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Sample records for controls protein kinase

  1. Protein kinase C alpha controls erythropoietin receptor signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); M. Parren-Van Amelsvoort (Martine); T.B. van Dijk (Thamar); E. Deiner; B. Löwenberg (Bob); E. van den Akker (Emile); S. van Emst-de Vries (Sjenet); P.J. Willems (Patrick); H. Beug (Hartmut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProtein kinase C (PKC) is implied in the activation of multiple targets of erythropoietin (Epo) signaling, but its exact role in Epo receptor (EpoR) signal transduction and in the regulation of erythroid proliferation and differentiation remained elusive. We

  2. Protein kinase C alpha controls erythropoietin receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Lindern, M.; Parren-van Amelsvoort, M.; van Dijk, T.; Deiner, E.; van den Akker, E.; van Emst-de Vries, S.; Willems, P.; Beug, H.; Löwenberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is implied in the activation of multiple targets of erythropoietin (Epo) signaling, but its exact role in Epo receptor (EpoR) signal transduction and in the regulation of erythroid proliferation and differentiation remained elusive. We analyzed the effect of PKC inhibitors

  3. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-m...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated di...sorders. PubmedID 14643884 Title Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to contro

  4. DNA and RNA-controlled switching of protein kinase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röglin, L.; Altenbrunn, F.; Seitz, O.

    2009-01-01

    Protein switches use the binding energy gained upon recognition of ligands to modulate the conformation and binding properties of protein segments. We explored whether the programmable nucleic acid mediated recognition might be used to design or mimic constraints that limit the conformational

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases control expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Juliane; Lerche Hansen, Jakob; Haunsø, Stig

    2002-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates G protein-coupled receptors resulting in uncoupling from G proteins. Receptors modulate GRK2 expression, however the mechanistic basis for this effect is largely unknown. Here we report a novel mechanism by which receptors use...

  6. Casein kinase 1 regulates sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) to control sterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookheart, Rita T; Lee, Chih-Yung S; Espenshade, Peter J

    2014-01-31

    Sterol homeostasis is tightly controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor that is highly conserved from fungi to mammals. In fission yeast, SREBP functions in an oxygen-sensing pathway to promote adaptation to decreased oxygen supply that limits oxygen-dependent sterol synthesis. Low oxygen stimulates proteolytic cleavage of the SREBP homolog Sre1, generating the active transcription factor Sre1N that drives expression of sterol biosynthetic enzymes. In addition, low oxygen increases the stability and DNA binding activity of Sre1N. To identify additional signals controlling Sre1 activity, we conducted a genetic overexpression screen. Here, we describe our isolation and characterization of the casein kinase 1 family member Hhp2 as a novel regulator of Sre1N. Deletion of Hhp2 increases Sre1N protein stability and ergosterol levels in the presence of oxygen. Hhp2-dependent Sre1N degradation by the proteasome requires Hhp2 kinase activity, and Hhp2 binds and phosphorylates Sre1N at specific residues. Our results describe a role for casein kinase 1 as a direct regulator of sterol homeostasis. Given the role of mammalian Hhp2 homologs, casein kinase 1δ and 1ε, in regulation of the circadian clock, these findings may provide a mechanism for coordinating circadian rhythm and lipid metabolism.

  7. The pat1 protein kinase controls transcription of the mating-type genes in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Egel, R; Nielsen, Olaf

    1990-01-01

    . This differentiation process is characterized by a transcriptional induction of the mating-type genes. Conjugation can also be induced in pat1-ts mutants by a shift to a semi-permissive temperature. The pat1 gene encodes a protein kinase, which also functions further downstream in the developmental pathway controlling...... of the mating-type genes in the zygote leads to complete loss of pat1 protein kinase activity causing entry into meiosis. Thus, pat1 can promote its own inactivation. We suggest a model according to which a stepwise inactivation of pat1 leads to sequential derepression of the processes of conjugation......The developmental programme of fission yeast brings about a transition from mitotic cell division to the dormant state of ascospores. In response to nitrogen starvation, two cells of opposite mating type conjugate to form a diploid zygote, which then undergoes meiosis and sporulation...

  8. Purification of reversibly oxidized proteins (PROP reveals a redox switch controlling p38 MAP kinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Templeton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of cysteine residues of proteins is emerging as an important means of regulation of signal transduction, particularly of protein kinase function. Tools to detect and quantify cysteine oxidation of proteins have been a limiting factor in understanding the role of cysteine oxidation in signal transduction. As an example, the p38 MAP kinase is activated by several stress-related stimuli that are often accompanied by in vitro generation of hydrogen peroxide. We noted that hydrogen peroxide inhibited p38 activity despite paradoxically increasing the activating phosphorylation of p38. To address the possibility that cysteine oxidation may provide a negative regulatory effect on p38 activity, we developed a biochemical assay to detect reversible cysteine oxidation in intact cells. This procedure, PROP, demonstrated in vivo oxidation of p38 in response to hydrogen peroxide and also to the natural inflammatory lipid prostaglandin J2. Mutagenesis of the potential target cysteines showed that oxidation occurred preferentially on residues near the surface of the p38 molecule. Cysteine oxidation thus controls a functional redox switch regulating the intensity or duration of p38 activity that would not be revealed by immunodetection of phosphoprotein commonly interpreted as reflective of p38 activity.

  9. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) controls diacylglycerol kinase activity in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Ricardos; Moutin, Enora; Becker, Jérôme A J; Heintz, Dimitri; Fouillen, Laetitia; Flatter, Eric; Krężel, Wojciech; Alunni, Violaine; Koebel, Pascale; Dembélé, Doulaye; Tassone, Flora; Bardoni, Barbara; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Vitale, Nicolas; Muller, Dominique; Le Merrer, Julie; Moine, Hervé

    2016-06-28

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in neurons. In the mouse, the lack of FMRP is associated with an excessive translation of hundreds of neuronal proteins, notably including postsynaptic proteins. This local protein synthesis deregulation is proposed to underlie the observed defects of glutamatergic synapse maturation and function and to affect preferentially the hundreds of mRNA species that were reported to bind to FMRP. How FMRP impacts synaptic protein translation and which mRNAs are most important for the pathology remain unclear. Here we show by cross-linking immunoprecipitation in cortical neurons that FMRP is mostly associated with one unique mRNA: diacylglycerol kinase kappa (Dgkκ), a master regulator that controls the switch between diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid signaling pathways. The absence of FMRP in neurons abolishes group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent DGK activity combined with a loss of Dgkκ expression. The reduction of Dgkκ in neurons is sufficient to cause dendritic spine abnormalities, synaptic plasticity alterations, and behavior disorders similar to those observed in the FXS mouse model. Overexpression of Dgkκ in neurons is able to rescue the dendritic spine defects of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene KO neurons. Together, these data suggest that Dgkκ deregulation contributes to FXS pathology and support a model where FMRP, by controlling the translation of Dgkκ, indirectly controls synaptic proteins translation and membrane properties by impacting lipid signaling in dendritic spine.

  10. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  11. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha activates Src-family kinases and controls integrin-mediated responses in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Muranjan, M; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    of tyrosine kinases, the activity of which is tightly controlled by inhibitory phosphorylation of a carboxyterminal tyrosine residue (Tyr527 in chicken c-Src); this phosphorylation induces the kinases to form an inactive conformation. Whereas the identity of such inhibitory Tyr527 kinases has been well...... established, no corresponding phosphatases have been identified that, under physiological conditions, function as positive regulators of c-Src and Fyn in fibroblasts. RESULTS: Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) was inactivated by homologous recombination. Fibroblasts derived from...... these RPTPalpha-/- mice had impaired tyrosine kinase activity of both c-Src and Fyn, and this was accompanied by a concomitant increase in c-Src Tyr527 phosphorylation. RPTPalpha-/- fibroblasts also showed a reduction in the rate of spreading on fibronectin substrates, a trait that is a phenocopy of the effect...

  12. The prion protein constitutively controls neuronal store-operated Ca2+ entry through Fyn kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese eDe Mario

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prion protein (PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein mainly expressed in neurons, whose misfolded isoforms generate the prion responsible for incurable neurodegenerative disorders. Whereas PrPC involvement in prion propagation is well established, PrPC physiological function is still enigmatic despite suggestions that it could act in cell signal transduction by modulating phosphorylation cascades and Ca2+ homeostasis. Because PrPC binds neurotoxic protein aggregates with high-affinity, it has also been proposed that PrPC acts as receptor for amyloid-β (Aβ oligomers associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and that PrPC-Aβ binding mediates AD-related synaptic dysfunctions following activation of the tyrosine kinase Fyn.Here, use of gene-encoded Ca2+ probes targeting different cell domains in primary cerebellar granule neurons expressing, or not, PrPC allowed us to investigate whether PrPC regulates store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE and the implication of Fyn in this control. Our findings show that PrPC attenuates SOCE, and Ca2+ accumulation in the cytosol and mitochondria, by constitutively restraining Fyn activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of STIM1, a key molecular component of SOCE. This data establishes the existence of a PrPC-Fyn-SOCE triad in neurons.We also demonstrate that treating cerebellar granule and cortical neurons with soluble Aβ(1-42 oligomers abrogates the control of PrPC over Fyn and SOCE, suggesting a PrPC-dependent mechanism for Aβ-induced neuronal Ca2+ dyshomeostasis.

  13. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T; Burden, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myobla...

  14. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 Regulates Myoblast Proliferation and Controls Muscle Fiber Length

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Steven; Lee, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among muscles. Here, we show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm and other muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of available myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but expansion of the diaphragm ...

  15. PaASK1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that controls cell degeneration and cell differentiation in Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicka, Sébastien; Silar, Philippe

    2004-03-01

    MAPKKK are kinases involved in cell signaling. In fungi, these kinases are known to regulate development, pathogenicity, and the sensing of external conditions. We show here that Podospora anserina strains mutated in PaASK1, a MAPKKK of the MEK family, are impaired in the development of crippled growth, a cell degeneration process caused by C, a nonconventional infectious element. They also display defects in mycelium pigmentation, differentiation of aerial hyphae, and making of fruiting bodies, three hallmarks of cell differentiation during stationary phase in P. anserina. Overexpression of PaASK1 results in exacerbation of crippled growth. PaASK1 is a large protein of 1832 amino acids with several domains, including a region rich in proline and a 60-amino-acid-long polyglutamine stretch. Deletion analysis reveals that the polyglutamine stretch is dispensable for PaASK1 activity, whereas the region that contains the prolines is essential but insufficient to promote full activity. We discuss a model based on the hysteresis of a signal transduction cascade to account for the role of PaASK1 in both cell degeneration and stationary-phase cell differentiation.

  16. Programmed cell death 4 protein (Pdcd4) and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (Hipk2) antagonistically control translation of Hipk2 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnheiser, Johanna; Ferlemann, Eva; Haas, Astrid; Müller, Jan P; Werwein, Eugen; Fehler, Olesja; Biyanee, Abhiruchi; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2015-07-01

    The tumor suppressor protein programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein that inhibits the translation of specific mRNAs. Here, we have identified the homeobox-interacting protein kinase-2 (Hipk2) mRNA as a novel translational target of Pdcd4. Unlike most other protein kinases Hipk2 is constitutively active after being synthesized by the ribosome and its expression and activity are thought to be mainly controlled by modulation of the half-life of the kinase. Our work provides the first evidence that Hipk2 expression is also controlled on the level of translation. We show that Hipk2 stimulates the translation of its own mRNA and that Pdcd4 suppresses the translation of Hipk2 mRNA by interfering with this auto-regulatory feedback mechanism. We also show that the translation of the related kinase Hipk1 is controlled by a similar feedback loop and that Hipk2 also stimulates the translation of Hipk1 mRNA. Taken together, our work describes a novel mechanism of translational suppression by Pdcd4 and shows for the first time that Hipk2 controls its own synthesis by an auto-regulatory feedback mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of Hipk2 on the translation of Hipk1 RNA suggests that Hipk2 and Pdcd4 can act in similar manner to control the translation of other mRNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Autoregulation of kinase dephosphorylation by ATP binding in AGC protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tung O; Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S; Rodeck, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    AGC kinases, including the three Akt (protein kinase B) isoforms, protein kinase A (PKA) and all protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, require activation loop phosphorylation (threonine 308 in Akt1) as well as phosphorylation of a C-terminal residue (serine 473 in Akt1) for catalytic activity and phosphorylation of downstream targets. Conversely, phosphatases reverse these phosphorylations. Virtually all cellular processes are affected by AGC kinases, a circumstance that has led to intense scrutiny of the molecular mechanisms that regulate phosphorylation of these kinases. Here, we review a new layer of control of phosphorylation in Akt, PKA and PKC pointing to ATP binding pocket occupancy as a means to decelerate dephosphorylation of these and, potentially, other kinases. This additional level of kinase regulation opens the door to search for new functional motifs for the rational design of non- ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors that discriminate within and between protein kinase families.

  19. Autoregulation of kinase dephosphorylation by ATP binding to AGC protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    AGC kinases, including the three Akt (protein kinase B) isoforms, protein kinase A (PKA) and all protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, require activation loop phosphorylation (threonine 308 in Akt1) as well as phosphorylation of a C-terminal residue (serine 473 in Akt1) for catalytic activity and phosphorylation of downstream targets. Conversely, phosphatases reverse these phosphorylations. Virtually all cellular processes are affected by AGC kinases, a circumstance that has led to intense scrutiny of the molecular mechanisms that regulate phosphorylation of these kinases. Here, we review a new layer of control of phosphorylation in Akt, PKA and PKC pointing to ATP binding pocket occupancy as a means to decelerate dephosphorylation of these and, potentially, other kinases. This additional level of kinase regulation opens the door to search for new functional motifs for the rational design of non-ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors that discriminate within and between protein kinase families. PMID:22262182

  20. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-01-01

    is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain

  1. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  2. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions modulate cellular processes in health and disease. However, tracing weak or rare associations or dissociations of proteins is not a trivial task. Kinases are often regulated through interaction partners and, at the same time, themselves regulate cellular interaction networks. The use of kinase domains for creating a synthetic sensor device that reads low concentration protein-protein interactions and amplifies them to a higher concentration interaction which is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain modules for the reading of kinase activity were assembled and expression protocols for fusion proteins containing Lyn, Src, and Fak kinase domains in bacterial and in cell-free systems were optimized. Also, two non-overlapping methods for measuring the kinase activity of these proteins were stablished and, finally, a protein-fragment complementation assay with the split-kinase constructs was tested. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that features such as codon optimization, vector design and expression conditions have an impact on the expression yield and activity of kinase-based proteins. Furthermore, it has been found that the defined PURE cell-free system is insufficient for the active expression of catalytic kinase domains. In contrast, the bacterial co-expression with phosphatases produced active kinase fusion proteins for two out of the three tested Tyrosine kinase domains.

  3. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T; Burden, Steven J

    2017-12-12

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2 +/- mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation.

  4. Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA controls enzyme activity and localization of its protein substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Pedersen, Malene Mejer; Paspaliari, Dafni Katerina

    2010-01-01

    -phosphorylated proteins in B. subtilis. We found that the majority of these proteins could be phosphorylated by PtkA in vitro. Among these new substrates, single-stranded DNA exonuclease YorK, and aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase Asd were activated by PtkA-dependent phosphorylation. Because enzyme activity......A was dramatically altered in Delta ptkA background. Our results confirm that PtkA can control enzyme activity of its substrates in some cases, but also reveal a new mode of action for PtkA, namely ensuring correct cellular localization of its targets.......P>Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA was previously shown to phosphorylate, and thereby regulate the activity of two classes of protein substrates: UDP-glucose dehydrogenases and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. Our recent phosphoproteome study identified nine new tyrosine...

  5. ‘The octet’: eight protein kinases that control mammalian DNA replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin L. Depamphilis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of a fertilized human egg into an average sized adult requires about 29 trillion cell divisions, thereby producing enough DNA to stretch to the Sun and back 200 times (DePamphilis and Bell, 2011! Even more amazing is the fact that throughout these mitotic cell cycles, the human genome is duplicated once and only once each time a cell divides. If a cell accidentally begins to re-replicate its nuclear DNA prior to cell division, checkpoint pathways trigger apoptosis. And yet, some cells are developmentally programmed to respond to environmental cues by switching from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles, a process in which multiple S phases occur in the absence of either mitosis or cytokinesis. Endocycles allow production of viable, differentiated, polyploid cells that no longer proliferate. What is surprising is that among the 516 (Manning et al., 2002 to 557 (BioMart web site protein kinases encoded by the human genome, only eight regulate nuclear DNA replication directly. These are Cdk1, Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6, Cdk7, Cdc7, Chk1 and Chk2. Even more remarkable is the fact that only four of these enzymes (Cdk1, Cdk7, Cdc7 and Chk1 are essential for mammalian development. Here we describe how these protein kinases determine when DNA replication occurs during mitotic cell cycles, how mammalian cells switch from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles, and how cancer cells can be selectively targeted for destruction by inducing them to begin a second S phase before mitosis is complete.

  6. Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Duanwu; Lin, Juan; Han, Jiahuai

    2010-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases are a group of threonine/serine protein kinases with a relatively conserved kinase domain but distinct non-kinase regions. A number of different domain structures, such as death and caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domains, were found in different RIP family members, and these domains should be keys in determining the specific function of each RIP kinase. It is known that RIP kinases participate in different biological processes, incl...

  7. Control of cytoplasmic and nuclear protein kinase A by phosphodiesterases and phosphatases in cardiac myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Slimane, Zeineb; Bedioune, Ibrahim; Lechêne, Patrick; Varin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Florence; Mateo, Philippe; Domergue-Dupont, Valérie; Dewenter, Matthias; Richter, Wito; Conti, Marco; El-Armouche, Ali; Zhang, Jin; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Vandecasteele, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Aims The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) regulation of cardiac contraction and gene expression. Whereas PKA activity is well characterized in various subcellular compartments of adult cardiomyocytes, its regulation in the nucleus remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the modalities of PKA regulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. Methods and results Cytoplasmic and nuclear cAMP and PKA activity were measured with targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes in adult rat ventricular myocytes. β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (Iso) led to fast cAMP elevation in both compartments, whereas PKA activity was fast in the cytoplasm but markedly slower in the nucleus. Iso was also more potent and efficient in activating cytoplasmic than nuclear PKA. Similar slow kinetics of nuclear PKA activation was observed upon adenylyl cyclase activation with L-858051 or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine. Consistently, pulse stimulation with Iso (15 s) maximally induced PKA and myosin-binding protein C phosphorylation in the cytoplasm, but marginally activated PKA and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the nucleus. Inhibition of PDE4 or ablation of the Pde4d gene in mice prolonged cytoplasmic PKA activation and enhanced nuclear PKA responses. In the cytoplasm, phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) contributed to the termination of PKA responses, whereas only PP1 played a role in the nucleus. Conclusion Our study reveals a differential integration of cytoplasmic and nuclear PKA responses to β-AR stimulation in cardiac myocytes. This may have important implications in the physiological and pathological hypertrophic response to β-AR stimulation. PMID:24550350

  8. Protein Kinases in Shaping Plant Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Wang, Bo; Xin, Xiaoyun; Ren, Dongtao

    2018-02-13

    Plant architecture, the three-dimensional organization of the plant body, includes the branching pattern and the size, shape, and position of organs. Plant architecture is genetically controlled and is influenced by environmental conditions. The regulations occur at most of the stages from the first division of the fertilized eggs to the final establishment of plant architecture. Among the various endogenous regulators, protein kinases and their associated signaling pathways have been shown to play important roles in regulating the process of plant architecture establishment. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms by which plant architecture formation is regulated by protein kinases, especially mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2+/− mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation. PMID:29231808

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in macrophages is controlled by lymphocytes during macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chong; Yang, Xiqiang; Yao, Lan; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    The viewpoints on the control of innate immune cells by the adaptive immune system during sepsis remain controversial. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is essential to the negative control of innate immunity and suppresses the activation of macrophages by inhibiting activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The purpose of the current study was to observe inflammatory response and macrophage activation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with endotoxemia and to determine the role of MKP-1 in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system. Endotoxemia was induced in wild-type and SCID mice by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and all of the SCID mice died. SCID mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice systemically and locally. TNF-α mRNA expression was higher and MKP-1 mRNA expression was lower in peritoneal macrophages (PMa) from SCID mice compared to PMa from wild-type mice after and even before LPS injection. Thioglycollate-stimulated PMa from wild-type mice were stimulated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of pan-T cells. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the supernatants from PMa cultured alone compared to PMa co-cultured with pan-T cells, and PMa MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher when PMa were co-cultured with pan-T cells. Therefore, pan-T cells can up-regulate MKP-1 expression in macrophages and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokines secretion by macrophages. In SCID mice, lymphocyte deficiency, especially T cell deficiency, causes insufficient MKP-1 expression in macrophages, which can be responsible for the severe inflammation and bad prognosis of septic SCID mice. MKP-1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system.

  11. Chitin and stress induced protein kinase activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Azevedo da Silva, Raquel; Bressendorff, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The assays described here are pertinent to protein kinase studies in any plant. They include an immunoblot phosphorylation/activation assay and an in-gel activity assay for MAP kinases (MPKs) using the general protein kinase substrate myelin basic protein. They also include a novel in-gel peptide...... substrate assay for Snf1-related kinase family 2 members (SnRK2s). This kinase family-specific assay overcomes some limitations of in-gel assays and permits the identification of different types of kinase activities in total protein extracts....

  12. 5´AMP activated protein kinase α2 controls substrate metabolism during post-exercise recovery via regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    after prolonged exercise and during the following six hours post exercise in 5´AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 and α1 knock-out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice with free access to food. Substrate oxidation was similar during exercise at the same relative intensity between genotypes. During post...

  13. Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure...

  14. Control of cell division in Streptococcus pneumoniae by the conserved Ser/Thr protein kinase StkP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beilharz, K.; Nováková, Linda; Fadda, D.; Branny, Pavel; Massida, O.; Veening, J.-W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 15 (2012), s. 905-913 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600200801; GA MŠk LH12055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : PENICILLIN-BINDING PROTEINS * SERINE/THREONINE KINASE * MYCOBACTERIUM- TUBERCULOSIS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  15. SH2/SH3 adaptor proteins can link tyrosine kinases to a Ste20-related protein kinase, HPK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafi, M; Kiefer, F; Gish, G D; Mbamalu, G; Iscove, N N; Pawson, T

    1997-10-31

    Ste20-related protein kinases have been implicated as regulating a range of cellular responses, including stress-activated protein kinase pathways and the control of cytoskeletal architecture. An important issue involves the identities of the upstream signals and regulators that might control the biological functions of mammalian Ste20-related protein kinases. HPK1 is a protein-serine/threonine kinase that possesses a Ste20-like kinase domain, and in transfected cells activates a protein kinase pathway leading to the stress-activated protein kinase SAPK/JNK. Here we have investigated candidate upstream regulators that might interact with HPK1. HPK1 possesses an N-terminal catalytic domain and an extended C-terminal tail with four proline-rich motifs. The SH3 domains of Grb2 bound in vitro to specific proline-rich motifs in the HPK1 tail and functioned synergistically to direct the stable binding of Grb2 to HPK1 in transfected Cos1 cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation did not affect the binding of Grb2 to HPK1 but induced recruitment of the Grb2.HPK1 complex to the autophosphorylated EGF receptor and to the Shc docking protein. Several activated receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, including the EGF receptor, stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the HPK1 serine/threonine kinase. These results suggest that HPK1, a mammalian Ste20-related protein-serine/threonine kinase, can potentially associate with protein-tyrosine kinases through interactions mediated by SH2/SH3 adaptors such as Grb2. Such interaction may provide a possible mechanism for cross-talk between distinct biochemical pathways following the activation of tyrosine kinases.

  16. Protein kinase C-dependent signaling controls the midgut epithelial barrier to malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazzy Pakpour

    Full Text Available Anopheline mosquitoes are the primary vectors of parasites in the genus Plasmodium, the causative agents of malaria. Malaria parasites undergo a series of complex transformations upon ingestion by the mosquito host. During this process, the physical barrier of the midgut epithelium, along with innate immune defenses, functionally restrict parasite development. Although these defenses have been studied for some time, the regulatory factors that control them are poorly understood. The protein kinase C (PKC gene family consists of serine/threonine kinases that serve as central signaling molecules and regulators of a broad spectrum of cellular processes including epithelial barrier function and immunity. Indeed, PKCs are highly conserved, ranging from 7 isoforms in Drosophila to 16 isoforms in mammals, yet none have been identified in mosquitoes. Despite conservation of the PKC gene family and their potential as targets for transmission-blocking strategies for malaria, no direct connections between PKCs, the mosquito immune response or epithelial barrier integrity are known. Here, we identify and characterize six PKC gene family members--PKCδ, PKCε, PKCζ, PKD, PKN, and an indeterminate conventional PKC--in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the anopheline PKCs support most subfamily assignments. All six PKCs are expressed in the midgut epithelia of A. gambiae and A. stephensi post-blood feeding, indicating availability for signaling in a tissue that is critical for malaria parasite development. Although inhibition of PKC enzymatic activity decreased NF-κB-regulated anti-microbial peptide expression in mosquito cells in vitro, PKC inhibition had no effect on expression of a panel of immune genes in the midgut epithelium in vivo. PKC inhibition did, however, significantly increase midgut barrier integrity and decrease development of P. falciparum oocysts in A. stephensi, suggesting that PKC

  17. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inê s CR; Willige, Bjö rn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  18. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  19. Protein Kinase A in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caretta, Antonio; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla

    2011-01-01

    In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA), that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors

  20. Protein Kinase A in Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caretta, Antonio; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla, E-mail: carla.mucignat@unipd.it [Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 3, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-02-28

    In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA), that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors.

  1. Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duanwu; Lin, Juan; Han, Jiahuai

    2010-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases are a group of threonine/serine protein kinases with a relatively conserved kinase domain but distinct non-kinase regions. A number of different domain structures, such as death and caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domains, were found in different RIP family members, and these domains should be keys in determining the specific function of each RIP kinase. It is known that RIP kinases participate in different biological processes, including those in innate immunity, but their downstream substrates are largely unknown. This review will give an overview of the structures and functions of RIP family members, and an update of recent progress in RIP kinase research. PMID:20383176

  2. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with [γ- 32 ]ATP for 10 min at 37 degree C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with [γ- 32 P]ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation

  3. Control of Growth Within Drosophila Peripheral Nerves by Ras and Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Genes Dev 17:2006 –2020. Rodriguez-Viciana P, Warne PH, Dhand R, Vanhaesebroeck B, Gout I, Fry MJ, Waterfield MD, Downward J (1994...we hope that these methodologies will enable us ultimately to identify all of the relevant genes that interact with NF1 to control growth, and place...NF1 and these partner genes in as complete a mechanistic context as possible. Then this mechanism could be tested and refined in systems more

  4. dependent/calmodulin- stimulated protein kinase from moss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    stimulated protein kinase; CDPK, calmodulin domain-like protein kinase; KM14, 14 amino acid synthetic peptide; .... used were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company, USA, ..... Plant chimeric Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A; Kellezi, Holti

    2015-01-01

    , the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling......The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases...... in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p

  6. A rice kinase-protein interaction map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaodong; Richter, Todd; Chen, Mei; Fujii, Hiroaki; Seo, Young Su; Xie, Mingtang; Zheng, Xianwu; Kanrar, Siddhartha; Stevenson, Rebecca A; Dardick, Christopher; Li, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Fahong; Bartley, Laura E; Chern, Mawsheng; Bart, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuhua; Zhu, Lihuang; Farmerie, William G; Gribskov, Michael; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Fromm, Michael E; Ronald, Pamela C; Song, Wen-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Plants uniquely contain large numbers of protein kinases, and for the vast majority of the 1,429 kinases predicted in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome, little is known of their functions. Genetic approaches often fail to produce observable phenotypes; thus, new strategies are needed to delineate kinase function. We previously developed a cost-effective high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system. Using this system, we have generated a protein interaction map of 116 representative rice kinases and 254 of their interacting proteins. Overall, the resulting interaction map supports a large number of known or predicted kinase-protein interactions from both plants and animals and reveals many new functional insights. Notably, we found a potential widespread role for E3 ubiquitin ligases in pathogen defense signaling mediated by receptor-like kinases, particularly by the kinases that may have evolved from recently expanded kinase subfamilies in rice. We anticipate that the data provided here will serve as a foundation for targeted functional studies in rice and other plants. The application of yeast two-hybrid and TAPtag analyses for large-scale plant protein interaction studies is also discussed.

  7. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  8. Protein kinase substrate identification on functional protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Fang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, kinases have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets for a number of different diseases, and numerous high throughput screening efforts in the pharmaceutical community are directed towards discovery of compounds that regulate kinase function. The emerging utility of systems biology approaches has necessitated the development of multiplex tools suitable for proteomic-scale experiments to replace lower throughput technologies such as mass spectroscopy for the study of protein phosphorylation. Recently, a new approach for identifying substrates of protein kinases has applied the miniaturized format of functional protein arrays to characterize phosphorylation for thousands of candidate protein substrates in a single experiment. This method involves the addition of protein kinases in solution to arrays of immobilized proteins to identify substrates using highly sensitive radioactive detection and hit identification algorithms. Results To date, the factors required for optimal performance of protein array-based kinase substrate identification have not been described. In the current study, we have carried out a detailed characterization of the protein array-based method for kinase substrate identification, including an examination of the effects of time, buffer compositions, and protein concentration on the results. The protein array approach was compared to standard solution-based assays for assessing substrate phosphorylation, and a correlation of greater than 80% was observed. The results presented here demonstrate how novel substrates for protein kinases can be quickly identified from arrays containing thousands of human proteins to provide new clues to protein kinase function. In addition, a pooling-deconvolution strategy was developed and applied that enhances characterization of specific kinase-substrate relationships and decreases reagent consumption. Conclusion Functional protein microarrays are an

  9. Pleiotropic functions of the yeast Greatwall-family protein kinase Rim15p: a novel target for the control of alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Rim15p, a Greatwall-family protein kinase in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for cellular nutrient responses, such as the entry into quiescence and the induction of meiosis and sporulation. In higher eukaryotes, the orthologous gene products are commonly involved in the cell cycle G 2 /M transition. How are these pleiotropic functions generated from a single family of protein kinases? Recent advances in both research fields have identified the conserved Greatwall-mediated signaling pathway and a variety of downstream target molecules. In addition, our studies of S. cerevisiae sake yeast strains revealed that Rim15p also plays a significant role in the control of alcoholic fermentation. Despite an extensive history of research on glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation, there has been no critical clue to artificial modification of fermentation performance of yeast cells. Our finding of an in vivo metabolic regulatory mechanism is expected to provide a major breakthrough in yeast breeding technologies for fermentation applications.

  10. The Protein Kinase RSK Family - Roles in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lannigan, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The Ser/Thr protein kinase p90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is an important downstream effector of mitogen-activated protein kinase but its roles in prostate cancer have not been previously examined...

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef eBrandauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p<0.01 and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p<0.05 protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n=13-15, but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n=12-13 mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p=0.051; n=6. To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n=7-8 and AMPK α2 KD (n=7-9 mice with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR. Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p<0.05 and MnSOD (p<0.01 in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α KO; n=9-10. Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1α KO mice (p<0.01 and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p<0.05. Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122 or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139 was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of bovine heart protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, N.; Rosen, O.M.; Reichlin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Immunization of guinea pigs with bovine cardiac cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP : protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37) resulted in the development of precipitating antibodies to the cAMP-binding subunit of the enzyme. Both the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated cAMP-binding protein of the protein kinase reacted with the antiserum. A radioimmunoassay was developed that detects 10 ng of holoenzyme and permits measurement of enzyme concentrations in bovine cardiac muscle. Bovine liver, kidney, brain, and skeletal muscle contain protein kinases which are immunologically identical to those found in bovine cardiac muscle. However, the proportion of immunoreactive enzyme activity differed for each tissue. All of the immunologically nonreactive enzyme in skeletal muscle and heart was separable from immunoreactive enzyme by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Rat tissues and pig heart contained protein kinase activity that cross reacted immunologically in a nonparallel fashion with bovine cardiac enzyme. These results indicate that cAMP-dependent protein kinases within and between species are immunologically heterogeneous

  13. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase a-a-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341566551; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Scholten, Arjen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313939780

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  14. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase A-A-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P; van der Heyden, MAG; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for ... receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. ... surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, ... Abbreviations used: Abs, antibodies; ANOVA, analysis of variance; AP-1, activator protein -1; BCG, ...

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael [San Diego, CA; Hibi, Masahiko [San Diego, CA; Lin, Anning [La Jolla, CA

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    A link between T cell proliferation and the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases has been recognized for about thirty years. However, despite the wealth of information on PKC-mediated control of T cell activation, understanding of the effects of PKCs on the cell cycle machinery in this cell type remains limited. Studies in other systems have revealed important cell cycle-specific effects of PKC signaling that can either positively or negatively impact proliferation. Th...

  18. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aurelia Ball

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well.

  19. Glucose de-repression by yeast AMP-activated protein kinase SNF1 is controlled via at least two independent steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salcedo, Raúl; Lubitz, Timo; Beltran, Gemma; Elbing, Karin; Tian, Ye; Frey, Simone; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda; Hohmann, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, controls energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells but little is known about the mechanisms governing the dynamics of its activation/deactivation. The yeast AMPK, SNF1, is activated in response to glucose depletion and mediates glucose de-repression by inactivating the transcriptional repressor Mig1. Here we show that overexpression of the Snf1-activating kinase Sak1 results, in the presence of glucose, in constitutive Snf1 activation without alleviating glucose repression. Co-overexpression of the regulatory subunit Reg1 of the Glc-Reg1 phosphatase complex partly restores glucose regulation of Snf1. We generated a set of 24 kinetic mathematical models based on dynamic data of Snf1 pathway activation and deactivation. The models that reproduced our experimental observations best featured (a) glucose regulation of both Snf1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, (b) determination of the Mig1 phosphorylation status in the absence of glucose by Snf1 activity only and (c) a regulatory step directing active Snf1 to Mig1 under glucose limitation. Hence it appears that glucose de-repression via Snf1-Mig1 is regulated by glucose via at least two independent steps: the control of activation of the Snf1 kinase and directing active Snf1 to inactivating its target Mig1. © 2014 FEBS.

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2010-01-01

    crossinhibition, feedback control, and scaffolding. Plant MAPK cascades regulate numerous processes, including stress and hormonal responses, innate immunity, and developmental programs. Genetic analyses have uncovered several predominant MAPK components shared by several of these processes including...... of substrate proteins, whose altered activities mediate a wide array of responses, including changes in gene expression. Cascades may share kinase components, but their signaling specificity is maintained by spaciotemporal constraints and dynamic protein-protein interactions and by mechanisms that include...

  1. Effect of triiodothyronine on rat liver chromatin protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruh, J.; Tichonicky, L.

    1976-01-01

    1) Injection of triiodothyronine to rats stimulates protein kinase activity in liver chromatin nonhistone proteins. A significant increase was found after two daily injections. A 4-fold increase was observed with the purified enzyme after eight daily injections of the hormone. No variations were observed in cytosol protein kinase activity. Electrophoretic pattern, effect of heat denaturation, effect of p-hydroxymercuribenzoate seem to indicate that the enzyme present in treated rats is not identical to the enzyme in control animals, which suggests that thyroid hormone has induced nuclear protein kinase. Diiodothyronine, 3, 3', 5'-triiodothyronine have no effect on protein kinase. 2) Chromatin non-histone proteins isolated from rats injected with triiodothyronine incorporated more 32 P when incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP than the chromatin proteins from untreated rats. Thyroidectomy reduced the in vitro 32 P incorporation. It is suggested that some of the biological activity of thyroid hormone could be mediated through its effect on chromatin non-histone proteins. (orig.) [de

  2. [Effect of inhibitors serine/threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases on mitosis progression of synchronized tobacco by-2 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Ia A; Emets, A I; Azmi, A; Vissenberg, K; Verbelen, J-P; Blium, Ia B

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of various serine/ threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases in the regulation of mitosis progression in plant cells the influence of cyclin-dependent (olomoucine) and Ca2+ -calmodulin-dependent (W7) protein kinases inhibitors, as well as protein kinase C inhibitors (H7 and staurosporine) and protein phosphatases inhibitor (okadaic acid) on mitosis progression in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells has been studied. It was found that BY-2 culture treatment with inhibitors of cyclin dependent protein kinases and protein kinase C causes prophase delay, reduces the mitotic index and displaces of mitotic peak as compare with control cells. Inhibition of Ca2+ -calmodulin dependent protein kinases enhances the cell entry into prophase and delays their exit from mitosis. Meanwhile inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases insignificantly enhances of synchronized BY-2 cells entering into all phases of mitosis.

  3. A proteomic approach for comprehensively screening substrates of protein kinases such as Rho-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuki Amano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein kinases are major components of signal transduction pathways in multiple cellular processes. Kinases directly interact with and phosphorylate downstream substrates, thus modulating their functions. Despite the importance of identifying substrates in order to more fully understand the signaling network of respective kinases, efficient methods to search for substrates remain poorly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined mass spectrometry and affinity column chromatography of the catalytic domain of protein kinases to screen potential substrates. Using the active catalytic fragment of Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK as the model bait, we obtained about 300 interacting proteins from the rat brain cytosol fraction, which included the proteins previously reported as Rho-kinase substrates. Several novel interacting proteins, including doublecortin, were phosphorylated by Rho-kinase both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method would enable identification of novel specific substrates for kinases such as Rho-kinase with high sensitivity.

  4. Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Docking Analysis of the Molecular Chaperone-Kinase Interactions: Towards Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Kinases by Targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Verkhivker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone system in mediating maturation of protein kinase clients and supporting kinase functional activity is essential for the integrity and viability of signaling pathways involved in cell cycle control and organism development. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, the molecular mechanisms and guiding principles of kinase recruitment to the chaperone system are lacking quantitative characterization. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with protein kinase clients by modern experimental techniques is highly challenging, owing to a transient nature of chaperone-mediated interactions. In this work, we used experimentally-guided protein docking to probe the allosteric nature of the Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 kinase clients. The results of docking simulations suggest that the kinase recognition and recruitment to the chaperone system may be primarily determined by Cdc37 targeting of the N-terminal kinase lobe. The interactions of Hsp90 with the C-terminal kinase lobe may provide additional “molecular brakes” that can lock (or unlock kinase from the system during client loading (release stages. The results of this study support a central role of the Cdc37 chaperone in recognition and recruitment of the kinase clients. Structural analysis may have useful implications in developing strategies for allosteric inhibition of protein kinases by targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone machinery.

  5. Protein kinase CK2 in health and disease: Protein kinase CK2: from structures to insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Raaf, J; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2009-01-01

    the critical region of CK2alpha recruitment is pre-formed in the unbound state. In CK2alpha the activation segment - a key element of protein kinase regulation - adapts invariably the typical conformation of the active enzymes. Recent structures of human CK2alpha revealed a surprising plasticity in the ATP......Within the last decade, 40 crystal structures corresponding to protein kinase CK2 (former name 'casein kinase 2'), to its catalytic subunit CK2alpha and to its regulatory subunit CK2beta were published. Together they provide a valuable, yet by far not complete basis to rationalize the biochemical...

  6. Purification and characterization of a thylakoid protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.

    1986-01-01

    Control of state transitions in the thylakoid by reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is modulated by a kinase. The kinase catalyzing this phosphorylation is associated with the thylakoid membrane, and is regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. The isolation and partial purification from spinach thylakoids of two protein kinases (CPK1, CPK2) of apparent molecular masses 25 kDa and 38 kDa has been reported. Neither enzyme utilizes isolated LHC-II as a substrate. The partial purification of a third protein kinase (LHCK) which can utilize both lysine-rich histones (IIIs and Vs) and isolated LHC-II as substrate has now been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 64 kDa peptide. From a comparison of the two isolation procedures we have concluded that CPK1 is indeed a protein kinase, but has a lower specific activity than that of LHCK. 8 refs., 4 figs

  7. Mechanisms of Altered Control of Proliferation by Cyclic Amp/Protein Kinase A During Mammary Tumor Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imagawa, Walter

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesize that alterations in the regulation of growth by growth factors and cAMP during mammary tumor progression are related to MAP kinase signaling pathways known to be affected by cAMP and pertussis toxin (PT...

  8. Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase r...

  9. Regulation of the interaction between protein kinase C-related protein kinase 2 (PRK2) and its upstream kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettori, Rosalia; Sonzogni, Silvina; Meyer, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    of numerous AGC kinases, including the protein kinase C-related protein kinases (PRKs). Here we studied the docking interaction between PDK1 and PRK2 and analyzed the mechanisms that regulate this interaction. In vivo labeling of recombinant PRK2 by (32)P(i) revealed phosphorylation at two sites......, the activation loop and the Z/TM in the C-terminal extension. We provide evidence that phosphorylation of the Z/TM site of PRK2 inhibits its interaction with PDK1. Our studies further provide a mechanistic model to explain different steps in the docking interaction and regulation. Interestingly, we found...... that the mechanism that negatively regulates the docking interaction of PRK2 to the upstream kinase PDK1 is directly linked to the activation mechanism of PRK2 itself. Finally, our results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the interaction between PRK2 and PDK1 are specific for PRK2 and do...

  10. The pathway by which the yeast protein kinase Snf1p controls acquisition of sodium tolerance is different from that mediating glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tian; Elbing, Karin; Hohmann, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    It recently became apparent that the highly conserved Snf1p protein kinase plays roles in controlling different cellular processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in addition to its well-known function in glucose repression/derepression. We have previously reported that Snf1p together with Gis4p controls ion homeostasis by regulating expression of ENA1, which encodes the Ena1p Na(+) extrusion system. In this study we found that Snf1p is rapidly phosphorylated when cells are exposed to NaCl and this phosphorylation is required for the role of Snf1p in Na(+) tolerance. In contrast to activation by low glucose levels, the salt-induced phosphorylation of Snf1p promoted neither phosphorylation nor nuclear export of the Mig1p repressor. The mechanism that prevents Mig1p phosphorylation by active Snf1p under salt stress does not involve either hexokinase PII or the Gis4p regulator. Instead, Snf1p may mediate upregulation of ENA1 expression via the repressor Nrg1p. Activation of Snf1p in response to glucose depletion requires any of the three upstream protein kinases Sak1p, Tos3p and Elm1p, with Sak1p playing the most prominent role. The same upstream kinases were required for salt-induced Snf1p phosphorylation, and also under these conditions Sak1p played the most prominent role. Unexpectedly, however, it appears that Elm1p plays a dual role in acquisition of salt tolerance by activating Snf1p and in a presently unknown parallel pathway. Together, these results indicate that under salt stress Snf1p takes part in a different pathway from that during glucose depletion and this role is performed together as well as in parallel with its upstream kinase Elm1p. Snf1p appears to be part of a wider functional network than previously anticipated and the full complexity of this network remains to be elucidated.

  11. Involvement of protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinases in experimental normothermic liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursio, R; Filippa, N; Miele, C; Van Obberghen, E; Gugenheim, J

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluated the role of protein kinase B (PKB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in normothermic ischaemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced apoptosis in rat liver. Rats were divided into two groups that received either phosphate-buffered saline (control) or the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-2,6-dichorobenzoyloxymethylketone (Z-Asp-cmk), injected intravenously 2 min before the induction of 120 min of normothermic liver ischaemia. Liver apoptosis was assessed by the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method. PI3-K, PKB, BAD and MAPK activities were measured in ischaemic and non-ischaemic lobes at various times after reperfusion. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly decreased after pretreatment with Z-Asp-cmk. In controls, PI3-K and PKB activities and BAD phosphorylation were inhibited in ischaemic liver lobes. The MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38) showed different patterns of activation during IR. PKB activity was not modified by pretreatment with Z-Asp-cmk. Induction of apoptosis during IR liver injury might be triggered by inactivation of the antiapoptotic PI3-K-PKB pathway and activation of the proapoptotic MAPKs. Copyright (c) 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Roles of Apicomplexan protein kinases at each life cycle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Sugi, Tatsuki; Iwanaga, Tatsuya

    2012-06-01

    Inhibitors of cellular protein kinases have been reported to inhibit the development of Apicomplexan parasites, suggesting that the functions of protozoan protein kinases are critical for their life cycle. However, the specific roles of these protein kinases cannot be determined using only these inhibitors without molecular analysis, including gene disruption. In this report, we describe the functions of Apicomplexan protein kinases in each parasite life stage and the potential of pre-existing protein kinase inhibitors as Apicomplexan drugs against, mainly, Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  14. Protein Kinase C δ: a Gatekeeper of Immune Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Elisabeth; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Keller, Bärbel; Warnatz, Klaus; Boztug, Kaan

    2016-10-01

    Human autoimmune disorders present in various forms and are associated with a life-long burden of high morbidity and mortality. Many different circumstances lead to the loss of immune tolerance and often the origin is suspected to be multifactorial. Recently, patients with autosomal recessive mutations in PRKCD encoding protein kinase c delta (PKCδ) have been identified, representing a monogenic prototype for one of the most prominent forms of humoral systemic autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PKCδ is a signaling kinase with multiple downstream target proteins and with functions in various signaling pathways. Interestingly, mouse models have indicated a special role of the ubiquitously expressed protein in the control of B-cell tolerance revealed by the severe autoimmunity in Prkcd (-/-) knockout mice as the major phenotype. As such, the study of PKCδ deficiency in humans has tremendous potential in enhancing our knowledge on the mechanisms of B-cell tolerance.

  15. Distribution of protein kinase Mzeta and the complete protein kinase C isoform family in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, M U; Benedikz, Eirikur; Hernandez, I

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of at least ten isoforms, nine of which are expressed in brain (alpha, betaI, betaII, gamma, delta, straightepsilon, eta, zeta, iota/lambda). Our previous studies have shown that many of these PKCs participate in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region...

  16. Comparative Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Lindin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase MK5 is a substrate of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK3 and ERK4. Cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that MK5 is involved in tumour suppression and promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, homology models of MK5 were used for molecular dynamics (MD simulations of: (1 MK5 alone; (2 MK5 in complex with an inhibitor; and (3 MK5 in complex with the interaction partner p38α. The calculations showed that the inhibitor occupied the active site and disrupted the intramolecular network of amino acids. However, intramolecular interactions consistent with an inactive protein kinase fold were not formed. MD with p38α showed that not only the p38 docking region, but also amino acids in the activation segment, αH helix, P-loop, regulatory phosphorylation region and the C-terminal of MK5 may be involved in forming a very stable MK5-p38α complex, and that p38α binding decreases the residual fluctuation of the MK5 model. Electrostatic Potential Surface (EPS calculations of MK5 and p38α showed that electrostatic interactions are important for recognition and binding.

  17. A framework for classification of prokaryotic protein kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Tyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overwhelming majority of the Serine/Threonine protein kinases identified by gleaning archaeal and eubacterial genomes could not be classified into any of the well known Hanks and Hunter subfamilies of protein kinases. This is owing to the development of Hanks and Hunter classification scheme based on eukaryotic protein kinases which are highly divergent from their prokaryotic homologues. A large dataset of prokaryotic Serine/Threonine protein kinases recognized from genomes of prokaryotes have been used to develop a classification framework for prokaryotic Ser/Thr protein kinases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used traditional sequence alignment and phylogenetic approaches and clustered the prokaryotic kinases which represent 72 subfamilies with at least 4 members in each. Such a clustering enables classification of prokaryotic Ser/Thr kinases and it can be used as a framework to classify newly identified prokaryotic Ser/Thr kinases. After series of searches in a comprehensive sequence database we recognized that 38 subfamilies of prokaryotic protein kinases are associated to a specific taxonomic level. For example 4, 6 and 3 subfamilies have been identified that are currently specific to phylum proteobacteria, cyanobacteria and actinobacteria respectively. Similarly subfamilies which are specific to an order, sub-order, class, family and genus have also been identified. In addition to these, we also identify organism-diverse subfamilies. Members of these clusters are from organisms of different taxonomic levels, such as archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, occurrence of several taxonomic level specific subfamilies of prokaryotic kinases contrasts with classification of eukaryotic protein kinases in which most of the popular subfamilies of eukaryotic protein kinases occur diversely in several eukaryotes. Many prokaryotic Ser/Thr kinases exhibit a wide variety of modular

  18. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  19. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  20. A Global Protein Kinase and Phosphatase Interaction Network in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Ashton; Choi, Hyungwon; Sharom, Jeffrey R.; Boucher, Lorrie; Neduva, Victor; Larsen, Brett; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Stark, Chris; Liu, Guomin; Ahn, Jessica; Dewar-Darch, Danielle; Reguly, Teresa; Tang, Xiaojing; Almeida, Ricardo; Qin, Zhaohui Steve; Pawson, Tony; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Tyers, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The interactions of protein kinases and phosphatases with their regulatory subunits and substrates underpin cellular regulation. We identified a kinase and phosphatase interaction (KPI) network of 1844 interactions in budding yeast by mass spectrometric analysis of protein complexes. The KPI network contained many dense local regions of interactions that suggested new functions. Notably, the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc14 associated with multiple kinases that revealed roles for Cdc14 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, the DNA damage response, and metabolism, whereas interactions of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) uncovered new effector kinases in nitrogen and carbon metabolism. An extensive backbone of kinase-kinase interactions cross-connects the proteome and may serve to coordinate diverse cellular responses. PMID:20489023

  1. Role of energy charge and AMP-activated protein kinase in adipocytes in the control of body fat stores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Brauner, Petr; Šponarová, Jana; Matějková, Olga; Pražák, Tomáš; Růžičková, Jana; Bardová, Kristina; Kuda, Ondřej; Kopecký, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, Suppl. 4 (2004), s. S38-S44 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/1220; GA ČR GP303/03/P127; GA AV ČR KJB5011303; GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : uncoupling protein * white adipose tissue * AMPK Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.459, year: 2004

  2. The yeast protein kinase Sch9 adjusts V-ATPase assembly/disassembly to control pH homeostasis and longevity in response to glucose availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Wilms

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The conserved protein kinase Sch9 is a central player in the nutrient-induced signaling network in yeast, although only few of its direct substrates are known. We now provide evidence that Sch9 controls the vacuolar proton pump (V-ATPase to maintain cellular pH homeostasis and ageing. A synthetic sick phenotype arises when deletion of SCH9 is combined with a dysfunctional V-ATPase, and the lack of Sch9 has a significant impact on cytosolic pH (pHc homeostasis. Sch9 physically interacts with, and influences glucose-dependent assembly/disassembly of the V-ATPase, thereby integrating input from TORC1. Moreover, we show that the role of Sch9 in regulating ageing is tightly connected with V-ATPase activity and vacuolar acidity. As both Sch9 and the V-ATPase are highly conserved in higher eukaryotes, it will be interesting to further clarify their cooperative action on the cellular processes that influence growth and ageing.

  3. Oral protein kinase c β inhibition using ruboxistaurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Vignati, Louis; Sheetz, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy, safety, and causes of vision loss among 813 patients (1,392 eyes) with moderately severe to very severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy from the Protein Kinase C β Inhibitor-Diabetic Retinopathy Study and Protein Kinase C β Inhibitor-Diabetic Retinopathy Study 2 ruboxi...

  4. Protein kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates cytokine-dependent cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    Full Text Available The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting

  5. Protein phosphatases active on acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, L.A.; Bacon, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The protein phosphatases in rat liver cytosol, active on rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, have been partially purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The major phosphatase activities against all three substrates copurify through fractionation and appear to be identical to protein phosphatases 2A1 and 2A2. No unique protein phosphatase active on 32 P-ACC phosphorylated by the casein kinases was identified

  6. Protein kinase A is involved in the control of morphology and branching during aerobic growth of Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Polo, V.G.; Rossi, S.

    2004-01-01

    and colony morphology suggested a role for PKAR in the control of morphology and branching. Here strain KFA121, which overexpresses the M. circinelloides pkaR gene, was used to quantify growth and branching under different aerobic growth conditions in a flow-through cell by computerized image analysis....... An inverse relationship between the pkaR expression level in KFA121 and the hyphal growth unit length was observed in KFA121, suggesting a central role for PKAR in branching. A biochemical analysis of PKAR using antibodies and enzyme assay demonstrated that the level of PKAR is higher in KFA121 under...... indicate that cAMP-dependent PKA in M. circinelloides might be down-regulated during hyphal-tube emergence and that an increase in PKAR levels results in increased branching....

  7. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  8. Investigating the role of RIO protein kinases in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha K Mendes

    Full Text Available RIO protein kinases (RIOKs are a relatively conserved family of enzymes implicated in cell cycle control and ribosomal RNA processing. Despite their functional importance, they remain a poorly understood group of kinases in multicellular organisms. Here, we show that the C. elegans genome contains one member of each of the three RIOK sub-families and that each of the genes coding for them has a unique tissue expression pattern. Our analysis showed that the gene encoding RIOK-1 (riok-1 was broadly and strongly expressed. Interestingly, the intestinal expression of riok-1 was dependent upon two putative binding sites for the oxidative and xenobiotic stress response transcription factor SKN-1. RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knock down of riok-1 resulted in germline defects, including defects in germ line stem cell proliferation, oocyte maturation and the production of endomitotic oocytes. Taken together, our findings indicate new functions for RIOK-1 in post mitotic tissues and in reproduction.

  9. Protein kinase C mediates platelet secretion and thrombus formation through protein kinase D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopatskaya, Olga; Matthews, Sharon A; Harper, Matthew T; Gilio, Karen; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Williams, Christopher M; Navarro, Maria N; Carter, Deborah A; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Leitges, Michael; Cantrell, Doreen; Poole, Alastair W

    2011-07-14

    Platelets are highly specialized blood cells critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family have established roles in regulating platelet function and thrombosis, but the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In particular, the conventional PKC isoform, PKCα, is a major regulator of platelet granule secretion, but the molecular pathway from PKCα to secretion is not defined. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a family of 3 kinases activated by PKC, which may represent a step in the PKC signaling pathway to secretion. In the present study, we show that PKD2 is the sole PKD member regulated downstream of PKC in platelets, and that the conventional, but not novel, PKC isoforms provide the upstream signal. Platelets from a gene knock-in mouse in which 2 key phosphorylation sites in PKD2 have been mutated (Ser707Ala/Ser711Ala) show a significant reduction in agonist-induced dense granule secretion, but not in α-granule secretion. This deficiency in dense granule release was responsible for a reduced platelet aggregation and a marked reduction in thrombus formation. Our results show that in the molecular pathway to secretion, PKD2 is a key component of the PKC-mediated pathway to platelet activation and thrombus formation through its selective regulation of dense granule secretion.

  10. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 interacts with oncogenic lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Chueh, Fu-Yu; Leong, King-Fu; Pabich, Samantha; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2011-03-01

    Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) plays a key role in T cell signal transduction and is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Lck can function as an oncoprotein when overexpressed or constantly activated by mutations. Our previous studies showed that Lck-induced cellular transformation could be suppressed by enforced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a SOCS family member involved in the negative feedback control of cytokine signaling. We observed attenuated Lck kinase activity in SOCS1-expressing cells, suggesting an important role of SOCS in regulating Lck functions. It remains largely unknown whether and how SOCS proteins interact with the oncogenic Lck kinase. Here, we report that among four SOCS family proteins, SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CIS (cytokine-inducible SH2 domain containing protein), SOCS1 has the highest affinity in binding to the oncogenic Lck kinase. We identified the positive regulatory phosphotyrosine 394 residue in the kinase domain as the key interacting determinant in Lck. Additionally, the Lck kinase domain alone is sufficient to bind SOCS1. While the SH2 domain in SOCS1 is important in its association with the oncogenic Lck kinase, other functional domains may also contribute to overall binding affinity. These findings provide important mechanistic insights into the role of SOCS proteins as tumor suppressors in cells transformed by oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases.

  11. Protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI): a family of endogenous neuropeptides that modulate neuronal cAMP-dependent protein kinase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, George D; Dewey, William L

    2006-02-01

    Signal transduction cascades involving cAMP-dependent protein kinase are highly conserved among a wide variety of organisms. Given the universal nature of this enzyme it is not surprising that cAMP-dependent protein kinase plays a critical role in numerous cellular processes. This is particularly evident in the nervous system where cAMP-dependent protein kinase is involved in neurotransmitter release, gene transcription, and synaptic plasticity. Protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI) is an endogenous thermostable peptide that modulates cAMP-dependent protein kinase function. PKI contains two distinct functional domains within its amino acid sequence that allow it to: (1) potently and specifically inhibit the activity of the free catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and (2) export the free catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from the nucleus. Three distinct PKI isoforms (PKIalpha, PKIbeta, PKIgamma) have been identified and each isoform is expressed in the brain. PKI modulates neuronal synaptic activity, while PKI also is involved in morphogenesis and symmetrical left-right axis formation. In addition, PKI also plays a role in regulating gene expression induced by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Future studies should identify novel physiological functions for endogenous PKI both in the nervous system and throughout the body. Most interesting will be the determination whether functional differences exist between individual PKI isoforms which is an intriguing possibility since these isoforms exhibit: (1) cell-type specific tissue expression patterns, (2) different potencies for the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and (3) expression patterns that are hormonally, developmentally and cell-cycle regulated. Finally, synthetic peptide analogs of endogenous PKI will continue to be invaluable tools that are used to elucidate the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in a variety of cellular processes throughout the nervous

  12. Role of adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (ADP/PI3k/Akt) signal transduction pathway has an important role in promoting cell survival. This study was designed to determine if the ADP/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has a role in the mechanism of ischemia–reperfusion injury in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats ...

  13. Protein kinase CK2 structure-function relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1994-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 subunits alpha and beta were expressed either separately or together in a bacterial expression system (pT7-7/BL21(DE3)) and purified to homogeneity. After mixing the subunits, a CK2 holoenzyme (alpha 2 beta 2) was spontaneously reconstituted, which displays identical features...... subunit have been prepared and assayed for their ability to assemble with the catalytic alpha subunit to give a fully competent CK2 holoenzyme. The beta subunit contains an acidic stretch (amino acid 55-64), which is obviously responsible for a negative control of enzyme activity since mutations...

  14. The Link between Protein Kinase CK2 and Atypical Kinase Rio1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kubiński

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The atypical kinase Rio1 is widespread in many organisms, ranging from Archaebacteria to humans, and is an essential factor in ribosome biogenesis. Little is known about the protein substrates of the enzyme and small-molecule inhibitors of the kinase. Protein kinase CK2 was the first interaction partner of Rio1, identified in yeast cells. The enzyme from various sources undergoes CK2-mediated phosphorylation at several sites and this modification regulates the activity of Rio1. The aim of this review is to present studies of the relationship between the two different kinases, with respect to CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rio1, regulation of Rio1 activity, and similar susceptibility of the kinases to benzimidazole inhibitors.

  15. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an interesting class of kinases which are activated by calcium binding. They have been implicated in a diverse array of responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In order to dissect the role of CDPKs in the moss ...

  16. Identification of the protein kinase C phosphorylation site in neuromodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, E.D.; Byford, M.F.; Au, D.; Walsh, K.A.; Storm, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Neuromodulin (P-57, GAP-43, B-50, F-1) is a neurospecific calmodulin binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C has been shown to abolish the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin and the authors have proposed that the concentration of free CaM in neurons may be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of neuromodulin. The purpose of this study was to identify the protein kinase C phosphorylation site(s) in neuromodulin using recombinant neuromodulin as a substrate. Toward this end, it was demonstrated that recombinant neuromodulin purified from Escherichia coli and bovine neuromodulin were phosphorylated with similar K m values and stoichiometries and that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation of both proteins abolished binding to calmodulin-Sepharose. Recombinant neuromodulin was phosphorylated by using protein kinase C and [γ- 32 P]ATP and digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Only one 32 P-labeled tryptic peptide was generated from phosphorylated neuromodulin. They conclude that serine-41 is the protein kinase C phosphorylation site of neuromodulin and that phosphorylation of this amino acid residue blocks binding of calmoculin to neuromodulin. The proximity of serine-41 to the calmodulin binding domain in neuromodulin very likely explains the effect of phosphorylation on the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin

  17. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1997-01-01

    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposited...

  18. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  19. A cytoplasmic serine protein kinase binds and may regulate the Fanconi anemia protein FANCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, H; Adachi, D; Oda, T; Garcia-Higuera, I; Tetteh, N; D'Andrea, A D; Futaki, M; Asano, S; Yamashita, T

    2001-12-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease with congenital anomalies, bone marrow failure, and susceptibility to leukemia. Patient cells show chromosome instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. At least 8 complementation groups (A-G) have been identified and 6 FA genes (for subtypes A, C, D2, E, F, and G) have been cloned. Increasing evidence indicates that a protein complex assembly of multiple FA proteins, including FANCA and FANCG, plays a crucial role in the FA pathway. Previously, it was reported that FANCA was phosphorylated in lymphoblasts from normal controls, whereas the phosphorylation was defective in those derived from patients with FA of multiple complementation groups. The present study examined phosphorylation of FANCA ectopically expressed in FANCA(-) cells. Several patient-derived mutations abrogated in vivo phosphorylation of FANCA in this system, suggesting that FANCA phosphorylation is associated with its function. In vitro phosphorylation studies indicated that a physiologic protein kinase for FANCA (FANCA-PK) forms a complex with the substrate. Furthermore, at least a part of FANCA-PK as well as phosphorylated FANCA were included in the FANCA/FANCG complex. Thus, FANCA-PK appears to be another component of the FA protein complex and may regulate function of FANCA. FANCA-PK was characterized as a cytoplasmic serine kinase sensitive to wortmannin. Identification of the protein kinase is expected to elucidate regulatory mechanisms that control the FA pathway.

  20. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  1. Contractions activate hormone-sensitive lipase in rat muscle by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction......Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline......-induced activation of HSL was abolished by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and calphostin C and reduced 50% by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, which also completely blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation. None...

  2. The Ser/Thr Protein Kinase Protein-Protein Interaction Map of M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan-Lin; Liu, Yin; Jiang, He-Wei; Luan, Yi-Zhao; Zhang, Hai-Nan; He, Xiang; Xu, Zhao-Wei; Hou, Jing-Li; Ji, Li-Yun; Xie, Zhi; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Yan, Wei; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Bi, Li-Jun; Zhang, Xian-En; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis, the leading cause of death among all infectious diseases. There are 11 eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) in Mtb, which are thought to play pivotal roles in cell growth, signal transduction and pathogenesis. However, their underlying mechanisms of action remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, using a Mtb proteome microarray, we have globally identified the binding proteins in Mtb for all of the STPKs, and constructed the first STPK protein interaction (KPI) map that includes 492 binding proteins and 1,027 interactions. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the interacting proteins reflect diverse functions, including roles in two-component system, transcription, protein degradation, and cell wall integrity. Functional investigations confirmed that PknG regulates cell wall integrity through key components of peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, e.g. MurC. The global STPK-KPIs network constructed here is expected to serve as a rich resource for understanding the key signaling pathways in Mtb, thus facilitating drug development and effective control of Mtb. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. How protein kinases co-ordinate mitosis in animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hoi Tang; Poon, Randy Y C

    2011-04-01

    Mitosis is associated with profound changes in cell physiology and a spectacular surge in protein phosphorylation. To accomplish these, a remarkably large portion of the kinome is involved in the process. In the present review, we will focus on classic mitotic kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinases, Polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases, as well as more recently characterized players such as NIMA (never in mitosis in Aspergillus nidulans)-related kinases, Greatwall and Haspin. Together, these kinases co-ordinate the proper timing and fidelity of processes including centrosomal functions, spindle assembly and microtubule-kinetochore attachment, as well as sister chromatid separation and cytokinesis. A recurrent theme of the mitotic kinase network is the prevalence of elaborated feedback loops that ensure bistable conditions. Sequential phosphorylation and priming phosphorylation on substrates are also frequently employed. Another important concept is the role of scaffolds, such as centrosomes for protein kinases during mitosis. Elucidating the entire repertoire of mitotic kinases, their functions, regulation and interactions is critical for our understanding of normal cell growth and in diseases such as cancers.

  4. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of acclimation to cold hardiness in S. ... have shown that the stress associated with cold temperature ..... vation by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, studied using.

  5. Protein kinase A regulatory subunit distribution in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Denaro, Luca; Redaelli, Marco; D'Avella, Domenico; Caretta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed a differential distribution of the four regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases inside the brain, that changed in rodent gliomas: therefore, the distribution of these proteins inside the brain can give information on the functional state of the cells. Our goal was to examine human brain tumors to provide evidence for a differential distribution of protein kinase A in different tumors. The distribution of detergent insoluble regulatory (R1 and R2) and catalytic subunits of cAMP dependent kinases was examined in pediatric brain tumors by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent cAMP analogues binding. R2 is organized in large single dots in medulloblastomas, while it has a different appearance in other tumors. Fluorescent cAMP labelling was observed only in medulloblastoma. A different distribution of cAMP dependent protein kinases has been observed in medulloblastoma

  6. Protein Kinases in Human Breast Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cane, William

    1998-01-01

    .... Rak is a novel nuclear tyrosine that our group has identified in breast cancer tissues and cell lines that has structural homology to the Src tyrosine kinase, with SH2 and SH3 domains at its amino terminus...

  7. Src protein-tyrosine kinase structure and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Src and Src-family protein kinases are proto-oncogenes that play key roles in cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and survival. v-Src (a viral protein) is encoded by the chicken oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus, and Src (the cellular homologue) is encoded by a physiological gene, the first of the proto-oncogenes. From the N- to C-terminus, Src contains an N-terminal 14-carbon myristoyl group, a unique segment, an SH3 domain, an SH2 domain, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory tail. The chief phosphorylation sites of Src include tyrosine 416 that results in activation from autophosphorylation and tyrosine 527 that results in inhibition from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase. In the restrained state, the SH2 domain forms a salt bridge with phosphotyrosine 527, and the SH3 domain binds to the kinase domain via a polyproline type II left-handed helix. The SH2 and SH3 domains occur on the backside of the kinase domain away from the active site where they stabilize a dormant enzyme conformation. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases such as PTPα displace phosphotyrosine 527 from the Src SH2 domain and mediate its dephosphorylation leading to Src kinase activation. C-terminal Src kinase consists of an SH3, SH2, and kinase domain; it lacks an N-terminal myristoyl group and a C-terminal regulatory tail. Its X-ray structure has been determined, and the SH2 lobe occupies a position that is entirely different from that of Src. Unlike Src, the C-terminal Src kinase SH2 and SH3 domains stabilize an active enzyme conformation. Amino acid residues in the αD helix near the catalytic loop in the large lobe of C-terminal Src kinase serve as a docking site for the physiological substrate (Src) but not for an artificial substrate (polyGlu 4 Tyr)

  8. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK-2) mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and cell growth control of Ras-associated tumor suppressor protein, RASSF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Gita; Mahalingam, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ras GTPase controls the normal cell growth through binding with an array of effector molecules, such as Raf and PI3-kinase in a GTP-dependent manner. RASSF2, a member of the Ras association domain family, is known to be involved in the suppression of cell growth and is frequently down-regulated in various tumor tissues by promoter hypermethylation. In the present study, we demonstrate that RASSF2 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm by a signal-mediated process and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to leptomycin B. Amino acids between 240 to 260 in the C-terminus of RASSF2 harbor a functional nuclear export signal (NES), which is necessary and sufficient for efficient export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. Substitution of conserved Ile254, Val257 and Leu259 within the minimal NES impaired RASSF2 export from the nucleus. In addition, wild type but not the nuclear export defective RASSF2 mutant interacts with export receptor, CRM-1 and exported from the nucleus. Surprisingly, we observed nucleolar localization for the nuclear export defective mutant suggesting the possibility that RASSF2 may localize in different cellular compartments transiently in a cell cycle dependent manner and the observed nuclear localization for wild type protein may be due to faster export kinetics from the nucleolus. Furthermore, our data suggest that RASSF2 is specifically phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK-2 and the inhibitors of MAPK pathway impair the phosphorylation and subsequently block the export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. These data clearly suggest that ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of RASSF2. Interestingly, nuclear import defective mutant of RASSF2 failed to induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and apoptosis suggesting that RASSF2 regulates cell growth in a nuclear localization dependent manner. Collectively, these data provided evidence for the first time that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates

  9. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK-2) mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and cell growth control of Ras-associated tumor suppressor protein, RASSF2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Gita [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500076 (India); Mahalingam, S., E-mail: mahalingam@iitm.ac.in [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500076 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Technology-Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2009-10-01

    Ras GTPase controls the normal cell growth through binding with an array of effector molecules, such as Raf and PI3-kinase in a GTP-dependent manner. RASSF2, a member of the Ras association domain family, is known to be involved in the suppression of cell growth and is frequently down-regulated in various tumor tissues by promoter hypermethylation. In the present study, we demonstrate that RASSF2 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm by a signal-mediated process and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to leptomycin B. Amino acids between 240 to 260 in the C-terminus of RASSF2 harbor a functional nuclear export signal (NES), which is necessary and sufficient for efficient export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. Substitution of conserved Ile254, Val257 and Leu259 within the minimal NES impaired RASSF2 export from the nucleus. In addition, wild type but not the nuclear export defective RASSF2 mutant interacts with export receptor, CRM-1 and exported from the nucleus. Surprisingly, we observed nucleolar localization for the nuclear export defective mutant suggesting the possibility that RASSF2 may localize in different cellular compartments transiently in a cell cycle dependent manner and the observed nuclear localization for wild type protein may be due to faster export kinetics from the nucleolus. Furthermore, our data suggest that RASSF2 is specifically phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK-2 and the inhibitors of MAPK pathway impair the phosphorylation and subsequently block the export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. These data clearly suggest that ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of RASSF2. Interestingly, nuclear import defective mutant of RASSF2 failed to induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and apoptosis suggesting that RASSF2 regulates cell growth in a nuclear localization dependent manner. Collectively, these data provided evidence for the first time that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates

  10. Dissection of Protein Kinase Pathways in Live Cells Using Photoluminescent Probes: Surveillance or Interrogation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Lavogina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases catalyze phosphorylation, a small yet crucial modification that affects participation of the substrate proteins in the intracellular signaling pathways. The activity of 538 protein kinases encoded in human genome relies upon spatiotemporally controlled mechanisms, ensuring correct progression of virtually all physiological processes on the cellular level—from cell division to cell death. The aberrant functioning of protein kinases is linked to a wide spectrum of major health issues including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory diseases, etc. Hence, significant effort of scientific community has been dedicated to the dissection of protein kinase pathways in their natural milieu. The combination of recent advances in the field of light microscopy, the wide variety of genetically encoded or synthetic photoluminescent scaffolds, and the techniques for intracellular delivery of cargoes has enabled design of a plethora of probes that can report activation of target protein kinases in human live cells. The question remains: how much do we bias intracellular signaling of protein kinases by monitoring it? This review seeks answers to this question by analyzing different classes of probes according to their general structure, mechanism of recognition of biological target, and optical properties necessary for the reporting of intracellular events.

  11. Interaction between protein kinase C and protein kinase A can modulate transmitter release at the rat neuromuscular synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santafé, M M; Garcia, N; Lanuza, M A; Tomàs, M; Tomàs, J

    2009-02-15

    We used intracellular recording to investigate the functional interaction between protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction cascades in the control of transmitter release in the neuromuscular synapses from adult rats. Our results indicate that: 1) PKA and PKC are independently involved in asynchronous release. 2) Evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release is enhanced with the PKA agonist Sp-8-BrcAMP and the PKC agonist phorbol ester (PMA). 3) PKA has a constitutive role in promoting a component of normal evoked transmitter release because, when the kinase is inhibited with H-89, the release diminishes. However, the PKC inhibitor calphostin C (CaC) does not affect ACh release. 4) PKA regulates neurotransmission without PKC involvement because, after PMA or CaC modulation of the PKC activity, coupling to the ACh release of PKA can normally be stimulated with Sp-8-BrcAMP or inhibited with H-89. 5) After PKA inhibition with H-89, PKC stimulation with PMA (or inhibition with CaC) does not lead to any change in evoked ACh release. However, in PKA-stimulated preparations with Sp-8-BrcAMP, PKC becomes tonically active, thus potentiating a component of release that can now be blocked with CaC. In normal conditions, therefore, PKA was able to modulate ACh release independently of PKC activity, whereas PKA stimulation caused the PKC coupling to evoked release. In contrast, PKA inhibition prevent PKC stimulation (with the phorbol ester) and coupling to ACh output. There was therefore some dependence of PKC on PKA activity in the fine control of the neuromuscular synaptic functionalism and ACh release.

  12. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 by hepatitis C virus core protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, HT; Pham, Long; Kim, JW

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular proteins for its own propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assays using the HCV core protein as a probe. Of ~9,000 host proteins immobilized in a microarray...... inducers. Binding of HCV core to MAPKAPK3 was confirmed by in vitro pulldown assay and further verified by coimmunoprecipitation assay. HCV core protein interacted with MAPKAPK3 through amino acid residues 41 to 75 of core and the N-terminal half of kinase domain of MAPKAPK3. In addition, both RNA...... increased HCV IRES-mediated translation and MAPKAPK3-dependent HCV IRES activity was further increased by core protein. These data suggest that HCV core may modulate MAPKAPK3 to facilitate its own propagation....

  13. Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, M; Kim, S O; Salh, B S

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of proteins that are important in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the stress signaling agents anisomycin, arsenite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulate the specific enzyme activity of CK2...... in the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by up to 8-fold, and this could be blocked by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. We show that p38alpha MAP kinase, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, can directly interact with the alpha and beta subunits of CK2 to activate the holoenzyme through what appears...

  14. Effects of obesity on protein kinase C, brain creatine kinase, transcription, and autophagy in cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur

    2017-06-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been shown to exacerbate hearing degeneration via increased hypoxia, inflammatory responses, and cell loss via both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis signaling pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DIO on the mRNA expressions of protein kinase c-β (PKC-β), brain creatine kinase (CKB), transcription modification genes, and autophagy-related genes in the cochlea of CD/1 mice. Sixteen 4-week-old male CD/1 mice were randomly divided into 2 groups. For 16 weeks, the DIO group was fed a high fat diet (60% kcal fat) and the controls were fed a standard diet. Morphometry, biochemistry, auditory brainstem response thresholds, omental fat, and histopathology of the cochlea were compared. Results showed that body weight, body length, body-mass index, omental fat, plasma triglyceride, and auditory brainstem response thresholds were significantly elevated in the DIO group compared with those of the control group. The ratio of vessel wall thickness to radius in the stria vascularis was significantly higher in the DIO group. The cell densities in the spiral ganglion, but not in the spiral prominence, of the cochlea were significantly lower in the DIO group. The expression of histone deacetylation gene 1 (HDAC1) was significantly higher in the DIO group than the control group. However, the expressions of PKC-β, CKB, HDAC3, histone acetyltransferase gene (P300), lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2), and light chain 3 (Lc3) genes were not significantly different between two groups. These results suggest that DIO might exacerbate hearing degeneration possibly via increased HDAC1 gene expression in the cochlea of CD/1 mice.

  15. Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) protein controls microtubule dynamics in a novel signaling pathway that regulates cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Alice V; Steel, Rohan; Bernard, Ora

    2012-12-21

    The two members of the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK1 and 2) family are established regulators of actin dynamics that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle as well as cell motility and invasion. Here, we discovered a novel signaling pathway whereby ROCK regulates microtubule (MT) acetylation via phosphorylation of the tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (TPPP1/p25). We show that ROCK phosphorylation of TPPP1 inhibits the interaction between TPPP1 and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which in turn results in increased HDAC6 activity followed by a decrease in MT acetylation. As a consequence, we show that TPPP1 phosphorylation by ROCK increases cell migration and invasion via modulation of cellular acetyl MT levels. We establish here that the ROCK-TPPP1-HDAC6 signaling pathway is important for the regulation of cell migration and invasion.

  16. Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Ermakowa, I

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 A resolution. In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalyt...... as a docking partner for various protein kinases. Furthermore it shows an inter-domain mobility in the catalytic subunit known to be functionally important in protein kinases and detected here for the first time directly within one crystal structure.......The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 A resolution. In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalytic...... subunits, which make no direct contact with one another. Each catalytic subunit interacts with both regulatory chains, predominantly via an extended C-terminal tail of the regulatory subunit. The CK2 structure is consistent with its constitutive activity and with a flexible role of the regulatory subunit...

  17. A casein-kinase-2-related protein kinase is tightly associated with the large T antigen of simian virus 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Koenig, M G; Issinger, O G

    1995-01-01

    by the addition of protein kinase CK2 suggest that at least one of the T-antigen-associated protein kinases is CK2 or a protein-kinase-CK2-related enzyme. The association of recombinant CK2 with T antigen was strongly confirmed by in vitro binding studies. Experiments with temperature-sensitive SV40-transformed......The simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is a multifunctional protein involved in SV40 cell transformation and lytic virus infection. Some of its activities are regulated by interaction with cellular proteins and/or by phosphorylation of T antigen by various protein kinases. In this study, we...... show that immuno-purified T antigen from SV40-transformed cells and from baculovirus-infected insect cells is tightly associated with a protein kinase that phosphorylates T antigen in vitro. In the presence of heparin or a peptide resembling a protein kinase CK2 recognition site, the phosphorylation...

  18. CIKS, a connection to Ikappa B kinase and stress-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Chariot, A; Claudio, E; Cunningham, K; Siebenlist, U

    2000-09-12

    Pathogens, inflammatory signals, and stress cause acute transcriptional responses in cells. The induced expression of genes in response to these signals invariably involves transcription factors of the NF-kappaB and AP-1/ATF families. Activation of NF-kappaB factors is thought to be mediated primarily via IkappaB kinases (IKK), whereas that of AP-1/ATF can be mediated by stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs; also named Jun kinases or JNKs). IKKalpha and IKKbeta are two catalytic subunits of a core IKK complex that also contains the regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator)/IKKgamma. The latter protein is essential for activation of the IKKs, but its mechanism of action is not known. Here we describe the molecular cloning of CIKS (connection to IKK and SAPK/JNK), a previously unknown protein that directly interacts with NEMO/IKKgamma in cells. When ectopically expressed, CIKS stimulates IKK and SAPK/JNK kinases and it transactivates an NF-kappaB-dependent reporter. Activation of NF-kappaB is prevented in the presence of kinase-deficient, interfering mutants of the IKKs. CIKS may help to connect upstream signaling events to IKK and SAPK/JNK modules. CIKS could coordinate the activation of two stress-induced signaling pathways, functions reminiscent of those noted for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor adaptor proteins.

  19. CIKS, a connection to IκB kinase and stress-activated protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Antonio; Chariot, Alain; Claudio, Estefania; Cunningham, Kirk; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2000-01-01

    Pathogens, inflammatory signals, and stress cause acute transcriptional responses in cells. The induced expression of genes in response to these signals invariably involves transcription factors of the NF-κB and AP-1/ATF families. Activation of NF-κB factors is thought to be mediated primarily via IκB kinases (IKK), whereas that of AP-1/ATF can be mediated by stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs; also named Jun kinases or JNKs). IKKα and IKKβ are two catalytic subunits of a core IKK complex that also contains the regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator)/IKKγ. The latter protein is essential for activation of the IKKs, but its mechanism of action is not known. Here we describe the molecular cloning of CIKS (connection to IKK and SAPK/JNK), a previously unknown protein that directly interacts with NEMO/IKKγ in cells. When ectopically expressed, CIKS stimulates IKK and SAPK/JNK kinases and it transactivates an NF-κB-dependent reporter. Activation of NF-κB is prevented in the presence of kinase-deficient, interfering mutants of the IKKs. CIKS may help to connect upstream signaling events to IKK and SAPK/JNK modules. CIKS could coordinate the activation of two stress-induced signaling pathways, functions reminiscent of those noted for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor adaptor proteins. PMID:10962033

  20. SOCS proteins in regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazi, Julhash U.; Kabir, Nuzhat N.; Flores Morales, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell surface receptors that play critical roles in signal transduction from extracellular stimuli. Many in this family of kinases are overexpressed or mutated in human malignancies and thus became an attractive drug target for cancer treatment....... The signaling mediated by RTKs must be tightly regulated by interacting proteins including protein-tyrosine phosphatases and ubiquitin ligases. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family proteins are well-known negative regulators of cytokine receptors signaling consisting of eight structurally similar...

  1. Protein kinase Cα deletion causes hypotension and decreased vascular contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Brandi M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Szasz, Theodora; Molina, Patrick A; Chapman, Arlene B; Webb, R Clinton; Klein, Janet D; Hoover, Robert S

    2018-03-01

    Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) is a critical regulator of multiple cell signaling pathways including gene transcription, posttranslation modifications and activation/inhibition of many signaling kinases. In regards to the control of blood pressure, PKCα causes increased vascular smooth muscle contractility, while reducing cardiac contractility. In addition, PKCα has been shown to modulate nephron ion transport. However, the role of PKCα in modulating mean arterial pressure (MAP) has not been investigated. In this study, we used a whole animal PKCα knock out (PKC KO) to test the hypothesis that global PKCα deficiency would reduce MAP, by a reduction in vascular contractility. Radiotelemetry measurements of ambulatory blood pressure (day/night) were obtained for 18 h/day during both normal chow and high-salt (4%) diet feedings. PKCα mice had a reduced MAP, as compared with control, which was not normalized with high-salt diet (14 days). Metabolic cage studies were performed to determine urinary sodium excretion. PKC KO mice had a significantly lower diastolic, systolic and MAP as compared with control. No significant differences in urinary sodium excretion were observed between the PKC KO and control mice, whether fed normal chow or high-salt diet. Western blot analysis showed a compensatory increase in renal sodium chloride cotransporter expression. Both aorta and mesenteric vessels were removed for vascular reactivity studies. Aorta and mesenteric arteries from PKC KO mice had a reduced receptor-independent relaxation response, as compared with vessels from control. Vessels from PKC KO mice exhibited a decrease in maximal contraction, compared with controls. Together, these data suggest that global deletion of PKCα results in reduced MAP due to decreased vascular contractility.

  2. Regulation of the Src Kinase-associated Phosphoprotein 55 Homologue by the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP-PEST in the Control of Cell Motility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Emily; Hall, Anita; Scott, Adam M.; Chagnon, Mélanie J.; Miquel, Géraldine; Hallé, Maxime; Noda, Masaharu; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Tremblay, Michel L.

    2013-01-01

    PTP-PEST is a cytosolic ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that contains, in addition to its catalytic domain, several protein-protein interaction domains that allow it to interface with several signaling pathways. Among others, PTP-PEST is a key regulator of cellular motility and cytoskeleton dynamics. The complexity of the PTP-PEST interactome underscores the necessity to identify its interacting partners and physiological substrates in order to further understand its role in focal adhesion complex turnover and actin organization. Using a modified yeast substrate trapping two-hybrid system, we identified a cytosolic adaptor protein named Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 55 homologue (SKAP-Hom) as a novel substrate of PTP-PEST. To confirm PTP-PEST interaction with SKAP-Hom, in vitro pull down assays were performed demonstrating that the PTP catalytic domain and Proline-rich 1 (P1) domain are respectively binding to the SKAP-Hom Y260 and Y297 residues and its SH3 domain. Subsequently, we generated and rescued SKAP-Hom-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with WT SKAP-Hom, SKAP-Hom tyrosine mutants (Y260F, Y260F/Y297F), or SKAP-Hom SH3 domain mutant (W335K). Given the role of PTP-PEST, wound-healing and trans-well migration assays were performed using the generated lines. Indeed, SKAP-Hom-deficient MEFs showed a defect in migration compared with WT-rescued MEFs. Interestingly, the SH3 domain mutant-rescued MEFs showed an enhanced cell migration corresponding potentially with higher tyrosine phosphorylation levels of SKAP-Hom. These findings suggest a novel role of SKAP-Hom and its phosphorylation in the regulation of cellular motility. Moreover, these results open new avenues by which PTP-PEST regulates cellular migration, a hallmark of metastasis. PMID:23897807

  3. Characterization of pathogenic germline mutations in human Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orengo Christine A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein Kinases are a superfamily of proteins involved in crucial cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Accordingly, they play an important role in cancer biology. To contribute to the study of the relation between kinases and disease we compared pathogenic mutations to neutral mutations as an extension to our previous analysis of cancer somatic mutations. First, we analyzed native and mutant proteins in terms of amino acid composition. Secondly, mutations were characterized according to their potential structural effects and finally, we assessed the location of the different classes of polymorphisms with respect to kinase-relevant positions in terms of subfamily specificity, conservation, accessibility and functional sites. Results Pathogenic Protein Kinase mutations perturb essential aspects of protein function, including disruption of substrate binding and/or effector recognition at family-specific positions. Interestingly these mutations in Protein Kinases display a tendency to avoid structurally relevant positions, what represents a significant difference with respect to the average distribution of pathogenic mutations in other protein families. Conclusions Disease-associated mutations display sound differences with respect to neutral mutations: several amino acids are specific of each mutation type, different structural properties characterize each class and the distribution of pathogenic mutations within the consensus structure of the Protein Kinase domain is substantially different to that for non-pathogenic mutations. This preferential distribution confirms previous observations about the functional and structural distribution of the controversial cancer driver and passenger somatic mutations and their use as a proxy for the study of the involvement of somatic mutations in cancer development.

  4. Partial purification and characterization of a wortmannin-sensitive and insulin-stimulated protein kinase that activates heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Deprez, J; Bertrand, L; Alessi, D R; Krause, U; Hue, L; Rider, M H

    2000-01-01

    A wortmannin-sensitive and insulin-stimulated protein kinase (WISK), which phosphorylates and activates cardiac 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2), was partially purified from perfused rat hearts. Immunoblotting showed that WISK was devoid of protein kinase B (PKB), serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase and protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta). Comparison of the inhibition of WISK, PKCalpha and PKCzeta by different protein kinase inhibitors suggested that WISK was not a member of the PKC...

  5. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  6. Cardiac imaging in RASopathies/mitogen activated protein kinase syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Gravino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RASopathies include a spectrum of disorders due to dysregulation of RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway that plays an essential role in the control of the cell cycle and differentiation. As a consequence, its dysregulation has profound developmental consequences, in particular cardiac malformations. RASopathies with cardiac features are: Noonan syndrome, multiple lentigines syndrome, cardio-faciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis- 1, Legius syndrome, neurofibromatosis- Noonan syndrome. The former syndromes are associated with a high rate of cardiac involvement (60-85% and 12 genes: PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, KRAS, HRAS, BRAF, MEK1/MAP2K1, MEK2/MAP2K2, NRAS, SHOC2, CBL and SPRED1. Although the majority of these diseases are readily distinguishable in clinical terms, an integrated imaging study of the cardiac condition associated to RASopathies helps to better define risk assessment, surveillance, and management of these patients.

  7. Pea DNA topoisomerase I is phosphorylated and stimulated by casein kinase 2 and protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2003-08-01

    DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants.

  8. Protein kinase C is activated in glomeruli from streptozotocin diabetic rats. Possible mediation by glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, P.A.; DeRubertis, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glomerular inositol content and the turnover of polyphosphoinositides was reduced by 58% in 1-2 wk streptozotocin diabetic rats. Addition of inositol to the incubation medium increased polyphosphoinositide turnover in glomeruli from diabetic rats to control values. Despite the reduction in inositol content and polyphosphoinositide turnover, protein kinase C was activated in glomeruli from diabetic rats, as assessed by an increase in the percentage of enzyme activity associated with the particulate cell fraction. Total protein kinase C activity was not different between glomeruli from control and diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin to achieve near euglycemia prevented the increase in particulate protein kinase C. Moreover, incubation of glomeruli from control rats with glucose (100-1,000 mg/dl) resulted in a progressive increase in labeled diacylglycerol production and in the percentage of protein kinase C activity which was associated with the particulate fraction. These results support a role for hyperglycemia per se in the enhanced state of activation of protein kinase C seen in glomeruli from diabetic rats. Glucose did not appear to increase diacylglycerol by stimulating inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in glomeruli. Other pathways for diacylglycerol production, including de novo synthesis and phospholipase C mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan are not excluded

  9. Cocoa Procyanidins Suppress Transformation by Inhibiting Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Dong Eun; Rogozin, Evgeny A.; Bode, Ann M.; Lee, Hyong Joo; Dong, Zigang

    2008-01-01

    Cocoa was shown to inhibit chemically induced carcinogenesis in animals and exert antioxidant activity in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the chemopreventive potential of cocoa and its active ingredient(s) remain unknown. Here we report that cocoa procyanidins inhibit neoplastic cell transformation by suppressing the kinase activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). A cocoa procyanidin fraction (CPF) and procyanidin B2 at 5 μg/ml and 40 μm, respectively, inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal (JB6 P+) cells by 47 and 93%, respectively. The TPA-induced promoter activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which is involved in tumor promotion and inflammation, were dose-dependently inhibited by CPF or procyanidin B2. The activation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-κB induced by TPA was also attenuated by CPF or procyanidin B2. The TPA-induced phosphorylation of MEK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p90 ribosomal s6 kinase was suppressed by CPF or procyanidin B2. In vitro and ex vivo kinase assay data demonstrated that CPF or procyanidin B2 inhibited the kinase activity of MEK1 and directly bound with MEK1. CPF or procyanidin B2 suppressed JB6 P+ cell transformation induced by epidermal growth factor or H-Ras, both of which are known to be involved in MEK/ERK signal activation. In contrast, theobromine (up to 80 μm) had no effect on TPA-induced transformation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, the transactivation of activator protein-1 or nuclear factor-κB, or MEK. Notably, procyanidin B2 exerted stronger inhibitory effects compared with PD098059 (a well known pharmacological inhibitor of MEK) on MEK1 activity and neoplastic cell transformation. PMID:18519570

  10. Synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate for 60S ribosomal protein kinase from yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Gasior, E; Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic studies on the 60S protein kinase were conducted with synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate. Peptide RRREEESDDD proved to be the best synthetic substrate for this enzyme. The peptide has a sequence of amino acids which most closely resembles the structure of potential...... phosphorylation sites in natural substrates, i.e., acidic ribosomal proteins. The superiority of certain kinetic parameters for 60S kinase obtained with the native whole 80S ribosomes over those of the isolated fraction of acidic ribosomal proteins indicates that the affinity of 60S kinase to the specific protein...

  11. Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian R Black

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A link between T cell proliferation and the protein kinase C (PKC family of serine/threonine kinases has been recognized for about thirty years. However, despite the wealth of information on PKC-mediated control of T cell activation, understanding of the effects of PKCs on the cell cycle machinery in this cell type remains limited. Studies in other systems have revealed important cell cycle-specific effects of PKC signaling that can either positively or negatively impact proliferation. The outcome of PKC activation is highly context-dependent, with the precise cell cycle target(s and overall effects determined by the specific isozyme involved, the timing of PKC activation, the cell type, and the signaling environment. Although PKCs can regulate all stages of the cell cycle, they appear to predominantly affect G0/G1 and G2. PKCs can modulate multiple cell cycle regulatory molecules, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks, cdk inhibitors and cdc25 phosphatases; however, evidence points to Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins as key mediators of PKC-regulated cell cycle-specific effects. Several PKC isozymes can target Cip/Kip proteins to control G0/G1→S and/or G2→M transit, while effects on D-type cyclins regulate entry into and progression through G1. Analysis of PKC signaling in T cells has largely focused on its roles in T cell activation; thus, observed cell cycle effects are mainly positive. A prominent role is emerging for PKCθ, with non-redundant functions of other isozymes also described. Additional evidence points to PKCδ as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in these cells. As in other cell types, context-dependent effects of individual isozymes have been noted in T cells, and Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins appear to be major PKC targets. Future studies are anticipated to take advantage of the similarities between these various systems to enhance understanding of PKC-mediated cell cycle regulation in

  12. Inhibition of protein kinase C induces differentiation in Neuro-2a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minana, M.D.; Felipo, V.; Grisolia, S.

    1990-01-01

    1-(5-Isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, induced neuritogenesis in Neuro-2a cells, whereas N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA 1004), which inhibits more efficiently cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, did not. The effect, noticeable after 3 hr, was maximum (13-fold increase at 500 μM H7) between 1 and 3 days and was maintained over 2 months. In controls, 90% of the cells were undifferentiated, whereas after 3 hr with 500 μM H7 only 25% of the cells remained undifferentiated. DNA synthesis decreased as the number of differentiated cells increased. Differentiation is also functional since acetylcholinesterase activity increased ∼7-fold after 48 hr with 500 μM H7. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a specific activator of protein kinase C, prevented or reversed the induction of neuritogenesis and the inhibition of DNA synthesis by H7. There is a good correlation between the level of protein kinase C and the percentage of differentiated cells. The results indicate that protein kinase C may play a key role in the control of differentiation of neural cells. Some possible clinical implications are briefly discussed

  13. Identification of ATM Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Sites by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin F; Kozlov, Sergei V

    2017-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein kinase is a key regulator of cellular responses to DNA damage and oxidative stress. DNA damage triggers complex cascade of signaling events leading to numerous posttranslational modification on multitude of proteins. Understanding the regulation of ATM kinase is therefore critical not only for understanding the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia and potential treatment strategies, but essential for deciphering physiological responses of cells to stress. These responses play an important role in carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. We focus here on the identification of DNA damage inducible ATM phosphorylation sites to understand the importance of autophosphorylation in the mechanism of ATM kinase activation. We demonstrate the utility of using immunoprecipitated ATM in quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow with stable isotope dimethyl labeling of ATM peptides for identification of phosphorylation sites.

  14. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemi...

  15. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the α subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single β subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the α subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub sα/ relative to G/sub ichemical bond/ and G/sub ochemical bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with [ 125 I]protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the β subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the α subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium

  16. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinases (CaMKKs) Effects on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulation of Chicken Sperm Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Combarnous, Yves; Praud, Christophe; Duittoz, Anne; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Sperm require high levels of energy to ensure motility and acrosome reaction (AR) accomplishment. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been demonstrated to be strongly involved in the control of these properties. We address here the question of the potential role of calcium mobilization on AMPK activation and function in chicken sperm through the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs) mediated pathway. The presence of CaMKKs and their substrates CaMKI and CaMKIV was evaluated by western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Sperm were incubated in presence or absence of extracellular Ca(2+), or of CaMKKs inhibitor (STO-609). Phosphorylations of AMPK, CaMKI, and CaMKIV, as well as sperm functions were evaluated. We demonstrate the presence of both CaMKKs (α and β), CaMKI and CaMKIV in chicken sperm. CaMKKα and CaMKI were localized in the acrosome, the midpiece, and at much lower fluorescence in the flagellum, whereas CaMKKβ was mostly localized in the flagellum and much less in the midpiece and the acrosome. CaMKIV was only present in the flagellum. The presence of extracellular calcium induced an increase in kinases phosphorylation and sperm activity. STO-609 reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) but not in its absence. STO-609 did not affect CaMKIV phosphorylation but decreased CaMKI phosphorylation and this inhibition was quicker in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) than in its absence. STO-609 efficiently inhibited sperm motility and AR, both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Our results show for the first time the presence of CaMKKs (α and β) and one of its substrate, CaMKI in different subcellular compartments in germ cells, as well as the changes in the AMPK regulation pathway, sperm motility and AR related to Ca(2+) entry in sperm through the Ca(2+)/CaM/CaMKKs/CaMKI pathway. The Ca(2+)/CaMKKs/AMPK pathway is activated only under conditions of extracellular Ca(2+) entry

  17. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinases (CaMKKs Effects on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK Regulation of Chicken Sperm Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mong Diep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Sperm require high levels of energy to ensure motility and acrosome reaction (AR accomplishment. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has been demonstrated to be strongly involved in the control of these properties. We address here the question of the potential role of calcium mobilization on AMPK activation and function in chicken sperm through the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs mediated pathway. The presence of CaMKKs and their substrates CaMKI and CaMKIV was evaluated by western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Sperm were incubated in presence or absence of extracellular Ca(2+, or of CaMKKs inhibitor (STO-609. Phosphorylations of AMPK, CaMKI, and CaMKIV, as well as sperm functions were evaluated. We demonstrate the presence of both CaMKKs (α and β, CaMKI and CaMKIV in chicken sperm. CaMKKα and CaMKI were localized in the acrosome, the midpiece, and at much lower fluorescence in the flagellum, whereas CaMKKβ was mostly localized in the flagellum and much less in the midpiece and the acrosome. CaMKIV was only present in the flagellum. The presence of extracellular calcium induced an increase in kinases phosphorylation and sperm activity. STO-609 reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+ but not in its absence. STO-609 did not affect CaMKIV phosphorylation but decreased CaMKI phosphorylation and this inhibition was quicker in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+ than in its absence. STO-609 efficiently inhibited sperm motility and AR, both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+. Our results show for the first time the presence of CaMKKs (α and β and one of its substrate, CaMKI in different subcellular compartments in germ cells, as well as the changes in the AMPK regulation pathway, sperm motility and AR related to Ca(2+ entry in sperm through the Ca(2+/CaM/CaMKKs/CaMKI pathway. The Ca(2+/CaMKKs/AMPK pathway is activated only under conditions of extracellular Ca(2

  18. The Role of Protein Kinase CK2 in Glioblastoma Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Haitao; Lu, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor in adults, and its response to current therapies is limited. Protein kinase CK2 is overexpressed in GBM and regulates GBM cell survival, proliferation, and migration and brain tumorigenesis. Targeting CK2 for GBM treatment may benefit GBM patients.

  19. VHH Activators and Inhibitors for Protein Kinase C Epsilon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Summanen, M.M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), which is one of the novel PKC isozymes, is widely expressed throughout the body and has important roles in the function of the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems. In order to better understand PKCε regulated pathways, isozyme specific activity modulators are

  20. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein Expression Defines the Proliferative Nature of Cervical Cancer Stem Cells. ... of cervical cancer stem cells and also to validate them in initial and advanced stages of cervical cancer. Keywords: Cervical cancer, ALDH1, BALB/c-nu/nu, HeLa cells, RKIP, Sox2 ...

  1. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-02-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Involvement of protein kinase C-δ activation in betulininduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical benefits and underlying mechanisms of action of betulin in the treatment of cancer using a neuroblastoma (NB) cell model. Method: Cell viability ... of tumor recurrence. Keywords: Betulin, Neuroblastoma, Apoptosis, protein kinase C-δ, Adjuvant chemotherapy, Tumor recurrence, Caspase ...

  3. Diverse role of CBL-interacting protein kinases in plant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Diverse role of CBL-interacting protein kinases in plant. Most of the extracellular and ... to their role in stress signalling. Their role in transport of plant hormone auxin and mechanism of action in stress response shed new light on diverse role of.

  4. Presenilin dependence of phospholipase C and protein kinase C signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehvari, Nodi; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Isacsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    -stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity which was gamma-secretase dependent. To further evaluate the dependence of PLC on PSs we measured PLC activity and the activation of variant protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking either PS1, PS2, or both. PLC activity and PKCalpha...

  5. Insulin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation in rat adipocytes not explained by decreased A-kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Greenberg, A.S.; Chang, M.K.; Londos, C.

    1987-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, insulin inhibits lipolysis to a greater extent than would be predicted by the decrease in (-/+)cAMP activity ratio of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [A-kinase], from which it was speculated that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. They have examined the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins under conditions of varying A-kinase activities in the presence and absence of insulin. Protein phosphorylation was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of extracts from 32 P-loaded cells; glycerol and A-kinase activity ratios were measured in the cytosolic extracts from control, non-radioactive cells. Increased protein phosphorylation in general occurred over the same range of A-kinase activity ratios, 0.1-0.3, associated with increased glycerol release. The insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was associated with a decrease in the 32 P content of several proteins, an effect not explained by the modest reduction in A-kinase activity by insulin. This effect of insulin on protein phosphorylation was lost as the A-kinase activity ratios exceeded 0.5. The results suggest that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of those adipocyte proteins which are subject to phosphorylation by A-kinase

  6. Molecular mechanisms of responses to radiation through protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Described are the activation and cascade of the protein kinase C (PKC) which mediating the control of radiation-induced apoptosis. PKC is a family of c-, n- and a-subtypes and plays a major role in responding to the radiation exposure for DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The author has conducted studies of mouse thymic lymphoma cells which have a property to respond even to low dose radiation, and has showed that, in the highly radiosensitive cell strain, 3SBH5 where apoptosis occurs in 50 and 90% post 0.5 and 2 Gy exposure, respectively, cPKC works as a surviving signal without intracellular movement after irradiation. In contrast, PKC has been alternatively shown to participate in apoptosis induction, showing that different enzyme species in the subtypes work specifically depending on passing time. Comparison with the radio-resistant cell strain, XR223, has revealed that the difference in the localization controls of PKCδ in the cell determines the radiosensitivity, however, the control mechanism is found to be separate from Atm pathway by which PKCδ is usually regulated. Recent studies have revealed that PKC performs the intracellular cross-talk in various phosphorylation cascades. Studies of PKC can be toward their uses for radiation effect assessment, radiotherapy and medicare for urgent exposure. (S.I.)

  7. Fluorescent Reporters and Biosensors for Probing the Dynamic Behavior of Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. González-Vera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Probing the dynamic activities of protein kinases in real-time in living cells constitutes a major challenge that requires specific and sensitive tools tailored to meet the particular demands associated with cellular imaging. The development of genetically-encoded and synthetic fluorescent biosensors has provided means of monitoring protein kinase activities in a non-invasive fashion in their native cellular environment with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we review existing technologies to probe different dynamic features of protein kinases and discuss limitations where new developments are required to implement more performant tools, in particular with respect to infrared and near-infrared fluorescent probes and strategies which enable improved signal-to-noise ratio and controlled activation of probes.

  8. Semiconductor technology in protein kinase research and drug discovery: sensing a revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Di Lorenzo, Mirella; Estrela, Pedro; Pula, Giordano

    2017-02-01

    Since the discovery of protein kinase activity in 1954, close to 600 kinases have been discovered that have crucial roles in cell physiology. In several pathological conditions, aberrant protein kinase activity leads to abnormal cell and tissue physiology. Therefore, protein kinase inhibitors are investigated as potential treatments for several diseases, including dementia, diabetes, cancer and autoimmune and cardiovascular disease. Modern semiconductor technology has recently been applied to accelerate the discovery of novel protein kinase inhibitors that could become the standard-of-care drugs of tomorrow. Here, we describe current techniques and novel applications of semiconductor technologies in protein kinase inhibitor drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The scaffold protein calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase controls ATP release in sensory ganglia upon P2X3 receptor activation and is part of an ATP keeper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Tanja; Fabbretti, Elsa

    2016-08-01

    P2X3 receptors, gated by extracellular ATP, are expressed by sensory neurons and are involved in peripheral nociception and pain sensitization. The ability of P2X3 receptors to transduce extracellular stimuli into neuronal signals critically depends on the dynamic molecular partnership with the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). The present work used trigeminal sensory neurons to study the impact that activation of P2X3 receptors (evoked by the agonist α,β-meATP) has on the release of endogenous ATP and how CASK modulates this phenomenon. P2X3 receptor function was followed by ATP efflux via Pannexin1 (Panx1) hemichannels, a mechanism that was blocked by the P2X3 receptor antagonist A-317491, and by P2X3 silencing. ATP efflux was enhanced by nerve growth factor, a treatment known to potentiate P2X3 receptor function. Basal ATP efflux was not controlled by CASK, and carbenoxolone or Pannexin silencing reduced ATP release upon P2X3 receptor function. CASK-controlled ATP efflux followed P2X3 receptor activity, but not depolarization-evoked ATP release. Molecular biology experiments showed that CASK was essential for the transactivation of Panx1 upon P2X3 receptor activation. These data suggest that P2X3 receptor function controls a new type of feed-forward purinergic signaling on surrounding cells, with consequences at peripheral and spinal cord level. Thus, P2X3 receptor-mediated ATP efflux may be considered for the future development of pharmacological strategies aimed at containing neuronal sensitization. P2X3 receptors are involved in sensory transduction and associate to CASK. We have studied in primary sensory neurons the molecular mechanisms downstream P2X3 receptor activation, namely ATP release and partnership with CASK or Panx1. Our data suggest that CASK and P2X3 receptors are part of an ATP keeper complex, with important feed-forward consequences at peripheral and central level. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Three-Dimentional Structures of Autophosphorylation Complexes in Crystals of Protein Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Dumbrack, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase autophosphorylation is a common regulatory mechanism in cell signaling pathways. Several autophosphorylation complexes have been identified in crystals of protein kinases, with a known serine, threonine, or tyrosine

  11. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) family proteins contain an inactive guanylate kinase (GK) domain, whose function has been elusive. Here, this domain is revealed as a new type of phospho-peptide-binding module, in which the GMP-binding site has evolved to accommodate phospho-serines or -threonines.

  12. Spatial Organization in Protein Kinase A Signaling Emerged at the Base of Animal Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Mao; Aye, Thin Thin; Snel, Berend; Van Breukelen, Bas; Scholten, Arjen; Heck, Albert J R

    2015-01-01

    In phosphorylation-directed signaling, spatial and temporal control is organized by complex interaction networks that diligently direct kinases toward distinct substrates to fine-tune specificity. How these protein networks originate and evolve into complex regulatory machineries are among the most

  13. Phosphorylation of sites 3 and 2 in rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase by a multifunctional protein kinase (ATP-citrate lyase kinase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheorain, V.S.; Ramakrishna, S.; Benjamin, W.B.; Soderling, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    A multifunctional protein kinase, purified from rat liver as ATP-citrate lyase kinase, has been identified as a glycogen synthase kinase. This kinase catalyzed incorporation of up to 1.5 mol of and]2number 2 PO 4 /mol of synthase subunit associated with a decrease in the glycogen synthase activity ratio from 0.85 to a value of 0.15. Approximately 65-70% of the 34 PO 4 was incorporated into site 3 and 30-35% into site 2 as determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. This multifunctional kinase was distinguished from glycogen synthase kinase-3 on the basis of nucleotide and protein substrate specificities. Since the phosphate contents in glycogen synthase of sites 3 and 2 are altered in diabetes and by insulin administration, the possible involvement of the multifunctional kinase was explored. Glycogen synthase purified from diabetic rabbits was phosphorylated in vitro by this multifunctional kinase at only 10% of the rate compared to synthase purified from control rabbits. Treatment of the diabetics with insulin restored the synthase to a form that was readily phosphorylated in vitro

  14. Radioimmunoassay of inactive creatine kinase B protein in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnam, M H; Shell, W E [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-08-27

    The authors describe a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay for enzymatically inactive creatine kinase B protein (CK-Bi) in plasma. /sup 125/I-CK-Bi of high specific activity and good stability was prepared by oxidant-based iodination. A 12-minute first antibody incubation was used. Bound and free antigen were separated by a second antibody system. Large excesses of purified CK-MM from human skeletal muscle did not react in the assay. Cross reactivity to CK-MB purified from the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction was negligible. The 95th percentile of plasma CK-Bi in 150 adults was 145 ..mu..g equivalents/ml. Within-assay and between-assay precision ranged from 5% to 9% and 6% to 10%, respectively. Evidence is presented indicating that the assay measures inactive creatine kinase B protein, a protein not measured by current assay systems dependent on biological activity.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of inactive creatine kinase B protein in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnam, M.H.; Shell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay for enzymatically inactive creatine kinase B protein (CK-Bi) in plasma. 125 I-CK-Bi of high specific activity and good stability was prepared by oxidant-based iodination. A 12-minute first antibody incubation was used. Bound and free antigen were separated by a second antibody system. Large excesses of purified CK-MM from human skeletal muscle did not react in the assay. Cross reactivity to CK-MB purified from the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction was negligible. The 95th percentile of plasma CK-Bi in 150 adults was 145 μg equivalents/ml. Within-assay and between-assay precision ranged from 5% to 9% and 6% to 10%, respectively. Evidence is presented indicating that the assay measures inactive creatine kinase B protein, a protein not measured by current assay systems dependent on biological activity. (Auth.)

  16. Characterization of the Zebrafish Homolog of Zipper Interacting Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W. Carr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK is a conserved vertebrate-specific regulator of actomyosin contractility in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. Murine ZIPK has undergone an unusual divergence in sequence and regulation compared to other ZIPK orthologs. In humans, subcellular localization is controlled by phosphorylation of threonines 299 and 300. In contrast, ZIPK subcellular localization in mouse and rat is controlled by interaction with PAR-4. We carried out a comparative biochemical characterization of the regulation of the zebrafish ortholog of ZIPK. Like the human orthologs zebrafish ZIPK undergoes nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling and is abundant in the cytoplasm, unlike the primarily nuclear rat ZIPK. Rat ZIPK, but not human or zebrafish ZIPK, interacts with zebrafish PAR-4. Mutation of the conserved residues required for activation of the mammalian orthologs abrogated activity of the zebrafish ZIPK. In contrast to the human ortholog, mutation of threonine 299 and 300 in the zebrafish ZIPK has no effect on the activity or subcellular localization. Thus, we found that zebrafish ZIPK functions in a manner most similar to the human ZIPK and quite distinct from murine orthologs, yet the regulation of subcellular localization is not conserved.

  17. Asymmetric expression of protein kinase CK2 subunits in human kidney tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stalter, G; Siemer, S; Becht, E

    1994-01-01

    of protein kinase CK2 alpha in tumors/normal tissue (T/N) was 1.58 and that of the protein kinase CK2 beta (T/N) was 2.65. The data suggest that the generally described increase in protein kinase CK2 activity in tumor cells may to some extent result from a deregulation in subunit biosynthesis or degradation...

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β promotes liver innate immune activation by restraining AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haoming; Wang, Han; Ni, Ming; Yue, Shi; Xia, Yongxiang; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2018-02-13

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk3β [Gsk3b]) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase with distinctive functions in different types of cells. Although its roles in regulating innate immune activation and ischaemia and reperfusion injuries (IRIs) have been well documented, the underlying mechanisms remain ambiguous, in part because of the lack of cell-specific tools in vivo. We created a myeloid-specific Gsk3b knockout (KO) strain to study the function of Gsk3β in macrophages in a murine liver partial warm ischaemia model. Compared with controls, myeloid Gsk3b KO mice were protected from IRI, with diminished proinflammatory but enhanced anti-inflammatory immune responses in livers. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, Gsk3β deficiency resulted in an early reduction of Tnf gene transcription but sustained increase of Il10 gene transcription on Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in vitro. These effects were associated with enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which led to an accelerated and higher level of induction of the novel innate immune negative regulator small heterodimer partner (SHP [Nr0b2]). The regulatory function of Gsk3β on AMPK activation and SHP induction was confirmed in wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophages with a Gsk3 inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that this immune regulatory mechanism was independent of Gsk3β Ser9 phosphorylation and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signalling pathway. In vivo, myeloid Gsk3β deficiency facilitated SHP upregulation by ischaemia-reperfusion in liver macrophages. Treatment of Gsk3b KO mice with either AMPK inhibitor or SHP small interfering RNA before the onset of liver ischaemia restored liver proinflammatory immune activation and IRI in these otherwise protected hosts. Additionally, pharmacological activation of AMPK protected wild-type mice from liver IRI, with reduced proinflammatory immune activation. Inhibition of the AMPK-SHP pathway by liver ischaemia was demonstrated in tumour resection

  19. Cellular reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin eLee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are conserved eukaryote signaling modules where MAPKs, as the final kinases in the cascade, phosphorylate protein substrates to regulate cellular processes. While some progress in the identification of MAPK substrates has been made in plants, the knowledge on the spectrum of substrates and their mechanistic action is still fragmentary. In this focused review, we discuss the biological implications of the data in our original paper (Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana; Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 554 in the context of related research. In our work, we mimicked in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, through transgenic manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana and used phosphoproteomics analysis to identify potential novel MAPK substrates. Here, we plotted the identified putative MAPK substrates (and downstream phosphoproteins as a global protein clustering network. Based on a highly stringent selection confidence level, the core networks highlighted a MAPK-induced cellular reprogramming at multiple levels of gene and protein expression – including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, post-translational (such as protein modification, folding and degradation steps, and also protein re-compartmentalization. Additionally, the increase in putative substrates/phosphoproteins of energy metabolism and various secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways coincides with the observed accumulation of defense antimicrobial substances as detected by metabolome analysis. Furthermore, detection of protein networks in phospholipid or redox elements suggests activation of downstream signaling events. Taken in context with other studies, MAPKs are key regulators that reprogram cellular events to orchestrate defense signaling in eukaryotes.

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... effector molecules and also in the control of intracellular bacterial replication ..... H37Ra in THP-1 cells. The fall and rise in the activation of .... use this distinct role of p38 MAPK to balance the expression of CD44 during ...

  1. Thioredoxin h regulates calcium dependent protein kinases in plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueoka-Nakanishi, Hanayo; Sazuka, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Mori, Hitoshi; Hisabori, Toru

    2013-07-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a key player in redox homeostasis in various cells, modulating the functions of target proteins by catalyzing a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction. Target proteins of cytosolic Trx-h of higher plants were studied, particularly in the plasma membrane, because plant plasma membranes include various functionally important protein molecules such as transporters and signal receptors. Plasma membrane proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures were screened using a resin Trx-h1 mutant-immobilized, and a total of 48 candidate proteins obtained. These included two calcium-sensing proteins: a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase 2 (AtPLC2) and a calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 (AtCPK21). A redox-dependent change in AtCPK21 kinase activity was demonstrated in vitro. Oxidation of AtCPK21 resulted in a decrease in kinase activity to 19% of that of untreated AtCPK21, but Trx-h1 effectively restored the activity to 90%. An intramolecular disulfide bond (Cys97-Cys108) that is responsible for this redox modulation was then identified. In addition, endogenous AtCPK21 was shown to be oxidized in vivo when the culture cells were treated with H2 O2 . These results suggest that redox regulation of AtCPK21 by Trx-h in response to external stimuli is important for appropriate cellular responses. The relationship between the redox regulation system and Ca(2+) signaling pathways is discussed. © 2013 The Authors. FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of FEBS.

  2. Navigating the conformational landscape of G protein-coupled receptor kinases during allosteric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin-Qiu; Cato, M Claire; Labudde, Emily; Beyett, Tyler S; Tesmer, John J G; Grant, Barry J

    2017-09-29

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for transferring extracellular signals into carefully choreographed intracellular responses controlling diverse aspects of cell physiology. The duration of GPCR-mediated signaling is primarily regulated via GPCR kinase (GRK)-mediated phosphorylation of activated receptors. Although many GRK structures have been reported, the mechanisms underlying GRK activation are not well-understood, in part because it is unknown how these structures map to the conformational landscape available to this enzyme family. Unlike most other AGC kinases, GRKs rely on their interaction with GPCRs for activation and not phosphorylation. Here, we used principal component analysis of available GRK and protein kinase A crystal structures to identify their dominant domain motions and to provide a framework that helps evaluate how close each GRK structure is to being a catalytically competent state. Our results indicated that disruption of an interface formed between the large lobe of the kinase domain and the regulator of G protein signaling homology domain (RHD) is highly correlated with establishment of the active conformation. By introducing point mutations in the GRK5 RHD-kinase domain interface, we show with both in silico and in vitro experiments that perturbation of this interface leads to higher phosphorylation activity. Navigation of the conformational landscape defined by this bioinformatics-based study is likely common to all GPCR-activated GRKs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Structural aspects of protein kinase ASK1 regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obšil, Tomáš; Obšilová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, 1 Dec (2017), s. 31-36 ISSN 2212-4926 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02739S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ASK1 kinase * apoptosis * thioredoxin * 14-3-3 protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the acute diabetic myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnisková, M.; Barančík, M.; Neckář, Jan; Ravingerová, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 249, 1-2 (2003), s. 59-65 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A069 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/2063/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : experimental diabetes * ischemia * mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.763, year: 2003

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinases interacting kinases are autoinhibited by a reprogrammed activation segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Ralf; Cho, Min-Kyu; Jäkel, Stefan; Netter, Catharina; Schreiter, Kay; Aicher, Babette; Zweckstetter, Markus; Jäckle, Herbert; Wahl, Markus C

    2006-09-06

    Autoinhibition is a recurring mode of protein kinase regulation and can be based on diverse molecular mechanisms. Here, we show by crystal structure analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based nucleotide affinity studies and rational mutagenesis that nonphosphorylated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases interacting kinase (Mnk) 1 is autoinhibited by conversion of the activation segment into an autoinhibitory module. In a Mnk1 crystal structure, the activation segment is repositioned via a Mnk-specific sequence insertion at the N-terminal lobe with the following consequences: (i) the peptide substrate binding site is deconstructed, (ii) the interlobal cleft is narrowed, (iii) an essential Lys-Glu pair is disrupted and (iv) the magnesium-binding loop is locked into an ATP-competitive conformation. Consistently, deletion of the Mnk-specific insertion or removal of a conserved phenylalanine side chain, which induces a blockade of the ATP pocket, increase the ATP affinity of Mnk1. Structural rearrangements required for the activation of Mnks are apparent from the cocrystal structure of a Mnk2 D228G -staurosporine complex and can be modeled on the basis of crystal packing interactions. Our data suggest a novel regulatory mechanism specific for the Mnk subfamily.

  6. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-11-25

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are a large family of scaffold proteins that play essential roles in tissue developments, cell-cell communications, cell polarity control, and cellular signal transductions. Despite extensive studies over the past two decades, the functions of the signature guanylate kinase domain (GK) of MAGUKs are poorly understood. Here we show that the GK domain of DLG1/SAP97 binds to asymmetric cell division regulatory protein LGN in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The structure of the DLG1 SH3-GK tandem in complex with a phospho-LGN peptide reveals that the GMP-binding site of GK has evolved into a specific pSer/pThr-binding pocket. Residues both N- and C-terminal to the pSer are also critical for the specific binding of the phospho-LGN peptide to GK. We further demonstrate that the previously reported GK domain-mediated interactions of DLGs with other targets, such as GKAP/DLGAP1/SAPAP1 and SPAR, are also phosphorylation dependent. Finally, we provide evidence that other MAGUK GKs also function as phospho-peptide-binding modules. The discovery of the phosphorylation-dependent MAGUK GK/target interactions indicates that MAGUK scaffold-mediated signalling complex organizations are dynamically regulated.

  7. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit Extract Containing Anthocyanins Improves Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diabetic C57BL/Ksj-db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung Ha; Lee, Hyun Ah; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-08-01

    The effect of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit extract (MFE) on hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in an animal model of type 2 diabetes was evaluated. C57BL/Ksj-diabetic db/db mice were divided into three groups: diabetic control, rosiglitazone, and MFE groups. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, and intraperitoneal glucose were measured, and an insulin tolerance test was performed after MFE supplementation in db/db mice. In addition, the protein levels of various targets of insulin signaling were measured by western blotting. The blood levels of glucose and HbA1c were significantly lower in the MFE-supplemented group than in the diabetic control group. Moreover, glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that MFE treatment increased insulin sensitivity. The homeostatic index of insulin resistance significantly decreased in the MFE-supplemented group relative to the diabetic control group. MFE supplementation significantly stimulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) and p-Akt substrate of 160 kDa (pAS160) and enhanced the level of plasma membrane-glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscles. Further, dietary MFE significantly increased pAMPK and decreased the levels of glucose 6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the liver. MFE may improve hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMPK and AS160 in skeletal muscles and inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  8. 1,2-Diacylglycerols, but not phorbol esters, activate a potential inhibitory pathway for protein kinase C in GH3 pituitary cells. Evidence for involvement of a sphingomyelinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnick, R N; Clegg, S

    1988-05-15

    It has been suggested that sphingoid bases may serve as physiologic inhibitors of protein kinase C. Because 1,2-diacylglycerols, but not phorbol esters, enhance sphingomyelin degradation via a sphingomyelinase in GH3 pituitary cells (Kolesnick, R. N. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 16759-16762), the effects of phorbol esters, 1,2-diacylglycerols, and sphingomyelinase on protein kinase C activation were assessed. Under basal conditions, the inactive cytosolic form of protein kinase C predominated. 1,2-Diacylglycerols stimulated transient protein kinase C redistribution to the membrane. 1,2-Dioctanoylglycerol (200 micrograms/ml) reduced cytosolic protein kinase C activity to 67% of control from 72 to 48 pmol.min-1.10(6) cells-1 and enhanced membrane-bound activity to 430% of control from 6 to 25 pmol.min-1.10(6) cells-1 after 4 min of stimulation. Thereafter, protein kinase C activity returned to the cytosol. In contrast, the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), stimulated redistribution to the membrane without return to the cytosol. Exogenous sphingomyelinase reduced membrane-bound protein kinase C activity to 30% of control, yet did not alter cytosolic activity. Sphingomyelinase, added after phorbol ester-induced redistribution was completed, restored activity to the cytosol. In these studies, TPA (10(-8) M) reduced cytosolic activity to 62% of control and elevated membrane-bound protein kinase C activity to 650% of control. Sphingomyelinase restored cytosolic activity to 84% of control and reduced membrane-bound activity to 297% of control. Similarly, the free sphingoid bases, sphingosine, sphinganine, and phytosphingosine, reversed phorbol ester-induced protein kinase C redistribution. Since 1,2-diacylglycerols activate a sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelinase action can reverse protein kinase C activation, these studies suggest that a pathway involving a sphingomyelinase might comprise a physiologic negative effector system for protein kinase C

  9. Trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation are mediated by both the protein kinase C and a pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waka Omata

    Full Text Available The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is an epithelial barrier that interacts with maternal blood and is a key for the transfer of nutrients and other solutes to the developing fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast is a true syncytium and fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts is the cardinal event leading to the formation of this layer. BeWo cells are often used as a surrogate for cytotrophoblasts, since they can be induced to fuse, and then express certain differentiation markers associated with trophoblast syncytialization. Dysferlin, a syncytiotrophoblast membrane repair protein, is up-regulated in BeWo cells induced to fuse by treatment with forskolin; this fusion is thought to occur through cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that dysferlin may also be up-regulated in response to fusion through other pathways. Here, we show that BeWo cells can also be induced to fuse by treatment with an activator of protein kinase C, and that this fusion is accompanied by increased expression of dysferlin. Moreover, a dramatic synergistic increase in dysferlin expression is observed when both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are activated in BeWo cells. This synergy in fusion is also accompanied by dramatic increases in mRNA for the placental fusion proteins syncytin 1, syncytin 2, as well as dysferlin. Dysferlin, however, was shown to be dispensable for stimulus-induced BeWo cell syncytialization, since dysferlin knockdown lines fused to the same extent as control cells. The classical trophoblast differentiation marker human chorionic gonadotropin was also monitored and changes in the expression closely parallel that of dysferlin in all of the experimental conditions employed. Thus different biochemical markers of trophoblast fusion behave in concert supporting the hypothesis that activation of both protein kinase C and A pathways lead to trophoblastic differentiation.

  10. Protein kinase activity associated with the corticosteroid binder IB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujicic, M.; Djordjevic-Markovic, R.; Radic, O.; Krstic, M.; Kanazir, D.

    1997-01-01

    The physiological effects elicited by glucocorticoids are mediated via glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Analysis of specific glucocorticoid binding to radioactively labelled [ 3 H] triamcinolone acetonide in rat liver cytosol and analysis by ion exchange chromatography have revealed the presence of two distinct molecular species. The major form, designated as binder II appears to correspond to the well characterized glucocorticoid receptor by virtue of its size, charge, steroid binding characteristics and ability to bind to DNA.The second form, designated as corticosteroid binder IB, is a minor binding component in the liver. The binder IB differs from the binder II receptor by virtue of its lower molecular weight and its elution in the pre gradient of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column which retains the un activated binder II receptor complexes. We examined the kinase activity of partially purified corticosteroid binder IB. Using (γ 3 2 P) ATP we detected kinase activity associated with the IB fraction from the rat liver. This kinase phosphorylate mixed histones and and dose not phosphorylate IB protein in vitro. The kinase activity is completely inhibited by the addition of Mg 2 + ions and is partially inhibited by the addition of Ca 2 +ions. (author)

  11. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemistry, structure and function of DNA-PK, its roles in DNA double strand break repair and its newly described roles in mitosis and other cellular processes. PMID:25550082

  12. Interleukin-1 beta induced synthesis of protein kinase C-delta and protein kinase C-epsilon in EL4 thymoma cells: possible involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, C L; Royds, J A; Brown, B L; Dobson, P R

    2001-01-01

    We present evidence here that the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) stimulates a significant increase in protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon and PKC-delta protein levels and increases PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-delta, transcripts in EL4 thymoma cells. Incubation of EL4 cells with IL-1 beta induced protein synthesis of PKC-epsilon (6-fold increase) by 7 h and had a biphasic effect on PKC-delta levels with peaks at 4 h (2-fold increase) and 24 h (4-fold increase). At the level of mRNA, PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-delta levels, were induced after incubation of EL4 cells with IL-1 beta. The signalling mechanisms utilized by IL-1 beta to induce the synthesis of these PKC isoforms were investigated. Two phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-specific inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, inhibited IL-1 beta-induced synthesis of PKC-epsilon. However, the PI 3-kinase inhibitors had little effect on the IL-1 beta-induced synthesis of PKC-delta in these cells. Our results indicate that IL-1 beta induced both PKC-delta and PKC-epsilon expression over different time periods. Furthermore, our evidence suggests that IL-1 beta induction of PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-delta, may occur via the PI 3-kinase pathway. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Protein kinase Cepsilon is important for migration of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensman, Helena; Larsson, Christer

    2008-01-01

    Migration is important for the metastatic capacity and thus for the malignancy of cancer cells. There is limited knowledge on regulatory factors that promote the migration of neuroblastoma cells. This study investigates the hypothesis that protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms regulate neuroblastoma cell motility. PKC isoforms were downregulated with siRNA or modulated with activators and inhibitors. Migration was analyzed with scratch and transwell assays. Protein phosphorylation and expression levels were measured with Western blot. Stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced migration of SK-N-BE(2)C neuroblastoma cells. Treatment with the general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X and the inhibitor of classical isoforms Gö6976 inhibited migration while an inhibitor of PKCβ isoforms did not have an effect. Downregulation of PKCε, but not of PKCα or PKCδ, with siRNA led to a suppression of both basal and TPA-stimulated migration. Experiments using PD98059 and LY294002, inhibitors of the Erk and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, respectively, showed that PI3K is not necessary for TPA-induced migration. The Erk pathway might be involved in TPA-induced migration but not in migration driven by PKCε. TPA induced phosphorylation of the PKC substrate myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) which was suppressed by the PKC inhibitors. Treatment with siRNA oligonucleotides against different PKC isoforms before stimulation with TPA did not influence the phosphorylation of MARCKS. PKCε is important for migration of SK-N-BE(2)C neuroblastoma cells. Neither the Erk pathway nor MARCKS are critical downstream targets of PKCε but they may be involved in TPA-mediated migration

  14. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jun; Li Jing; Mourot, Joshua M.; Mark Evers, B.; Chung, Dai H.

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK)ζ, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGKζ siRNA transfection decreased H 2 O 2 -induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGKζ also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGKζ rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H 2 O 2 treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGKζ, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells

  15. Sensitization of TRPA1 by Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis E Meents

    Full Text Available The TRPA1 ion channel is expressed in nociceptive (pain-sensitive somatosensory neurons and is activated by a wide variety of chemical irritants, such as acrolein in smoke or isothiocyanates in mustard. Here, we investigate the enhancement of TRPA1 function caused by inflammatory mediators, which is thought to be important in lung conditions such as asthma and COPD. Protein kinase A is an important kinase acting downstream of inflammatory mediators to cause sensitization of TRPA1. By using site-directed mutagenesis, patch-clamp electrophysiology and calcium imaging we identify four amino acid residues, S86, S317, S428, and S972, as the principal targets of PKA-mediated phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPA1.

  16. Protein Kinase C Enzymes in the Hematopoietic and Immune Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Amnon; Kong, Kok-Fai

    2016-05-20

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family, discovered in the late 1970s, is composed of at least 10 serine/threonine kinases, divided into three groups based on their molecular architecture and cofactor requirements. PKC enzymes have been conserved throughout evolution and are expressed in virtually all cell types; they represent critical signal transducers regulating cell activation, differentiation, proliferation, death, and effector functions. PKC family members play important roles in a diverse array of hematopoietic and immune responses. This review covers the discovery and history of this enzyme family, discusses the roles of PKC enzymes in the development and effector functions of major hematopoietic and immune cell types, and points out gaps in our knowledge, which should ignite interest and further exploration, ultimately leading to better understanding of this enzyme family and, above all, its role in the many facets of the immune system.

  17. Protein kinase C involvement in focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1992-01-01

    Matrix molecules such as fibronectin can promote cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation. Although some interactions of fibronectin with cell surface receptors have now been identified, the consequent activation of intracellular messenger systems by cell/matrix interactions have...... still to be elucidated. We show here that the kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 reduce focal adhesion and stress fiber formation in response to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner, and that activators of protein kinase C can promote their formation under conditions where they do not normally form....... Fibroblasts spread within 1h on substrata composed of fibronectin and formed focal adhesions by 3h, as monitored by interference reflection microscopy (IRM) and by labeling for talin, vinculin and integrin beta 1 subunits. In addition, stress fibers were visible. When cells were allowed to spread for 1h...

  18. Characterization of a MAPKK-like protein kinase TOPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Suguru; Abe, Yasuhito; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Takeuchi, Takashi; Kito, Katsumi; Ueda, Norifumi; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2004-01-01

    A MAPKK-like protein kinase TOPK expresses in a wide range of proliferating cells and tissues such as cancer cells and testis. However, details of this kinase are still uncovered. We investigated the intracellular distribution of TOPK and its association with cdk1/cyclin B and microtubules. In interphase cells, TOPK expresses in cytosol and nucleus without any significant association with microtubule networks. During mitosis, TOPK-Thr-9 was phosphorylated by cdk1/cyclin B and TOPK significantly associates with mitotic spindles. When TOPK expression was suppressed, formation of spindle midzone was thinned and dimmed and cytokinesis was disturbed. We propose that TOPK plays a role in the formation of spindle midzone and in cytokinesis

  19. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β(CaMKKβ), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKβ inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  20. AR-v7 protein expression is regulated by protein kinase and phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinan; Xie, Ning; Gleave, Martin E.; Rennie, Paul S.; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Failure of androgen-targeted therapy and progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are often attributed to sustained expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its major splice variant, AR-v7. Although the new generation of anti-androgens such as enzalutamide effectively inhibits AR activity, accumulating pre-clinical and clinical evidence indicates that AR-v7 remains constitutively active in driving CRPC progression. However, molecular mechanisms which control AR-v7 protein expression remain unclear. We apply multiple prostate cancer cell models to demonstrate that enzalutamide induces differential activation of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) and Akt kinase depending on the gene context of cancer cells. The balance between PP-1 and Akt activation governs AR phosphorylation status and activation of the Mdm2 ubiquitin ligase. Mdm2 recognizes phosphorylated serine 213 of AR-v7, and induces AR-v7 ubiquitination and protein degradation. These findings highlight the decisive roles of PP-1 and Akt for AR-v7 protein expression and activities when AR is functionally blocked. PMID:26378044

  1. Inhibition of delta-protein kinase C by delcasertib as an adjunct to primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results of the PROTECTION AMI Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lincoff, A.M.; Roe, M.; Aylward, P.; Galla, J.; Rynkiewicz, A.; Guetta, V.; Zelizko, M.; Kleiman, N.; White, H.; McErlean, E.; Erlinge, D.; Laine, M.; Ferreira, J.M. Dos Santos; Goodman, S.; Mehta, S.; Atar, D.; Suryapranata, H.; Jensen, S.E.; Forster, T.; Fernandez-Ortiz, A.; Schoors, D.; Radke, P.; Belli, G.; Brennan, D.; Bell, G.; Krucoff, M.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Delcasertib is a selective inhibitor of delta-protein kinase C (delta-PKC), which reduced infarct size during ischaemia/reperfusion in animal models and diminished myocardial necrosis and improved reperfusion in a pilot study during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST

  2. A cGMP kinase mutant with increased sensitivity to the protein kinase inhibitor peptide PKI(5-24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, P; Kamm, S; Nau, U; Pfeifer, A; Hofmann, F

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic peptides corresponding to the active domain of the heat-stable inhibitor protein PKI are very potent inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but are extremely weak inhibitors of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. In this study, we tried to confer PKI sensitivity to cGMP kinase by site-directed mutagenesis. The molecular requirements for high affinity inhibition by PKI were deduced from the crystal structure of the cAMP kinase/PKI complex. A prominent site of interaction are residues Tyr235 and Phe239 in the catalytic subunit, which from a sandwich-like structure with Phe10 of the PKI(5-24) peptide. To increase the sensitivity for PKI, the cGMP kinase codons at the corresponding sites, Ser555 and Ser559, were changed to Tyr and Phe. The mutant cGMP kinase was stimulated half maximally by cGMP at 3-fold higher concentrations (240 nM) than the wild type (77 nM). Wild type and mutant cGMP kinase did not differ significantly in their Km and Vmax for three different substrate peptides. The PKI(5-24) peptide inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the mutant cGMP kinase with higher potency than that of wild type, with Ki values of 42 +/- .3 microM and 160 +/- .7 microM, respectively. The increased affinity of the mutant cGMP kinase was specific for the PKI(5-24) peptide. Mutation of the essential Phe10 in the PKI(5-24) sequence to an Ala yielded a peptide that inhibited mutant and wild type cGMP kinase with similar potency, with Ki values of 160 +/- 11 and 169 +/- 27 microM, respectively. These results suggest that the mutations Ser555Tyr and Ser559Phe are required, but not sufficient, for high affinity inhibition of cGMP kinase by PKI.

  3. Dual-specificity phosphatase 10 controls brown adipocyte differentiation by modulating the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Ryung Choi

    Full Text Available Brown adipocytes play an important role in regulating the balance of energy, and as such, there is a strong correlation between obesity and the amount of brown adipose tissue. Although the molecular mechanism underlying white adipocyte differentiation has been well characterized, brown adipocyte differentiation has not been studied extensively. Here, we investigate the potential role of dual-specificity phosphatase 10 (DUSP10 in brown adipocyte differentiation using primary brown preadipocytes.The expression of DUSP10 increased continuously after the brown adipocyte differentiation of mouse primary brown preadipocytes, whereas the phosphorylation of p38 was significantly upregulated at an early stage of differentiation followed by steep downregulation. The overexpression of DUSP10 induced a decrease in the level of p38 phosphorylation, resulting in lower lipid accumulation than that in cells overexpressing the inactive mutant DUSP10. The expression levels of several brown adipocyte markers such as PGC-1α, UCP1, and PRDM16 were also significantly reduced upon the ectopic expression of DUSP10. Furthermore, decreased mitochondrial DNA content was detected in cells expressing DUSP10. The results obtained upon treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, clearly indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 at an early stage is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. The effect of the p38 inhibitor was partially recovered by DUSP10 knockdown using RNAi.These results suggest that p38 phosphorylation is controlled by DUSP10 expression. Furthermore, p38 phosphorylation at an early stage is critical in brown adipocyte differentiation. Thus, the regulation of DUSP10 activity affects the efficiency of brown adipogenesis. Consequently, DUSP10 can be used as a novel target protein for the regulation of obesity.

  4. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, William G; Sakamoto, Kei; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-01-01

    The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that functions as a metabolic 'fuel gauge' in skeletal muscle. AMPK is a ubiquitous heterotrimeric protein, consisting of an alpha catalytic, and beta and gamma regulatory subunits that exist in multiple isoforms and are all required for full enzymatic activity. During exercise, AMPK becomes activated in skeletal muscle in response to changes in cellular energy status (e.g. increased adenosine monophosphate [AMP]/adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and creatine/phosphocreatine ratios) in an intensity-dependent manner, and serves to inhibit ATP-consuming pathways, and activate pathways involved in carbohydrate and fatty-acid metabolism to restore ATP levels. Recent evidence shows that although AMPK plays this key metabolic role during acute bouts of exercise, it is also an important component of the adaptive response of skeletal muscles to endurance exercise training because of its ability to alter muscle fuel reserves and expression of several exercise-responsive genes. This review discusses the putative roles of AMPK in acute and chronic exercise responses, and suggests avenues for future AMPK research in exercise physiology and biochemistry.

  5. Raf kinase inhibitory protein: a signal transduction modulator and metastasis suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2008-04-01

    Cells have a multitude of controls to maintain their integrity and prevent random switching from one biological state to another. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) family, is representative of a new class of modulators of signaling cascades that function to maintain the "yin yang" or balance of biological systems. RKIP inhibits MAP kinase (Raf-MEK-ERK), G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase and NFkappaB signaling cascades. Because RKIP targets different kinases dependent upon its state of phosphorylation, RKIP also acts to integrate crosstalk initiated by multiple environmental stimuli. Loss or depletion of RKIP results in disruption of the normal cellular stasis and can lead to chromosomal abnormalities and disease states such as cancer. Since RKIP and the PEBP family have been reviewed previously, the goal of this analysis is to provide an update and highlight some of the unique features of RKIP that make it a critical player in the regulation of cellular signaling processes.

  6. Loss of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP3K4) Reveals a Requirement for MAPK Signalling in Mouse Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Debora; Siggers, Pam; Brixey, Rachel; Warr, Nick; Beddow, Sarah; Edwards, Jessica; Williams, Debbie; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter; Flavell, Richard A.; Chi, Hongbo; Ostrer, Harry; Wells, Sara; Cheeseman, Michael; Greenfield, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY) gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg) mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas). These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and create a novel

  7. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP3K4 reveals a requirement for MAPK signalling in mouse sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Bogani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas. These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and

  8. Arabidopsis Yak1 protein (AtYak1) is a dual specificity protein kinase

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Zhang, Nianshu; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Yak1 is a member of dual-specificity Tyr phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) that are evolutionarily conserved. The downstream targets of Yak1 and their functions are largely unknown. Here, a homologous protein AtYAK1 was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and the phosphoprotein profiles of the wild type and an atyak1 mutant were compared on two-dimensional gel following Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein gel staining. Annexin1, Annexin2 and RBD were phosphorylated at serine/ threonine residues by the AtYak1 kinase. Annexin1, Annexin2 and Annexin4 were also phosphorylated at tyrosine residues. Our study demonstrated that AtYak1 is a dual specificity protein kinase in Arabidopsis that may regulate the phosphorylation status of the annexin family proteins.

  9. Arabidopsis Yak1 protein (AtYak1) is a dual specificity protein kinase

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2015-10-09

    Yak1 is a member of dual-specificity Tyr phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) that are evolutionarily conserved. The downstream targets of Yak1 and their functions are largely unknown. Here, a homologous protein AtYAK1 was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and the phosphoprotein profiles of the wild type and an atyak1 mutant were compared on two-dimensional gel following Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein gel staining. Annexin1, Annexin2 and RBD were phosphorylated at serine/ threonine residues by the AtYak1 kinase. Annexin1, Annexin2 and Annexin4 were also phosphorylated at tyrosine residues. Our study demonstrated that AtYak1 is a dual specificity protein kinase in Arabidopsis that may regulate the phosphorylation status of the annexin family proteins.

  10. Regulation of basal resistance by a powdery mildew-induced cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayapuram, Channabasavangowda; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Maiser, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) constitute a large and diverse group of proteins controlling numerous plant physiological processes, including development, hormone perception and stress responses. The cysteine-rich RLKs (CRKs) represent a prominent subfamily of transmembrane-anchored RLKs...

  11. Impact of Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases on the Regulation of Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo, Frédérique; Foulquier, Elodie; Galinier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess many kinases that catalyze phosphorylation of proteins on diverse amino acids including arginine, cysteine, histidine, aspartate, serine, threonine, and tyrosine. These protein kinases regulate different physiological processes in response to environmental modifications. For example, in response to nutritional stresses, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can differentiate into an endospore; the initiation of sporulation is controlled by the master regulator Spo0A, which is activated by phosphorylation. Spo0A phosphorylation is carried out by a multi-component phosphorelay system. These phosphorylation events on histidine and aspartate residues are labile, highly dynamic and permit a temporal control of the sporulation initiation decision. More recently, another kind of phosphorylation, more stable yet still dynamic, on serine or threonine residues, was proposed to play a role in spore maintenance and spore revival. Kinases that perform these phosphorylation events mainly belong to the Hanks family and could regulate spore dormancy and spore germination. The aim of this mini review is to focus on the regulation of sporulation in B. subtilis by these serine and threonine phosphorylation events and the kinases catalyzing them.

  12. Nuclear translocation of doublecortin-like protein kinase and phosphorylation of a transcription factor JDP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamine, Tadashi; Nomada, Shohgo; Onouchi, Takashi; Kameshita, Isamu; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki, E-mail: sueyoshi@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase. • In living cells, DCLK was cleaved into two functional fragments. • zDCLK(kinase) was translocated into the nucleus by osmotic stresses. • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. • JDP2 was efficiently phosphorylated by zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. - Abstract: Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase predominantly expressed in brain. In a previous paper, we reported that zebrafish DCLK2 (zDCLK) was cleaved into two functional fragments; the N-terminal zDCLK(DC + SP) with microtubule-binding activity and the C-terminal zDCLK(kinase) with a Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. In this study, we demonstrated that zDCLK(kinase) was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and translocated into the nucleus when the cells were treated under hyperosmotic conditions with NaCl or mannitol. By two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal domain of DCLK, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a nuclear transcription factor, was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. Furthermore, JDP2 served as an efficient substrate for zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. These results suggest that the kinase fragment of DCLK is translocated into the nucleus upon hyperosmotic stresses and that the kinase efficiently phosphorylates JDP2, a possible target in the nucleus, with the aid of histones.

  13. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium-dependent but calmodulin-independent protein kinase from soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, A.C.; Putnam-Evans, C.; Cormier, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A calcium-dependent protein kinase activity from suspension-cultured soybean cells (Glycine max L. Wayne) was shown to be dependent on calcium but not calmodulin. The concentrations of free calcium required for half-maximal histone H1 phosphorylation and autophosphorylation were similar (≥ 2 micromolar). The protein kinase activity was stimulated 100-fold by ≥ 10 micromolar-free calcium. When exogenous soybean or bovine brain calmodulin was added in high concentration (1 micromolar) to the purified kinase, calcium-dependent and -independent activities were weakly stimulated (≤ 2-fold). Bovine serum albumin had a similar effect on both activities. The kinase was separated from a small amount of contaminating calmodulin by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After renaturation the protein kinase autophosphorylated and phosphorylated histone H1 in a calcium-dependent manner. Following electroblotting onto nitrocellulose, the kinase bound 45 Ca 2+ in the presence of KCl and MgCl 2 , which indicated that the kinase itself is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein. Also, the mobility of one of two kinase bands in SDS gels was dependent on the presence of calcium. Autophosphorylation of the calmodulin-free kinase was inhibited by the calmodulin-binding compound N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7), showing that the inhibition of activity by W-7 is independent of calmodulin. These results show that soybean calcium-dependent protein kinase represents a new class of protein kinase which requires calcium but not calmodulin for activity

  15. Molecular Mechanism of Selectivity among G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thal, David M.; Yeow, Raymond Y.; Schoenau, Christian; Huber, Jochen; Tesmer, John J.G. (Sanofi); (Michigan)

    2012-07-11

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of cell physiology and control processes ranging from glucose homeostasis to contractility of the heart. A major mechanism for the desensitization of activated GPCRs is their phosphorylation by GPCR kinases (GRKs). Overexpression of GRK2 is strongly linked to heart failure, and GRK2 has long been considered a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several lead compounds developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals show high selectivity for GRK2 and therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure. To understand how these drugs achieve their selectivity, we determined crystal structures of the bovine GRK2-G{beta}{gamma} complex in the presence of two of these inhibitors. Comparison with the apoGRK2-G{beta}{gamma} structure demonstrates that the compounds bind in the kinase active site in a manner similar to that of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. Both balanol and the Takeda compounds induce a slight closure of the kinase domain, the degree of which correlates with the potencies of the inhibitors. Based on our crystal structures and homology modeling, we identified five amino acids surrounding the inhibitor binding site that we hypothesized could contribute to inhibitor selectivity. However, our results indicate that these residues are not major determinants of selectivity among GRK subfamilies. Rather, selectivity is achieved by the stabilization of a unique inactive conformation of the GRK2 kinase domain.

  16. Induction of viral, 7-methyl-guanosine cap-independent translation and oncolysis by mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase-mediated effects on the serine/arginine-rich protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael C; Bryant, Jeffrey D; Dobrikova, Elena Y; Shveygert, Mayya; Bradrick, Shelton S; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Bigner, Darell D; Gromeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Protein synthesis, the most energy-consuming process in cells, responds to changing physiologic priorities, e.g., upon mitogen- or stress-induced adaptations signaled through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The prevailing status of protein synthesis machinery is a viral pathogenesis factor, particularly for plus-strand RNA viruses, where immediate translation of incoming viral RNAs shapes host-virus interactions. In this study, we unraveled signaling pathways centered on the ERK1/2 and p38α MAPK-interacting kinases MNK1/2 and their role in controlling 7-methyl-guanosine (m(7)G) "cap"-independent translation at enterovirus type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Activation of Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signals induced viral IRES-mediated translation in a manner dependent on MNK1/2. This effect was not due to MNK's known functions as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G binding partner or eIF4E(S209) kinase. Rather, MNK catalytic activity enabled viral IRES-mediated translation/host cell cytotoxicity through negative regulation of the Ser/Arg (SR)-rich protein kinase (SRPK). Our investigations suggest that SRPK activity is a major determinant of type 1 IRES competency, host cell cytotoxicity, and viral proliferation in infected cells. We are targeting unfettered enterovirus IRES activity in cancer with PVSRIPO, the type 1 live-attenuated poliovirus (PV) (Sabin) vaccine containing a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES. A phase I clinical trial of PVSRIPO with intratumoral inoculation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is showing early promise. Viral translation proficiency in infected GBM cells is a core requirement for the antineoplastic efficacy of PVSRIPO. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms controlling viral cap-independent translation in infected host cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Activation of GABAB receptors inhibits protein kinase B /Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Frances Fangjia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulated evidence has suggested that potentiation of cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission may be a key mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the downstream molecular mechanisms related to GABA potentiation remain unexplored. Recent studies have suggested that dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, which are used in the clinical treatment of schizophrenia, modulate protein kinase B (Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3 signaling. Here we report that activation of GABAB receptors significantly inhibits Akt/GSK-3 signaling in a β-arrestin-dependent pathway. Agonist stimulation of GABAB receptors enhances the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr-308 and enhances the phosphorylation of GSK-3α (Ser-21/β (Ser-9 in both HEK-293T cells expressing GABAB receptors and rat hippocampal slices. Furthermore, knocking down the expression of β-arrestin2 using siRNA abolishes the GABAB receptor-mediated modulation of GSK-3 signaling. Our data may help to identify potentially novel targets through which GABAB receptor agents may exert therapeutic effects in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  18. Damage-induced DNA replication stalling relies on MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köpper, Frederik; Bierwirth, Cathrin; Schön, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    knockdown of the MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a kinase currently implicated in p38 stress signaling and G2 arrest. Depletion or inhibition of MK2 also protected cells from DNA damage-induced cell death, and mice deficient for MK2 displayed decreased apoptosis in the skin upon UV irradiation...

  19. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1 and CaMKK in adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormand, Amélie; Henriksson, Emma; Ström, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. In adipose tissue, activation of AMPK has been demonstrated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. However, the upstream kinase that activates AMPK in adipocytes...

  20. Neuronal phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Paquet, Claire

    2009-02-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and their relationship to accumulated prion protein (PrP) are unclear. A recent cell culture study showed that intracytoplasmic PrP may induce phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR(p))-mediated cell stress. The double-stranded RNA protein kinase PKR is a proapoptotic and stress kinase that accumulates in degenerating neurons in Alzheimer disease. To determine whether neuronal apoptosis in human CJD is associated with activation of the PKR(p) signaling pathway, we assessed in situ end labeling and immunocytochemistry for PrP, glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, activated caspase 3, and phosphorylated PKR (Thr451) in samples of frontal, occipital, and temporal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum from 6 patients with sporadic CJD and 5 controls. Neuronal immunostaining for activated PKR was found in all CJD cases. The most staining was in nuclei and, in contrast to findings in Alzheimer disease, cytoplasmic labeling was not detected. Both the number and distribution of PKR(p)-positive neurons correlated closely with the extent of neuronal apoptosis, spongiosis, astrocytosis, and microglial activation and with the phenotype and disease severity. There was no correlation with the type, topography, or amount of extracellular PrP deposits. These findings suggest that neuronal apoptosis in human CJD may result from PKR(p)-mediated cell stress and are consistent with recent studies supporting a pathogenic role for intracellular or transmembrane PrP.

  1. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK7 acts on root hydraulic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Boudsocq, Marie; Hem, Sonia; Vialaret, Jérôme; Rossignol, Michel; Maurel, Christophe; Santoni, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of plant roots (Lp(r)) is determined in large part by the activity of aquaporins. Mechanisms occurring at the post-translational level, in particular phosphorylation of aquaporins of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2 (PIP2) subfamily, are thought to be of critical importance for regulating root water transport. However, knowledge of protein kinases and phosphatases acting on aquaporin function is still scarce. In the present work, we investigated the Lp(r) of knockout Arabidopsis plants for four Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. cpk7 plants showed a 30% increase in Lp(r) because of a higher aquaporin activity. A quantitative proteomic analysis of wild-type and cpk7 plants revealed that PIP gene expression and PIP protein quantity were not correlated and that CPK7 has no effect on PIP2 phosphorylation. In contrast, CPK7 exerts a negative control on the cellular abundance of PIP1s, which likely accounts for the higher Lp(r) of cpk7. In addition, this study revealed that the cellular amount of a few additional proteins including membrane transporters is controlled by CPK7. The overall work provides evidence for CPK7-dependent stability of specific membrane proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Protein implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activity

    KAUST Repository

    Altawashi, Azza; Jung, Sung Yun; Liu, Dou; Su, Bing; Qin, Jun

    2012-01-01

    capacitytoformdendritesandsynapsesinculture. Atthebiochemical level,CC2D1Atransduces signals to the cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during neuronal cell differentiation. PKA activity is compromised, and the translocation of its catalytic subunit

  3. Effect of Protein Kinase Inhibitors on Protein Phosphorylation and Germination of Aerial Spores from Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palečková, Petra; Kontrová, K.; Kofroňová, Olga; Bobek, Jan; Benada, Oldřich; Mikulík, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 215-222 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptomyces coelicolor * protein kinase * phosphoprotein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  4. Vital role of protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK1) in the formation and stability of neurites during hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Thauerer, Bettina; zur Nedden, Stephanie; Baier-Bitterlich, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to hypoxia (1% O2) favors differentiation at the expense of cell viability. Additional incubation with nerve growth factor (NGF) and guanosine, a purine nucleoside with neurotrophin characteristics, rescued cell viability and further enhanced the extension of neurites. In parallel, an increase in the activity of protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK1), which is known to be involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, was observed in hypoxic cells....

  5. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen (Sanofi); (Michigan); (Texas)

    2010-07-19

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  6. Depletion of WRN protein causes RACK1 to activate several protein kinase C isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massip, L; Garand, C; Labbé, A

    2010-01-01

    show that a knock down of the WRN protein in normal human fibroblasts induces phosphorylation and activation of several protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes. Using a tandem affinity purification strategy, we found that WRN physically and functionally interacts with receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1......), a highly conserved anchoring protein involved in various biological processes, such as cell growth and proliferation. RACK1 binds strongly to the RQC domain of WRN and weakly to its acidic repeat region. Purified RACK1 has no impact on the helicase activity of WRN, but selectively inhibits WRN exonuclease...... activity in vitro. Interestingly, knocking down RACK1 increased the cellular frequency of DNA breaks. Depletion of the WRN protein in return caused a fraction of nuclear RACK1 to translocate out of the nucleus to bind and activate PKCdelta and PKCbetaII in the membrane fraction of cells. In contrast...

  7. dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Meurs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays multiple roles in cells, in response to different stress situations. As a member of the interferon (IFN‑Stimulated Genes, PKR was initially recognized as an actor in the antiviral action of IFN, due to its ability to control translation, through phosphorylation, of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2a. As such, PKR participates in the generation of stress granules, or autophagy and a number of viruses have designed strategies to inhibit its action. However, PKR deficient mice resist most viral infections, indicating that PKR may play other roles in the cell other than just acting as an antiviral agent. Indeed, PKR regulates several signaling pathways, either as an adapter protein and/or using its kinase activity. Here we review the role of PKR as an eIF2a kinase, its participation in the regulation of the NF-kB, p38MAPK and insulin pathways, and we focus on its role during infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV. PKR binds the HCV IRES RNA, cooperates with some functions of the HCV core protein and may represent a target for NS5A or E2. Novel data points out for a role of PKR as a pro-HCV agent, both as an adapter protein and as an eIF2a-kinase, and in cooperation with the di-ubiquitin-like protein ISG15. Developing pharmaceutical inhibitors of PKR may help in resolving some viral infections as well as stress-related damages.

  8. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, H.; Shaw, E.K.; Bennett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg 2+ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg 2+ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2

    KAUST Repository

    Ková cs, Krisztiá n A.; Steinmann, Myriam; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Cardinaux, Jean René

    2015-01-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2

    KAUST Repository

    Kovács, Krisztián A.

    2015-11-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Protein Kinase C-ε Promotes EMT in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of serine/threonine kinases, plays critical roles in signal transduction and cell regulation. PKCε, a member of the novel PKC family, is known to be a transforming oncogene and a tumor biomarker for aggressive breast cancers. In this study, we examined the involvement of PKCε in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the process that leads the way to metastasis. Overexpression of PKCε was sufficient to induce a mesenchymal phenotype in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial MCF-10 A cells. This was accompanied by a decrease in the epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and claudin-1, and an increase in mesenchymal marker vimentin. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) induced Snail expression and mesenchymal morphology in MCF-10 A cells, and these effects were partially reversed by the PKCε knockdown. PKCε also mediated cell migration and anoikis resistance, which are hallmarks of EMT. Thus, our study demonstrates that PKCε is an important mediator of EMT in breast cancer. PMID:24701121

  12. Arctigenin protects against steatosis in WRL68 hepatocytes through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kung-Yen; Lin, Jui-An; Yao, Han-Yun; Hsu, An-Chih; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Jui-Tai; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Shen, Tang-Long; Hsu, Ren-Yi; Wu, Hong-Tan; Wang, Guey Horng; Ho, Bing-Ying; Chen, Yu-Pei

    2018-04-01

    Arctigenin (ATG), a lignin extracted from Arctium lappa (L.), exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that ATG exerts a protective effect on hepatocytes by preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation. We established an in vitro NAFLD cell model by using normal WRL68 hepatocytes to investigate oleic acid (OA) accumulation and the potential bioactive role of ATG. The results revealed that ATG inhibited OA-induced lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in WRL68 hepatocytes, as determined using Oil Red O staining, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay, and inflammation antibody array assays. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that ATG significantly mitigated the expression of acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase 1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and significantly increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. The 40 targets of the Human Inflammation Antibody Array indicated that ATG significantly inhibited the elevation of the U937 lymphocyte chemoattractant, ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-6sR, IL-7, and IL-8. ATG could activate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways and could increase the phosphorylation levels of Akt and AMPK to mediate cell survival, lipid metabolism, oxidation stress, and inflammation. Thus, we demonstrated that ATG could inhibit NAFLD progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation, and we provided insights into the underlying mechanisms and revealed potential targets to enable a thorough understanding of NAFLD progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the complexity of protein kinases within the phloem sieve tube system. Characterization of Cucurbita maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lucas, William J

    2002-05-03

    In angiosperms, functional, mature sieve elements lack nuclei, vacuoles, ribosomes, and most of the endomembrane network. In this study, the complexity, number, and nature of protein kinases within the phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima were investigated to test the hypothesis that the enucleate sieve tube system utilizes a simplified signal transduction network. Supporting evidence was obtained in that only five putative protein kinases (three calcium-independent and two calcium-dependent protein kinases) were detected within the phloem sap extracted from stem tissues. Biochemical methods were used to purify one such calcium-dependent protein kinase. The gene for this C. maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1 (CmCPK1), was cloned using peptide microsequences. A combination of mass spectrometry, peptide fingerprinting, and amino-terminal sequencing established that, in the phloem sap, CmCPK1 exists as an amino-terminally cleaved protein. A second highly homologous isoform, CmCPK2, was identified, but although transcripts could be detected in the companion cells, peptide fingerprint analysis suggested that CmCPK2 does not enter the phloem sap. Potential substrates for CmCPK1, within the phloem sap, were also detected using an on-membrane phosphorylation assay. Entry of CmCPK1 into sieve elements via plasmodesmata and the potential roles played by these phloem protein kinases are discussed.

  14. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  15. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L L; Cao, F F; Wang, Y; Meng, F L; Zhang, Y; Zhong, D S; Zhou, Q H

    2015-05-01

    The application of newer signaling pathway-targeted agents has become an important addition to chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicities of PKC inhibitors combined with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for patients with advanced NSCLC systematically. Literature retrieval, trials selection and assessment, data collection, and statistic analysis were performed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0. The outcome measures were tumor response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse effects. Five randomized controlled trials, comprising totally 1,005 patients, were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed significantly decreased response rate (RR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.64-0.99) and disease control rate (RR 0.90; 95 % CI 0.82-0.99) in PKC inhibitors-chemotherapy groups versus chemotherapy groups. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups regarding progression-free survival (PFS, HR 1.05; 95 % CI 0.91-1.22) and overall survival (OS, HR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.86-1.16). The risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia, leucopenia, and thrombosis/embolism increased significantly in PKC inhibitors combination groups as compared with chemotherapy alone groups. The use of PKC inhibitors in addition to chemotherapy was not a valid alternative for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  16. Fear memory consolidation in sleep requires protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jiyeon; Sypniewski, Krzysztof A; Arai, Shoko; Yamada, Kazuo; Ogawa, Sonoko; Pavlides, Constantine

    2018-05-01

    It is well established that protein kinase A (PKA) is involved in hippocampal dependent memory consolidation. Sleep is also known to play an important role in this process. However, whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation involves PKA activation has not been clearly determined. Using behavioral observation, animals were categorized into sleep and awake groups. We show that intrahippocampal injections of the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPs in post-contextual fear conditioning sleep produced a suppression of long-term fear memory, while injections of Rp-cAMPs during an awake state, at a similar time point, had no effect. In contrast, injections of the PKA activator Sp-cAMPs in awake state, rescued sleep deprivation-induced memory impairments. These results suggest that following learning, PKA activation specifically in sleep is required for the consolidation of long-term memory. © 2018 Cho et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Probes of the Mitochondrial cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Jennifer R.; Lawrence, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a fluorescent assay to detect activity of the mitochondrial cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is described. A peptide-based sensor was utilized to quantify the relative amount of PKA activity present in each compartment of the mitochondria (the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, and the matrix). In the process of validating this assay, we discovered that PKA activity is regulated by the protease calpain. Upon exposure of bovine heart mitochondria to digitonin, Ca2+, and a variety of electron transport chain inhibitors, the regulatory subunits of the PKA holoenzyme (R2C2) are digested, releasing active catalytic subunits. This proteolysis is attenuated by calpain inhibitor I (ALLN). PMID:23410952

  18. Genomic analysis of murine DNA-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, A.; Abe, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The gene of catalytic subunit of DNA dependent protein kinase is responsible gene for SCID mice. The molecules play a critical role in non-homologous end joining including the V(D)J recombination. Contribution of the molecules to the difference of radiosensitivity and the susceptibility to cancer has been suggested. Here we show the entire nucleotide sequence of approximately 193 kbp and 84 kbp genomic regions encoding the entire DNA-PKcs gene in the mouse and chicken respectively. Retroposon was found in the intron 51 of mouse genomic DNA-PKcs gene but in human and chicken. Comparative analysis of these two species strongly suggested that only two genes, DNA-PKcs and MCM4, exist in the region of both species. Several conserved sequences and cis elements, however, were predicted. Recently, the orthologous region for the human DNA-PKcs locus was completed. The results of further comparative study will be discussed

  19. Contraction-associated translocation of protein kinase C in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Cleland, P J; Rattigan, S

    1987-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve of the anaesthetized rat in vivo led to a time-dependent translocation of protein kinase C from the muscle cytosol to the particulate fraction. Maximum activity of protein kinase C in the particulate fraction occurred after 2 min of intermittent short...... tetanic contractions of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle group and coincided with the loss of activity from the cytosol. Translocation of protein kinase C may imply a role for this kinase in contraction-initiated changes in muscle metabolism....

  20. Protein kinase C, focal adhesions and the regulation of cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Betina S; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John Robert

    2014-01-01

    in their intracellular compartment. Among these are tyrosine kinases, which have received a great deal of attention, whereas the serine/threonine kinase protein kinase C has received much less. Here the status of protein kinase C in focal adhesions and cell migration is reviewed, together with discussion of its roles...... and adhesion turnover. Focal adhesions, or focal contacts, are widespread organelles at the cell-matrix interface. They arise as a result of receptor interactions with matrix ligands, together with clustering. Recent analysis shows that focal adhesions contain a very large number of protein components...

  1. Kinases and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Cicenas; Egle Zalyte; Amos Bairoch; Pascale Gaudet

    2018-01-01

    Protein kinases are a large family of enzymes catalyzing protein phosphorylation. The human genome contains 518 protein kinase genes, 478 of which belong to the classical protein kinase family and 40 are atypical protein kinases [...

  2. Quinolinone and pyridopyrimidinone inhibitors of DNA-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Olivier R; Cano-Soumillac, Celine; Griffin, Roger J; Hardcastle, Ian R; Smith, Graeme C M; Richardson, Caroline; Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W; Golding, Bernard T

    2007-08-21

    8-Substituted 2-morpholin-4-yl-quinolin-4-ones and 9-substituted 2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones with selected aryl and heteroaryl groups as the substituent have been synthesised as potential inhibitors of DNA-dependent protein kinase. A multiple-parallel approach, employing Suzuki cross-coupling methodology, was utilised in the preparation of 8-substituted 2-morpholin-4-yl-quinolin-4-ones. For this purpose 8-bromo-2-morpholin-4-yl-quinolin-4-one was required as an intermediate. This compound was obtained by adapting a literature route in which thermal cyclocondensation of (2-bromoanilino)-morpholin-4-yl-5-methylene-2,2-dimethyl[1,3]dioxane-4,6-dione afforded 8-bromo-2-morpholin-4-yl-quinolin-4-one. A multiple-parallel approach, employing Suzuki cross-coupling methodology, was also utilised to prepare 9-substituted 2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones using 9-hydroxy-2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one O-trifluoromethanesulfonate as an intermediate. 8-Substituted 2-morpholin-4-yl-quinolin-4-ones and 9-substituted 2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones were both inhibitors of DNA-dependent protein kinase. When the substituent was dibenzothiophen-4-yl, dibenzofuran-4-yl or biphen-3-yl, IC50 values in the low nanomolar range were observed. Interestingly, the pyridopyrimidinones and quinolinones were essentially equipotent with the corresponding 8-substituted 2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-ones previously reported (I. R. Hardcastle, X. Cockcroft, N. J. Curtin, M. Desage El-Murr, J. J. J. Leahy, M. Stockley, B. T. Golding, L. Rigoreau, C. Richardson, G. C. M. Smith and R. J. Griffin, J. Med. Chem., 2005, 48, 7829-7846).

  3. Protein Kinase-A Inhibition Is Sufficient to Support Human Neural Stem Cells Self-Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Pauline; Boissart, Claire; Poulet, Aurélie; Peschanski, Marc; Benchoua, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells offer unprecedented opportunities for producing specific types of neurons for several biomedical applications. However, to achieve it, protocols of production and amplification of human neural stem cells need to be standardized, cost effective, and safe. This means that small molecules should progressively replace the use of media containing cocktails of protein-based growth factors. Here we have conducted a phenotypical screening to identify pathways involved in the regulation of hNSC self-renewal. We analyzed 80 small molecules acting as kinase inhibitors and identified compounds of the 5-isoquinolinesulfonamide family, described as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G inhibitors, as candidates to support hNSC self-renewal. Investigating the mode of action of these compounds, we found that modulation of PKA activity was central in controlling the choice between self-renewal or terminal neuronal differentiation of hNSC. We finally demonstrated that the pharmacological inhibition of PKA using the small molecule HA1004 was sufficient to support the full derivation, propagation, and long-term maintenance of stable hNSC in absence of any other extrinsic signals. Our results indicated that tuning of PKA activity is a core mechanism regulating hNSC self-renewal and differentiation and delineate the minimal culture media requirement to maintain undifferentiated hNSC in vitro. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Conformational dependence of a protein kinase phosphate transfer reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labute, Montiago; Henkelman, Graeme; Tung, Chang-Shung; Fenimore, Paul; McMahon, Ben

    2007-03-01

    Atomic motions and energetics for a phosphate transfer reaction catalyzed by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase have been calculated using plane-wave density functional theory, starting from structures of proteins crystallized in both the reactant conformation (RC) and the transition-state conformation (TC). In TC, we calculate that the reactants and products are nearly isoenergetic with a 20-kJ/mol barrier, whereas phosphate transfer is unfavorable by 120 kJ/mol in the RC, with an even higher barrier. Our results demonstrate that the phosphate transfer reaction occurs rapidly and reversibly in a particular conformation of the protein, and that the reaction can be gated by changes of a few tenths of an angstrom in the catalytic site [1]. [1] G.H. Henkelman, M.X. LaBute, C.-S. Tung, P.W. Fenimore, B.H. McMahon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA vol. 102, no. 43:15347-15351 (2005).

  5. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders. Several strategies .... family, the β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK), the ribosomal S6 ..... urinary bladder smooth muscle cells. While no ...

  6. The role of DNA dependent protein kinase in synapsis of DNA ends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P.W.C. Weterings (Eric); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); D.C. van Gent (Dik); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a central role in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double strand break repair. Its catalytic subunit (DNA-PK(CS)) functions as a serine/threonine protein kinase. We show that DNA-PK forms a stable complex at DNA termini that blocks

  7. Effect of Glucuronidation on the Potential of Kaempferol to Inhibit Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmann, Karsten; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Bladeren, Van Peter J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of metabolic conjugation of flavonoids on the potential to inhibit protein kinase activity, the inhibitory effects of the dietary flavonol kaempferol and its major plasma conjugate kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide on protein kinases were studied. To this end, the inhibition of the

  8. Regulation of hematopoietic cell function by protein tyrosine kinase-encoding oncogenes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) is an important mechanism in the regulation of various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Accumulating data implicate PTKs as essential intermediates in the transduction of

  9. Signaling by Kit protein-tyrosine kinase--the stem cell factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-11-11

    Signaling by stem cell factor and Kit, its receptor, plays important roles in gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, mast cell development and function, and melanogenesis. Moreover, human and mouse embryonic stem cells express Kit transcripts. Stem cell factor exists as both a soluble and a membrane-bound glycoprotein while Kit is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. The complete absence of stem cell factor or Kit is lethal. Deficiencies of either produce defects in red and white blood cell production, hypopigmentation, and sterility. Gain-of-function mutations of Kit are associated with several human neoplasms including acute myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and mastocytomas. Kit consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, and a protein kinase domain that contains an insert of about 80 amino acid residues. Binding of stem cell factor to Kit results in receptor dimerization and activation of protein kinase activity. The activated receptor becomes autophosphorylated at tyrosine residues that serve as docking sites for signal transduction molecules containing SH2 domains. The adaptor protein APS, Src family kinases, and Shp2 tyrosyl phosphatase bind to phosphotyrosine 568. Shp1 tyrosyl phosphatase and the adaptor protein Shc bind to phosphotyrosine 570. C-terminal Src kinase homologous kinase and the adaptor Shc bind to both phosphotyrosines 568 and 570. These residues occur in the juxtamembrane segment of Kit. Three residues in the kinase insert domain are phosphorylated and attract the adaptor protein Grb2 (Tyr703), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Tyr721), and phospholipase Cgamma (Tyr730). Phosphotyrosine 900 in the distal kinase domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which in turn binds the adaptor protein Crk. Phosphotyrosine 936, also in the distal kinase domain, binds the adaptor proteins APS, Grb2, and Grb7. Kit has the potential to participate in multiple signal transduction pathways as a result of

  10. Simple fluorescence-based detection of protein kinase A activity using a molecular beacon probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbei; Lv, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Kemin; Jin, Shunxin; Liu, Haisheng; Wu, Kefeng; Zeng, Weimin

    2017-11-02

    Protein kinase A was detected by quantifying the amount of ATP used after a protein kinase reaction. The ATP assay was performed using the T4 DNA ligase and a molecular beacon (MB). In the presence of ATP, DNA ligase catalyzed the ligation of short DNA. The ligation product then hybridized to MB, resulting in a fluorescence enhancement of the MB. This assay was capable of determining protein kinase A in the range of 12.5∼150 nM, with a detection limit of 1.25 nM. Furthermore, this assay could also be used to investigate the effect of genistein on protein kinase A. It was a universal, non-radioisotopic, and homogeneous method for assaying protein kinase A.

  11. Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunits in Human Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Bondioni, Sara; Alberti, Luisella; Gilardini, Luisa; Invitti, Cecilia; Corbetta, Sabrina; Zappa, Marco A.; Ferrero, Stefano; Lania, Andrea G.; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—In human adipocytes, the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from β-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e., lipolysis and thermogenesis. Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty liver development. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in R2B expression, PKA activity, and lipolysis in adipose tissues from obese and nonobese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 nonobese and 67 obese patients. PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, respectively. RESULTS—Expression techniques showed that R2B was the most abundant regulatory protein, both at mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, R2B mRNA levels were significantly lower in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from obese than nonobese patients and negatively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Moreover, both basal and stimulated PKA activity and glycerol release were significantly lower in visceral adipose tissue from obese patients then nonobese subjects. CONCLUSIONS—Our results first indicate that, in human adipose tissue, there are important BMI-related differences in R2B expression and PKA activation, which might be included among the multiple determinants involved in the different lipolytic response to β-adrenergic activation in obesity. PMID:19095761

  12. ProNormz--an integrated approach for human proteins and protein kinases normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Suresh; Raja, Kalpana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2014-02-01

    The task of recognizing and normalizing protein name mentions in biomedical literature is a challenging task and important for text mining applications such as protein-protein interactions, pathway reconstruction and many more. In this paper, we present ProNormz, an integrated approach for human proteins (HPs) tagging and normalization. In Homo sapiens, a greater number of biological processes are regulated by a large human gene family called protein kinases by post translational phosphorylation. Recognition and normalization of human protein kinases (HPKs) is considered to be important for the extraction of the underlying information on its regulatory mechanism from biomedical literature. ProNormz distinguishes HPKs from other HPs besides tagging and normalization. To our knowledge, ProNormz is the first normalization system available to distinguish HPKs from other HPs in addition to gene normalization task. ProNormz incorporates a specialized synonyms dictionary for human proteins and protein kinases, a set of 15 string matching rules and a disambiguation module to achieve the normalization. Experimental results on benchmark BioCreative II training and test datasets show that our integrated approach achieve a fairly good performance and outperforms more sophisticated semantic similarity and disambiguation systems presented in BioCreative II GN task. As a freely available web tool, ProNormz is useful to developers as extensible gene normalization implementation, to researchers as a standard for comparing their innovative techniques, and to biologists for normalization and categorization of HPs and HPKs mentions in biomedical literature. URL: http://www.biominingbu.org/pronormz. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SOcK, MiSTs, MASK and STicKs: the GCKIII (germinal centre kinase III) kinases and their heterologous protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Peter H; McGuffin, Liam J; Clerk, Angela

    2013-08-15

    The GCKIII (germinal centre kinase III) subfamily of the mammalian Ste20 (sterile 20)-like group of serine/threonine protein kinases comprises SOK1 (Ste20-like/oxidant-stress-response kinase 1), MST3 (mammalian Ste20-like kinase 3) and MST4. Initially, GCKIIIs were considered in the contexts of the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and apoptosis. More recently, their participation in multiprotein heterocomplexes has become apparent. In the present review, we discuss the structure and phosphorylation of GCKIIIs and then focus on their interactions with other proteins. GCKIIIs possess a highly-conserved, structured catalytic domain at the N-terminus and a less-well conserved C-terminal regulatory domain. GCKIIIs are activated by tonic autophosphorylation of a T-loop threonine residue and their phosphorylation is regulated primarily through protein serine/threonine phosphatases [especially PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A)]. The GCKIII regulatory domains are highly disorganized, but can interact with more structured proteins, particularly the CCM3 (cerebral cavernous malformation 3)/PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10) protein. We explore the role(s) of GCKIIIs (and CCM3/PDCD10) in STRIPAK (striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase) complexes and their association with the cis-Golgi protein GOLGA2 (golgin A2; GM130). Recently, an interaction of GCKIIIs with MO25 has been identified. This exhibits similarities to the STRADα (STE20-related kinase adaptor α)-MO25 interaction (as in the LKB1-STRADα-MO25 heterotrimer) and, at least for MST3, the interaction may be enhanced by cis-autophosphorylation of its regulatory domain. In these various heterocomplexes, GCKIIIs associate with the Golgi apparatus, the centrosome and the nucleus, as well as with focal adhesions and cell junctions, and are probably involved in cell migration, polarity and proliferation. Finally, we consider the association of GCKIIIs with a number of human diseases, particularly

  14. Stromal serine protein kinase activity in spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, N.; Lucero, H.A.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    At least twelve 32 P-labeled stromal proteins were detected by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions when intact chloroplasts were incubated with 32 Pi, in the light but only three were detected in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or in the dark. Incubation of isolated stroma with [gamma- 32 P]ATP resulted in the preferential phosphorylation of one of them, a 70-kDa polypeptide, in serine residues. Thylakoid membranes in the dark promoted the phosphorylation of two additional stromal polypeptides of 55 and 40 kDa. Illumination during the phosphorylation of stroma in the presence of thylakoids stimulated severalfold the labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide but not when DCMU was added. The protein kinase activity present in isolated stroma phosphorylated exogenous substrates like histone III, phosvitin, histone II, and casein with specific activities of 3, 1.8, 0.7, and 0.2 pmol X mg-1 X min-1. Histone III polypeptides were phosphorylated differently by stroma and by thylakoids in the dark. Moreover, histone III phosphorylated by thylakoids in the dark yielded a pattern of phosphopeptides after V8 protease treatment that was different from the pattern obtained when histone III was phosphorylated by stroma

  15. Detection of protein kinase activity by renaturation in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anostario, M. Jr.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a procedure for identifying protein kinase activity in protein samples following electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are allowed to renature directly in the gel by removal of detergent. The gel is then incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP to allow renatured protein kinases to autophosphorylate or to phosphorylate various substrates which can be incorporated into the gel. The positions of the radiolabeled proteins can then be detected by autoradiography. With this technique, using purified catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, enzyme concentrations as low as 0.01 μg can be detected on gels containing 1.0 mg/ml casein. The procedure is also applicable for the determination of active subunits of multisubunit protein kinases. For example, when the two subunits of casein kinase II are separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and allowed to renature, only the larger α subunit shows activity. This procedure can also be used to detect and distinguish kinases present in heterogeneous mixtures. Starting with a particulate fraction from LSTRA, a murine T cell lymphoma, several distinct enzymes were detected, including a 30,000 Dalton protein with protein-tyrosine kinase activity. This same enzyme has also been detected in T lymphocytes and other T lymphoid cell lines

  16. Selective inhibition of Sarcocystis neurona calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Verma, Shiv K; Scheele, Suzanne; DeRocher, Amy E; Yeargan, Michelle; Choi, Ryan; Smith, Tess R; Rivas, Kasey L; Hulverson, Matthew A; Barrett, Lynn K; Fan, Erkang; Maly, Dustin J; Parsons, Marilyn; Dubey, Jitender P; Howe, Daniel K; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2016-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development. Recombinant SnCDPK1 was tested against four bumped kinase inhibitors shown to potently inhibit both T. gondii (Tg) CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoite growth. SnCDPK1 was inhibited by low nanomolar concentrations of these BKIs and S. neurona growth was inhibited at 40-120nM concentrations. Thermal shift assays confirmed these bumped kinase inhibitors bind CDPK1 in S. neurona cell lysates. Treatment with bumped kinase inhibitors before or after invasion suggests that bumped kinase inhibitors interfere with S. neurona mammalian host cell invasion in the 0.5-2.5μM range but interfere with intracellular division at 2.5μM. In vivo proof-of-concept experiments were performed in a murine model of S. neurona infection. The experimental infected groups treated for 30days with compound BKI-1553 (n=10 mice) had no signs of disease, while the infected control group had severe signs and symptoms of infection. Elevated antibody responses were found in 100% of control infected animals, but only 20% of BKI-1553 treated infected animals. Parasites were found in brain tissues of 100% of the control infected animals, but only in 10% of the BKI-1553 treated animals. The bumped kinase inhibitors used in these assays have been chemically optimized for potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetic properties, and hence are good candidates for treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Copyright © 2016

  17. The AMP-activated protein kinase beta 1 subunit modulates erythrocyte integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, Emma L; McIntyre, Zoe; Clare, Simon; Arends, Mark J; Goulding, David; Isherwood, Christopher; Caetano, Susana S; Reviriego, Carmen Ballesteros; Swiatkowska, Agnieszka; Kane, Leanne; Harcourt, Katherine; Adams, David J; White, Jacqueline K; Speak, Anneliese O

    2017-01-01

    Failure to maintain a normal in vivo erythrocyte half-life results in the development of hemolytic anemia. Half-life is affected by numerous factors, including energy balance, electrolyte gradients, reactive oxygen species, and membrane plasticity. The heterotrimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that acts as a critical regulator of cellular energy balance. Previous roles for the alpha 1 and gamma 1 subunits in the control of erythrocyte survival have been reported. In the work described here, we studied the role of the beta 1 subunit in erythrocytes and observed microcytic anemia with compensatory extramedullary hematopoiesis together with splenomegaly and increased osmotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  19. Overexpression of protein kinase STK25 in mice exacerbates ectopic lipid accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chursa, Urszula; Nuñez-Durán, Esther; Cansby, Emmelie

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle is essential for developing new strategies to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator...... in skeletal muscle, highlighting the potential of STK25 antagonists for type 2 diabetes treatment....

  20. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M

    1996-01-01

    that in vitro protein kinase CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation of human NDPK A inhibits its enzymatic activity by inhibiting the first step of its ping-pong mechanism of catalysis: its autophosphorylation. Upon in vivo 32P labeling of HeLa cells, we observed that both human NDPKs, A and B, were autophosphorylated...

  1. AJUBA LIM Proteins Limit Hippo Activity in Proliferating Cells by Sequestering the Hippo Core Kinase Complex in the Cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Radhika; Schimizzi, Gregory V; Zhang, Kun; Loza, Andrew J; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hitoshi; Longmore, Gregory D

    2016-10-15

    The Hippo pathway controls organ growth and is implicated in cancer development. Whether and how Hippo pathway activity is limited to sustain or initiate cell growth when needed is not understood. The members of the AJUBA family of LIM proteins are negative regulators of the Hippo pathway. In mammalian epithelial cells, we found that AJUBA LIM proteins limit Hippo regulation of YAP, in proliferating cells only, by sequestering a cytosolic Hippo kinase complex in which LATS kinase is inhibited. At the plasma membranes of growth-arrested cells, AJUBA LIM proteins do not inhibit or associate with the Hippo kinase complex. The ability of AJUBA LIM proteins to inhibit YAP regulation by Hippo and to associate with the kinase complex directly correlate with their capacity to limit Hippo signaling during Drosophila wing development. AJUBA LIM proteins did not influence YAP activity in response to cell-extrinsic or cell-intrinsic mechanical signals. Thus, AJUBA LIM proteins limit Hippo pathway activity in contexts where cell proliferation is needed. Copyright © 2016 Jagannathan et al.

  2. The B isozyme creatine kinase is active as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretsky, A.P.; Traxler, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the B isozyme of creatine kinase CK B has been expressed in Escherichia coli from a fusion with lacZ carried by λgtll. Western blots indicate that a stable polypeptide with the appropriate mobility for the Β-galactosidase-creatine kinase Β-gal-CK B ) fusion protein cross-reacts with both Β-gal and CK B antiserum. No significant CK activity is detected in control E. coli; however, extracts from cells containing the λgtll-CK B construct have a CK activity of 1.54j0.07 μmol/min per mg protein. The fusion protein appears to provide this activity bacause immunoprecipitation of protein with Β-gal antiserum leads to a loss of CK activity from extracts. That the enzyme is active in vivo was demonstrated by detection of a phosphocreatine (PCr) peak in the 31 P NMR spectrum from E. coli grown on medium supplemented with creatine. As in mammalian brain and muscle, the PCr peak detected was sensitive to the energy status of the E. coli. (author). 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  3. DMPD: Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12472665 Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potential...:545-53. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase:...le Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflam

  4. Differential expression of mRNAs for protein kinase inhibitor isoforms in mouse brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Seasholtz, A F; Gamm, D M; Ballestero, R P; Scarpetta, M A; Uhler, M D

    1995-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters are known to regulate neuronal cell function by means of activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and phosphorylation of neuronal substrate proteins, including transcription factors and ion channels. Here, we have characterized the gene expression of two isoforms of a protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) specific for PKA in mouse brain by RNase protection and in situ hybridization histochemistry. The studies demonstrate that the PKI alpha isoform is abundant in many ...

  5. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I, the circadian clock, sleep and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Feil, Robert; Hölter, Sabine M; Weindl, Karin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Langmesser, Sonja; Gerling, Andrea; Feil, Susanne; Albrecht, Urs

    2009-01-01

    The second messenger cGMP controls cardiovascular and gastrointestinal homeostasis in mammals. However, its physiological relevance in the nervous system is poorly understood.1 Now, we have reported that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1) is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.2 Prkg1 mutant mice showed altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness as well as reduction in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) duration and in non-REMS consoli...

  6. Activation of G-proteins by receptor-stimulated nucleoside diphosphate kinase in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bominaar, A A; Molijn, A C; Pestel, M; Veron, M; Van Haastert, P J

    1993-01-01

    Recently, interest in the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC2.7.4.6) has increased as a result of its possible involvement in cell proliferation and development. Since NDP kinase is one of the major sources of GTP in cells, it has been suggested that the effects of an altered NDP kinase activity on cellular processes might be the result of altered transmembrane signal transduction via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). In the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum, extracellular cAMP induces an increase of phospholipase C activity via a surface cAMP receptor and G-proteins. In this paper it is demonstrated that part of the cellular NDP kinase is associated with the membrane and stimulated by cell surface cAMP receptors. The GTP produced by the action of NDP kinase is capable of activating G-proteins as monitored by altered G-protein-receptor interaction and the activation of the effector enzyme phospholipase C. Furthermore, specific monoclonal antibodies inhibit the effect of NDP kinase on G-protein activation. These results suggest that receptor-stimulated NDP kinase contributes to the mediation of hormone action by producing GTP for the activation of GTP-binding proteins. Images PMID:8389692

  7. A protein-tyrosine phosphatase with sequence similarity to the SH2 domain of the protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S H; Bastien, L; Posner, B I; Chrétien, P

    1991-08-22

    The phosphorylation of proteins at tyrosine residues is critical in cellular signal transduction, neoplastic transformation and control of the mitotic cycle. These mechanisms are regulated by the activities of both protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). As in the PTKs, there are two classes of PTPases: membrane associated, receptor-like enzymes and soluble proteins. Here we report the isolation of a complementary DNA clone encoding a new form of soluble PTPase, PTP1C. The enzyme possesses a large noncatalytic region at the N terminus which unexpectedly contains two adjacent copies of the Src homology region 2 (the SH2 domain) found in various nonreceptor PTKs and other cytoplasmic signalling proteins. As with other SH2 sequences, the SH2 domains of PTP1C formed high-affinity complexes with the activated epidermal growth factor receptor and other phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. These results suggest that the SH2 regions in PTP1C may interact with other cellular components to modulate its own phosphatase activity against interacting substrates. PTPase activity may thus directly link growth factor receptors and other signalling proteins through protein-tyrosine phosphorylation.

  8. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simarro, Maria [Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo [Department of Cancer Biology at Dana Farber Institute, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kedersha, Nancy [Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A. [Department of Cancer Biology at Dana Farber Institute, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rhee, Kirsten [Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika [Department of Cancer Biology at Dana Farber Institute, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Benarafa, Charaf [Theodor Kocher Institute, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Orduna, Anonio [Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Anderson, Paul, E-mail: panderson@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. {yields} The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. {yields} Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  9. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simarro, Maria; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Kedersha, Nancy; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rhee, Kirsten; Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika; Benarafa, Charaf; Orduna, Anonio; Anderson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. → The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. → Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  10. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibits insulin-induced activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and associated protein kinase C translocation in rat adipocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Standaert, M L; Avignon, A; Yamada, K; Bandyopadhyay, G; Farese, R V

    1996-01-01

    We questioned whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase C (PKC) function as interrelated signalling mechanisms during insulin action in rat adipocytes. Insulin rapidly activated a phospholipase D that hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC), and this activation was accompanied by increases in diacylglycerol and translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the plasma membrane. Wortmannin, an apparently specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited insulin-stimulat...

  11. Protein Kinase CK2 Content in GL261 Mouse Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Font, Laura; Alcaraz, Estefania; Plana, Maria; Candiota, Ana Paula; Itarte, Emilio; Arús, Carles

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive human glial tumour with a median survival of 14-15 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment. Unfortunately, chemoresistence always ensues with concomitant tumour regrowth. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) contributes to tumour development, proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis in cancer and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Targeting CK2 in GBM treatment may benefit patients. With this translational perspective in mind, we have studied the CK2 expression level by Western blot analysis in a preclinical model of GBM: GL261 cells growing orthotopically in C57BL/6 mice. The expression level of the CK2 catalytic subunit (CK2α) was higher in tumour (about 4-fold) and in contralateral brain parenchyma (more than 2-fold) than in normal brain parenchyma (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant changes were found in CK2 regulatory subunit (CK2β) expression, suggesting an increased unbalance of CK2α/CK2β in GL261 tumours with respect to normal brain parenchyma, in agreement with a differential role of these two subunits in tumours.

  12. AMP-activated protein kinase and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme that works as a fuel gauge, being activated in situations of high-energy phosphate depletion. Upon activation, AMPK functions to restore cellular ATP by modifying diverse metabolic pathways. AMPK is activated robustly by skeletal muscle contraction and myocardial ischemia, and may be involved in the stimulation of glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation produced by these stimuli. In liver, activation of AMPK results in enhanced fatty acid oxidation and in decreased production of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Recent studies have shown that AMPK is the cellular mediator for many of the metabolic effects of drugs such as metformin and thiazolidinediones, as well as the insulin sensitizing adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin. These data, along with evidence from studies showing that chemical activation of AMPK in vivo with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) improves blood glucose concentrations and lipid profiles, make this enzyme an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

  13. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Phytohormone Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuwu Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs/CDPKs are Ca2+-sensors that decode Ca2+ signals into specific physiological responses. Research has reported that CDPKs constitute a large multigene family in various plant species, and play diverse roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Although numerous CDPKs have been exhaustively studied, and many of them have been found to be involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and response mechanisms, a comprehensive overview of the manner in which CDPKs participate in phytohormone signaling pathways, regulating nearly all aspects of plant growth, has not yet been undertaken. In this article, we reviewed the structure of CDPKs and the mechanism of their subcellular localization. Some CDPKs were elucidated to influence the intracellular localization of their substrates. Since little work has been done on the interaction between CDPKs and cytokinin signaling pathways, or on newly defined phytohormones such as brassinosteroids, strigolactones and salicylic acid, this paper mainly focused on discussing the integral associations between CDPKs and five plant hormones: auxins, gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonates, and abscisic acid. A perspective on future work is provided at the end.

  14. Redox regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death.The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC.Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation.In BAEC, Berberine caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC at Ser79, a well characterized downstream target of AMPK. Concomitantly, Berberine increased peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant formed by simultaneous generation of superoxide and nitric oxide. Pre-incubation of BAEC with anti-oxidants markedly attenuated Berberine-enhanced phosphorylation of both AMPK and ACC. Consistently, adenoviral expression of superoxide dismutase and pretreatment of L-N(G-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a non-selective NOS inhibitor blunted Berberine-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Furthermore, mitochondria-targeted tempol (mito-tempol pretreatment or expression of uncoupling protein attenuated AMPK activation caused by Berberine. Depletion of mitochondria abolished the effects of Berberine on AMPK in EC. Finally, Berberine significantly increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 at Ser307 and gene silencing of LKB1 attenuated Berberine-enhanced AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation in BAEC.Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived superoxide anions and peroxynitrite are required for Berberine-induced AMPK activation in endothelial cells.

  15. Further characterization of protein kinase C in mouse mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Ishizaka, T.

    1986-01-01

    Bridging of cell-bound IgE antibody molecules on colony stimulating factor dependent mouse mast cell line (PT-18) cells by multivalent antigen induces the mobilization and uptake of Ca 2+ monitored by Quin-2 and the production of diacylglycerol. Exposure of the sensitized cells to antigen also induces a substantial increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the plasma membrane (340 units to 1375 units: 1 unit = 1 pmol of 32 P incorporated into Histone H-1/min/10 7 cells), within 30 seconds. There is also an increase in 3 H phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate ( 3 H-PDB) binding which parallels the increase in PKC activity both in kinetics and antigen dose dependency. Determination of K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ for PKC revealed no difference between the cytosolic and membranous forms of PKC. Partial purification of PKC from the membrane of sensitized mast cells which had been labeled with 32 P and stimulated with DNP-HSA revealed a protein of 80-84,000 molecular weight, which migrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis just above an authentic standard of PKC purified from rat brain. Treatment of the PKC from mouse mast cell membrane with alkaline phosphatase resulted in a reduction of phosphorylating activity and bindability of 3 H-PDB. In conclusion, the authors speculate that activation of mouse mast cells by cross-linking IgE results in the phosphorylation of a silent-pool of PKC converting it from an inactive state to an activated form

  16. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf A. Khalil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  17. Activation of protein kinase C alters the intracellular distribution and mobility of cardiac Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Wang, Dao W; Kunic, Jennifer D; George, Alfred L; Wells, K Sam; Murray, Katherine T

    2012-02-01

    Na(+) current derived from expression of the cardiac isoform SCN5A is reduced by receptor-mediated or direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Previous work has suggested a possible role for loss of Na(+) channels at the plasma membrane in this effect, but the results are controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKC activation acutely modulates the intracellular distribution of SCN5A channels and that this effect can be visualized in living cells. In human embryonic kidney cells that stably expressed SCN5A with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the channel COOH-terminus (SCN5A-GFP), Na(+) currents were suppressed by an exposure to PKC activation. Using confocal microscopy, colocalization of SCN5A-GFP channels with the plasma membrane under control and stimulated conditions was quantified. A separate population of SCN5A channels containing an extracellular epitope was immunolabeled to permit temporally stable labeling of the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrated that Na(+) channels were preferentially trafficked away from the plasma membrane by PKC activation, with a major contribution by Ca(2+)-sensitive or conventional PKC isoforms, whereas stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) had the opposite effect. Removal of the conserved PKC site Ser(1503) or exposure to the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin eliminated the PKC-mediated effect to alter channel trafficking, indicating that both channel phosphorylation and ROS were required. Experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that both PKC and PKA also modified channel mobility in a manner consistent with the dynamics of channel distribution. These results demonstrate that the activation of protein kinases can acutely regulate the intracellular distribution and molecular mobility of cardiac Na(+) channels in living cells.

  18. Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Growth via Signaling Crosstalk between AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Daniel Stone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal vascular smooth muscle (VSM growth is central in the pathophysiology of vascular disease yet fully effective therapies to curb this growth are lacking. Recent findings from our lab and others support growth control of VSM by adenosine monophosphate (AMP-based approaches including the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA. Molecular crosstalk between AMPK and PKA has been previously suggested, yet the extent to which this occurs and its biological significance in VSM remains unclear. Considering their common AMP backbone and similar signaling characteristics, we hypothesized that crosstalk exists between AMPK and PKA in the regulation of VSM growth. Using rat primary VSM cells, the AMPK agonist AICAR increased AMPK activity and phosphorylation of the catalytic Thr172 site on AMPK. Interestingly, AICAR also phosphorylated a suspected PKA-inhibitory Ser485 site on AMPK, and these cumulative events were reversed by the PKA inhibitor PKI suggesting possible PKA-mediated regulation of AMPK. AICAR also increased PKA activity in a reversible fashion. The cAMP stimulator forskolin increased PKA activity and completely ameliorated Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-2C activity, suggesting a potential mechanism of AMPK modulation by PKA since inhibition of PKA by PKI reduced AMPK activity. Functionally, AMPK inhibited serum-stimulated cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation; however, PKA failed to do so. Moreover, AMPK and PKA reduced PDGF-β-stimulated VSM cell migration. Collectively, these results show that AMPK is capable of reducing VSM growth in both anti-proliferative and anti-migratory fashions. Furthermore, these data suggest that AMPK may be modulated by PKA and that positive feedback may exist between these two systems. These findings reveal a discrete nexus between AMPK and PKA in VSM and provide basis for metabolically-directed targets in reducing pathologic VSM growth.

  19. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl......Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate...

  20. Exploring the function of protein kinases in schistosomes: perspectives from the laboratory and from comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John Walker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic protein kinases are well conserved through evolution. The genome of Schistosoma mansoni, which causes intestinal schistosomiasis, encodes over 250 putative protein kinases with all of the main eukaryotic groups represented. However, unraveling functional roles for these kinases is a considerable endeavour, particularly as protein kinases regulate multiple and sometimes overlapping cell and tissue functions in organisms. In this article, elucidating protein kinase signal transduction and function in schistosomes is considered from the perspective of the state-of-the-art methodologies used and comparative organismal biology, with a focus on current advances and future directions. Using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a comparator we predict roles for various schistosome protein kinases in processes vital for host invasion and successful parasitism such as sensory behaviour, growth and development. It is anticipated that the characterization of schistosome protein kinases in the context of parasite function will catalyze cutting edge research into host-parasite interactions and will reveal new targets for developing drug interventions against human schistosomiasis.

  1. The Sensitivity of Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation to Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis and Kinases: Computational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Memory consolidation and reconsolidation require kinase activation and protein synthesis. Blocking either process during or shortly after training or recall disrupts memory stabilization, which suggests the existence of a critical time window during which these processes are necessary. Using a computational model of kinase synthesis and…

  2. Resorufin: a lead for a new protein kinase CK2 inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Iben Skjøth; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Guerra, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Screening a natural compound library led to the identification of resorufin as a highly selective and potent inhibitor of protein kinase CK2. Out of 52 kinases tested, only CK2 was inhibited, in contrast to emodin, a structurally related, known CK2 inhibitor that, in addition to CK2, inhibited te...

  3. Regulation of the vertebrate cell cycle by the cdc2 protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draetta, G.; Brizuela, L.; Moran, B.; Beach, D.

    1988-01-01

    A homolog of the cdc2/CDC28 protein kinase of yeast is found in all vertebrate species that have been investigated. Human cdc2 exists as a complex with a 13-kD protein that is homologous to the suc1 gene product of fission yeast. In both human and fission yeast cells, the protein kinase also exists in a complex with a 62-kD polypeptide that has not been identified genetically but acts as a substrate in vitro. The authors have studied the properties of the protein kinase in rat and human cells, as well as in Xenopus eggs. They find that in baby rat kidney (BRK) cells, which are quiescent in cell culture, the cdc2 protein is not synthesized. However, synthesis is rapidly induced in response to proliferative activation by infection with adenovirus. In human HeLa cells, the protein kinase is present continuously. It behaves as a cell-cycle oscillator that is inactive in G 1 but displays maximal enzymatic activity during mitotic metaphase. These observations indicate that in a wide variety of vertebrate cells, the cdc2 protein kinase is involved in regulating mitosis. The authors' approach taken toward study of the cdc2 protein kinase highlights the possibilities that now exist for combining the advantages of ascomycete genetics with the cell-free systems of Xenopus and the biochemical advantages of tissue culture cells to investigate fundamental problems of the cell cycle

  4. Distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    PASTA domains (penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains) have been identified in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They are believed to bind β-lactam antibiotics, and be involved in peptidoglycan metabolism, although their biological function is not definitively clarified. Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are distinct in that they undergo complex cellular differentiation and produce various antibiotics including β-lactams. This review focuses on the distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases in Actinobacteria. In Actinobacteria, PASTA domains are detectable exclusively in class A but not in class B penicillin-binding proteins, in sharp contrast to the cases in other bacteria. In penicillin-binding proteins, PASTA domains distribute independently from taxonomy with some distribution bias. Particularly interesting thing is that no Streptomyces species have penicillin-binding protein with PASTA domains. Protein kinases in Actinobacteria possess 0 to 5 PASTA domains in their molecules. Protein kinases in Streptomyces can be classified into three groups: no PASTA domain, 1 PASTA domain and 4 PASTA domain-containing groups. The 4 PASTA domain-containing groups can be further divided into two subgroups. The serine/threonine kinases in different groups may perform different functions. The pocket region in one of these subgroup is more dense and extended, thus it may be involved in binding of ligands like β-lactams more efficiently.

  5. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J. (Abbott)

    2012-03-02

    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  6. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein Function Is Regulated via a Flexible Pocket and Novel Phosphorylation-Dependent Mechanism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E.; Clark, Matthew C.; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics. PMID:19103740

  7. Raf kinase inhibitory protein function is regulated via a flexible pocket and novel phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E; Clark, Matthew C; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-03-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics.

  8. A historical overview of protein kinases and their targeted small molecule inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Protein kinases play a predominant regulatory role in nearly every aspect of cell biology and they can modify the function of a protein in almost every conceivable way. Protein phosphorylation can increase or decrease enzyme activity and it can alter other biological activities such as transcription and translation. Moreover, some phosphorylation sites on a given protein are stimulatory while others are inhibitory. The human protein kinase gene family consists of 518 members along with 106 pseudogenes. Furthermore, about 50 of the 518 gene products lack important catalytic residues and are called protein pseudokinases. The non-catalytic allosteric interaction of protein kinases and pseudokinases with other proteins has added an important regulatory feature to the biochemistry and cell biology of the protein kinase superfamily. With rare exceptions, a divalent cation such as Mg2+ is required for the reaction. All protein kinases exist in a basal state and are activated only as necessary by divergent regulatory stimuli. The mechanisms for switching between dormant and active protein kinases can be intricate. Phosphorylase kinase was the first protein kinase to be characterized biochemically and the mechanism of its regulation led to the discovery of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, or PKA), which catalyzes the phosphorylation and activation of phosphorylase kinase. This was the first protein kinase cascade or signaling module to be elucidated. The epidermal growth factor receptor-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling module contains protein-tyrosine, protein-serine/threonine, and dual specificity protein kinases. PKA has served as a prototype of this enzyme family and more is known about this enzyme than any other protein kinase. The inactive PKA holoenzyme consists of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. After binding four molecules of cAMP, the holoenzyme dissociates into a regulatory subunit dimer (each monomer binds two cAMP) and two free and active

  9. Toscana virus NSs protein promotes degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Birte; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-04-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV), which is transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sandflies, is a major etiologic agent of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in the Mediterranean. Like other members of the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, TOSV encodes a nonstructural protein (NSs) in its small RNA segment. Although the NSs of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been identified as an important virulence factor, which suppresses host general transcription, inhibits transcription from the beta interferon promoter, and promotes the proteasomal degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), little is known about the functions of NSs proteins encoded by less-pathogenic members of this genus. In this study we report that TOSV is able to downregulate PKR with similar efficiency as RVFV, while infection with the other phleboviruses-i.e., Punta Toro virus, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, or Frijoles virus-has no effect on cellular PKR levels. In contrast to RVFV, however, cellular transcription remains unaffected during TOSV infection. TOSV NSs protein promotes the proteasome-dependent downregulation of PKR and is able to interact with kinase-inactive PKR in infected cells.

  10. LRRK2 kinase inhibition prevents pathological microglial phagocytosis in response to HIV-1 Tat protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marker Daniel F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs are accompanied by significant morbidity, which persists despite the use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART. While activated microglia play a role in pathogenesis, changes in their immune effector functions, including phagocytosis and proinflammatory signaling pathways, are not well understood. We have identified leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 as a novel regulator of microglial phagocytosis and activation in an in vitro model of HANDs, and hypothesize that LRRK2 kinase inhibition will attenuate microglial activation during HANDs. Methods We treated BV-2 immortalized mouse microglia cells with the HIV-1 trans activator of transcription (Tat protein in the absence or presence of LRRK2 kinase inhibitor (LRRK2i. We used Western blot, qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and latex bead engulfment assays to analyze LRRK2 protein levels, proinflammatory cytokine and phagocytosis receptor expression, LRRK2 cellular distribution and phagocytosis, respectively. Finally, we utilized ex vivo microfluidic chambers containing primary hippocampal neurons and BV-2 microglia cells to investigate microglial phagocytosis of neuronal axons. Results We found that Tat-treatment of BV-2 cells induced kinase activity associated phosphorylation of serine 935 on LRRK2 and caused the formation of cytoplasmic LRRK2 inclusions. LRRK2i decreased Tat-induced phosphorylation of serine 935 on LRRK2 and inhibited the formation of Tat-induced cytoplasmic LRRK2 inclusions. LRRK2i also decreased Tat-induced process extension in BV-2 cells. Furthermore, LRRK2i attenuated Tat-induced cytokine expression and latex bead engulfment. We examined relevant cellular targets in microfluidic chambers and found that Tat-treated BV-2 microglia cells cleared axonal arbor and engulfed neuronal elements, whereas saline treated controls did not. LRRK2i was found to protect axons in the presence

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion and cytotoxicity are independent events, both of which involve protein tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D J; Frank, D W; Finck-Barbançon, V; Wu, C; Fleiszig, S M

    1998-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates exhibit invasive or cytotoxic phenotypes. Cytotoxic strains acquire some of the characteristics of invasive strains when a regulatory gene, exsA, that controls the expression of several extracellular proteins, is inactivated. exsA mutants are not cytotoxic and can be detected within epithelial cells by gentamicin survival assays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epithelial cell invasion precedes and/or is essential for cytotoxicity. This was tested by measuring invasion (gentamicin survival) and cytotoxicity (trypan blue staining) of PA103 mutants deficient in specific exsA-regulated proteins and by testing the effect of drugs that inhibit invasion for their effect on cytotoxicity. A transposon mutant in the exsA-regulated extracellular factor exoU was neither cytotoxic nor invasive. Furthermore, several of the drugs that inhibited invasion did not prevent cytotoxicity. These results show that invasion and cytotoxicity are mutually exclusive events, inversely regulated by an exsA-encoded invasion inhibitor(s). Both involve host cell protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity, but they differ in that invasion requires Src family tyrosine kinases and calcium-calmodulin activity. PTK inhibitor drugs such as genistein may have therapeutic potential through their ability to block both invasive and cytotoxicity pathways via an action on the host cell.

  12. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tung O; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B

    2015-10-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr(308) in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr(308) dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser(473)) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr(308)) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr(308) phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  13. Protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulate movement, attachment, pairing and egg release in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Ressurreição

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases C (PKCs and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs are evolutionary conserved cell signalling enzymes that coordinate cell function. Here we have employed biochemical approaches using 'smart' antibodies and functional screening to unravel the importance of these enzymes to Schistosoma mansoni physiology. Various PKC and ERK isotypes were detected, and were differentially phosphorylated (activated throughout the various S. mansoni life stages, suggesting isotype-specific roles and differences in signalling complexity during parasite development. Functional kinase mapping in adult worms revealed that activated PKC and ERK were particularly associated with the adult male tegument, musculature and oesophagus and occasionally with the oesophageal gland; other structures possessing detectable activated PKC and/or ERK included the Mehlis' gland, ootype, lumen of the vitellaria, seminal receptacle and excretory ducts. Pharmacological modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult worms using GF109203X, U0126, or PMA, resulted in significant physiological disturbance commensurate with these proteins occupying a central position in signalling pathways associated with schistosome muscular activity, neuromuscular coordination, reproductive function, attachment and pairing. Increased activation of ERK and PKC was also detected in worms following praziquantel treatment, with increased signalling associated with the tegument and excretory system and activated ERK localizing to previously unseen structures, including the cephalic ganglia. These findings support roles for PKC and ERK in S. mansoni homeostasis, and identify these kinase groups as potential targets for chemotherapeutic treatments against human schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of enormous public health significance.

  14. Protein kinase N2 regulates AMP kinase signaling and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Maxwell A; Riedl, Isabelle; Massart, Julie; Åhlin, Marcus; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-10-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Because skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. Although Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo. PKN2 knockdown in vitro decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, incorporation into glycogen, and oxidation. PKN2 siRNA increased 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling while stimulating fatty acid oxidation and incorporation into triglycerides and decreasing protein synthesis. At the transcriptional level, PKN2 knockdown increased expression of PGC-1α and SREBP-1c and their target genes. In mature skeletal muscle, in vivo PKN2 knockdown decreased glucose uptake and increased AMPK phosphorylation. Thus, PKN2 alters key signaling pathways and transcriptional networks to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Identification of PKN2 as a novel regulator of insulin and AMPK signaling may provide an avenue for manipulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits synthesis and release of decidual prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, I.; Costello, A.; Ganong, B.; Bell, R.M.; Handwerger, S.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C by diacylglycerol and phorbol esters has been shown to mediate release of hormones in many systems. To determine whether protein kinase C activation is also involved in the regulation of prolactin release from human decidual, the authors have examined the effects of various acylglycerols and phorbol esters on the synthesis and release of prolactin from cultured human decidual cells. sn-1,2-Dioctanolyglycerol (diC 8 ), which is known to stimulate protein kinase C in other systems, inhibited prolactin release in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 53.1% at 100 μM. Diolein (100 μM), which also stimulates protein kinase C activity in some systems, inhibited prolactin release by 21.3%. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, and 4β-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which activate protein kinase C in other systems, also inhibited the release of prolactin, which the protein kinase C inactivate 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate was without effect. The inhibition of prolactin release was secondary to a decrease in prolactin synthesis. Although diC 8 and PMA inhibited the synthesis and release of prolactin, these agents had no effect on the synthesis or release of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable [ 35 S]methionine-labeled decidual proteins and did not cause the release of the cytosolic enzymes lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. DiC 8 and PMA stimulates the specific activity of protein kinase C in decidual tissue by 14.6 and 14.0-fold, respectively. The inhibition of the synthesis and release of prolactin by diC 8 and phorbol esters strongly implicates protein kinase C in the regulation of the production and release of prolactin from the decidua

  16. Protein kinase C activation induces conductance changes in Hermissenda photoreceptors like those seen in associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, J; Auerbach, S

    Phosphorylation of ion channels has been suggested as one molecular mechanism responsible for learning-produced long-term changes in neuronal excitability. Persistent training-produced changes in two distinct K+ currents (IA (ref. 2), IK-Ca (refs 3,4)) and a voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa; refs 3,4) have previously been shown to occur in type B photoreceptors of Hermissenda, as a result of associative learning. But the identity of the phosphorylation pathway(s) responsible for these changes has not as yet been determined. Injections of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase reduce a K+ current (IK) in B cells which is different from those changed by training, but fails to reduce IA and IK-Ca. Phosphorylase b kinase (an exogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase) reduces IA, but whether IK-Ca and ICa are changed in the manner of associative training is not yet known. Another protein kinase present in high concentrations in both mammalian brain and molluscan nervous systems is protein kinase C, which is both calcium- and phospholipid-sensitive. We now present evidence that activation of protein kinase C by the tumour promoter phorbol ester (PDB) and intracellular injection of the enzyme induce conductance changes similar to those caused by associative training in Hermissenda B cells (that is a reduction of IA and IK-Ca, and enhancement of ICa). These results represent the first direct demonstration that protein kinase C affects membrane K+ ion conductance mechanisms.

  17. Cloning and characterization of a G protein-activated human phosphoinositide-3 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, B; Volinia, S; Hanck, T; Rubio, I; Loubtchenkov, M; Malek, D; Stoyanova, S; Vanhaesebroeck, B; Dhand, R; Nürnberg, B

    1995-08-04

    Phosphoinositide-3 kinase activity is implicated in diverse cellular responses triggered by mammalian cell surface receptors and in the regulation of protein sorting in yeast. Receptors with intrinsic and associated tyrosine kinase activity recruit heterodimeric phosphoinositide-3 kinases that consist of p110 catalytic subunits and p85 adaptor molecules containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. A phosphoinositide-3 kinase isotype, p110 gamma, was cloned and characterized. The p110 gamma enzyme was activated in vitro by both the alpha and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) and did not interact with p85. A potential pleckstrin homology domain is located near its amino terminus. The p110 gamma isotype may link signaling through G protein-coupled receptors to the generation of phosphoinositide second messengers phosphorylated in the D-3 position.

  18. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the kidney: Target for intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, M.H.; Wassef, L.; Kelly, D.J.; van Goor, H.; Navis, Ger Jan

    2006-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are intracellular signal transduction molecules, which connect cell-surface receptor signals to intracellular processes. MAPKs regulate a range of cellular activities including cell proliferation, gene expression, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cytokine

  19. Membrane skeletal proteins and their integral membrane protein anchors are targets for tyrosine and threonine kinases in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, M J; Da Silva, A C; Rosiere, T K; Bouck, G B

    1995-01-01

    Proteins of the membrane skeleton of Euglena gracilis were extensively phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro after incubation with [32P]-orthophosphate or gamma-[32P] ATP. Endogenous protein threonine/serine activity phosphorylated the major membrane skeletal proteins (articulins) and the putative integral membrane protein (IP39) anchor for articulins. The latter was also the major target for endogenous protein tyrosine kinase activity. A cytoplasmic domain of IP39 was specifically phosphorylated, and removal of this domain with papain eliminated the radiolabeled phosphoamino acids and eliminated or radically shifted the PI of the multiple isoforms of IP39. In gel kinase assays IP39 autophosphorylated and a 25 kDa protein which does not autophosphorylate was identified as a threonine/serine (casein) kinase. Plasma membranes from the membrane skeletal protein complex contained threonine/serine (casein) kinase activity, and cross-linking experiments suggested that IP39 was the likely source for this membrane activity. pH optima, cation requirements and heparin sensitivity of the detergent solubilized membrane activity were determined. Together these results suggest that protein kinases may be important modulators of protein assembly and function of the membrane skeleton of these protistan cells.

  20. Fragmentation of Protein Kinase N (PKN) in the Hydrocephalic Rat Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okii, Norifumi; Amano, Taku; Seki, Takahiro; Matsubayashi, Hiroaki; Mukai, Hideyuki; Ono, Yoshitaka; Kurisu, Kaoru; Sakai, Norio

    2007-01-01

    PKN (protein kinase N; also called protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK-1)), is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is ubiquitously expressed in several organs, including the brain. PKN has a molecular mass of 120 kDa and has two domains, a regulatory and a catalytic domain, in its amino-terminals and carboxyl-terminus, respectively. Although the role of PKN has not been fully elucidated, previous studies have revealed that PKN is cleaved to a constitutively active catalytic fragment of 55 kDa in response to apoptotic signals. Hydrocephalus is a pathological condition caused by insufficient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation and subsequent excess of CSF in the brain. In this study, in order to elucidate the role of PKN in the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus, we examined PKN fragmentation in hydrocephalic model rats. Hydrocephalus was induced in rats by injecting kaolin into the cisterna magna. Kaolin-induced rats (n=60) were divided into three groups according to the observation period after treatment (group 1: 3–6 weeks, group 2: 7–12 weeks, and group 3: 13–18 weeks). Sham-treated control rats, injected with sterile saline (n=20), were similarly divided into three groups. Spatial learning ability was estimated by a modified water maze test. Thereafter, brains were cut into slices and ventricular dilatation was estimated. Fragmentation of PKN was observed by Western blotting in samples collected from the parietal cortex, striatum, septal nucleus, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray matter. All kaolin-induced rats showed ventricular dilatation. Most of them showed less spatial learning ability than those of sham-treated controls. In most regions, fragmentation of PKN had occurred in a biphasic manner more frequently than that in controls. The appearance of PKN fragmentation in periaqueductal gray matter was correlated with the extent of ventricular dilation and spatial learning disability. These results revealed that PKN fragmentation was observed in

  1. SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5, an SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE3-Type Protein Kinase, Is Important for Abscisic Acid Responses in Arabidopsis through Phosphorylation of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE51[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaona; Hao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuguo; Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Qin, Yunxia; Yuan, Feifei; Zhao, Feiyi; Wang, Mengyao; Hu, Jingjiang; Xu, Hong; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Zhao, Yang; Cao, Cuiling; Yang, Yongqing; Schumaker, Karen S.; Guo, Yan; Xie, Chang Gen

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in seed germination. In this study, we demonstrate that one SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE3-type protein kinase, SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5 (PKS5), is involved in ABA signal transduction via the phosphorylation of an interacting protein, ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). We found that pks5-3 and pks5-4, two previously identified PKS5 superactive kinase mutants with point mutations in the PKS5 FISL/NAF (a conserved peptide that is necessary for interaction with SOS3 or SOS3-LIKE CALCIUM BINDING PROTEINs) motif and the kinase domain, respectively, are hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination. PKS5 was found to interact with ABI5 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and this interaction was further confirmed in planta using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Genetic studies revealed that ABI5 is epistatic to PKS5. PKS5 phosphorylates a serine (Ser) residue at position 42 in ABI5 and regulates ABA-responsive gene expression. This phosphorylation was induced by ABA in vivo and transactivated ABI5. Expression of ABI5, in which Ser-42 was mutated to alanine, could not fully rescue the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the abi5-8 and pks5-4abi5-8 mutants. In contrast, mutating Ser-42 to aspartate rescued the ABA insensitivity of these mutants. These data demonstrate that PKS5-mediated phosphorylation of ABI5 at Ser-42 is critical for the ABA regulation of seed germination and gene expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PMID:25858916

  2. Akt1/protein kinase Bα is critical for ischemic and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ackah, Eric; Yu, Jun; Zoellner, Stefan; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Skurk, Carsten; Shibata, Rei; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Easton, Rachael M.; Galasso, Gennaro; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Sessa, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Akt, or protein kinase B, is a multifunctional serine-threonine protein kinase implicated in a diverse range of cellular functions including cell metabolism, survival, migration, and gene expression. However, the in vivo roles and effectors of individual Akt isoforms in signaling are not explicitly clear. Here we show that the genetic loss of Akt1, but not Akt2, in mice results in defective ischemia and VEGF-induced angiogenesis as well as severe peripheral vascular disease. Akt1 knockout (Ak...

  3. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E

    1996-01-01

    area of the cell and mostly associated with the cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon epidermal growth factor treatment and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, the immunolabeling became peripheral and was found to be associated with the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane....... The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein....

  4. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  5. Reduced expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinases in schizophrenia but not in schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, ER; Ahmed, MR; Gurevich, VV; Benovic, JL; Gurevich, EV

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of multiple G protein-mediated signaling pathways are detected in schizophrenia. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins terminate signaling by G protein-coupled receptors exerting powerful influence on receptor functions. Modifications of arrestin and/or GRKs expression may contribute to schizophrenia pathology. Cortical expression of arrestins and GRKs was measured postmortem in control and subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Additionally, arrestin/GRK expression was determined in elderly patients with schizophrenia and age-matched control. Patients with schizophrenia, but not schizoaffective disorder, displayed reduced concentration of arrestin and GRK mRNAs and GRK3 protein. Arrestins and GRK significantly decreased with age. In elderly patients, GRK6 was reduced, with other GRKs and arrestins unchanged. Reduced cortical concentration of GRKs in schizophrenia (resembling that in aging) may result in altered G protein-dependent signaling, thus contributing to prefrontal deficits in schizophrenia. The data suggest distinct molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. PMID:21784156

  6. Tumor promoter induced membrane-bound protein kinase C - its influence on hematogenous metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishna, R.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A correlation between the amount of membrane-bound detergent-extractable protein kinase C activity in various B16 melanoma sublines (F10, F1, BL6) and their lung metastasizing abilities following intravenous injection was found. The F10 subline which exhibits higher metastasizing ability was found to have higher membrane-bound protein kinase C compared to the lower metastasizing subline, F1. Treatment of F1 cells with 100 nM 12-0 tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 1h resulted in 90% decrease in protein kinase C activity in the cytosol with a concommitent increase in membrane-bound activity. These TPA-treated cells when injected intravenously in C57BL/6 mice produced 6-fold increase in pulmonary metastases compared to untreated F1 cells. However, biologically inactive analogues 4 α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate and phorbol 13-acetate had no effect on either membrane-bound protein kinase C activity or pulmonary metastases. Treating F1 cells with the second-stage tumor promoter, mezerin, resulted in increase in both membrane association of protein kinase C and also lung metastases. Thus, these results strongly suggests that membrane associated protein kinase C activity influences hematogenous metastasis of these melanoma cells

  7. Molecular modelling of calcium dependent protein kinase 4 (CDPK4) from Plasmodium falciparum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsekoa, Tsepo L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) as defined in model organisms. A novel family of phylogenetically distinct ePK-related genes in P. falciparum has been identified. These kinases (up to 20 in number [2], designated the FIKK family due to a conserved amino...]. The protein kinase complement of Plasmodium falciparum, the main infectious agent of lethal malaria in humans, has been analysed in detail [2, 3]. These analyses revealed that the P. falciparum kinome comprises as many as 65 sequences related to typical...

  8. Role of the mixed-lineage protein kinase pathway in the metabolic stress response to obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Shashi; Barrett, Tamera; Vertii, Anastassiia; Noh, Yun Hee; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Davis, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Saturated free fatty acid (FFA) is implicated in the metabolic response to obesity. In vitro studies indicate that FFA signaling may be mediated by the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) pathway that activates cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Here, we examined the role of the MLK pathway in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. The ubiquitously expressed MLK2 and MLK3 protein kinases have partially redundant functions. We therefore compared wild-type and compound mutant mice that l...

  9. An improved method to unravel phosphoacceptors in Ser/Thr protein kinase-phosphorylated substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Virginie; Leiba, Jade; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Kremer, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    Identification of the phosphorylated residues of bacterial Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK) substrates still represents a challenging task. Herein, we present a new strategy allowing the rapid determination of phosphoacceptors in kinase substrates, essentially based on the dual expression of the kinase with its substrate in the surrogate E. coli, followed by MS analysis in a single-step procedure. The performance of this strategy is illustrated using two distinct proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as model substrates, the GroEL2 and HspX chaperones. A comparative analysis with a standard method that includes mass spectrometry analysis of in vitro phosphorylated substrates is also addressed.

  10. Phospholipid composition and a polybasic motif determine D6 PROTEIN KINASE polar association with the plasma membrane and tropic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Inês C R; Shikata, Hiromasa; Zourelidou, Melina; Heilmann, Mareike; Heilmann, Ingo; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2016-12-15

    Polar transport of the phytohormone auxin through PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers is essential for the spatiotemporal control of plant development. The Arabidopsis thaliana serine/threonine kinase D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) is polarly localized at the plasma membrane of many cells where it colocalizes with PINs and activates PIN-mediated auxin efflux. Here, we show that the association of D6PK with the basal plasma membrane and PINs is dependent on the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane as well as on the phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 in epidermis cells of the primary root. We further show that D6PK directly binds polyacidic phospholipids through a polybasic lysine-rich motif in the middle domain of the kinase. The lysine-rich motif is required for proper PIN3 phosphorylation and for auxin transport-dependent tropic growth. Polybasic motifs are also present at a conserved position in other D6PK-related kinases and required for membrane and phospholipid binding. Thus, phospholipid-dependent recruitment to membranes through polybasic motifs might not only be required for D6PK-mediated auxin transport but also other processes regulated by these, as yet, functionally uncharacterized kinases. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Three-Dimentional Structures of Autophosphorylation Complexes in Crystals of Protein Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Dumbrack, Roland

    2016-01-26

    Protein kinase autophosphorylation is a common regulatory mechanism in cell signaling pathways. Several autophosphorylation complexes have been identified in crystals of protein kinases, with a known serine, threonine, or tyrosine autophosphorylation site of one kinase monomer sitting in the active site of another monomer of the same protein in the crystal. We utilized a structural bioinformatics method to identify all such autophosphorylation complexes in X-ray crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by generating all unique kinase/kinase interfaces within and between asymmetric units of each crystal and measuring the distance between the hydroxyl oxygen of potential autophosphorylation sites and the oxygen atoms of the active site aspartic acid residue side chain. We have identified 15 unique autophosphorylation complexes in the PDB, of which 5 complexes have not previously been described in the relevant publications on the crystal structures (N-terminal juxtamembrane regions of CSF1R and EPHA2, activation loop tyrosines of LCK and IGF1R, and a serine in a nuclear localization signal region of CLK2. Mutation of residues in the autophosphorylation complex interface of LCK either severely impaired autophosphorylation or increased it. Taking the autophosphorylation complexes as a whole and comparing them with peptide-substrate/kinase complexes, we observe a number of important features among them. The novel and previously observed autophosphorylation sites are conserved in many kinases, indicating that by homology we can extend the relevance of these complexes to many other clinically relevant drug targets.

  12. A dual-specificity isoform of the protein kinase inhibitor PKI produced by alternate gene splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Walsh, Donal A

    2002-03-15

    We have previously shown that the protein kinase inhibitor beta (PKIbeta) form of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor exists in multiple isoforms, some of which are specific inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, whereas others also inhibit the cGMP-dependent enzyme [Kumar, Van Patten and Walsh (1997), J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20011-20020]. We have now demonstrated that the switch from a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-specific inhibitor to one with dual specificity arises as a consequence of alternate gene splicing. We have confirmed using bacterially produced pure protein that a single inhibitor species has dual specificity for both PKA and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), inhibiting each with very high and closely similar inhibitory potencies. The gene splicing converted a protein with 70 amino acids into one of 109 amino acids, and did not change the inhibitory potency to PKA, but changed it from a protein that had no detectable PKG inhibitory activity to one that now inhibited PKG in the nanomolar range.

  13. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  14. Inhibition of epithelial Na+ transport by atriopeptin, protein kinase c, and pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrmann, M.; Cantiello, H.F.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have recently shown the selective inhibition of an amiloride-sensitive, conductive pathway for Na + by atrial natriuretic peptide and 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK i . Using 22 Na + fluxes, they further investigated the modulation of Na + transport by atrial natriuretic peptide and by agents that increase cGMP production, activate protein kinase c, or modulate guanine nucleotide regulatory protein function. Sodium nitroprusside increases intracellular cGMP concentrations without affecting cAMP concentrations and completely inhibits amiloride-sensitive Na + uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, activators of protein kinase c, inhibit Na + uptake by 93 ± 13 and 51 ± 10%, respectively. Prolonged incubation with phorbol ester results in the downregulation of protein kinase c activity and reduces the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide, suggesting that the action of this peptide involves stimulation of protein kinase c. Pertussis toxin, which induces the ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kDa guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in LLC-PK i cells, inhibits 22 Na + influx to the same extent as amiloride. Thus, increasing cGMP, activating protein kinase c, and ADP-ribosylating a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein all inhibit Na + uptake. These events may be sequentially involved in the action of atrial natriuretic peptide

  15. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by tributyltin induces neuronal cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro; Hino, Atsuko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a member of the metabolite-sensing protein kinase family, is activated by energy deficiency and is abundantly expressed in neurons. The environmental pollutant, tributyltin chloride (TBT), is a neurotoxin, and has been reported to decrease cellular ATP in some types of cells. Therefore, we investigated whether TBT activates AMPK, and whether its activation contributes to neuronal cell death, using primary cultures of cortical neurons. Cellular ATP levels were decreased 0.5 h after exposure to 500 nM TBT, and the reduction was time-dependent. It was confirmed that most neurons in our culture system express AMPK, and that TBT induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, reduced the neurotoxicity of TBT, suggesting that AMPK is involved in TBT-induced cell death. Next, the downstream target of AMPK activation was investigated. Nitric oxide synthase, p38 phosphorylation and Akt dephosphorylation were not downstream of TBT-induced AMPK activation because these factors were not affected by compound C, but glutamate release was suggested to be controlled by AMPK. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK by TBT causes neuronal death through mediating glutamate release

  16. Akt1/protein kinase Bα is critical for ischemic and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackah, Eric; Yu, Jun; Zoellner, Stefan; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Skurk, Carsten; Shibata, Rei; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Easton, Rachael M.; Galasso, Gennaro; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Sessa, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Akt, or protein kinase B, is a multifunctional serine-threonine protein kinase implicated in a diverse range of cellular functions including cell metabolism, survival, migration, and gene expression. However, the in vivo roles and effectors of individual Akt isoforms in signaling are not explicitly clear. Here we show that the genetic loss of Akt1, but not Akt2, in mice results in defective ischemia and VEGF-induced angiogenesis as well as severe peripheral vascular disease. Akt1 knockout (Akt1–/–) mice also have reduced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization in response to ischemia, and reintroduction of WT EPCs, but not EPCs isolated from Akt1–/– mice, into WT mice improves limb blood flow after ischemia. Mechanistically, the loss of Akt1 reduces the basal phosphorylation of several Akt substrates, the migration of fibroblasts and ECs, and NO release. Reconstitution of Akt1–/– ECs with Akt1 rescues the defects in substrate phosphorylation, cell migration, and NO release. Thus, the Akt1 isoform exerts an essential role in blood flow control, cellular migration, and NO synthesis during postnatal angiogenesis. PMID:16075056

  17. The novel protein kinase C epsilon isoform modulates acetylcholine release in the rat neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obis, Teresa; Hurtado, Erica; Nadal, Laura; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Simon, Anna; Garcia, Neus; Santafe, Manel M; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Josep

    2015-12-01

    Various protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms contribute to the phosphorylating activity that modulates neurotransmitter release. In previous studies we showed that nPKCε is confined in the presynaptic site of the neuromuscular junction and its presynaptic function is activity-dependent. Furthermore, nPKCε regulates phorbol ester-induced acetylcholine release potentiation, which further indicates that nPKCε is involved in neurotransmission. The present study is designed to examine the nPKCε involvement in transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. We use the specific nPKCε translocation inhibitor peptide εV1-2 and electrophysiological experiments to investigate the involvement of this isoform in acetylcholine release. We observed that nPKCε membrane translocation is key to the synaptic potentiation of NMJ, being involved in several conditions that upregulate PKC isoforms coupling to acetylcholine (ACh) release (incubation with high Ca(2+), stimulation with phorbol esters and protein kinase A, stimulation with adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, 8-Bromo-, Rp-isomer, sodium salt -Sp-8-BrcAMP-). In all these conditions, preincubation with the nPKCε translocation inhibitor peptide (εV1-2) impairs PKC coupling to acetylcholine release potentiation. In addition, the inhibition of nPKCε translocation and therefore its activity impedes that presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors and adenosine autoreceptors modulate transmitter secretion. Together, these results point to the importance of nPKCε isoform in the control of acetylcholine release in the neuromuscular junction.

  18. The carboxy terminus of p53 mimics the polylysine effect of protein kinase CK2-catalyzed MDM2 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Götz, C; Wagner, P

    1997-01-01

    The oncogene product MDM2 can be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 in vitro 0.5-1 mol of phosphate were incorporated per mol MDM2 protein. The catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (alpha-subunit) catalyzed the incorporation of twice as much phosphate into the MDM2 protein as it was obtained...

  19. The role of Protein Kinase Cη in T cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R.J. Gascoigne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase Cη (PKCη is a member of the novel PKC subfamily, which also includes δ, ε, and θ isoforms. Compared to the other novel PKCs, the function of PKCη in the immune system is largely unknown. Several studies have started to reveal the role of PKCη, particularly in T cells. PKCη is highly expressed in T cells, and is upregulated during thymocyte positive selection. Interestingly, like the θ isoform, PKCη is also recruited to the immunological synapse that is formed between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell. However, unlike PKCθ, which becomes concentrated to the central region of the synapse, PKCη remains in a diffuse pattern over the whole area of the synapse, suggesting distinctive roles of these two isoforms in signal transduction. Although PKCη is dispensable for thymocyte development, further analysis of PKCη− or PKCθ−deficient and double knockout mice revealed the redundancy of these two isoforms in thymocyte development. In contrast, PKCη rather than PKCθ, plays an important role for T cell homeostatic proliferation, which requires recognition of self-antigen. Another piece of evidence demonstrating that PKCη and PKCθ have isoform specific as well as redundant roles come from the analysis of CD4 to CD8 T cell ratios in the periphery of these knockout mice. Deficiency in PKCη or PKCθ had opposing effects as PKCη knockout mice had a higher ratio of CD4 to CD8 T cells compared to that of wild-type mice, whereas PKCθ-deficient mice had a lower ratio. Biochemical studies showed that calcium flux and NFκB translocation is impaired in PKCη-deficient T cells upon TCR crosslinking stimulation, a character shared with PKCθ-deficient T cells. However, unlike the case with PKCθ, the mechanistic study of PKCη is at early stage and the signaling pathways involving PKCη, at least in T cells, are essentially unknown. In this review, we will cover the topics mentioned above as well as provide some

  20. Structural Insight into the 14-3-3 Protein-dependent Inhibition of Protein Kinase ASK1 (Apoptosis Signal-regulating kinase 1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrvalská, Olivia; Košek, Dalibor; Kukačka, Zdeněk; Tošner, Z.; Man, Petr; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 39 (2016), s. 20753-20765 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10061S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) * fluorescence * nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) * protein cross-linking * small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  1. Neuron membrane trafficking and protein kinases involved in autism and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagishi, Yasuko; Minami, Akari; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Ogura, Yasunori; Matsuda, Satoru

    2015-01-30

    A brain-enriched multi-domain scaffolding protein, neurobeachin has been identified as a candidate gene for autism patients. Mutations in the synaptic adhesion protein cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) are also associated with autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder of uncertain molecular origin. Potential roles of neurobeachin and CADM1 have been suggested to a function of vesicle transport in endosomal trafficking. It seems that protein kinase B (AKT) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) have key roles in the neuron membrane trafficking involved in the pathogenesis of autism. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is documented to dopaminergic insufficiencies, which is attributed to synaptic dysfunction of dopamine transporter (DAT). AKT is also essential for the DAT cell-surface redistribution. In the present paper, we summarize and discuss the importance of several protein kinases that regulate the membrane trafficking involved in autism and ADHD, suggesting new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Neuron Membrane Trafficking and Protein Kinases Involved in Autism and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Kitagishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-enriched multi-domain scaffolding protein, neurobeachin has been identified as a candidate gene for autism patients. Mutations in the synaptic adhesion protein cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1 are also associated with autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder of uncertain molecular origin. Potential roles of neurobeachin and CADM1 have been suggested to a function of vesicle transport in endosomal trafficking. It seems that protein kinase B (AKT and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA have key roles in the neuron membrane trafficking involved in the pathogenesis of autism. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is documented to dopaminergic insufficiencies, which is attributed to synaptic dysfunction of dopamine transporter (DAT. AKT is also essential for the DAT cell-surface redistribution. In the present paper, we summarize and discuss the importance of several protein kinases that regulate the membrane trafficking involved in autism and ADHD, suggesting new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. PRO40 is a scaffold protein of the cell wall integrity pathway, linking the MAP kinase module to the upstream activator protein kinase C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Teichert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are crucial signaling instruments in eukaryotes. Most ascomycetes possess three MAPK modules that are involved in key developmental processes like sexual propagation or pathogenesis. However, the regulation of these modules by adapters or scaffolds is largely unknown. Here, we studied the function of the cell wall integrity (CWI MAPK module in the model fungus Sordaria macrospora. Using a forward genetic approach, we found that sterile mutant pro30 has a mutated mik1 gene that encodes the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK of the proposed CWI pathway. We generated single deletion mutants lacking MAPKKK MIK1, MAPK kinase (MAPKK MEK1, or MAPK MAK1 and found them all to be sterile, cell fusion-deficient and highly impaired in vegetative growth and cell wall stress response. By searching for MEK1 interaction partners via tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified previously characterized developmental protein PRO40 as a MEK1 interaction partner. Although fungal PRO40 homologs have been implicated in diverse developmental processes, their molecular function is currently unknown. Extensive affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that PRO40 is able to bind MIK1, MEK1, and the upstream activator protein kinase C (PKC1. We further found that the PRO40 N-terminal disordered region and the central region encompassing a WW interaction domain are sufficient to govern interaction with MEK1. Most importantly, time- and stress-dependent phosphorylation studies showed that PRO40 is required for MAK1 activity. The sum of our results implies that PRO40 is a scaffold protein for the CWI pathway, linking the MAPK module to the upstream activator PKC1. Our data provide important insights into the mechanistic role of a protein that has been implicated in sexual and asexual development, cell fusion, symbiosis, and pathogenicity in different fungal systems.

  4. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    v e V ia b il it y Figure 8. PC3-LN4 cells in normoxia or hypoxia were treated with Pim inhibitors. Left panel shows a Western blot and the...3728-36, PMID 25241892 4. Warfel, NA, Kraft, AS. Pim kinase (and Akt) biology and signaling in tumors. Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Jul; 151: 41 - 9. doi: 10.1016...Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer These studies will accelerate and significantly advance the rational development of targeted agents

  5. Phosphoproteomic insights into processes influenced by the kinase-like protein DIA1/C3orf58

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Hareza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many kinases are still ‘orphans,’ which means knowledge about their substrates, and often also about the processes they regulate, is lacking. Here, DIA1/C3orf58, a member of a novel predicted kinase-like family, is shown to be present in the endoplasmic reticulum and to influence trafficking via the secretory pathway. Subsequently, DIA1 is subjected to phosphoproteomics analysis to cast light on its signalling pathways. A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry proteomic approach with phosphopeptide enrichment is applied to membrane fractions of DIA1-overexpressing and control HEK293T cells, and phosphosites dependent on the presence of DIA1 are elucidated. Most of these phosphosites belonged to CK2- and proline-directed kinase types. In parallel, the proteomics of proteins immunoprecipitated with DIA1 reported its probable interactors. This pilot study provides the basis for deeper studies of DIA1 signalling.

  6. Phosphoproteomic insights into processes influenced by the kinase-like protein DIA1/C3orf58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareza, Agnieszka; Bakun, Magda; Świderska, Bianka; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Koscielny, Alicja; Bajur, Anna; Jaworski, Jacek; Dadlez, Michał; Pawłowski, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Many kinases are still 'orphans,' which means knowledge about their substrates, and often also about the processes they regulate, is lacking. Here, DIA1/C3orf58, a member of a novel predicted kinase-like family, is shown to be present in the endoplasmic reticulum and to influence trafficking via the secretory pathway. Subsequently, DIA1 is subjected to phosphoproteomics analysis to cast light on its signalling pathways. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomic approach with phosphopeptide enrichment is applied to membrane fractions of DIA1-overexpressing and control HEK293T cells, and phosphosites dependent on the presence of DIA1 are elucidated. Most of these phosphosites belonged to CK2- and proline-directed kinase types. In parallel, the proteomics of proteins immunoprecipitated with DIA1 reported its probable interactors. This pilot study provides the basis for deeper studies of DIA1 signalling.

  7. Exercise training protects against atherosclerotic risk factors through vascular NADPH oxidase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase downregulation in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Montezano, Augusto C I; Meziri, Fayçal; Riva, Catherine; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Exercise training reverses atherosclerotic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic effects in aorta from rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control (CD) diet for 12 weeks. The HFD rats were then divided into four groups: (i) sedentary HFD-fed rats (HFD-S); (ii) exercise trained (motor treadmill 5 days/week, 60 min/day, 12 weeks) HFD-fed rats (HFD-Ex); (iii) modified diet (HFD to CD) sedentary rats (HF/CD-S); and (iv) an exercise-trained modified diet group (HF/CD-Ex). Tissue levels of NADPH oxidase (activity and expression), NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1, Nox2, Nox4, p47(phox) , superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the aorta. Plasma cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6) levels were also measured. Obesity was accompanied by increases in NADPH oxidase activity, p47(phox) translocation, Nox4 and VCAM-1 protein expression, MAPK (ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK) phosphorylation and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Exercise training and switching from the HFD to CD reversed almost all these molecular changes. In addition, training increased aortic SOD-1 protein expression and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that protective effects of exercise training on atherosclerotic risk factors induced by obesity are associated with downregulation of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK activity and increased SOD-1 expression. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. PKA RIα/A-kinase anchoring proteins 10 signaling pathway and the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mojin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Ziqiang; Chen, Keling; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Zongguang; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2015-03-01

    Previously study showed that the loss of the control of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A RIα (PKA RIα)/ A-kinase anchoring proteins 10 (AKAP10) signaling pathway initiate dysregulation of cellular healthy physiology leading to tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PKA RIα/AKAP10 signaling pathway in colorectal cancer (CRC). The AKAP10 expression at the mRNA and protein level have been analyzed in colon cancer cell lines, primary CRCs and matched normal mucosa samples, and compared in accordance with specific clinicopathological features of CRC. The correlation between expression of AKAP10 and PKA RIα were also analyzed. Compared with HCT116 and SW480 cells, the AKAP10 was significantly upregulated in the colon cell line KM12C and its metastatic counterparts, KM12SM and KM12L4A. Moreover, the KM12SM and KM12L4A having high metastatic potentials displayed the elevated levels of AKAP10 compared with KM12C having poor metastatic potential. A notably higher level of AKAP10 expression was found in CRC tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Increased expression of AKAP10 in CRC patients was positively associated with the depth of invasion and the grade of differentiation. Univariate survival analysis showed that the increased expression of AKAP10 was related to poorer survival. Cox multivariate regression analysis confirmed that AKAP10 was an independent predictor of the overall survival of CRC patients. PKA RIα mRNA was also expressed at high levels in CRC. The correlation coefficient between mRNA expression of AKAP10 and PKA RIα in CRC was 0.417. AKAP10 mRNA overexpression was correlated significantly with PKA RIα. Our data indicated that PKA RIα/AKAP10 signaling pathway is associated with the progression and prognosis of CRC. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. An active form of calcium and calmodulin dependant protein kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of the auto-inhibitory domain that negatively regulates the kinase activity in M. truncatula results in a constitutively-active form, inducing symbiotic responses in the absence of bacterial signals. In this study, we verified the functionality of a DMI3 variant and its ability to induce spontaneous nodules in M.

  10. Redundant role of protein kinase C delta and epsilon during mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carracedo

    Full Text Available Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis.

  11. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-2 Deletion Impairs Synaptic Plasticity and Hippocampal-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Nor Zaihana; Greenwood, Sam M; Brett, Ros R; Tossell, Kyoko; Ungless, Mark A; Plevin, Robin; Bushell, Trevor J

    2016-02-24

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate brain function and their dysfunction is implicated in a number of brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the signaling systems that control MAPK function. One family of proteins that contribute to this process, the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases (MKPs), directly inactivate MAPKs through dephosphorylation. Recent studies have identified novel functions of MKPs in development, the immune system, and cancer. However, a significant gap in our knowledge remains in relation to their role in brain functioning. Here, using transgenic mice where the Dusp4 gene encoding MKP-2 has been knocked out (MKP-2(-/-) mice), we show that long-term potentiation is impaired in MKP-2(-/-) mice compared with MKP-2(+/+) controls whereas neuronal excitability, evoked synaptic transmission, and paired-pulse facilitation remain unaltered. Furthermore, spontaneous EPSC (sEPSC) frequency was increased in acute slices and primary hippocampal cultures prepared from MKP-2(-/-) mice with no effect on EPSC amplitude observed. An increase in synapse number was evident in primary hippocampal cultures, which may account for the increase in sEPSC frequency. In addition, no change in ERK activity was detected in both brain tissue and primary hippocampal cultures, suggesting that the effects of MKP-2 deletion were MAPK independent. Consistent with these alterations in hippocampal function, MKP-2(-/-) mice show deficits in spatial reference and working memory when investigated using the Morris water maze. These data show that MKP-2 plays a role in regulating hippocampal function and that this effect may be independent of MAPK signaling. Copyright © 2016 Abdul Rahman et al.

  12. Angiotensin II regulation of neuromodulation: downstream signaling mechanism from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1996-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase was localized in the perinuclear region of the neuronal soma. Ang II caused activation of MAP kinase and its subsequent translocation from the cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, both effects being mediated by AT1 receptor subtype. Ang II also stimulated SRE- and AP1-binding activities and fos gene expression and its translocation in a MAP kinase-dependent process. These observations are the first demonstration of a downstream signaling pathway involving MAP kinase in Ang II-mediated neuromodulation in noradrenergic neurons.

  13. Effects of Butyltins (BTs) on Mitogen-Activated-Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase (MAP3K) and Ras Activity in Human Natural Killer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celada, Lindsay J.; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Butyltins (BTs) contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. BTs, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), diminish the cytotoxic function and levels of key proteins of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are an initial immune defense against tumors, virally-infected cells and antibody-coated cells and thus critical to human health. The signaling pathways that regulate NK cell functions include mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Studies have shown that exposure to BTs leads to the activation of specific MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) in human NK cells. MAP2K kinases (MAP3Ks) are upstream activators of MAP2Ks, which then activate MAPKs. The current study examined if BT-induced activation of MAP3Ks was responsible for MAP2K and thus, MAPK activation. This study examines the effects of TBT and DBT on the total levels of two MAP3Ks, c-Raf and ASK1, as well as activating and inhibitory phosphorylation sites on these MAP3Ks. In addition, the immediate upstream activator of c-Raf, Ras, was examined for BT-induced alterations. Our results show significant activation of the MAP3K, c-Raf, in human NK cells within 10 minutes of TBT exposure and the MAP3K, ASK1, after one hour exposures to TBT. In addition, our results suggest that both TBT and DBT are impacting the regulation of c-Raf. PMID:24038145

  14. Differential effects of vasopressin and phenylephrine on protein kinase C-mediated protein phosphorylations in isolated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H.; Johanson, R.A.; Wiliamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol lipids produces two intracellular signals, diacylglycerol, which activates protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate, which causes release of intracellular vesicular Ca 2+ . This study examined the effects of Ca 2+ -ionophores, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and phorbol ester (PMA) on hepatocyte protein phosphorylations. [ 32 P] Phosphoproteins from hepatocytes prelabeled with 32 P were resolved by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE and corresponding autoradiographs were quantitated by densitometric analysis. The phosphorylation of five proteins, a plasma membrane bound 16 kDa protein with pI 6.4, a cytosolic 16 kDa protein with pI 5.8, and proteins with Mr's of 36 kDa, 52 kDa, and 68 kDa, could be attributed to phosphorylation by protein kinase C since the phosphorylation was stimulated by PMA. When the vasopressin concentration was varied, low vasopressin stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein of the above set of proteins, while higher vasopressin concentrations were required to stimulate the phosphorylation of all five proteins. Phenylephrine, even at supramaximal concentrations, stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein. These results suggest that phenylephrine is a less potent activator of protein kinase C than vasopressin by virtue of limited or localized diacylglycerol production

  15. The Arabidopsis SOS2 protein kinase physically interacts with and is activated by the calcium-binding protein SOS3

    OpenAIRE

    Halfter, Ursula; Ishitani, Manabu; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2000-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana SOS2 and SOS3 genes are required for intracellular Na+ and K+ homeostasis and plant tolerance to high Na+ and low K+ environments. SOS3 is an EF hand type calcium-binding protein having sequence similarities with animal neuronal calcium sensors and the yeast calcineurin B. SOS2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase in the SNF1/AMPK family. We report here that SOS3 physically interacts with and activates SOS2 protein kinase. Genetically, sos2sos3 double mutant analysis ...

  16. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 negatively regulates chemokine signaling at a level downstream from G protein subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Sainz, MC; Murga, C; Kavelaars, A; Jurado-Pueyo, M; Krakstad, BF; Heijnen, CJ; Mayor, F; Aragay, AM

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates and desensitizes ligand-activated G protein-coupled-receptors. Here, evidence is shown for a novel role of GRK2 in regulating chemokine-mediated signals. The presence of increased levels of GRK2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells

  17. Role of adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... Lysis buffer (SDS Lysis Buffer) was added to the samples overnight at 4°C. An equal amount of protein was loaded by the Coomassie method for protein quantification after electrophoretic separation. Protein was transferred onto polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. The transferred blot was blocked ...

  18. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF POLYMYXINE B AND NIFEDIPINE ON DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN RAT: ROLE OF PROTEIN KINASE C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mehrani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, experience significant morbidity and mortality from microvascular retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia can induce diabetic complications through multiple pathways. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC by hyperglycemia is one of the pathways which causes diabetic complications. Effect of nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker, and polymyxine B sulphate (a Protein kinase C inhibitor was studied in adult male Sprague- dawley rats, who was made diabetic with streptozotocin. PKC activity was determined in tissues and serum enzymes and metabolite level was measured in all controls, diabetic and drug treated animals. The results showed that, levels of the, urea (two –fold, creatinine (60%, triglyceride (two-fold and liver alanine transaminase (ALT activity (two-fold, were significantly increased in diabetic group. In nifedipine, treated diabetic group, although urea and creatinine level was increased, but liver enzymes were not significantly different from those of control group. In diabetic group which was treated with polymyxine, all the measured metabolites and enzyme levels were the same as the control group, except glucose level which was increased and liver glycogen was decreased significantly. Protein kinase C activity in the cytoplasm of diabetic liver was increased comparing to its control group (5.73 ± 0.56 Vs, 4.00 ± 0.62. The enzyme activity in the plasma membranes of untreated and nifedipine treated diabetic groups was significantly increased (6.2 ± 0.42 and 3.66 ± 0.31 Vs 2.38 ± 0.36. These results show that polymyxine is more effective than nifedipine against protein kinase C activity in diabetic complications. In conclusion our results show that, liver and kidney damage in DM are related to PKC activation. The fact that polymyxine prevents diabetic related increase in PKC activity more than nifedipine, support the hypothesis that different PKC isozymes may play different roles

  19. Genetic Disruption of Protein Kinase STK25 Ameliorates Metabolic Defects in a Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Model

    OpenAIRE

    Amrutkar, Manoj; Cansby, Emmelie; Chursa, Urszula; Nu?ez-Dur?n, Esther; Chancl?n, Bel?n; St?hlman, Marcus; Frid?n, Vincent; Manner?s-Holm, Louise; Wickman, Anna; Smith, Ulf; B?ckhed, Fredrik; Bor?n, Jan; Howell, Brian W.; Mahlapuu, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity is essential to identifying new pharmacological approaches to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a negative regulator of glucose and insulin homeostasis based on observations in myoblasts with acute depletion of STK25 and in STK25-overexpressing transgenic mice. Here, we challenged Stk25 knockout mice and wild-type litte...

  20. Expression, purification and crystallization of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Niefind, K; Pinna, L A

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic (alpha) subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) was originally cloned and overexpressed in the Escherichia coli strain pT7-7/BL21(DE3). The protein has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, they have unit-cell parameter...

  1. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Directly Phosphorylates and Destabilizes Hedgehog Pathway Transcription Factor GLI1 in Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsing Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh pathway regulates cell differentiation and proliferation during development by controlling the Gli transcription factors. Cell fate decisions and progression toward organ and tissue maturity must be coordinated, and how an energy sensor regulates the Hh pathway is not clear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an important sensor of energy stores and controls protein synthesis and other energy-intensive processes. AMPK is directly responsive to intracellular AMP levels, inhibiting a wide range of cell activities if ATP is low and AMP is high. Thus, AMPK can affect development by influencing protein synthesis and other processes needed for growth and differentiation. Activation of AMPK reduces GLI1 protein levels and stability, thus blocking Sonic-hedgehog-induced transcriptional activity. AMPK phosphorylates GLI1 at serines 102 and 408 and threonine 1074. Mutation of these three sites into alanine prevents phosphorylation by AMPK. This leads to increased GLI1 protein stability, transcriptional activity, and oncogenic potency.

  2. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Arvin Bretaña

    Full Text Available Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase

  3. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chiang, Chiu-Yun; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Weng, Shun-Long

    2012-01-01

    Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase-specific phosphorylation site

  4. Fragment-Based Drug Discovery of Potent Protein Kinase C Iota Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Liu, Boping; Tee, Doris Hui Ying; Chen, Guoying; Ahmad, Nur Huda Binte; Wong, Yun Xuan; Poh, Zhi Ying; Ang, Shi Hua; Tan, Eldwin Sum Wai; Ong, Esther Hq; Nurul Dinie; Poulsen, Anders; Pendharkar, Vishal; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Lee, May Ann; Sepramaniam, Sugunavathi; Ho, Soo Yei; Cherian, Joseph; Hill, Jeffrey; Keller, Thomas H; Hung, Alvin W

    2018-05-24

    Protein kinase C iota (PKC-ι) is an atypical kinase implicated in the promotion of different cancer types. A biochemical screen of a fragment library has identified several hits from which an azaindole-based scaffold was chosen for optimization. Driven by a structure-activity relationship and supported by molecular modeling, a weakly bound fragment was systematically grown into a potent and selective inhibitor against PKC-ι.

  5. Protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the nuclear egress core complex of human cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Eric; Milbradt, Jens; Svrlanska, Adriana; Strojan, Hanife; Häge, Sigrun; Kraut, Alexandra; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Couté, Yohann; Marschall, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids is mediated by a multi-component nuclear egress complex (NEC) assembled by a heterodimer of two essential viral core egress proteins. In the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), this core NEC is defined by the interaction between the membrane-anchored pUL50 and its nuclear cofactor, pUL53. NEC protein phosphorylation is considered to be an important regulatory step, so this study focused on the respective role of viral and cellular protein kinases. Multiply phosphorylated pUL50 varieties were detected by Western blot and Phos-tag analyses as resulting from both viral and cellular kinase activities. In vitro kinase analyses demonstrated that pUL50 is a substrate of both PKCα and CDK1, while pUL53 can also be moderately phosphorylated by CDK1. The use of kinase inhibitors further illustrated the importance of distinct kinases for core NEC phosphorylation. Importantly, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses identified five major and nine minor sites of pUL50 phosphorylation. The functional relevance of core NEC phosphorylation was confirmed by various experimental settings, including kinase knock-down/knock-out and confocal imaging, in which it was found that (i) HCMV core NEC proteins are not phosphorylated solely by viral pUL97, but also by cellular kinases; (ii) both PKC and CDK1 phosphorylation are detectable for pUL50; (iii) no impact of PKC phosphorylation on NEC functionality has been identified so far; (iv) nonetheless, CDK1-specific phosphorylation appears to be required for functional core NEC interaction. In summary, our findings provide the first evidence that the HCMV core NEC is phosphorylated by cellular kinases, and that the complex pattern of NEC phosphorylation has functional relevance.

  6. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  7. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  8. In vitro phosphorylation of the movement protein of tomato mosaic tobamovirus by a cellular kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Y; Hanazawa, K; Yoshioka, K; Oguchi, T; Kawakami, S; Watanabe, Y; Nishiguchi, M; Nyunoya, H

    2000-08-01

    The movement protein (MP) of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was produced in E. coli as a soluble fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase. When immobilized on glutathione affinity beads, the recombinant protein was phosphorylated in vitro by incubating with cell extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and tobacco suspension culture cells (BY-2) in the presence of [gamma-(32)P]ATP. Phosphorylation occurred even after washing the beads with a detergent-containing buffer, indicating that the recombinant MP formed a stable complex with some protein kinase(s) during incubation with the cell extract. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that the MP was phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. Phosphorylation of the MP was decreased by addition of kinase inhibitors such as heparin, suramin and quercetin, which are known to be effective for casein kinase II (CK II). The phosphorylation level was not changed by other types of inhibitor. In addition, as shown for animal and plant CK II, [gamma-(32)P]GTP was efficiently used as a phosphoryl donor. Phosphorylation was not affected by amino acid replacements at serine-37 and serine-238, but was completely inhibited by deletion of the carboxy-terminal 9 amino acids, including threonine-256, serine-257, serine-261 and serine-263. These results suggest that the MP of ToMV could be phosphorylated in plant cells by a host protein kinase that is closely related to CK II.

  9. A chimeric cyclic interferon-α2b peptide induces apoptosis by sequential activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase Cδ and p38 MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, V C; Bertucci, L; Furmento, V A; Peña, C; Marino, V J; Roguin, L P

    2013-06-10

    We have previously demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1/3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation are involved in the apoptotic response triggered by a chimeric cyclic peptide of the interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) in WISH cells. Since the peptide also induced serine phosphorylation of STAT proteins, in the present study we examined the kinase involved in serine STAT1 phosphorylation and the signaling effectors acting upstream such activation. We first found that p38 MAPK is involved in serine STAT1 phosphorylation, since a reduction of phophoserine-STAT1 levels was evident after incubating WISH cells with cyclic peptide in the presence of a p38 pharmacological inhibitor or a dominant-negative p38 mutant. Next, we demonstrated that the peptide induced activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ). Based on this finding, the role of this kinase was then evaluated. After incubating WISH cells with a PKCδ inhibitor or after decreasing PKCδ expression levels by RNA interference, both peptide-induced serine STAT1 and p38 phosphorylation levels were significantly decreased, indicating that PKCδ functions as an upstream regulator of p38. We also showed that PKCδ and p38 activation stimulated by the peptide was inhibited by a specific pharmacological inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or by a dominant-negative p85 PI3K-regulatory subunit, suggesting that PI3K is upstream in the signaling cascade. In addition, the role of PI3K and PKCδ in cyclic peptide-induced apoptosis was examined. Both signaling effectors were found to regulate the antiproliferative activity and the apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells. In conclusion, we herein demonstrated that STAT1 serine phosphorylation is mediated by the sequential activation of PI3K, PKCδ and p38 MAPK. This signaling cascade contributes to the antitumor effect induced by the chimeric IFN-α2b cyclic peptide in WISH cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  10. The effect of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) on lactation and on proliferation of mammary epithelial cells from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoming; Hu, Hongliu; Lin, Ye; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-07-01

    Milk protein is an important component of milk and a nutritional source for human consumption. To better understand the molecular events underlying synthesis of milk proteins, the global gene expression patterns in mammary glands of dairy cow with high-quality milk (>3% milk protein; >3.5% milk fat) and low-quality milk (milk protein; milk fat) were examined via digital gene expression study. A total of 139 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes were detected in the mammary tissues of lactating cows with high-quality milk compared with the tissues of cows with low-quality milk. A pathway enrichment study of these genes revealed that the top 5 pathways that were differentially affected in the tissues of cows with high- versus low-quality milk involved metabolic pathways, cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and insulin signaling. We also found that the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) was one of the most highly upregulated genes in lactating mammary tissue with low-quality milk compared with tissue with high-quality milk. The knockdown of GRK2 in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells enhanced CSN2 expression and activated signaling molecules related to translation, including protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), whereas overexpression of GRK2 had the opposite effects. However, expression of genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was positively regulated by GRK2. Therefore, GRK2 seems to act as a negative mediator of milk-protein synthesis via the protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling axis. Furthermore, GRK2 may negatively control milk-protein synthesis by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of WRKY46 transcription factor function by mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsheed Hussain Sheikh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are central signalling pathways activated in plants after sensing internal developmental and external stress cues. Knowledge about the downstream substrate proteins of MAPKs is still limited in plants. We screened Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factors as potential targets downstream of MAPKs, and concentrated on characterizing WRKY46 as a substrate of the MAPK, MPK3. Mass spectrometry revealed in vitro phosphorylation of WRKY46 at amino acid position S168 by MPK3. However, mutagenesis studies showed that a second phosphosite, S250, can also be phosphorylated. Elicitation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as the bacterial flagellin-derived flg22 peptide led to in vivo destabilization of WRKY46 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Mutation of either phosphorylation site reduced the PAMP-induced degradation of WRKY46. Furthermore, the protein for the double phosphosite mutant is expressed at higher levels compared to wild-type proteins or single phosphosite mutants. In line with its nuclear localization and predicted function as a transcriptional activator, overexpression of WRKY46 in protoplasts raised basal plant defence as reflected by the increase in promoter activity of the PAMP-responsive gene, NHL10, in a MAPK-dependent manner. Thus, MAPK-mediated regulation of WRKY46 is a mechanism to control plant defence.

  12. Roles of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins and Phosphodiesterases in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercu, Maria; Klussmann, Enno

    2018-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are essential enzymes in the cyclic adenosine 3′-5′ monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade. They establish local cAMP pools by controlling the intensity, duration and compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling. Various members of the AKAP and PDE families are expressed in the cardiovascular system and direct important processes maintaining homeostatic functioning of the heart and vasculature, e.g., the endothelial barrier function and excitation-contraction coupling. Dysregulation of AKAP and PDE function is associated with pathophysiological conditions in the cardiovascular system including heart failure, hypertension and atherosclerosis. A number of diseases, including autosomal dominant hypertension with brachydactyly (HTNB) and type I long-QT syndrome (LQT1), result from mutations in genes encoding for distinct members of the two classes of enzymes. This review provides an overview over the AKAPs and PDEs relevant for cAMP compartmentalization in the heart and vasculature and discusses their pathophysiological role as well as highlights the potential benefits of targeting these proteins and their protein-protein interactions for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:29461511

  13. Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase (HPK-1) regulates stress responses and ageing in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Slavica; Wood, Mallory; Llamosas, Estelle; Thaivalappil, Priya; Lee, Karen; Liao, Bing Mana; Chew, Yee Lian; Rhodes, Aaron; Yucel, Duygu; Crossley, Merlin; Nicholas, Hannah R

    2016-01-21

    Proteins of the Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase (HIPK) family regulate an array of processes in mammalian systems, such as the DNA damage response, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a single HIPK homologue called HPK-1. Previous studies have implicated HPK-1 in longevity control and suggested that this protein may be regulated in a stress-dependent manner. Here we set out to expand these observations by investigating the role of HPK-1 in longevity and in the response to heat and oxidative stress. We find that levels of HPK-1 are regulated by heat stress, and that HPK-1 contributes to survival following heat or oxidative stress. Additionally, we show that HPK-1 is required for normal longevity, with loss of HPK-1 function leading to a faster decline of physiological processes that reflect premature ageing. Through microarray analysis, we have found that HPK-1-regulated genes include those encoding proteins that serve important functions in stress responses such as Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes. Consistent with a role in longevity assurance, HPK-1 also regulates the expression of age-regulated genes. Lastly, we show that HPK-1 functions in the same pathway as DAF-16 to regulate longevity and reveal a new role for HPK-1 in development.

  14. Protein kinase D is increased and activated in lung epithelial cells and macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huachen; McKenzie, Raymond; Hao, Qin; Idell, Steven; Tang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive and usually fatal lung disease of unknown etiology for which no effective treatments currently exist. Hence, there is a profound need for the identification of novel drugable targets to develop more specific and efficacious therapeutic intervention in IPF. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to assess the cell type-specific expression and activation of protein kinase D (PKD) family kinases in normal and IPF lung tissue sections. We also analyzed PKD activation and function in human lung epithelial cells. We found that PKD family kinases (PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3) were increased and activated in the hyperplastic and regenerative alveolar epithelial cells lining remodeled fibrotic alveolar septa and/or fibroblast foci in IPF lungs compared with normal controls. We also found that PKD family kinases were increased and activated in alveolar macrophages, bronchiolar epithelium, and honeycomb cysts in IPF lungs. Interestingly, PKD1 was highly expressed and activated in the cilia of IPF bronchiolar epithelial cells, while PKD2 and PKD3 were expressed in the cell cytoplasm and nuclei. In contrast, PKD family kinases were not apparently increased and activated in IPF fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. We lastly found that PKD was predominantly activated by poly-L-arginine, lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin in human lung epithelial cells and that PKD promoted epithelial barrier dysfunction. These findings suggest that PKD may participate in the pathogenesis of IPF and may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  15. SMALL GRAIN 1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, influences grain size in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Penggen; Rao, Yuchun; Zeng, Dali; Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Ran; Zhang, Baolan; Dong, Guojun; Qian, Qian; Li, Yunhai

    2014-02-01

    Although grain size is one of the most important components of grain yield, little information is known about the mechanisms that determine final grain size in crops. Here we characterize rice small grain1 (smg1) mutants, which exhibit small and light grains, dense and erect panicles and comparatively slightly shorter plants. The short grain and panicle phenotypes of smg1 mutants are caused by a defect in cell proliferation. The smg1 mutations were identified, using a map-based cloning approach, in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (OsMKK4). Relatively higher expression of OsMKK4/SMG1 was detected in younger organs than in older ones, consistent with its role in cell proliferation. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-OsMKK4/SMG1 fusion proteins appear to be distributed ubiquitously in plant cells. Further results revealed that OsMKK4 influenced brassinosteroid (BR) responses and the expression of BR-related genes. Thus, our findings have identified OsMKK4 as a factor for grain size, and suggest a possible link between the MAPK pathways and BRs in grain growth. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Determinants of cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Matthias; Baumgärtner, Stephan; Legewie, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cells reliably sense environmental changes despite internal and external fluctuations, but the mechanisms underlying robustness remain unclear. We analyzed how fluctuations in signaling protein concentrations give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling using analytical theory and numerical simulations. We characterized the dose-response behavior of signaling cascades by calculating the stimulus level at which a pathway responds ('pathway sensitivity') and the maximal activation level upon strong stimulation. Minimal kinase cascades with gradual dose-response behavior show strong variability, because the pathway sensitivity and the maximal activation level cannot be simultaneously invariant. Negative feedback regulation resolves this trade-off and coordinately reduces fluctuations in the pathway sensitivity and maximal activation. Feedbacks acting at different levels in the cascade control different aspects of the dose-response curve, thereby synergistically reducing the variability. We also investigated more complex, ultrasensitive signaling cascades capable of switch-like decision making, and found that these can be inherently robust to protein concentration fluctuations. We describe how the cell-to-cell variability of ultrasensitive signaling systems can be actively regulated, e.g., by altering the expression of phosphatase(s) or by feedback/feedforward loops. Our calculations reveal that slow transcriptional negative feedback loops allow for variability suppression while maintaining switch-like decision making. Taken together, we describe design principles of signaling cascades that promote robustness. Our results may explain why certain signaling cascades like the yeast pheromone pathway show switch-like decision making with little cell-to-cell variability.

  17. Determinants of cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jeschke

    Full Text Available Cells reliably sense environmental changes despite internal and external fluctuations, but the mechanisms underlying robustness remain unclear. We analyzed how fluctuations in signaling protein concentrations give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling using analytical theory and numerical simulations. We characterized the dose-response behavior of signaling cascades by calculating the stimulus level at which a pathway responds ('pathway sensitivity' and the maximal activation level upon strong stimulation. Minimal kinase cascades with gradual dose-response behavior show strong variability, because the pathway sensitivity and the maximal activation level cannot be simultaneously invariant. Negative feedback regulation resolves this trade-off and coordinately reduces fluctuations in the pathway sensitivity and maximal activation. Feedbacks acting at different levels in the cascade control different aspects of the dose-response curve, thereby synergistically reducing the variability. We also investigated more complex, ultrasensitive signaling cascades capable of switch-like decision making, and found that these can be inherently robust to protein concentration fluctuations. We describe how the cell-to-cell variability of ultrasensitive signaling systems can be actively regulated, e.g., by altering the expression of phosphatase(s or by feedback/feedforward loops. Our calculations reveal that slow transcriptional negative feedback loops allow for variability suppression while maintaining switch-like decision making. Taken together, we describe design principles of signaling cascades that promote robustness. Our results may explain why certain signaling cascades like the yeast pheromone pathway show switch-like decision making with little cell-to-cell variability.

  18. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Incheol, E-mail: incheol@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  19. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eLassowskat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phosphoproteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g. WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the PEN pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens. Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org.

  20. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) regulate DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Neal, Jessica A; De Wever, Veerle; Morrice, Nick A; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2014-06-25

    The protein kinase activity of the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and its autophosphorylation are critical for DBS (DNA double-strand break) repair via NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). Recent studies have shown that depletion or inactivation of DNA-PKcs kinase activity also results in mitotic defects. DNA-PKcs is autophosphorylated on Ser2056, Thr2647 and Thr2609 in mitosis and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and the midbody. DNA-PKcs also interacts with PP6 (protein phosphatase 6), and PP6 has been shown to dephosphorylate Aurora A kinase in mitosis. Here we report that DNA-PKcs is phosphorylated on Ser3205 and Thr3950 in mitosis. Phosphorylation of Thr3950 is DNA-PK-dependent, whereas phosphorylation of Ser3205 requires PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1). Moreover, PLK1 phosphorylates DNA-PKcs on Ser3205 in vitro and interacts with DNA-PKcs in mitosis. In addition, PP6 dephosphorylates DNA-PKcs at Ser3205 in mitosis and after IR (ionizing radiation). DNA-PKcs also phosphorylates Chk2 on Thr68 in mitosis and both phosphorylation of Chk2 and autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs in mitosis occur in the apparent absence of Ku and DNA damage. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the roles of DNA-PKcs and PP6 in mitosis and suggest that DNA-PKcs' role in mitosis may be mechanistically distinct from its well-established role in NHEJ.

  1. Phosphorylation in vitro of eukaryotic initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 by protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Benne, R; Hershey, J W

    1976-01-01

    Purified protein synthesis initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 from rabbit reticulocytes were phosphorylated in vitro with protein kinases isolated from the same source. The highest levels of phosphorylation resulted from incubation of the factors with a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase...

  2. Regulation of taurine homeostasis by protein kinase CK2 in mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Guerra, Barbara; Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland

    2011-01-01

    Increased expression of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 has been associated with increased proliferative capacity and increased resistance towards apoptosis. Taurine is the primary organic osmolyte involved in cell volume control in mammalian cells, and shift in cell volume...... is a critical step in cell proliferation, differentiation and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we use mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettré ascites tumour cells with different CK2 expression levels. Taurine uptake via the Na(+) dependent transporter TauT and taurine release are increased...... and reduced, respectively, following pharmacological CK2 inhibition. The effect of CK2 inhibition on TauT involves modulation of transport kinetics, whereas the effect on the taurine release pathway involves reduction in the open-probability of the efflux pathway. Stimulation of PLA(2) activity, exposure...

  3. Impact of 5'-amp-activated Protein Kinase on Male Gonad and Spermatozoa Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep

    2017-01-01

    As we already know, the male reproductive system requires less energetic investment than the female one. Nevertheless, energy balance is an important feature for spermatozoa production in the testis and for spermatozoa properties after ejaculation. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, is a sensor of cell energy, that regulates many metabolic pathways and that has been recently shown to control spermatozoa quality and functions. It is indeed involved in the regulation of spermatozoa quality through its action on the proliferation of testicular somatic cells (Sertoli and Leydig), on spermatozoa motility and acrosome reaction. It also favors spermatozoa quality through the management of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. I review here the most recent data available on the roles of AMPK in vertebrate spermatozoa functions.

  4. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  5. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) by their ligands and protein kinase A activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Gwendal; Canaple, Laurence; Saugy, Damien; Wahli, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α, β and γ activate the transcription of multiple genes involved in lipid metabolism. Several natural and synthetic ligands have been identified for each PPAR isotype but little is known about the phosphorylation state of these receptors. We show here that activators of protein kinase A (PKA) can enhance mouse PPAR activity in the absence and the presence of exogenous ligands in transient transfection experiments. The activation function 1 (AF-1) of PPARs was dispensable for transcriptional enhancement, whereas the activation function 2 (AF-2) was required for this effect. We also show that several domains of PPAR can be phosphorylated by PKA in vitro. Moreover, gel experiments suggest that PKA stabilizes binding of the liganded PPAR to DNA. PKA inhibitors decreased not only the kinase dependent induction of PPARs but also their ligand-dependent induction, suggesting that the ligands may also mobilize the PKA pathway to lead to maximal transcriptional induction by PPARs. Moreover, comparing PPARα KO with PPARα wild-type mice, we show that the expression of the ACO gene can be regulated by PKA-activated PPARα in liver. These data demonstrate that the PKA pathway is an important modulator of PPAR activity and we propose a model associating this pathway in the control of fatty acid β-oxidation under conditions of fasting, stress and exercise. PMID:11117527

  6. Phagocytosis by macrophages mediated by receptors for denatured proteins - dependence on tyrosine protein kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Hespanhol

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that some components of the leukocyte cell membrane, CR3 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18 and p150/95, are able to bind to denatured proteins. Thus, it is of interest to know which effector functions of these cells can be triggered by these receptors when they interact with particles or surfaces covered with denatured proteins. In the present study we analyzed their possible role as mediators of phagocytosis of red cells covered with denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA by mouse peritoneal macrophages. We observed that a macrophages are able to recognize (bind to these red cells, b this interaction can be inhibited by denatured BSA in the fluid phase, c there is no phagocytosis of these particles by normal macrophages, d phagocytosis mediated by denatured BSA can be, however, effectively triggered in inflammatory macrophages induced by glycogen or in macrophages activated in vivo with LPS, and e this phagocytic capacity is strongly dependent on the activity of tyrosine protein kinases in its signal transduction pathway, as demonstrated by using three kinds of enzyme inhibitors (genistein, quercetin and herbimycin A.

  7. EKPD: a hierarchical database of eukaryotic protein kinases and protein phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Zexian; Cheng, Han; Gao, Tianshun; Pan, Zhicheng; Yang, Qing; Guo, Anyuan; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We present here EKPD (http://ekpd.biocuckoo.org), a hierarchical database of eukaryotic protein kinases (PKs) and protein phosphatases (PPs), the key molecules responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of proteins that are involved in almost all aspects of biological processes. As extensive experimental and computational efforts have been carried out to identify PKs and PPs, an integrative resource with detailed classification and annotation information would be of great value for both experimentalists and computational biologists. In this work, we first collected 1855 PKs and 347 PPs from the scientific literature and various public databases. Based on previously established rationales, we classified all of the known PKs and PPs into a hierarchical structure with three levels, i.e. group, family and individual PK/PP. There are 10 groups with 149 families for the PKs and 10 groups with 33 families for the PPs. We constructed 139 and 27 Hidden Markov Model profiles for PK and PP families, respectively. Then we systematically characterized ∼50,000 PKs and >10,000 PPs in eukaryotes. In addition, >500 PKs and >400 PPs were computationally identified by ortholog search. Finally, the online service of the EKPD database was implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript.

  8. Protein phosphatase 5 promotes hepatocarcinogenesis through interaction with AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Li; Hung, Man-Hsin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chao, Tzu-I; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Li-Ju; Hsiao, Yung-Jen; Shih, Chih-Ting; Hsieh, Feng-Shu; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2017-08-15

    The serine-threonine protein phosphatase family members are known as critical regulators of various cellular functions, such as survival and transformation. Growing evidence suggests that pharmacological manipulation of phosphatase activity exhibits therapeutic benefits. Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is known to participate in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and stress-induced signaling cascades that regulate cell growth and apoptosis, and has been shown to be overexpressed in various human malignant diseases. However, the role of PP5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and whether PP5 may be a viable therapeutic target for HCC treatment are unknown. Here, by analyzing HCC clinical samples obtained from 215 patients, we found that overexpression of PP5 is tumor specific and associated with worse clinical outcomes. We further characterized the oncogenic properties of PP5 in HCC cells. Importantly, both silencing of PP5 with lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and chemical inhibition of PP5 phosphatase activity using the natural compound cantharidin/norcantharidin markedly suppressed the growth of HCC cells and tumors in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a novel downstream target of oncogenic PP5 and demonstrated that the antitumor mechanisms underlying PP5 inhibition involve activation of AMPK signaling. Overall, our results establish a pathological function of PP5 in hepatocarcinogenesis via affecting AMPK signaling and suggest that PP5 inhibition is an attractive therapeutic approach for HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB

    OpenAIRE

    López-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Pietro, Antonio D.

    2010-01-01

    During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine s...

  10. Identifying three-dimensional structures of autophosphorylation complexes in crystals of protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qifang; Malecka, Kimberly L.; Fink, Lauren; Jordan, E. Joseph; Duffy, Erin; Kolander, Samuel; Peterson, Jeffrey; Dunbrack, Roland L.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase autophosphorylation is a common regulatory mechanism in cell signaling pathways. Crystal structures of several homomeric protein kinase complexes have a serine, threonine, or tyrosine autophosphorylation site of one kinase monomer located in the active site of another monomer, a structural complex that we call an “autophosphorylation complex.” We developed and applied a structural bioinformatics method to identify all such autophosphorylation kinase complexes in X-ray crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We identified 15 autophosphorylation complexes in the PDB, of which 5 complexes had not previously been described in the publications describing the crystal structures. These 5 consist of tyrosine residues in the N-terminal juxtamembrane regions of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R, Tyr561) and EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2, Tyr594), tyrosine residues in the activation loops of the SRC kinase family member LCK (Tyr394) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R, Tyr1166), and a serine in a nuclear localization signal region of CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2, Ser142). Mutations in the complex interface may alter autophosphorylation activity and contribute to disease; therefore we mutated residues in the autophosphorylation complex interface of LCK and found that two mutations impaired autophosphorylation (T445V and N446A) and mutation of Pro447 to Ala, Gly, or Leu increased autophosphorylation. The identified autophosphorylation sites are conserved in many kinases, suggesting that, by homology, these complexes may provide insight into autophosphorylation complex interfaces of kinases that are relevant drug targets. PMID:26628682

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.

  12. p38gamma and p38delta mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs, new stars in the MAPK galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eEscós

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinases p38γ and p38δ belong to the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family. p38MAPK signalling controls many cellular processes and is one of the most conserved mechanisms in eukaryotes for the cellular response to environmental stress and inflammation. Although p38γ and p38δ are widely expressed, it is likely that they perform specific functions in different tissues. Their involvement in human pathologies such as inflammation-related diseases or cancer is starting to be uncovered. In this article we give a general overview and highlight recent advances made in defining the functions of p38γ and p38δ, focusing in innate immunity and inflammation. We consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of MAPK pathways to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and cancer

  13. [Protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 blocks polyploidization of SP600125-induced CMK cells by regulating phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Yang, Jingang; Li, Changling; Xing, Sining; Yu, Ying; Liu, Shuo; Pu, Feifei; Ma, Dongchu

    2016-10-01

    Objective To investigate the regulatory effect of post-translation modification of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) on the polyploidization of megakaryocytes. Methods SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and H-89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, were used to treat CMK cells separately or in combination. With propidium iodide (PI) to dye DNA in the treated cells, the relative DNA content was detected by flow cytometry, and then the DNA polyploidy was analyzed. The change of expression and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), an important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) downstream target molecule, was analyzed by Western blotting. Molecular docking study and kinase activity assay were performed to analyze the combination of H-89 with S6K1 and the effect of H-89 on the activity of S6K1 kinase. Results SP600125 induced CMK cell polyploidization in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. At the same time, it increased the phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr421/Ser424 and decreased the phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389. H-89 not only blocked polyploidization, but also decreased the phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr421/Ser424 and increased the phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389. Molecular docking and kinase activity assay showed that H-89 occupied the ATP binding sites of S6K1 and inhibited its activity. Noticeably, both H-89 and SP600125 inhibited the activity of PKA. Moreover, the two drugs further inhibited the activity of PKA when used together. Therefore, these data indicated that H-89 blocked the SP600125-induced polyploidization of CMK cells mainly by changing S6K1 phosphorylation state, rather than its inhibitory effect on PKA. Conclusion H-89 can block the polyploidization of SP600125-induced CMK cells by regulating S6K1 phosphorylation state.

  14. The novel chloroplast outer membrane kinase KOC1 is a required component of the plastid protein import machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufferey, Mónica; Montandon, Cyrille; Douet, Véronique; Demarsy, Emilie; Agne, Birgit; Baginsky, Sacha; Kessler, Felix

    2017-04-28

    The biogenesis and maintenance of cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts require the import of many proteins from the cytosol, a process that is controlled by phosphorylation. In the case of chloroplasts, the import of hundreds of different proteins depends on translocons at the outer and inner chloroplast membrane (TOC and TIC, respectively) complexes. The essential protein TOC159 functions thereby as an import receptor. It has an N-terminal acidic (A-) domain that extends into the cytosol, controls receptor specificity, and is highly phosphorylated in vivo However, kinases that phosphorylate the TOC159 A-domain to enable protein import have remained elusive. Here, using co-purification with TOC159 from Arabidopsis , we discovered a novel component of the chloroplast import machinery, the regulatory kinase at the outer chloroplast membrane 1 (KOC1). We found that KOC1 is an integral membrane protein facing the cytosol and stably associates with TOC. Moreover, KOC1 phosphorylated the A-domain of TOC159 in vitro , and in mutant koc1 chloroplasts, preprotein import efficiency was diminished. koc1 Arabidopsis seedlings had reduced survival rates after transfer from the dark to the light in which protein import into plastids is required to rapidly complete chloroplast biogenesis. In summary, our data indicate that KOC1 is a functional component of the TOC machinery that phosphorylates import receptors, supports preprotein import, and contributes to efficient chloroplast biogenesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Efficient production of infectious viruses requires enzymatic activity of Epstein-Barr virus protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takayuki; Isomura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Yoriko; Toyama, Shigenori; Sato, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Sanae; Kudoh, Ayumi; Iwahori, Satoko; Kanda, Teru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2009-06-20

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BGLF4 gene product is the only protein kinase encoded by the virus genome. In order to elucidate its physiological roles in viral productive replication, we here established a BGLF4-knockout mutant and a revertant virus. While the levels of viral DNA replication of the deficient mutant were equivalent to those of the wild-type and the revertant, virus production was significantly impaired. Expression of the BGLF4 protein in trans fully complemented the low yield of the mutant virus, while expression of a kinase-dead (K102I) form of the protein failed to restore the virus titer. These results demonstrate that BGLF4 plays a significant role in production of infectious viruses and that the kinase activity is crucial.

  16. Protein Kinase G Induces an Immune Response in Cows Exposed to Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Bach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish infection, pathogens secrete virulence factors, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, to modulate the signal transduction pathways used by host cells to initiate immune response. The protein MAP3893c is annotated in the genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agent of Johne’s disease, as the serine/threonine protein kinase G (PknG. In this work, we report that PknG is a functional kinase that is secreted within macrophages at early stages of infection. The antigen is able to induce an immune response from cattle exposed to MAP in the form of interferon gamma production after stimulation of whole blood with PknG. These findings suggest that PknG may contribute to the pathogenesis of MAP by phosphorylating macrophage signalling and/or adaptor molecules as observed with other pathogenic mycobacterial species.

  17. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) influences androgen receptor (AR) function in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Paul; Jaggi, Meena; Syed, Viqar; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Hassan, Sazzad; Biswas, Helal; Balaji, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), founding member of PKD protein family, is down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We demonstrate that PKD1 and androgen receptor (AR) are present as a protein complex in PCa cells. PKD1 is associated with a transcriptional complex which contains AR and promoter sequence of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) gene. Ectopic expression of wild type PKD1 and the kinase dead mutant PKD1 (K628W) attenuated the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR in prostate cancer cells and yeast cells indicating that PKD1 can affect AR transcription activity, whereas knocking down PKD1 enhanced the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR. Co-expression of kinase dead mutant with AR significantly inhibited androgen-mediated cell proliferation in both LNCaP and DU145 PC cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that PKD1 can influence AR function in PCa cells

  18. The role of p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase signaling in the differentiation and apoptosis of immortalized neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Se-Ran; Cho, Sung-Dae; Ahn, Nam-Shik; Jung, Ji-Won; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2005-01-01

    The two distinct members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase, play an important role in central nervous system (CNS) development and differentiation. However, their role and functions are not completely understood in CNS. To facilitate in vitro study, we have established an immortal stem cell line using SV40 from fetal rat embryonic day 17. In these cells, MAP kinase inhibitors (SP600125, SB202190, and PD98059) were treated for 1, 24, 48, and 72 h to examine the roles of protein kinases. Early inhibition of JNK did not alter phenotypic or morphological changes of immortalized cells, however overexpression of Bax and decrease of phosphorylated AKT was observed. The prolonged inhibition of JNK induced polyploidization of immortalized cells, and resulted in differentiation and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, JNK and p38 MAP kinase but not ERK1/2 was activated, and p21, p53, and Bax were overexpressed by prolonged inhibition of JNK. These results indicate that JNK and p38 MAP kinase could play dual roles on cell survival and apoptosis. Furthermore, this established cell line could facilitate study of the role of JNK and p38 MAP kinase on CNS development or differentiation/apoptosis

  19. The role of the Drosophila LAMMER protein kinase DOA in somatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Somatic sexual identity in Drosophila melanogaster is under the control of a ... between stages 12 and 14, in response to an X to autosome .... MER kinases used were Drosophila DOA, mouse CLK1, human CLK2 and.

  20. The potent, indirect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator R419 attenuates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, inhibits nociceptor excitability, and reduces pain hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo L. Mejia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There is a great need for new therapeutics for the treatment of pain. A possible avenue to development of such therapeutics is to interfere with signaling pathways engaged in peripheral nociceptors that cause these neurons to become hyperexcitable. There is strong evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways are key modulators of nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK can inhibit signaling in both of these pathways, and AMPK activators have been shown to inhibit nociceptor excitability and pain hypersensitivity in rodents. R419 is one of, if not the most potent AMPK activator described to date. We tested whether R419 activates AMPK in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and if this leads to decreased pain hypersensitivity in mice. We find that R419 activates AMPK in DRG neurons resulting in decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased nascent protein synthesis, and enhanced P body formation. R419 attenuates nerve growth factor (NGF-induced changes in excitability in DRG neurons and blocks NGF-induced mechanical pain amplification in vivo. Moreover, locally applied R419 attenuates pain hypersensitivity in a model of postsurgical pain and blocks the development of hyperalgesic priming in response to both NGF and incision. We conclude that R419 is a promising lead candidate compound for the development of potent and specific AMPK activation to inhibit pain hypersensitivity as a result of injury.

  1. Protein Kinase Signalling in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo de Silva, Raquel

    Adaptation to environmental cues trigger a plethora of intracellular pathways capable of maintaining homeostasis. Receptors in the plasma membrane and in the cytosol recognize extracellular or intracellular signals initiating defense against pathogens or stress-adaptation. MAPK cascade are one...... of the pathways involved in stress signalling, phosphorylating several downstream substrates in order to produce appropriate responses. We report here that P. patens has a receptor-like kinase CERK1 responsible for chitin perception which can rescue Atcerk1 mutant. Activation of PpCERK1 triggers the activation...

  2. HRR25, a putative protein kinase from budding yeast: Association with repair of damaged DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, M.F.; Ou, A.C.; DeMaggio, A.J.; Burbee, D.G.; Liskay, R.M.; Heffron, F.

    1991-01-01

    In simple eukaryotes, protein kinases regulate mitotic and meiotic cell cycles, the response to polypeptide pheromones, and the initiation of nuclear DNA synthesis. The protein HRR25 from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was defined by the mutation hrr25-1. This mutation resulted in sensitivity to continuous expression of the HO double-strand endonuclease, to methyl methanesulfonate, and to x-irradiation. Homozygotes of hrr25-1 were unable to sporulate and disruption and deletion of HRR25 interfered with mitotic and meiotic cell division. Sequence analysis revealed two distinctive regions in the protein. The NH 2 -terminus of HRR25 contains the hallmark features of protein kinases, whereas the COOH-terminus is rich in proline and glutamine. Mutations in HRR25 at conserved residues found in all protein kinases inactivated the gene, and these mutants exhibited the hrr25 null phenotypes. Taken together, the hrr25 mutant phenotypes and the features of the gene product indicate that HRR25 is a distinctive member of the protein kinase superfamily

  3. Toward a Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Evolutionary History of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in the Plant Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Janitza, Philipp; Ullrich, Kristian Karsten; Quint, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a three-tier signaling cascade that transmits cellular information from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm where it triggers downstream responses. The MAPKs represent the last step in this cascade and are activated when both tyrosine and threonine residues in a conserved TxY motif are phosphorylated by MAPK kinases, which in turn are themselves activated by phosphorylation by MAPK kinase kinases. To understand the molecular evolution of...

  4. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A.; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A.; Kay, Steve A.; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  5. LmxMPK4, an essential mitogen-activated protein kinase of Leishmania mexicana is phosphorylated and activated by the STE7-like protein kinase LmxMKK5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John von Freyend, Simona; Rosenqvist, Heidi; Fink, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The essential mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), LmxMPK4, of Leishmania mexicana is minimally active when purified following recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and was therefore unsuitable for drug screening until now. Using an E. coli protein co-expression system we identified...... LmxMKK5, a STE7-like protein kinase from L. mexicana, which phosphorylates and activates recombinant LmxMPK4 in vitro. LmxMKK5 is comprised of 525 amino acids and has a calculated molecular mass of 55.9kDa. The co-expressed, purified LmxMPK4 showed strong phosphotransferase activity in radiometric...... kinase assays and was confirmed by immunoblot and tandem mass spectrometry analyses to be phosphorylated on threonine 190 and tyrosine 192 of the typical TXY MAP kinase activation motif. The universal protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine reduced the phosphotransferase activity of co...

  6. Differential regulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic α4 GABA(A) receptor populations by protein kinase A and protein kinase C in cultured cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, John Peyton; Carlson, Stephen L; Morrow, A Leslie

    2016-06-01

    The GABAA α4 subunit exists in two distinct populations of GABAA receptors. Synaptic GABAA α4 receptors are localized at the synapse and mediate phasic inhibitory neurotransmission, while extrasynaptic GABAA receptors are located outside of the synapse and mediate tonic inhibitory transmission. These receptors have distinct pharmacological and biophysical properties that contribute to interest in how these different subtypes are regulated under physiological and pathological states. We utilized subcellular fractionation procedures to separate these populations of receptors in order to investigate their regulation by protein kinases in cortical cultured neurons. Protein kinase A (PKA) activation decreases synaptic α4 expression while protein kinase C (PKC) activation increases α4 subunit expression, and these effects are associated with increased β3 S408/409 or γ2 S327 phosphorylation respectively. In contrast, PKA activation increases extrasynaptic α4 and δ subunit expression, while PKC activation has no effect. Our findings suggest synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA α4 subunit expression can be modulated by PKA to inform the development of more specific therapeutics for neurological diseases that involve deficits in GABAergic transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein kinase that phosphorylates light-harvesting complex is autophosphorylated and is associated with photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.

    1987-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes were phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP and extracted with octyl glucoside and cholate. Among the radiolabeled phosphoproteins in the extract was a previously characterized protein kinase of 64-kDa apparent mass. The ability of this enzyme to undergo autophosphorylation in situ was used to monitor its distribution in the membrane. Fractionation studies showed that the kinase is confined to granal regions of the thylakoid, where it appears to be associated with the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of photosystem II. The kinetics of kinase autophosphorylation were investigated both in situ and in extracted, purified enzyme. In the membrane, autophosphorylation saturated within 20-30 min and was reversed with a half-time of 7-8 min upon removal of ATP or oxidative inactivation of the kinase; the accompanying dephosphorylation of light-harvesting complex was slower and kinetically complex. Fluoride (10 mM) inhibited these dephosphorylations. Autophosphorylation of the isolated kinase was independent of enzyme concentration, indicative of an intramolecular mechanism. A maximum of one serine residue per mole of kinase was esterified. Autophosphorylation was more rapid in the presence of histone IIIs, an exogenous substrate. Dephosphorylation of the isolated enzyme was not observed

  8. Mururins A-C, three new lignoids from Brosimum acutifolium and their protein kinase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Junko; Asano, Shoichi; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2002-07-01

    Two new flavonolignans, mururins A and B ( 1 and 2), and a new lignan, mururin C ( 3), were isolated from the bark of Brosimum acutifolium Huber together with three known lignans. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means and chemical modifications. They were tested for protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitory activity. Mururin A showed 3 % and 63 % inhibition to PKA and PKC, respectively, at 20 microM. Mururin B showed 58 % and 38 % inhibition, respectively. Mururin C did not have significant activity.

  9. Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and signal transduction: regulation in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Alison M; McCaig, Alison M; Nakagawa, Rinako; Vukovic, Milica

    2010-01-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a pro-apoptotic serine/threonine protein kinase that is dysregulated in a wide variety of cancers. The mechanism by which this occurs has largely been attributed to promoter hypermethylation, which results in gene silencing. However, recent studies indicate that DAPK expression can be detected in some cancers, but its function is still repressed, suggesting that DAPK activity can be subverted at a post-translational level in cancer cells. This review will focus on recent data describing potential mechanisms that may alter the expression, regulation or function of DAPK.

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase downregulates Kv7.1 cell surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Jespersen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in response to polarization of the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and that this was mediated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, the pathway downstream of PKC, which leads to internalization of Kv7.1 upon cell polarization, is elucidated. We show by confocal...... microscopy that Kv7.1 is endocytosed upon initiation of the polarization process and sent for degradation by the lysosomal pathway. The internalization could be mimicked by pharmacological activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) using three different AMPK activators. We demonstrate...

  11. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are negatively regulated by a plant-specific calcium sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholc, Maria; Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Goch, Grażyna; Anielska-Mazur, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Krzywińska, Ewa; Dobrowolska, Grażyna

    2011-02-04

    SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s) are plant-specific enzymes involved in environmental stress signaling and abscisic acid-regulated plant development. Here, we report that SnRK2s interact with and are regulated by a plant-specific calcium-binding protein. We screened a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Matchmaker cDNA library for proteins interacting with Nicotiana tabacum osmotic stress-activated protein kinase (NtOSAK), a member of the SnRK2 family. A putative EF-hand calcium-binding protein was identified as a molecular partner of NtOSAK. To determine whether the identified protein interacts only with NtOSAK or with other SnRK2s as well, we studied the interaction of an Arabidopsis thaliana orthologue of the calcium-binding protein with selected Arabidopsis SnRK2s using a two-hybrid system. All kinases studied interacted with the protein. The interactions were confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, indicating that the binding occurs in planta, exclusively in the cytoplasm. Calcium binding properties of the protein were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy using Tb(3+) as a spectroscopic probe. The calcium binding constant, determined by the protein fluorescence titration, was 2.5 ± 0.9 × 10(5) M(-1). The CD spectrum indicated that the secondary structure of the protein changes significantly in the presence of calcium, suggesting its possible function as a calcium sensor in plant cells. In vitro studies revealed that the activity of SnRK2 kinases analyzed is inhibited in a calcium-dependent manner by the identified calcium sensor, which we named SCS (SnRK2-interacting calcium sensor). Our results suggest that SCS is involved in response to abscisic acid during seed germination most probably by negative regulation of SnRK2s activity.

  12. High-throughput kinase assays with protein substrates using fluorescent polymer superquenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weatherford Wendy

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screening is used by the pharmaceutical industry for identifying lead compounds that interact with targets of pharmacological interest. Because of the key role that aberrant regulation of protein phosphorylation plays in diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension, kinases have become one of the main drug targets. With the exception of antibody-based assays, methods to screen for specific kinase activity are generally restricted to the use of small synthetic peptides as substrates. However, the use of natural protein substrates has the advantage that potential inhibitors can be detected that affect enzyme activity by binding to a site other than the catalytic site. We have previously reported a non-radioactive and non-antibody-based fluorescence quench assay for detection of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation using synthetic peptide substrates. The aim of this work is to develop an assay for detection of phosphorylation of chemically unmodified proteins based on this polymer superquenching platform. Results Using a modified QTL Lightspeed™ assay, phosphorylation of native protein was quantified by the interaction of the phosphorylated proteins with metal-ion coordinating groups co-located with fluorescent polymer deposited onto microspheres. The binding of phospho-protein inhibits a dye-labeled "tracer" peptide from associating to the phosphate-binding sites present on the fluorescent microspheres. The resulting inhibition of quench generates a "turn on" assay, in which the signal correlates with the phosphorylation of the substrate. The assay was tested on three different proteins: Myelin Basic Protein (MBP, Histone H1 and Phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein (PHAS-1. Phosphorylation of the proteins was detected by Protein Kinase Cα (PKCα and by the Interleukin -1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4. Enzyme inhibition yielded IC50 values that were comparable to those obtained using

  13. High-throughput kinase assays with protein substrates using fluorescent polymer superquenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rininsland, Frauke; Stankewicz, Casey; Weatherford, Wendy; McBranch, Duncan

    2005-05-31

    High-throughput screening is used by the pharmaceutical industry for identifying lead compounds that interact with targets of pharmacological interest. Because of the key role that aberrant regulation of protein phosphorylation plays in diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension, kinases have become one of the main drug targets. With the exception of antibody-based assays, methods to screen for specific kinase activity are generally restricted to the use of small synthetic peptides as substrates. However, the use of natural protein substrates has the advantage that potential inhibitors can be detected that affect enzyme activity by binding to a site other than the catalytic site. We have previously reported a non-radioactive and non-antibody-based fluorescence quench assay for detection of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation using synthetic peptide substrates. The aim of this work is to develop an assay for detection of phosphorylation of chemically unmodified proteins based on this polymer superquenching platform. Using a modified QTL Lightspeed assay, phosphorylation of native protein was quantified by the interaction of the phosphorylated proteins with metal-ion coordinating groups co-located with fluorescent polymer deposited onto microspheres. The binding of phospho-protein inhibits a dye-labeled "tracer" peptide from associating to the phosphate-binding sites present on the fluorescent microspheres. The resulting inhibition of quench generates a "turn on" assay, in which the signal correlates with the phosphorylation of the substrate. The assay was tested on three different proteins: Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), Histone H1 and Phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein (PHAS-1). Phosphorylation of the proteins was detected by Protein Kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and by the Interleukin -1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4). Enzyme inhibition yielded IC50 values that were comparable to those obtained using peptide substrates. Statistical parameters that

  14. Activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinases and cAMP-binding proteins of rat kidney cytosol during dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenina, M.N.; Solenov, E.I.; Ivanova, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    The activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinases, the binding of cAMP, and the spectrum of cAMP-binding proteins in the cytosol of the renal papilla was studied in intact rats and in rats after 24 h on a water-deprived diet. It was found that the activation of protein kinases by 10 -6 M cAMP is significantly higher in the experimental animals than in the intact animals. In chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, the positions of the peaks of specific reception of cAMP corresponded to the peaks of the regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases of types I and II. In this case, in intact animals more than 80% of the binding activity was detected in peaks II, whereas in rats subjected to water deprivation, more than 60% of the binding was observed in peak I. The general regulatory activity of the cytosol was unchanged in the experimental animals in comparison with intact animals. It is suggested that during dehydration there is an induction of the synthesis of the regulatory subunit of type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the renal papilla

  15. Acute lymphoid and gastrointestinal toxicity induced by selective p38alpha map kinase and map kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2) inhibitors in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dale L; O'Neil, Shawn P; Devraj, Rajesh V; Portanova, Joseph P; Gilles, Richard W; Gross, Cindy J; Curtiss, Sandra W; Komocsar, Wendy J; Garner, Debra S; Happa, Fernando A; Kraus, Lori J; Nikula, Kristen J; Monahan, Joseph B; Selness, Shaun R; Galluppi, Gerald R; Shevlin, Kimberly M; Kramer, Jeffrey A; Walker, John K; Messing, Dean M; Anderson, David R; Mourey, Robert J; Whiteley, Laurence O; Daniels, John S; Yang, Jerry Z; Rowlands, Philip C; Alden, Carl L; Davis, John W; Sagartz, John E

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to moderately selective p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors in the Beagle dog results in an acute toxicity consisting of mild clinical signs (decreased activity, diarrhea, and fever), lymphoid necrosis and depletion in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen, and linear colonic and cecal mucosal hemorrhages. Lymphocyte apoptosis and necrosis in the GALT is the earliest and most prominent histopathologic change observed, followed temporally by neutrophilic infiltration and acute inflammation of the lymph nodes and spleen and multifocal mucosal epithelial necrosis and linear hemorrhages in the colon and cecum. These effects are not observed in the mouse, rat, or cynomolgus monkey. To further characterize the acute toxicity in the dog, a series of in vivo, in vitro, and immunohistochemical studies were conducted to determine the relationship between the lymphoid and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and p38 MAPK inhibition. Results of these studies demonstrate a direct correlation between p38alpha MAPK inhibition and the acute lymphoid and gastrointestinal toxicity in the dog. Similar effects were observed following exposure to inhibitors of MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), further implicating the role of p38alpha MAPK signaling pathway inhibition in these effects. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that p38alpha MAPK inhibition results in acute lymphoid and GI toxicity in the dog and is unique among the species evaluated in these studies.

  16. The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates viral-induced encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuner, Donalyn; Gromeier, Matthias; Davies, Monique V.; Dorner, Andrew J.; Song Benbo; Patel, Rupali V.; Wimmer, Eckard J.; McLendon, Roger E.; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2003-01-01

    The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important role in control of viral infections and cell growth. We have studied the role of PKR in viral infection in mice that are defective in the PKR signaling pathway. Transgenic mice were derived that constitutively express a trans-dominant-negative kinase-defective mutant PKR under control of the β-actin promoter. The trans-dominant-negative PKR mutant expressing transgenic mice do not have a detectable phenotype, similar to observations with PKR knock-out mice. The requirement for PKR in viral pathogenesis was studied by intracerebral infection of mice with a mouse-adapted poliovirus. Histopathological analysis revealed diffuse encephalomyelitis with severe inflammatory lesions throughout the central nervous system (CNS) in infected wild-type mice. In contrast, histopathological evaluation of virus-injected trans-dominant-negative PKR transgenic mice as well as PKR knock-out mice yielded no signs of tissue damage associated with inflammatory host responses. However, the virus did replicate in both models of PKR-deficient mice at a level equal to that observed in wild-type infected mice. Although the results indicate a clear difference in susceptibility to poliovirus-induced encephalitis, this difference manifests clinically as a slight delay in fatal neuropathy in trans-dominant-negative PKR transgenic and PKR knock-out animals. Our observations support the finding that viral-induced PKR activation may play a significant role in pathogenesis by mediating the host response to viral CNS infection. They support PKR to be an effective target to control tissue damage due to deleterious host responses to viral infection

  17. GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins and PAK1 kinase regulate microtubule nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Microtubule nucleation from γ-tubulin complexes, located at the centrosome, is an essential step in the formation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the signaling mechanisms that regulate microtubule nucleation in interphase cells are largely unknown. In this study, we report that γ-tubulin is in complexes containing G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1), p21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor (βPIX), and p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) in various cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed association of GIT1, βPIX and activated PAK1 with centrosomes. Microtubule regrowth experiments showed that depletion of βPIX stimulated microtubule nucleation, while depletion of GIT1 or PAK1 resulted in decreased nucleation in the interphase cells. These data were confirmed for GIT1 and βPIX by phenotypic rescue experiments, and counting of new microtubules emanating from centrosomes during the microtubule regrowth. The importance of PAK1 for microtubule nucleation was corroborated by the inhibition of its kinase activity with IPA-3 inhibitor. GIT1 with PAK1 thus represent positive regulators, and βPIX is a negative regulator of microtubule nucleation from the interphase centrosomes. The regulatory roles of GIT1, βPIX and PAK1 in microtubule nucleation correlated with recruitment of γ-tubulin to the centrosome. Furthermore, in vitro kinase assays showed that GIT1 and βPIX, but not γ-tubulin, serve as substrates for PAK1. Finally, direct interaction of γ-tubulin with the C-terminal domain of βPIX and the N-terminal domain of GIT1, which targets this protein to the centrosome, was determined by pull-down experiments. We propose that GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins with PAK1 kinase represent a novel regulatory mechanism of microtubule nucleation in interphase cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate dependent protein kinases in a marine diatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.P.C.; Volcani, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    Two novel adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinases have been isolated from the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. The kinases, designated I and II, are eluted from DEAE-Sephacel at 0.10 and 0.15 M NaCl. They have a high affinity for cAMP and are activated by micromolar cAMP. They exhibit maximal activity at 5 mM Mg 2+ and pH 8 with the preferred phosphate donor ATP and phosphate acceptor histone H1. They phosphorylate sea urchin sperm histone H1 on a single serine site in the sequence Arg-Lys-Gly-Ser( 32 P)-Ser-Asn-Ala-Arg and have an apparent M r of 75,000 as determined by gel filtration and sucrose density sedimentation. In the kinase I preparation a single protein band with an apparent M r of about 78,000 is photolabeled with 8-azido[ 32 P]cAMP and is also phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP in a cAMP-dependent manner, after autoradiography following sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The rate of phosphorylation of the 78,000-dalton band is independent of the enzyme concentration. The results indicate that (i) these diatom cAMP-dependent protein kinases are monomeric proteins, possessing both the cAMP-binding regulatory and catalytic domains on the same polypeptide chain, (ii) the enzymes do not dissociate into smaller species upon activation by binding cAMP, and (iii) self-phosphorylation of the enzymes by an intrapeptide reaction is cAMP dependent. The two diatom cAMP kinases are refractory to the heat-stable protein kinase modulator from rabbit muscle, but they respond differently to proteolytic degradation and to inhibition by arachidonic acid and several microbial alkaloids

  19. Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søberg, Kristoffer; Jahnsen, Tore; Rognes, Torbjørn; Skålhegg, Bjørn S.; Laerdahl, Jon K.

    2013-01-01

    3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinase or protein kinase A (PKA) has served as a prototype for the large family of protein kinases that are crucially important for signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. The PKA catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ, encoded by the two genes PRKACA and PRKACB, respectively, are among the best understood and characterized human kinases. Here we have studied the evolution of this gene family in chordates, arthropods, mollusks and other animals employing probabilistic methods and show that Cα and Cβ arose by duplication of an ancestral PKA catalytic subunit in a common ancestor of vertebrates. The two genes have subsequently been duplicated in teleost fishes. The evolution of the PRKACG retroposon in simians was also investigated. Although the degree of sequence conservation in the PKA Cα/Cβ kinase family is exceptionally high, a small set of signature residues defining Cα and Cβ subfamilies were identified. These conserved residues might be important for functions that are unique to the Cα or Cβ clades. This study also provides a good example of a seemingly simple phylogenetic problem which, due to a very high degree of sequence conservation and corresponding weak phylogenetic signals, combined with problematic nonphylogenetic signals, is nontrivial for state-of-the-art probabilistic phylogenetic methods. PMID:23593352

  20. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N Shemon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP, also PEBP1, a member of the Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein family, negatively regulates growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. Since an organic compound, locostatin, was reported to bind RKIP and inhibit cell migration by a Raf-dependent mechanism, we addressed the role of RKIP in locostatin function.We analyzed locostatin interaction with RKIP and examined the biological consequences of locostatin binding on RKIP function. NMR studies show that a locostatin precursor binds to the conserved phosphatidylethanolamine binding pocket of RKIP. However, drug binding to the pocket does not prevent RKIP association with its inhibitory target, Raf-1, nor affect RKIP phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C at a regulatory site. Similarly, exposure of wild type, RKIP-depleted HeLa cells or RKIP-deficient (RKIP(-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs to locostatin has no effect on MAP kinase activation. Locostatin treatment of wild type MEFs causes inhibition of cell migration following wounding. RKIP deficiency impairs migration further, indicating that RKIP protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration. Locostatin treatment of depleted or RKIP(-/- MEFs reveals cytoskeletal disruption and microtubule abnormalities in the spindle.These results suggest that locostatin's effects on cytoskeletal structure and migration are caused through mechanisms independent of its binding to RKIP and Raf/MAP kinase signaling. The protective effect of RKIP against drug inhibition of migration suggests a new role for RKIP in potentially sequestering toxic compounds that may have deleterious effects on cells.

  1. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemon, Anne N; Eves, Eva M; Clark, Matthew C; Heil, Gary; Granovsky, Alexey; Zeng, Lingchun; Imamoto, Akira; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-06-24

    Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP, also PEBP1), a member of the Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein family, negatively regulates growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. Since an organic compound, locostatin, was reported to bind RKIP and inhibit cell migration by a Raf-dependent mechanism, we addressed the role of RKIP in locostatin function. We analyzed locostatin interaction with RKIP and examined the biological consequences of locostatin binding on RKIP function. NMR studies show that a locostatin precursor binds to the conserved phosphatidylethanolamine binding pocket of RKIP. However, drug binding to the pocket does not prevent RKIP association with its inhibitory target, Raf-1, nor affect RKIP phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C at a regulatory site. Similarly, exposure of wild type, RKIP-depleted HeLa cells or RKIP-deficient (RKIP(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to locostatin has no effect on MAP kinase activation. Locostatin treatment of wild type MEFs causes inhibition of cell migration following wounding. RKIP deficiency impairs migration further, indicating that RKIP protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration. Locostatin treatment of depleted or RKIP(-/-) MEFs reveals cytoskeletal disruption and microtubule abnormalities in the spindle. These results suggest that locostatin's effects on cytoskeletal structure and migration are caused through mechanisms independent of its binding to RKIP and Raf/MAP kinase signaling. The protective effect of RKIP against drug inhibition of migration suggests a new role for RKIP in potentially sequestering toxic compounds that may have deleterious effects on cells.

  2. Identification and analysis of a novel protein-tyrosine kinase from bovine thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioncheck, T.F.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cytosolic protein-tyrosine kinase has been identified and purified to near homogeneity from calf thymus by using the phosphorylation of the tyrosine-containing peptide angiotensin I as an assay. Specific peptide phosphorylating activity was enhanced by carrying out the assay at high ionic strength (2M NaCl). The inclusion of NaCl at this concentration acts to stimulate endogenous protein-tyrosine kinase activity while simultaneously inhibiting other endogenous kinases. The purification procedure involved extraction of the enzyme from calf-thymus and sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose, casein-sepharose, butylagarose, and Sephadex G-75. Analysis of the most highly purified preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single Coomassie blue-stained band of 41 KDa. This molecular weight was consistent with results obtained from gel filtration, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme has also been found to catalyze an autophosphorylation reaction. Incubation of the enzyme with Mn 2+ and [γ- 32 P]ATP led to its modification on a tyrosine residue. Phosphopeptide mapping experiments indicated that the 41 KDa kinase was distinct from p56, the major membrane-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in T lymphocytes

  3. Cloning and Sequencing of Protein Kinase cDNA from Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases (PKs play critical roles in signal transduction and activation of lymphocytes. The identification of PK genes provides a tool for understanding mechanisms of immunotoxic xenobiotics. As part of a larger study investigating persistent organic pollutants in the harbor seal and their possible immunomodulatory actions, we sequenced harbor seal cDNA fragments encoding PKs. The procedure, using degenerate primers based on conserved motifs of human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs, successfully amplified nine phocid PK gene fragments with high homology to human and rodent orthologs. We identified eight PTKs and one dual (serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase. Among these were several PKs important in early signaling events through the B- and T-cell receptors (FYN, LYN, ITK and SYK and a MAP kinase involved in downstream signal transduction. V-FGR, RET and DDR2 were also expressed. Sequential activation of protein kinases ultimately induces gene transcription leading to the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes critical to adaptive immunity. PKs are potential targets of bioactive xenobiotics, including persistent organic pollutants of the marine environment; characterization of these molecules in the harbor seal provides a foundation for further research illuminating mechanisms of action of contaminants speculated to contribute to large-scale die-offs of marine mammals via immunosuppression.

  4. The roles of phosphorylation and SHAGGY-like protein kinases in geminivirus C4 protein induced hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Mills-Lujan

    Full Text Available Even though plant cells are highly plastic, plants only develop hyperplasia under very specific abiotic and biotic stresses, such as when exposed to pathogens like Beet curly top virus (BCTV. The C4 protein of BCTV is sufficient to induce hyperplasia and alter Arabidopsis development. It was previously shown that C4 interacts with two Arabidopsis Shaggy-like protein kinases, AtSK21 and 23, which are negative regulators of brassinosteroid (BR hormone signaling. Here we show that the C4 protein interacts with five additional AtSK family members. Bikinin, a competitive inhibitor of the seven AtSK family members that interact with C4, induced hyperplasia similar to that induced by the C4 protein. The Ser49 residue of C4 was found to be critical for C4 function, since: 1 mutagenesis of Ser49 to Ala abolished the C4-induced phenotype, abolished C4/AtSK interactions, and resulted in a mutant protein that failed to induce changes in the BR signaling pathway; 2 Ser49 is phosphorylated in planta; and 3 plant-encoded AtSKs must be catalytically active to interact with C4. A C4 N-myristoylation site mutant that does not localize to the plasma membrane and does not induce a phenotype, retained the ability to bind AtSKs. Taken together, these results suggest that plasma membrane associated C4 interacts with and co-opts multiple AtSKs to promote its own phosphorylation and activation to subsequently compromise cell cycle control.

  5. Src Family Kinases and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Pluripotent Cell Differentiation in Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Siang Nicholas Tan

    Full Text Available Multiple pluripotent cell populations, which together comprise the pluripotent cell lineage, have been identified. The mechanisms that control the progression between these populations are still poorly understood. The formation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL cells from mouse embryonic stem (mES cells provides a model to understand how one such transition is regulated. EPL cells form from mES cells in response to l-proline uptake through the transporter Slc38a2. Using inhibitors of cell signaling we have shown that Src family kinases, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and GSK3β are required for the transition between mES and EPL cells. ERK1/2, c-Src and GSK3β are likely to be enforcing a receptive, primed state in mES cells, while Src family kinases and p38 MAPK are involved in the establishment of EPL cells. Inhibition of these pathways prevented the acquisition of most, but not all, features of EPL cells, suggesting that other pathways are required. L-proline activation of differentiation is mediated through metabolism and changes to intracellular metabolite levels, specifically reactive oxygen species. The implication of multiple signaling pathways in the process suggests a model in which the context of Src family kinase activation determines the outcomes of pluripotent cell differentiation.

  6. Src Family Kinases and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Pluripotent Cell Differentiation in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boon Siang Nicholas; Kwek, Joly; Wong, Chong Kum Edwin; Saner, Nicholas J.; Yap, Charlotte; Felquer, Fernando; Morris, Michael B.; Gardner, David K.; Rathjen, Peter D.; Rathjen, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pluripotent cell populations, which together comprise the pluripotent cell lineage, have been identified. The mechanisms that control the progression between these populations are still poorly understood. The formation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL) cells from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells provides a model to understand how one such transition is regulated. EPL cells form from mES cells in response to l-proline uptake through the transporter Slc38a2. Using inhibitors of cell signaling we have shown that Src family kinases, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and GSK3β are required for the transition between mES and EPL cells. ERK1/2, c-Src and GSK3β are likely to be enforcing a receptive, primed state in mES cells, while Src family kinases and p38 MAPK are involved in the establishment of EPL cells. Inhibition of these pathways prevented the acquisition of most, but not all, features of EPL cells, suggesting that other pathways are required. L-proline activation of differentiation is mediated through metabolism and changes to intracellular metabolite levels, specifically reactive oxygen species. The implication of multiple signaling pathways in the process suggests a model in which the context of Src family kinase activation determines the outcomes of pluripotent cell differentiation. PMID:27723793

  7. Free radical-mediated stimulation of tyrosine-specific protein kinase in rat liver plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.M.; Tatoyan, A.; Cheng, E.; Shargill, N.S.; Pleta, M.

    1986-01-01

    Incorporation of 32 P from (γ- 32 P)-ATP into endogenous proteins of plasma membranes isolated from rat liver was significantly increased by several naphthoquinones including menadione. This apparent stimulation of membrane-associated protein kinase activity by these compounds was most striking (up to 6-7 fold) when the synthetic copolymers containing glutamate and tyrosine residues (4:1) was used as substrate. Since tyrosine residues are the only possible phosphate acceptor in the copolymers, the quinone-stimulated liver membrane protein kinase is most likely tyrosine specific. Although not required for protein kinase activity, dithiothreitol (DTT) was necessary for its stimulation by these quinonoid compounds. Hydrolysis of ATP was not significantly affected by quinones under the experimental conditions. Both menadione and vitamin k 5 increased phosphorylation of plasma membrane proteins of molecular weight 45 and 60 kd. The stimulatory effect of menadione on protein phosphorylation was prevented by the addition of superoxide dismutase. Dihydroxyfumerate, which spontaneously produces various radical species, and H 2 O 2 , also stimulated tyrosine-specific protein phosphorylation. DTT was also required for their full effect. It, therefore, appears that quinonone stimulation of tyrosine-specific protein phosphorylation is mediated by oxygen radicals

  8. An unusual protein kinase phosphorylates the chemotactic receptor of Dictystelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.; Klein, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the chemotactic receptor of Dictyostelium discoideum in partially purified plasma membranes. The protein kinase responsible for receptor phosphorylation is associated with this fraction and preferentially phosphorylates the ligand-occupied form of the receptor. 8-Azido[ 32 P]cAMP labeling of the cell surface has shown that the cAMP receptor exists in two forms. A 45-kDa protein is predominant on unstimulated cells. cAMP stimulation results in an increased receptor phosphorylation such that the receptor migrates on NaDodSO 4 /PAGE as a 47-kDa protein. Phosphorylation of the chemotactic receptor is not detected in membrane preparations unless cAMP is added to the incubation mixture. Only under those conditions is the phosphorylated 47-kDa form observed. The requirement for cAMP reflects the fact that the kinase involved preferentially uses the ligand-occupied receptor as a substrate. In vitro phosphorylation of the receptor does not involve tyrosine residues. The enzyme does not appear to be a cAMP- or cGMP-dependent protein kinase nor is it sensitive to guanine nucleotides, Ca 2+ /calmodulin, Ca 2+ /phospholipid, or EGTA. Similarities with the β-adrenergic receptor protein kinase are discussed

  9. Investigation of the Flexibility of Protein Kinases Implicated in the Pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Mazanetz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathological characteristics of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD have been linked to the activity of three particular kinases—Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK3β, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5 and Extracellular-signal Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2. As a consequence, the design of selective, potent and drug-like inhibitors of these kinases is of particular interest. Structure-based design methods are well-established in the development of kinase inhibitors. However, progress in this field is limited by the difficulty in obtaining X-ray crystal structures suitable for drug design and by the inability of this method to resolve highly flexible regions of the protein that are crucial for ligand binding. To address this issue, we have undertaken a study of human protein kinases CDK5/p25, CDK5, ERK2 and GSK3β using both conventional molecular dynamics (MD and the new Active Site Pressurisation (ASP methodology, to look for kinase-specific patterns of flexibility that could be leveraged for the design of selective inhibitors. ASP was used to examine the intrinsic flexibility of the ATP-binding pocket for CDK5/p25, CDK5 and GSK3β where it is shown to be capable of inducing significant conformational changes when compared with X-ray crystal structures. The results from these experiments were used to quantify the dynamics of each protein, which supported the observations made from the conventional MD simulations. Additional information was also derived from the ASP simulations, including the shape of the ATP-binding site and the rigidity of the ATP-binding pocket. These observations may be exploited in the design of selective inhibitors of GSK3β, CDK5 and ERK2.

  10. An HTRF® Assay for the Protein Kinase ATM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Phillip; Clark, Jonathan; Hawdon, Simon; Hill, Jennifer; Plater, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of DNA damage pathways and checkpoint arrest. In recent years, there has been growing interest in ATM as a therapeutic target due to its association with cancer cell survival following genotoxic stress such as radio- and chemotherapy. Large-scale targeted drug screening campaigns have been hampered, however, by technical issues associated with the production of sufficient quantities of purified ATM and the availability of a suitable high-throughput assay. Using a purified, functionally active recombinant ATM and one of its physiological substrates, p53, we have developed an in vitro FRET-based activity assay that is suitable for high-throughput drug screening.

  11. ARPP-16 Is a Striatal-Enriched Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulated by Microtubule-Associated Serine/Threonine Kinase 3 (Mast 3 Kinase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Erika C; Musante, Veronica; Horiuchi, Atsuko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Brody, A Harrison; Wu, Terence; Greengard, Paul; Taylor, Jane R; Nairn, Angus C

    2017-03-08

    ARPP-16 (cAMP-regulated phospho-protein of molecular weight 16 kDa) is one of several small acid-soluble proteins highly expressed in medium spiny neurons of striatum that are phosphorylated in response to dopamine acting via D1 receptor/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. We show here that ARPP-16 is also phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase 3 (MAST3 kinase), an enzyme of previously unknown function that is enriched in striatum. We find that ARPP-16 interacts directly with the scaffolding A subunit of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase, PP2A, and that phosphorylation of ARPP-16 at Ser46 by MAST3 kinase converts the protein into a selective inhibitor of B55α- and B56δ-containing heterotrimeric forms of PP2A. Ser46 of ARPP-16 is phosphorylated to a high basal stoichiometry in striatum, suggestive of basal inhibition of PP2A in striatal neurons. In support of this hypothesis, conditional knock-out of ARPP-16 in CaMKIIα::cre/floxed ARPP-16/19 mice results in dephosphorylation of a subset of PP2A substrates including phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32, phospho-T308-Akt, and phospho-T202/Y204-ERK. Conditional knock-out of ARPP-16/19 is associated with increased motivation measured on a progressive ratio schedule of food reinforcement, yet an attenuated locomotor response to acute cocaine. Our previous studies have shown that ARPP-16 is phosphorylated at Ser88 by PKA. Activation of PKA in striatal slices leads to phosphorylation of Ser88, and this is accompanied by marked dephosphorylation of Ser46. Together, these studies suggest that phospho-Ser46-ARPP-16 acts to basally control PP2A in striatal medium spiny neurons but that dopamine acting via PKA inactivates ARPP-16 leading to selective potentiation of PP2A signaling. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We describe a novel mechanism of signal transduction enriched in medium spiny neurons of striatum that likely mediates effects of the neurotransmitter dopamine acting on these cells. We

  12. Toxoplasma DJ-1 Regulates Organelle Secretion by a Direct Interaction with Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Matthew A.; Garland, Megan; Foe, Ian; Madzelan, Peter; Treeck, Moritz; van der Linden, Wouter A.; Oresic Bender, Kristina; Weerapana, Eranthie; Wilson, Mark A.; Boothroyd, John C.; Reese, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human DJ-1 is a highly conserved and yet functionally enigmatic protein associated with a heritable form of Parkinson’s disease. It has been suggested to be a redox-dependent regulatory scaffold, binding to proteins to modulate their function. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the Toxoplasma orthologue Toxoplasma gondii DJ-1 (TgDJ-1) at 2.1-Å resolution and show that it directly associates with calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1). The TgDJ-1 structure identifies an orthologously conserved arginine dyad that acts as a phospho-gatekeeper motif to control complex formation. We determined that the binding of TgDJ-1 to CDPK1 is sensitive to oxidation and calcium, and that this interaction potentiates CDPK1 kinase activity. Finally, we show that genetic deletion of TgDJ-1 results in upregulation of CDPK1 expression and that disruption of the CDPK1/TgDJ-1 complex in vivo prevents normal exocytosis of parasite virulence-associated organelles called micronemes. Overall, our data suggest that TgDJ-1 functions as a noncanonical kinase-regulatory scaffold that integrates multiple intracellular signals to tune microneme exocytosis in T. gondii. PMID:28246362

  13. Primate Torpor: Regulation of Stress-activated Protein Kinases During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K. Biggar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Very few selected species of primates are known to be capable of entering torpor. This exciting discovery means that the ability to enter a natural state of dormancy is an ancestral trait among primates and, in phylogenetic terms, is very close to the human lineage. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie primate torpor, we analyzed signal transduction cascades to discover those involved in coordinating tissue responses during torpor. The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family members to primate torpor were compared in six organs of control (aroused versus torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. The proteins examined include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs, MAPK kinase (MEK, and p38, in addition to stress-related proteins p53 and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27. The activation of specific MAPK signal transduction pathways may provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of torpor-responsive genes or the regulation of selected downstream cellular processes. In response to torpor, each MAPK subfamily responded differently during torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. For example, skeletal muscle displayed elevated relative phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during torpor. Interestingly, adipose tissues showed the highest degree of MAPK activation. Brown adipose tissue displayed an activation of ERK1/2 and p38, whereas white adipose tissue showed activation of ERK1/2, p38, MEK, and JNK during torpor. Importantly, both adipose tissues possess specialized functions that are critical for torpor, with brown adipose required for non-shivering thermogenesis and white adipose utilized as the primary source of lipid fuel for torpor. Overall, these data indicate crucial roles of MAPKs in the regulation of primate organs during torpor.

  14. Novel receptor-like protein kinases induced by Erwinia carotovora and short oligogalacturonides in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, M; Kõiv, V; Mäe, A; Palva, E T

    2001-11-01

    summary Identification of potato genes responsive to cell wall-degrading enzymes of Erwinia carotovora resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for four related receptor-like protein kinases. One of the putative serine-threonine protein kinases might have arisen through alternative splicing. These potato receptor-like kinases (PRK1-4) were highly equivalent (91-99%), most likely constituting a family of related receptors. All PRKs and four other plant RLKs share in their extracellular domain a conserved bi-modular pattern of cysteine repeats distinct from that in previously characterized plant RLKs, suggesting that they represent a new class of receptors. The corresponding genes were rapidly induced by E. carotovora culture filtrate (CF), both in the leaves and tubers of potato. Furthermore, the genes were transiently induced by short oligogalacturonides. The structural identity of PRKs and their induction pattern suggested that they constitute part of the early response of potato to E. carotovora infection.

  15. Role of the Mixed-Lineage Protein Kinase Pathway in the Metabolic Stress Response to Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kant

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Saturated free fatty acid (FFA is implicated in the metabolic response to obesity. In vitro studies indicate that FFA signaling may be mediated by the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK pathway that activates cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK. Here, we examined the role of the MLK pathway in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. The ubiquitously expressed MLK2 and MLK3 protein kinases have partially redundant functions. We therefore compared wild-type and compound mutant mice that lack expression of MLK2 and MLK3. MLK deficiency protected mice against high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity. Reduced JNK activation and increased energy expenditure contribute to the metabolic effects of MLK deficiency. These data confirm that the MLK pathway plays a critical role in the metabolic response to obesity.

  16. Protein implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activity

    KAUST Repository

    Altawashi, Azza

    2012-02-28

    Mutation of the coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing 1A (CC2D1A) gene, which encodes a C2 domain and DM14 domain-containing protein, has been linked to severe autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Using a mouse model that produces a truncated form of CC2D1A that lacks the C2 domain and three of the four DM14 domains, we show that CC2D1A is important for neuronal differentiation and brain development. CC2D1A mutant neurons are hypersensitive to stress and have a reduced capacitytoformdendritesandsynapsesinculture. Atthebiochemical level,CC2D1Atransduces signals to the cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during neuronal cell differentiation. PKA activity is compromised, and the translocation of its catalytic subunit to the nucleus is also defective in CC2D1A mutant cells. Consistently, phosphorylation of the PKA target cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, at serine 133, is nearly abolished in CC2D1A mutant cells. The defects in cAMP/PKA signaling were observed in fibroblast, macrophage, and neuronal primary cells derived from the CC2D1A KO mice. CC2D1A associates with the cAMP-PKA complex following forskolin treatment and accumulates in vesicles or on the plasma membrane in wild-type cells, suggesting that CC2D1A may recruit the PKA complex to the membrane to facilitate signal transduction. Together, our data show that CC2D1A is an important regulator of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, which may be the underlying cause for impaired mental function in nonsyndromic mental retardation patients with CC2D1A mutation. 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Signaling Is Impaired in the Diabetic Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockus, Lee B; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2015-12-04

    Diabetes mellitus causes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure that is associated with metabolic abnormalities and autonomic impairment. Autonomic control of ventricular function occurs through regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The diabetic heart has suppressed β-adrenergic responsiveness, partly attributable to receptor changes, yet little is known about how PKA signaling is directly affected. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were therefore administered 8-bromo-cAMP (8Br-cAMP) acutely to activate PKA in a receptor-independent manner, and cardiac hemodynamic function and PKA signaling were evaluated. In response to 8Br-cAMP treatment, diabetic mice had impaired inotropic and lusitropic responses, thus demonstrating postreceptor defects. This impaired signaling was mediated by reduced PKA activity and PKA catalytic subunit content in the cytoplasm and myofilaments. Compartment-specific loss of PKA was reflected by reduced phosphorylation of discrete substrates. In response to 8Br-cAMP treatment, the glycolytic activator PFK-2 was robustly phosphorylated in control animals but not diabetics. Control adult cardiomyocytes cultured in lipid-supplemented media developed similar changes in PKA signaling, suggesting that lipotoxicity is a contributor to diabetes-induced β-adrenergic signaling dysfunction. This work demonstrates that PKA signaling is impaired in diabetes and suggests that treating hyperlipidemia is vital for proper cardiac signaling and function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Signaling Is Impaired in the Diabetic Heart*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockus, Lee B.; Humphries, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus causes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure that is associated with metabolic abnormalities and autonomic impairment. Autonomic control of ventricular function occurs through regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The diabetic heart has suppressed β-adrenergic responsiveness, partly attributable to receptor changes, yet little is known about how PKA signaling is directly affected. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were therefore administered 8-bromo-cAMP (8Br-cAMP) acutely to activate PKA in a receptor-independent manner, and cardiac hemodynamic function and PKA signaling were evaluated. In response to 8Br-cAMP treatment, diabetic mice had impaired inotropic and lusitropic responses, thus demonstrating postreceptor defects. This impaired signaling was mediated by reduced PKA activity and PKA catalytic subunit content in the cytoplasm and myofilaments. Compartment-specific loss of PKA was reflected by reduced phosphorylation of discrete substrates. In response to 8Br-cAMP treatment, the glycolytic activator PFK-2 was robustly phosphorylated in control animals but not diabetics. Control adult cardiomyocytes cultured in lipid-supplemented media developed similar changes in PKA signaling, suggesting that lipotoxicity is a contributor to diabetes-induced β-adrenergic signaling dysfunction. This work demonstrates that PKA signaling is impaired in diabetes and suggests that treating hyperlipidemia is vital for proper cardiac signaling and function. PMID:26468277

  19. Heat Shock Proteins and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases in Steatotic Livers Undergoing Ischemia-Reperfusion: Some Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massip-Salcedo, Marta; Casillas-Ramirez, Araní; Franco-Gou, Rosah; Bartrons, Ramón; Ben Mosbah, Ismail; Serafin, Anna; Roselló-Catafau, Joan; Peralta, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning protects steatotic livers against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but just how this is achieved is poorly understood. Here, I/R or preconditioning plus I/R was induced in steatotic and nonsteatotic livers followed by investigating the effect of pharmacological treatments that modulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). MAPKs, HSPs, protein kinase C, and transaminase levels were measured after reperfusion. We report that preconditioning increased HSP72 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at 6 and 24 hours of reperfusion, respectively. Unlike nonsteatotic livers, steatotic livers benefited from HSP72 activators (geranylgeranylacetone) throughout reperfusion. This protection seemed attributable to HO-1 induction. In steatotic livers, preconditioning and geranylgeranylacetone treatment (which are responsible for HO-1 induction) increased protein kinase C activity. HO-1 activators (cobalt(III) protoporphyrin IX) protected both liver types. Preconditioning reduced p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in HSP72 induction though HO-1 remained unmodified. Like HSP72, both p38 and JNK appeared not to be crucial in preconditioning, and inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) were less effective against hepatic injury than HO-1 activators. These results provide new data regarding the mechanisms of preconditioning and may pave the way to the development of new pharmacological strategies in liver surgery. PMID:16651615

  20. Identification of a novel receptor-like protein kinase that interacts with a geminivirus nuclear shuttle protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Andrea C.; Andrade, Maxuel O.; Santos, Anesia A.; Carolino, Sonia M.B.; Oliveira, Marli L.; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Brommonshenkel, Sergio H.; Fontes, Elizabeth P.B.

    2004-01-01

    Despite extensive studies in plant virus-host interactions, the molecular mechanisms of geminivirus movement and interactions with host components remain largely unknown. A tomato kinase protein and its soybean homolog were found to interact specifically with the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) of Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) and Tomato crinkle leaf yellows virus (TCrLYV) through yeast two-hybrid screening and in vitro protein binding assays. These proteins, designated LeNIK (Lycopersicon esculentum NSP-Interacting Kinase) and GmNIK (Glycine max NIK), belong to the LRR-RLK (leucine rich-repeat receptor-like kinase) family that is involved in plant developmental processes and/or resistance response. As such, NIK is structurally organized into characteristic domains, including a serine/threonine kinase domain with a nucleotide binding site at the C-terminal region, an internal transmembrane segment and leucine-rich repeats (LRR) at the N-terminal portion. The potential significance of the NSP-NIK interaction is discussed

  1. KSR1 is a functional protein kinase capable of serine autophosphorylation and direct phosphorylation of MEK1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettel, Jeremy A.; Liang, Dongchun; Hilliard, Valda C.; Edelblum, Karen L.; Broadus, Matthew R.; Gould, Kathleen L.; Hanks, Steven K.; Polk, D. Brent

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway that regulates diverse cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Kinase suppressor of Ras-1 (KSR1) binds each of the three ERK cascade components to facilitate pathway activation. Even though KSR1 contains a C-terminal kinase domain, evidence supporting the catalytic function of KSR1 remains controversial. In this study, we produced recombinant wild-type or kinase-inactive (D683A/D700A) KSR1 proteins in Escherichia coli to test the hypothesis that KSR1 is a functional protein kinase. Recombinant wild-type KSR1, but not recombinant kinase-inactive KSR1, underwent autophosphorylation on serine residue(s), phosphorylated myelin basic protein (MBP) as a generic substrate, and phosphorylated recombinant kinase-inactive MAPK/ERK kinase-1 (MEK1). Furthermore, FLAG immunoprecipitates from KSR1 -/- colon epithelial cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged wild-type KSR1 (+KSR1), but not vector (+vector) or FLAG-tagged kinase-inactive KSR1 (+D683A/D700A), were able to phosphorylate kinase-inactive MEK1. Since TNF activates the ERK pathway in colon epithelial cells, we tested the biological effects of KSR1 in the survival response downstream of TNF. We found that +vector and +D683A/D700A cells underwent apoptosis when treated with TNF, whereas +KSR1 cells were resistant. However, +KSR1 cells were sensitized to TNF-induced cell loss in the absence of MEK kinase activity. These data provide clear evidence that KSR1 is a functional protein kinase, MEK1 is an in vitro substrate of KSR1, and the catalytic activities of both proteins are required for eliciting cell survival responses downstream of TNF.

  2. The MAP kinase Pmk1 and protein kinase A are required for rotenone resistance in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yiwei; Gulis, Galina; Buckner, Scott; Johnson, P. Connor; Sullivan, Daniel [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Busenlehner, Laura [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Marcus, Stevan, E-mail: smarcus@bama.ua.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Rotenone induces generation of ROS and mitochondrial fragmentation in fission yeast. {yields} The MAPK Pmk1 and PKA are required for rotenone resistance in fission yeast. {yields} Pmk1 and PKA are required for ROS clearance in rotenone treated fission yeast cells. {yields} PKA plays a role in ROS clearance under normal growth conditions in fission yeast. -- Abstract: Rotenone is a widely used pesticide that induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in rats and death of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although rotenone is a potent inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, it can induce death of dopaminergic neurons independently of complex I inhibition. Here we describe effects of rotenone in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks complex I and carries out rotenone-insensitive cellular respiration. We show that rotenone induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as fragmentation of mitochondrial networks in treated S. pombe cells. While rotenone is only modestly inhibitory to growth of wild type S. pombe cells, it is strongly inhibitory to growth of mutants lacking the ERK-type MAP kinase, Pmk1, or protein kinase A (PKA). In contrast, cells lacking the p38 MAP kinase, Spc1, exhibit modest resistance to rotenone. Consistent with these findings, we provide evidence that Pmk1 and PKA, but not Spc1, are required for clearance of ROS in rotenone treated S. pombe cells. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of S. pombe for elucidating complex I-independent molecular targets of rotenone as well as mechanisms conferring resistance to the toxin.

  3. The MAP kinase Pmk1 and protein kinase A are required for rotenone resistance in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiwei; Gulis, Galina; Buckner, Scott; Johnson, P. Connor; Sullivan, Daniel; Busenlehner, Laura; Marcus, Stevan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Rotenone induces generation of ROS and mitochondrial fragmentation in fission yeast. → The MAPK Pmk1 and PKA are required for rotenone resistance in fission yeast. → Pmk1 and PKA are required for ROS clearance in rotenone treated fission yeast cells. → PKA plays a role in ROS clearance under normal growth conditions in fission yeast. -- Abstract: Rotenone is a widely used pesticide that induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in rats and death of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although rotenone is a potent inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, it can induce death of dopaminergic neurons independently of complex I inhibition. Here we describe effects of rotenone in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks complex I and carries out rotenone-insensitive cellular respiration. We show that rotenone induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as fragmentation of mitochondrial networks in treated S. pombe cells. While rotenone is only modestly inhibitory to growth of wild type S. pombe cells, it is strongly inhibitory to growth of mutants lacking the ERK-type MAP kinase, Pmk1, or protein kinase A (PKA). In contrast, cells lacking the p38 MAP kinase, Spc1, exhibit modest resistance to rotenone. Consistent with these findings, we provide evidence that Pmk1 and PKA, but not Spc1, are required for clearance of ROS in rotenone treated S. pombe cells. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of S. pombe for elucidating complex I-independent molecular targets of rotenone as well as mechanisms conferring resistance to the toxin.

  4. Ménage à trois: the complex relationships between mitogen-activated protein kinases, WRKY transcription factors, and VQ-motif-containing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyhe, Martin; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Pecher, Pascal; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Out of the 34 members of the VQ-motif-containing protein (VQP) family, 10 are phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), MPK3 and MPK6. Most of these MPK3/6-targeted VQPs (MVQs) interacted with specific sub-groups of WRKY transcription factors in a VQ-motif-dependent manner. In some cases, the MAPK appears to phosphorylate either the MVQ or the WRKY, while in other cases, both proteins have been reported to act as MAPK substrates. We propose a network of dynamic interactions between members from the MAPK, MVQ and WRKY families - either as binary or as tripartite interactions. The compositions of the WRKY-MVQ transcriptional protein complexes may change - for instance, through MPK3/6-mediated modulation of protein stability - and therefore control defense gene transcription.

  5. Inhibition of PKA anchoring to A-kinase anchoring proteins impairs consolidation and facilitates extinction of contextual fear memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Ingrid M.; Ostroveanu, Anghelus; Scheper, Wouter A.; Penke, Botond; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.

    Both genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrated that contextual fear conditioning is critically regulated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Since PKA is a broad range protein kinase, a mechanism for confining its activity is required. It has been shown that intracellular spatial

  6. A-kinase anchoring protein 150 in the mouse brain is concentrated in areas involved in learning and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostroveanu, Anghelus; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Dolga, Amalia M.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Nijholt, Ingrid M.

    2007-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) form large macromolecular signaling complexes that specifically target cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to unique subcellular compartments and thus, provide high specificity to PKA signaling. For example, the AKAP79/150 family tethers PKA, PKC and PP2B to

  7. Selectivity analysis of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBB and resorufin in cisplatin-induced stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, Gerhard; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann

    2009-01-01

    Targeting protein kinases as a therapeutic approach to treat various diseases, especially cancer is currently a fast growing business. Although many inhibitors are available, exhibiting remarkable potency, the major challenge is their selectivity. Here we show that the protein kinase CK2 inhibito...

  8. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  9. Fueling the engine: induction of AMP-activated protein kinase in trout skeletal muscle by swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnoni, L.J.; Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is well known to be induced by exercise and to mediate important metabolic changes in the skeletal muscle of mammals. Despite the physiological importance of exercise as a modulator of energy use by locomotory muscle, the regulation of this enzyme by swimming has

  10. Protein kinase C prevents oligodendrocyte differentiation : Modulation of actin cytoskeleton and cognate polarized membrane traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, W; de Vries, EJ; de Vries, H; Hoekstra, D

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) prevents oligodendrocyte differentiation at the pro-oligodendrocyte stage. The present study was undertaken to identify downstream targets of PKC action in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Activation of PKC induced the

  11. Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase expression and signalling in skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Ca2+ signalling is proposed to play an important role in skeletal muscle function during exercise. Here, we examined the expression of multifunctional Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK) in human skeletal muscle and show that CaMKII and CaMKK, but not CaMKI or CaMKIV, are expressed...

  12. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 activity during meiosis resumption in mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Radek; Blaha, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2015), s. 495-502 ISSN 0916-8818 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cumulus oocyte complexes * meiosis resumption * mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 1.453, year: 2015

  13. Insulin resistance enhances the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in ovarian granulosa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghui Kong

    Full Text Available The ovary is the main regulator of female fertility. Granulosa cell dysfunction may be involved in various reproductive endocrine disorders. Here we investigated the effect of insulin resistance on the metabolism and function of ovarian granulosa cells, and dissected the functional status of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in these cells. Our data showed that dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells reduced insulin sensitivity, accompanied with an increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, up-regulation of cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and testosterone and down-regulation of progesterone were observed in insulin-resistant mouse granulosa cells. Inhibition of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase after induction of insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells decreased phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, downregulated cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and lowered progesterone production. This insulin resistance cell model can successfully demonstrate certain mechanisms such as hyperandrogenism, which may inspire a new strategy for treating reproductive endocrine disorders by regulating cell signaling pathways.

  14. Selective inhibition of Sarcocystis neurona calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), a debilitating neurologic disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma...

  15. Fas-associated factor 1 interacts with protein kinase CK2 in vivo upon apoptosis induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    2001-01-01

    We show here that in several different cell lines protein kinase CK2 and Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) exist together in a complex which is stable to high monovalent salt concentration. The CK2/FAF1 complex formation is significantly increased after induction of apoptosis with various DNA damaging...

  16. Reorientational properties of fluorescent analogues of the protein kinase C cofactors diacylglycerol and phorbol ester.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pap, E.H.W.; Ketelaars, M.; Borst, J.W.; Hoek, van A.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    1996-01-01

    The reorientational properties of the fluorescently labelled protein kinase C (PKC) cofactors diacylglycerol (DG) and phorbol ester (PMA) in vesicles and mixed micelles have been investigated using time-resolved polarised fluorescence. The sn-2 acyl chain of DG was replaced by diphenylhexatriene-

  17. Transient upregulation of protein kinase C in pressure-overloaded neonatal rat myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamplová, B.; Novák, F.; Kolář, František; Nováková, O.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-33 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : protein kinase C * cardiac development * pressure overload Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  18. Trichinella spiralis infection enhances protein kinase C phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, J M; Zieliński, Z; Cieśla, J; Wałajtys-Rode, E

    2010-03-01

    To learn more about the signalling pathways involved in superoxide anion production in guinea pig alveolar macrophages, triggered by Trichinella spiralis infection, protein level and phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated. Infection with T. spiralis, the nematode having 'lung phase' during colonization of the host, enhances PKC phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages. Isoenzymes beta and delta of PKC have been found significantly phosphorylated, although their location was not changed as a consequence of T. spiralis infection. Neither in macrophages from T. spiralis-infected guinea pig nor in platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated macrophages from uninfected animals, participation of MAP kinases in respiratory burst activation was statistically significant. The parasite antigens seem to act through macrophage PAF receptors, transducing a signal for enhanced NADPH oxidase activity, as stimulating effect of newborn larvae homogenate on respiratory burst was abolished by specific PAF receptor antagonist CV 6209. A suppressive action of T. spiralis larvae on host alveolar macrophage innate immunological response was reflected by diminished protein level of ERK2 kinase and suppressed superoxide anion production, in spite of high level of PKC phosphorylation.

  19. rad-Dependent response of the chk1-encoded protein kinase at the DNA damage checkpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walworth, N.C.; Bernards, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of eukaryotic cells to agents that generate DNA damage results in transient arrest of progression through the cell cycle. In fission yeast, the DNA damage checkpoint associated with cell cycle arrest before mitosis requires the protein kinase p56chk1. DNA damage induced by ultraviolet

  20. Phenotypic Analysis of ATM Protein Kinase in DNA Double-Strand Break Formation and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Elisabeth; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is involved in various regulatory processes in mammalian cells. Its best-known role is apical activation of the DNA damage response following generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When DSBs appear, sensor and mediator proteins are recruited, activating transducers such as ATM, which in turn relay a widespread signal to a multitude of downstream effectors. ATM mutation causes Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), whereby the disease phenotype shows differing characteristics depending on the underlying ATM mutation. However, all phenotypes share progressive neurodegeneration and marked predisposition to malignancies at the organismal level and sensitivity to ionizing radiation and chromosome aberrations at the cellular level. Expression and localization of the ATM protein can be determined via western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy; however, detection of subtle alterations such as resulting from amino acid exchanges rather than truncating mutations requires functional testing. Previous studies on the role of ATM in DSB repair, which connects with radiosensitivity and chromosomal stability, gave at first sight contradictory results. To systematically explore the effects of clinically relevant ATM mutations on DSB repair, we engaged a series of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from AT patients and controls. To examine DSB repair both in a quantitative and qualitative manners, we used an EGFP-based assay comprising different substrates for distinct DSB repair mechanisms. In this way, we demonstrated that particular signaling defects caused by individual ATM mutations led to specific DSB repair phenotypes. To explore the impact of ATM on carcinogenic chromosomal aberrations, we monitored chromosomal breakage at a breakpoint cluster region hotspot within the MLL gene that has been associated with therapy-related leukemia. PCR-based MLL-breakage analysis of HeLa cells

  1. Lysophosphatidylcholine Promotes Phagosome Maturation and Regulates Inflammatory Mediator Production Through the Protein Kinase A–Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase–p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mouse Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Ji Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is caused by the infectious agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. Mtb has various survival strategies, including blockade of phagosome maturation and inhibition of antigen presentation. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC is a major phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and is involved in various cellular responses, such as activation of second messengers and bactericidal activity in neutrophils. In this study, macrophages were infected with a low infectious dose of Mtb and treated with LPC to investigate the bactericidal activity of LPC against Mtb. In macrophages infected with Mtb strain, H37Ra or H37Rv, LPC suppressed bacterial growth; however, this effect was suppressed in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs isolated from G2A (a G protein-coupled receptor involved in some LPC actions knockout mice. LPC also promoted phagosome maturation via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K–p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK-mediated reactive oxygen species production and intracellular Ca2+ release during Mtb infection. In addition, LPC induced increased levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β in Mtb-infected macrophages. Protein kinase A (PKA-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β suppressed activation of NF-κB in LPC-treated macrophages during Mtb infection, leading to decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that LPC can effectively control Mtb growth by promoting phagosome maturation via cAMP-induced activation of the PKA–PI3K–p38 MAPK pathway. Moreover, LPC can regulate excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with bacterial infection of macrophages.

  2. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  3. Structural basis of divergent cyclin-dependent kinase activation by Spy1/RINGO proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Denise A.; Fifield, Bre-Anne; Marceau, Aimee H.; Tripathi, Sarvind; Porter, Lisa A.; Rubin, Seth M. (UCSC); (Windsor)

    2017-06-30

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are principal drivers of cell division and are an important therapeutic target to inhibit aberrant proliferation. Cdk enzymatic activity is tightly controlled through cyclin interactions, posttranslational modifications, and binding of inhibitors such as the p27 tumor suppressor protein. Spy1/RINGO (Spy1) proteins bind and activate Cdk but are resistant to canonical regulatory mechanisms that establish cell-cycle checkpoints. Cancer cells exploit Spy1 to stimulate proliferation through inappropriate activation of Cdks, yet the mechanism is unknown. We have determined crystal structures of the Cdk2-Spy1 and p27-Cdk2-Spy1 complexes that reveal how Spy1 activates Cdk. We find that Spy1 confers structural changes to Cdk2 that obviate the requirement of Cdk activation loop phosphorylation. Spy1 lacks the cyclin-binding site that mediates p27 and substrate affinity, explaining why Cdk-Spy1 is poorly inhibited by p27 and lacks specificity for substrates with cyclin-docking sites. We identify mutations in Spy1 that ablate its ability to activate Cdk2 and to proliferate cells. Our structural description of Spy1 provides important mechanistic insights that may be utilized for targeting upregulated Spy1 in cancer.

  4. Complexes of γ-tubulin with nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases Src and Fyn in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukharskyy, Vitaliy; Sulimenko, Vadym; Macurek, Libor; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Draberova, Eduarda; Draber, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family have been shown to play an important role in signal transduction as well as in regulation of microtubule protein interactions. Here we show that γ-tubulin (γ-Tb) in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells undergoing neuronal differentiation is phosphorylated and forms complexes with protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family, Src and Fyn. Elevated expression of both kinases during differentiation corresponded with increased level of proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine. Immunoprecipitation experiments with antibodies against Src, Fyn, γ-tubulin, and with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that γ-tubulin appeared in complexes with these kinases. In vitro kinase assays showed tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in γ-tubulin complexes isolated from differentiated cells. Pretreatment of cells with Src family selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 reduced the amount of phosphorylated γ-tubulin in the complexes. Binding experiments with recombinant SH2 and SH3 domains of Src and Fyn kinases revealed that protein complexes containing γ-tubulin bound to SH2 domains and that these interactions were of SH2-phosphotyrosine type. The combined data suggest that Src family kinases might have an important role in the regulation of γ-tubulin interaction with tubulin dimers or other proteins during neurogenesis

  5. Characterization and enzymatic properties of protein kinase ACR4 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xuehe; Xu, Ziyan; Yang, Hui; Li, Jixi

    2017-07-22

    Serine/threonine-protein kinase-like protein ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 (ACR4), a transmembrane protein of Arabidopsis thaliana, plays important roles in cell division and differentiation. Although accumulating studies shed light on the function of ACR4, the structure and catalytic mechanism of ACR4 remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the purification and enzymatic properties of the intracellular kinase domain (residues 464-799) of ACR4 (ACR4 IKD ). Through Ni-affinity chromatography and gel filter chromatography methods, we successfully obtain high-purity ACR4 IKD protein from Escherichia coli. Dynamic light scattering and gel-filtration methods reveal that ACR4 IKD distributes with high homogeneity and exists as a monomer in solution. In addition, the ACR4 IKD protein has typical kinase activity with myelin basic protein (MBP) as the substrate. Our study may lay the foundation for structure determination of ACR4 IKD and further functional research, for example, screening significant substrates of ACR4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 2-Aminopyridine-Based Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Inhibitors: Assessment of Mechanism-Based Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Robert L; Ammirati, Mark; Bagley, Scott W; Bhattacharya, Samit K; Buckbinder, Leonard; Cortes, Christian; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Ford, Kristen; Freeman, Gary B; Guimarães, Cristiano R W; Liu, Shenping; Niosi, Mark; Skoura, Athanasia; Tess, David

    2018-04-12

    Studies have linked the serine-threonine kinase MAP4K4 to the regulation of a number of biological processes and/or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, inflammation, and angiogenesis. With a majority of the members of our lead series (e.g., 1) suffering from time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, we sought design avenues that would eliminate this risk. One such approach arose from the observation that carboxylic acid-based intermediates employed in our discovery efforts retained high MAP4K4 inhibitory potency and were devoid of the TDI risk. The medicinal chemistry effort that led to the discovery of this central nervous system-impaired inhibitor together with its preclinical safety profile is described.

  7. Opportunities to Target Specific Contractile Abnormalities with Smooth Muscle Protein Kinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Ulke-Lemée

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle is a major component of most hollow organ systems (e.g., airways, vasculature, bladder and gut/gastrointestine; therefore, the coordinated regulation of contraction is a key property of smooth muscle. When smooth muscle functions normally, it contributes to general health and wellness, but its dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK is central to calcium-independent, actomyosin-mediated contractile force generation in the vasculature, thereby playing a role in smooth muscle contraction, cell motility and adhesion. Recent evidence supports an important role for ROCK in the increased vasoconstriction and remodeling observed in various models of hypertension. This review will provide a commentary on the development of specific ROCK inhibitors and their clinical application. Fasudil will be discussed as an example of bench-to-bedside development of a clinical therapeutic that is used to treat conditions of vascular hypercontractility. Due to the wide spectrum of biological processes regulated by ROCK, many additional clinical indications might also benefit from ROCK inhibition. Apart from the importance of ROCK in smooth muscle contraction, a variety of other protein kinases are known to play similar roles in regulating contractile force. The zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK and integrin-linked kinase (ILK are two well-described regulators of contraction. The relative contribution of each kinase to contraction depends on the muscle bed as well as hormonal and neuronal stimulation. Unfortunately, specific inhibitors for ZIPK and ILK are still in the development phase, but the success of fasudil suggests that inhibitors for these other kinases may also have valuable clinical applications. Notably, the directed inhibition of ZIPK with a pseudosubstrate molecule shows unexpected effects on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

  8. Modulation of the Chromatin Phosphoproteome by the Haspin Protein Kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiolica, Alessio; de Medina-Redondo, Maria; Schoof, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    , histone H3 is the only confirmed Haspin substrate. We used a combination of biochemical, pharmacological, and mass spectrometric approaches to study the consequences of Haspin inhibition in mitotic cells. We quantified 3964 phosphorylation sites on chromatin- associated proteins and identified a Haspin...

  9. EMK protein kinase-null mice: dwarfism and hypofertility associated with alterations in the somatotrope and prolactin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessone, S; Vidal, F; Le Bouc, Y; Epelbaum, J; Bluet-Pajot, M T; Darmon, M

    1999-10-01

    Gene trapping was used in embryonic stem (ES) cells in an attempt to inactivate genes involved in development. The Emk (ELKL motif kinase) gene has been disrupted and a mutant mouse line derived. Previous work had shown that EMK kinases, called MARK in the rat, exert a major control on microtubule stability by phosphorylating microtubule-associated proteins and that genes homologous to Emk in yeast or Caenorhabditis elegans are essential for cell and embryonic polarity. Although we found the Emk gene to be active in the preimplantation mouse embryo and then to show a widespread expression, Emk-null mice had no embryonic defect and were viable. They show an overall proportionate dwarfism and a peculiar hypofertility: homozygotes are not fertile when intercrossed, but are fertile in other types of crosses. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were reduced in the plasma of homozygotes of both sexes. A direct implication of the EMK kinase in IGF I plasmatic production is unlikely because the Emk gene does not seem to be expressed in hepatocytes. Nevertheless, GH assayed at arbitrary times in plasma did not show differences between genotypes and GH concentrations in pituitary extracts were not found to be altered in homozygotes. Our results, though, do not exclude the possibility that in the mutants the overall quantity of GH secreted daily is reduced. Our observation of a smaller size of the pituitaries of the mutants is in favor of this hypothesis. The prolactin concentration in the pituitaries was much lowered in homozygous females, but it was normal in males. The possible involvement of EMK protein kinase in hormone secretion in the pituitary and/or the hypothalamus, via the microtubule network, is discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. New protein kinase inhibitors in breast cancer: afatinib and neratinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Munster, Pamela N

    2014-06-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 is overexpressed in 20 - 25% of breast cancers, and has historically been a poor prognostic marker. The introduction of trastuzumab, the first fully humanized monoclonal antibody targeting HER2, has drastically changed the outcomes of metastatic breast cancers. However, despite initial response, most patients develop resistance. Recent data suggest that strategies targeting more than one member of HER family may circumvent trastuzumab resistance and confer synergistic effects. Following a literature search on PubMed, national meetings and clinicaltrials.gov using 'afatinib', 'neratinib', 'HER2' and 'breast cancer' as keywords, we critically analyzed the different HER2-targeted therapies for their drug development and evidence-based therapeutic strategies. Afatinib and neratinib, two second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that irreversibly inhibit more than one HER family member, are being actively investigated in clinical trials either as monotherapy or in combination. We reviewed the efficacy and optimal use of these agents in various settings, such as systemic therapy for advanced breast cancer including brain metastases, and neoadjuvant therapy in early-stage breast cancer. HER2-targeted therapies have been widely used and greatly improved the outcome of HER2-positive breast cancer. Despite the accelerated advancement in recent years, several crucial questions remain unanswered, such as how to treat a prior resistance or affect a sanctuary site, that is, CNS metastasis. The novel next-generation TKIs, afatinib and neratinib, were rationally designed to overcome the resistance by targeting multiple HER family members and irreversibly binding the targets. In spite of the encouraging results of the afatinib and neratinib monotherapies, they have not been proven more efficacious in the combination therapies yet, even though multicenter international trials are still ongoing. The key tasks in the future are

  11. Activation of the ATR kinase by the RPA-binding protein ETAA1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Peter; Hoffmann, Saskia; Tollenaere, Maxim A X

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the ATR kinase following perturbations to DNA replication relies on a complex mechanism involving ATR recruitment to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA via its binding partner ATRIP and stimulation of ATR kinase activity by TopBP1. Here, we discovered an independent ATR activation pathway...... in vertebrates, mediated by the uncharacterized protein ETAA1 (Ewing's tumour-associated antigen 1). Human ETAA1 accumulates at DNA damage sites via dual RPA-binding motifs and promotes replication fork progression and integrity, ATR signalling and cell survival after genotoxic insults. Mechanistically...

  12. Induction of rat hepatic zinc thionein by phorbol ester-mediated protein kinase C pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, S.H.; Funk, A.E.; Brady, F.O.

    1986-05-01

    Metallothionein (MT) exists in rat liver mainly as a zinc protein. The levels of this protein fluctuate in response to a variety of internal and external stimuli. Among these inducers of MT are metals, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and polypeptide hormones. Metals and glucocorticoids are primary inducers of MT, while the others operate either via adenylate cyclase/cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or via phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, diacylglycerol/Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C. The authors have examined the role of the protein kinase C pathway in the induction of MT by using a phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), to activate it. In vivo TPA is a good inducer of Zn/sub 7/-MT with an ED/sub 0.5/ of 26.5 nmoles/kg b.w. Maximal levels reached were about 7..mu..g Zn in MT/g liver, an induction increase of 8 to 10-fold. An inactive compound, 4..beta..-phorbol, and the vehicle (DMSO) did not stimulate the synthesis of Zn/sub 7/-MT. This induction by TPA requires de novo protein synthesis, as demonstrated by a cycloheximide/(/sup 35/S)-cysteine experiment. TPA stimulated Zn incorporation by 8.6-fold and (/sup 35/S)-cysteine incorporation by 4.8-fold during an 11h induction. These increases were blocked 100% by treatment with cycloheximide at -1 and +5h. These experiments have been repeated in cultured hepatocytes, using (/sup 35/S)-cysteine incorporation, slab SDS-PAGE, and autoradiography to quantitate MT levels.

  13. The PP2C Alphabet is a negative regulator of stress-activated protein kinase signaling in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Caroline; Sahmi, Malha; Ashton-Beaucage, Dariel; Stronach, Beth; Therrien, Marc

    2009-02-01

    The Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 pathways, also known as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways, are signaling conduits reiteratively used throughout the development and adult life of metazoans where they play central roles in the control of apoptosis, immune function, and environmental stress responses. We recently identified a Drosophila Ser/Thr phosphatase of the PP2C family, named Alphabet (Alph), which acts as a negative regulator of the Ras/ERK pathway. Here we show that Alph also plays an inhibitory role with respect to Drosophila SAPK signaling during development as well as under stress conditions such as oxidative or genotoxic stresses. Epistasis experiments suggest that Alph acts at a step upstream of the MAPKKs Hep and Lic. Consistent with this interpretation, biochemical experiments identify the upstream MAPKKKs Slpr, Tak1, and Wnd as putative substrates. Together with previous findings, this work identifies Alph as a general attenuator of MAPK signaling in Drosophila.

  14. Extracellular Protein Kinase A Modulates Intracellular Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II, Nitric Oxide Synthase, and the Glutamate-Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway in Cerebellum. Differential Effects in Hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-12-21

    Extracellular protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), modulate neuronal functions including N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. NMDA receptor activation increases calcium, which binds to calmodulin and activates nitric oxide synthase (NOS), increasing nitric oxide (NO), which activates guanylate cyclase, increasing cGMP, which is released to the extracellular fluid, allowing analysis of this glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in vivo by microdialysis. The function of this pathway is impaired in hyperammonemic rats. The aims of this work were to assess (1) whether the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway is modulated in cerebellum in vivo by an extracellular PKA, (2) the role of phosphorylation and activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and NOS in the pathway modulation by extracellular PKA, and (3) whether the effects are different in hyperammonemic and control rats. The pathway was analyzed by in vivo microdialysis. The role of extracellular PKA was analyzed by inhibiting it with a membrane-impermeable inhibitor. The mechanisms involved were analyzed in freshly isolated cerebellar slices from control and hyperammonemic rats. In control rats, inhibiting extracellular PKA reduces the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in vivo. This is due to reduction of CaMKII phosphorylation and activity, which reduces NOS phosphorylation at Ser1417 and NOS activity, resulting in reduced guanylate cyclase activation and cGMP formation. In hyperammonemic rats, under basal conditions, CaMKII phosphorylation and activity are increased, increasing NOS phosphorylation at Ser847, which reduces NOS activity, guanylate cyclase activation, and cGMP. Inhibiting extracellular PKA in hyperammonemic rats normalizes CaMKII phosphorylation and activity, NOS phosphorylation, NOS activity, and cGMP, restoring normal function of the pathway.

  15. Kinase-loaded magnetic beads for sequential in vitro phosphorylation of peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadkova, Lenka; Kupcik, Rudolf; Vajrychova, Marie; Prikryl, Petr; Charvatova, Andrea; Jankovicova, Barbora; Ripova, Daniela; Bilkova, Zuzana; Slovakova, Marcela

    2018-01-15

    Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, greatly impact the physiological function of proteins, especially those that are natively unfolded and implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, structural and functional studies of such proteins require fully defined phosphorylation, including those that are not physiological. Thus, the kinases ERK2 and GSK-3β were immobilized to various superparamagnetic beads with carboxylic, aldehyde, Ni 2+ , or Co 3+ functional groups, with a view to efficiently phosphorylate peptides and proteins in vitro. Full phosphorylation of specific synthetic peptides confirmed that beads were successfully loaded with kinases. Remarkably, enzymes covalently immobilized on carboxylated SeraMag beads remained active upon reuse, with residual activity after 10 uses 99.5 ± 0.34% for GSK-3β and 36.2 ± 2.01% for ERK2. The beads were also used to sequentially phosphorylate recombinant tau, which in vivo is a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, a system consisting of two fully active kinases immobilized to magnetic beads is demonstrated for the first time. In comparison to soluble enzymes, the beads are easier to handle, reusable, and thus low-cost. Importantly, these beads are also convenient to remove from reactions to minimize contamination of phosphorylated products or to exchange with other kinases.

  16. Drosophila Protein Kinase CK2: Genetics, Regulatory Complexity and Emerging Roles during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohna Bandyopadhyay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development. We examine the Drosophila CK2 “interaction map” and the eye-specific “transcriptome” databases, which raise the prospect that this protein kinase has many additional targets in the developing eye. We discuss the possibility that CK2 functions during early retinal neurogenesis in Drosophila and mammals bear greater similarity than has been recognized, and that this conservation may extend to other developmental programs. Together, these studies underscore the immense power of the Drosophila model organism to provide new insights and avenues to further investigate developmentally relevant targets of this protein kinase.

  17. Characterization of G-protein coupled receptor kinase interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Holliday, Nicholas D; Hansen, Jakob L

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase-inactive muta......To analyze the interaction between the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), we performed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer(2) (BRET(2)) measurements between the family A NK-1 receptor and GRK2 and GRK5 as well as their respective kinase...

  18. 2,5-hexanedione (HD) treatment alters calmodulin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in rats' nerve tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingshan; Hou Liyan; Zhang Cuili; Zhao Xiulan; Yu Sufang; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2008-01-01

    Calcium-dependent mechanisms, particularly those mediated by Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), have been implicated in neurotoxicant-induced neuropathy. However, it is unknown whether similar mechanisms exist in 2,5-hexanedione (HD)-induced neuropathy. For that, we investigated the changes of CaM, CaMKII, protein kinase C (PKC) and polymerization ratios (PRs) of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H in cerebral cortex (CC, including total cortex and some gray), spinal cord (SC) and sciatic nerve (SN) of rats treated with HD at a dosage of 1.75 or 3.50 mmol/kg for 8 weeks (five times per week). The results showed that CaM contents in CC, SC and SN were significantly increased, which indicated elevation of Ca 2+ concentrations in nerve tissues. CaMKII contents and activities were also increased in CC and were positively correlated with gait abnormality, but it could not be found in SC and SN. The increases of PKC contents and activities were also observed in SN and were positively correlated with gait abnormality. Except for that of NF-M in CC, the PRs of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H were also elevated in nerve tissues, which was consistent with the activation of protein kinases. The results suggested that CaMKII might be partly (in CC but not in SC and SN) involved in HD-induced neuropathy. CaMKII and PKC might mediate the HD neurotoxicity by altering the NF phosphorylation status and PRs

  19. Activation of Protein Kinase C and Protein Kinase D in Human Natural Killer Cells: Effects of Tributyltin, Dibutyltin, and Tetrabromobisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Krupa; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the ability of target cells to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase D (PKD) (which is often a downstream target of PKC) has not been examined in natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. Here we examined whether exposure of human NK cells to lysis sensitive tumor cells activated PKC and PKD. The results of these studies show for the first time that activation of PKC and PKD occurs in response to target cell binding to NK cells. Exposure of NK cells to K562 tumor cells for 10 and 30 minutes increased phosphorylation/activation of both PKC and PKD by roughly 2 fold. Butyltins (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin (DBT)) and brominated compounds (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)) are environmental contaminants that are found in human blood. Exposures of NK cells to TBT, DBT or TBBPA decrease NK cell lytic function in part by activating the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are part of the NK lytic pathway. We established that PKC and PKD are part of the lytic pathway upstream of MAPKs and thus we investigated whether DBT, TBT, and TBBPA exposures activated PKC and PKD. TBT activated PKC by 2–3 fold at 10 min at concentrations ranging from 50–300 nM while DBT caused a 1.3 fold activation at 2.5 μM at 10 min. Both TBT and DBT caused an approximately 2 fold increase in phosphorylation/activation of PKC. Exposures to TBBPA caused no statistically significant changes in either PKC or PKD activation. PMID:26228090

  20. Navigating into the binding pockets of the HER family protein kinases: discovery of novel EGFR inhibitor as antitumor agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ning, Jin-Feng; Meng, Qing-Wei; Hu, Jing; Zhao, Yan-Bin; Liu, Chao; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family has been validated as a successful antitumor drug target for decades. Known EGFR inhibitors were exposed to distinct drug resistance against the various EGFR mutants within non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly the T790M mutation. Although so far a number of studies have been reported on the development of third-generation EGFR inhibitors for overcoming the resistance issue, the design procedure largely depends on the intuition of medicinal chemists. Here we retrospectively make a detailed analysis of the 42 EGFR family protein crystal complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Based on the analysis of inhibitor binding modes in the kinase catalytic cleft, we identified a potent EGFR inhibitor (compound A-10) against drug-resistant EGFR through fragment-based drug design. This compound showed at least 30-fold more potency against EGFR T790M than the two control molecules erlotinib and gefitinib in vitro. Moreover, it could exhibit potent HER2 inhibitory activities as well as tumor growth inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies revealed a structural basis for the increased potency and mutant selectivity of this compound. Compound A-10 may be selected as a promising candidate in further preclinical studies. In addition, our findings could provide a powerful strategy to identify novel selective kinase inhibitors on the basis of detailed kinase-ligand interaction space in the PDB.

  1. Protein kinase C regulates the activity of voltage-sensitive calcium channels of the rat chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakade, A.R.; Malhotra, R.K.; Wakade, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    Phorbol dibutyrate (PB), an activator of protein kinase C was used as a tool to study the role of protein kinase C in the secretion of catecholamines (CA) from the perfused adrenal gland of rat. Secretion of CA evoked by splanchnic nerve stimulation, nicotine (N), carbamylcholine (C) and 35 mM K (K) was enhanced (about 2-fold) by 30 nM PB, but that evoked by muscarine (M) was not. In Ca-free and 1 mM EGTA Krebs solution, N and M did not evoke secretion, and PB also had no effect. If Ca concentration of the perfusion medium was maintained at 0.1 mM, N-evoked secretion was reduced over 80% but M-evoked secretion was still about 60% of the control value. Addition of PB to this medium did not modify secretion evoked by M, but N-evoked secretion was facilitated by 3-fold. Ca 45 flux data showed that N-, C-, and K-evoked secretion of CA was associated with 2- to 3-fold increase in Ca 45 uptake. However, M-evoked secretion did not cause Ca 45 uptake. These results suggest that N utilizes extracellular whereas M utilizes mostly intracellular Ca ions for the secretion of CA. PB alone did not affect Ca 45 uptake, but after stimulation with N, C and K, Ca 45 uptake was further enhanced by PB. It is concluded that protein kinase C phosphorylates membrane proteins that control opening and closing of Ca channels regulated by nicotine receptors and changes in membrane potentials

  2. Protein Kinase D Enzymes as Regulators of EMT and Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Durand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Protein Kinase D (PKD isoforms PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3 are effectors of the novel Protein Kinase Cs (nPKCs and diacylglycerol (DAG. PKDs impact diverse biological processes like protein transport, cell migration, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT and apoptosis. PKDs however, have distinct effects on these functions. While PKD1 blocks EMT and cell migration, PKD2 and PKD3 tend to drive both processes. Given the importance of EMT and cell migration to the initiation and progression of various malignancies, abnormal expression of PKDs has been reported in multiple types of cancers, including breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss how EMT and cell migration are regulated by PKD isoforms and the significance of this regulation in the context of cancer development.

  3. wKinMut-2: Identification and Interpretation of Pathogenic Variants in Human Protein Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Miguel; Pons, Tirso; Brunak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    forest approach. To understand the biological mechanisms causative of human diseases and cancer, information from pertinent reference knowledgebases and the literature is automatically mined, digested and homogenized. Variants are visualized in their structural contexts and residues affecting catalytic...... is often scattered across different sources, which makes the integrative analysis complex and laborious. wKinMut-2 constitutes a solution to facilitate the interpretation of the consequences of human protein kinase variation. Nine methods predict their pathogenicity, including a kinase-specific random...... and drug-binding are identified. Known protein-protein interactions are reported. Altogether, this information is intended to assist the generation of new working hypothesis to be corroborated with ulterior experimental work. The wKinMut-2 system, along with a user manual and examples is freely accessible...

  4. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhaohua; Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse; Lin, Ren-Jang; Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony

    2012-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A) + RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G 2 phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  5. Characterization and functional analyses of the human G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkamp, Sandra; Telgmann, Ralph; Staessen, Jan A; Hagedorn, Claudia; Dördelmann, Corinna; Bek, Martin; Brand-Herrmann, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2008-10-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 is involved in renal sodium handling and blood pressure regulation. Missense variants have already been tested functionally and are associated with hypertension, but no data on promoter analyses are yet available. We scanned 94 hypertensive white subjects for genetic variation and performed promoter reporter gene analyses in HEK293T, COS7, and SaOs-2 cells. Transient transfections with various full lengths and wild-type deletion constructs revealed that 1851 bp of the flanking region and 275 bp of the 5'-untranslated region were sufficient for transcriptional activities and composed a powerful cis-active element in the distal 293 bp. The -1702T and +2T alleles resulted in drastic general reductions of promoter function, whereas an activity increasing effect of +268C was cell type specific. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay, supershift, and cotransfection analyses of transcription factor binding sites predicted in silico (Alibaba2.1/Transfac7) resulted in allele-specific binding patterns of nuclear proteins and identified the participation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein transcription factor family members. The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 core promoter resides in the first 1851 bp upstream of its transcription start site. The 4 identified genetic variants within this region exert allele-specific impact on both cell type- and stimulation-dependent transcription and may affect the expression balance of renal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4.

  6. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhaohua, E-mail: ztang@jsd.claremont.edu [W.M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse [W.M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Lin, Ren-Jang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony [Genome Damage and Stability Center, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A){sup +} RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G{sub 2} phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  7. Phosphorylation-mediated control of histone chaperone ASF1 levels by Tousled-like kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Pilyugin

    Full Text Available Histone chaperones are at the hub of a diverse interaction networks integrating a plethora of chromatin modifying activities. Histone H3/H4 chaperone ASF1 is a target for cell-cycle regulated Tousled-like kinases (TLKs and both proteins cooperate during chromatin replication. However, the precise role of post-translational modification of ASF1 remained unclear. Here, we identify the TLK phosphorylation sites for both Drosophila and human ASF1 proteins. Loss of TLK-mediated phosphorylation triggers hASF1a and dASF1 degradation by proteasome-dependent and independent mechanisms respectively. Consistent with this notion, introduction of phosphorylation-mimicking mutants inhibits hASF1a and dASF1 degradation. Human hASF1b is also targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation, but its stability is not affected by phosphorylation indicating that other mechanisms are likely to be involved in control of hASF1b levels. Together, these results suggest that ASF1 cellular levels are tightly controlled by distinct pathways and provide a molecular mechanism for post-translational regulation of dASF1 and hASF1a by TLK kinases.

  8. Lipid composition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase mutants of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernejc, Katarina; Bencina, Mojca

    2003-08-29

    Lipid composition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) Aspergillus niger mutants with overexpressed or deleted genes for either regulatory and/or the catalytic subunit of PKA was analyzed. Disruption of the gene encoding the PKA regulatory subunit resulted in 20% less total lipids, 30% less neutral lipids, four times more glycolipids and two-fold higher triacylglycerol lipase activity compared to the control strain. Concomitantly a five-fold decrease in phosphatidylcholine, accompanied with 1.5-, 1.8- and 2.8-fold increases in phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, was determined, respectively. The lack of PKA activity, due to the disruption of a gene encoding the PKA catalytic subunit, resulted in a 1.6-times increase in total lipids with two times more neutral lipids associated with lower triacylglycerol lipase activity and a decrease in phospholipids. The mutants with unrestricted PKA activity synthesized twice as much citric acid as the control strain and three times more than strains lacking PKA activity. The results indicate the involvement of cAMP-mediated PKA activity in regulation of lipid biosynthesis as well as citric acid synthesis.

  9. Dihydrotestosterone regulating apolipoprotein M expression mediates via protein kinase C in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhou Ye

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administration of androgens decreases plasma concentrations of high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the mechanisms by which androgens mediate lipid metabolism remain unknown. This present study used HepG2 cell cultures and ovariectomized C57BL/6 J mice to determine whether apolipoprotein M (ApoM, a constituent of HDL, was affected by dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Methods HepG2 cells were cultured in the presence of either DHT, agonist of protein kinase C (PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, blocker of androgen receptor flutamide together with different concentrations of DHT, or DHT together with staurosporine at different concentrations for 24 hrs. Ovariectomized C57BL/6 J mice were treated with DHT or vehicle for 7d or 14d and the levels of plasma ApoM and livers ApoM mRNA were measured. The mRNA levels of ApoM, ApoAI were determined by real-time RT-PCR. ApoM and ApoAI were determined by western blotting analysis. Results Addition of DHT to cell culture medium selectively down-regulated ApoM mRNA expression and ApoM secretion in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 nM DHT, the ApoM mRNA levels were about 20% lower than in untreated cells and about 40% lower at 1000 nM DHT than in the control cells. The secretion of ApoM into the medium was reduced to a similar extent. The inhibitory effect of DHT on ApoM secretion was not blocked by the classical androgen receptor blocker flutamide but by an antagonist of PKC, Staurosporine. Agonist of PKC, PMA, also reduced ApoM. At 0.5 μM PMA, the ApoM mRNA levels and the secretion of ApoM into the medium were about 30% lower than in the control cells. The mRNA expression levels and secretion of another HDL-associated apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI were not affected by DHT. The levels of plasma ApoM and liver ApoM mRNA of DHT-treated C57BL/6 J mice were lower than those of vehicle-treated mice. Conclusions DHT directly and selectively down-regulated the level of ApoM mRNA and the

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Shaked

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression are unknown. We found that both palmitate and oleate inhibited TXNIP in a rat beta-cell line and islets. Palmitate inhibition of TXNIP was independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation or esterification. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has an important role in cellular energy sensing and control of metabolic homeostasis; therefore we investigated its involvement in nutrient regulation of TXNIP. As expected, glucose inhibited whereas palmitate stimulated AMPK. Pharmacologic activators of AMPK mimicked fatty acids by inhibiting TXNIP. AMPK knockdown increased TXNIP expression in presence of high glucose with and without palmitate, indicating that nutrient (glucose and fatty acids effects on TXNIP are mediated in part via modulation of AMPK activity. TXNIP is transcriptionally regulated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP. Palmitate inhibited glucose-stimulated ChREBP nuclear entry and recruitment to the Txnip promoter, thereby inhibiting Txnip transcription. We conclude that AMPK is an important regulator of Txnip transcription via modulation of ChREBP activity. The divergent effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression result in part from their opposing effects on AMPK activity. In light of the important role of TXNIP in beta-cell apoptosis, its inhibition by fatty acids can be regarded as an adaptive/protective response to glucolipotoxicity. The finding that AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of TXNIP may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment

  11. The Snf1 Protein Kinase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata

    2008-01-01

    4 on the regulation of glucose and galactose metabolism, I physiologically characterized Δsnf1, Δsnf4, and Δsnf1Δsnf4 CEN.PK background yeast strains in glucose and glucose-galactose mixture batch cultivations (chapter 2). The results of this study showed that delayed induction of galactose...... that the stable isotope labeling approach is highly reproducible among biological replicates when complex protein mixtures containing small expression changes were analyzed. Where poor correlation between stable isotope labeling and spectral counting was found, the major reason behind the discrepancy was the lack...

  12. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  13. Effects of protein kinase C activators and staurosporine on protein kinase activity, cell survival, and proliferation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, EM; Schousboe, P; Hansen, HQ

    1997-01-01

    Autocrine factors prevent cell death in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a unicellular eukaryote, in a chemically defined medium. At certain growth conditions these factors are released at a sufficient concentration by > 500 cells ml-1 to support cell survival and proliferation. The protein...

  14. Metabolic control by S6 kinases depends on dietary lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R Castañeda

    Full Text Available Targeted deletion of S6 kinase (S6K 1 in mice leads to higher energy expenditure and improved glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we analyze the potential role of dietary lipids in regulating the mTORC1/S6K system. Analysis of S6K phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro showed that dietary lipids activate S6K, and this effect is not dependent upon amino acids. Comparison of male mice lacking S6K1 and 2 (S6K-dko with wt controls showed that S6K-dko mice are protected against obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat diet. S6K-dko mice fed a high-fat diet had increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance, lower fat mass gain, and changes in markers of lipid metabolism. Importantly, however, these metabolic phenotypes were dependent upon dietary lipids, with no such effects observed in S6K-dko mice fed a fat-free diet. These changes appear to be mediated via modulation of cellular metabolism in skeletal muscle, as shown by the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that the metabolic functions of S6K in vivo play a key role as a molecular interface connecting dietary lipids to the endogenous control of energy metabolism.

  15. Signal transduction in neurons: effects of cellular prion protein on fyn kinase and ERK1/2 kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasi Vittorio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc co-localizes with caveolin-1 and participates to signal transduction events by recruiting Fyn kinase. As PrPc is a secreted protein anchored to the outer surface membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor (secPrP and caveolin-1 is located in the inner leaflet of plasma membrane, there is a problem of how the two proteins can physically interact each other and transduce signals. Results By using the GST-fusion proteins system we observed that PrPc strongly interacts with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain and with a caveolin-1 hydrophilic C-terminal region, but not with the caveolin-1 N-terminal region. In vitro binding experiments were also performed to define the site(s of PrPc interacting with cav-1. The results are consistent with a participation of PrPc octapeptide repeats motif in the binding to caveolin-1 scaffolding domain. The caveolar localization of PrPc was ascertained by co-immunoprecipitation, by co-localization after flotation in density gradients and by confocal microscopy analysis of PrPc and caveolin-1 distributions in a neuronal cell line (GN11 expressing caveolin-1 at high levels. Conclusions We observed that, after antibody-mediated cross-linking or copper treatment, PrPc was internalized probably into caveolae. We propose that following translocation from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains, secPrP could interact with caveolin-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  16. Signal transduction in neurons: effects of cellular prion protein on fyn kinase and ERK1/2 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Vittorio

    2010-12-16

    It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc) co-localizes with caveolin-1 and participates to signal transduction events by recruiting Fyn kinase. As PrPc is a secreted protein anchored to the outer surface membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (secPrP) and caveolin-1 is located in the inner leaflet of plasma membrane, there is a problem of how the two proteins can physically interact each other and transduce signals. By using the GST-fusion proteins system we observed that PrPc strongly interacts with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain and with a caveolin-1 hydrophilic C-terminal region, but not with the caveolin-1 N-terminal region. In vitro binding experiments were also performed to define the site(s) of PrPc interacting with cav-1. The results are consistent with a participation of PrPc octapeptide repeats motif in the binding to caveolin-1 scaffolding domain. The caveolar localization of PrPc was ascertained by co-immunoprecipitation, by co-localization after flotation in density gradients and by confocal microscopy analysis of PrPc and caveolin-1 distributions in a neuronal cell line (GN11) expressing caveolin-1 at high levels. We observed that, after antibody-mediated cross-linking or copper treatment, PrPc was internalized probably into caveolae. We propose that following translocation from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains, secPrP could interact with caveolin-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  17. Outer Membrane Protein 25 of Brucella Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathway in Human Trophoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein 25 (OMP25, a virulence factor from Brucella, plays an important role in maintaining the structural stability of Brucella. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway widely exists in eukaryotic cells. In this study, human trophoblast cell line HPT-8 and BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella abortus 2308 strain (S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant strain. The expression of cytokines and activation of MAPK signal pathway were detected. We found that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 were increased in HPT-8 cells infected with S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant. S2308 also activated p38 phosphorylation protein, extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERK, and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK from MAPK signal pathway. 2308ΔOmp25 could not activate p38, ERK, and JNK branches. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that S2308 was able to activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK in BABL/c mice. However, 2308ΔOmp25 could weakly activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. These results suggest that Omp25 played an important role in the process of Brucella activation of the MAPK signal pathway.

  18. The isothiocyanate class of bioactive nutrients covalently inhibit the MEKK1 protein kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Timothy L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs are electrophilic compounds that have diverse biological activities including induction of apoptosis and effects on cell cycle. They protect against experimental carcinogenesis in animals, an activity believed to result from the transcriptional induction of "Phase 2" enzymes. The molecular mechanism of action of ITCs is unknown. Since ITCs are electrophiles capable of reacting with sulfhydryl groups on amino acids, we hypothesized that ITCs induce their biological effects through covalent modification of proteins, leading to changes in cell regulatory events. We previously demonstrated that stress-signaling kinase pathways are inhibited by other electrophilic compounds such as menadione. We therefore tested the effects of nutritional ITCs on MEKK1, an upstream regulator of the SAPK/JNK signal transduction pathway. Methods The activity of MEKK1 expressed in cells was monitored using in vitro kinase assays to measure changes in catalytic activity. The activity of endogenous MEKK1, immunopurified from ITC treated and untreated LnCAP cells was also measured by in vitro kinase assay. A novel labeling and affinity reagent for detection of protein modification by ITCs was synthesized and used in competition assays to monitor direct modification of MEKK1 by ITC. Finally, immunoblots with phospho-specific antibodies were used to measure the activity of MAPK protein kinases. Results ITCs inhibited the MEKK1 protein kinase in a manner dependent on a specific cysteine residue in the ATP binding pocket. Inhibition of MEKK1 catalytic activity was due to direct, covalent and irreversible modification of the MEKK1 protein itself. In addition, ITCs inhibited the catalytic activity of endogenous MEKK1. This correlated with inhibition of the downstream target of MEKK1 activity, i.e. the SAPK/JNK kinase. This inhibition was specific to SAPK, as parallel MAPK pathways were unaffected. Conclusion These results

  19. The isothiocyanate class of bioactive nutrients covalently inhibit the MEKK1 protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Janet V; Foss, Frank W; Rady, Joshua M; Macdonald, Timothy L; Templeton, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) are electrophilic compounds that have diverse biological activities including induction of apoptosis and effects on cell cycle. They protect against experimental carcinogenesis in animals, an activity believed to result from the transcriptional induction of 'Phase 2' enzymes. The molecular mechanism of action of ITCs is unknown. Since ITCs are electrophiles capable of reacting with sulfhydryl groups on amino acids, we hypothesized that ITCs induce their biological effects through covalent modification of proteins, leading to changes in cell regulatory events. We previously demonstrated that stress-signaling kinase pathways are inhibited by other electrophilic compounds such as menadione. We therefore tested the effects of nutritional ITCs on MEKK1, an upstream regulator of the SAPK/JNK signal transduction pathway. The activity of MEKK1 expressed in cells was monitored using in vitro kinase assays to measure changes in catalytic activity. The activity of endogenous MEKK1, immunopurified from ITC treated and untreated LnCAP cells was also measured by in vitro kinase assay. A novel labeling and affinity reagent for detection of protein modification by ITCs was synthesized and used in competition assays to monitor direct modification of MEKK1 by ITC. Finally, immunoblots with phospho-specific antibodies were used to measure the activity of MAPK protein kinases. ITCs inhibited the MEKK1 protein kinase in a manner dependent on a specific cysteine residue in the ATP binding pocket. Inhibition of MEKK1 catalytic activity was due to direct, covalent and irreversible modification of the MEKK1 protein itself. In addition, ITCs inhibited the catalytic activity of endogenous MEKK1. This correlated with inhibition of the downstream target of MEKK1 activity, i.e. the SAPK/JNK kinase. This inhibition was specific to SAPK, as parallel MAPK pathways were unaffected. These results demonstrate that MEKK1 is directly modified and inhibited by

  20. Bacillus subtilis strain deficient for the protein-tyrosine kinase PtkA exhibits impaired DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petranovic, Dina; Michelsen, Ole; Zahradka, K

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis has recently come into the focus of research on bacterial protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, with several proteins kinases, phosphatases and their substrates identified in this Gram-positive model organism. B. subtilis protein-tyrosine phosphorylation system Ptk...... microscopy. B. subtilis cells lacking the kinase PtkA accumulated extra chromosome equivalents, exhibited aberrant initiation mass for DNA replication and an unusually long D period....

  1. Genetic Disruption of Protein Kinase STK25 Ameliorates Metabolic Defects in a Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, Manoj; Cansby, Emmelie; Chursa, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity is essential to identifying new pharmacological approaches to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a negative regulator...... to the metabolic phenotype of Stk25 transgenic mice, reinforcing the validity of the results. The findings suggest that STK25 deficiency protects against the metabolic consequences of chronic exposure to dietary lipids and highlight the potential of STK25 antagonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  2. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  3. Role of Protein Kinase C in Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 trafficking and shedding from endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya, E-mail: Sanjaya.Kuruppu@med.monash.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Tochon-Danguy, Natalie; Ian Smith, A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} PKC activation increases the trafficking of ECE-1 to the cell surface. {yields} This in turn leads to an increase in the amount of ECE-1 shed. {yields} Only the catalytically active C-terminal region is shed from the cell surface. -- Abstract: This study aimed to determine the consequences of Protein Kinase C (PKC) mediated Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 (ECE-1) phosphorylation and its relationship to ECE-1 expression and shedding. The proteins on the surface of EA.hy926 cells were labelled with EZ-Link NHS-SS-Biotin both prior to (control) and following stimulation by 2 {mu}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) which activates PKC. The biotinylated proteins were isolated using neutravidin beads, resolved by gel electrophoresis and analysed by western blotting using anti-ECE-1 antibodies. Significant increase in ECE-1 expression at the cell surface was observed following stimulation by PMA, compared to unstimulated control cells (170 {+-} 32.3% of control, n = 5). The ECE-1 activity (expressed as {mu}M substrate cleaved/min) was determined by monitoring the cleavage of a quenched fluorescent substrate. The specificity of cleavage was confirmed using the ECE-1 inhibitor (CGS35066). The stimulation of cells by PMA (1 {mu}M, 6 h) significantly increased the ECE-1 activity (0.28 {+-} 0.02; n = 3) compared to the control (0.07 {+-} 0.02; n = 3). This increase was prevented by prior incubation with the PKC inhibitor bisindolymaleimide (BIM; 2 {mu}M for 1 h; 0.10 {+-} 0.01; n = 3). Treatment with PMA also increased the activity of ECE-1 in the media (0.18 {+-} 0.01; n = 3) compared to control (0.08 {+-} 0.01; n = 3). In addition, this study confirmed by western immunoblotting that only the extracellular region of ECE-1 is released from the cell surface. These data indicate for the first time that PKC activation induces the trafficking and shedding of ECE to and from the cell surface, respectively.

  4. Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA catalytic subunit isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Søberg

    Full Text Available The 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or protein kinase A (PKA, pathway is one of the most versatile and best studied signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. The two paralogous PKA catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ, encoded by the genes PRKACA and PRKACB, respectively, are among the best understood model kinases in signal transduction research. In this work, we explore and elucidate the evolution of the alternative 5' exons and the splicing pattern giving rise to the numerous PKA catalytic subunit isoforms. In addition to the universally conserved Cα1/Cβ1 isoforms, we find kinase variants with short N-termini in all main vertebrate classes, including the sperm-specific Cα2 isoform found to be conserved in all mammals. We also describe, for the first time, a PKA Cα isoform with a long N-terminus, paralogous to the PKA Cβ2 N-terminus. An analysis of isoform-specific variation highlights residues and motifs that are likely to be of functional importance.

  5. Protein kinase Cη activates NF-κB in response to camptothecin-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Hai, Naama; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Shahaf, Galit; Gopas, Jacob; Livneh, Etta

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Protein kinase C-eta (PKCη) is an upstream regulator of the NF-κB signaling pathway. → PKCη activates NF-κB in non-stressed conditions and in response to DNA damage. → PKCη regulates NF-κB by activating IκB kinase (IKK) and inducing IκB degradation. -- Abstract: The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors participates in the regulation of genes involved in innate- and adaptive-immune responses, cell death and inflammation. The involvement of the Protein kinase C (PKC) family in the regulation of NF-κB in inflammation and immune-related signaling has been extensively studied. However, not much is known on the role of PKC in NF-κB regulation in response to DNA damage. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PKC-eta (PKCη) regulates NF-κB upstream signaling by activating the IκB kinase (IKK) and the degradation of IκB. Furthermore, PKCη enhances the nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-κB under non-stressed conditions and in response to the anticancer drug camptothecin. We and others have previously shown that PKCη confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Our present study suggests that PKCη is involved in NF-κB signaling leading to drug resistance.

  6. Inhibitory effects of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 on the aorta-gonad-mapharsen hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Naoki; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Mochita, Miyuki; Taga, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Definitive hematopoiesis starts in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of the mouse embryo. Our previous studies revealed that STAT3, a gp130 downstream transcription factor, is required for AGM hematopoiesis and that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates serine-727 of STAT3. HIPK2 is a serine/threonine kinase known to be involved in transcriptional repression and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the role of HIPK2 in hematopoiesis in mouse embryo. HIPK2 transcripts were found in fetal hematopoietic tissues such as the mouse AGM region and fetal liver. In cultured AGM cells, HIPK2 protein was detected in adherent cells. Functional analyses of HIPK2 were carried out by introducing wild-type and mutant HIPK2 constructs into AGM cultures. Production of CD45 + hematopoietic cells was suppressed by forced expression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures. This suppression required the kinase domain and nuclear localization signals of HIPK2, but the kinase activity was dispensable. HIPK2-overexpressing AGM-derived nonadherent cells did not form cobblestone-like colonies in cultures with stromal cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures impeded the expansion of CD45 low c-Kit + cells, which exhibit the immature hematopoietic progenitor phenotype. These data indicate that HIPK2 plays a negative regulatory role in AGM hematopoiesis in the mouse embryo

  7. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical and physical modifications during the freeze-thaw process adversely influence the restoration of energy-dependent sperm functions required for fertilization. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has been introduced to activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase which is a cell energy sensor and a cell metabolism regulator. The cryoprotection of resveratrol on sperm cryoinjury via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase also remains to be elucidated. Our aim, thus, was to investigate: (i) the presence and intracellular localization of AMP-activated protein kinase protein; (ii) whether resveratrol may exert a protective effect on certain functional properties of fresh and post-thaw human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Spermatozoa from normozoospermic men were incubated with or without different concentrations of Compound C as an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor or resveratrol as an AMP-activated protein kinase activator for different lengths of time and were then cryopreserved. AMP-activated protein kinase is expressed essentially in the entire flagellum and the post-equatorial region. Viability of fresh spermatozoa was not significantly affected by the presence of Compound C or resveratrol. However, although Compound C caused a potent inhibition of spermatozoa motility parameters, resveratrol did not induce negative effect, except a significant reduction in motility at 25 μm for 1 h. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis-like changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Nevertheless, it was not able to compensate decreased sperm viability and motility parameters following cryopreservation. In contrast, Compound C showed opposite effects to resveratrol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis-like changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and

  8. CBL-interacting protein kinase 6 negatively regulates immune response to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Atish; Nandi, Ashis Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-06-15

    Cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) is an essential mediator of the plant innate immune response. Here, we report that a calcium-regulated protein kinase Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase 6 (CIPK6) functions as a negative regulator of immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis lines with compromised expression of CIPK6 exhibited enhanced disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen and to P. syringae harboring certain but not all avirulent effectors, while restoration of CIPK6 expression resulted in abolition of resistance. Plants overexpressing CIPK6 were more susceptible to P. syringae. Enhanced resistance in the absence of CIPK6 was accompanied by increased accumulation of salicylic acid and elevated expression of defense marker genes. Salicylic acid accumulation was essential for improved immunity in the absence of CIPK6. CIPK6 negatively regulated the oxidative burst associated with perception of pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs) and bacterial effectors. Accelerated and enhanced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in response to bacterial and fungal elicitors was observed in the absence of CIPK6. The results of this study suggested that CIPK6 negatively regulates effector-triggered and PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Expression of Human CTP Synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gil-Soo; Sreenivas, Avula; Choi, Mal-Gi; Chang, Yu-Fang; Martin, Shelley S.; Baldwin, Enoch P.; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    CTP synthetase (EC 6.3.4.2, UTP: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)) is an essential enzyme in all organisms; it generates the CTP required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids. In this work we showed that the human CTP synthetase genes, CTPS1 and CTPS2, were functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and complemented the lethal phenotype of the ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant lacking CTP synthetase activity. The expression of the CTPS1-and CTPS2-encoded human CTP synthetase enzymes in the ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant was shown by immunoblot analysis of CTP synthetase proteins, the measurement of CTP synthetase activity, and the synthesis of CTP in vivo. Phosphoamino acid and phosphopeptide mapping analyses of human CTP synthetase 1 isolated from 32Pi-labeled cells revealed that the enzyme was phosphorylated on multiple serine residues in vivo. Activation of protein kinase A activity in yeast resulted in transient increases (2-fold) in the phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 and the cellular level of CTP. Human CTP synthetase 1 was also phosphorylated by mammalian protein kinase A in vitro. Using human CTP synthetase 1 purified from Escherichia coli as a substrate, protein kinase A activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of CTP synthetase1 and ATP. These studies showed that S. cerevisiae was useful for the analysis of human CTP synthetase phosphorylation. PMID:16179339

  10. Alterations in brain Protein Kinase A activity and reversal of morphine tolerance by two fragments of native Protein Kinase A inhibitor peptide (PKI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, George D; Smith, Forrest L; Smith, Paul A; Dewey, William L

    2005-04-01

    Two peptide fragments of native Protein Kinase A inhibitor (PKI), PKI-(6-22)-amide and PKI-(Myr-14-22)-amide, significantly reversed low-level morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice. The inhibition of Protein Kinase A (PKA) activity by both peptide fragments was then measured in specific brain regions (thalamus, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and medulla) and in lumbar spinal cord (LSC), which in previous studies have been shown to play a role in morphine-induced analgesia. In drug naive animals, cytosolic PKA activity was greater than particulate PKA activity in each region, while cytosolic and particulate PKA activities were greater in thalamus and PAG compared to medulla and LSC. The addition of both peptides to homogenates from each region completely abolished cytosolic and particulate PKA activities in vitro. Following injection into the lateral ventricle of the brain of drug naive mice and morphine-tolerant mice, both peptides inhibited PKA activity in the cytosolic, but not the particulate fraction of LSC. In addition, cytosolic and particulate PKA activities were inhibited by both peptides in thalamus. These results demonstrate that the inhibition of PKA reverses morphine tolerance. Moreover, the inhibition of PKA activity in specific brain regions and LSC from morphine-tolerant mice by PKI analogs administered i.c.v. is evidence that PKA plays a role in morphine tolerance.

  11. Role of regulatory subunits and protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) in determining nuclear localization and activity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J C; Wailes, L A; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1999-03-05

    Regulation of protein kinase A by subcellular localization may be critical to target catalytic subunits to specific substrates. We employed epitope-tagged catalytic subunit to correlate subcellular localization and gene-inducing activity in the presence of regulatory subunit or protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). Transiently expressed catalytic subunit distributed throughout the cell and induced gene expression. Co-expression of regulatory subunit or PKI blocked gene induction and prevented nuclear accumulation. A mutant PKI lacking the nuclear export signal blocked gene induction but not nuclear accumulation, demonstrating that nuclear export is not essential to inhibit gene induction. When the catalytic subunit was targeted to the nucleus with a nuclear localization signal, it was not sequestered in the cytoplasm by regulatory subunit, although its activity was completely inhibited. PKI redistributed the nuclear catalytic subunit to the cytoplasm and blocked gene induction, demonstrating that the nuclear export signal of PKI can override a strong nuclear localization signal. With increasing PKI, the export process appeared to saturate, resulting in the return of catalytic subunit to the nucleus. These results demonstrate that both the regulatory subunit and PKI are able to completely inhibit the gene-inducing activity of the catalytic subunit even when the catalytic subunit is forced to concentrate in the nuclear compartment.

  12. Ethanol extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa potentiates hippocampal synaptic transmission through mitogen-activated protein kinase, adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, So Yeon; Jung, In Ho; Yi, Jee Hyun; Choi, Tae Joon; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Yun, Jeanho; Lee, Young Choon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-03-22

    As the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F. Chow (Rhamnaceae) has been used to sleep disturbances in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, many previous studies have focused on its sedative effect. Recently, we reported the neuroprotective effect of the effect of Z. jujuba var. spinosa. However, its effects on synaptic function have not yet been studied. In this project, we examined the action of ethanol extract of the seed of Z. jujuba var. spinosa (DHP1401) on synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. To investigate the effects of DHP1401, field recordings were conducted using hippocampal slices (400µm). Object recognition test was introduced to examine whether DHP1401 affect normal recognition memory. DHP1401 (50μg/ml) induced a significant increase in synaptic activity in Shaffer collateral pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase of synaptic responses was blocked by NBQX, a broad spectrum α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist, but not IEM-1460, a Ca 2+ -permeable AMPAR blocker. Moreover, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SQ22536, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, and PKI, a protein kinase A inhibitor, blocked DHP1401-induced increase in synaptic transmission. Finally, DHP1401 facilitated object recognition memory. These results suggest that DHP1401 increase synaptic transmission through increase of synaptic AMPAR transmission via MAPK, AC and PAK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Factor V Secretion with Protein Kinase B Signaling in Platelets from Horses with Atypical Equine Thrombasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J W; Pombo, M; Shirley, E; Blevins, G; Tablin, F

    2015-01-01

    Two congenital bleeding diatheses have been identified in Thoroughbred horses: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) and a second, novel diathesis associated with abnormal platelet function in response to collagen and thrombin stimulation. Platelet dysfunction in horses with this second thrombasthenia results from a secretory defect. Two affected and 6 clinically normal horses. Ex vivo study. Washed platelets were examined for (1) expression of the αIIb-β3 integrin; (2) fibrinogen binding capacity in response to ADP and thrombin; (3) secretion of dense and α-granules; (4) activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway; and (5) cellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-3-kinase, class 2B (PIK3C2B) and SH2 containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1). Platelets from affected horses expressed normal amounts of αIIb-β3 integrin and bound fibrinogen normally in response to ADP, but bound 80% less fibrinogen in response to thrombin. α-granules only released 50% as much Factor V as control platelets, but dense granules released their contents normally. Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation was reduced after thrombin activation, but mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) signaling were normal. SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) did not localize to the cytoskeleton of affected platelets and was decreased overall consistent with reduced AKT phosphorylation. Defects in fibrinogen binding, granule secretion, and signal transduction are unique to this thrombasthenia, which we designate as atypical equine thrombasthenia. Copyright © The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinases of the GRK4 Protein Subfamily Phosphorylate Inactive G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyong; Homan, Kristoff T; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Manglik, Aashish; Tesmer, John J G; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Gurevich, Eugenia V

    2015-04-24

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. It is widely assumed that most GRKs selectively phosphorylate only active GPCRs. Here, we show that although this seems to be the case for the GRK2/3 subfamily, GRK5/6 effectively phosphorylate inactive forms of several GPCRs, including β2-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors, which are commonly used as representative models for GPCRs. Agonist-independent GPCR phosphorylation cannot be explained by constitutive activity of the receptor or membrane association of the GRK, suggesting that it is an inherent ability of GRK5/6. Importantly, phosphorylation of the inactive β2-adrenergic receptor enhanced its interactions with arrestins. Arrestin-3 was able to discriminate between phosphorylation of the same receptor by GRK2 and GRK5, demonstrating preference for the latter. Arrestin recruitment to inactive phosphorylated GPCRs suggests that not only agonist activation but also the complement of GRKs in the cell regulate formation of the arrestin-receptor complex and thereby G protein-independent signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is req...

  16. Exploiting the MDM2-CK1α Protein-Protein Interface to Develop Novel Biologics That Induce UBL-Kinase-Modification and Inhibit Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huart, Anne-Sophie; MacLaine, Nicola J.; Narayan, Vikram; Hupp, Ted R.

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions forming dominant signalling events are providing ever-growing platforms for the development of novel Biologic tools for controlling cell growth. Casein Kinase 1 α (CK1α) forms a genetic and physical interaction with the murine double minute chromosome 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein resulting in degradation of the p53 tumour suppressor. Pharmacological inhibition of CK1 increases p53 protein level and induces cell death, whilst small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of CK1α stabilizes p53 and induces growth arrest. We mapped the dominant protein-protein interface that stabilizes the MDM2 and CK1α complex in order to determine whether a peptide derived from the core CK1α-MDM2 interface form novel Biologics that can be used to probe the contribution of the CK1-MDM2 protein-protein interaction to p53 activation and cell viability. Overlapping peptides derived from CK1α were screened for dominant MDM2 binding sites using (i) ELISA with recombinant MDM2; (ii) cell lysate pull-down towards endogenous MDM2; (iii) MDM2-CK1α complex-based competition ELISA; and (iv) MDM2-mediated ubiquitination. One dominant peptide, peptide 35 was bioactive in all four assays and its transfection induced cell death/growth arrest in a p53-independent manner. Ectopic expression of flag-tagged peptide 35 induced a novel ubiquitin and NEDD8 modification of CK1α, providing one of the first examples whereby NEDDylation of a protein kinase can be induced. These data identify an MDM2 binding motif in CK1α which when isolated as a small peptide can (i) function as a dominant negative inhibitor of the CK1α-MDM2 interface, (ii) be used as a tool to study NEDDylation of CK1α, and (iii) reduce cell growth. Further, this approach provides a technological blueprint, complementing siRNA and chemical biology approaches, by exploiting protein-protein interactions in order to develop Biologics to manipulate novel types of signalling pathways such as cross-talk between

  17. Exploiting the MDM2-CK1α protein-protein interface to develop novel biologics that induce UBL-kinase-modification and inhibit cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Huart

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions forming dominant signalling events are providing ever-growing platforms for the development of novel Biologic tools for controlling cell growth. Casein Kinase 1 α (CK1α forms a genetic and physical interaction with the murine double minute chromosome 2 (MDM2 oncoprotein resulting in degradation of the p53 tumour suppressor. Pharmacological inhibition of CK1 increases p53 protein level and induces cell death, whilst small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of CK1α stabilizes p53 and induces growth arrest. We mapped the dominant protein-protein interface that stabilizes the MDM2 and CK1α complex in order to determine whether a peptide derived from the core CK1α-MDM2 interface form novel Biologics that can be used to probe the contribution of the CK1-MDM2 protein-protein interaction to p53 activation and cell viability. Overlapping peptides derived from CK1α were screened for dominant MDM2 binding sites using (i ELISA with recombinant MDM2; (ii cell lysate pull-down towards endogenous MDM2; (iii MDM2-CK1α complex-based competition ELISA; and (iv MDM2-mediated ubiquitination. One dominant peptide, peptide 35 was bioactive in all four assays and its transfection induced cell death/growth arrest in a p53-independent manner. Ectopic expression of flag-tagged peptide 35 induced a novel ubiquitin and NEDD8 modification of CK1α, providing one of the first examples whereby NEDDylation of a protein kinase can be induced. These data identify an MDM2 binding motif in CK1α which when isolated as a small peptide can (i function as a dominant negative inhibitor of the CK1α-MDM2 interface, (ii be used as a tool to study NEDDylation of CK1α, and (iii reduce cell growth. Further, this approach provides a technological blueprint, complementing siRNA and chemical biology approaches, by exploiting protein-protein interactions in order to develop Biologics to manipulate novel types of signalling pathways such as cross

  18. Phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIα by protein kinase G (PKG) primes PKA for catalytic activity in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushalter, Kristofer J; Casteel, Darren E; Raffeiner, Andrea; Stefan, Eduard; Patel, Hemal H; Taylor, Susan S

    2018-03-23

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAc) is a pivotal signaling protein in eukaryotic cells. PKAc has two well-characterized regulatory subunit proteins, RI and RII (each having α and β isoforms), which keep the PKAc catalytic subunit in a catalytically inactive state until activation by cAMP. Previous reports showed that the RIα regulatory subunit is phosphorylated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in vitro , whereupon phosphorylated RIα no longer inhibits PKAc at normal (1:1) stoichiometric ratios. However, the significance of this phosphorylation as a mechanism for activating type I PKA holoenzymes has not been fully explored, especially in cellular systems. In this study, we further examined the potential of RIα phosphorylation to regulate physiologically relevant "desensitization" of PKAc activity. First, the serine 101 site of RIα was validated as a target of PKGIα phosphorylation both in vitro and in cells. Analysis of a phosphomimetic substitution in RIα (S101E) showed that modification of this site increases PKAc activity in vitro and in cells, even without cAMP stimulation. Numerous techniques were used to show that although Ser 101 variants of RIα can bind PKAc, the modified linker region of the S101E mutant has a significantly reduced affinity for the PKAc active site. These findings suggest that RIα phosphorylation may be a novel mechanism to circumvent the requirement of cAMP stimulus to activate type I PKA in cells. We have thus proposed a model to explain how PKG phosphorylation of RIα creates a "sensitized intermediate" state that is in effect primed to trigger PKAc activity.

  19. Protein kinase C regulates human pluripotent stem cell self-renewal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kinehara

    Full Text Available The self-renewal of human pluripotent stem (hPS cells including embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells have been reported to be supported by various signal pathways. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 appears indispensable to maintain self-renewal of hPS cells. However, downstream signaling of FGF-2 has not yet been clearly understood in hPS cells.In this study, we screened a kinase inhibitor library using a high-throughput alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity-based assay in a minimal growth factor-defined medium to understand FGF-2-related molecular mechanisms regulating self-renewal of hPS cells. We found that in the presence of FGF-2, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC, GF109203X (GFX, increased ALP activity. GFX inhibited FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, suggesting that FGF-2 induced PKC and then PKC inhibited the activity of GSK-3β. Addition of activin A increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2 synergistically with FGF-2 whereas activin A alone did not. GFX negated differentiation of hPS cells induced by the PKC activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate whereas Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of PKCα, β, and γ isoforms could not counteract the effect of PMA. Intriguingly, functional gene analysis by RNA interference revealed that the phosphorylation of GSK-3β was reduced by siRNA of PKCδ, PKCε, and ζ, the phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 was reduced by siRNA of PKCε and ζ, and the phosphorylation of AKT was reduced by PKCε in hPS cells.Our study suggested complicated cross-talk in hPS cells that FGF-2 induced the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K/AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK-1/2 kinase (MEK, PKC/ERK-1/2 kinase, and PKC/GSK-3β. Addition of GFX with a MEK inhibitor, U0126, in the presence of FGF-2 and activin A provided a long-term stable undifferentiated state of hPS cells even though h

  20. Protein Kinase C Regulates Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Self-Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinehara, Masaki; Kawamura, Suguru; Tateyama, Daiki; Suga, Mika; Matsumura, Hiroko; Mimura, Sumiyo; Hirayama, Noriko; Hirata, Mitsuhi; Uchio-Yamada, Kozue; Kohara, Arihiro; Yanagihara, Kana; Furue, Miho K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The self-renewal of human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells including embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells have been reported to be supported by various signal pathways. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) appears indispensable to maintain self-renewal of hPS cells. However, downstream signaling of FGF-2 has not yet been clearly understood in hPS cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we screened a kinase inhibitor library using a high-throughput alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity-based assay in a minimal growth factor-defined medium to understand FGF-2-related molecular mechanisms regulating self-renewal of hPS cells. We found that in the presence of FGF-2, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), GF109203X (GFX), increased ALP activity. GFX inhibited FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), suggesting that FGF-2 induced PKC and then PKC inhibited the activity of GSK-3β. Addition of activin A increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) synergistically with FGF-2 whereas activin A alone did not. GFX negated differentiation of hPS cells induced by the PKC activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate whereas Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of PKCα, β, and γ isoforms could not counteract the effect of PMA. Intriguingly, functional gene analysis by RNA interference revealed that the phosphorylation of GSK-3β was reduced by siRNA of PKCδ, PKCε, and ζ, the phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 was reduced by siRNA of PKCε and ζ, and the phosphorylation of AKT was reduced by PKCε in hPS cells. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggested complicated cross-talk in hPS cells that FGF-2 induced the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK-1/2 kinase (MEK), PKC/ERK-1/2 kinase, and PKC/GSK-3β. Addition of GFX with a MEK inhibitor, U0126, in the presence of FGF-2 and activin A provided a long

  1. Phospholipase D1 mediates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling for glucose uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyun Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glucose uptake have yet to be elucidated.Here, we found that AMPK-induced phospholipase D1 (PLD1 activation is required for (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells under gluco