach' can be combined and how they can be linked to the functioning of the political system in which decisions (for example on the final disposal of nuclear waste) are ultimately taken. Participative and deliberative processes are often advocated on instrumental (i.e. a better 'control' of public reactions), moral (i.e. furthering the cause of 'democracy') and

  9. Towards an African Theory of Democracy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reginald M. J. Oduor

    cultural traditions can provide a resonant African theory of democracy. The paper .... It is important to note that the supposed causal relation between democracy and development is ..... Wiredu uses the example of the traditional Akan political.

  10. Gender, globalisation, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    2000-03-01

    This article discusses the link between gender, globalization and democracy in relation to women¿s empowerment. Analyzing gender relations within the processes of development planning involves five approaches: 1) welfare, 2) equity, 3) anti-poverty, 4) efficiency, and 5) empowerment. In addition, a new approach, which combines efficiency and empowerment, must be added to highlight the problematic nature of the direction of causality assumed by traditional theory of development. The rise on women's representation in national parliament can be attributed to the increase of women's economic power and women's political struggles. However, promotion of globalization produces new opportunities for feminist politics, as well as difficulties, which include: the emergent position of productive engagement in which an efficient economy and democratic society are seen as interdependent; and increase in parliamentary representation correlates with increased paid employment for women. In conclusion, the author underscores that globalization is a gendered process which is restructuring social relations on a large scale and the challenges it bring provide opportunities for women in development.

  11. Corporate media versus democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McChesney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Nota introdutória de Dênis de Moraes:

    Em 13 de janeiro de 1999, Robert W. McChesney gentilmente me autorizou a publicar, na nossa revista eletrônica Ciberlegenda, o importante artigo a seguir, baseado em questões abordadas em seu livro Corporate media and the threat to democracy (Seven Stories Press, 1997. PhD e professor da School of Journalism and Mass Communication da University of Wisconsin-Madison, nos Estados Unidos, é um dos mais categorizados pesquisadores sobre as mídias globais. Insere-se na tradição intelectual de Noam Chomsky e de Herbert I. Schiller — pensadores que, vivendo no centro hegemônico do world system, se distinguem como críticos das formas de dominação ideológica norte-americanas, particularmente as disseminadas por seus colossais impérios de informação e entretenimento.

  12. Essay on legitimacy and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplanova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the paper is to deeply analyze a concept of legitimacy. Based on the classical works of Lipset and Habermas, the paper discusses conditions, efficiency, and presumptions on which a modern democratic political system stands. Method: The paper analyzes a relationship between positivist and normative understanding of legitimacy questioning a democratic political order. By a content analysis of two main theories of legitimacy, the paper examines a sense of democratic legitimacy in modern societies. Results: A legitimacy is a pillar of any democracy. From the structuralist point of view, in societies there are three main types of crises (economic, social, political, which are present constantly and interconnected by nature and implications. Each crisis creates a specific deficit and challenge for democracy. By overcoming, a stability of democracy is strengthened which makes a (crisis of legitimacy inevitable. Society: In a time of post-truth politics and crisis of democracy, there is a lack of research dealing with a legitimacy of the democratic regime. By pointing out classical approaches to a stability of democracy, there should be elaborated a new construct of democratic legitimacy reflecting structural conditions of modern societies. This paper is trying to offer an insight into a normative understanding of this construction. Limitations / further research: A theoretical approach could be verified by an empirical research.

  13. Democracy and Teacher Education: Setting Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jesse H.

    2009-01-01

    As John Dewey noted in his last book, each generation, in its turn, must assume responsibility as caretaker of democracy. He noted that one should never take democracy for granted. Everyone lives in an imperfect democracy, and teacher educators should play their part in protecting, nurturing, and advancing democratic ideals, rituals, values, and…

  14. Democracy and Happiness: A True Correlation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Charles Potts

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Democracy has exploded in the 20th and 21st centuries, and while many assume that this would increase happiness, recently there has been evidence presented by critics that prove otherwise. Thus, one must ask the question, does democracy truly cause happiness? Literature suggests this is indeed the case, and through qualitative and comparative analysis it has been demonstrated that democracy does indeed cause happiness, but only if civil liberties are respected by their government. This was done by examining the arguments made by the critics of democracy and happiness. These arguments often focus on fledgling, illiberal democracies, instead of strong, established liberal democracies. These critics additionally use non-democracies who are economically powerful and stable to prove their point, instead of providing a more full view of non-democracies. These results are often cherry-picked, and it is clear that more democratic nations are happier on average than non-democracies. Additionally, in order to increase the happiness of liberal democracies, tenants such as direct democracy can help a country struggling to find happiness for its citizens. That way, democracy can provide the happiness through choice as it was intended to.

  15. Practicing Democracy in the NCLB Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret H.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of teaching democracy in school is diminishing. The implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has forced teachers to teach to the test, and has required some to follow scripted curriculum, leaving little time or incentive for teaching democracy. This study examines the importance of practicing democracy and identifies ways in…

  16. What's Democracy Got to Do with Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    What's democracy got to do with teaching? To answer this question, the author recollects the personal experiences through which she came to understand the connections between democracy and teaching. Sustaining democracy requires its citizens--teachers, parents, and students, in the case of schooling--to fight for it intelligently. The way teachers…

  17. What's Democracy Got to Do with Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    What's democracy got to do with teaching? To answer this question, the author recollects the personal experiences through which she came to understand the connections between democracy and teaching. Sustaining democracy requires its citizens--teachers, parents, and students, in the case of schooling--to fight for it intelligently. The way teachers…

  18. Informing public health policy through deliberative public engagement: perceived impact on participants and citizen-government relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.

  19. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2016-04-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives.

  20. Trait Emotional Intelligence Is Related to Risk Taking when Adolescents Make Deliberative Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Panno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most forms of risky behavior reach their peak during adolescence. A prominent line of research is exploring the relationship between people’s emotional self-efficacy and risk taking, but little is known about this relationship in the cognitive-deliberative domain among adolescents. The main aim of the present study consists in investigating whether trait EI (Emotional Intelligence is positively related to risk taking under predominantly cognitive-deliberative conditions among adolescents. Ninety-four adolescents played the cold version of the Columbia Card Task one month following an assessment of their trait EI. Results showed that trait EI is associated with risk taking under cognitive-deliberative conditions among adolescents. Moreover, the present research showed that trait EI is related to risk taking through the decision makers’ self-motivation. These results provide novel insights into research investigating the connections between emotional intelligence, decision science and adolescence research.

  1. Obstetric controversies in thyroidology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that thyroid disorders commonly affect women. The care of pregnant women affected by thyroid disease is an important clinical challenge for endocrinologists. Hypothyroidism is the commonest problem, and maternal hypothyroxinemia has been linked to adverse feto-maternal outcomes. This article would discuss the controversy regarding first-trimester thyroid hormone deficiency and fetal brain development. Certain obstetric controversies in the management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the indications of TSH receptor antibody measurements and fetal thyroid status monitoring would also be discussed.

  2. A Web of Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Using the Burgess Shale controversies as a case-study, this paper argues that controversies within different domains may interact as to create a situation of “com- plicated intricacies,” where the practicing scientist has to navigate through a context of multiple thought collectives. To some extent...... of academic science have had a tendency to treat the practicing scientist as members of a single (enclosed) thought collective that stands intellectually isolated from other similar entities unless the discipline was in a state of crisis of paradigmatic proportions. The richness and complexity of Burgess...... Shale debate shows that this encapsulated kind of analysis is not enough....

  3. Jurisdiction Size and Local Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritslew, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Optimal jurisdiction size is a cornerstone of government design. A strong tradition in political thought argues that democracy thrives in smaller jurisdictions, but existing studies of the effects of jurisdiction size, mostly cross-sectional in nature, yield ambiguous results due to sorting effects...... and problems of endogeneity. We focus on internal political efficacy, a psychological condition that many see as necessary for high-quality participatory democracy. We identify a quasiexperiment, a large-scale municipal reform in Denmark, which allows us to estimate a causal effect of jurisdiction size......-in-difference and matching estimators, that jurisdiction size has a causal and sizeable detrimental effect on citizens' internal political efficacy....

  4. Designing the Future of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Creating a simulation of Democracy and its future challenges is a fruitful exercise in design. This short paper describes a different use of a simulation that the traditional training via playing. Instead of playing, the creation of the simulation is at the center of attention.......Creating a simulation of Democracy and its future challenges is a fruitful exercise in design. This short paper describes a different use of a simulation that the traditional training via playing. Instead of playing, the creation of the simulation is at the center of attention....

  5. DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Masamah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the media that is Able to help develop the potential of all human beings. Over time the implementation of many educational experience problems when the role of education has a significant influence on improving the quality of human life. Islamic education as an agent of social change should be Able to hit the problem that move dynamically and proactively to the advancement and improvement of Muslims. Das sollen, the purpose of education in Islam as the process of formation of human beings to conform with the nature of existence. Therefore, we need an alternative thinking in an effort to minimize the various educational failure. Democratization of education Considered as a solution capable of Islamic education in creating a humanist. Education that does not justify the existence of intimidation, repression and restrictions on the creativity of teachers and students can be Realized with the Efforts to create a democracy marked by education teaching-learning process that is open and full of healthy and responsible dialogue between teacher and pupil. Humanist atmosphere in education will deliver the achievement of educational goals of Islam. Islamic education is basically the Democratization of space, the which is where the education is directed at a dialogical space. Moreover, the ultimate goal of Islamic education directs its final destination on the behavior and attitude changes, the quality and variety of aspects that promote humanism space. Islamic education should be oriented to instill democratic values in the learning process, such as openness, mutual respect, sympathy, empathy, solidarity, and their understanding of pluralism in a pluralistic life.

  6. Controversies in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines, based on recent ethnographic data, one of the lesser known ... As one analyst has noted, 'a majority of the last remaining oil .... National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC e established in 1977) bears 55-60 percent of the ..... gives an insight into the controversies surrounding compensation and petro-.

  7. The Ebonics Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over the use of Ebonics in the Oakland (California) schools and presents two schools of thought about the origin of Ebonics, the pidgin/Creole and the African retention theories. Three research studies are described that support the use of Ebonics in the classroom as a bridge to standard English. (SLD)

  8. Students' Conceptions of Controversial Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.; Nelson, J. Ron

    1992-01-01

    Five boys and five girls each in grades one through six (n=60 students) asked controversial questions in interviews, recognized the lack of social consensus on the controversial topics and made subtle distinctions between controversial and noncontroversial topics. Implications for discussion of controversial issues in the classroom are discussed.…

  9. River-Basin Politics and the Rise of Ecological and Transnational Democracy in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sneddon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, debates over 'deliberative', 'transnational' and 'ecological' democracy have proliferated, largely among scholars engaged in discussions of modernisation, globalisation and political identity. Within this broad context, scholars and practitioners of environmental governance have advanced the argument that a democratic society will produce a more environmentally conscious society. We want to make a volte-face of this argument and ask: to what extent does engagement with environmental politics and, specifically, water politics, contribute to processes of democratisation? After reviewing some of the contributions to debates over 'ecological' and 'transnational' democracy, we explore this question within the context of conflicts over river-basin development in Southeast Asia and southern Africa. We argue that there are multiple pathways to democratisation and that, in some cases, the environment as a political issue does constitute a significant element of democratisation. But notions of 'ecological' and 'transnational' democracy must embody how both 'environment' and 'the transnational', as mobilised by specific social movements in specific historical and geographical circumstances, are politically constructed.

  10. Platform Biotechnology. Gaming the deliberative release of genetically modified organism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    The deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) often leads to heated discussions on presumed risks and benefits. Examples are controversies concerning the introduction of plant varieties that have resistance to e.g. diseases or herbicides and the construction of micro-organisms

  11. Platform Biotechnology. Gaming the deliberative release of genetically modified organism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    The deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) often leads to heated discussions on presumed risks and benefits. Examples are controversies concerning the introduction of plant varieties that have resistance to e.g. diseases or herbicides and the construction of micro-organisms tha

  12. Platform Biotechnology. Gaming the deliberative release of genetically modified organism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    The deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) often leads to heated discussions on presumed risks and benefits. Examples are controversies concerning the introduction of plant varieties that have resistance to e.g. diseases or herbicides and the construction of micro-organisms tha

  13. Democracy and the governance of uncertainty. The case of agricultural gene technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzoni, L

    2001-09-14

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and food production is the object of an intense and divisive debate. Drawing on a study on the public perception of agricultural gene technologies carried out in five European countries, the article deals with the policy aspects of the issue, and more precisely on the relation between institutions, experts and the public in a context of deep uncertainty. A theoretical framework is developed and compared with the study findings, suggesting that issues like the GMOs one represent a strong case for a more participatory policy-making. My conclusions suggest a style of governance based on the principles of deliberative democracy, as a suitable approach to the confrontation of different viewpoints and forms of knowledge. This appears to be the best way to improve the overall quality of policy-making: in this I include its legitimacy, the degree of public trust, and also the actual quality of its products. Strengthening the role of the public sphere seems more effective than simply increasing direct decision-making by the populace, and it offers an alternative to the 'elitist' solutions to the crisis of representative democracy.

  14. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  15. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in Sub-Sah

  16. PUBLIC EQUALITY, DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mladenović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of public equality which, according to the view Thomas Christiano defends in his book The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits, is of central importance for social justice and democracy. Christiano also holds that the authority of democracy, and its limits, are grounded in this principle. Christiano’s democratic theory can be, broadly speaking, divided in two parts. The first part deals with the derivation and justification of the principle of public equality. The second part argues why and how the authority of democracy, and its limits, are based on this principle. This article will deal only with the first part of Christiano’s theory. While I believe that the second part is crucially important for Christiano’s democratic theory, I think that before examining the role of the principle of public equality, it is necessary to examine its nature. For that reason, this paper deals primarily with the nature of the principle of public equality as the requirement of social justice and the basis for the justification of democracy.

  17. E-democracy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    Already in the 1970's and -80's high hopes for democracy were connected with the rise of technologies like cableTV and digital telephones. This outburst of 'utopian energy' was greatly accelerated with the breakthrough of the Internet in the beginning/middle of the 1990's, and both politicians...

  18. Political Knowledge and American Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Philip H.

    1974-01-01

    This article examines what makes knowledge political in its derivation and uses, and what potential political functions it may serve. Emphasis is placed upon the idea that the consequences of political knowledge for a democracy are neither uniformly beneficent or malevolent; but depend upon how the knowledge is being used and by whom. (DE)

  19. E-democracy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    Already in the 1970's and -80's high hopes for democracy were connected with the rise of technologies like cableTV and digital telephones. This outburst of 'utopian energy' was greatly accelerated with the breakthrough of the Internet in the beginning/middle of the 1990's, and both politicians, I...

  20. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  1. The Aims, Methods, and Effects of Deliberative Civic Education through the National Issues Forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastil, John; Dillard, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the goals, methods, and effects of four current deliberative civic education programs, with an in-depth analysis of one: the National Issues Forums (NIF). Shows that NIF can bolster participants' political self-efficacy, refine their political judgments, broaden their political conversation networks, and reduce their conversational…

  2. Performance as Pedagogy: Children's Trust and the Negotiation of Subjectivities in the Context of Deliberative Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauver, Jennifer; Zhao, Xiaoying; Kobe, Jessica F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine children's (aged 9-11) experience of deliberative dialogue in which they sought to reach consensus around a shared problem with their peers. Through analysis of pre- and post-task interviews as well as videotapes of the sessions, we explore the pedagogical nature of children's engagement. In light of shifting trust…

  3. Keep out of the Dairy Gateway: boundary work in deliberative governance in Wisconsin, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, T.

    2008-01-01

    Boundary work is the discursive demarcation of discourse and practice to gain authority, credibility and legitimacy for this discourse. To study boundary work in experiments with deliberative governance provides a way to describe the discursive struggles between elements of the ‘government’ and the

  4. Keep out of the Dairy Gateway: boundary work in deliberative governance in Wisconsin, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, T.

    2008-01-01

    Boundary work is the discursive demarcation of discourse and practice to gain authority, credibility and legitimacy for this discourse. To study boundary work in experiments with deliberative governance provides a way to describe the discursive struggles between elements of the ‘government’ and the

  5. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  6. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector....... The tensions are related to representative versus participatory democracy; collectivity versus individuality; and service versus welfare. The tensions elucidate how resident democracy is squeezed between different logics, which result in an ambiguous setting for practising democracy. Based on the results...

  7. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  8. Controversy at Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  9. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  10. Controversies on clitoroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding the current state of knowledge of the anatomic and physiologic features of the female clitoris was conducted. Based on this evaluation, operations on the clitoris were reviewed. The anatomic and physiologic reconstruction problems of surgical techniques for female pseudohermaphroditism that have previously been reported were reviewed. The author suggests that clitoroplasty is essential for patients with ambiguous genitalia, but the decision regarding the correct procedure, taking into account anatomic and physiologic success, can be controversial. This may be because of unclear anatomic and physiologic definitions, even for healthy people. As a temporary solution, more conservative procedures for maximally effective treatment are suggested. PMID:22164197

  11. Why foreign aid does (not) improve democracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Audrey Menard

    2012-01-01

    Foreign aid has become closely connected to the development of democracy since the nineties. This paper analyses the democracy effects of aid accounting for this change in donors’ criteria. This approach contributes to the literature by analysing how the kind of donor allocating aid flows influences the effect of aid on democ- racy. I estimate a dynamic panel data model using data from 52 African countries between 1997 and 2008. I find that aid favours democracy. However when consider- ing th...

  12. The Institutional Design of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș COSMESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue that institution building is essential for the success of the democratic transition and consolidation. Upon setting out to establish a democratic regime, there are various constitutional designs available. Although all appear equally suitable for building a stable democracy, I demonstrate that particular traits of certain political systems can allow political actors to weaken the quality of democracy in that state, if not do away with it all together. As such, I have observed the main differences between presidential, parliamentary and mixed systems, and I have also examined the impact of various electoral rules on the configuration of the political arena. The conclusion shows that parliamentary regimes with proportional electoral systems have the strongest democratic features.

  13. Democracy, Law, and Comparative Politics

    OpenAIRE

    O’Donnell, Guillermo A.

    2002-01-01

    This article offers a revision of democratic theory in light of the experience of recently democratized countries, located outside of the northwestern quadrant of the world. First, various definitions of democracy that claim to follow Schumpeter and are usually considered to be “minimalist” or “processualist” are critically examined. Building upon but clarifying these conceptual efforts, a realistic and restricted, but not minimalist, definition of a democratic regime is proposed. Thereafter,...

  14. Media and democracy: false convergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C. P. Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the false convergence between the role of the media in promoting democracy and political theories of democracy. With this purpose in mind, we propose critical reflections on arguments that: 1 naturalize the fact that "the news" is a commodity; b focus on the (supposedly public goals of the media, in spite of the reality that their agencies are largely private; c link these agencies to liberal- democratic values. Thus, the text attempts to show both the absence of and need for shields - personified in the theories of weights and counterbalances - against the powers that be, particularly those of the media. We point to the paradox involved in the media's role as intermediary between public and private spheres and question the degree to which the media permit fulfillment of the idea that those have control should be controlled, particularly in a world in which communication has extended its action to the planetary level. We conclude that democracy can only be made effective if democratic controls over the media are exercised; this means the creation of national and international level public information media that would be neither privately nor state owned and managed.

  15. Evolution of democracy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Mukesh K.

    The emphasis of this thesis is to build an intuitive and robust GIS (Geographic Information systems) Tool which will give a survey on the evolution of democracy in European countries. The user can know about the evolution of the democratic histories of these countries by just clicking on them on the map. The information is provided in separate HTML pages which will give information about start of revolution, transition to democracy, current legislature, women's status in the country etc. There are two separate web pages for each country- one shows the detailed explanation on how democracy evolved in diff. countries and another page contains a timeline which holds key events of the evolution. The tool has been developed in JAVA. For the European map MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) is used. MOJO is developed by ESRI. The major features shown on the European map were designed using MOJO. MOJO made it easy to incorporate the statistical data with these features. The user interface, as well as the language was intentionally kept simple and easy to use, to broaden the potential audience. To keep the user engaged, key aspects are explained using HTML pages. The idea is that users can view the timeline to get a quick overview and can go through the other html page to learn about things in more detail.

  16. Do state traditions matter? Comparing deliberative governance initiatives for climate change adaptation in Dutch corporatism and British pluralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, M.; Benson, D.; Boezeman, D.F.; Cook, H.; Dewulf, A.; Termeer, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the emerging field of climate adaptation, deliberative governance initiatives are proposed to yield better adaptation strategies. However, introducing these network-centred deliberations between public and private players may contrast with institutionalized traditions of interest intermediation b

  17. Do state traditions matter? Comparing deliberative governance initiatives for climate change adaptation in Dutch corporatism and British pluralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, M.J.; Benson, D.; Boezeman, D.; Cook, H.E.; Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the emerging field of climate adaptation, deliberative governance initiatives are proposed to yield better adaptation strategies. However, introducing these network-centred deliberations between public and private players may contrast with traditions of interest intermediation between state and s

  18. Leadership of risk decision making in a complex, technology organization: The deliberative decision making model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaming, Susan C.

    2007-12-01

    The continuing saga of satellite technology development is as much a story of successful risk management as of innovative engineering. How do program leaders on complex, technology projects manage high stakes risks that threaten business success and satellite performance? This grounded theory study of risk decision making portrays decision leadership practices at one communication satellite company. Integrated product team (IPT) leaders of multi-million dollar programs were interviewed and observed to develop an extensive description of the leadership skills required to navigate organizational influences and drive challenging risk decisions to closure. Based on the study's findings the researcher proposes a new decision making model, Deliberative Decision Making, to describe the program leaders' cognitive and organizational leadership practices. This Deliberative Model extends the insights of prominent decision making models including the rational (or classical) and the naturalistic and qualifies claims made by bounded rationality theory. The Deliberative Model describes how leaders proactively engage resources to play a variety of decision leadership roles. The Model incorporates six distinct types of leadership decision activities, undertaken in varying sequence based on the challenges posed by specific risks. Novel features of the Deliberative Decision Model include: an inventory of leadership methods for managing task challenges, potential stakeholder bias and debates; four types of leadership meta-decisions that guide decision processes, and aligned organizational culture. Both supporting and constraining organizational influences were observed as leaders managed major risks, requiring active leadership on the most difficult decisions. Although the company's engineering culture emphasized the importance of data-based decisions, the uncertainties intrinsic to satellite risks required expert engineering judgment to be exercised throughout. An investigation into

  19. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  20. Sabbath controversy in Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Jesus� attitude towards the Sabbath plays a crucial part in Matthew�s argument. Some scholars argue that Jesus provocatively broke the Sabbath law; however, an attentive reading of the Sabbath controversies revealed a different reality. Matthew strategically places the Sabbath stories after he has firmly stated Jesus� teaching on the continuing validity of the law and the requirement of greater righteousness. The law and the prophets are fulfilled in the Person of Jesus, who demonstrated a fresh approach to Sabbath observance. God�s intention with the Sabbath must also be recognised. Matthew argues not if the Sabbath should be observed, but how it should be done to experience true rest according to the will of God.

  1. Cartography of architectural controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    How can buildings be perceived not only for their properties as stable objects and spatial organisation, but also and at the same time as series of transformations, as socio-material orderings, as movements? Coming from a background in architecture and architectural theory I propose that spatial...... on the visual materials and documents produced during the process, and interviews with architects, clients and engineers, I describe the continuous efforts to establish and strengthen architectural motives, and how they eventually gain the ability to align other motives and other actors. I suggest...... that employing the visualising methods of the recent development of Actor-Network-Theory called ‘Cartography of Controversies' might contribute to trans-disciplinary efforts to develop analytic understanding of the conflicting human purposes and power-struggles at stake in the be-coming of architecture....

  2. The greek infinitive in variable deliberative, principally dependent questions: an interpretation in terms of naturalness theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper I investigate the use of the infinitive in dependent delibera­ tive clauses in Greek, a phenomenon occurring in several (modern languages, cf. Slovene Nisem vedel, kaj storiti. 'I didn't know what to do?', English I didn't know what to do., German Was tun? 'What to do?'l. In the first part I present the development of deliberative infinitive clauses in Post-Classical Greek with a special emphasis on the use of this form in two Early Byzantine prose writings (in Pratum Spirituale and in Vita Theodori Syceotae, both belonging to the 6th;7th century AD, where some peculiarities are observed. In the second part an attempt is made to interpret the basic characteristics of the Greek infinitive in dependent deliberative clauses from the perspective of Naturalness Theory.

  3. Comparing instrumental and deliberative paradigms underpinning the assessment of social values for cultural ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Christopher M.; Kenter, Jasper O.; Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    of social values in non-monetary terms: an instrumental paradigm involving an objective assessment of the distribution, type and/or intensity of values that individuals assign to the current state of ecosystems and a deliberative paradigm involving the exploration of desired end states through group......Despite rapid advancements in the development of non-monetary techniques for the assessment of social values for ecosystem services, little research attention has been devoted to the evaluation of their underpinning paradigms. This study evaluates two contrasting paradigms for the assessment...... discussion. We present and then justify through case examples two approaches for assessing social values for ecosystem services using the instrumental paradigm and two approaches using the deliberative paradigm. Each approach makes different assumptions about: the underlying rationale for values assessment...

  4. Conflict and Democracy Education in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashweh, Maher Z.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Palestinian teachers' and students' emotional and cognitive conflicts when introduced to a problem- and case-based approach to democracy education. Observation and case study data indicated that participants sometimes held initial beliefs about democracy, student-teacher interactions, and appropriate classroom behaviors reflecting an…

  5. Local democracy within European Urban Development Programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanc, M; Beaumont, J

    2005-01-01

    Enhancing local democracy is a major aim within European Urban Development Programmes dealing with `disadvantaged' neighbourhoods. But local democracy is extremely difficult to reach in practice and this paper analyses the obstacles and the strategies for overcoming these barriers. Questions of citi

  6. Conceptions of "Nordic Democracy" and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    of ‘tripartition of power' from the Age of the Enlightenment and spreading from the European centre to the Nordic periphery, as it were. On the other hand, democracy was reconsidered as a universal value in the form of ‘dialogue' (or deliberation) as a reaction to the Nazi compromising of democracy in the 1930s...

  7. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  8. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...

  9. Andragogical Education For Sustainable Democracy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC

    A bipartite relationship between education and sustainable democracy has ... for democracy, the new focus or philosophical orientation should be learner- .... citizens who will not only participate in ... Technology occasioned by globalization ... principles relate to communication or .... empowerment, the evil of bribery and.

  10. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  11. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  12. Dewey versus "Dewey" on Democracy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Piet

    2016-01-01

    In the literature on citizenship education, frequent references are made to Dewey. However, educationalists do not always interpret him correctly. To provide some counterbalance, I explain Dewey's views on education and democracy. I base this, not only on "Democracy and Education", but also on 17 articles that Dewey wrote after…

  13. Deliberative Engagement within the World Trade Organization: A Functional Substitute for Authoritative Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    ) prior to adoption of the dispute settlement rulings. We argue that such an increase would better enable the DSM to consider the interpretive preferences of the WTO membership as a whole, thus enabling it to better fulfill its fiduciary duties and its responsibility of deliberative engagement...... with Members in particular. This Article specifies how the proposal would work in practice and addresses potential limitations and obstacles to its implementation....

  14. Articulation of Plural Values in Deliberative Monetary Valuation: Beyond Preference Economisation and Moralisation

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Alex Y.; Clive L. Spash

    2011-01-01

    The use of deliberative methods to assess environmental values in monetary terms has been motivated by the potential for small group discussion to help with preference formation and the inclusion of non-economic values. In this review, two broad approaches are identified: preference economisation and preference moralisation. The former is analytical, concentrates upon issues of poor respondent cognition and produces a narrow conception of value linked to utilitarianism. The latter emphasises ...

  15. Solving Local Violence by Cosmopolitan Democracy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Luthfil Hakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of democracy intensified since the fall of the new order era has some failures. One of the factors is violence phenomena still continue in the region. This study aims to discuss the violence in the region by presenting cosmopolitan democracy as a new design of more humane democracy. In addition, this research method uses library research, because library research can understand the problem in-depth to find the pattern and recommendation from the violence problems which happens in Indonesia. This study uses Hannah Arendt observations on the phenomenon of violence. In addition, the concept of cosmopolitan democracy is referred from Daniele Archibugi, David Held, and Ulrich Beck is presented as a draft of new democracy direction which is more inclusive and humane. The result of this study discloses that the occurrence of incidence is triggered by failed implementation of the democratic system in Indonesia.

  16. The Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2015-01-01

    A current debate in democratic theory concerns whether we can explain democratic legitimacy purely with reference to the intrinsic value of the public affirmation of equality, or whether we must invoke extra-democratic epistemic standards to do so. The freedom side of democracy is ignored or even...... rejected in this debate. But in order to understand the intrinsic value of democracy, we cannot ignore the relationship between freedom and democracy. Moreover, the freedom argument can better respond to the epistemic challenge to intrinsic accounts than can the equality argument. However, the freedom...... argument for democracy must be refined to avoid important objections to the idea that democracy can make citizens self-governing. The proposed freedom argument is based on notions of autonomy and freedom that have their root in the relational norm of not having another person as a master....

  17. Power and Democracy in Denmark. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does...... contemporary democracy live up to our democratic ideals? The answer is that in many ways democracy is doing better than we might have expected, considering the intense pressure on the nation state and the democratic institutions in the postwar period. The Danish population is still full of democratic life...

  18. Nuances in the representation of time in the works of Miguel Delibes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Teresa De Pieri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the representation of time and its nuances in the novels and newspaper articles of Miguel Delibes. The category of time is related to an idea of existence that follows the cycles of nature; it is a natural and mythical time, both a personal and collective one, whose fleeting nature can be halted only by the power of words. In his works Delibes tries to preserve a vocabulary on the verge of extinction in today’s day and age. The ironic tone in which he reflects on the relentless fl owing of existence – such as in La hoja roja, Cartas de amor de un sexagenario voluptuoso and other articles – is juxtaposed to a more serious and careful tone adopted for instance, in Viejas historias de Castilla la Vieja (1964. Moreover, the theme of death is linked to the passing of time. In Señora de rojo sobre fondo gris Delibes analyzes it as a reflection of his tough personal experience, while in Cinco horas con Mario the author takes advantage of the absence of the male protagonist, who has just died, in order to reflect on the abyss separating the present from the past.

  19. Deliberative dialogues as a mechanism for knowledge translation and exchange in health systems decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Lavis, John N; Abelson, Julia; Dobbins, Maureen; Carter, Nancy

    2012-12-01

    Models that describe the key features and intended effects of specific knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) interventions are much less prominent than models that provide a more general understanding of KTE. Our aim was to develop a model in order to describe the key features and intended effects of deliberative dialogues used as a KTE strategy and to understand how deliberative dialogues can support evidence-informed policymaking. By using critical interpretive synthesis, we identified 17 papers representing four fields of enquiry and integrated our findings into a model. The key features described in the model are: 1) an appropriate (i.e., conducive to the particular dialogue) meeting environment; 2) an appropriate mix of participants; and, 3) an appropriate use of research evidence. These features combine to create three types of intended effects: 1) short-term individual-level; 3) medium-term community/organizational-level; and, 3) long-term system-level. The concept of capacity building helps to explain the relationship between features and effects. The model is a useful contribution to the KTE field because it is a practical tool that could be used to guide the development and evaluation of deliberative dialogues in order to understand more about achieving particular outcomes in relation to specific issues or contexts.

  20. Liberty Challenge or Dangers of Liberal Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Eidukienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses dialectics of a modern democracy and liberalism through the new (from the quality point of view subsistence of liberty, the priority element of democracy, in liberal democracies. The significance of such discourse is determined by the existing social inequality and its conversion into political domain. Particular attention is paid to the social issue, which was treated by Max Weber already as the reason of death of the old, fanatic German “national liberalism”, since it has not managed to belong to the German environment. Even today, it still lies in the principles of life and reality of “young” democratic post­soviet states. Conversion of a social issue into political domain disorganises the society, and it is hardly capable to socialise its norms and values in order to be obligated with regard to civic goals. In other words, the social issue significantly adjusts the pace and direction of transformation of the society. Therefore, an immature “young” liberal democracy may become “less liberal” or no longer conform to the “strict” definition of liberal democracy. Referring to the above, we conclude that social composition should become the medium of political reconstruction for “young” democracies. This does not mean, however, the change of the genetic code of liberalism. This is a striving to vest it, as an ideology, additional powers for rationalisation of democracy by delivering to it the content and the meaning, which would answer the challenges and problems of the time. Liberalism should create a new, from the quality point of view, hierarchy of values and become a new context for both political thinking and democracy. This would render new impulses to economic and public politics, meanwhile developing new premises for a new, from the quality point of view, democracy that would help to consolidate the society for the becoming of liberal democracy.  

  1. Participatory and Dialogue Democracy in U.S. Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Shiuli

    2009-01-01

    Teaching math to reflect values of democracy has to begin with some consideration of how democracy is conceptualized. A review of various theories of democracy conducted by Hagen (1992) provides everyone with a good starting point as it identifies three primary forms of democracy: competitive, participatory, and dialogue. In this essay, the author…

  2. Democracy in Reverse: The 2016 General Election in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Goldring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 11 August 2016, Zambia held elections for the presidency, National Assembly, local councillors, and mayors. Concurrently, a referendum was held on whether to enhance the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of Zambia. The elections were significant for several reasons: It was the first contest under a newly amended Constitution, which introduced important changes to the electoral framework. It also marked a break with Zambia’s positive historical record of arranging generally peaceful elections. Moreover, the election featured an electoral playing field that was notably tilted in favour of the incumbent party. Ultimately, the incumbent president, Edgar Lungu of the Patriotic Front, edged out opposition challenger Hakainde Hichilema of the United Party for National Development. The election was controversial and the opposition mounted an unsuccessful legal challenge to the final results. The 2016 elections represent a reversal in the quality of Zambian democracy and raise questions about the country’s prospects for democratic consolidation.

  3. Education for Peace and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ceballos Rendón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of peace and democracy march in parallel, both have to be constructed by processes of education they have to: (1 respect the historicity that defined the category of citizenship, (2 encourage society to have access to real and impartial information, (3 allow expression spaces open to dialogue y (4 rescue authority figures as forming new generations within an ethicalframework to put in place the individual as a fellow citizen, with rights and obligations that both have to be respected, leading to tolerance and peaceful coexistence.

  4. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology.

  5. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  6. Climate science, truth, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2017-08-01

    This essay was written almost ten years ago when the urgency of America's failure as a nation to respond to the threats of climate change first came to preoccupy me. Although the essay was never published in full, I circulated it informally in an attempt to provoke a more public engagement among my colleagues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. In particular, it was written in almost direct response to Philip Kitcher's own book, Science, Truth and Democracy (2001), in an attempt to clarify what was special about Climate Science in its relation to truth and democracy. Kitcher's response was immensely encouraging, and it led to an extended dialogue that resulted, first, in a course we co-taught at Columbia University, and later, to the book The Seasons Alter: How to Save Our Planet in Six Acts (W. W. Norton) published this spring. The book was finished just after the Paris Climate Accord, and it reflects the relative optimism of that moment. Unfortunately events since have begun to evoke, once again, the darker mood of this essay. I am grateful to Greg Radick for suggesting its publication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The emergence of Electronic Democracy as an auxiliary to representational democracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, R.E.

    1994-06-01

    Electronic democracy as a system is defined, and the ways in which it may affect current systems of government is addressed. Electronic democracy`s achievements thus far in the United States at the community level are surveyed, and prospects for its expansion to state, national, and international systems are summarized. Central problems of electronic democracy are described, and its feasibility assessed (including safeguards against, and vulnerabilities to sabotage and abuse); the ways in which new and ongoing methods for information dissemination pose risks to current systems of government are discussed. One of electronic democracy`s underlying assumptions is challenged, namely that its direct, instant polling capability necessarily improves or refines governance. Further support is offered for the assertion that computer systems/networks should be used primarily to educate citizens and enhance awareness of issues, rather than as frameworks for direct decision making.

  8. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  9. The Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2015-01-01

    A current debate in democratic theory concerns whether we can explain democratic legitimacy purely with reference to the intrinsic value of the public affirmation of equality, or whether we must invoke extra-democratic epistemic standards to do so. The freedom side of democracy is ignored or even...... rejected in this debate. But in order to understand the intrinsic value of democracy, we cannot ignore the relationship between freedom and democracy. Moreover, the freedom argument can better respond to the epistemic challenge to intrinsic accounts than can the equality argument. However, the freedom...

  10. Direct Democracy in Local Politics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Elements of  direct democracy at the local level does exist in Denmark, but it is little known, because no formal rules regulate this aspect of political life, because results from popular initiatives and referendums are not recorded in official statistics, and because few systematic analyses have...... been published. This paper, accordingly, has an explorative nature and asks two basic questions: What is the current state of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark, and what are the prospects for a further development of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark? The paper is based...

  11. Democracy as a Way to Social Compromise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Zhen

    2006-01-01

    In modem society,democracy as a symbol of social civilization and progress is cherished.Any government or organization,whether truly democratic or not,will claim that it is democratic while its opponents are not.However,as a historical notion,democracy does not possess the quality of absoluteness.In my view,democracy,in its original meaning,should be understood as a way to social compromise,whose aim is to guarantee a relatively fair political life.

  12. Contested visions of American democracy: citizenship, public housing, and the international arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argersinger, Jo Ann E

    2010-01-01

    This essay reexamines the history of public housing and the controversy it generated from the Great Depression to the Cold War. By recasting that history in the global arena, it demonstrates that the debate over public housing versus homeownership was also a debate over the meaning of American citizenship and democracy, pointing up starkly divergent notions about what was and was not American. Through an examination of national conflicts and neglected local struggles, this article further shows that the fight over public housing was far more meaningful and volatile than traditionally assumed. Both critics and advocates of public housing drew from international experiences and imagery in positioning the home as a constitutive feature of citizenship in American democracy. Fears of Bolshevism, fascism, and communism served to internationalize issues of race, space, and housing and together shaped the decision of whether a decent home was an American right or privilege.

  13. Local Democracy and the Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between democratic participation and responsiveness. Data from Icelandic local governments is used to examine the assumptions of three different theories of democracy: the minimalist theory, the theory of party democracy and theories of participatory democracy. No support was found for the minimalist theory that merely the competitive element is sufficient to bring about responsive organisations. Party democracy receives some support in that party membership tends to increase the satisfaction of citizens with their local government. Party members, however, are only a small proportion of the electorate. Direct participation tends to increase the knowledge and satisfaction of the citizens but size and the non-representative nature of activists pose a problem for the theory.

  14. Castoriadis’ Concept of Institution and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Rendtorff, Jacob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss the relation between institution and democracy in Castoriadis’ philosophy. The paper proposes an outline of the development of Castoriadis’ political philosophy with focus on institutionalization, imagination and self-limitation of democratic institutions as central elements in Castoridis’ thought. We begin with a short introduction to the concept of institution and institutionalization. Then we discuss the elements of Castoridis’ critique of bureaucracy as a way to distinguish between totalitarian society and democracy. This is the basis for understanding the relation between the imaginary, freedom and autonomy as basic elements of democracy. Finally the paper discusses Castoridis’ new notion of democracy as a kind of self-limitation and creation of collective meaning as the basis for social legitimacy.

  15. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    . Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...

  16. Institutionalizing interactive governance for democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2013-01-01

    . There is less certainty about their impact on democracy. Many governance researchers worry that networks and partnerships will end up reducing the level of democratic inclusion, deliberation and accountability in the political system because they demand a low level of formal or ‘hard’ institutionalization. Neo......-institutional theory points out, however, the considerable regulatory impact of ‘soft’ forms of institutionalization such as incentives structures, sedimented normative codes, logics of appropriateness and routinized practices. The article explores the role that soft forms of institutionalization might play...... in ensuring democratic inclusion, deliberation and accountability in relation to interactive governance arenas and considers how they can be used to enhance the democratic quality of such arenas through metagovernance....

  17. Universal Democracy Instead of Anarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, G C; Silva-Marcos, J I

    2013-01-01

    We propose for the flavour structure of both the quark and lepton sectors, the principle of Universal Democracy (UD), which reflects the presence of a $Z_3$ symmetry. In the quark sector, we emphasize the importance of UD for obtaining small mixing and flavour alignment, while in the lepton sector, large mixing, including the recently measured value of $U_{e3}$, is obtained in the UD framework through the seesaw mechanism. An interesting correlation between the values of $U_{e3}$ and $\\sin^2(\\theta_{23})$ is pointed out, with the prediction of $\\sin^2(\\theta_{23})\\approx 0.42$ in the region where $U_{e3}$ is in agreement with the DAYA-BAY experiment.

  18. Miguel Delibes en Checoslovaquia durante la primavera de 1968: Testimonio de un país en “evolución” (truncada)

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cienfuegos, Sigfrido

    2008-01-01

    Miguel Delibes realizó una visita Checoslovaquia cuando se desarrollaba la llamada Primavera de Praga, apertura del régimen socialista que fue truncada por las tropas del Pacto de Varsovia. De su experiencia Delibes sacó material para tres obras distintas.

  19. The Future of Afghan Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Seward Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Afghan presidential and provincial council elections will have a critical effect on the future of Afghan democracy. At a minimum, they must be sufficiently credible to prevent severe division among elite political actors and ensure the survival of the current constitutional order. Yet there are growing expectations that the election might not merely be an elite pact between powerful figures from Afghanistan’s recent past, but more fully represent popular aspirations, particularly those of the growing urban and youth population. In order for this to happen, they must also be held in accordance with the legal rules that guide them, rather than be characterized by manipulation of these rules and government interference. Despite the problems of fraud in the 2009 election, where government figures and the electoral institutions themselves were partly responsible for the significant fraud that took place, there are a number of reasons to expect that the 2014 election will be an improvement on 2009, both in terms of participation and organization. If the elections held in Afghanistan since 2001 have diminished hopes for Afghan democracy, it is partly because an electoral formalism was introduced in Afghanistan before other elements crucial to a functioning democracy—the rule of law, political parties, institutionalized governance—really existed. The 2014 elections may reveal the boundaries of an emerging democratic space in which these features are beginning to emerge and, more importantly, where their value is increasingly recognized by Afghans. If, in every political transition, the future grapples with the past, the 2014 elections in Afghanistan may be a decisive arena of that struggle.

  20. Balancing Efficiency, Effectiveness and Democracy in organizing Inter-Municipal Partnerships: Conflicting aims?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Johan Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The balancing of efficiency, effectiveness and democratic control is an ever-recurring problem when designing governance structures more or less disconnected from the formal democratic institutions. As far as the relationship between these considerations is concerned, much of the theoretical as well as the practical discourse revolve around the issue of whether synergy emerges or whether there is just a matter of trade-off. By applying primarily empirical observations from local-to-local cooperation in some Norwegian regions the article attempts to investigate how the relationship turns out.

    The article argues that at least three models are available, one balanced and two imbalanced variants. The notion of synergy highlights a model in which input-processes of democratic participation and output-processes of performance reinforce each other. The others, on the contrary, are imbalanced, implying either a democratic deficit or a deliberative surplus.

    By comparing the models to experiences from local-to-local cooperation a pattern of divergent features emerges. Nevertheless, a trade-off where the regard for local democracy and autonomy seems to dominate at the sacrifice of performing efficiently and effectively, thus the article is rather pessimistic as to what may be gained by pursuing the intermunicipal cooperative strategy further.

  1. Democracy and social capital in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalopoulou, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Democracy is the notion broadly used to denote a society’s commitment towards freedom and a better way of life. The minimum conditions that a country must adhere to in order to be acknowledged as democratic refer to arrangements between rulers and the ruled. In that sense, the key attributes of democracy are institutional guarantees referred to as either political rights and liberties or contestation for public office power and people’s participation. To the extent that these key attributes o...

  2. Consolidation of democracy in South Korea?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Although South Korea has accomplished a democratic transition, democraticconsolidation has not been achieved. The study investigates this notion on thebasis of criteria of democratic consolidation, how the presidents have fulfilledtheir promises on the deepening of democracy and how the Articles in the1987 Constitution on democracy have been implemented. What developmentssupport and disapprove this notion? The interaction between domestic politicsand the implementation of the Constitution dur...

  3. Democracy in a Post-Castro Cuba?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    and Democratic Solidarity ( Libertad ) Act of 1996. (1996, March 12). Public Law 104-114, 104th Congress. Washington, D.C. 110 STAT. 811-812. 8...The John Hopkins University Press. 177-178. 83 Trinkunas, Harold. (2000). Crafting Civilian Control in Emerging Democracies: Argentina and...Emerging Democracies: Argentina and Venezuela. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Volume 42, 3. 87 Trinkunas. 43 exercise power

  4. Empowering youth leadership for democracy sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Epure

    2013-01-01

    For the young generation it is important to learn about democracy and participation and project RO-13-E9-2013-R1 'Empowering youth leadership for sustainable democracy' developed by Pro Global Science Association played an important role in this direction. A special attention was paid to evaluate the learning outcomes, the effectiveness of methods used during the seminars and the potential of each 'actors' involved to disseminate the project’ results. The paper is presenting the results of th...

  5. Science is a gateway for democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoua, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    The Arab Spring of 2011 has highlighted an unprecedent fact in the region: it was the young and educated population who established the spearheading of change, and led their countries to democracy. In this paper, we try to analyze how science has been a key factor in these moves, in Tunisia as well as in Egypt, and how it can help to anchor democracy in these countries.

  6. The Dogma of Democracy Gone Sour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Maxton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to political organisation the western world likes to claim the moral high ground. It touts the benefits of free and fair elections, as if the concept of democracy were a self-evident, eternal truth. For the US State Department, democracy has taken on near-religious significance. It has become a right, just as much as the right to life, liberty and happiness.If the US and many other western countries actually practised what they preached, they would at least be giving their sermons from solid turf. But because they continue to undermine the practice of democracy at home, their pulpits are not very high and the ground they stand on is increasingly squishy.In the nations with the loudest democracy trumpets, big businesses and rich individuals have corrupted the democratic process. They influence elections and laws to their advantage and suppress changes they don't like. At the same time, the poor have become increasingly disenfranchised, either because they are deliberately excluded from the voting process or because they no longer believe it has any value.This is not just a failure of democracy. It is also a failure of communication. Rather than achieving its goals, and promoting an idea with considerable merit, the West is undermining the cause. Democracy has become little more than an ideological weapon, and it is driving the doubters away.

  7. Democracy and the Moral Imperative to Philosophize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An important part of Cornelius Castoriadis’ exploration into the adventure of modernity involves his reflections on democracy. Indeed, in no less than three works [Figures of the Thinkable, Rising Tide of Insignificancy (The Big Sleep, and World in Fragments], Castoriadis devotes a part, entitled Polis, in which he discusses democracy and its relation to modernity by beginning with the Greeks. In World in Fragments, the section, "The Greek and the Modern Political Imaginary" clearly indicates the relation existing between the ancient Greeks and democracy in his mind. In my paper, I have considered Castoriadis’ reflections on democracy and the way in which he employs the Greeks in his attempt to rethink modern democracies. I shall argue that if we are to follow Castoriadis in embracing an authentic emancipation promised by but not delivered by modernity, we will have to look to his understanding of democracy as providing the way beyond both the cynicism of post-modernism and false hopes of neo-modernism.

  8. Weaving meanings from the deliberative process of collegiate management in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2014-01-01

    to understand the meanings of the collegiate deliberations attributed by its members on an undergraduate nursing course. Grounded Theory, interviews being held with 30 participants, making up 4 sample groups, between January and June 2012, in a public higher education institution. 5 categories emerged, indicating the phenomenon and weaving the paradigmatic model: Understanding the experience of the complex relationships and interactions in the deliberations of collegiate management in nursing: intertwining divergences, convergences, dialogs, collectivities and diversities. This deliberative process presents various meanings involving discussion, and divergent, convergent and complementary positions, through dialog, commitment and negotiation. the deliberations in the collegiate of nursing, intertwining dialogs, collectivities and diversities, mold the complex relational fabrics.

  9. The relative importance of habitual and deliberative factors in food consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Brunsø, Karen

    2006-01-01

    to dominate when the target behaviour is performed rarely and in unstable contexts. In the food choice area, only little research exists that would allow a similar assessment. As part of the SEAFOODplus project, representative surveys were conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, and Poland......), 0.18 (Denmark), 0.10 (Spain), 0.16 (Netherlands), 0.00 (Poland). Although no general answer may exist to the question whether habitual or deliberative factors are more important in food consumer behaviour, habits appear to dominate behaviour in the domain of seafood consumption....

  10. VALUE ORIENTATIONS AND SUPPORT FOR DEMOCRACY AMONG ELITES AND MASS PUBLICS IN OLD AND NEW DEMOCRACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hoffmann-Lange

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that without broad elite consenus on democratic institutions and practices new democracies remain fragile. The article studies the association between the support for democracy by the population and the degree of elite consensus on democratic values and procedures across parties.

  11. Democracy always comes first. Adolescents’ views on democracy and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwelink, Hessel

    2014-01-01

    Research shows adolescents to be positively-oriented towards democracy, but little is known about their meanings of decision-making in both everyday situations and formal democracy. To gain insight into these aspects of adolescents’ democratic views we have interviewed 40 Dutch adolescents from seco

  12. Democracy, Support for Democracy and Corruption. A Longitudinal Study of Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although often unable to satisfactorily solve the problem, democracy (especially enduring democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption. Yet, both Transparency International and the World Bank continue to attach a high risk of corruption to Latin American countries: corruption and impunity remain prevalent in the area, despite consolidating democratic regimes and recent anticorruption reforms. Using level of democracy and its endurance, as well as information on the perceptions of democratic performance and corruption obtained from the Latinobarometro, we analyzed a panel data covering the period 2005-2010 in 14 Latin American countries. Our main results show that levels of democracy and citizens' assessment of government fairness have a positive impact on corruption. However, satisfaction towards democracy has the opposite effect: when citizens believed democratic governments and public administrations to be efficient, they also perceived that gains against corruption had significantly decreased.

  13. CONTROVERSY ON THE AIRWAVES: PUBLIC DIPLOMACY, PORTRAYING AMERICA, AND PUBLIC OUTREACH THROUGH THE VOICE OF AMERICA UZBEK SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, government-sponsored broadcast services such as Voice of America (VOA) directed to foreign audiences have been intermittently controversial, with opposing sides in the decades-long debate divided between conservative and liberal political forces. Conservatives generally hold that the U.S. should promote democracy globally and use what they consider benign propaganda techniques, including international broadcasts of news and information that is truthful, entertaining, and...

  14. From Totalitarianism to Democracy: The Case of Poland, Controversies and Heritage of Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    seen in this view as nothing but a plot aimed at retaining the influence of communist elites. This theory insists that the only acceptable alliances...transformation, paying high price of devotions and recantations. The agreement created a Poland in which egoism , greed, and connections with the...Poland had inherited many of its deficiencies. The Kaczynski brothers made up the theory of “uklad,” a supposed network of communist-era spies and their

  15. Deliberative Political Leaders: The Role of Policy Input in Political Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lees-Marshment

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a fresh perspective on political leadership by demonstrating that government ministers take a deliberative approach to decision making. Getting behind the closed doors of government through 51 elite interviews in the UK, US, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, the article demonstrates that modern political leadership is much more collaborative than we usually see from media and public critique. Politicians are commonly perceived to be power-hungry autocratic, elite figures who once they have won power seek to implement their vision. But as previous research has noted, not only is formal power circumscribed by the media, public opinion, and unpredictability of government, more collaborative approaches to leadership are needed given the rise of wicked problems and citizens increasingly demand more say in government decisions and policy making. This article shows that politicians are responding to their challenging environment by accepting they do not know everything and cannot do everything by themselves, and moving towards a leadership style that incorporates public input. It puts forward a new model of Deliberative Political Leadership, where politicians consider input from inside and outside government from a diverse range of sources, evaluate the relative quality of such input, and integrate it into their deliberations on the best way forward before making their final decision. This rare insight into politician’s perspectives provides a refreshing view of governmental leadership in practice and new model for future research.

  16. Value Assessment Frameworks for HTA Agencies: The Organization of Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltussen, Rob; Paul Maria Jansen, Maarten; Bijlmakers, Leon; Grutters, Janneke; Kluytmans, Anouck; Reuzel, Rob P; Tummers, Marcia; der Wilt, Gert Jan van

    2017-02-01

    Priority setting in health care has been long recognized as an intrinsically complex and value-laden process. Yet, health technology assessment agencies (HTAs) presently employ value assessment frameworks that are ill fitted to capture the range and diversity of stakeholder values and thereby risk compromising the legitimacy of their recommendations. We propose "evidence-informed deliberative processes" as an alternative framework with the aim to enhance this legitimacy. This framework integrates two increasingly popular and complementary frameworks for priority setting: multicriteria decision analysis and accountability for reasonableness. Evidence-informed deliberative processes are, on one hand, based on early, continued stakeholder deliberation to learn about the importance of relevant social values. On the other hand, they are based on rational decision-making through evidence-informed evaluation of the identified values. The framework has important implications for how HTA agencies should ideally organize their processes. First, HTA agencies should take the responsibility of organizing stakeholder involvement. Second, agencies are advised to integrate their assessment and appraisal phases, allowing for the timely collection of evidence on values that are considered relevant. Third, HTA agencies should subject their decision-making criteria to public scrutiny. Fourth, agencies are advised to use a checklist of potentially relevant criteria and to provide argumentation for how each criterion affected the recommendation. Fifth, HTA agencies must publish their argumentation and install options for appeal. The framework should not be considered a blueprint for HTA agencies but rather an aspirational goal-agencies can take incremental steps toward achieving this goal.

  17. Deliberative Political Leaders: The Role of Policy Input in Political Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lees-Marshment

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a fresh perspective on political leadership by demonstrating that government ministers take a deliberative approach to decision making. Getting behind the closed doors of government through 51 elite interviews in the UK, US, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, the article demonstrates that modern political leadership is much more collaborative than we usually see from media and public critique. Politicians are commonly perceived to be power-hungry autocratic, elite figures who once they have won power seek to implement their vision. But as previous research has noted, not only is formal power circumscribed by the media, public opinion, and unpredictability of government, more collaborative approaches to leadership are needed given the rise of wicked problems and citizens increasingly demand more say in government decisions and policy making. This article shows that politicians are responding to their challenging environment by accepting they do not know everything and cannot do everything by themselves, and moving towards a leadership style that incorporates public input. It puts forward a new model of Deliberative Political Leadership, where politicians consider input from inside and outside government from a diverse range of sources, evaluate the relative quality of such input, and integrate it into their deliberations on the best way forward before making their final decision. This rare insight into politician’s perspectives provides a refreshing view of governmental leadership in practice and new model for future research.

  18. The participatory vulnerability scoping diagram - deliberative risk ranking for community water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Peter D.; Yarnal, Brent; Coletti, Alex; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards and climate change present growing challenges to community water system (CWS) managers, who are increasingly turning to vulnerability assessments to identify, prioritize, and adapt to risks. Effectively assessing CWS vulnerability requires information and participation from various sources, one of which is stakeholders. In this article, we present a deliberative risk-ranking methodology, the participatory vulnerability scoping diagram (P-VSD), which allows rapid assessment and integration of multiple stakeholder perspectives of vulnerability. This technique is based on methods of deliberative risk evaluation and the vulnerability scoping diagram. The goal of the methodology is to engage CWS managers and stakeholders collectively to provide qualitative contextual risk rankings as a first step in a vulnerability assessment. We conduct an initial assessment using a case study of CWS in two U.S. counties, sites with broadly similar exposures but differences in population, land use, and other social sensitivity factors. Results demonstrate that CWS managers and stakeholders in the two case study communities all share the belief that their CWS are vulnerable to hazards but differ in how this vulnerability manifests itself in terms of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of the system.

  19. Engaging Young People: Deliberative Preferences in Discussions About News and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Peacock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet affords users a unique and low-cost way to engage with news, politics, and one another. Although young people are the most likely age cohort to go online, it is questionable whether young people take advantage of the Internet as a deliberative space. We examine the way college students perceive the online world as a venue for political discussion by analyzing responses from six focus groups conducted with college students across the United States. Using deliberative theory as a guide, we examine focus group participants’ thoughts about political discussion both online and offline. Our findings indicate that young people’s preferences for online discussions about politics and the news consistently link to the ideals of deliberation. Young people prefer engaging with others who are knowledgeable and remain flexible and calm during discussions. Goals for engaging in conversations about politics primarily revolved around sharing information and opinions. Participants preferred civil discourse that focuses on commonalities rather than differences between people. This study provides greater insight into how the rising generation currently engages with politics and the news and reasons why many people hesitate to participate in online discussions about public affairs.

  20. From Grand Narratives of Democracy to Small Expectations of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Witschge, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the invocation of democracy in the discourse of audience participation in digital journalism. Rather than simply restate the familiar grand narratives that traditionally described journalism’s function for democracy (information source, watchdog, public representa...

  1. E-democracy: meer demos door digitale revolutie?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, T.A.P.; Cuijpers, Colette

    2017-01-01

    E-democracy incorporates digital tools, the internet and social media to enhance democracy. There are many of these tools available to improve governmental responsiveness, transparency, and accountability, but also to support the inclusiveness, representativeness and influence of citizens’

  2. How to Assess American Democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a framework to evaluate the functioning of American democracy and to suggest, accordingly, suitable reforms. Reform, literally, means to form again, to reshape and restructure, sometimes to return to basic values that had been lost and sometimes to pursue newly emerging ones. It implies an improvement over the status quo in pursuit of some objective, and it is the question of goals and objectives that raise problems. This article’s main findings suggest that there are seven general values or criteria by which government and the political process – and therefore reform proposals – are to be evaluated. Governmental institutions and processes above all must be (1 effective, implying that its actions must be determined by a process of (2 reasoned and fair deliberation and judgment and that its operations should be (3 efficient. At the same time, government must be controlled and limited, leading to the criteria that apply to the citizenry: (4 responsiveness, (5 representativeness, (6 accountability and (7 participation. Any government that meets these criteria is very likely to be perceived as fair and legitimate by the governed, and is likely to be safe and protect liberties.

  3. Towards a More Inclusive Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Emerson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For reasons both historical and psychological, many have come to believe that ‘democracy is based upon a decision taken by the majority’. This basic principle has been subject to considerable abuse, as many politicians have interpreted it to turn what should have been pluralist debates into simple dichotomies: in 1804 France, for example, any sane and sober adult could have been a candidate for the post of Emperor, but the question was only ‘Napoleon, yes or no?’. Some of the other methodologies by which “the will of the people” can be determined are regarded by many social choice scientists as being more accurate, especially those multi-option preferential procedures in which all preferences cast by all voters are taken into account. After a brief historical note, this article offers a critique of majoritarianism before outlining that which could be the three-pronged basis of a more consensual polity, namely: multi-option preference voting in decision-making; multi-candidate preference voting in elections; and, as the basic system of inclusive governance, an elected all-party coalition government.

  4. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  5. Promoting Local Democracy in Education: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintrom, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholars have recently explored the relationship between local democracy and education from two distinct perspectives. The first views local democracy as inherently good and offers suggestions for deepening the practice of democracy. The second perspective questions the merits of local democratic control of schools. Contributors to this…

  6. Rethinking the Thinking on Democracy in Education: What Are Educators Thinking (and Doing About Democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zyngier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines perspectives and perceptions of democracy of pre- and in-service teachers as well as teacher-education academics in Australia in order to develop a robust and critical democratic education. Using data from an on-line survey the paper presents the quantitative analyses, and the qualitative responses of contrasting understandings of democracy, citizenship and the role of education in the promotion and development of an active and thick democracy the paper critiques the neo-liberal (thin democratic discourse of contemporary Australian academic research that suggests that the Civics and Citizenship Education project only requires some augmentation highlighting issues like sustainability and globalization while ignoring social justice issues. It begins by outlining the concepts of thick and thin democracy, and revisits the state of civics and citizenship education (CCE in Australia. It is argued that while the pre-service teachers in this study may have a more critical and thicker understanding of democracy that is mirrored in the views of their teacher-education professors, the practicing teachers, on the other hand, have largely adopted the mainstream neo-liberal discourse, presenting a tendency to view democracy in a very narrow or thin way that may impact on their classroom practice. The paper concludes with recommendations related to what a thick democracy might actually look like in school education.

  7. Febrile Seizures: Controversy and Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Omer A.

    1983-01-01

    Although febrile convulsions are a relatively common complaint, the approach to their management is far from uniform and highly controversial. This article reviews the consensus statement on febrile convulsions arrived at by the Consensus Development Conference held in 1980 by the National Institutes of Health, together with other literature of interest to family physicians. Guidelines are given for the assessment, diagnosis and emergency treatment of febrile seizures. Epilepsy and atypical febrile convulsions are distinguished from simple febrile seizures. Prognosis, prevention, and the importance of counselling parents are discussed, as well as the controversial issue of prophylactic treatment. PMID:21286583

  8. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  9. Policy Performance and Satisfaction with Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heiða Önnudóttir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how subjective perception of government’s policy performance affects satisfaction with how democracy works in Iceland. This we base on the argument that the public is aware of and evaluating the governments’ performance when the political system is faced with a major crisis that has been extensively publicly debated and triggered widespread protests. The financial and political crisis in Iceland 2008-09 provides an opportunity to examine if government performance can be seen as a causal factor explaining satisfaction with the democratic process. We take into account two alternative explanations; that satisfaction with how democracy works depends on citizens’ belief in how well the representative system works; and if they are more satisfied when their party is represented in government. Our principal conclusion is that subjective policy performance is the main explanation for citizens’ increased dissatisfaction with democracy during a severe crisis.

  10. Open Government: A Tool for Democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana De Blasio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing disconnection between citizens and decision-makers is pushing politics towards a re-shaping of institutional design. New spaces of political participation are sustained and even reinforced by communication, especially by digital communication. Governments and public administrations can find and use different models to facilitate citizens’ participation; e-government, open government and a specific design of digital democracy. In this respect, open government can constitute a way to re-connect citizens and political institutions, but at the same time, it can also be an “appealing” tool to institutionalize bottom-up participation and so anesthetizing it. The aim of this article is to present the first findings of an international research project about open government and participatory platforms in four European countries (France, Italy, Spain, the UK. The study tries to understand if participatory platforms can improve the quality of democracy, and if open government can contribute to democratizing democracy.

  11. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...... democracy. This freedom argument goes beyond freedom as moral autonomy and a libertarian idea of freedom as non-interference to a notion of freedom as a form of standing constituted by the public legal order. The trouble with other attempts to connect freedom and democracy is that they have operated...

  12. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  13. Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Allabadi, Fadwa

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the multilayered changes in the lives of Palestinian women over the years of the first and second Intifadas. On the one hand, women have become far more actively involved in politics, with a Women's Charter being drafted and legislation concerning women's rights being put on the political agenda. At the same time, the political shift from a Fatah- to a Hamas-dominated government has shifted understandings of whether the state should be secular or Islamist. Paradoxical ...

  14. Deliberative protests? Persuading politicians not to close schools in Swedish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uba, Katrin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the political impact of protest mobilization sometimes show that disruptive protests help social movements achieve their goals. This is conventionally explained by politicians’ interests in re-elections and social control, ultimately neglecting alternative arguments such as the drive for better policy solutions. This study investigates if well-reasoned arguments – measured by the deliberative quality of protest letters against school closures – persuade Swedish municipal decision-makers more than simple outcries. Analysis demonstrates support for this argument, as schools defended by protest letters with a higher deliberative quality have higher probability to remain open than schools defended by letters of a lower deliberative quality. However, a fundamental paradox rises from the second conclusion: intrinsically non-deliberate forms of protests, such as demonstrations, have a stronger negative effect on the likelihood of school closures. Hence, well-reasoned communicative practices have some power of persuasion, but experienced activists may prefer disruptive protests for more political leverage.Los estudios sobre el impacto político de la movilización de protesta muestran que a veces las protestas disruptivas ayudan a los movimientos sociales a alcanzar sus objetivos. Esto se explica convencionalmente por los intereses de los políticos en la reelección y el control social, dejando de lado en última instancia argumentos alternativos tales como la búsqueda de mejores soluciones en términos de mejores políticas. Este artículo investiga si los argumentos bien razonados - medidos por la calidad deliberativa de cartas de protesta contra el cierre de las escuelas - persuaden más que los simples gritos a los responsables municipales en Suecia. El análisis apoya este argumento puesto que las escuelas defendidas por cartas de protesta con una calidad superior de deliberación tienen una mayor probabilidad de permanecer

  15. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race,…

  16. Current controversies, is there merit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    Xylitol has become a debated measure in caries prevention. This paper aims to examine and comment on some possible controversies, with emphasis on the most recent literature. A search for clinical trials was conducted through 2007 in PubMed, and papers describing a controlled xylitol intervention...

  17. Teaching Controversial Issues of Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronck, David R.

    Many teachers avoid controversial topics because they do not want to upset students or parents, do not know appropriate instructional strategies, and fail to recognize the importance of motivating students through placing science in its relevant context. An example is provided for use in a methods course for helping future high school teachers to…

  18. Cartography of Controversies about MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2015-01-01

    in current literature result in the production of systematic literature reviews, case studies, and theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This work-in-progress paper explores the controversies about MOOCs by adopting the recently developed method “cartography of controversies” from the science and technology...

  19. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments.

  20. High-stakes educational testing and democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between high-stakes educational testing and democracy drawn from the experiences of 20th-century high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish history of education. The article presents various concepts of democracy using leading propositions within...... the field of education. Then a sample of relevant historic case studies are examined in light of these definitions. Among other things, the article concludes that a combination of different evaluation technologies – some formative and some summative – might be the safest way to go from a democratic...

  1. The Problem of Citizens: E-Democracy for Actually Existing Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kreiss, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ... be. Drawing on recent theories of political parties, social identity, and cultural cognition, this article argues that e-democracy efforts need to account for the fact that the citizens practitioners...

  2. Örgütsel Demokrasi( Organizational Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar ERKAL COŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of democracy that is shaped by contemporary economic, political, social and cultural developments makes us re-consider organizational life. The number of studies on organizational democracy rises exponentially whereby contributions to and complexities for the organization are discussed. In this context, this study begins with a conceptualization of organizational democracy from modern business management perspective, which is followed by respectively; a discussion of previous research on organizational democracy, the causes behind the new departure towards organizational democracy, the contributions to organizations, the complexities and problems faced during practical implementation, and finally a literature review on the ways and means of ensuring organizational democracy. With this study, the following questions will be raised to scholarly discussion; is organizational democracy just an ideal emphasizing the human element and employee satisfaction, or is it a strategy that needs managerial attention for attainment of organizational goals in 21 st century?

  3. Freedom and the Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    noninstrumental value. I see the noninstrumental value of democracy in terms of freedom rather than the now more common reference to equality or fairness. The freedom argument can better show the noninstrumenal value of democracy and can better respond to some core objections to democratic noninstrumentalism than...... the equality argument. A main aim of this paper is to show that freedom and democracy are not merely instrumentally linked but, rather, intrinsically related. I argue this mainly via a critical engagement with Philip Pettit’s conception of freedom as nondomination. My defense of the noninstrumental value......This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has...

  4. Analyzing Data Generated Through Deliberative Dialogue: Bringing Knowledge Translation Into Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Cole, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    Deliberative dialogue (DD) is a knowledge translation strategy that can serve to generate rich data and bridge health research with action. An intriguing alternative to other modes of generating data, the purposeful and evidence-informed conversations characteristic of DD generate data inclusive of collective interpretations. These data are thus dialogic, presenting complex challenges for qualitative analysis. In this article, we discuss the nature of data generated through DD, orienting ourselves toward a theoretically grounded approach to analysis. We offer an integrated framework for analysis, balancing analytical strategies of categorizing and connecting with the use of empathetic and suspicious interpretive lenses. In this framework, data generation and analysis occur in concert, alongside engaging participants and synthesizing evidence. An example of application is provided, demonstrating nuances of the framework. We conclude with reflections on the strengths and limitations of the framework, suggesting how it may be relevant in other qualitative health approaches. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The relative importance of habitual and deliberative factors in food consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Brunsø, Karen

    2006-01-01

    (total N = 4800). Extended theory of planned behaviour specifications were estimated that included habit as an exogenous variable. The results indicated that habit predicted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control far better than these could in turn predict intention and behaviour, apparently......Rational-choice approaches to consumer behaviour neglect the influence of habitual factors. Previous research outside the food choice area has found that habitual factors tend to dominate when the target behaviour is performed often and in stable contexts, whilst deliberative factors tend...... to dominate when the target behaviour is performed rarely and in unstable contexts. In the food choice area, only little research exists that would allow a similar assessment. As part of the SEAFOODplus project, representative surveys were conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, and Poland...

  6. The Disciplining of Dissent and the Role of Empathetic Listeners in Deliberative Publics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    insiders. To explore the disciplinary practices of institutional insiders towards other participants in deliberation, as well as resistance against them, I compare discursive opposition expressed within several European- and national-level ESF preparatory assemblies. I argue that the disciplining...... analyze rebellious rituals that re-interpret the hegemonic public transcript of deliberative politics in the European Social Forum (ESF). The ESF is a prefigurative arena for discursive practice in the global justice movement that includes resource-poor grassroots activists, immigrants and social movement...... of dissent in national Social Forum settings works silently, alongside a place-specific habit of selective listening practiced by institutional elites. Rebellious rituals of resistance against exclusion emerge in transnational ESF preparatory meetings, in which grassroots activists assume the role...

  7. Weaving meanings from the deliberative process of collegiate management in nursing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2014-01-01

    Objective to understand the meanings of the collegiate deliberations attributed by its members on an undergraduate nursing course. Method Grounded Theory, interviews being held with 30 participants, making up 4 sample groups, between January and June 2012, in a public higher education institution. Result 5 categories emerged, indicating the phenomenon and weaving the paradigmatic model: Understanding the experience of the complex relationships and interactions in the deliberations of collegiate management in nursing: intertwining divergences, convergences, dialogs, collectivities and diversities. This deliberative process presents various meanings involving discussion, and divergent, convergent and complementary positions, through dialog, commitment and negotiation. Conclusion the deliberations in the collegiate of nursing, intertwining dialogs, collectivities and diversities, mold the complex relational fabrics. PMID:26107835

  8. Weaving meanings from the deliberative process of collegiate management in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Dorneles Callegaro Higashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meanings of the collegiate deliberations attributed by its members on an undergraduate nursing course.METHOD: Grounded Theory, interviews being held with 30 participants, making up 4 sample groups, between January and June 2012, in a public higher education institution.RESULT: 5 categories emerged, indicating the phenomenon and weaving the paradigmatic model: Understanding the experience of the complex relationships and interactions in the deliberations of collegiate management in nursing: intertwining divergences, convergences, dialogs, collectivities and diversities. This deliberative process presents various meanings involving discussion, and divergent, convergent and complementary positions, through dialog, commitment and negotiation.CONCLUSION: the deliberations in the collegiate of nursing, intertwining dialogs, collectivities and diversities, mold the complex relational fabrics.

  9. Subjetividad y espacio en El camino y Mi idolatrado hijo Sisí, de Miguel Delibes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Navarro, Epicteto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses in the relationships between subject and space in El camino and Mi idolatrado hijo Sisí, by Miguel Delibes. Both novels show the reflection on infantry, the formative process and the environment. An important difference appears in the contrast of city and the country area, symbolically present and past. In the two texts there is not a single thesis about man and society, but what the reader has, through dialogues, third person narrative and free indirect style, is a consciousness deciding freely. When we try to establish a relationship between both novels, their time and space, it seems that the second could be in the origin of a society that produces a critical answer in the reader.Este artículo se centra en el examen de algunas relaciones entre el sujeto y el espacio. En las dos novelas de Delibes existe una preocupación por la infancia, el proceso de formación y el medio social. Una diferencia básica tiene que ver con la separación del medio rural, en El camino, y el ciudadano, en Mi idolatrado hijo Sisí. La narración no se configura para mantener una tesis, sino que vemos, a través de la tercera persona, del diálogo y el estilo directo libre, una conciencia decidiendo libremente. Si relacionamos los dos textos, su espacio y tiempo, es la segunda la que parece estar en el origen de una configuración social en la que la respuesta del lector debe ser crítica.

  10. What can ethnography bring to the study of deliberative democracy? Evidence from a study on the impact of participation on actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talpin, Julien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the individual effects of participation has mainly focused on the impact of deliberation on actors’ preferences, mostly based on quantitative and experimental research. I argue here that ethnography, based on a praxeologic and process approach, can offer broader results on actors’ learning in participatory devices than the cognitive effects generally emphasized. Grounded in a case-study of a participatory budget in Rome, the research shows participation allows learning new skills and civic habits but may also bring about a greater distrust with politics. Explaining the learning process, the paper stresses the different learning potential of participatory institutions. A condition for the durability of the effects observed is that participation be repeated over time. This requires integration within the institution, which happens for only a few; the majority of participants being disappointed stop participating. Speaking the language of the institution, some participants are however integrated enough to acquire further civic skills and knowledge, and even to endure a politicization process. Finally, the study of actors’ long-term trajectories allows drawing conclusions on the social conditions of civic bifurcation. Ethnography thereby allows grasping the long-term consequences of civic engagement.

    El estudio de los efectos individuales de la participación se ha centrado sobre todo en la influencia de la deliberación en las preferencias de los actores, basándose principalmente en la investigación cuantitativa y experimental. En este artículo defiendo que la etnografía, mediante una aproximación praxeológica y procesual, puede ofrecer resultados sobre el aprendizaje de los actores en contextos de participación que van más allá de los efectos cognitivos que se suelen destacar. Apoyándonos en un estudio de caso sobre presupuestos participativos en Roma, la investigación demuestra que la participación permite adquirir nuevas aptitudes y hábitos cívicos, si bien puede generar también una mayor desconfianza en la política. Al explicar el proceso de aprendizaje, el artículo acentúa el diferente potencial de aprendizaje de las instituciones participativas. Una condición para que los efectos observados sean duraderos consiste en que la participación se repita a lo largo del tiempo. Ello requiere integración en la institución, lo que solo ocurre en algunos casos, pues la mayoría de los participantes se decepcionan al dejar de participar. Sin embargo, algunos participantes, al manejarse bien en el lenguaje de la institución, están lo bastante integrados como para adquirir nuevas aptitudes y conocimientos cívicos e incluso para asumir un proceso de politización. Por último, el estudio de las trayectorias de los actores a largo plazo permite extraer conclusiones sobre las condiciones sociales de la bifurcación cívica. Por tal motivo, la etnografía permite que se comprendan las consecuencias a largo plazo del compromiso cívico.

  11. Free Press in a Constitutional Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucianek, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students will examine several views expressed by the founders to understand the context for including freedom of the press in the First Amendment. Students will be asked to think about the role that the news media and the need to be an informed citizen continue to play in our democracy. Students will…

  12. Democracy and Governance Networks: Compatible or Not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); C. Skelcher (Chris)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the relationship between representative democracy and governance networks at a theoretical level. It does so by offering four conjectures and their implications for theory and practice. The incompatibility conjectures rests on the primacy of politics and sees gove

  13. Democracy and Social Justice in Sarajevo's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Peter; Lanahan, Brian Kirby

    2012-01-01

    After the end of the 1992-1995 Bosnian war, the people of Sarajevo found themselves rebuilding their country while also learning to live with their former enemies in this developing democracy. In this study we examined the extent to which democratic practices and social justice values were being taught in Sarajevo's schools. Using a case study…

  14. Democracy and the Symbolic Constitution of Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindahl, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, this paper argues that the continuities and discontinuities characterizing the passage from medieval politics to modern democracy can best be understood by reference to political power's symbolic structure. For the one, political power,

  15. Singularity and Community: Levinas and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    This article explores and extends Levinas's ideas of singularity and community as multiplicity and argues that his identification of language and discourse as the means to create ethical communities provides tangible possibilities for rebuilding genuine democracy in a humane world. These ideas help us reimagine school and classroom as communities…

  16. Reinvigorating the role of science in democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Andrew A; Halpern, Michael; Shulman, Seth; Wexler, Celia; Phartiyal, Pallavi

    2013-01-01

    Private and political interests routinely conspire to sideline and misrepresent science and evidence in the public policy process. The Center for Science and Democracy, a new initiative at the Union of Concerned Scientists, endeavors to change this dynamic to strengthen the role of science in decision making.

  17. Democracy, Education and the Need for Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the interrelationship between education and democratic politics is as old as democracy itself, it is seldom explicitly formulated in the literature. Most of the time, the political system is taken as a given, and education conceptualized as an instrument for stability and social integration. Many contemporary discussions about…

  18. Direct Democracy in Local Politics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Elements of  direct democracy at the local level does exist in Denmark, but it is little known, because no formal rules regulate this aspect of political life, because results from popular initiatives and referendums are not recorded in official statistics, and because few systematic analyses have...

  19. Democracy in Kazakhstan: Historical Fiction or Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilzhanov, Nurlykhan B.; Kozhirova, Svetlana B.; Azizian, Rouben

    2016-01-01

    An important issue in the development of transitional societies at the present stage of historical development is the impact of "global democracy" system of government. Trends of such influence in the post-Soviet space, in particular, are becoming more tangible in the context of globalization and especially after the so-called…

  20. Teaching for Toleration in Pluralist Liberal Democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waarden, Betto

    2017-01-01

    This article determines which education enables the perpetuation of diverse ways of life and the liberal democracy that accommodates this diversity. Liberals like John Rawls, Stephen Macedo, and William Galston have disagreed about the scope of civic education. Based on an analysis of toleration--the primary means for maintaining a pluralist…

  1. On the Relevance of "Bildung" for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The author argues that a continued analysis of the relationship between "Bildung" and democracy only makes sense when referring back to the "classic" intention of understanding "Bildung" as creative, critical and transformative processes which change the relationship of self and world in conjunction with a changing social and material environment.…

  2. Forms and terminology of Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    It is apparent that some confusion exits both among researchers and political actors about the various forms of direct democracy. Various institutions such as IRI and IDEA, various countries such as Switzerland and California, and various authors such as Pier Vincenzo Uleri and David Altman present...

  3. Forms and terminology of Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    It is apparent that some confusion exits both among researchers and political actors about the various forms of direct democracy. Various institutions such as IRI and IDEA, various countries such as Switzerland and California, and various authors such as Pier Vincenzo Uleri and David Altman present...

  4. Singularity and Community: Levinas and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    This article explores and extends Levinas's ideas of singularity and community as multiplicity and argues that his identification of language and discourse as the means to create ethical communities provides tangible possibilities for rebuilding genuine democracy in a humane world. These ideas help us reimagine school and classroom as communities…

  5. Democracy, Education and the Need for Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the interrelationship between education and democratic politics is as old as democracy itself, it is seldom explicitly formulated in the literature. Most of the time, the political system is taken as a given, and education conceptualized as an instrument for stability and social integration. Many contemporary discussions about…

  6. Free Press in a Constitutional Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucianek, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students will examine several views expressed by the founders to understand the context for including freedom of the press in the First Amendment. Students will be asked to think about the role that the news media and the need to be an informed citizen continue to play in our democracy. Students will…

  7. The Peculiar Status of "Democracy and Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostrom, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The centennial of "Democracy and Education" invites those who study education and curriculum to reconsider this major work and its place in today's world. One of the most cited works in educational scholarship (and the most cited of Dewey's many works), the perspective it provides is not evident in US policy-making or in school practice.…

  8. Experiencing democracy : Women in rural East Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoven, Bettina

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences of rural women in East German), in light of the transformation front a socialist regime to a market-oriented democracy, Drawing on a study carried out in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania between 1996 and 1999, the article details women's positive recollections of

  9. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Klučka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP, and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI, laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient.

  10. Controversial reversal of nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due introduction of climate change prevention measures. Recent developments indicate the advantages of nuclear option over other possible options in terms of sustainable development. However, a large number of controversial issues on nuclear energy make its...

  11. Multiple sclerosis: evidence and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Ángela-María

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. The pharmacological treatment of multiple sclerosis has been evaluated with multiple controlled clinical trials that allow the clinician to count with evidence based information to decide the more indicated treatment for each patient. Methodology: A review of the scientific literature was conducted to clarify controversial issues in a clinical relevant topic. Development: The diagnosti...

  12. Controversies in Fistula in Ano

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Managing a complex fistula in ano can be a daunting task for most surgeons; largely due to the two major dreaded complications—recurrence & fecal incontinence. It is important to understand the anatomy of the anal sphincters & the aetiopathological process of the disease to provide better patient care. There are quite a few controversies associated with fistula in ano & its management, which compound the difficulty in treating fistula in ano. This article attempts to clear some of those major...

  13. Controversies in neurosciences critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiffany R; Naval, Neeraj S; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Neurocritical care is an evolving subspecialty with many controversial topics. The focus of this review is (1) transfusion thresholds in patients with acute intracranial bleeding, including packed red blood cell transfusion, platelet transfusion, and reversal of coagulopathy; (2) indications for seizure prophylaxis and choice of antiepileptic agent; and (3) the role of specialized neurocritical care units and specialists in the care of critically ill neurology and neurosurgery patients.

  14. Analysing the disability- sexuality controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sibanda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexuality is one of the many phenomena which are least openly discussed particularly in the African culture. Sexuality is conceived variously in different cultures and disability is seen as a threat to sexuality in many of the cultures. Meanwhile, sexuality is regarded as a central theme in the development of self-esteem and self-identity since it has been conceived within the bodily perfection and bodily beauty complexes. Thus, the way sexuality is conceived for people with disabilities forms the central thrust of this paper. Views about the sexuality of people with disabilities have manifested in the construction of what we term the disability- sexuality controversy. The paper examines this controversy and explores ways of resolving it in the context of educational programming. The paper concludes that the disability- sexuality controversy is more of a social than a biological construct. This conclusion is premised on the hypothetical view that both disability and sexuality are intimately tied to the concept of self in which case sexuality is constructed within the social realm of the bodily beauty complexes. The way forward is a multi- sectorial approach towards the eradication of disability stereotypes. In addition, the paper recommends active parental involvement in the programming and implementation of sexuality education for their children with disabilities.

  15. Clinical controversies in lipid management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziomalos, K

    2015-06-01

    Even though it is firmly established that statins are the cornerstone of management of dyslipidemias, several controversies still exist in this area. In the present review, the most pertinent controversies in lipid management are discussed and the current evidence is summarized. Treatment with statins increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but this increase appears to be small and outweighed by the benefits of statins on cardiovascular disease prevention. Accordingly, statin treatment-associated T2DM should not affect management decisions. In patients who cannot achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets despite treatment with the maximum tolerated dose of a potent statin, adding ezetimibe appears to be the treatment of choice. Finally, patients who achieved LDL-C targets with a statin but have elevated triglyceride levels appear to have increased cardiovascular risk and adding fenofibrate appears to reduce this risk. Even though additional large randomized controlled trials are unlikely to be performed with the existing lipid-lowering agents, mechanistic, genetic and epidemiological studies, as well as careful analyses of the existing trials will provide further insights in these controversial issues and will allow the optimization of the management of dyslipidemia aiming at further reductions in cardiovascular morbidity.

  16. Democracy and Governance in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Jachtenfuchs

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that internationalization undermines governance and democracy. This phenomenon has two dimensions. On the one hand, it is a real process which has to be understood. On the other hand, it constitutes a challenge for a number of concepts and theories in the social sciences as well as in law. These concepts and theories are often implicitly based on the idea of a sovereign nation-state. In consequence, it is difficult to conceptualize even the possibility of the transformation of the state as a result of internationalization. This general problematique is most strongly visible in the European Union which over time has developed into a political system of a new type. This system has enormous consequences on democracy and governance in its member states. The first part of the paper presents a view on the EU's political system which does not preclude the possibility of a fundamental transformation of governance and democracy in the EU by the choice of its basic concepts. The second part presents those features of the EU's political system which are most important for the future of democracy and governance. They are uneven Europeanization, permanent institutional change and new patterns of legitimation. The third part discusses two models of the European Union which might be the result of these processes. They represent two different mixtures of the institutionalization of governance and democracy. Both seem to be at least potentially stable forms of political organization but none of them can be reduced to the traditional forms of'state' and 'international organization'. The final part contains an assessment of the prospective development of the EU in the light of the central features of the EU and the system models discussed in the two previous section.

  17. Deliberative Rhetoric and Forensic Stasis: Reconsidering the Scope and Function of an Ancient Rhetorical Heuristic in the Aftermath of the Thomas/Hill Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, George L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the second confirmation hearing of Judge Clarence Thomas as it concerned the reception of Professor Anita Hill's comments. Argues that the application of forensic stasis in a situation where the evidence could not fit the forensic pattern virtually guaranteed the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas. Suggests that forensic stasis is not…

  18. Partisan Scholarship in Technoscientific Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Hansson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Several academic traditions have addressed epistemological objectivity and/or partisanship in the study of technoscientific controversies. On the one hand, positivist and relativist scholars agree that the political commitments of the social researcher should not impinge on scientific enquiry......, while on the other hand, feminist and Marxist scholars not only take stands in diverse technoscientific debates, but even claim their agendas to be more credible than those of orthodox scientists. Such perspectives stress that all research is partisan in one way or another because it involves questions...

  19. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    , and predatory democracy. This book provides a portrait of Indonesia’s contradictory democracy through a series of biographical accounts of political entrepreneurs, from the political ‘periphery’ of North Maluku and the ‘political centre’ of East Java respectively. Each biographical account is focused on one...... contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...... with democracy and spirits in fact reflect a set of contradictions within democracy itself. The book will be of interest to academics in the fields of Asian Studies, anthropology and political science and relevant for the study of Indonesian politics and democracy in Asia and beyond....

  20. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    Indonesia has been an electoral democracy for more than a decade, and yet the political landscape of the world’s third-largest democracy is as complex and enigmatic as ever. Indonesia is simultaneous a country that has achieved a successful transition to democracy and a flawed, illiberal......, and predatory democracy. This book provides a portrait of Indonesia’s contradictory democracy through a series of biographical accounts of political entrepreneurs, from the political ‘periphery’ of North Maluku and the ‘political centre’ of East Java respectively. Each biographical account is focused on one...... contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...

  1. Reflection as a Deliberative and Distributed Practice: Assessing Neuro-Enhancement Technologies via Mutual Learning Exercises (MLEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub; Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Eduard, Peter; Krabbenborg, Lotte; Laursen, Sheena; Revuelta, Gema; Toonders, Winnie

    2017-01-01

    In 1968, Jürgen Habermas claimed that, in an advanced technological society, the emancipatory force of knowledge can only be regained by actively recovering the 'forgotten experience of reflection'. In this article, we argue that, in the contemporary situation, critical reflection requires a deliberative ambiance, a process of mutual learning, a consciously organised process of deliberative and distributed reflection. And this especially applies, we argue, to critical reflection concerning a specific subset of technologies which are actually oriented towards optimising human cognition (neuro-enhancement). In order to create a deliberative ambiance, fostering critical upstream reflection on emerging technologies, we developed (in the context of a European 7(th) Framework Programme project on neuro-enhancement and responsible research and innovation, called NERRI) the concept of a mutual learning exercise (MLE). Building on a number of case studies, we analyse what an MLE involves, both practically and conceptually, focussing on key aspects such as ambiance and expertise, the role of 'genres of the imagination' and the profiles of various 'subcultures of debate'. Ideally, an MLE becomes a contemporary version of the Socratic agora, providing a stage where multiple and sometimes unexpected voices and perspectives mutually challenge each other, in order to strength-en the societal robustness and responsiveness of emerg-ing technologies.

  2. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists ‘open up’ appraisal of geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth’s climate system, known collectively as ‘geoengineering’, have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely ‘close down’ upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first ‘upstream’ appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately ‘open up’ to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic–deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens’ and the specialists’ deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  3. Why Should We Prevent a Global Anglo-American Life-World? A Democratic-Deliberative Answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Gálvez Sergi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Should English be promoted as a worldwide lingua franca for justice-related reasons? Philippe Van Parijs answers affirmatively in order to promote global distributive justice. In contrast, I argue that a rapid expansion of English could lead to one undesirable consequence that ought to be prevented: the globalization of an Anglo-American life-world that impoverishes democratic-deliberative debates. Inspired by John Stuart Mill, I will defend the idea that the more dominant the Anglo-American life-world is, the less diversity of life-worlds and, therefore, the less diversity of substantial voices in the global democratic-deliberative process there will be. It might be that more voices could be heard (because of the lingua franca, but with less substantial diversity of opinions. In that sense, the life-worlds (and language as an access key to them have an instrumental value that enables plurality and better deliberative discussion. For that reason, I contend that there is a pro tanto reason to prevent the expansion of English as a lingua franca.

  4. Managing Controversies in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    . The analysis investigates the microprocesses around the controversies that emerge during the fuzzy front end of four products. Five different types of controversies are identified: profit, production, design, brand and customers/market. Each controversy represents a threat, but also an opportunity to search...

  5. Los roles de género a través de la adaptación cinematográfica de la obra de Miguel Delibes. La pirámide de Maslow o ¿cuántas regulas ha costado una Lola?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeda Torrero, Almudena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En español: En este trabajo analizamos paso a paso el papel de la mujer a través de la adaptación cinematográfica del escritor castellano Miguel Delibes. Para ello, y haciendo uso de nuestra mirada o “gafas feministas” combinamos dos tipos de análisis. La aportación de la especialista en cine y feminismo A. Kuhn, con la propuesta de A. Maslow sobre la jerarquización de las necesidades humanas. El objetivo de todo ello es adentrase en el complejo mundo de las mentalidades, comportamientos y actitudes, y de esta forma desvelar el intento o ruptura con el modelo patriarcal. Ruptura que consciente o inconscientemente algunas mujeres persiguieron y solo pocas alcanzaron. Todo ello teniendo como marco de referencia los dos sistemas políticos contrarios y dominantes en la segunda mitad del siglo XX español, dictadura y democracia. .In english: In this paper we analyze step by step the role of women through the film adaptation of writer Miguel Delibes. For this, and using our eyes or "feminist glasses" combine two types of analysis. The specialist provided by the film and feminism, A. Kuhn, with the proposal of A. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. The aim of all this is penetrates in the complex world of attitudes, behaviors and attitudes, and thus reveal the attempt or break with the patriarchal model, consciously or unconsciously break some women chased and only few reached. All this taking as reference the two opposing political systems and dominant in the second half of the twentieth century Spanish, dictatorship and democracy.

  6. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  7. The evolution of controversial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P

    1994-04-01

    The controversial issues concerning the differences of opinion about the validity of Melanie Klein's theory and technique did not arise suddenly when members of the Viennese Society joined the British Psycho-Analytical Society, before the outbreak of the Second World War. In this paper, I describe briefly the socio-historical, administrative and institutional background out of which these scientific divergences evolved alongside other issues concerned with how long members should hold office in the British Psycho-Analytical Society and therefore be in a position to influence the scientific disagreements and training policy in the Society. These causes for concern among members, which were discussed at five business meetings, are then summarised: they relate to differences of opinion with regard to Melanie Klein's contributions to psychoanalysis, the need for revision of the rules of the Society and the type of training in psychoanalysis that should be offered to candidates. Finally, proposals for different ways of exploring and perhaps dealing with these issues are discussed, including the decision to hold formal scientific discussions of Klein's point of view, once a month. These meetings are now referred to as the 'Controversial Discussions'.

  8. TITLE: Memory, Solitude, and Death in La hoja roja (The Red Leaf, by Miguel Delibes. TÍTULO: Memoria, soledad y muerte en La hoja roja, de Miguel Delibes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Cuadrado Gutiérrez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The seventh novel written by Miguel Delibes, "La hoja roja" (1959 is branded by a recognizable individual style in which is found a double compromise that can’t be easily separated: human –preoccupied with the creation of voracious and intimate characters– and geographical –by utilizing his native Castile, both urban and rural, as the setting for his stories. With the objective of achieving the highest degree of credibility regarding the characters of his novels, Delibes makes use of various narrative techniques, among which it is important to mention one in particular: the fact that his characters have memories. This characteristic, together with the description of with the practices of their everyday lives, contributes to create individuals with a personal past as well as a present where interaction with the rest of the characters results crucial. Paradoxically, within the numerous and varied critical approaches to Delibes’ work, the topic of memory has never been considered as the central element in the investigation, although there are instances in which it is obliquely mentioned. Through these particular stories, that interweave the lives of the principal and secondary characters, Delibes recovers a collective memory as he narrates the present. In the author’s particular vision one can read the direct relationship between solitude and death as a warning on the precarious condition in human relationships in Spain’s society in the fifties, where the main pathology is solitude.. RESUMEN: Séptima novela escrita por Miguel Delibes, "La hoja roja" (1959 está marcada por un reconocido estilo propio donde se puede distinguir un doble compromiso de difícil separación: humano –preocupado por crear personajes veraces y entrañables– y geográfico –que utiliza su Castilla natal, la rural y la urbana, como escenario de sus historias–. Con el fin de alcanzar una amplia cota de credibilidad en cuanto a los personajes de

  9. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  10. Beating Social Democracy on Its Own Turf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    parties to flourish in contexts where welfare issues have a natural salience as in the case of universal welfare states. In contrast, Scandinavian universal welfare states ought to benefit social democracy when it comes to issue voting on welfare issues. It is argued in this article that centre-right......Recent elections yielded sweeping majorities for the centre-right in Scandinavia with a decade of pure centre-right majorities in Denmark and the longest sitting centre-right coalition in Sweden for decades. This is a blind spot in the issue voting literature, which would not expect centre-right...... parties can beat social democrats by credibly converging to its social democratic opponent on issues of universal welfare. Issue ownership voting to the benefit of centre-right parties will then be strongest among voters perceiving the centre-right to have converged to social democracy and perceiving...

  11. 75 FR 74678 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office..., Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. BILLING CODE P...

  12. 76 FR 34639 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office..., Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. BILLING CODE P...

  13. The challenge of citizen participation to democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Biegelbauer, Peter; Loeber, Anne

    2010-01-01

    "The paper starts from the observation that the forms of citizen participation have changed considerably from what could be observed in the 1950s and 1960s. Election turn-outs are falling, grass-roots activities of citizens are on the rise and political commentaries in different forms are proliferating on the Internet. How can we conceptualise modern democratic systems and forms of participation? How helpful is democracy theory for this endeavour? The paper revisits classic and post-modern mo...

  14. Fighting Islamic Terrorists With Democracy: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-21

    groups do not necessarily emerge from poverty, then this strategy may be inappropriate. If Western liberal democracy is not a consonant ...fact that the jihadiyyeen are not acting in dissonance with what has been written. As fundamentalists, their starting point is a literal, contextual...they are, indeed, acting in logical consonance with their scripture. If Islam has been twisted, the only position one can take is that it has been

  15. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more accou...... the uncertainty is large and parties are not very polarized. Partisan voters always prefer a long term length. When politicians learn while in office a long term length becomes more attractive for swing voters....

  16. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  17. Liberalism and democracy Liberalismo e democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Autor Claude Lefort

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the historical connections between liberalism and democracy are analyzed, based mostly on three important authors of the French liberal thought of the first half of the 19th century: Benjamin Constant (1767-1830, François Guizot (1787-1874 e Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859. Although, the Author doesn’t forget to highlight the contemporary issues which demand confronting and elucidating the chances of democracy. Keywords: French Liberalism. Democracy. Political Philosophy. Tolerance. São aqui examinadas as relações históricas entre liberalismo e democracia, com base principalmente em três importantes autores do pensamento liberal francês da primeira metade do século XIX: Benjamin Constant (1767-1830, François Guizot (1787-1874 e Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859. Contudo, o Autor não deixa de lançar luz sobre as questões contemporâneas que exigem enfrentar e elucidar as chances da democracia. Palavras-chave: Liberalismo francês. Democracia. Filosofia política. Tolerância.

  18. Mathematics education, democracy and development: Exploring connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Vithal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics education and its links to democracy and development are explored in this article, with specific reference to the case of South Africa. This is done by engaging four key questions. Firstly, the question of whether mathematics education can be a preparation for democracy and include a concern for development, is discussed by drawing on conceptual tools of critical mathematics education and allied areas in a development context. Secondly, the question of how mathematics education is distributed in society and participates in shaping educational possibilities in addressing its development needs and goals is used to examine the issues emerging from mathematics performance in international studies and the national Grade 12 examination; the latter is explored specifically in respect of the South African mathematics curriculum reforms and teacher education challenges. Thirdly, the question of whether a mathematics classroom can be a space for democratic living and learning that equally recognises the importance of issues of development in contexts like South Africa, as a post-conflict society still healing from its apartheid wounds, continuing inequality and poverty, is explored through pedagogies of conflict, dialogue and forgiveness. Finally the question of whether democracy and development can have anything to do with mathematics content matters, is discussed by appropriating, as a metaphor, South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s framework of multiple ‘truths’, to seek links within and across the various forms and movements in mathematics and mathematics education that have emerged in the past few decades.

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abbas Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.

  20. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Du; Broff; Michel; de; Lorgeril

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease(CHD) and the true effect of cholesterollowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular,whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently,the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes,cancer,and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary,we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  1. Metabolic scaling: consensus or controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheatley Denys N

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between body mass (M and standard metabolic rate (B among living organisms remains controversial, though it is widely accepted that in many cases B is approximately proportional to the three-quarters power of M. Results The biological significance of the straight-line plots obtained over wide ranges of species when B is plotted against log M remains a matter of debate. In this article we review the values ascribed to the gradients of such graphs (typically 0.75, according to the majority view, and we assess various attempts to explain the allometric power-law phenomenon, placing emphasis on the most recent publications. Conclusion Although many of the models that have been advanced have significant attractions, none can be accepted without serious reservations, and the possibility that no one model can fit all cases has to be more seriously entertained.

  2. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  3. Democracy and Female Labor Force Participation: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanpourtehrani, Ghazal; Sylwester, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines associations between female labor force participation (FLFP) and democracy. Using a cross-country, time series (1980-2005) data set, we find evidence that FLFP is lower in democracies. One possible explanation is that dictators promote FLFP above what traditional norms would dictate and so a greater freedom to…

  4. Identity and democracy: linking individual and social reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.; Marin, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Following Amartya Sen's approach, John Davis and Solange Regina Marin look at individual and social reasoning when examining the complex relationship between identity and democracy. They characterize democracy as a process of social or public reasoning that combines the individual reasoning of all c

  5. Experiences from the Balkans. What Truly Happens When Exporting Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Sampson

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of the Western assistance for democracy in the Balkans (Eastern Europe), as civil society development programs. The analysis of the situation in the Balkans leads to the conclusion that the main consequence of this Western assistance has not been the export of democracy, but the increased capacity of the receptors (NGOs) to implement such programs.

  6. Policy design without democracy? Making democratic sense of transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the complex relationship between democracy and long-term policy design for sustainability. At one extreme, democracy can be framed as problematic for policy planning because of the myopia fostered by some democratic institutions, such as regular elections. Alternatively,

  7. Democracy and Spiritual Awareness: Interconnections and Implications for Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Glenys J.; Woods, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out theorisations of developmental democracy and spiritual awareness formulated in previous work by the authors. These are used to explore collegial leadership in a case study Steiner school, with the aim of illuminating and illustrating the transformative demands of developmental democracy and its interconnection with spiritual…

  8. 21st-century liberal democracy and its contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This brief paper intends to highlight the contradictions in which liberal democracy struggles within the process of globalisation, influenced as it is by the new connecting technologies. In particular, the difficult relationship between liberalism and democracy is analysed in light of the latest communitarist theories and new trends that interpret them socially. 

  9. Teferi Bekele Ayana Abstract Consociational democracy model is a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He is also co-founder and the Editor-in- ... recommended at different times to approach the challenge.3 .... Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management and Democracy (Reynolds ed., Oxford: Oxford University. Press .... to build the nation based on recognition of ethnic diversity31 and hence accommodationist in.

  10. Technical democracy as a challenge to urban studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farías, Ignacio; Blok, Anders

    2016-01-01

    : power no longer resides in the modern institutions of representative democracy and the market economy; instead, power has become a matter of logistics, infrastructures and expertise. This diagnosis, we suggest, brings into view the challenge of technical democracy, that is, the democratization of techno...

  11. Economic Reform, Democracy and Growth during Post-Communist Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Fidrmuc, Jan

    2001-01-01

    This Paper explores interactions between growth, economic liberalization and democratization during transition. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) Liberalization has a strong positive effect on growth during transition. This holds also when controlling for possible endogeneity of liberalization in growth. (2) Democracy encourages liberalization - countries which introduced greater democracy subsequently progress further in economic liberalization too. (3) Because of its reinforcing...

  12. On Democracy and Leadership: From Rhetoric to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgi, Yiasemina

    2011-01-01

    This paper resembles a personal narrative on leadership and democracy and outlines how an educational leader can conceptualize democratic leadership and take some steps towards transforming theory into practice. The concepts of democracy and democratic schools within the discourse of educational theory and research are briefly discussed. Based on…

  13. "Democracy and Education": Reconstruction of and through Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James

    2016-01-01

    While focusing on "Democracy and Education," James Campbell attempts in this essay to offer a synthesis of the full range of John Dewey's educational thought. Campbell explores in particular Dewey's understanding of the relationship between democracy and education by considering both his ideas on the reconstruction of education and on…

  14. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

  15. Dewey's Ethical Justification for Public Deliberation Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John

    2013-01-01

    Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…

  16. Three Traditions of Democracy in Relation to American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The type of college or university one values most depends, at least in part, upon which of three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education one espouses. In this article, the author identifies three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education and suggests that the type of college or…

  17. The Global Crisis and the Assault on Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper argues that the current global capitalist crisis entails an assault on democracy. Since crisis connotes danger and opportunity, the recent crisis appears to be a danger to democracy but an opportunity to its antithetical ideals. At the international level, multilateral institutions have...

  18. Populisms and liberal democracy – business as usual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Populism is often thought to mark a sharp break with liberal democracy. But to what extent is this the case? In this contribution the connections between populism and liberal democracy are sketched in the context of several areas where discussions about populisms have stressed their discontinuity...

  19. Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Michels, Ank

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected within the scope of a Dutch internet panel survey (LISS) in 2011, this study tracks public support for direct, stealth and representative democracy according to educational level. Our findings indicate that, in terms of overall support for each specific type of democracy, lower

  20. Globalization, Democracy, and Social Movements: The Educational Potential of Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the contemporary value of John Dewey's conception of democracy to addressing the challenges of neoliberal globalization. I begin by describing his vision of democracy as a way of life that requires habits of experimentalism, pluralism, and hope. I then suggest that contemporary forms of mobilization, resistance, and…

  1. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  2. The concept and institutions of education for democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comprises three sections: (a the concepts and institutions of democracy, (b the concept of education for democracy, and (c the role of school in democratic education. The concept of 'open society' is critical to the strategy of education for democracy. In addition to general conditions for establishing and functioning of democracy, the author points to some of its basic institutions: structured social groups, political parties, leader elections. The concept of 'education' is considered from the standpoint of goals - social, national and individual. It is pointed to tolerance as a key concept of the theory of education for democracy. School, being the most prominent institution in the process of education for democracy, places student and development of his/he; democratic characteristics and capacities in the focus of its strategy. All elements of teaching: curriculum, methods teacher, student, textbook are in the function of the basic idea of democratic education - tolerance and crisscrossed influences (practicing of getting used to differences. Apart from the development and acquisition of thinking in concepts about democracy, education for democracy should encompass knowledge for life at state and social institutions, for private and public life, acquisition of national values, rational decision-making discussion. The framework of strategy in question is certainly exercising of tolerance and getting used to crisscrossed influences.

  3. Globalization, Democracy, and Social Movements: The Educational Potential of Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the contemporary value of John Dewey's conception of democracy to addressing the challenges of neoliberal globalization. I begin by describing his vision of democracy as a way of life that requires habits of experimentalism, pluralism, and hope. I then suggest that contemporary forms of mobilization, resistance, and…

  4. Democracy and Catholic Social Teaching: Continuity, Development, and Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bradley Lewis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper discusses the origins and meaning of democracy relative to the development of Christian political thought through the modern period; it is important here that democracy means something different in the ancient world than it does in the modern. The second part discusses the view of democracy proposed in the formative period of modern Catholic social doctrine in especially from the pontificate of Leo XIII to the Second Vatican Council. The third part analyzes the political thought of St. John Paul II which seems to be the apogee of Catholic thinking about democracy. The fourth part discusses some remaining tensions and problems related to democracy that are articulated partly also in John Paul II’s thought, but in a sharper way in the thought of Pope Benedict XVI and one quite prominent challenge to the Catholic view of democracy in the phenomenon of pluralism. One can see in this history that the Church has gradually come to appreciate democracy not simply as an acceptable form of government, one that is not intrinsically at odds with Christianity, but in a positive sense, as an opportunity for human beings to achieve a level of moral development not available in other regimes. But there remain challenges associated with democracy to government and social life consistent with the natural moral law and to Christian faith.

  5. Three Traditions of Democracy in Relation to American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The type of college or university one values most depends, at least in part, upon which of three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education one espouses. In this article, the author identifies three distinct traditions of democracy in relation to American higher education and suggests that the type of college or…

  6. American Democracy in Distress: The Failure of Social Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this essay is to further understanding of the relationship between social education programs in public schools in the United States and the health of its democracy. A secondary purpose is to encourage reflection on the condition of democracy in other countries and the adequacy of social education programs in these countries…

  7. On Democracy and Leadership: From Rhetoric to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgi, Yiasemina

    2011-01-01

    This paper resembles a personal narrative on leadership and democracy and outlines how an educational leader can conceptualize democratic leadership and take some steps towards transforming theory into practice. The concepts of democracy and democratic schools within the discourse of educational theory and research are briefly discussed. Based on…

  8. The strategic value of design for e-democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. (Bert) Mulder

    2014-01-01

    The paper arguments that a design approach will be essential to the future of e-democracy and e-governance. This development is driven at the intersection of three fields: democracy, information technology and design. Developments in these fields will result in a new scale, new complexity and

  9. Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824186; Michels, Ank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11124501X

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected within the scope of a Dutch internet panel survey (LISS) in 2011, this study tracks public support for direct, stealth and representative democracy according to educational level. Our findings indicate that, in terms of overall support for each specific type of democracy, lower

  10. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

  11. Examination of the New Tech Model as a Holistic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Levine, Jill; Mosier, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Using the Degrees of Democracy Framework (Woods & Woods, 2012), we examined eight New Tech (NT) high schools to determine the extent to which they demonstrated characteristics of holistic democracy. We collected qualitative data, including observations and interviews during the fourth year of implementation. Findings indicated that the eight…

  12. "Democracy and Education": Reconstruction of and through Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James

    2016-01-01

    While focusing on "Democracy and Education," James Campbell attempts in this essay to offer a synthesis of the full range of John Dewey's educational thought. Campbell explores in particular Dewey's understanding of the relationship between democracy and education by considering both his ideas on the reconstruction of education and on…

  13. "A Liberation of Powers": Agency and Education for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Harry C.; Finders, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Harry Boyte and Margaret Finders argue that addressing the "shrinkage" of education and democracy requires acting politically to reclaim and augment Deweyan agency-focused concepts of democracy and education. Looking at agency from the vantage of civic studies, which advances a politics of agency--a citizen politics that is…

  14. DEMOCRACY AND CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING: CONTINUITY, DEVELOPMENT, AND CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bradley Lewis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper discusses the origins and meaning of democracy relative to the development of Christian political thought through the modern period; it is important here that democracy means something different in the ancient world than it does in the modern. The second part discusses the view of democracy proposed in the formative period of modern Catholic social doctrine in especially from the pontificate of Leo XIII to the Second Vatican Council. The third part analyzes the political thought of St. John Paul II which seems to be the apogee of Catholic thinking about democracy. The fourth part discusses some remaining tensions and problems related to democracy that are articulated partly also in John Paul II’s thought, but in a sharper way in the thought of Pope Benedict XVI and one quite prominent challenge to the Catholic view of democracy in the phenomenon of pluralism. One can see in this history that the Church has gradually come to appreciate democracy not simply as an acceptable form of government, one that is not intrinsically at odds with Christianity, but in a positive sense, as an opportunity for human beings to achieve a level of moral development not available in other regimes. But there remain challenges associated with democracy to government and social life consistent with the natural moral law and to Christian faith.

  15. Democracy and Female Labor Force Participation: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanpourtehrani, Ghazal; Sylwester, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines associations between female labor force participation (FLFP) and democracy. Using a cross-country, time series (1980-2005) data set, we find evidence that FLFP is lower in democracies. One possible explanation is that dictators promote FLFP above what traditional norms would dictate and so a greater freedom to…

  16. The craddle of democracy. From absolute monarchy to parliamentary democracy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2009-01-01

    Starting in the 1830s and until 1915, three decisive changes were implemented that were crucial for the development of democracy in Denmark. Citizens obtained representation through a legislature, suffrage was expanded from just a small percentage of the population to practically speaking all...

  17. Is It Culture or Democracy? The Impact of Democracy and Culture on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, David; Fischer, Justina A. V.; Kirchgassner, Gebhard; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the relation between democracy and perceived subjective well-being while controlling for other relevant determinants such as culture measured by languages. We conduct a cross-national analysis covering 28 countries using data from the 1998 International Social Survey Programme. Contrasting existing empirical evidence, we observe a…

  18. Schooling for Democracy: A Common School and a Common University? A Response to "Schooling for Democracy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This short paper is a response to Nel Noddings's article on schooling for democracy. Whilst agreeing with the basic premises of Noddings's argument, it questions the possibility of parity between academic and vocational tracks given the inequitable social and educational contexts the two types of learning would have to coexist within. Drawing on…

  19. PrEP: controversy, agency and ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, Gus P; Kane Race; Pedro Goicochea

    2016-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been and continues to be an intervention that causes controversy and debate between stakeholders involved in providing or advocating for it, and within communities in need of it. These controversies extend beyond the intrinsically complex issues of making it available. In this commentary, some of the possible roots of the air of dissent and drama that accompanies PrEP are explored. The similarities between the controversies that dogged the earliest human tr...

  20. The Parkfield Stress Drop Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, R. E.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nadeau et al. (1995) found that the seismicity on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield is highly clustered. Individual clusters consist of a sequence of near periodically repeating small earthquakes of similar seismic moment. Nadeau and Johnston (1998) compared the moments and timing of these repeating earthquakes (Mw 1000 MPa) for the small earthquakes (Mw patches of high Δ σ would be resolvable by standard seismic methods. However, to date nobody has used seismic methods to determine source parameters for these controversial small earthquakes at Parkfield. We use closely located earthquakes of different sizes (for example, the sub-clusters of cluster CL14, Nadeau et al., 1995, Mw-0.2 to 1), recorded on the HRSN borehole network to analyse the source parameters. The smaller earthquakes are used as empirical Green's functions to resolve source processes of the larger events. Preliminary results from the earthquakes in cluster CL14 result in a source dimension of about 25 m and Δ σ of about 1 MPa for the Mw1 earthquakes, assuming that rupture velocity is the same as that for large earthquakes. We also resolve source-time functions for these earthquakes at most stations and so we can investigate the directivity and velocity of the rupture. Finally we compare the source parameter estimates from the seismic modeling, with those from recurrence and creep rate, and assess the validity of the various proposed models.